WorldWideScience

Sample records for 1998-2000 shadoz southern

  1. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; McPeters, R. D.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Posny, F.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: Data_service s/shadoz>. Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere- lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  2. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes): An Ozonesonde Network for Satellite Validation, Climatology and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; McPeters, Richard D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In the past 5 years, new tropical ozone data products have been developed from TOMS and other satellites, During this period, global chemical-transport models have been used for ozone assessment studies. However, there has been a lack of independent ozone profiles in the tropics for evaluation of the data sets and models. In 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Flight Facility and NOAA's CMDL (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab), began a 2-year project to collect a consistent data set by augmenting ozonesonde launches at southern hemisphere tropical sites The measurements are available to the scientific community at a single electronic location - the SHADOZ website at NASA/Goddard: http://code9l6.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data services/Shadoz/shadoz hmpg2.html. Stations in SHADOZ include four islands in the Pacific: Fiji, Tahiti, San Cristobal (Galapagos) and American Samoa. Two sites are at and in the Atlantic: Natal (Brazil) and Ascension Island. Three other sites span Africa (Nairobi and Irene, South Africa) and the Indian Ocean (Reunion Island and Watukosek in Java, Indonesia). All SHADOZ sites are using ECC-type sondes, with the conversion from JMD sondes at Java in 1999, but there are variations in sonde preparation technique and data processing. During the 1998-1999 period, more than 550 sondes were incorporated into the SHADOZ data base. Examples from these measurements illustrate the tropical wave-one pattern in total ozone which is easily detectable by satellite. They also show that the wave-one pattern appears to be in the troposphere, as assumed in creating the modified-residual tropospheric ozone data product from TOMS. SHADOZ will add data from intensive field campaigns from time to time. Recent contributions to the SHADOZ archive are from the INDOEX (Indian Ocean Experiment January-March 1999)sondes at the Maldives (5N, 73E) and 27 sondes on the US NOAA oceanographic vessel, the FIN Ronald H Brown between Virginia (US) and Mauritius via Cape

  3. Reprocessing the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) Database for Long-Term Trend Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Coetzee, G.; Fujiwara, M.; Johnson, B. J.; Sterling, C. W.; Cullis, P.; Ashburn, C. E.; Jordan, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    SHADOZ is a large archive of tropical balloon-bone ozonesonde data at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center with data from 14 tropical and subtropical stations provided by collaborators in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa . The SHADOZ time series began in 1998, using electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. Like many long-term sounding stations, SHADOZ is characterized by variations in operating procedures, launch protocols, and data processing such that biases within a data record and among sites appear. In addition, over time, the radiosonde and ozonesonde instruments and data processing protocols have changed, adding to the measurement uncertainties at individual stations and limiting the reliability of ozone profile trends and continuous satellite validation. Currently, the ozonesonde community is engaged in reprocessing ECC data, with an emphasis on homogenization of the records to compensate for the variations in instrumentation and technique. The goals are to improve the information and integrity of each measurement record and to support calculation of more reliable trends. We illustrate the reprocessing activity of SHADOZ with selected stations. We will (1) show reprocessing steps based on the recent WMO report that provides post-processing guidelines for ozonesondes; (2) characterize uncertainties in various parts of the ECC conditioning process; and (3) compare original and reprocessed data to co-located ground and satellite measurements of column ozone.

  4. SHADOZ in the Aura Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Froidevaux, L.; Schmidlin, F.; Calpini, B.; Shiotani, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Posny, F.; Vomel, H.; Chow, K. K.; Coetzee, G. R.; Kelder, H.

    2007-01-01

    We present comparisons of observed tropical and sub-tropical ozone from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project with satellite measurements using Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments. Satellite products of total and derived tropospheric column ozone from OMI and profiles of ozone in the UT/LS region from MLS are used.

  5. Tropopause characteristics and variability from 11 yr of SHADOZ observations in the southern tropics and subtropics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available from 83 radiosonde stations around the globe to study tropo- pause climatological characteristics. They studied the CPT, LRT, and PLT on the basis of temperature in- formation over Northern and Southern Hemisphere regions and found that the annual... 2001). Forster and Tourpali (2001) analyzed ozonesonde data at 11 Northern Hemisphere sites and found tropopause height increases of 330?520 m on the basis of data from 1970 to 1996/97. Santer et al. (2003) reported a global tropo- pause trend...

  6. Research at GANIL 1998/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankland, J.; Rothard, H.; Bex, M. (eds.)

    2002-01-01

    The present compilation, which gathers 72 articles, tends to reflect a variety of experimental and theoretical works performed at GANIL in the years 1998-2000. This ''just-before-SPIRAL'' period was characterized in nuclear physics by a strong increase in the number of experiments dedicated to the study of the structure of nuclei far from stability. The identification of the doubly-magic {sup 48}Ni and study of the neighbouring nuclei are among the most spectacular results of this research. The contributions have been parted into the following topics: 1) nuclear theory, 2) exotic nuclei: reactions, 3) exotic nuclei: spectroscopy, 4) hot nuclei and hot matter, 5) instrumentation, 6) collisions of ions with atoms and molecules, 7) collisions with solids and surfaces, transport phenomena, energy deposition and sputtering, 8) induced effects in condensed matter including nano-structuration, and 9) radiation chemistry and radiobiology. (A.C.)

  7. SPAM, Activity report 1998-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the ''Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules'', (SPAM) during the 1998-2000 period: developments in terms of structure, staff, science, collaborations and contracts. SPAM is one of the laboratories in DRECAM (Departement de Recherche sur l'Etat Condense les Atomes et les Molecules), itself depending on the DSM (Direction des Sciences de la Matiere) of the CEA Institution. This report is divided in five chapters. Chapters 1 gathers all the work performed on the light sources, that is to say the evolutions of the femtosecond laser facilities (G1 group) and the achievements on the new SU5 synchrotron line and the Free Electron Laser (part of G3 group). Chapters 2 and 3 focus on the scientific results obtained by the G2 and G3 groups respectively. Chapter 4 gathers all information on SPAM scientific communication while chapter 5 lists interactions with the scientific community. (A.L.B.)

  8. STUK research projects 1998-2000; Saeteilyturvakeskuksen tutkimushankkeet 1998-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomaa, S.; Eloranta, E.; Heimbuerger, H.; Jokela, K.; Jaervinen, H

    1998-07-01

    The primary goal of STUK, the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, is to prevent and limit the harmful effects of radiation. The research conducted by STUK yields new information related to the use, occurrence and effects of radiation and promotes the supervision of nuclear safety. STUK research projects 1998 - 2000 summarizes STUK`s own research projects and commissioned research designed to promote the supervision of nuclear safety. Information on the research projects and related publications is also available on STUK`s WWW pages at www.stuk.fi. The work done on the safe use of nuclear power and nuclear waste management mainly comprises commissioned research projects which derive from the needs of authorities, and are funded and directed by STUK. This research is conducted by organizations outside STUK, but supervised by STUK experts. In some cases, STUK personnel are also involved. The goal of this research work is to produce the information needed for decision-making, to develop supervisory methods and to ensure that recent developments in science and technology are taken into account in action to promote safe use of nuclear power. STUK`s own research focuses on radiation protection and the health effects of radiation. During 1998 - 2000, the main emphasis will be on projects supporting the Finnish national environmental health action plan, the health risks of radiation, emergency preparedness and cooperation with neighbouring CEE areas. EU directives on radiation protection and medical exposure to radiation also influence the course taken by research carried out at STUK. STUK`s research activities are now more international than ever; the institute is involved in more then 20 research projects funded by EU. Apart from the EU and the Nordic countries, STUK`s main partners are to be found in Russia, Estonia and the USA. (orig.)

  9. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Ozone Climatology (2005-2009): Tropospheric and Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) Profiles with Comparisons to Omi-based Ozone Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Miller, Sonya K.; Tilmes, Simone; Kollonige, Debra W.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Schmidlin, F. J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Komala, Ninong; Maata, Matakite; bt Mohammad, Maznorizan; Nguyo, J.; Mutai, C.; Ogino, S-Y; Da Silva, F. Raimundo; Paes Leme, N. M.; Posny, Francoise; Scheele, Rinus; Selkirk, Henry B.; Shiotani, Masato; Stubi, Rene; Levrat, Gilbert; Calpini, Bertrand; Thouret, Valerie; Tsuruta, Haruo; Canossa, Jessica Valverde; Voemel, Holger; Yonemura, S.; Andres Diaz, Jorge; Tan Thanh, Nguyen T.; Thuy Ha, Hoang T.

    2012-01-01

    We present a regional and seasonal climatology of SHADOZ ozone profiles in the troposphere and tropical tropopause layer (TTL) based on measurements taken during the first five years of Aura, 2005-2009, when new stations joined the network at Hanoi, Vietnam; Hilo, Hawaii; Alajuela Heredia, Costa Rica; Cotonou, Benin. In all, 15 stations operated during that period. A west-to-east progression of decreasing convective influence and increasing pollution leads to distinct tropospheric ozone profiles in three regions: (1) western Pacific eastern Indian Ocean; (2) equatorial Americas (San Cristobal, Alajuela, Paramaribo); (3) Atlantic and Africa. Comparisons in total ozone column from soundings, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, on Aura, 2004-) satellite and ground-based instrumentation are presented. Most stations show better agreement with OMI than they did for EPTOMS comparisons (1998-2004; Earth-ProbeTotal Ozone Mapping Spectrometer), partly due to a revised above-burst ozone climatology. Possible station biases in the stratospheric segment of the ozone measurement noted in the first 7 years of SHADOZ ozone profiles are re-examined. High stratospheric bias observed during the TOMS period appears to persist at one station. Comparisons of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone and the daily Trajectory-enhanced Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TTOR) product (based on OMIMLS) show that the satellite-derived column amount averages 25 low. Correlations between TTOR and the SHADOZ sondes are quite good (typical r2 0.5-0.8), however, which may account for why some published residual-based OMI products capture tropospheric interannual variability fairly realistically. On the other hand, no clear explanations emerge for why TTOR-sonde discrepancies vary over a wide range at most SHADOZ sites.

  10. 8 Hour Ozone Design Value for 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Ozone design value is based on the average of the annual 4th highest daily 8-hour maximum over a 3-year period (1998-2000) in this case. This is a human health...

  11. The SHADOZ Data Base: History, Archive Web Guide, and Sample Climatologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde) is a project to augment and archive ozonesonde data from ten tropical and subtropical ozone stations. Started in 1998 by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and other US and international co-investigators, SHADOZ is an important tool for tropospheric ozone research in the equatorial region. The rationale for SHADOZ is to: (1) validate and improve remote sensing techniques (e.g., the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite) for estimating tropical ozone, (2) contribute to climatology and trend analyses of tropical ozone and (3) provide research topics to scientists and educate students, especially in participating countries. SHADOZ is envisioned as a data service to the global scientific community by providing a central public archive location via the internet: http://code9l6.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz. While the SHADOZ website maintains a standard data format for the archive, it also informs the data users on the differing stations' preparation techniques and data treatment. The presentation navigates through the SHADOZ website to access each station's sounding data and summarize each station's characteristics. Since the start of the project in 1998, the SHADOZ archive has accumulated over 600 ozonesonde profiles and received over 30,000 outside data requests. Data also includes launches from various SHADOZ supported field campaigns, such as, the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), Sounding of Ozone and Water in the Equatorial Region (SOWER) and Aerosols99 Atlantic Cruise. Using data from the archive, sample climatologies and profiles from selected stations and campaigns will be shown.

  12. Ft. Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Years 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998-2000 calendar years. The report begins with a...

  13. The Quasi-biennial Oscillation and annual variations in tropical ozone from SHADOZ and HALOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Witte

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the tropical ozone mixing ratio perturbation fields generated from a monthly ozone climatology using 1998 to 2006 ozonesonde data from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ network and the 13 year satellite record from 1993 to 2005 obtained from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE. The lengthy time series and high vertical resolution of the ozone and temperature profiles from the SHADOZ sondes coupled with good tropical coverage north and south of the equator gives a detailed picture of the ozone structure in the lowermost stratosphere down through the tropopause where the picture obtained from HALOE measurements is blurred by coarse vertical resolution. Ozone perturbations respond to annual variations in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation (BDC in the region just above the cold-point tropopause to around 20 km. Strong annual signals of alternating positive and negative ozone anomalies are observed and correlate well with temperature anomalies. Above 20 km, ozone and temperature perturbations are dominated by the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO. Both satellite and sonde records show good agreement between positive and negative ozone mixing ratio anomalies and alternating QBO easterly and westerly wind shears from the Singapore rawinsondes with a mean periodicity of 26 months for SHADOZ and 25 months for HALOE. There is a temporal offset of one to three months with the ozone QBO preceding the wind shear. Horizontal length scales for the annual cycle and the QBO, obtained using the temperature anomalies and wind shears in the thermal wind equation, compare well with theoretical calculations.

  14. Epidemiologi, sygdomspræsentation og forløb af idiopatisk trombocytopenisk purpura hos børn i Danmark 1998-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Mimi; Edslev, Pernille Wendtland; Rosthøj, Steen

    2008-01-01

    present the epidemiology and clinical course of ITP during the first 6 months after diagnosis in Danish children diagnosed from 1998-2000. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology conducted a prospective registration study of children with newly diagnosed ITP from...... 1998-2000. The study included children

  15. Las meningoencefalitis bacterianas en la población infantil cubana: 1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Orlando Dickinson Meneses

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen algunos aspectos epidemiológicos de las meningoencefalitis bacterianas (MEB en Cuba entre 1998 y el año 2000, según los datos de la Vigilancia Nacional de las MEB (VNMEB disponibles. Se reportaron un total de 530 casos en menores de 15 años en todo el país durante el período. El grupo de edad más afectado resultó el de menos de 5 años. Los agentes más frecuentemente identificados fueron Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn y Neisseria meningitidis (Nm. La incidencia de Hib disminuyó 4 veces por el efecto de la vacunación masiva, especialmente en los menores de 5 años, a partir del año 2000 Spn es el principal agente causante de MEB y el más letal en Cuba. La letalidad general se incrementó de 10,6 a 20,4 %, y fue el grupo de los de menos de 1 año uno de los más afectados. Futuros estudios permitirán profundizar en la epidemiología de estas infecciones y monitorear los cambios que ocurran como consecuencia de intervenciones.Somme epidemiological aspects of bacterial meningoencephalities that occurred in Cuba from 1998-2000 are described according to available data from the National Surveillance Service. A total of 530 cases involving children under 15 years old were reported throughout the country in this period of time. The most affected age group was under 5 years. The most frequent identified agents were Haemophilus influenzae type B(Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn and Neisseria meningitidis (Nm. The incidence of Hib decreased by 4 times thanks to massive vaccination program, particularly in under 5 years-old children, from the year 2000 on. Spn is the main causative agent of bacterial meningoencephalities and the most lethal one in Cuba. General lethality rate increased from 10.6 to 20.4% and the under one-year old age group was the most affected. Further studies will allow deepening into the epidemiology of these infections and monitoring the changes that might occur as a

  16. Incidencia de cáncer en Navarra (1998-2000 Incidence of cancer in Navarre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ardanaz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1998 y 2000 se registraron un promedio anual de 3.303 casos de cáncer invasivo en Navarra, el 58% en hombres. Si exceptuamos los tumores de piel no melanoma el número anual de casos fue de 2.495, con tasas de incidencia bruta de 559 y 372 por 100.000 en hombres y en mujeres y unas tasas ajustadas a la población mundial de 312 y 203 por 100.000, respectivamente. Entre los hombres las cuatro localizaciones tumorales más frecuentemente diagnosticadas fueron próstata, pulmón, colorectal y vejiga que sumaron el 57% de todos los casos. Entre las mujeres destacan por su frecuencia los tumores de mama, colorectal, cuerpo de útero y ovario que sumaron el 54% del total de los casos. Respecto al quinquenio 1993-97, la incidencia global de cáncer en el trienio 1998-2000 ha aumentado un 4,2% en los hombres y un 7,4% en las mujeres. A destacar el aumento de incidencia de cáncer de pulmón y linfomas no Hodgkin en ambos sexos y del cáncer de mama en mujeres y próstata en hombres. Continúan descendiendo las tasas de incidencia de cáncer de estómago en ambos sexos, siguiendo la tendencia iniciada en los 70.Between 1998 and 2000 an annual average of 3,303 cases of invasive cancer were registered in Navarre, 58% of them in men. If we except non melanoma skin tumours, the annual number of cases was 2,495, with gross incidence rates of 559 and 372 per 100,000 in men and women, and rates adjusted to the world population of 312 and 203 per 100,000 respectively. Amongst men, the four most frequently diagnosed tumoural localisations were the prostate, lung, colorectal and bladder, accounting for 57% of all cases. The most notable due to their frequency amongst women were tumours of the breast, colorectal, uterus body and ovary, accounting for 54% of all cases. With respect to the five year period from 1993 to1997, the global incidence of cancer in the three year period from 1998 to 2000 has increased 4.2% in men and 7.4% in women. The incidence of

  17. [Effect of avoidable and non-avoidable deaths on life expectancy in Mexico, 1998-2000 and 2008-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Botero, Marcela; Dávila-Cervantes, Claudio Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Estimate the changes in life expectancy related to avoidable and nonavoidable deaths in Mexico between the three-year periods from 1998-2000 and 2008-2010 by sex and age group. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. Data from official sources on deaths recorded from 0-74 years of age and population estimates (Mexican and worldwide) for the three-year periods from 1998-2000 and 2008-2010 was used. The crude and standardized death rates and years of life expectancy lost in the periods studied were calculated. Estimates were made of the effect of avoidable and non-avoidable deaths on life expectancy from 0-74 years of age, using the Arriaga method, and temporary life expectancy by age group. Mortality due to avoidable causes increased by 2.1% whereas mortality related to non-avoidable causes decreased by 2.3%, with differences according to sex. Life expectancy at birth was 74.2 years in the three-year period from 1998-2000 and 75.1 years in the three-year period from 2008-2010. Temporary life expectancy from 0-74 years of age remained nearly the same at about 68.6 years. Years of life expectancy can be gained through actions that promote health and disease prevention, mainly by reducing deaths due to avoidable causes. Cross-sectional population-based interventions and strategies should be developed, focusing on specific subgroups, from a gender and generational perspective, and adjusted for the specific geographical, socioeconomic, and cultural features of the target population.

  18. Distribución Espacial de Vectores de la Enfermedad de Chagas en el Estado de Guanajuato 1998-2000 Distribución Espacial de Vectores de la Enfermedad de Chagas en el Estado de Guanajuato 1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ernesto González Bravo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con la finalidad de llevar a cabo la verificación de la existencia y la ubicación de los vectores de la enfermedad de Chagas en los municipios del Estado de Guanajuato y a través de esto, delimitar áreas de distribución espacial de las especies dentro de este territorio, contribuyendo así, a establecer zonas de riesgo y al determinar la infección del Trypanosoma cruzi en los vectores, se conocerá el riesgo para la población humana. Esta investigación se realizó a través de la información del envío etiquetado de triatominos obtenidos por personal de campo de la Secretaría de Salud de Guanajuato y enviados para su clasificación taxonómica al Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Pública del mismo estado. Se recabó información de tres años (1998 - 2000 de los municipios donde se encuentran brigadas de trabajo y la ausencia reportada de vectores en algunos de ellos, probablemente se debe a la falta de búsqueda en los mismos. No se realizó el índice de infestación de vectores debido a que el método de búsqueda no tuvo la misma intensidad en todo el territorio, ni el método de muestreo lo permitió; sólo se estableció la localización de cada una de las especies según el área de donde fue colectada. Se encontraron 5 especies de triatominos: Triatoma mexicana, T. barberi, T. longipennis, T. pallidipennis y T. dimidiata, en 162 localidades de 25 municipios del estado; en alturas que fluctuaron desde los 870 metros sobre el nivel del mar (m.s.n.m., hasta los 2200. El sitio donde se encontró a los vectores con más frecuencia fue para T. mexicana, intradomicilio; T. barberi, corral; T. longipennis, intradomicilio; T. pallidipennis, intradomicilio; ninfas, intradomicilio y T. dimidiata que se colectó en una única ocasión, no reportó sitio de colecta. This study has been perfomed in order to verify the existence and location of vectors of Chagas disease in the entities of Guanajuato state to limit

  19. Social class differences in secular trends in established coronary risk factors over 20 years: a cohort study of British men from 1978-80 to 1998-2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena E Ramsay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD mortality in the UK since the late 1970s has declined more markedly among higher socioeconomic groups. However, little is known about changes in coronary risk factors in different socioeconomic groups. This study examined whether changes in established coronary risk factors in Britain over 20 years between 1978-80 and 1998-2000 differed between socioeconomic groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A socioeconomically representative cohort of 7735 British men aged 40-59 years was followed-up from 1978-80 to 1998-2000; data on blood pressure (BP, cholesterol, body mass index (BMI and cigarette smoking were collected at both points in 4252 survivors. Social class was based on longest-held occupation in middle-age. Compared with men in non-manual occupations, men in manual occupations experienced a greater increase in BMI (mean difference = 0.33 kg/m(2; 95%CI 0.14-0.53; p for interaction = 0.001, a smaller decline in non-HDL cholesterol (difference in mean change = 0.18 mmol/l; 95%CI 0.11-0.25, p for interaction≤0.0001 and a smaller increase in HDL cholesterol (difference in mean change = 0.04 mmol/l; 95%CI 0.02-0.06, p for interaction≤0.0001. However, mean systolic BP declined more in manual than non-manual groups (difference in mean change = 3.6; 95%CI 2.1-5.1, p for interaction≤0.0001. The odds of being a current smoker in 1978-80 and 1998-2000 did not differ between non-manual and manual social classes (p for interaction = 0.51. CONCLUSION: Several key risk factors for CHD and type 2 diabetes showed less favourable changes in men in manual occupations. Continuing priority is needed to improve adverse cardiovascular risk profiles in socially disadvantaged groups in the UK.

  20. El papel del movimiento Quinta República en la recomposición del régimen político venezolano (1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Honorio Martinez Torres

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available En el presente texto se analiza cómo en medio de la descomposición del régimen político punto fijista un sector de las Fuerzas Armadas encabezó y logró constituirse en la alternativa de recomposición y relegitimación del Estado venezolano. Se describen los orígenes del Movimiento Quinta República (MVR, su orientación ideológica y discursiva, sus formas de organización y acción, las tácticas electorales que utilizó para producir un nuevo orden constitucional, los conflictos que suscitó dicho proceso y las reformas políticas y económicas más significativas que se establecieron con la Constitución Política de 1999. Finalmente se esboza la importancia que tuvieron las reformas producidas en el aparato del Estado, la renovación de los funcionarios de alto nivel, y los resultados mayoritarios obtenidos por el gobierno en los procesos electorales del período 1998-2000 para la constitución de una nueva hegemonía en la conducción del régimen político venezolano. Palabras clave: punto fijismo, Movimiento Quinta República, bolivarianismo, globalización neoliberal. __________________Abstract:In this article the author studies a sector of the Venezuelan Army that became the alternative to recompose and legitimatize the Venezuelan State during the political regime named “punto fijo”. In the same sense, it describes the creation of the Fifth Republic Movement, its ideological orientation, its structure and action process, its electoral tactics which got a new constitutional order, the conflicts coming from the emergence of such political party, and state and economic reforms by the Constitution of 1999. Finally, the author talks about the importance of the reforms, the renewal of nigh level civil servants, and the effective electoral results of the Fifth Republic Movement during the period 1998-2000, that constituted a new Venezuelan hegemonic policy order.Keywords: Punto fijo, Fifth Republic Movement, Bolivarianismo

  1. Selected micrometeorological and soil-moisture data at Amargosa Desert Research Site, an arid site near Beatty, Nye County, Nevada, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael J.; Mayers, Charles J.; Andraski, Brian J.

    2002-01-01

    Selected micrometeorological and soil-moisture data were collected at the Amargosa Desert Research Site adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste and hazardous chemical waste facility near Beatty, Nev., 1998-2000. Data were collected in support of ongoing research studies to improve the understanding of hydrologic and contaminant-transport processes in arid environments. Micrometeorological data include precipitation, air temperature, solar radiation, net radiation, relative humidity, ambient vapor pressure, wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, soil temperature, and soil-heat flux. All micrometeorological data were collected using a 10-second sampling interval by data loggers that output daily mean, maximum, and minimum values, and hourly mean values. For precipitation, data output consisted of daily, hourly, and 5-minute totals. Soil-moisture data included periodic measurements of soil-water content at nine neutron-probe access tubes with measurable depths ranging from 5.25 to 29.75 meters. The computer data files included in this report contain the complete micrometeorological and soil-moisture data sets. The computer data consists of seven files with about 14 megabytes of information. The seven files are in tabular format: (1) one file lists daily mean, maximum, and minimum micrometeorological data and daily total precipitation; (2) three files list hourly mean micrometeorological data and hourly precipitation for each year (1998-2000); (3) one file lists 5-minute precipitation data; (4) one file lists mean soil-water content by date and depth at four experimental sites; and (5) one file lists soil-water content by date and depth for each neutron-probe access tube. This report highlights selected data contained in the computer data files using figures, tables, and brief discussions. Instrumentation used for data collection also is described. Water-content profiles are shown to demonstrate variability of water content with depth. Time-series data are

  2. Association of stressful life events with acute myocardial infarction in population in the city of Niš within the period from 1998-2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deljanin Zorana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Stressful life events present a very important category of psychosocial stress. A few studies have showed that a psychosocial stress represents a very important risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI, but measures of stress may not be suitable for different countries, cultures and ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of stressful life events with AMI in the period of 1998-2000 in the population of the city of Niš. Methods. A case-control study included 100 patients with the first MI (in the period 1998-2000 and 100 healthy subjects, matched with respect to sex and age (± 2 years from the city of Niš. The data of stressful life events were obtained by the Scaling of life events by Paykel ES, modified by the authors consistent with the examined population and the period of investigation. The Yates χ2 test, odds ratio - OR and their 99% interval of confidence were used as statistical procedures. Results. The results showed that stressful life events in the period of investigation were very important risk factors for AMI with a statistically significant level (p = 0.000. Huge financial problems (OR = 202.36, Ci = 24.82-4387.58, violation of law (OR = 168.00, Ci = 10.66-6658.96 and serious illness of family members (OR = 159.60, Ci = 19.05- 3514.81 were the highest risk for AMI. The patients who reported that his/her son or other member of family had been gone to the army (or mobilization before the illness onset, had 138 times higher risk of AMI (Ci = 14.98-3222.47, χ2 = 40.95, p = 0.000, while the patients who had mobilized themselves had 84 times higher risk (Ci = 7.00- 2363.06, χ2 = 23.87, p = 0.000. Effect of several stressful life events lead to significantly increased risk of AMI and that significance is larger as the number of life events is more frequent (one life event: OR = 28.41, Ci = 3.73- 593.52; χ2 = 17.40, p = 0.000; ≥ 4: OR = 336.00, Ci = 28.31- 9760.28, χ2 = 50

  3. Exploración sobre las migraciones internas en las provincias y los municipios de Cuba (1995-1997 y 1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Montes Rodríguez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las migraciones internas en Cuba atendiendo a dos escalas territoriales: provincial y municipal. El análisis se basa en la comparación de la dinámica migratoria de los períodos 1995-1997 y 1998-2000. La definición de estos períodos la pone el año 1997, año en que el Decreto-Ley 217 va a regular el ingreso temporal o permanente en la Ciudad de La Habana, y especialmente en los municipios de Habana Vieja, Centro Habana, Cerro y 10 de Octubre. Algunos de los resultados de la investigación evidencian como un proceso restrictivo en la llegada de emigrantes a La Capital puede cambiar el sentido de la emigración hacia otros territorios antes no considerados, o considerados menos, como lugar de destino. Las fuentes estadísticas utilizadas ha sido las Estadísticas Continuas desde 1995 al 2000 (Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas y Anuario Demográfico de la Oficina Nacional de Estadística.

  4. Evaluation of Environmental Tritium Level in Air and Precipitation in the Area of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid. 1998-2000; Evaluacion de los niveles de Tritio Ambiental en Aire y Lluvia en el Area del Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid 1998-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero del Hombrebueno, B.; Simon, M.A.; Larena, P.

    2001-07-15

    Concentration of tritium in environmental samples (air, precipitation) has been determined during 1998-2000, by using electrolytic enrichment and liquid scintillation counting. Atmospheric tritium concentration of tritiated water vapor (HTO), expressed in Bq/l varies within a range of 0,77-10.82 giving an overall average value of 1,81{+-}1,82. HTO expressed in mBq/m''3 air varies within a range of 4,6-70; no correlation with the atmospheric humidity was observed. Tritium concentration in the precipitation ranges from 0.35 to 2,18 Bq/l, without seasonal variations. The tritium concentration in the air of the laboratory was approximately five times higher than in the atmosphere due to evaporation of tritium standard water during the process of the samples. (Author) 9 refs.

  5. A vigilância sanitária em Feira de Santana no processo de descentralização da saúde (1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraildes Andrade Juliano

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a organização da Vigilância Sanitária (Visa de Feira de Santana no processo de descentralização da saúde (1998-2000, apontando avanços e limites no cenário local. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, de abordagem qualitativa, numa perspectiva histórico-social, cujo recorte espacial foi a Divisão de Vigilância Sanitária da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde. Os materiais empíricos foram os depoimentos de gestores, técnicos, inspetores sanitários e fontes documentais. A análise evidenciou a ausência de um projeto político para a gestão descentralizada das ações de Visa no município. Aponta limites: (desarticulação com o nível regional, recursos humanos temporários e sem qualificação técnica, dificuldades na utilização do incentivo financeiro, insuficiência de infra-estrutura e interferências políticas. Destaca avanços: cumprimento da Programação Pactuada e Integrada, cadastramento dos estabelecimentos sujeitos à fiscalização sanitária, articulações interinstitucionais. Esse processo necessita da mobilização de sujeitos sociais com capacidade de vocalização para inscrevê-lo numa agenda de prioridades, em prol da qualidade de vida da população.

  6. A vigilância sanitária em Feira de Santana no processo de descentralização da saúde (1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Iraildes Andrade

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a organização da Vigilância Sanitária (Visa de Feira de Santana no processo de descentralização da saúde (1998-2000, apontando avanços e limites no cenário local. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, de abordagem qualitativa, numa perspectiva histórico-social, cujo recorte espacial foi a Divisão de Vigilância Sanitária da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde. Os materiais empíricos foram os depoimentos de gestores, técnicos, inspetores sanitários e fontes documentais. A análise evidenciou a ausência de um projeto político para a gestão descentralizada das ações de Visa no município. Aponta limites: (desarticulação com o nível regional, recursos humanos temporários e sem qualificação técnica, dificuldades na utilização do incentivo financeiro, insuficiência de infra-estrutura e interferências políticas. Destaca avanços: cumprimento da Programação Pactuada e Integrada, cadastramento dos estabelecimentos sujeitos à fiscalização sanitária, articulações interinstitucionais. Esse processo necessita da mobilização de sujeitos sociais com capacidade de vocalização para inscrevê-lo numa agenda de prioridades, em prol da qualidade de vida da população.

  7. Progress report 1998 - 2000; Rapport d'activite 1998 - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document reviews all the activities of the CSNSM (nuclear spectrometry and mass spectrometry center). The activities, developments and particular hits or results are presented within 10 themes: 1) nuclear structure, 2) induced fission and exotic nuclei, 3) atomic mass and basic symmetries, 4) nuclear astrophysics, 5) micro-meteorites, 6) mass spectrometry through an accelerator, 7) solid state physics, 8) superconductivity, 9) physical chemistry aspects of irradiation, and 10) electromagnetic separation of ions.

  8. White-fronted Goose Telementry, 1998-2000 [ds330

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Using radio-telemetry, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) distribution and movements during winter in Central California were determined during...

  9. Scientific report 1998-2000. Service of molecular chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Service of Molecular Chemistry (SCM) constitutes a significant part of fundamental chemistry at the Direction for the Science of Matter (DSM). Furthermore, its scientific programmes benefit from the contact with teams of CEA who carry out applied research relevant to nuclear energy as well as to new technologies and industrial innovation. Several cooperative actions (which involve, among other persons, PhDs and post-docs) with the other operational Directions of CEA (DO) illustrate this will of SCM to establish its fundamental research within the frame of the broader CEA missions acknowledged by the French government. The scientific report is organized as follows: as simplified organization chart relates the SCM to the Department and the Direction to which it is bound, and states the personnel (CEA, CNRS, University, PhDs, post-docs, etc). The organization chart of the SCM then brings to the fore the relationship between thematic Groups and teams. A general presentation of the main guidelines of the researches of the Service, organized by Groups, precedes a detailed description of the results obtained for each of the scientific themes tackled by the teams with mention of the involved scientists. Publications and patents appear at the end. Finally the research perspectives of SCM emphasize the inflexion to our activities which will be given in the next two years. (author)

  10. Solar observations with Rio de Janeiro Danjon astrolabe: diameter variations and its correlations (1998-2000)

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Eugênio Reis

    2013-01-01

    This work has aimed to analyze the 1998 to 2000 campaign of solar diameter surveying. The employed instrument was a Danjon astrolabe, at the Observat\\'orio Nacional campus, and specially modified for the solar observations. During the time lapse, 10807 independent measurements of the solar diameter were made, Eastwards and Westwards from the local meridian and evenly distributed. An image treatment has been devised to account for the camera dark current and flat field, using IRAF routines. A study of the observational conditions upon the final outcome was made. The mean temperature at the observation is shown as the most influential parameter upon the final result. Next to it also the temperature variation, the Fried's factor, and the standard deviation of the reflected parabola presented a minor and complex degree of influence. The derived corrections are of the order of hundredths of arc seconds, thus being tenfold smaller than the typical error of one observation. The mean semidiameter for the time lapse (...

  11. Pesticide Impact Assessment in Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges, 1998 - 2000 Growing Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tule Lake and the adjacent Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges (TLNWR and LKNWR) serve as key spring/fall staging and overwintering areas for Pacific Flyway...

  12. Hunger and Food Insecurity in the Fifty States: 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ashley F.; Choi, Eunyoung

    Noting that the persistence of hunger and food insecurity in the United States is an issue of pressing social and public health concern, this study examined the magnitude and severity of hunger and food insecurity in U.S. households in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data were obtained from the August 1998, April 1999, and…

  13. Contaminants in Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Eggs and Prey Items, Arizona, 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study documented concentrations and potential effects of organochlorine compounds and metals in addled eggs and potential prey of the endangered southwestern...

  14. Gamma-Ray Burst Follow Up Observations with BOOTES in 1998--2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, J. M. Castro; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Hudec, R.; Soldán, J.; Bernas, M.; Páta, P.; Sanguino, T. J. Mateo; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Berná, J. Á.; Nekola, M.; Gorosabel, J.; Morena, B. A. De La; Más-Hesse, J. M.; Giménez, Á.; Riera, J. Torres

    The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES) provides an automated realtime observing response to the detection of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). Error box size depending, it uses wide field cameras attached to small robotic telescopes or the telescopes themselves. To date we have acquired photometry for about 30 events with the Ultra Wide (UWFC) and the Narrow Field Cameras (NFC) and about 50 events with the Wide Field Camera (WFC).

  15. Catch-Up Growth of Children After Renal Transplantation - Labafi-Nejad Hospital (1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Otukesh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with coronary renal failure had problems with their catch-up growth. The aim of this study was the Assessment of catch-up growth of children after renal transplantation by analyzing the 6 months changes in height deficit and height standard deviation scores (SDS on age, sex, initial height deficit, initial SDS, graft function, renal failure duration and renal transplantation duration. Methods and Materials: Between 22 September 1998 and 2000, 25 pediatric recipients followed up quarterly for height in the Labafi-Nejad hospital. Data on height submitted at each 6-month follow-up were converted into height and SDS. All the results were analyzed by simple and multiple regression and t-test. Results: 68 percents were male and 32 percent were female Mean age at transplantation was 10.39±2.95 SD years. The average duration of renal transplantation was 20.7±8.96 SD months. The aerage of height deficit was 20.7 cm (±10.55 SD and SDS -3.5 (±1.72 SD at the time of renal transplantation. The height deficit was more significant in the patients with tubulopathy. Catch-up growth observed at month 12. That was more obvious in females, in patients with tubulopathy disorders, in preemptives and in all three age groups. Simple and stepwise regression analysis showed that at month 12 only initial height deficit (P<0.05 and at month 24, only sex (P<0.05 were independent predictor of improved height post transplantation. Catch-up growth were seen in more student patients and girls. This may be the result of puberty spurt that occur two years sooner in girls than in boys. Conclusion: In this study we concluded that the renal transplantation alone is not sufficient measure for correction of catch-up growth in renal failure children and because of that the other treatments should come under consideration.

  16. SWFSC/MMTD/ETP: Stenella Abundance Research (STAR) 1998-2000, 2003, and 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Stenella Abundance Research Project (STAR) is a multi-year cetacean and ecosystem assessment study designed to assess the status of dolphin stocks which have...

  17. Working Together To Build Beacon Centers in San Francisco: Evaluation Findings from 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen E.; Arbreton, Amy J. A.

    The Beacons Initiative aimed to transform eight public schools (five middle schools and three high schools) into youth and family centers in low-income neighborhoods in San Francisco, California. Using a coalition of local partners and funding from public agencies and foundations, the centers served 7,500 youth and adults between July 1, 1999, and…

  18. Application to STVF from CBT for the Period 1998-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1997-01-01

    The application from Center for Broadband Telecommunications summarises research progress and milestones for the period Jan. 1, 1995 - June 30, 1997. It also describes international and national cooperation along with research plans and milestones....

  19. NELSWG Common Loon Contaminant Project: New York Field Report, 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anthropogenic inputs of mercury into the environment have resulted in an increasing gradient of mercury from west to east across North America. In conjunction, the...

  20. Southern California Particle Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the Southern California Particle Center, center researchers will investigate the underlying mechanisms that produce the health effects associated with exposure to...

  1. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  2. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  3. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  4. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the University of ... The application of analytical procedures in the audit process: A South African ...

  5. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  6. Southern deepwater swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Conner; Marilyn A. Buford

    1998-01-01

    The authors define, classify, and analyze the economic significance of southern deepwater swamps. They discuss the physical environment, vegetational communities, animal communities, management issues, and research needs for this complex resource.

  7. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  8. Southern hemisphere observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  9. Fiscal 2001 photovoltaic power generation field test project (Locations of systems installed in fiscal 1998-2000 at public facilities and industries); 2001 nendo taiyoko field test jigyo (Kokyo shisetsuyou sangyo tou you 1998 - 2000 nendo secchisha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    The test was conducted for systems installed at General Health and Welfare Center, Munakata City, Fukuoka Prefecture; Comprehensive Traffic Center, Yamaguchi Prefecture; Primary schools, Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture; Sakuragi Children's House, Shizuoka Prefecture; Midorigaoka Primary School, Hyogo Prefecture; Heath Center, Minamata City, Kumamoto Prefecture; Science Museum for Young People, Yamaguchi Prefecture; Wakatsuki Plastic Surgery Hospital, Niigata Prefecture; Hokuto Corporation, Aichi Prefecture; Industrial Research Institute, Ishikawa Prefecture; Shonan Institute of Technology, Kanagawa Prefecture; Gyosen Oil Co., Tokyo; Tamana Senior High School, Kumamoto Prefecture; Yukiyoshi Clinic, Niigata Prefecture; Saishoen Social Welfare Corporation; Akishimadai Kindergarten; Azabu Veterinarian School Group; Ueki-Kita Junior High School, Ueki Town; Garden of Longevity, Isen Town; Takamatsu Primary School, Takamatsu Town; Himeji Red Cross Hospital; and Kita-Daito Island Branch, Okinawa Electric Power Company, Inc. Mentioned in this report are the outlines of the photovoltaic power generation field test, the results of joint research, expected technical effect, enlightening effect, troubles involving power generation systems, and so forth. (NEDO)

  10. Muelle y edificio de servicios en el puerto de Alicante, España (1997-1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Solera, Juan A.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The competition consisted in designing a quay for thedisembarkation of local passengers and a building housing akiosk and shaded waiting area on top of it. This was asplendid opportunity for exploring the two extremes ofconstruction most closely linked to the sea: the building of adike and platform using civil engineering techniques inaddition to a small building made with the quality ofmaterials, fit and precision characteristic of the best navalarchitecture. Construction of the quay started with largeblocks of concrete and stone, earth moving and underwateranchoring. It then continue above water, as if it were a boat indry dock, with wood and metal, assembling, fitting together,tightening screws...It was proposed to design and asymmetric quay that wouldlook in a specific direction so that the boats would notobstruct the views from the building. The height of thebuilding was kept to a minimun seeking the predominanthorizontality of any view of a port. The building resolutelyraises its own verticality competing masts of the sailboatslining the dock to greet those who arrive at the citty,The building is intend ed to have an ambiguous relationshipwith the sea. The metal balcony, lack of handrails, lightness,lack of definition between inside and outside and between thesea and land all contribute to creating such a relationship.El concurso consistía en el diseño de un muelle para eldesembarque de viajeros de cercanías y, sobre él, unaedificación que albergase un quiosco y sombra de espera.Una oportunidad espléndida para explorar los dos extremosde la construcción más ligada a la mar: la ejecución deldique y su plataforma con técnicas de ingeniería civil y la deuna pequeña construcción realizada con la calidad material,el ajuste y la precisión propias de la mejor arquitecturanaval. Se construye primero con grandes masas de hormigóny piedra, con movimientos de tierras, con fondeossubmarinos. Se construye después en seco, como si de unbarco se tratara, con madera y metal, ensamblando,encajando, atornillando...Se propone un muelle asimétrico que mira en una direcciónconcreta y permite que las embarcaciones no obstruyan consu presencia las vistas desde la edificación. La construcciónse eleva lo mínimo posible, en busca de la horizontalidaddominante en cualquier visión portuaria, y eleva a lo alto,decidida, su propia vertical que, en competencia con lospalos de vela de los barcos que pueblan la dársena, saluda aquienes llegan a la ciudad.Se pretende una relación ambigua con el mar. El vuelometálico, la ausencia de barandillas, la ligereza, laindefinición del exterior-interior, de mar y tierra, lapropician.

  11. Assessing the impacts of methylmercury on piscivorous wildlife: as indicated by the Common Loon, 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anthropogenic inputs of mercury (Hg) into the environment have significantly increased in the past few decades. In conjunction, the current availability of...

  12. Assessing the impacts of methylmercury on piscivorous wildlife as indicated by the common loon, 1998-2000: 2000 final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anthropogenic inputs of mercury (Hg) into the environment have significantly increased in the past few decades. In conjunction, the current availability of...

  13. Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System, 1998-2000 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Sandra L.

    2001-05-01

    Since 1984, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has conducted an ongoing research and development project to expand and improve technology for Passive-Integrated-Transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB). Work conducted as part of this project during 1999-2000 was divided into six individual projects, which are covered separately in this report.

  14. A Team Approach to Training Early Intervention and Preschool Personnel in Speech-Language Pathology, 1998-2000. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Jose State Univ., CA.

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of a project designed to train specialists to work collaboratively across settings to improve the outcomes of young children with language and learning disabilities. It provided education for trainees that led to a Masters degree in speech-language pathology with a specialty in early…

  15. Southern (In)hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of "The Status of Race Equity and Diversity in Public Higher Education in the South," an analysis of trends in admissions, enrollment and completion at public colleges and universities in the 19 Southern and border states that maintained segregated systems of higher education in 1954. While work on the…

  16. "Pearl" southern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  17. 'Pearl' Southern Highbush Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  18. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  19. Southern Vietnam since 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Bao

    1995-01-01

    Discusses social and political changes in southern Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War. Describes anti-U.S. propaganda used in the schools and media in the years immediately following the war. Contends that younger Vietnamese look forward to a closer relationship with the United States and its people. (CFR)

  20. 'Biloxi' Southern Highbush Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Biloxi' tetraploid southern highbush blueberry is a new cultivar developed and released by the Agricultural Reseach Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture breeding programs in Beltsville, MD, and Poplarville MS. Plants of 'Biloxi' are upright, vigorous and productive. The fruit ripens earl...

  1. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelock, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to ...

  2. Some aspects of the ecology of the Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica (Erxleben, 1777 in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India and their conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica, an endemic species to India, is widely distributed from the evergreen to moist and dry deciduous forests of Western and Eastern Ghats and the central Indian hills. We studied its population distribution, activity, feeding, ranging and nesting behaviour across three major habitats in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India, during 1998-2000 to manage the species effectively. Extensive survey of the three major habitats—tropical moist, dry deciduous and dry thorn—in the sanctuary shows that its distribution is continuous in moist and dry deciduous forests with good canopy contiguity and patchy along riverine areas in dry thorn and dry deciduous forests with sparse trees and broken canopy. Density estimates using 55 direct sightings from 199 km line transects show a mean of 2.9 (plus or minus 0.313 squirrels/km2. Daylight activity and feeding patterns assessed through 24,098 minutes of focal sampling reveal that animals feed and rest equal amounts of time. The diet constitutes seeds, bark, petioles, leaves and fruits from 25 plants, with Tectona grandis as the principal food source (41%. Its home range size varied from 0.8-1.7 ha with a mean of 1.3ha. Nesting characteristics assessed through 83 nests surveyed along 54km transects showed that the squirrel uses 15 of the 33 tree species found, with higher preference to Schleichera oleosa and Mangifera indica. Nest trees are significantly larger in height, gbh and canopy contiguity than nearest non-nest trees, which are attributed to better protection and escape from predators. Maintenance of diverse natural habitats and reduction in anthropogenic pressure are measures suggested for the conservation of giant squirrel populations in the study area.

  3. Success of a cervical cancer screening program: trends in incidence in songkhla, southern Thailand, 1989-2010, and prediction of future incidences to 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriplung, Hutcha; Singkham, Phathai; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Jiraphongsa, Chuleeporn; Bilheem, Surichai

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer has been a leading female cancer in Thailand for decades, and has been second to breast cancer after 2007. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) has provided opportunistic screening with Pap smears for more than 30 years. In 2002, the MoPH and the National Health Security Office provided countrywide systematic screening of cervical cancer to all Thai women aged 35-60 years under universal health care coverage insurance scheme at 5-year intervals. This study characterized the cervical cancer incidence trends in Songkhla in southern Thailand using joinpoint and age period cohort (APC) analysis to observe the effect of cervical cancer screening activities in the past decades, and to project cervical cancer rates in the province, to 2030. Invasive and in situ cervical cancer cases were extracted from the Songkhla Cancer Registry from 1990 through 2010. Age standardized incidence rates were estimated. Trends in incidences were evaluated by joinpoint and APC regression models. The Norpred package was modified for R and was used to project the future trends to 2030 using the power of 5 function and cut trend method. Cervical cancer incidence in Songkhla peaked around 1998-2000 and then dropped by -4.7% per year. APC analysis demonstrated that in situ tumors caused an increase in incidence in early ages, younger cohorts, and in later years of diagnosis. Both joinpoint and APC analysis give the same conclusion in continuation of a declining trend of cervical cancer to 2030 but with different rates and the predicted goal of ASR below 10 or even 5 per 100,000 women by 2030 would be achieved. Thus, maintenance and improvement of the screening program should be continued. Other population based cancer registries in Thailand should analyze their data to confirm the success of cervical cancer screening policy of Thailand.

  4. Two Interesting Southern Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Two southern objects are studied. The first, the planetary nebula PK 349-01.1, is of interest because it has a chain of jets ejected from the central star. 12C(1-0) observations of the vicinity of this object reveal red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows. The second object is a star formation region consisting of two groups of IR stars. These groups have a trapezium-like configuration. Two stars in one of these groups are associated with a ring-shaped nebulae. This star formation region is associated with a new radial system of dark globules.

  5. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  6. Study of southern corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samavia Mubeen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Southern corn leaf blight is considered the most devastating disease of maize crop, which causes noticeable reduction in crop yield. Inbred lines are useful because they are genotyped, multiple time phenotyping is possible, and genetic uniformity, genetic stability and its vigor make inbred lines suitable to study in diversified environment. In present investigation, 12 maize genotypes viz: NC-2703 (hybrid, NC-2003 (hybrid, SP-3 (inbred line, NCML-73 (inbred line, NRL-6 (inbred line, NRL-4 (inbred line, Soan-3 (variety, Rakaposhi (variety, Margala (variety, EV-1097 (variety, Local-Y (variety, Local-W (variety were tested against southern corn leaf blight under laboratory and field conditions. According to disease severity scale (0–5 inbreds SP-3 and NCML-73 were found highly resistant; Local-W moderately resistance and rest of the genotypes were least resistance in in vitro analysis. In field screening, Margala, NRL-4, EV-1097 showed maximum resistance followed by moderately resistant SP-3, NCML-73, NC-2703, NRL-6 and Local-Y maize genotypes. NC-2003, Rakaposhi and Soan-3 showed least resistance during field evaluation. Cochliobolus heterostrophus showed considerable effects on yield of crop. Significant difference was found in grain yield, plant height, ear height and ear weight while ear placement, ear per plant and infected ear data were non-significant. The results clearly showed the effect on maize genotypes and its yield.

  7. Fires in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  8. Erythrineae (Fabaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Franklin Hennessy

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The two genera represented in the flora of southern Africa.  Erythrina L. and  Mucuna Adans. are revised. Keys to the indigenous species and the commonly cultivated exotic species are provided.

  9. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  10. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  11. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  12. Banking in southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Žarko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nations discussed here (Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece have in common - with the exception of Italy, that is - that they used to be on the margins of European economic and social developments. Only Italy succeeded in industrialising itself already prior to World War I. This fundamental trait also determined the developmental path of modern-era banking. Hereby, two important points in the course of development of banking in the Southern European countries need to be emphasised. To begin with, if the lands of the North-Western Europe were large capital exporters, then the South European nations were the importers of this capital. The role of foreign capital, i.e., foreign banks, was great and irreplaceable in the development of banking. The second element in common was a large role of state in the economy in general. Under the circumstances of underdeveloped entrepreneurial environment, the state, through its economic activities, would become the driving force of overall economic and social development. This was also or especially the case with banking. Role played by the state only began to diminish towards the end of the 1980s, in the course of the processes of deregulation and liberalisation both at the international level as well as within the then European Economic Community or subsequent European Union. Already during the preparatory processes prior to the admission into the European Economic Community, Spain, Greece and Portugal, and, however, Italy as well, but due to European Directives it had to abide by, began comprehensive processes of restructuring their national banking systems. Since the second half of the 1980s, banking systems were subjected to liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation.

  13. The Southern Ocean CIRCLE initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E. J.; Ellis-Evans, J. C.

    2003-04-01

    The circumpolar Southern Ocean is the principal ocean connection between the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, and exerts a profound influence on world climate through ocean circulation and its major role in the global carbon cycle. It is a major repository of biodiversity and also the only ocean system where significant marine living resources are yet to be fully exploited. However, this key component of the Earth System is still poorly understood, in part due to the logistical problems of a harsh, remote location and the circumpolar nature of the environment. Circumpolar patterns of variability have now been recognized and the current challenge is to understand how, at a circumpolar scale, this variability is generated, its impact on the regional biogeochemical cycles, its interaction with ecosystem processes and the links to global scale processes. Many of these scientific issues can only be addressed by Southern Ocean scale studies, and although a range of national and international research programmes are already targeting particular aspects, the research effort is largely uncoordinated. The European Polar Board is sponsoring a pan-European initiative (Southern Ocean CIRCLE) to coordinate the currently disparate Southern Ocean research effort and this initiative aims to address climate variability, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem dynamics with particular reference to the links between these aspects in the circumpolar Southern Ocean. This poster outlines the development of the SO CIRCLE initiative, the major areas of science and proposals for implementation. It also outlines how SO CIRCLE will link to other programmes with a Southern Ocean component (e.g. CLIVAR, CliC, GLOBEC, SOLAS). A key aspect of the initiative will be to coordinate European scientific effort in the Southern Ocean with that of the wider international community.

  14. Southern Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 9 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. In our final dust devil image we are again looking at the southern hemisphere of Mars. These tracks occur mainly on the northeast side of the topographic ridges. Of course, there are many exceptions, which makes understanding the dynamics that initiate the actual dust devil cyclone difficult. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -47.6, Longitude 317.3 East (42.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed

  15. Support for the Confederate Battle Flag in the Southern United States: Racism or Southern Pride?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshua D. Wright; Victoria M. Esses

    2017-01-01

    ... in the Southern United States. We evaluate these two competing views in explaining attitudes toward the Confederate battle flag in the Southern United States through a survey of 526 Southerners...

  16. Treasures of the Southern Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Gendler, Robert; Malin, David

    2011-01-01

    In these pages, the reader can follow the engaging saga of astronomical exploration in the southern hemisphere, in a modern merger of aesthetics, science, and a story of human endeavor. This book is truly a celebration of southern skies.  Jerry Bonnell, Editor - Astronomy Picture of the Day The southern sky became accessible to scientific scrutiny only a few centuries ago, after the first European explorers ventured south of the equator. Modern observing and imaging techniques have since revealed what seems like a new Universe, previously hidden below the horizon, a fresh astronomical bounty of beauty and knowledge uniquely different from the northern sky. The authors have crafted a book that brings this hidden Universe to all, regardless of location or latitude. Treasures of the Southern Sky celebrates the remarkable beauty and richness of the southern sky in words and with world-class imagery. In part, a photographic anthology of deep sky wonders south of the celestial equator, this book also celebrates th...

  17. An Introduction: Around Southern Modernisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Leal, Joana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this special issue you will find a discussion on southern modernisms stemming from an exploratory research project funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT between 2014 and 2015. As a project, southern modernisms had a theoretical and historiographical focus driven to discuss the resonances of the two words associated in its title, as well as the disquieting effect of their combination in the fields of visual arts and architecture. The first word – modernisms – stood against the standardized canon of modernism, thus bonding the research to the critical revision of that concept occurring in art history since the closing decades of the 20th century; the second word based the project in southern Europe, meaning that Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece would set the ground for selecting case studies.

  18. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the

  19. Threatened plants of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1980-05-01

    Full Text Available Lists are provided of 1 915 vascular plant taxa regarded to be either extinct or variously threatened in southern Africa, the region south of (but excluding) Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. These include 39 recently extinct taxa} 105 endangered...

  20. Range Extent for southern sea otters 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Range extent of southern sea otters 2016" is a simple polyline representing the geographic distribution of the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris...

  1. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  2. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Rajesh; M Santosh

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2 ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher fH2O favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  3. Megaconferences: view from Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turton, A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available specifically to the following events: United Na- tions Water Conference in Mar del Plata (1977), Dublin Conference (1992), United Nations Confe- rence on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro (1992), Bonn Consultation (2001), Jo- hannesburg Summit... based on first-hand experience. 12 Megaconferences: View from Southern Africa 251 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Mar del Plata, 1977 Dublin, 1992 Rio de Jane iro, 1992 Marrakech, 1997 The Hague, 2000 Bonn, 2001 Johannesburg, 2002 Japan...

  4. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  5. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  6. Tamizaje de deleciones en pacientes con distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) o Becker-Kiener (BMD) mediante PCR multiplex en Costa Rica, 1998-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho-Fernández, Vanessa M.; Saborio, Manuel; de Céspedes-Montealegre, Carlos; Azofeifa-Navas, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. 2001 Objetivo: Iniciar los estudios genético moleculares sobre las distrofinopatías en Costa Rica. Materiales y Métodos: Treinta y un pacientes varones, diagnosticados con distrofia muscular, que podrían ser distrofinopáticos fueron reevaluados clínicamente. Veintitrés mostraron un fenotipo de DMD y dos de BMD. Seis no mostraron síntomas definitivos de distrofinopatías. ADN de los pacientes fue analiza...

  7. Monitoring instream turbidity to estimate continuous suspended-sediment loads and yields and clay-water volumes in the upper North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrich, Mark A.; Bragg, Heather M.

    2003-01-01

    Three real-time, instream water-quality and turbidity-monitoring sites were established in October 1998 in the upper North Santiam River Basin on the North Santiam River, the Breitenbush River, and Blowout Creek, the main tributary inputs to Detroit Lake, a large, controlled reservoir that extends from river mile 61 to 70. Suspended-sediment samples were collected biweekly to monthly at each station. Rating curves provided estimated suspended-sediment concentration in 30-minute increments from log transformations of the instream turbidity monitoring data. Turbidity was found to be a better surrogate than discharge for estimating suspended-sediment concentration. Daily and annual mean suspended-sediment loads were estimated using the estimated suspended-sediment concentrations and corresponding streamflow data. A laboratory method for estimating persistent (residual) turbidity from separate turbidity samples was developed. Turbidity was measured over time for each sample. Turbidity decay curves were derived as the suspended sediment settled. Each curve was used to estimate a turbidity value for a given settling time. Medium to fine clay particle (size clay particle persistent turbidity for each site. The monitored instream 30-minute turbidity values were converted to a calculated persistent turbidity value that would have resulted after 8.5 hours of settling in the laboratory. Persistent turbidities of 10 NTU and above were tabulated for each site. (Water of 10 NTU and above can interfere with or damage treatment filters and result in intake closures at drinking-water facilities.) A method was developed that used the persistent turbidity experiments, turbidity decay curves, and stream discharge to estimate the volume of water containing suspended clay that entered Detroit Lake from the three main tributaries. 'Suspended-clay water' was defined as water having a value of at least 10 NTU after settling the required 8.5 hours. The suspended-clay concentrations of 10 NTU or higher were paired with the corresponding stream discharge in the continuous record. These summed discharges represent the annual volume of water containing suspended clay that entered Detroit Lake from the three main tributaries. Higher yields (load per unit area) of suspended sediment and suspended-clay water were observed from the smaller Breitenbush River and Blowout Creek subbasins than from the main-stem North Santiam River for water years 1999 and 2000. The 3-day peak streamflow and turbidity events in 1999 and 2000 carried two-thirds of the annual suspended-sediment load for the three subbasins. Turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration relations within the upper North Santiam River Basin are basin specific and can change annually within a single subbasin. Techniques developed during this study will assist water resource planners in understanding and managing water quality in their watersheds, particularly those in which there are persistent-turbidity problems.

  8. Beowulf. Lessons from ORIAS Institute on History through Literature in the 6th Grade/7th Grade Core Classrooms, 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinetti, Carolyn

    This lesson plan, featuring the epic, "Beowulf," employs the introduction-quotation exchange to monitor student comprehension while reading the epic. A second exercise, also dealing with reading comprehension, requires students to keep an historical evidence journal and fill out an historical evidence chart. The lesson plan features a…

  9. Data on streamflow and quality of water and bottom sediment in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was initiated to expand upon previous findings that indicated concentrations of dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, and...

  10. Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Fish Tissue and Bed Sediment in the Delaware River Basin, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, and Delaware, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Brightbill, Robin; Bilger, Michael

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program activities in the Delaware River Basin (DELR), samples of fish tissue from 21 sites and samples of bed sediment from 35 sites were analyzed for a suite of organic compounds and trace elements. The sampling sites, within subbasins ranging in size from 11 to 600 square miles, were selected to represent 5 main land-use categories in the DELR -forest, low-agricultural, agricultural, urban, and mixed use. Samples of both fish tissue and bed sediment were also collected from 4 'large-river' sites that represented drainage areas ranging from 1,300 to 6,800 square miles, areas in which the land is used for a variety of purposes. One or more of the organochlorine compounds-DDT and chlordane metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs), and dieldrin- were detected frequently in samples collected over a wide geographic area. One or more of these compounds were detected in fish-tissue samples from 92 percent of the sites and in bed-sediment samples from 82 percent of the sites. Concentrations of total DDT, total chlordanes, total PCBs, and dieldrin in whole white suckers and in bed sediment were significantly related to urban/industrial basin characteristics, such as percentage of urban land use and population density. Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs)-total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total phthalates, and phenols- were detected frequently in bed-sediment samples. All three types of SVOCs were detected in samples from at least one site in each land-use category. The highest detection rates and concentrations typically were in samples from sites in the urban and mixed land-use categories, as well as from the large-river sites. Concentrations of total PAHs and total phthalates in bed-sediment samples were found to be statistically related to percentages of urban land use and to population density in the drainage areas represented by the sampling sites. The samples of fish tissue and bed sediment collected throughout the DELR were analyzed for a large suite of trace elements, but results of the analyses for eight elements-arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, mercury, and zinc- that are considered contaminants of concern are described in this report. One or more of the eight trace elements were detected in samples from every fish tissue and bed-sediment sampling site, and all of the trace elements were detected in samples from 97 percent of the bed-sediment sites. The concentrations of organic compounds and trace elements in the DELR samples were compared to applicable guidelines for the protection of wildlife and other biological organisms. Concentrations of total DDT, total chlordanes, total PCBs, and dieldrin in fish-tissue samples from 14 sites exceeded one or more of the Wildlife Protective Guidelines established by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Concentrations of one or more organic compounds in samples from 16 bed-sediment sites exceeded the Threshold Effects Concentrations (TEC) of the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines, and concentrations of one or more of the eight trace elements in samples from 38 bed-sediment sites exceeded the TEC. (The TEC is the concentration below which adverse biological effects in freshwater ecosystems are expected to be rare.) Concentrations of organic compounds in samples from some bed-sediment sites exceeded the Canadian Probable Effects Concentrations (PEC), and concentrations of trace elements in samples from 18 sites exceeded the PEC. (The PEC is the concentration above which adverse effects to biological organisms are expected to occur frequently). Concentrations of organic compounds and trace elements in samples from the DELR were compared to similar data from other NAWQA study units in the northeastern United States and also data from the Mobile River (Alabama) Basin and the Northern Rockies Intermontane Basin study units. Median concentrations of to

  11. Data on Streamflow and Quality of Water and Bottom Sediment in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to expand upon previous findings that indicated concentrations of dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, and uranium were either above geochemical background concentrations or were approaching or exceeding ecological criteria in the lower Humboldt River system. Data were collected from May 1998 to September 2000 to further characterize streamflow and surface-water and bottom-sediment quality in the lower Humboldt River, selected agricultural drains, Upper Humboldt Lake, and Lower Humboldt Drain (ephemeral outflow from Humboldt Sink). During this study, flow in the lower Humboldt River was either at or above average. Flows in Army and Toulon Drains generally were higher than reported in previous investigations. An unnamed agricultural drain contributed a small amount to the flow measured in Army Drain. In general, measured concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and uranium were higher in water from agricultural drains than in Humboldt River water during this study. Mercury concentrations in water samples collected during the study period typically were below the laboratory reporting level. However, low-level mercury analyses showed that samples collected in August 1999 from Army Drain had higher mercury concentrations than those collected from the river or Toulon Drain or the Lower Humboldt Drain. Ecological criteria and effect concentrations for sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, mercury, and molybdenum were exceeded in some water samples collected as part of this study. Although water samples from the agricultural drains typically contained higher concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, and uranium, greater instantaneous loads of these constituents were carried in the river near Lovelock than in agricultural drains during periods of high flow or non-irrigation. During this study, the high flows in the lower Humboldt River produced the maximum instantaneous loads of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and uranium at all river-sampling sites, except molybdenum near Imlay. Nevada Division of Environmental Protection monitoring reports on mine-dewatering discharge for permitted releases of treated effluent to the surface waters of the Humboldt River and its tributaries were reviewed for reported discharges and trace-element concentrations from June 1998 to September 1999. These data were compared with similar information for the river near Imlay. In all bottom sediments collected for this study, arsenic concentrations exceeded the Canadian Freshwater Interim Sediment-Quality Guideline for the protection of aquatic life and probable-effect level (concentration). Sediments collected near Imlay, Rye Patch Reservoir, Lovelock, and from Toulon Drain and Army Drain were found to contain cadmium and chromium concentrations that exceeded Canadian criteria. Chromium concentrations in sediments collected from these sites also exceeded the consensus-based threshold-effect concentration. The Canadian criterion for sediment copper concentration was exceeded in sediments collected from the Humboldt River near Lovelock and from Toulon, Army, and the unnamed agricultural drains. Mercury in sediments collected near Imlay and from Toulon Drain in August 1999 exceeded the U.S. Department of the Interior sediment probable-effect level. Nickel concentrations in sediments collected during this study were above the consensus-based threshold-effect concentration. All other river and drain sediments had constituent concentrations below protective criteria and toxicity thresholds. In Upper Humboldt Lake, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and uranium concentrations in surface-water samples collected near the mouth of the Humboldt River generally were higher than in samples collected near the mouth of Army Drain. Ecological criteria or effect con

  12. Os projetos de pesquisa de enfermagem no CNPQ: seu percurso, suas temáticas, suas aderências -1998/2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joséte Luzia Leite

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objeto as temáticas dos projetos de pesquisa em Enfermagem encaminhados a uma agência governamental de fomento à pesquisa - o CNPq - no período de novembro de 1998 a novembro de 2000. Tem como objetivos identificar as temáticas predominantes nesses projetos e discutir as aderências das temáticas identificadas com as linhas de pesquisa em estudo pela categoria, com apoio da CAPES e as prioridades estabelecidas pelo CNPq para indução à pesquisa. Para atingir esses objetivos realizou-se um estudo exploratório descritivo cuja fonte primária foram as "planilhas de avaliação de projetos" e as secundárias foram a Resenha Estatística da CNPq, outros estudos e relatórios. Os resultados mostram a concentração de bolsas concedidas na Região Sudeste onde concentram também a maioria dos pesquisadores e os programas de pós-graduação. Revelam a diversidade de temas e as aproximações detectadas entre as temáticas e os parâmetros adotados para o estudo.

  13. Hugo Chávez:construcción hegemónica del poder y desplazamiento de los actores tradicionales en Venezuela (1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Romero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la llegada al poder de Hugo Chávez, en las elecciones de 1998, comenzó la configuración de unas nuevas relaciones de poder en el sistema político venezolano (SPV. Estas relaciones estaban determinadas por la naturaleza de los actores políticos que accedieron al poder, el funcionamiento institucional implementado a partir de la convocatoria a una Asamblea Nacional Constituyente (ANC, la formulación de una nueva Carta Magna y la implementación de un Régimen de Transición del poder Público. Chávez, a través de estructuras políticas como el Movimiento Quinta República (MVR y los partidos agrupados en torno al Polo Patriótico (PP ejecutaron un proceso que los llevo a construir una hegemonía dentro del sistema político que tiene como base la Constitución de 1999, relegando a las organizaciones políticas tradicionales.

  14. Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John

    2003-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon collection and spawning began in 1998. A total of 114 fish were collected from Johnson Creek and 54 fish (20 males and 34 females) were retained for Broodstock. All broodstock were transported to Lower Snake River Compensation Plan's South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility, operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The remaining 60 fish were released to spawn naturally. An estimated 155,870 eggs from Johnson Creek chinook spawned at the South Fork Salmon River facility were transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for rearing. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,871. Approximately 20,500 eggs from females with high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease were culled. This, combined with green-egg to eyed-egg survival of 62%, resulted in about 84,000 eyed eggs produced in 1998. Resulting juveniles were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery in 1999. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags and 8,043 were also PIT tagged. A total of 78,950 smolts were transported from the McCall Fish Hatchery and released directly into Johnson Creek on March 27, 28, 29, and 30, 2000.

  15. From Brothers War to Border War. Conduct of an Interstate War in the Post-Cold War Era: Ethiopia-Eritrea (1998-2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Alexandra Magnólia

    2016-01-01

    Interstate wars are not one of the most salient features of current World Politics. Indeed, the prevailing patterns of contemporary armed conflict show an increasing trend in intrastate wars that spill over borders. The paper aims to provide insights from an interstate war in the post-Cold War era to the debate on the transformation of warfare (Old vs. New Wars and their conduct). Beyond the continuities with the 30 years civil war, namely in the relations between the two former insurgent mov...

  16. Perfil socioeconómico de adultos monitorizados por exposición a plomo. Cituc período 1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Espinosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la relación entre la concentración de plomo en sangre (Pb-S de 667 individuos que acudieron al laboratorio del Centro de Investigaciones Toxicológicas de la Universidad de Carabobo, Venezuela (período 1-1-1998 al 31- 12-2000, y su zona de procedencia (vivienda y/o lugar de trabajo. Se utilizó tecnología de Sistemas Geográficos de Información (SGI, ubicando espacialmente a los sujetos estudiados, asociando de forma gráfica la procedencia de éstos con los resultados analíticos. Los promedios de Pb-S de los individuos con Valores Superiores al Límite Permisible (VSLP resultaron ser mayores en el año 1999 con respecto a los demás años. Ocho sectores del estrato C (pobreza relativa o crítica y uno del B (calidad de vida satisfactoria, mostraron el mayor porcentaje (93.72% de individuos con VSLP de Pb-S. Los sectores 16 y 28 (del estrato C, resultaron con los porcentajes más elevados de individuos con VSLP (83.26 y 6.27% respectivamente. Al establecer la asociación entre los VSLP y los sectores de procedencia, sólo el sector 16 fue significativo mostrando una correlación parcial directa (R=0.28; p<0.01. El promedio de Pb-S en el estrato socioeconómico C (28.83 ug/dl fue significativamente superior (p≤ 0.05 a los encontrados en los estratos A (14.61 ug/dl, B (17.10 ug/dl y en individuos sin estratificación socioeconómica conocida (SEC (17.01 ug/dl. Los individuos pertenecientes al estrato socioeconómico C tenían casi 3 veces más riesgo que los demás, de presentar VSLP de Pb-S (OR = 2.86, IC 95%: 1.25-6.55. Se analizan las razones que justifican estos hallazgos. El estudio confirma que la utilización de SGI y métodos epidemiológico-estadísticos extiende las posibilidades de prevención de enfermedades producidas por contaminantes ambientales como el Pb y que correlacionando datos geográficos y de indicadores biológicos de exposición, se pueden identificar áreas de “alto riesgo”, conduciendo a una acción pro activa de salud pública

  17. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  18. Geothermal resources of southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabey, Don R.

    1983-01-01

    The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150?C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications, but is lower than the temperature of interest for commercial generation of electricity at the present time. Most of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. By far the largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grand View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107?C and an energy of 4.5? 10 20 joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system has been found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures has not been found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90? and 150?C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain. Areas that appear particularly promising for the occurrence of large high-temperature hydrothermal systems are: the area north of the Snake River Plain and west of the Idaho batholith, the Island Park area, segments of the margins of the eastern Snake River Plain, and the Blackfoot lava field.

  19. Cystic echinococcosis in Southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Sagi, Orli; Houri, Ohad; Bazarsky, Elina; Berkowitz, Anat; Bulkowstein, Shlomi; Barrett, Chiya; Greenberg, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective, population-based study was to characterize demographically and clinically cystic-echinococcosis (CE) in southern Israel, between 2005 and 2012. Newly-diagnosed (nd-CE) and past-diagnosed (pd-CE, diagnosed before the study) cases were defined. Two populations live in southern-Israel, receiving medical treatment at a single hospital: the Jewish and the Bedouin populations (resembling resource-rich and resource-poor populations, respectively). 126 CE cases were identified; 55 nd-CE and 71 pd-CE. Mean annual nd-CE incidence per 100,000 in the Bedouin and Jewish populations were 2.7 ± 1.2 and 0.4 ± 0.3, respectively (Pborn outside Israel. Liver and lung involvement were recorded in 85.7% and 15.1% of overall-CE, respectively. Abdominal pain, cough, fever, eosinophilia and asymptomatic disease were documented in 63.6%, 32.7%, 27.3%, 41.5% and 12.7% of nd-CE, respectively. Serology sensitivity for first test and any positive test were 67.3% and 83.3%, respectively. Computed tomography, ultrasonography and X-ray diagnosis were documented in 79.2%, 58.4% and 17.0% of overall-CE, respectively, with ultrasonography mainly used in liver-CE and X-ray in lung-CE. Treatment included surgery and albendazole in 50.0% and 55.3% of CE, respectively. We conclude that CE is endemic in southern-Israel among the Bedouin population, while disease is probably mainly imported in the Jewish population. Liver involvement and eosinophilia rates were high compared with those of other endemic regions, possibly due to differences in the timing of diagnosis. These findings may help developing treatment and prevention strategies.

  20. The Southern Sky Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, L. Nicolaci; Willmer, C. N. A.; Pellegrini, P. S.; Chaves, O. L.; Rité, C.; Maia, M. A. G.; Geller, M. J.; Latham, D. W.; Kurtz, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.; Ramella, M.; Fairall, A. P.; Smith, C.; Lípari, S.

    1998-07-01

    We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for 5369 galaxies with m_B Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-Observatório Nacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the South African Astronomical Observatory.

  1. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

  2. Southern Africa CTA Site Proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, P P

    2012-01-01

    Southern Africa has some of the world's best sites for air Cherenkov telescopes. South Africa has only one viable site, which is south of Sutherland and also close to the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This site has very good infrastructure and is easy to access, but only 47% of the night-time has a cloudless sky usable for observations. Namibia, which already hosts the H.E.S.S telescope, has a number of potential sites with much less cloud coverage. The H.E.S.S. site is one of the highest of these sites at 1840 m a.s.l. with about 64% of the night-time cloudless. It also has very low night sky background levels and is relatively close (about 100 km) to Windhoek. Moving further away from Windhoek to the south, the cloud coverage and artificial night sky brightness becomes even less, with the site at Kuibis (between Keetmanshoop and Luderitz) at 1640 m a.s.l. having clear night skies 73% of the time. Even though this site seems remote (being 660 km from Windhoek by road), it is close to the national ...

  3. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  4. Southern Living and Southern Voices: Models of Regional Magazine Success and Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, John W.

    This paper examines the phenomenon of magazine success and failure as demonstrated by two regional magazines, "Southern Living" and "Southern Voices." The former, a combination of articles about food, travel, sports, and other positive aspects of southern life, was quickly accepted by its readers and advertisers and began…

  5. New Moho map of southern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans; Faleide, J.-I.

    2009-01-01

    A recent seismic refraction study across southern Norway has revealed that the up to 2469 m high Southern Scandes Mountains are not isostatically compensated by a thick crust. Rather, the Moho depths are close to average for continental crust with elevations of ~1 km. Evidence from new seismic data...

  6. The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Crewdson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project is a collaborative online bibliography of published resources significant to southern Alberta. This paper introduces the partners, briefly summarizes the purpose of the project, describes the progress and challenges encountered thus far, and discusses the intended project outcomes and impacts.

  7. Southern Forest Resource Assessment - Summary of Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; John G. Greis

    2002-01-01

    The Southern Forest Resource Assessment (SFRA) was initiated in spring 1999 to address broad questions concerning the status, trends, and likely future of southern forests. A descriptive assessment such as SFRA can be used to highlight the major dynamics and uncertainties at play within a region's forested ecosystems, thereby focusing public discourse. Because...

  8. [Japanese encephalitis in Southern Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Braks, Marieta; Van Maanen, Kees; Reusken, Chantal

    2014-07-01

    In 2012, a fragment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genome was isolated from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes caught in 2010 and 2011 in Northern Italy. JEV has a broad geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and Oceania, and is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans and also causes encephalitis in horses and fertility problems in pigs. However, recently isolated JEV genome fragments in mosquitoes in Italy could be an indication of repeated introduction of JEV, enzootic circulation of JEV or a related virus in Southern Europe. Until more information is available, Japanese encephalitis remains a travel-related infectious disease for travellers to JEV endemic and epidemic areas outside of Europe.

  9. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  10. Coccidioidomycosis in southern sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nancy J.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Duncan, Ruth M.

    1994-01-01

    Disseminated coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed postmortem in six southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dying or dead along the Pacific Coast of California at San Luis Obispo County.  These otters were found during winter or summer 1992, 1993, and 1994.  Coccidioides immitis was identified by its morphology in tissue impression smears and by histopathology, and was confirmed by culture.  Positive serologic results were obtained from four of five sea otters tested.  The lungs, pleura, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, liver, and spleen were involved in each case.  There was meningeal involvement in half of the affected animals.  Coccidioidomycosis has been reported in a wild sea otter only once previously, in 1976, and that otter was also found on the coast of San Luis Obispo County.

  11. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  12. Southern company energy storage study :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  13. Nearshore marine fish assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish benthic trawls were completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data from 425 fisheries independent trawls ranging from 2-215...

  14. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Alberta: July 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1989. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  15. Waterfowl production survey: July 1997: Southern Manitoba

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  16. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project is an interagency effort to increase public awareness of the common reedgrass problem, demonstrate effective control...

  17. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  18. Experimental late brood surveys: Southern Saskatchewan: 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the late brood surveys for southern Saskatchewan during 1991. Survey methods, weather and habitat conditions, production indices, and tables...

  19. South African southern ocean research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the South African National Antarctic Research Programme's (SANARP) physical, chemical and biological Southern Ocean research programme. The programme has three main components: ecological studies of the Prince Edward Islands...

  20. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  1. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds includes the drainages of the Northwest River, the North Landing River, and Back Bay in the southeastern corner of Virginia. Common reedgrass...

  2. Southern Hemisphere Ice Limits, 1973-1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly Southern Ocean ice limits, have been digitized from U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility ice charts, at the Max-Planck Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg....

  3. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Alberta: 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  4. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Alberta: 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  5. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Manitoba: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  6. Marine Invertebrate assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of invertebrate site clusters calculated from benthic trawls completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data...

  7. Fish assemblages in southern California kelp forests.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of fish assemblages calculated from diver surveys in kelp forests in Southern California. Visual census data was combined for two separate...

  8. Training traditional birth attendants in southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsager, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Traditional birth attendants are currently the principal service providers to pregnant women in southern Sudan. A training program provides education to promote maternal and newborn health as well as birth preparedness and establishes mechanisms for supportive supervision.

  9. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Alberta: 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1979. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  10. Waterfowl production survey for southern Manitoba: 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1991. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  11. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  12. Climate Prediction Center Southern Oscillation Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and Sea Surface Temperature (SST)Indices. It contains Southern Oscillation Index which is standardized sea level...

  13. Census summary of southern sea otter 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Census summary of southern sea otter 2016" provides a standardized tool for examining spatial patterns in abundance and demographic trends of the...

  14. Southern Ocean - South African cooperative research programme.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-05-01

    Full Text Available South African research in the Southern Ocean has already produced some important and illuminating results. Most of these efforts, however, were of an individual and uncoordinated nature. Due to increasing interest in the ocean- in South Africa...

  15. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  16. Star forming regions of the southern galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Er, J. W., the molecular gas, a

    1987-01-01

    A catalog of southern dust cloud properties is being compiled to aid in the planning and analysis of radio spectral line surveys in the southern hemisphere. Ultimately, images of dust temperature and column density will be produced. For the interim, a list of the 60 and 100 micron fluxes was prepared for the cores and adjacent backgrounds of 65 prominent dust clouds. Dust temperatures and column densities were derived.

  17. 77 FR 17122 - Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant overhead temporary trackage rights to Indiana Southern Railroad...

  18. The Southern Ocean: Source and sink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugnell, J. M.; Cherel, Y.; Cooke, I. R.; Gleadall, I. G.; Hochberg, F. G.; Ibáñez, C. M.; Jorgensen, E.; Laptikhovsky, V. V.; Linse, K.; Norman, M.; Vecchione, M.; Voight, J. R.; Allcock, A. L.

    2011-03-01

    Many members of the benthic fauna of the Antarctic continental shelf share close phylogenetic relationships to the deep-sea fauna adjacent to Antarctica and in other ocean basins. It has been suggested that connections between the Southern Ocean and the deep sea have been facilitated by the presence of a deep Antarctic continental shelf coupled with submerging Antarctic bottom water and emerging circumpolar deep water. These conditions may have allowed 'polar submergence', whereby shallow Southern Ocean fauna have colonised the deep sea and 'polar emergence', whereby deep-sea fauna colonised the shallow Southern Ocean. A recent molecular study showed that a lineage of deep-sea and Southern Ocean octopuses with a uniserial sucker arrangement on their arms appear to have arisen via polar submergence. A distantly related clade of octopuses with a biserial sucker arrangement on their arms (historically placed in the genus Benthoctopus) is also present in the deep-sea basins of the world and the Southern Ocean. To date their evolutionary history has not been examined. The present study investigated the origins of this group using 3133 base pairs (bp) of nucleotide data from five mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, cytochrome b) and the nuclear gene rhodopsin from at least 18 species (and 7 outgroup taxa). Bayesian relaxed clock analyses showed that Benthoctopus species with a high-latitude distribution in the Southern Hemisphere represent a paraphyletic group comprised of three independent clades. The results suggest that the Benthoctopus clade originated in relatively shallow Northern Hemisphere waters. Benthoctopus species distributed in the Southern Ocean are representative of polar emergence and occur at shallower depths than non-polar Benthoctopus species.

  19. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  20. Aspectos epidemiológicos da seneciose na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul Epidemiological aspects of seneciosis in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sérgio Castilhos Karam

    2004-12-01

    of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This paper presents epidemiological data of 24 outbreaks in cattle and one in horses, diagnosed by the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory at Pelotas University in southern Rio Grande do Sul, from 1998 to 2000. Additionally, data of 54 outbreaks which occurred in 1978-1997 were analyzed. The farms where outbreaks occurred in 1998-2000 were visited to obtain clinical and epidemiological data and to verify the presence of Senecio spp. Eleven outbreaks (45.83% affected cattle up to 3 years of age, and 13 (54.16% cattle over 3 years. Nine (37.5% outbreaks affected females and 15 (62.5% males. Ten (41.66% outbreaks occurred in spring, 4 (16.66% in summer, 5 (20.83% in autumn, and 5 (20.83% in winter. Morbidity rate was estimated with 4.92% and case fatality with 95.59%. The predomionating Senecio species were S. brasiliensis on 12 farms (57.14%, S. selloi on 10 (47.61%, S. oxyphyllus on 6 (28.57%, S. heterotrichius on 3 (14.28%, and S. leptolobus on 1 farm (4.76%. The main clinical signs were progressive emaciation, incoordination, diarrhea, tenesmus, rectal prolapse and aggressiveness. The clinical manifestation periods of affected cattle observed during the farm visits, or of cattle sent for post-mortem examination,were 24-96 hours in 4 outbreaks (16.66%, 4-7 days in 7 (29.16%, 1-2 weeks in 4 (16.66%, 2-3 weeks in 2 (8.33%, 1-2 months in 2 (8.33%, and 2-3 months in 1 outbreak (4.16%. In 4 outbreaks (16.66% the clinical manifestation period was not established. In outbreaks with longer clinical manifestation periods some animals showed photosensitization. The main necropsy findings were a hard and enlarged liver, distended gall bladder, edema of the mesenterium and abomasum, and increased amount of liquid in the cavities. Histopathological findings were fibroplasia, megalocytosis and biliary ductal proliferation of the liver, and spongy degeneration of the cerebral white matter. Samples of different Senecio species, in different seasons, were

  1. The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Crewdson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR is a collaborative bibliography of published resources significant to southern Alberta. Objectives and progress with evolving methodology, technology, issues and challenges are explored within the context of the library field. We investigate a collaborative digital library that allows librarians and non-librarians alike to share information on specific topics through MARC records. An outcome of a collaborative digital library is how to create and sustain interest within the library community. Southern Alberta region was selected based on the authors’ familiarity with the region. Some issues and questions remain to be resolved. Digital formats present a number of challenges in terms of selection and presentation. Legal issues relating to technology such as linking and location information have emerged. Basic technical issues remain, such as, how best to update links.

  2. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  3. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst

  4. Groundwater use on southern Idaho dairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy production has expanded in irrigated areas of the western and southwestern US, potentially competing for limited water supplies. Groundwater withdrawal was measured for two years on six dairy farms with 660 to 6400 milk cows in southern Idaho. Groundwater withdrawal was calculated on an equiva...

  5. Development of Southern Cross University College

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    Southern Cross University (SCU) has established a pathways college to increase access to and widen participation in higher education for people in regional areas of Australia. While many Australian universities have preparatory colleges associated with them, SCU College has been designed to make it unique in the sector. SCU College will operate…

  6. Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-02-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas.

  7. Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably similar prevalence. ... Physical health suffers in this environment with malaria and dysentery ... working in the. Southern Sudan or those Healthcare. Professionals in other parts of the world seeking ... return from internal and external displacement. Drugs and ...

  8. Home garden system dynamics in Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellisse, Beyene Teklu; Ven, van de Gerrie W.J.; Giller, Ken E.; Descheemaeker, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    Home gardens in southern Ethiopia are regarded as efficient farming systems, allowing interactions and synergies between crop, tree and livestock components. However, these age-old traditional home gardens are evolving rapidly in response to changes in both the socio-economic and biophysical

  9. Epidemiology of cerebral palsy in Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Dunkhase-Heinl, Ulrike; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and neuroimaging findings of cerebral palsy (CP) in a cohort of children born in Southern Denmark. Risk factors were analysed and aetiology considered. METHODS: A population-based cohort study covering 17,580 l...

  10. Getting southern Sudanese children to school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibeso Luswata

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Southern Sudan’s Go to School Initiative,supported by UNICEF, which seeks to get 1.6 millionchildren back in school by the end of 2007, incorporateskey elements of the INEE Minimum Standards for Educationin Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction.

  11. Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the…

  12. Southern Africa - a giant natural photochemical reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Diab, RD

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The analogy of a ‘giant natural photochemical reactor’ is extended in this paper to the central and southern African tropics, where tropospheric ozone enhancement occurs over a vast geographical area from the Congo to South Africa, and over a long...

  13. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  14. Southern Nevada ecosystem stressors [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton K. Pendleton; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems and their associated resources are subject to a number of global and regional/local stressors that are affecting the sustainability of the region. Global stressors include elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated changes in temperature and precipitation patterns and amounts, solar radiation, and nutrient cycles (Smith and...

  15. Southern African species of Mentha L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of Mentha L. occurring in Southern Africa are reviewed and a key is provided to two indigenous and one naturalized species.  M. wissii Launert is reduced to M. longifolia (L. Huds. subsp. wissii (Launert Codd.

  16. Linguistic Landscapes in Southern Carinthia (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinger, Sebastian M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the linguistic landscape (LL) in the southern Austrian province of Carinthia, which is home to an autochthonous Slovene minority. Following several decades of political and legal debate known as the "Ortstafelstreit" ("dispute of topographic signs"), recent legislation has strengthened the status of Slovene…

  17. Uranium reconnaissance survey in southern Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civetta, L.; De Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Orsi, G.; Perrone, V.; Zupetta, A.; Giunta, G.; Ippolito, F.

    1981-09-01

    The southern provinces of Sudan (Equatoria, Bahr el Ghazal and el Buheyrat) have been investigated by geological and geochemical methods for uranium and thorium. Results of radiometric measurements permitted the identification of a target area for follow-up work, favourable to host a roll-type uranium deposit.

  18. Morphology of Southern Hemisphere Riometer Auroral Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    range of frequencies used an inverse -square frequency dependence approximately holds. Morphology of Southern Hemisphere Riometer Auroral Absorption...Tecnológico under Proyecto No 1940934. Annex The percentage probability, QA, that an absorption A dB is exceed, is given as: Where Am is

  19. Faulkner's Southern belle - myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Intihar Klančar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with heroines of William Faulkner's novels Light in August, Absalom, Absalom!, The Sound and the Fury, The Unvanquished, The Town and his short story "A Rose for Emily". The Southern belle features as a recurring character in Faulkner's fiction, her fragility, modesty, weakness yet strength, beauty, sincerity, generous nature, status and her fall from innocence comprise her central characteristics. Confronted with various expectations of Southern society and with the hardships of war, the belle is faced with many obstacles and challenges. Faulkner's heroines face a wide array of problems that prevent them from being and/or remaining a Southern belle. Let us name a few: Lena's inappropriate social status, Joanna's wrong roots, Mrs. Hightower's inability to fulfill her duties as the minister's wife, Ellen's miserable marriage, Judith's sad love life, Rosa's feelings of inferiority and humiliation, Mrs. Compson's failure as a mother, Caddy's weak rebellion against male convention, Drusilla's male characteristics, Linda's unrequited love and Emily's dark secret, to name a few. Through these characters and their destinies Faulkner shows a decaying South whose position has changed considerably over the years. Can the Southern belle save it? Can she save herself?

  20. Marketing University Education: The Southern African Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a…

  1. Field guide to trees of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishan Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The mainland region of Africa is Southern Africa because it is considered to be robust with an estimate of around 1700 tree species that are native and a couple 100 more that are alien, but have become accustomed to the natural environment; invading, penetrating and replacing vegetation.

  2. Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middag, R.; van Slooten, C.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Laan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with th

  3. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from kimbe...... into the reworked Archean North of the Naqssugtoqidian deformation front....

  4. On some birds from southern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1970-01-01

    In the years 1962/64 our museum purchased from Mr. Otto Epping, now of Pittsburgh, U.S.A., a collection of 700 bird-specimens from southern Mexico (mainly from Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, a few specimens from Puebla). As our museum was poorly provided with material from Mexico, this was a very welcome

  5. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria. PMID:20113565

  6. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  7. Marketing University Education: The Southern African Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a…

  8. On some birds from southern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1970-01-01

    In the years 1962/64 our museum purchased from Mr. Otto Epping, now of Pittsburgh, U.S.A., a collection of 700 bird-specimens from southern Mexico (mainly from Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, a few specimens from Puebla). As our museum was poorly provided with material from Mexico, this was a very welcome add

  9. The reporting revolution - the southern endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2009-01-01

    The need for expeditious portrayal of statewide inventory findings is paramount. Demand is intensifying. Yet, to date, relaying data results and analysis through traditional publications has been extremely time consuming. To address this issue, southern forest inventory and analysis (FIA) reporting is in transition. This article discusses the evolution of authorship,...

  10. The reporting revolution—the southern endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Brown

    2009-01-01

    The need for expeditious portrayal of statewide inventory findings is paramount. Demand is intensifying. Yet, to date, relaying data results and analysis through traditional publications has been extremely time consuming. To address this issue, southern forest inventory and analysis (FIA) reporting is in transition. This article discusses the evolution of authorship,...

  11. Economics of southern growth. [7 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liner, E.B.; Lynch, L.K. (eds.)

    1977-01-01

    The book presents both the documentation of Southern economic growth and an examination of the major economic problems. Chapter 1, by Lawrence K. Lynch and E. Evan Brunson, documents Southern growth from 1970 to 1975, compares that growth to growth in the nation, and evaluates the comparative impact of the 1974 to 1975 recession. Chapter 2, by William H. Miernyk, analyzes the structure of the Southern economy in terms of the Clark-Fisher hypothesis. The economic structure of the South has become similar to the nation's; the relative importance of agricultural and energy production in the South will tend to maintain the South's growth advantage. Chapter 3, by Charles F. Haywood, explores the capital needs of the South, and finds that demands for capital will accelerate. Significant inflows of capital from other regions, other nations, and strengthened local sources of capital will be needed. Chapter 4, by Madelyn Lockhart, compares the income distributions and labor markets of the South and the nation, but argues that measures of economic well-being do not properly reflect all factors. Chapter 5, by Russell L. Howard, examines the limitations on area and regional growth imposed by energy prices and availability; he points out that Southern industries are energy-intensive. Chapter 6, by Mancur Olson, proposes a view on why the South is outgrowing the North: that the development of organized interest groups that obtain political and economic power tends to slow the rate of economic growth. Chapter 7, by C. L. Jusenius and L. C. Ledebur, presents comparative data on economic growth and status for the Southern and the Northern tiers of states. Although economic growth in the South has been more rapid in recent years, the economic status of the South still lags the North.

  12. Nymphon stipulum, a new pycnogonid species from Southern California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allan Child, C.

    1990-01-01

    A new species of pycnogonid, Nymphon stipulum, from off the Channel Islands, southern California, in 395 meters, is described and figured. Previous literature on southern California pycnogonids is outlined and the relationships of the new species with other southern California Nymphon species is dis

  13. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  14. Support for the Confederate Battle Flag in the Southern United States: Racism or Southern Pride?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Wright

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Supporters of the Confederate battle flag often argue that their support is driven by pride in the South, not negative racial attitudes. Opponents of the Confederate battle flag often argue that the flag represents racism, and that support for the flag is an expression of racism and an attempt to maintain oppression of Blacks in the Southern United States. We evaluate these two competing views in explaining attitudes toward the Confederate battle flag in the Southern United States through a survey of 526 Southerners. In the aggregate, our latent variable model suggests that White support for the flag is driven by Southern pride, political conservatism, and blatant negative racial attitudes toward Blacks. Using cluster-analysis we were able to distinguish four distinct sub-groups of White Southerners: Cosmopolitans, New Southerners, Traditionalists, and Supremacists. The greatest support for the Confederate battle flag is seen among Traditionalists and Supremacists; however, Traditionalists do not display blatant negative racial attitudes toward Blacks, while Supremacists do. Traditionalists make up the majority of Confederate battle flag supporters in our sample, weakening the claim that supporters of the flag are generally being driven by negative racial attitudes toward Blacks.

  15. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Burton K. Pendleton; Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 - to restore, sustain and enhance southern Nevada’s ecosystems - and Goal 2 - to provide for responsible use of southern Nevada’s lands in a manner that preserves heritage resources and promotes an understanding of human interaction with the...

  16. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada - Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Burton K. Pendleton; Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 - to restore, sustain and enhance southern Nevada’s ecosystems - and Goal 2 - to provide for responsible use of southern Nevada’s lands in a manner that preserves heritage resources and promotes an understanding of human interaction with the...

  17. Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2015-03-01

    Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing.

  18. Incidence of Phenylketonuria in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadollah Habib

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Phenylketonuria is a hereditary, autosomal recessivedisorder caused by deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylaseor its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. The purpose ofthe present study was to evaluate the incidence of this disorderin southern Iran.Methods: All the neonates born between 22/Dec/2004 and7/Sep/2007 were screened and their blood samples were testedby colorimetric and high performance liquid chromatographymethods to obtain a diagnosis of phenylketonuria.Results: Of the screened newborns (87091 females and 88143males 15 female and 13 male neonates were diagnosed definitelyas having phenylketonuria.Conclusion: The incidence of phenylketonuria in girls andboys was 1.7 in 10000 and 1.5 in 10000, respectively (mean:1.6 in 10000 in southern Iran (Fars province.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(2: 137-139.

  19. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dana L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M; Gaul, Linda; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-06-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico.

  20. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  1. Broadband Seismic Studies In Southern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    the granulite terrain, the crust is both thicker (44 1 km deep) and more complicated, with a mid-crustal discontinuity at approximately 25-km depth...the granulite terrain (KOD, Fig. 1) the crust is 43 km thick. Thus, there are significant differences in Moho depth over southern India, but the...Moho there is about 5 km deeper, a result also noted in the Deep Seismic Soundings from the region. To the south of the shield in the granulite terrain

  2. Competitive destination analysis in Southern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Águas, Paulo; Veiga, Célia; Reis, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the competitiveness of the European Union Member States of Southern Europe (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain) as tourist destinations for European Union Member States of Central and Northern Europe (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Ireland, Sweden and the UK). Design/methodology/approach – Application of the market share analysis tool, initially developed by Faulkner, using secondary data from Eurosta...

  3. Aspidonepsis (Asclepiadaceae, a new southern African genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nicholas

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspidonepsis, an endemic southern African genus, is described and compared to the closely allied genus Aspidoglossum. This newly described genus is composed of two subgenera, Aspidonepsis and Unguilobium. consisting of three and two species respectively.  Asclepias diploglossa, A. flava, A. cognata and A. reneensis are transferred to Aspidonepsis. and A. shebae is newly described. All species are discussed, illustrated and a key is given to aid in their identification.

  4. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  5. Intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa is mapped using records from the Pretoria National Herbarium Computerized Information System (PRECIS, For the entire area, over 85% of the quarter degree grid squares have fewer than 100 specimens recorded. Collecting intensities are compared for different countries, biomes and climatic zones. Future field work from the National Herbarium will be concentrated in areas most seriously under-collected.

  6. Intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa is mapped using records from the Pretoria National Herbarium Computerized Information System (PRECIS, For the entire area, over 85% of the quarter degree grid squares have fewer than 100 specimens recorded. Collecting intensities are compared for different countries, biomes and climatic zones. Future field work from the National Herbarium will be concentrated in areas most seriously under-collected.

  7. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  8. Ground-water provinces of southern Rhodesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Philip Eldon; Hindson, L.L.

    1964-01-01

    Ground-water development, utilization, and occurrence in nine ground-water provinces of Southern Rhodesia are summarized in this report. Water obtained from drilled wells for domestic and stock use has played an important part in the social and economic development of Southern Rhodesia from the beginnings of European settlement to the present. Most of the wells obtain water from fractures and weathered zones in crystalline rocks, before recently, there has been an interest in the possibility of obtaining water for irrigation from wells. Studies of the authors indicate that quantities of water sufficient for irrigation can be obtained from alluvial sediments in the S'abi Valley, from Kalahari sands in the western part of the country, are perhaps from aquifers in other areas. The ground-water provinces fall into two groups--those in the crystalline rocks and those in the noncrystalline rocks. Historically, the wells in crystalline rocks, especially the Gold belts province and the Intrusive granites province, have played a major role in supplying water for the needs of man. These provinces, together with two other less important crystalline rock provinces, form the broad arch which constitutes the central core of the country. The noncrystalline rocks overlie and flank the crystalline rocks to the southeast, northwest, and north. The noncrystalline rock provinces, especially the Alluvium-Kalahari province, contain the most productive or potentially productive ground-water reservoirs in Southern Rhodesia and offer promise of supplying water for irrigation and for other purposes.

  9. Cholera outbreak--southern Sudan, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-10

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an acute infectious diarrheal disease that can result in death without appropriate therapy, depending on the severity of the disease. War, poverty, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are major precursors to cholera outbreaks. In 2005, Southern Sudan ended its 22-year civil war with North Sudan; as a result, IDPs and refugees are returning to the south. During April--June 2007, investigators from the Southern Sudan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (SS-FELTP) and CDC investigated a cholera outbreak in the town of Juba, Southern Sudan. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 3,157 persons were diagnosed with suspected cholera during January--June 2007, with 74 deaths resulting from the disease. An environmental investigation revealed suboptimal hygiene practices and a lack of water and sanitation infrastructure in Juba. A case-control study indicated that persons less likely to have cholera were more likely to have consumed hot meals containing meat during the outbreak. Contaminated food or water were not identified as possible sources of the cholera outbreak in Juba. However, this might be attributed to limitations of the study, including small sample size. Cholera can reach epidemic proportions if adequate control measures are not implemented early. Mass media campaigns are important for current and new residents in Juba to understand the importance of proper food handling, clean water, and optimal hygiene practices to prevent the spread of cholera.

  10. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  11. The impact of the Southern Annular Mode on future changes in Southern Hemisphere rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Delage, Francois; Nguyen, Hanh; Min, Seung-Ki; Wheeler, Matthew C.

    2016-07-01

    A robust positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is projected for the end of the 21st century under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario, which results in rainfall decreases in the midlatitudes and increases in the high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We find that this SAM trend also increases rainfall over the SH subtropics in austral summer but not in winter, leading to a pronounced wintertime poleward expansion of the subtropical dry zone. These dynamically driven rainfall changes by the SAM appear to oppose the thermodynamically driven projected rainfall changes in the SH subtropics and midlatitudes, whereas the two components reinforce each other in the high latitudes. However, we show that most climate models fall short in capturing the observed SAM component driven by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and associated rainfall in the austral warm seasons, which limits our confidence in quantifying the contribution of the SAM to projected rainfall changes.

  12. Probabilistic Drought Forecasting in Southern Taiwan Using El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shien-Tsung Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a probabilistic drought forecasting model to forecast meteorological drought in Southern Taiwan using the El Niño-SouthernNiño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO index. Meteorological drought is defined by the standardized precipitation index (SPI, and the ENSO index is El NiñoNiño sea surface temperature (SST. Two probabilistic forecasting model architectures were constructed based on the transition probabilities from El NiñoNiño SSTs to SPIs. Both model architectures forecast a one-month-ahead probability distribution for meteorological drought using different combinations of El NiñoNiño SST variables. Forecasting results showed the robustness of the probabilistic drought forecasting models. In addition, this study discussed the selection of El NiñoNiño SST variables used in the probabilistic drought forecasting model, and found that models with a single SST input outperformed those with multiple SST inputs.

  13. Blame it on Southern, but it's a western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klionsky, Daniel J

    2017-01-02

    Edwin M. Southern is a professor emeritus at the University of Oxford. He is perhaps best known for development of the "Southern blot" (Dr. Southern was at the University of Edinburgh when he wrote his landmark paper). The Southern blot provided a scientific breakthrough by allowing scientists to detect a particular DNA sequence without first purifying it from the rest of the genome; the basic method involves the transfer of the DNA to a membrane, followed by detection with a specific probe. Although few people perform Southern blots as originally carried out by Southern, due in part to the more recent technique of the polymerase chain reaction, the basic concept continues to play an important role in molecular biology.

  14. Late-glacial of southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, C. J.

    Overall trends in late-glacial paleoenvironments of southern South America are interpretable from the pollen stratigraphy of radiocarbon dated sections of mires in Tierra del Fuego (55°S), the Chilotan archipelago (42-43°S), and the Chilean Lake District (39-41°S). In Tierra del Fuego, southern beech ( Nothofagus) and shrub and herb taxa (Gramineae, Empetrum, Acaena, Gunnera, Compositae and Cyperaceae) serve as indicators of the changing climate; in the Chilotan archipelago and in the Chilean Lake District, southern beech and other trees (species of Myrtaceae, Podocarpus, Prumnopitys, Pseudopanax and Weinmannia) suffice as indices of climatic change. Pollen records from each of these regions, although in need of greater dating control, indicate climatic sequences that are broadly similar. The records, however, are not regionally consistent in all aspects and differ in their indicator value with the implication of fossil beetle evidence. Attempts at correlation can be unsatisfactory at times and can stem inter alia from the different ecophysiological responses of both plants and beetles to environmental pressures. These differences, which affect the timing of reproduction and migration, may result in the variable occurrence of different species in the records. The broad implication of the pollen data is that following a glacial readvance culminating at about 15,000-14,500 BP, late-glacial climate was generally warmer during intervals before 13,000 and between 12,000 and 11,000 BP, and was cooler between 13,000 and 12,000 and from 11,000 to 10,000 BP.

  15. The Future of Southern Ocean Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the Southern Ocean's role in global climate from seasonal to millennial timescales is evolving, with rapidly increasing recognition of the centrality of the Southern Ocean to Earth's heat, carbon, nutrient, and freshwater budgets, and of the impact of interactions between the ocean and the major ice shelves and grounded ice sheets of Antarctica, which have been decreasing in mass. Observations in this data-sparse and logistically remote region have never been so important, and many nations are rising to the challenge of supporting both experiments and long-term sustained observations. As illustrated in the figure from Meredith et al. (Current Op. Env. Sustain. 2013), autonomous in situ technologies are at the fore because of the difficulty and expense of sending ships year-round and because the crucial satellite remote sensing must be accompanied by in situ observations, including beneath sea ice and ice shelves. The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) has grown out of this recognized need for coordinated observations from the Antarctic coastline northward to the subtropics, from the bottom water production regions in coastal polynyas over the continental shelves, to the regions of interaction of warm ocean waters with Antarctic ice shelves, beneath the vast seasonal sea ice region, and in the hot spots of air-sea fluxes and cross-Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) mixing where the ACC interacts with topography and continental boundaries. The future includes international coordination and collaboration and strengthening of new and existing technologies, which include satellite observing, ice-enabled profiling floats, profiling from marine mammals, moored measurements in many strategic locations, glider and other autonomous operations in all regions, and drilling through floating ice shelves to measure the ocean waters below. Improved and consistent weather observations around the Antarctic coastlines will improve forecasting and reanalysis. Ice

  16. Holocene glacial fluctuations in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynhout, S.; Sagredo, E. A.; Kaplan, M. R.; Aravena, J. C.; Martini, M. A.; Strelin, J. A.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the timing and magnitude of former glacier fluctuations is critical to decipher long-term climatic trends and to unravel both natural cycles and human impact on the current glacial behavior. Despite more than seven decades of research efforts, a unifying model of Holocene glacial fluctuations in Southern South America remains elusive. Here, we present the state-of-the-art regarding the timing of Holocene glacial fluctuation in southern Patagonia-Tierra del Fuego, with a focus on a new generation of high-resolution radiocarbon and 10Be surface exposure dating chronologies. Recently acquired evidence suggest that after receding from advanced Late Glacial positions, Patagonian glaciers were for the most part close to, or even behind, present ice margins during the Early Holocene. On the other hand, emerging chronologies indicate that in some areas there were extensive expansions (century scale?) that punctuated the warm interval. Subsequently, we have evidence of multiple millennial timescale glacial advances starting in the middle Holocene. Several glacial maxima are defined by moraines and other landforms from 7000 years ago to the 19th century, with a gap sometime between 4,500 and 2,500 years ago. The last set of advances began around 800-600 years ago. Although glacial activity is documented in Patagonia at the same time as the European Little Ice Age, the extent of these glacial events are less prominent than those of the mid-Holocene. The causes that may explain these glacial fluctuations remain elusive. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to better define the timing and extent of Holocene glaciations in southern South America, and to establish the basis to test competing hypothesis of regional Holocene climate variability.

  17. The Herpetology of the Southern Kalahari domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D Haacke

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The herpetofauna of the southern Kalahari has mixed affinities, as this area lies on a rainfall gradient in a critical area where a transition between the arid south-west and the moister north-east takes place. As the variation in substrate type is relatively limited, the effect of the rainfall gradient appears to influence and determine the range limits of many taxa in both directions, resulting in an area in which of 55 recorded reptiles, 11 western taxa overlap or form a parapatric zone with 25 eastern taxa, while the remaining taxa are endemic or wideranging.

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: southern cassowary [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available southern cassowary Casuarius casuarius Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Casuarius_casuarius_L.png Casuarius_cas...uarius_NL.png Casuarius_casuarius_S.png Casuarius_casuarius_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casuarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+cas...uarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casu...arius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casuarius&t=NS ...

  19. The genus Waltheria in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Verdoorn

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Waltheria indica L., the only species of Waltheria represented in southern Africa, is revised. This species, which occurs throughout the tropics and substropics of the world, is found abundantly in the northern Cape, Swaziland, northern Natal, Transvaal and northwards through South West Africa/Namibia and Botswana. Thoughout its wide distribution the species is uniform. A scrutiny o f herbarium specimens revealed that what appeared as a distinct species or subspecies was without doubt an abnormality, probably caused by insect injury.

  20. Ceilometer measurements in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Adrian; Alexander, Simon; French, John; Harvey, Mike; Ichoja, Andrew; Klekociuk, Andrew; Plank, Graeme; Katurji, Marwan

    2016-04-01

    Current climate models display a consistent deficit of reflected shortwave radiation over the Southern Ocean which is mainly due to the poor representation of clouds. Recent work has also shown that reanalysis also perform poorly relative to satellite observations in terms of cloud fraction. In particular, satellite observations have shown that low-level clouds (with tops below 3 km) are ubiquitous over the Southern Ocean. But, most satellite instruments, even the current generation of active satellite instruments, have difficulties in sampling low level clouds. As part of the New Zealand Deep South challenge project focussed on improving the representation of clouds in the Southern Ocean, we have begun to deploy autonomous instruments on 'ships of opportunity'. This study discusses measurements from a Väisälä CL51 laser ceilometer and ancillary instruments on the first two research voyages in the Southern Ocean and initial results. The route of the first voyage covers a return trip from Wellington (New Zealand) to Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica) onboard the R/V Tangaroa and occurred in January to mid-February 2015. The second deployment is onboard the Aurora Australis Australian Antarctic Division supply ship and began in October 2015 and is planned to finish at Macquarie Island in March 2016. The sampling provided by the ships route allows the ceilometer measurements of the height of the cloud base in a region where limited data apart from, potentially biased, satellite measurements of low-level cloud exist. Analysis of the boundary layer height derived from the ceilometer is also presented. The climatological structure derived from the ceilometer measurements is first detailed. We then compare these measurements with satellite and ground-based observations. We then examine variations in these measurements relative to their meteorological context. Details of plans for future voyages are also detailed. We will also present a preliminary analysis of a case study of

  1. Anaemia during pregnancy in southern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, T; Armstrong Schellenberg, J R M; Edgar, T; Ronsmans, C; Nathan, R; Abdulla, S; Mukasa, O; Urassa, H; Lengeler, C

    2002-07-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with maternal morbidity and mortality and is a risk factor for low birth-weight. Of 507 pregnant women recruited in a community, cross-sectional study in southern Tanzania, 11% were severely anaemic (food taboos in the study area principally restrict the consumption of fish and meat. Effective anti-malaria and iron-supplementation interventions are available but are not currently in place; improvements in the mechanisms for the delivery of such interventions are urgently required. Additionally, opportunities for contacting the target groups beyond the clinic environment need to be developed.

  2. Epidemiology of cerebral palsy in Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Dunkhase-Heinl, Ulrike; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and neuroimaging findings of cerebral palsy (CP) in a cohort of children born in Southern Denmark. Risk factors were analysed and aetiology considered. METHODS: A population-based cohort study covering 17...... prevention of CP is possible if the numbers of preterm births and multiple pregnancies can be reduced. FUNDING: The Danish Cerebral Palsy Follow-up Programme is supported by the foundation "Ludvig og Sara Elsass Fond". TRIAL REGISTRATION: 2008-58-0034....

  3. Epidemiology of cerebral palsy in Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Dunkhase-Heinl, Ulrike; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and neuroimaging findings of cerebral palsy (CP) in a cohort of children born in Southern Denmark. Risk factors were analysed and aetiology considered. METHODS: A population-based cohort study covering 17...... prevention of CP is possible if the numbers of preterm births and multiple pregnancies can be reduced. FUNDING: The Danish Cerebral Palsy Follow-up Programme is supported by the foundation "Ludvig og Sara Elsass Fond". TRIAL REGISTRATION: 2008-58-0034....

  4. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Leporatti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species, Marche (274 and Abruzzo (203. The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised. Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several

  5. Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komiyama Noboru H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination in gene targeting experiments. The technique employs a labeled DNA probe to detect a specific DNA sequence in a complex DNA sample that has been separated by restriction-digest and gel electrophoresis. Critically for the technique to succeed the probe must be unique to the target locus so as not to cross-hybridize to other endogenous DNA within the sample. Investigators routinely employ a manual approach to probe design. A genome browser is used to extract DNA sequence from the locus of interest, which is searched against the target genome using a BLAST-like tool. Ideally a single perfect match is obtained to the target, with little cross-reactivity caused by homologous DNA sequence present in the genome and/or repetitive and low-complexity elements in the candidate probe. This is a labor intensive process often requiring several attempts to find a suitable probe for laboratory testing. Results We have written an informatic pipeline to automatically design genomic Sothern blot probes that specifically attempts to optimize the resultant probe, employing a brute-force strategy of generating many candidate probes of acceptable length in the user-specified design window, searching all against the target genome, then scoring and ranking the candidates by uniqueness and repetitive DNA element content. Using these in silico measures we can automatically design probes that we predict to perform as well, or better, than our previous manual designs, while considerably reducing design time. We went on to

  6. Northern and Southern RE Groups Ended Resultlessly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In September 2002, "Organizing of National Rare EarthEnterprises Group" which was delivered by original NationalEconomy & Trade Committee and original National PlanningCommittee, Ministry of Finance P.R.C, Ministry of Land &Resource P.R.C. and Ministry of Foreign Economy & Trade,was approved by the State Council of P.R.C. to organizeSouthern and Northern Rare Earth Groups. On October 30,2002, China Northern RE Group Co., Ltd Preparation Teamheld the foundation convention in Baotou, which drew thecurtain of ...

  7. Study on the Economic Differences between Northern and Southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juncheng; DONG

    2014-01-01

    There are great regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang and the expansion of regional economic differences jeopardize social development and social stability,resulting in more serious polarization between the rich and the poor in northern and southern Xinjiang,thereby hampering further improvement of the economic efficiency in Xinjiang. Using factor analysis,this article carries out comprehensive analysis of regional economic differences in Xinjiang,derives the reasons for regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang,and proposes recommendations for narrowing the regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang.

  8. Tracing pastoralist migrations to southern Africa with lactase persistence alleles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macholdt, Enrico; Lede, Vera; Barbieri, Chiara; Mpoloka, Sununguko W; Chen, Hua; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Although southern African Khoisan populations are often assumed to have remained largely isolated during prehistory, there is growing evidence for a migration of pastoralists from eastern Africa some...

  9. Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. F.; Richards, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Both observations and high resolution numerical models show that the Southern Ocean circumpolar flow is concentrated in a large number (approximately 8 to 12) of narrow filamentary jets. It is shown here that coherent jets exhibit a range of low frequency variability, on time scales of months to years, that can lead to displacement and to intermittent formation and dissipation of jets. Using output from an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model in local regions near topographic features, the impact of energy exchange between eddy and mean flow components on jet persistence and variability is examined. A novel approach that uses a time-dependent definition of the mean flow provides a clearer picture of eddy-mean flow interactions in regions with spatially and temporally varying flow structure. The dynamics are largely consistent with those in idealized quasi-geostrophic models, including topographically-organized and surface-enhanced Reynolds stress forcing of the mean flow. Jets form during periods of enhanced eddy activity, but may persist long after the eddy activity has decayed. Similarly, jets may evolve in a downstream sense, with jet formation localized near topography and undergoing modification in response to changing bathymetry. The evolution of both temperature and potential vorticity is used to show that the low-frequency variability of the jets impacts water mass structure and tracer transport. This study highlights various examples of Southern Ocean dynamics that will prove difficult to capture through existing parameterizations in coarser climate models.

  10. Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y L; Wang, B J; Yeh, K C; Wang, J C; Kao, H H; Wang, M T; Shih, H C; Chen, C J

    1999-01-01

    Construction workers are known to have occupational dermatoses. The prevalence of such dermatoses was unknown in Taiwanese construction workers. The objective of this study was to determine the work exposure, prevalence of skin manifestations, and sensitivity to common contact allergens in cement workers of southern Taiwan. A total of 1147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high % of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. A high % of dermatitis was noted in the 166 workers examined, which correlated with reported skin problems. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. Sensitivity to chromate or cobalt was associated with reported skin problems, or dorsal hand dermatitis on examination. These workers' dermatitis was under-diagnosed and inadequately managed. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Protective measures, work practice, and physician education should be improved to prevent or manage such problems.

  11. SNAKE VENOM POISONING IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Findlay E.

    1960-01-01

    The annual incidence of rattlesnake bite in Southern California is approximately 1 per 75,000 population. The case fatality rate is 1.5 per cent. The snakes implicated in the greatest number of injuries are the southern Pacific rattlesnake, the red diamond rattlesnake and the sidewinder. Rattlesnake venom produces deleterious changes in the blood cells, defects in blood coagulation, injury to the intimal linings of vessels, damage to the heart muscle, alterations in the respiratory cycle and, to a lesser extent, changes in neuromuscular conduction. The most frequently observed symptoms and signs following ophidiasis in this area are swelling and edema, pain, ecchymosis, swelling of the regional lymph nodes, weakness, sweating, increased body temperature, faintness, and hemorrhagic vesiculations. First aid treatment consists of immobilization of the affected part, application of a constriction band, incision and suction with subsequent local application of ice packs. Treatment in hospital consists of administration of antivenin, antitetanus agent and antibiotic. Transfusions, oxygen and a corticosteroid may be indicated in some cases. PMID:13744840

  12. Detector Considerations for a HAWC Southern Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    DuVernois, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory in central Mexico is currently the world's only synoptic survey instrument for gamma rays above 1 TeV. Because there is significant interest in covering the full TeV sky with a survey instrument, we have examined options for a Southern Hemisphere extension to HAWC. In addition to providing all-sky coverage of TeV sources, a southern site could complement existing surveys of the densest part of the Galactic Plane, provide continuous monitoring of Galactic and extragalactic transient sources in both Hemispheres, and simplify the analysis of spatially extended signals such as diffuse gamma rays and the TeV cosmic-ray anisotropy. To take advantage of the air-shower physics and lower the energy threshold of the experiment as much as possible, a high altitude site above 5000 m a.s.l (vs. 4100 m a.s.l. at the current site in Mexico) has been specified. To facilitate efficient detector construction at such altitudes, the detector tanks would be assembled at lower a...

  13. Anthropocene Survival of Southern New England's Salt ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern New England, salt marshes are exceptionally vulnerable to the impacts of accelerated sea level rise. Regional rates of sea level rise have been as much as 50 % greater than the global average over past decades, a more than fourfold increase over late Holocene background values. In addition, coastal development blocks many potential marsh migration routes, and compensatory mechanisms relying on positive feedbacks between inundation and sediment deposition are insufficient to counter inundation increases in extreme low-turbidity tidal waters. Accordingly, multiple lines of evidence suggest that marsh submergence is occurring in southern New England. A combination of monitoring data, field re-surveys, radiometric dating, and analysis of peat composition have established that, beginning in the early and mid-twentieth century, the dominant low-marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, has encroached upward in tidal marshes, and typical high-marsh plants, including Juncus gerardii and Spartina patens, have declined, providing strong evidence that vegetation changes are being driven, at least in part, by higher water levels. Additionally, aerial and satellite imagery show shoreline retreat, widening and headward extension of channels, and new and expanded interior depressions. Papers in this special section highlight changes in marsh-building processes, patterns of vegetation loss, and shifts in species composition. The final papers turn to strategies for minimiz

  14. Odonata (Insecta diversity of southern Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana M. Rathod

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of the Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies was studied in seven districts of southern area of Gujarat State in India during 2014 to 2015.  A total of 55 species belonging to two suborders and 37 genera under eight families were recorded.  A total of 18 species of Zygoptera (damselflies and 37 species of Anisoptera (dragonflies were recorded.  Dang and Navsari districts were surveyed intensively and a maximum of 47 and 35 species were recorded respectively, whereas the districts that were surveyed less intensively, i.e., Bharuch (26, Valsad (21, Surat (29, Narmada (25 and Tapi (27 had comparatively low species richness.  Thirty-two species are being reported for the first time from southern Gujarat, raising the total list of odonates to 60.  Fifteen species namely, Lestes elatus Hagen in Selys, 1862; Elattoneura nigerrima (Laidlaw, 1917; Dysphaea ethela Fraser, 1924; Paracercion malayanum (Selys, 1876; Pseudagrion spencei Fraser, 1922; Burmagomphus laidlawi- Fraser, 1924; Cyclogomphus ypsilon Selys, 1854; Microgomphus torquatus (Selys, 1854; Onychogomphus acinaces (Laidlaw, 1922; Hylaeothemis indica Fraser, 1946; Lathrecista asiatica (Fabricius, 1798; Rhodothemis rufa (Rambur, 1842; Tramea limbata (Desjardins, 1832; Trithemis kirbyi Selys, 1891 and Zyxomma petiolatum Rambur, 1842 are recorded for the first time from Gujarat State raising the number of odonates of Gujarat State to 80 species.  

  15. Southern Criminology: Guest Editors’' Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Hogg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a commodity and knowledge production does not occur in a geo-political vacuum. With respect to this, it has to be argued that neo-imperialism involves economic and knowledge flows across continuous space, which is transnational and distinct from the old forms of colonialism which were based on country-to-country occupation. In the context of contemporary geo-politics, these conditions render territorial terrain as less important than discursive terrain (Lo 2011. So, how is global knowledge in the social sciences (and more specifically in criminology produced and shared? Where does this production take place? Who are the producers? Whose experiences and whose voices are reflected in dominant academic discourses? How is knowledge disseminated and who gets access to it? These are some of the questions that the project of southern criminology seeks to tackle. To access the full text of the introductory article to this special issue on southern criminology, download the accompanying PDF file.

  16. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  17. Dynamics of the southern California current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lorenzo, Emanuele

    The dynamics of seasonal to long-term variability of the Southern California Current System (SCCS) is studied using a four dimensional space-time analysis of the 52 year (1949--2000) California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) hydrography combined with a sensitivity analysis of an eddy permitting primitive equation ocean model under various forcing scenarios. The dynamics of the seasonal cycle in the SCCS can be summarized as follows. In spring upwelling favorable winds force an upward tilt of the isopycnals along the coast (equatorward flow). Quasi-linear Rossby waves are excited by the ocean adjustment to the isopycnal displacement. In summer as these waves propagate offshore poleward flow develops at the coast and the Southern California Eddy (SCE) reaches its seasonal maxima. Positive wind stress curl in the Southern California Bight is important in maintaining poleward flow and locally reinforcing the SCE with an additional upward displacement of isopycnals through Ekman pumping. At the end of summer and throughout the fall instability processes within the SCE are a generating mechanism for mesoscale eddies, which fully develop in the offshore waters during winter. On decadal timescales a warming trend in temperature (1 C) and a deepening trend in the depth of the mean thermocline (20 m) between 1950 and 1998 are found to be primarily forced by large-scale decadal fluctuations in surface heat fluxes combined with horizontal advection by the mean currents. After 1998 the surface heat fluxes suggest the beginning of a period of cooling, which is consistent with colder observed ocean temperatures. The temporal and spatial distribution of the warming is coherent over the entire northeast Pacific Ocean. Salinity changes are decoupled from temperature and uncorrelated with indices of large-scale oceanic variability. Temporal modulation of southward horizontal advection by the California Current is the primary mechanism controlling local

  18. Evaluation of network RTK in southern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Amir

    Network Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) has become popular in the past decade as an efficient method of precise, real-time positioning. Its relatively low cost and ease-of-use makes it a good candidate to replace static relative Global Positioning System (GPS) in, e.g., land surveying. A lack of previous studies aroused the interest of the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) to request York University to complete a comprehensive study of the performance of network RTK in southern Ontario and whether it is a suitable method for MTO control surveying. Extensive fieldwork campaigns in the winter of 2010 and summer of 2011 were carried out and ˜300 hours of static and ˜50 hours of kinematic network RTK data were collected from three different service providers. A set of metrics were defined to characterize the performance of network RTK: availability, time-to-first-fix, precision, accuracy, solution integrity and moving average filtering. The data were used to characterize the horizontal performance of network RTK services and the results along with a set of guidelines and specifications were provided (Saeidi et al., 2011; Bisnath et al., 2012). This thesis presents the horizontal network RTK performance evaluation, as well as the vertical and kinematic performance. The aforementioned metrics are used to evaluate the quality of network RTK in southern Ontario, and to compare to similar services available in other locations. The result have revealed expected ˜2-3 cm (95%) precision for the horizontal and vertical components; however, large horizontal and vertical biases were observed, which can be as high as 4 cm. The solution integrity has shown that typically, 3σ solution uncertainties are larger than the actual errors, unless large biases exist. Moving average filtering has confirmed that due to large outliers and spikes in the solutions, 1 second observation periods are not sufficient to provide a precise solution; larger observation windows should be used, e

  19. Exploration Breakthrough in Southern Margin of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Zhulin; Zheng Jiandong

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Hutubi structure, located in the southern margin of Junggar Basin, is 60 km norrthwest of Urumqi and 20 km northwest of Changji (Fig. l). The Hu-2 well drilled in the Hutubi structure has gained high-yield gas flow,significant exploration breakthrough in the southern margin of Junggar Basin since the 1950s.

  20. Evolution of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwers, L.; Pruyt, E.; Hens, L.; Brans, J.p.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics model to study the spread of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. The HIV/AIDS model includes important feedback mechanisms of the spread of HIV/AIDS, and partly explains the dynamics of the epidemic in a representative Southern African country. The HIV/AIDS model indic

  1. Environmental Education Policy Processes in the Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategies, action plans and other policy processes in southern Africa.This was done .... The evolution of environmental education in southern Africa can be linked to developments both within and ..... As outlined above, the audit revealed that more attention has been paid historically to the ..... PROTECTION_ACT.pdf. Stiles ...

  2. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Hylton Keller; Lingtian Xie; David B. Buchwalter; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Theodore R Simons

    2014-01-01

    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope ä 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46...

  3. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7

  4. The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wu; Martinón-Torres, María; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Tong, Hao-Wen; Pei, Shu-Wen; Sier, Mark Jan; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Li, Yi-Yuan; Yang, Xiong-Xin; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Wu, Xiu-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hominin record from southern Asia for the early Late Pleistocene epoch is scarce. Well-dated and well-preserved fossils older than ∼45,000 years that can be unequivocally attributed to Homo sapiens are lacking. Here we present evidence from the newly excavated Fuyan Cave in Daoxian (southern Chi

  5. Evolution of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwers, L.; Pruyt, E.; Hens, L.; Brans, J.p.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics model to study the spread of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. The HIV/AIDS model includes important feedback mechanisms of the spread of HIV/AIDS, and partly explains the dynamics of the epidemic in a representative Southern African country. The HIV/AIDS model indic

  6. Southern Research Station Global Change Research Strategy 2011-2019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; Zoe Hoyle; Stevin Westcott; Emrys Treasure

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the goals of the Research and Development agenda of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Southern Research Station (SRS) provides the information and technology needed to develop best management practices for the forest lands of the Southern United States, where science-guided actions are needed to sustain ecosystem health,...

  7. Proceedings of the 23rd Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Weir; Alice V. Hatcher; [Compilers

    1995-01-01

    The 23rd Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference was held at the Holiday Inn SunSpree Resort in Asheville, North Carolina. The Conference was sponsored by the Southern Forest Tree Improvement Committee and hosted by the N. C. State University-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program. A total of 37 presentations, three invited and 34 voluntary, were given....

  8. The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wu; Martinón-Torres, María; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Tong, Hao-Wen; Pei, Shu-Wen; Sier, Mark Jan; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Li, Yi-Yuan; Yang, Xiong-Xin; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Wu, Xiu-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hominin record from southern Asia for the early Late Pleistocene epoch is scarce. Well-dated and well-preserved fossils older than ∼45,000 years that can be unequivocally attributed to Homo sapiens are lacking. Here we present evidence from the newly excavated Fuyan Cave in Daoxian (southern

  9. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7 Hesperiidae

  10. Prevalence of Asthma in Southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryum Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAsthma is exaggerated response of immune system which is a leading cause of death in the third world. Main causes of asthma are allergy, smoking, drugs like NSAID (Aspirin and family history. Objective of study was to check the prevalence of asthma in different age groups and its impact on socioeconomical behaviors of the peoples of southern Punjab, by developing a questionnaire. Incidence of asthmatic attack in the age group of 20 to 60 years was more than in age group of 20 years, furthermore the incidence was found to be more common in females as compare to males. The smokers were at more risk to develop the disease as compared to the nonsmokers.

  11. Southern marl prairies conceptual ecological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S.M.; Loftus, W.F.; Gaiser, E.E.; Huffman, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    About 190,000 ha of higher-elevation marl prairies flank either side of Shark River Slough in the southern Everglades. Water levels typically drop below the ground surface each year in this landscape. Consequently, peat soil accretion is inhibited, and substrates consist either of calcitic marl produced by algal periphyton mats or exposed limestone bedrock. The southern marl prairies support complex mosaics of wet prairie, sawgrass sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense), tree islands, and tropical hammock communities and a high diversity of plant species. However, relatively short hydroperiods and annual dry downs provide stressful conditions for aquatic fauna, affecting survival in the dry season when surface water is absent. Here, we present a conceptual ecological model developed for this landscape through scientific concensus, use of empirical data, and modeling. The two major societal drivers affecting the southern marl prairies are water management practices and agricultural and urban development. These drivers lead to five groups of ecosystem stressors: loss of spatial extent and connectivity, shortened hydroperiod and increased drought severity, extended hydroperiod and drying pattern reversals, introduction and spread of non-native trees, and introduction and spread of non-native fishes. Major ecological attributes include periphyton mats, plant species diversity and community mosaic, Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), marsh fishes and associated aquatic fauna prey base, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and wading bird early dry season foraging. Water management and development are hypothesized to have a negative effect on the ecological attributes of the southern marl prairies in the following ways. Periphyton mats have decreased in cover in areas where hydroperiod has been significantly reduced and changed in community composition due to inverse responses to increased nutrient availability. Plant species diversity and

  12. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  13. The Southern Cone Initiative against Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, C J; Dias, J C

    1999-01-01

    Chagas disease (also known as American trypanosomiasis) is now ranked as the most serious parasitic disease of the Americas, with an economic impact far outranking the combined effects of other parasitic diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Although the chronic infection remains virtually incurable, transmission can be halted by eliminating the domestic insect vectors and screening blood donors to avoid transfusional transmission. In line with this strategy, governments of the six Southern Cone countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay) launched in 1991 an ambitious initiative to control Chagas disease through elimination of the main vector, Triatoma infestans, and large-scale screening of blood donors. Now at its mid-point, the programme has achieved remarkable success, with transmission halted over vast areas of the previously endemic regions. Well over 2 million rural houses have been sprayed to eliminate T. infestans, and the programme has already shown significant economic rates of return in addition to the medical and social benefits.

  14. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here......, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water----of the central South Pacific (32.5 °S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m3. The 239Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20°S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the 239Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic...... surface waters (30°S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The 239Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although 239Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One...

  15. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  16. Thickness diffusivity in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Carsten

    2006-06-01

    Thickness diffusivity ($\\kappa$) according to the Gent and McWilliams parameterisation which accounts for eddy-driven advection in the ocean, is estimated using output from an eddy-resolving model of the Southern Ocean. A physically meaningful definition of rotational eddy fluxes leads almost everywhere to positive $\\kappa$. Zonally averaged near surface values of $\\kappa$ remain smaller than 200 m2/s poleward of the polar front, increases between 60-45°S to about 600 m2/s and peak between 45-35° S at almost 3000 m2/s. $\\kappa$ stays high in the upper 500 m but decreases with depth and is essentially zero below 2500 m. In addition to the thickness diffusion ($\\kappa$) there is eddy-induced eastward (westward) advection of isopycnal thickness at the poleward (equatorward) flank of the ACC pointing toward strong anisotropic lateral mixing.

  17. Solvent Extraction Developments in Southern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest solvent-extraction plant in the world at the time, the Nchanga Copper Operation, was in Zambia. The first commercial process using solvent extraction for the refining of the platinum-group metals was in South Africa. More recently, the Southern African region has seen the implementation of solvent extraction for other base metals, precious metals, and specialty metals. These include the world firsts of primary production of zinc at Skorpion Zinc in Namibia and the large-scale refining of gold by Harmony Gold in South Africa. Several other flowsheets that use solvent-extraction technology are currently under commissioning, development, or feasibility study for implementation in this part of the world, including those for the recovery of copper, cobalt, nickel, tantalum, and niobium.

  18. Probabilistic Drought Forecasting in Southern Taiwan Using El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shien-Tsung Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a probabilistic drought forecasting model to forecast meteorological drought in Southern Taiwan using the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO index. Meteorological drought is defined by the standardized precipitation index (SPI, and the ENSO index is El Niño sea surface temperature (SST. Two probabilistic forecasting model architectures were constructed based on the transition probabilities from El Niño SSTs to SPIs. Both model architectures forecast a one-month-ahead probability distribution for meteorological drought using different combinations of El Niño SST variables. Forecasting results showed the robustness of the probabilistic drought forecasting models. In addition, this study discussed the selection of El Niño SST variables used in the probabilistic drought forecasting model, and found that models with a single SST input outperformed those with multiple SST inputs.

  19. The Southern Argentine Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janches, Diego

    2014-11-01

    The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) is a new generation system deployed in Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (53 S) in May 2008. SAAMER transmits 10 times more power than regular meteor radars, and uses a newly developed transmitting array, which focuses power upward instead of the traditional single-antenna-all-sky configuration. The system is configured such that the transmitter array can also be utilized as a receiver. The new design greatly increases the sensitivity of the radar enabling the detection of large number of particles at low zenith angles. The more concentrated transmitted power enables additional meteor studies besides those typical of these systems based on the detection of specular reflections, such as routine detections of head echoes and non-specular trails, previously only possible with High Power and Large Aperture radars. In August 2010, SAAMER was upgraded to a system capable to determine meteoroid orbital parameters. This was achieved by adding two remote receiving stations approximately 10 km away from the main site in near perpendicular directions. The upgrade significantly expands the science that is achieved with this new radar enabling us to study the orbital properties of the interplanetary dust environment. Because of the unique geographical location, SAAMER allows for additional inter-hemispheric comparison with measurements from Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar, which is geographically conjugate. Initial surveys show, for example, that SAAMER observes a very strong contribution of the South Toroidal Sporadic meteor source, of which limited observational data is available. In addition, SAAMER offers similar unique capabilities for meteor showers and streams studies given the range of ecliptic latitudes that the system enables detailed study of showers at high southern latitudes (e.g July Phoenicids or Puppids complex). Finally, SAAMER is ideal for the deployment of complementary instrumentation in both, permanent

  20. Online Geophysical Databases for the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A.; O'Hara, S.; Arko, R.; Carbotte, S.; Ryan, W.; Melkonian, A.; Ferrini, V.; Weissel, R.; Bonczkowski, J.

    2007-12-01

    With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, the Antarctic Multibeam Bathymetry Synthesis (AMBS, http://www.marine-geo.org/antarctic/) is an integrated web-accessible bathymetry and geophysical database for the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, serving data from the US research vessels Nathaniel B. Palmer and Laurence M. Gould, amongst others. Interdisciplinary polar data can be downloaded for free through the Data Link web browser interface (http://www.marine-geo.org/link/) which enables keyword searches by data and instrument type, geographical bounds, scientist, expedition name and dates. The free, platform-independent data visualization tool GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org/) supports dynamic exploration of a wide range of data sets on a Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) synthesis, including the polar regions, allowing users to generate custom grids and maps and import their own data sets and grids. A specialised polar stereographic map projection incorporating multibeam swath bathymetry and the BEDMAP under-ice seafloor topography is available for the Southern Ocean. The GMRT global digital elevation model is served freely as a Web Map Service layer and is available for viewing with OGC-compliant clients including Google Earth (http://www.marine-geo.org/Data4GoogleEarth.html). To promote interoperability and data sharing, we are working with research partners including the Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project and the National Geophysical Data Center to develop standardised metadata and best practices that comply with existing FGDC and ISO standards. We are also taking on the US Antarctic Data Coordination Center function, assisting NSF-funded investigators in documenting and archiving their data in accordance with the IPY Data Policy.

  1. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, M E; Resa, A J; Barclay, C M; Calanni, L; Samengo, L; Martinez, L; Padula, P J; Pini, N; Lasala, M B; Elsner, B; Enria, D A

    2000-01-01

    Andes virus was identified in 1995 as the etiologic agent of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) in Southern Argentina. We describe herein the main clinical characteristics of 25 HPS confirmed cases acquired in this area between 1993 and September 1999. The mean age was 34 years (range 11-70), with 72% males. Clinical characteristics were similar to those previously reported for Sin Nombre virus (SNV) cases. However, in this group of patients we also observed conjuntival injection in 10/25 (42%), facial flushing in 8/25 (33%), pharyngeal congestion in 7/25 (29%) and petechiae in 3/25 (12%). On the other hand, BUN was increased in 83% of cases (mean 0.77 g/l range 0.31-2.01). Mean serum creatinine concentration was 26.8 mg/l (range: 8.1-110 mg/l) with serum creatinine being higher than 20 mg/l in 8/15 patients (53%). Urinalysis was abnormal in 12/12 cases and was characterized by presence of proteins, red blood cells and granular casts. Aminotransferases were increased in 90% of cases with levels 5-10 times over normal values in 50% of cases. Serum creatine kinase concentration was elevated in 11/14 cases. Two patients required hemodialysis. Case fatality rate was 44% (11/25) and 10 of these cases died among the first 10 days of illness. Mononuclear myocarditis was observed in two cases, a finding that has not been reported for SNV cases. During the 1996 HPS outbreak in Southern Argentina due to Andes virus, there were epidemiological and molecular evidences of person-to-person transmission, a feature not previously shown for other members of the hantavirus genus. These data would also be indicative of some distinctive clinical characteristics of HPS caused by Andes virus, with more frequent renal involvement than in SNV cases.

  2. SRAO: the first southern robotic AO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Ziegler, Carl; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2016-08-01

    We present plans for SRAO, the first Southern Robotic AO system. SRAO will use AO-assisted speckle imaging and Robo-AO-heritage high efficiency observing to confirm and characterize thousands of planet candidates produced by major new transit surveys like TESS, and is the first AO system to be capable of building a comprehensive several-thousand-target multiplicity survey at sub-AU scales across the main sequence. We will also describe results from Robo-AO, the first robotic LGS-AO system. Robo-AO has observed tens of thousands of Northern targets, often using a similar speckle or Lucky-Imaging assisted mode. SRAO will be a moderate-order natural-guide-star adaptive optics system which uses an innovative photoncounting wavefront sensor and EMCCD speckle-imaging camera to guide on faint stars with the 4.1m SOAR telescope. The system will produce diffraction-limited imaging in the NIR on targets as faint as mν = 16. In AO-assisted speckle imaging mode the system will attain the 30-mas visible diffraction limit on targets at least as faint as mν = 17. The system will be the first Southern hemisphere robotic adaptive optics system, with overheads an order of magnitude smaller than comparable systems. Using Robo-AO's proven robotic AO software, SRAO will be capable of observing overheads on sub-minute scales, allowing the observation of at least 200 targets per night. SRAO will attain three times the angular resolution of the Palomar Robo-AO system in the visible.

  3. Observations of seismic activity in Southern Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirova, T.; Hofstetter, R.

    2013-04-01

    Recent seismic activity in southern Lebanon is of particular interest since the tectonic framework of this region is poorly understood. In addition, seismicity in this region is very infrequent compared with the Roum fault to the east, which is seismically active. Between early 2008 and the end of 2010, intense seismic activity occurred in the area. This was manifested by several swarm-like sequences and continuous trickling seismicity over many days, amounting in total to more than 900 earthquakes in the magnitude range of 0.5 ≤ M d ≤ 5.2. The region of activity extended in a 40-km long zone mainly in a N-S direction and was located about 10 km west of the Roum fault. The largest earthquake, with a duration magnitude of M d = 5.2, occurred on February 15, 2008, and was located at 33.327° N, 35.406° E at a depth of 3 km. The mean-horizontal peak ground acceleration observed at two nearby accelerometers exceeded 0.05 g, where the strongest peak horizontal acceleration was 55 cm/s2 at about 20 km SE of the epicenter. Application of the HypoDD algorithm yielded a pronounced N-S zone, parallel to the Roum fault, which was not known to be seismically active. Focal mechanism, based on full waveform inversion and the directivity effect of the strongest earthquake, suggests left-lateral strike-slip NNW-SSE faulting that crosses the NE-SW traverse faults in southern Lebanon.

  4. Syntectonic remagnetization in the southern Methow block: Resolving large displacements in the southern Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, R.J.; Mahoney, J.B.; Baker, J.; Kiessling, M.; Haugerud, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Ventura Member of the Goat Wall unit in the southern Methow block of southern British Columbia and northern Washington State holds a syntectonic magnetization. Eight new sites from Manning Park in British Columbia give a mean direction of D = 27.5??, I = 60.1??, k = 304.7, ??95 = 3.2?? after optimal partial tilt correction. Of five groups of bedded sites from farther south in the basin reported by Bazard et al. [1990], four have a syntectonic remanence with a direction similar to what we observe. The exception is one group which has optimal concentration of remanence directions on >100% untilting and an abherent direction which must be rejected. Combining the accepted sites, the optimal differential syntilting direction is D = 11.8??, I = 61.5??, k = 39.3, ??95 = 3.4?? (N = 47), giving a mean pole of 79.8??N, 359.2??E, K = 19.5, and A95 = 4.8??. The age of the remagnetization is constrained to be between 88 and 80 Ma. Compared to cratonic North America, this result indicates that the southern Methow block was displaced from the south by 1800 ?? 500 km, meaning it lay south of the Sierra Nevada subduction zone but well north of other paleomagnetically constrained Cretaceous rock units from the Insular superterrane, including correlative strata of the Mount Tatlow area in the northern Methow block. Among several possibilities to reconcile this discrepancy, the most plausible has the whole Methow block translated coherently but with the southern Methow block strata remagnetized during transit.

  5. Reconstruction of Early Pleistocene climate in southern Australia, and implications for Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniderman, K.; Porch, N.

    2009-12-01

    Southern Australia today experiences a winter-dominated rainfall regime, governed by the seasonal migration of the Southern Hemisphere subtropical anticyclone. The history of this rainfall seasonality regime is poorly understood, because well dated, late Neogene climate records are scarce, both in Australia and in the Southern Hemisphere more generally. However, it has been assumed that the initiation of this rainfall regime was linked to the onset of extensive Northern Hemisphere glaciation, around 2.6 Ma. Here, we use fossil beetle remains from an upland southeastern Australian palaeolake record to quantitatively reconstruct regional climate during ~280 kyr of the Early Pleistocene, between 1.84-1.56 Ma. Our results, based on coexistence of extant fossil beetle taxa, indicate that temperatures were consistently 1-3°C warmer than present, and annual rainfall as high as or higher than today, but summer rainfall was 2-2.4 times higher than today, throughout the period of our record. This is consistent with the presence in the associated pollen record of diverse rainforest plant taxa, many of which are now extinct regionally or Australia-wide. Our results indicate that the modern, winter-dominated rainfall regime was not yet in place by 1.5 Ma, at least one million years later than previously thought. In as much as the modern climate regime is a function of the intensity of atmospheric circulation driven by hemispheric temperature gradients, this implies that Southern Hemisphere anticyclonic circulation may have been much less intense than today during the Early Pleistocene, and that a major regional climate reorganisation (Ravelo et al., 2004) occurred sometime after 1.5 Ma, perhaps associated with further growth of the Antarctic cryosphere (Raymo et al., 2006).

  6. Musci austro-africani II. Bryophyte collections in southern Africa and southern African type specimens in the National Herbarium, Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Magill

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of bryological collections and collectors in southern Africa introduces a catalogue of southern African type specimens housed in the National Herbarium, Pretoria. The type catalogue, arranged alphabetically by basionym, includes correct names, type status and label data.

  7. Ecology and control of an introduced population of Southern Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert; Todd, Brian D; Miano, Oliver J.; Canfield, Mark; Fisher, Robert N.; McMartin, Louanne

    2016-01-01

    Native to the southeastern United States, Southern Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) are known from two sites in California, but their ecological impacts are poorly understood. We investigated the ecology of Southern Watersnakes in Machado Lake, Harbor City, Los Angeles County, California, including an assessment of control opportunities. We captured 306 watersnakes as a result of aquatic trapping and hand captures. We captured snakes of all sizes (162–1063 mm snout–vent length [SVL], 3.5–873.3 g), demonstrating the existence of a well-established population. The smallest reproductive female was 490 mm SVL and females contained 12–46 postovulatory embryos (mean  =  21). Small watersnakes largely consumed introduced Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), while larger snakes specialized on larval and metamorph American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus). Overall capture per unit effort (CPUE) in traps declined with time during an intensive 76-d trapping bout, but CPUE trends varied considerably among traplines and it is unlikely that the overall decline in CPUE represented a major decrease in the snake population size. Although we found no direct evidence that Southern Watersnakes are affecting native species in Machado Lake, this population may serve as a source for intentional or unintentional transportation of watersnakes to bodies of water containing imperiled native prey species or potential competitors.

  8. Northerners versus southerners: Italian anthropology and psychology faced with the "southern question".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Guido; Foschi, Renato

    2014-11-01

    Following the Unification of Italy (1861), when confronted with the underdevelopment problems of the south that had given rise to the so-called "southern question," some Italian anthropologists and psychologists began to study the populations of the south from the psycho-anthropological point of view. These scientists, at times subject to preconceived ideas toward the southerners, conveyed observations and descriptions of the southern character traits that, in general, were considered different, in a negative sense, with respect to those of the northern peoples. To explain such diversity in the "psychological" characteristics between the north and south of the country (presumed cause also of the south's backwardness), various hypotheses were advanced related to the kind of heredity theory adopted, which could be of, more or less, an "innatist" or "transformist" or "environmentalist" kind. The distinction proposed in this article between at least 2 different "hereditarian" theories formulated by the Italian scientists, and the confrontation of these theories with the hypotheses expressed by the "southernist" sociologists, contrary to the idea of "racial varieties" present in the Italian population, allows one to understand in what way and in what sense, at the threshold of the 20th century, there arose the ideology of "Nordicism" and the roots of racism were planted.

  9. A review of research on chaplains and community-based clergy in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet, and the New England Journal of Medicine: 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Andrew J; Flannelly, Kevin J; Koenig, Harold G; Smith, Fred Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Based on the content analysis of quantitative research appearing in three medical journals, the authors conclude that, despite the shared ideal of providing spiritual care to patients on the part of physicians and chaplains, there is little attention given in these journals demonstrating and promoting this shared perspective. Suggestions for future research that would focus on this common medicine/religion interface and concern are noted.

  10. Estimación de dosis génica mediante PCR multiplex y electroforesis capilar fluorescente en posibles portadoras de deleciones en el gen de la distrofina, C.R., 1998-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Azofeifa-Navas, Jorge; Sancho-Fernández, Vanessa M.

    2001-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. 2001 Objetivo: Estimar la dosis génica en el gen de la distrofina a mujeres a riesgo de ser portadoras de deleciones. Sitio de realización: INISA y Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Materiales y métodos: Se obtuvo ADN de 15 mujeres, emparentadas por línea materna con pacientes afectados con DMD o BMD causadas por deleciones en el gen de la distrofina, y que por lo tanto podrían ser portad...

  11. Hydrography, Our hydrography consist of rivers, lakes streams and small bodies of water. It was complied using steriovision from 1998-2000 Orthophotography., Published in 2007, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as 'Our hydrography consist of rivers, lakes streams...

  12. Análisis del Programa de Educación, Salud y Alimentación (Progresa en el municipio de San Felipe del Progreso, estado de México, 1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Campos Alanís

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde su instrumentación, el Programa de Educación, Salud y Alimentación (Progresa, como el principal programa de combate a la pobreza extrema del gobierno federal, ha sido sujeto a una serie de evaluaciones institucionales y de organismos académicos, las cuales se han orientado principalmente a analizar los tres componentes que maneja el Progresa; el CIESAS, una de las instituciones de evaluación, ha determinado efectos negativos del programa en cuanto a la cohesión de los grupos sociales; sin embargo, existen otros efectos potencialmente negativos que afectan al gobierno municipal y que en determinado momento pueden llevar a que la población cuestione la legitimidad de la autoridad local. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo demostrar, con un caso de estudio, este problema de pérdida de presencia del gobierno local ante la población.

  13. Monitoring natural vegetation in Southern Greenland using NOAA AVHRR and field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birger Ulf

    1991-01-01

    vegetation, sheep farming, biomass production, Remote Sensing, NOAA AVHRR, Southern Greenland, NDVI......vegetation, sheep farming, biomass production, Remote Sensing, NOAA AVHRR, Southern Greenland, NDVI...

  14. Potential Dust Emissions from Sources in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachan, A.; D'Odorico, P.; Okin, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Hemisphere currently exhibits low levels of atmospheric dust concentrations relative to the Northern Hemisphere. Recent research suggests that dust concentrations could, however, increase as a result of loss of vegetation cover in the Southern Kalahari and the Mallee. Disturbances resulting from grazing and agriculture are identified as such drivers of land use change in these regions. While studies on the importance of atmospheric dust in global-scale processes are abundant, little has been done to locate the potential dust sources in the Southern Hemisphere because potential new sources are by definition inactive and are undetected in satellite images. To this end, using a combination of laboratory experiments and field observations, we assess that the sediments collected from the dunefields in the Southern Kalahari and Mallee can emit substantial amount of dust, are rich in soluble iron and dust from these sources would reach the Southern Ocean. It is suggested that the supply of soluble iron through atmospheric dust deposition limits the productivity of the Southern Ocean. Thus intensification of land use can potentially make these regions an important source of iron given their proximity to the Southern Ocean. This iron-rich dust could stimulate ocean productivity in future as more areas are reactivated as a result of land-use and droughts.

  15. Association between Australian rainfall and the Southern Annular Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Belinda; Simmonds, Ian; Smith, Ian N.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we explore the relationships between seasonal Australian rainfall and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). We produce two seasonal indices of the SAM: the Antarctic Oscillation Index (AOI), and an Australian regional version (AOIR) using ERA-40 mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) reanalysis data. The seasonal rainfall data are based on gridded monthly rainfall provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.For the period 1958-2002 a significant inverse relationship is found between the SAM and rainfall in southern Australia, while a significant in-phase relationship is found between the SAM and rainfall in northern Australia. Furthermore, widespread significant inverse relationships in southern Australia are only observed in winter, and only with the AOIR. The AOIR accounts for more of the winter rainfall variability in southwest Western Australia, southern South Australia, western and southern Victoria, and western Tasmania than the Southern Oscillation Index. Overall, our results suggest that changes in the SAM may be partly responsible for the current decline in winter rainfall in southern South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania, but not the long-term decline in southwest Western Australian winter rainfall.

  16. Processes controlling Southern Ocean cloud-climate feedbacks (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J. E.; Medeiros, B.; Hwang, Y.; Gettelman, A.

    2013-12-01

    We use a fully coupled climate model (CESM) to identify processes controlling intriguingly diverse Southern Ocean cloud feedbacks in response to increased greenhouse gas forcing. Modeled Southern Ocean cloud-climate feedbacks range from the most positive (enhancing greenhouse warming at ~40 degrees South) to the most negative (damping greenhouse warming at ~60 degrees South) on the planet. As greenhouse gas concentrations increase, Antarctic sea ice loss, warming, and a poleward stormtrack shift/sub-tropical expansion all modify Southern Ocean clouds. Our analysis shows that Southern Ocean clouds are controlled both by thermodynamics (cloud changes for a given subsidence rate) and by dynamics (changes in subsidence rates). Hinting at the importance of thermodynamics, absorbed shortwave radiation over the Southern Ocean is substantially more affected by increased greenhouse gas forcing than by a poleward stormtrack shift in the absence of greenhouse forcing. While we find CESM a useful tool, CESM has substantial Southern Ocean biases (e.g., excessive Antarctic sea ice, excessive absorbed shortwave radiation). Thus, we also assess the impact that these biases have on the realism of CESM Southern Ocean cloud-climate greenhouse feedbacks.

  17. Stars and Nebulae in the Southern Crown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The R Coronae Australis complex of young stars and interstellar gas clouds is one of the nearest star-forming regions, at a distance of approx. 500 light-years from the Sun. It is seen in the southern constellation of that name (The "Southern Crown"). Images of this sky area were recently obtained with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) , a 67-million pixel digital camera that is installed at the 2.2-m MPG/ESO Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. Some of these exposures have been combined into a magnificent colour image, here reproduced as PR Photo 25a/00 . The field shown measures about 4.7 x 4.7 light-years 2. It displays the central part of the complex, its brightest stars, and the nebulosity that they illuminate. The interstellar clouds that are associated with the complex are visible all across this field and also beyond its borders (on other exposures), due to the obscuring effect of the dust particles that "dim" the light of stars behind these clouds. This effect is particularly noticeable in the lower left corner where very few stars are seen. R Coronae Australis , the bright star from which the entire complex is named, is located at the center of the field and illuminates the reddish nebula around it. The bright star in the lower part, illuminating a somewhat bluer nebula, is known as TY Coronae Australis . The brightness of these two stars and several others in the same field is variable. They belong to the so-called "T Tauri" class , a type that is quite common in star-forming regions. T Tauri stars are in the early stages of stellar evolution and display various observable characteristics of this phase, e.g. emission at visible and infrared wavelengths due to the accretion of matter left over from their formation, as well as X-ray emission. The nebulosity seen in this picture is mostly due to reflection of the stellar light by small dust particles. The stars in the R Coronae Australis complex do not emit sufficient ultraviolet light to ionize a substantial

  18. Properties of aftershock sequences in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl; Jones, Lucile M.

    1991-07-01

    The temporal behavior of 39 aftershock sequences in southern California, 1933-1988, was modeled by the modified Omori relation. Minimum magnitudes for completeness of each sequence catalog were determined, and the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters K, p, and c, with the standard errors on each, were determined by the Ogata algorithm. The b value of each sequence was also calculated. Many of the active faults in the region, both strike slip and thrust, were sampled. The p values were graded in terms of the size of the standard error relative to the p value itself. Most of the sequences were modeled well by the Omori relation. Many of the sequences had p values close to the mean of the whole data set, 1.11±0.25, but values significantly different from the mean, as low as 0.7 and as high as 1.8, exist. No correlation of p with either the b value of the sequence or the mainshock magnitude was found. The results suggest a direct correlation of p values is with surface heat flow, with high values in the Salton Trough (high heat flow) and one low value in the San Bernardino Mountains and on the edge of the Ventura Basin (both low heat flow). The large fraction of the sequences with p values near the mean are at locations where the heat flow is near the regional mean, 74 mW/m2. If the hypothesis that aftershock decay rate is controlled by temperature at depth is valid, the effects of other factors such as heterogeneity of the fault zone properties are superimposed on the background rate determined by temperature. Surface heat flow is taken as an indicator of crustal temperature at hypocentral depths, but the effects on heat flow of convective heat transport and variations in near-surface thermal conductivity invalidate any simple association of local variations in heat flow with details of the subsurface temperature distribution. The interpretation is that higher temperatures in the aftershock source volume caused shortened stress relaxation times in the fault

  19. Stars and Seasons in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedegar, K. V.

    Although the indigenous people of Southern Africa traditionally viewed the sky as a place quite apart from the Earth, they believed celestial phenomena to be natural signs united with those of the Earth in a harmonious synchronicity. There is no substantial evidence that the precolonial Africans imagined a casual relationship between celestial bodies and the seasonal patterns of life on Earth. They did, however, recognize a coincidental relationship. The traditional African cosmos, then, worked as a noetic principle unifying the observed motions of celestial bodies, the sequence of seasons, and the behavior of plants and animals. Such a cosmos, with local peculiarities, was widely understood in Southern Africa before the end of the last century. By the early 20th century European colonial paradigms had largely obliterated this African worldview. This paper will offer a partial reconstruction. Pre-colonial South African people viewed time as a sequence of discrete natural events; through annual repetition these events served as a guide for proper human action. The South Africans analyzed the passage of time in terms of the motions of celestial bodies, the maturation of beneficial plants, and the mating patterns of animals. The rightful course of human life was seen to fit within the seasonal context of these natural phenomena. The visibility of conspicuous stars and asterisms marked significant times of year. For instance, the Lovedu people greeted the dawn rising of Canopus with joy: "The boy has come out." The star was a signal for rainmaking and boys' initiation ceremonies to proceed. The Venda constellation Thutlwa, the giraffes, comprises α and β Crucis and α and β Centauri. In October Thutlwa skims the trees of the evening horizon. The Venda Thutlwa literally means 'rising above the trees,' an allusion to the majestic vegetarian creatures and the stars advising the people to be done with their spring planting. This paper will describe stellar associations

  20. Olivine in the Southern Isidis Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this observation of the transition region between Libya Montes and the Isidis Basin on Mars at 17:16 UTC (12:16 p.m. EST) on January 2, 2007, near 3.6 degrees north latitude, 84.1 degrees east longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (7 miles) wide at its narrowest point. The Isidis Basin resulted from of a gigantic impact on the surface of Mars early in the planet's history. The southern rim, where this target is located, is a region of complex geology and part of the planetary dichotomy boundary that separates the older southern highlands from the lower, younger northern plains. The image on the left was constructed from three visible wavelengths (RGB: 0.71, 0.60, 0.53 microns) and is a close approximation of how the surface would appear to the human eye. The image on the right was constructed from three infrared wavelengths (RGB: 2.49, 1.52, 1.08 microns) chosen to highlight variations in the mineralogy of the area. Of interest is that features in this image not only differ in color, but also in texture and morphology. The gray areas absorb similarly at all wavelengths used in this image, but display absorptions at other wavelengths related to the iron- and magesium-rich mineral pyroxene. The reddest areas absorb strongly at the wavelengths used for green and blue, which is attributable to another iron- and magesium-rich mineral, olivine. The brownish areas show subdued mineral absorptions and could represent some type of mixture between the other two materials. The presence of the mineral olivine is particularly interesting because olivine easily weathers to other minerals; thus, its presence indicates either the lack of weathering in this region or relatively recent exposure. CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits and

  1. Risks of adverse impacts from climate change in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vincent, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available temperature indices for the whole southern Africa 19 region from 1901 to 2009 Figure 1.11. Annual rainfall anomalies for the whole southern Africa region (1901-2009) 20 3Table of Contents Figure 2.1. Multi-model probabilistic forecast... for the likelihood of February-March-April 26 2011 rainfall totals exceeding the 85th (extremely wet) and 15th (extremely dry) percentiles of the climatological record Figure 2.2. Multi-model probabilistic El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecast, 27...

  2. Regional scenarios of future climate change over southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tadross, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available temperature indices for the whole southern Africa 19 region from 1901 to 2009 Figure 1.11. Annual rainfall anomalies for the whole southern Africa region (1901-2009) 20 3Table of Contents Figure 2.1. Multi-model probabilistic forecast... for the likelihood of February-March-April 26 2011 rainfall totals exceeding the 85th (extremely wet) and 15th (extremely dry) percentiles of the climatological record Figure 2.2. Multi-model probabilistic El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecast, 27...

  3. Objectively classifying Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    There has been a long tradition in attempting to separate extratropical cyclones into different classes depending on their cloud signatures, airflows, synoptic precursors, or upper-level flow features. Depending on these features, the cyclones may have different impacts, for example in their precipitation intensity. It is important, therefore, to understand how the distribution of different cyclone classes may change in the future. Many of the previous classifications have been performed manually. In order to be able to evaluate climate models and understand how extratropical cyclones might change in the future, we need to be able to use an automated method to classify cyclones. Extratropical cyclones have been identified in the Southern Hemisphere from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset with a commonly used identification and tracking algorithm that employs 850 hPa relative vorticity. A clustering method applied to large-scale fields from ERA-Interim at the time of cyclone genesis (when the cyclone is first detected), has been used to objectively classify identified cyclones. The results are compared to the manual classification of Sinclair and Revell (2000) and the four objectively identified classes shown in this presentation are found to match well. The relative importance of diabatic heating in the clusters is investigated, as well as the differing precipitation characteristics. The success of the objective classification shows its utility in climate model evaluation and climate change studies.

  4. An Activity Catalogue of Southern Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J S; Tinney, C G; Butler, R P; McCarthy, C; Marcy, G W; Pinfield, D J; Carter, B D; Penny, A J

    2006-01-01

    We have acquired high-resolution echelle spectra of 225 F6-M5 type stars in the southern hemisphere. The stars are targets or candidates to be targets for the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. Ca$\\small{\\rmn{\\textsc{II}}}$~HK line cores were used to derive activity indices for all of these objects. The indices were converted to the Mt. Wilson system of measurements and log\\emph{R}$'_{\\rmn{HK}}$ values determined. A number of these stars had no previously derived activity indices. In addition we have also included the stars from Tinney et al. (2002) using our Mt. Wilson calibration. The radial-velocity instability (also known as jitter) level was determined for all 21 planet-host stars in our dataset. We find the jitter to be at a level considerably below the radial-velocity signatures in all but one of these systems. 19 stars from our sample were found to be active (log\\emph{R}$'_{\\rmn{HK}}$~$>$~-4.5) and thus have high levels of jitter. Radial-velocity analysis for planetary companions to these stars should pr...

  5. Milk production characteristics in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Picoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe milk production in Southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and to identify factors that affect milk quality at this region. The average age of regional dairy farmers is 49, and 67.9% has not concluded elementary school. Dairy farming is carried out on properties with an average of 26.06 hectares and 8.4 lactating cows. Most of them (32.83% yield 50 to 100 L/day. Among the properties, 13.21% yield up to 30 L/day, and only 1.89% produces over 500 milk liters a day. Average yield was 6.8 L/day. Regarding to milking procedure, 39.3% farmers milk manually the animals, only 14.2% performed pre-milking teat disinfection, and 53.9% uses a single cloth to dry all animal teats. For infrastructure, 52.8% milks animals in wooden cowsheds. We observed that the average somatic cell count (SCC was within legal parameters, presenting negative correlation with milk production (r = -0.23 and lactose content (r = -0.39. However, the total bacterial count (TBC was above legal parameters. Education level seems to interfere in management and milk quality, because the less educated groups are, the less adequate are infrastructure, management, and product quality. Data show that there is a lower quality milk production where poor management techniques are adopted and owner education level affects milk quality.

  6. Solar cycle modulation of Southern Annular Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yuhji

    2016-04-01

    Climate is known to be affected by various factors, including oceanic changes and volcanic eruptions. 11-year solar cycle change is one of such important factors. Observational analysis shows that the winter-mean North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and late-winter/spring Southern Annular Mode (SAM) show structural modulation associated with 11-year solar cycle. In fact, these signals tend to extend from surface to upper stratosphere and persistent longer period only in the High Solar (HS) years. In the present study, we used 35-year record of ERA-Interim reanalysis data and performed wave-energy and momentum analysis on the solar-cycle modulation of the SAM to examine key factors to create such solar-SAM relationship. It is found that enhanced wave-mean flow interaction tends to take place in the middle stratosphere in association with enhanced energy input from diabatic heating on September only in HS years. The result suggests atmospheric and solar conditions on September are keys to create solar-SAM relationship.

  7. Alboran Basin, southern Spain - Part I: Geomorphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A. [Secretaria General de Pesca Maritima, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, M.; Rivera, J.; Acosta, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, I. [Universidad Juan Carlos I, Campus de Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Uchupi, E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Bathymetric, 3D relief and shaded relief maps created from multibeam echo-sounding data image the morphology of the Alboran Basin, a structural low along the east-west-trending Eurasian-African plates boundary. Topographic features in the basin are the consequence of volcanism associated with Miocene rifting, rift and post-rift sedimentation, and recent faulting resulting from the convergence of the African-Eurasian plates. Pleistiocene glacially induced regressions/transgressions when the sea level dropped to about 150 m below its present level gas seeps and bottom currents. Recent faulting and the Pleistocene transgressions/regressions led to mass-wasting, formation of turbidity currents and canyon erosion on the basin's slopes. Recent fault traces at the base of the northern basin slope have also served as passageways for thermogenic methane, the oxidation of which by bacteria led to the formation of carbonate mounds along the fault intercepts on the sea floor. Expulsion of thermogenic or biogenic gas has led to the formation of pockmarks; erosion by bottom currents has resulted in the formation of moats around seamounts and erosion of the seafloor of the Alboran Ridge and kept the southern edge of the 36 10'N high sediment free. (author)

  8. IFU spectroscopy of southern PNe: III

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A; Basurah, H M; Amer, M A; Alsulami, R; Alruhaili, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe integral ?eld spectroscopic observations of four southern Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe), M3-4, M3-6, Hen2-29 and Hen2-37 covering the spectral range, 3400-7000?A.We derive the ionisation structure, the physical conditions, the chemical compositions and the kinematical characteristics of these PNe and ?nd good agreement with previous studies that relied upon the long-slit technique in their co-spatial area. From their chemical compositions as well as their spatial and kinematic characteristics, we determined that Hen2-29 is of the Peimbert Type I (He and N rich), while the other three are of Type II. The strength of the nebular He II line reveals that M3-3, Hen2-29 and Hen2-37 are of mid to high excitation classes while M3-6 is a low excitation planetary nebula (PN). A series of emission-line maps extracted from the data cubes were constructed for each PN to describe its overall structure. These show remarkable morphological diversity. Spatially resolved spectroscopy of M3-6, shows...

  9. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Paul T. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  10. Southern African NGOs seize the initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morna, C L

    1990-11-01

    The Southern African Network of AIDS Service Organizations (SANASO) was begun at a conference in Harare, Zimbabwe in May 1990, marking the 1st local unification of Non-Governmental agencies in AIDS prevention and care. This region has about 20% of Africa's reported AIDS cases, but has seen an 8-fold increase in 2 years. The goals of the organization are to facilitate sharing of information, ideas and experiences, to promote cooperation among the NGOs, to move toward common positions on AIDS and to articulate to the rest of the world the needs of the region as regards AIDS. While the incidence ranges from 6/million in Lesotho, to 906/million in Malawi, the countries represented have varied but pressing political and economic situations making HIV infection a serious threat. Examples are economic contraction with reduced funding of health and education; rapid urbanization; wars in Angola and Mozambique, with associated sexual abuse, refugees and displaced people; and in South Africa Apartheid, unemployment, forced relocation, violence and even suspicion of the government's AIDS program. Discussions on how the NGOs in particular can help change peoples' behavior resulted in the suggestion that they involve People With AIDS (PWA), to give the disease "a face" and lessen fear and alienation. The best example of such a successful approach is the home-based care instituted by Zambia's Chikankata Salvation Army Mission Hospital.

  11. PLEISTOCENE BATHYAL MOLLUSCAN ASSEMBLAGES FROM SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ITALO DI GERONIMO

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Four Pleistocene bathyal molluscan assemblages from southern Italy (Calabria and Messina area were studied. One hundred and thirty-six species were recorded. Twenty-four were classified and described in detail and thirty-five were illustrated. The following new combinations are pro posed: Solariella marginulata (Philippi, 1844, Iphitus tenuisculptus (Seguenza, 1876, Benthomangelia tenuicostata (Seguenza, 1879, Chrysallida microscalaria (Seguenza, 1876, Ennucula corbuloides (Seguenza, 1877, Ennucula rotundata (Seguenza, 1877, Thestyleda cuspidata (Philippi, 1844, Katadesmia confusa (Seguenza, 1877, Austrotindaria pusio (Philippi, 1844, Austrotindaria salicensis (Seguenza, 1877. Comments concerning the taxonomy of Fissurisepta Seguenza, 1862, Solariella Wood, 1842, Ennucula Iredale, 1931, Thestyleda Iredale, 1929, Ledella Verrill & Bush, 1897, Yoldiella Verrill & Bush, 1897, Bathyspinula Filatova, 1958, Katadesmia Dall, 1908, Austrotindaria Fleming, 1948 and Cadulus Philippi, 1844 are included. The assemblages are dominated by nuculoids and fit the general compositional pattern of the deep-sea molluscan communities. A paleodepth of 500-600 m is inferred for two assemblages, whereas a greater depth, pro bably not exceeding 1,000 m, is suggested for the other two. Taxonomic affinities with northeast Atlantic and more generally with World Ocean deep-sea molluscan faunas are remarkable. The Plio-Quaternary evolution of the deep Mediterranean benthos is discussed.    

  12. Prehistoric cultural ecology in southern jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D O

    1994-07-15

    Research in the mountains of southern Jordan resulted in the discovery of 109 archaeological sites that are from the Lower Paleolithic to the Chalcolithic period [150 to 6 thousand years ago (ka)]. Beginning with the Middle Paleolithic (70 ka) two site types (long-term and ephemeral camps) are recognized. Long-term sites have larger areas, thicker deposits, higher artifact densities, and more abundant archaeological features than ephemeral sites. Their natural settings (elevation and exposure) and associated seasonal evidence (phytolith and cementum increment data) indicate that long-term sites were occupied during the winter, wet season and ephemeral sites during the warm, dry season. These differences in site use and seasonality likely reflect an adaptive strategy of transhumance that persisted to modern Bedouin times. At the end of the Pleistocene, the onset of warmer, drier conditions induced a shift of the long-term winter camps from relatively low (800 to 1000 meters above sea level) to high (1000 to 1250 meters above sea level) elevations and largely reversed the earlier transhumant pattern.

  13. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro da; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João Martins; Nunes, Telmo; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Cortes, Helder Carola Espiguinha

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats) were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88%) and E. arloingi (85%), followed by E. alijevi (63%) and E. caprovina (63%). The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.

  14. Active kinematics of the southern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R.; Ogubazghi, G.; Amlesom, A.; Haileab, B.; Sholan, J.; Vernant, P.; Arrajehi, A.

    2009-04-01

    GPS measurements adjacent to the southern Red Sea and around the Afar Triple Junction (Red Sea Rift-Gulf of Aden Rift-East African Rift), indicate that the Red Sea rift bifurcates south of 16° N latitude with one branch following a continuation of the main Red Sea rift (~150° Azimuth) and the other oriented roughly N-S traversing the Danakil Depression/Afar volcanic province. These two rift branches account for the full Arabia-Nubia relative motion. Within the resolution of our observations, the partitioning of extension between rift branches varies linearly along strike; north of ~16°N extension (~15 mm/yr at 16°N) is confined to the main Red Sea rift while at the latitude of the Afar Triple Junction (~12°N) extension (~20 mm/yr) has transferred completely to the Danakil-Afar Depression. The Danakil block separates the two rifts and rotates counterclockwise, accommodating extension along the rifts and developing the triangular geometry of the Danakil/Afar Depression. Extrapolating the geodetic rates to the time of initial rifting of Arabia from Nubia (~25 ± 3 Ma) and estimating total extension across the rift branches from the present-day widths of the rifts suggests that Arabia-Nubia relative motion has been roughly constant since the initiation of Red Sea spreading, and that extension was initially confined to the main Red Sea rift with the presently observed bifurcation initiating at about 17 Ma.

  15. A Southern Ocean mode of multidecadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bars, D.; Viebahn, J. P.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2016-03-01

    A 250 year simulation of a strongly eddying global version of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) model reveals a new mode of intrinsic multidecadal variability, the Southern Ocean Mode (SOM), with a period of 40-50 year. The peak-to-peak difference in the global ocean heat content within a multidecadal cycle is up to 60 ZJ. This change results from surface heat flux variations in the South Atlantic and propagation of temperature anomalies along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and into the Weddell gyre around 30°E. The temperature anomalies propagate as deep as 5000 m along the isopycnals between 50°S and 30°S and induce multidecadal changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. A positive feedback loop between the generation of eddies through baroclinic instability and the dynamics of the mean circulation is essential for the existence of the SOM. The dominant physics appears similar to that responsible for variability found in a three-layer quasi-geostrophic eddy-resolving model. This combined with the fact that the SOM is not found in a noneddying version of the same global POP model further suggests that eddy processes are crucial for its existence and/or excitation.

  16. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  17. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  18. Probability seismic hazard maps of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinda Sutiwanich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seismic hazard maps of southern Thailand were obtained from the integration of crustal fault, areal and subductionsource models using probability seismic hazard analysis and the application of a logic tree approach. The hazard maps showthe mean peak ground and spectral accelerations at 0.2, 0.3 and 1.0 second periods with a 10%, 5%, 2% and 0.5% probabilityof exceedance in 50-year hazard levels. The highest hazard areas were revealed to be in the Muang, Phanom, and Viphavadidistricts of Surat Thani province, the Thap Put district of Phang Nga province, and the Plai Phraya district of Krabi province.The lowest hazard areas are in the southernmost part of Thailand e.g. Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat provinces. The maximumvalues of the mean peak ground acceleration for the 475–9,975 yr return period are 0.28-0.52 g and the maximum spectralaccelerations at 0.2 seconds for the same return period are 0.52-0.80 g. Similar hazard is also obtained for different returnperiods. Presented seismic hazard maps are useful as a guideline for the future design of buildings, bridges or dams, for rocksites to resist earthquake forces.

  19. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The population of the San Luis Valley region is growing rapidly. The shallow unconfined and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin is the main sources of municipal water for the region. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey, called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifer systems. The primary goal of the MT survey is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock type. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers in the region. This report does not include any interpretation of the data. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at the 22 stations shown in figure 1.

  1. [Childhood genetic renal diseases in southern Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Daniel; Shalev, Hanna

    2010-03-01

    Genetic kidney diseases (GKDs) are an important and well-known entity in pediatric nephrology. Advances in genetic and molecular approaches in the last 15 years have enabled elucidation of the underlying molecular defects in many of these disorders. Herein, the authors summarize the progress that has been made over this period in disclosing the molecular basis of several novel GKDs which were characterized in this area and include Bartter syndrome type IV, type II Bartter syndrome and transient neonatal hyperkalemia, cystinuria and mental retardation, familial hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile nephronophthisis and familial hemolytic uremic syndrome with factor H deficiency. Retrospective analysis of the authors' data reveals that GKDs are over-represented among the pediatric population in southern Israel. GKD are seen 4 times more often than end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and comprise 38% of all cases of ESRD in our area. This high rate of GKD is mainly due to the high frequency of consanguineous marriages that prevails in this area. Understanding of the genetic and molecular background of these diseases is a result of a fruitful collaboration between the pediatric nephrologists and scientists, and has a direct implication on the diagnosis and treatment of the affected families.

  2. Mechanization in firewood harvesting in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to survey current mechanization level of coppice harvesting in Southern Italy. The cooperation of the General Direction of the National Forest Service (NFS has been a basic tool of survey. A questionnaire compiled on purpose was sent to each Forest Station (hereinafter referred to as CS in the following regions: Basilicata, Campania and Calabria. A high percentage (80% of the CSs did fulfill the questionnaire. The answers highlight that: i the main assortment currently produced is firewood; ii the level of harvesting mechanization is rather low, equipment being quite obsolete: indeed, the most widely used machineries are farm tractors partly adapted to forest harvesting and equipped with cages or back winch; iii the use of animals for hauling (mules and oxen, the latter in Calabria is still quite frequent, while forest tractors, polyethylene chutes and cable cranes are almost absent; iv the use of individual protection (DPI and machinery protection devices (DPM is on average quite low.

  3. Hunting the Southern Skies with SIMBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    First Images from the New "Millimetre Camera" on SEST at La Silla Summary A new instrument, SIMBA ("SEST IMaging Bolometer Array") , has been installed at the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at the ESO La Silla Observatory in July 2001. It records astronomical images at a wavelength of 1.2 mm and is able to quickly map large sky areas. In order to achieve the best possible sensitivity, SIMBA is cooled to only 0.3 deg above the absolute zero on the temperature scale. SIMBA is the first imaging millimetre instrument in the southern hemisphere . Radiation at this wavelength is mostly emitted from cold dust and ionized gas in a variety of objects in the Universe. Among other, SIMBA now opens exciting prospects for in-depth studies of the "hidden" sites of star formation , deep inside dense interstellar nebulae. While such clouds are impenetrable to optical light, they are transparent to millimetre radiation and SIMBA can therefore observe the associated phenomena, in particular the dust around nascent stars . This sophisticated instrument can also search for disks of cold dust around nearby stars in which planets are being formed or which may be left-overs of this basic process. Equally important, SIMBA may observe extremely distant galaxies in the early universe , recording them while they were still in the formation stage. Various SIMBA images have been obtained during the first tests of the new instrument. The first observations confirm the great promise for unique astronomical studies of the southern sky in the millimetre wavelength region. These results also pave the way towards the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the giant, joint research project that is now under study in Europe, the USA and Japan. PR Photo 28a/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17175-3544 PR Photo 28b/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 18434-0242 PR Photo 28c/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17271-3439 PR Photo 28d/01

  4. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-08-24

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  5. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.J.; Greene, H. Gary; Edwards, B.D.; Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional bathymetry, sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data, and recent, multibeam surveys of large parts of the Southern California Borderland disclose the presence of numerous submarine landslides. Most of these features are fairly small, with lateral dimensions less than ??2 km. In areas where multibeam surveys are available, only two large landslide complexes were identified on the mainland slope- Goleta slide in Santa Barbara Channel and Palos Verdes debris avalanche on the San Pedro Escarpment south of Palos Verdes Peninsula. Both of these complexes indicate repeated recurrences of catastrophic slope failure. Recurrence intervals are not well constrained but appear to be in the range of 7500 years for the Goleta slide. The most recent major activity of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche occurred roughly 7500 years ago. A small failure deposit in Santa Barbara Channel, the Gaviota mudflow, was perhaps caused by an 1812 earthquake. Most landslides in this region are probably triggered by earthquakes, although the larger failures were likely conditioned by other factors, such as oversteepening, development of shelf-edge deltas, and high fluid pressures. If a subsequent future landslide were to occur in the area of these large landslide complexes, a tsunami would probably result. Runup distances of 10 m over a 30-km-long stretch of the Santa Barbara coastline are predicted for a recurrence of the Goleta slide, and a runup of 3 m over a comparable stretch of the Los Angeles coastline is modeled for the Palos Verdes debris avalanche. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  6. ICESat Observations of Southern Alaska Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Molnia, Bruce F.; Mitchell, Darius

    2003-01-01

    In late February and March, 2003, the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) measured ice and land elevations along profiles across southern Alaska. During this initial data acquisition stage ICESat observations were made on 8-day repeat tracks to enable calibration and validation of the ICESat data products. Each profile consists of a series of single point values derived from centroid elevations of an $\\approx$70 m diameter laser footprint. The points are s4pakated by $\\approx$172 m along track. Data siets of 8-day observations (an ascending and descending ground track) crossed the Bering and Malaspina Glacier. Following its 1993--1995 surge; the Bering Glacier has undergone major terminus retreat as well as ike thinning in the abtation zone. During the later part of the 20th century, parts of the Malaspina thinned by about 1 m/yr. The multiple observation profiles across the Bering and Malaspina piedmont lobes obtained in February/March are being geolocated on Landsat images and the elevation profiles will be used for a number o scientific objectives. Based on our simulations of ICESat performance over the varied ice surface of the Jakobshavn Glacier of GReenland, 2003, we expect to measure annual, and possibly seasonal, ice elevation changes on the large Alaskan glaciers. Using elevation data obtained from a second laser, we plan to estimate ice elevation changes on the Bering Glacier between March and October 2003.

  7. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Salin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/−2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/−1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/−0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25–35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  8. Typhoid Fever in Southern Taiwan: A Medical Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ren Yu

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Pediatric patients with typhoid fever in southern Taiwan had less history of travel and developed fewer chills than adult patients. Careful examination and familiarity with the clinical manifestations are important factors in the early diagnosis of typhoid fever.

  9. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  10. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  11. Final critical habitat for Southern Acornshell (Epioblasma othcaloogensis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Polygon shapefile of critical habitat for the Southern Acornshell (Epioblasma othcaloogensis) based on the description provided in the Federal Register.

  12. problems of livestock production in the black states of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IN THE BLACK STATES OF SOUTHERN AFRICA AND FUTURE STRATEGY ... A systems approach ... rural development planning. ..... specifically aimed at satisfying basic' human rrutti- ... wards a market economy and conservation of.

  13. The youth and post-war recovery in southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    youth and access their potential in Southern Sudan, post-conflict recovery will have limited success. ... Whatever the method used, children ended up armed with .... Long-term effects of war on children have been documented. Levy and.

  14. Killer Whale Genetic Data - Southern resident killer whale pedigree analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In this project, we are using genetic variation to infer mating patterns in the southern killer whale community. In Canada, this population was listed as threatened...

  15. Extra limit counts for southern sea otter 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Extra limit counts of southern sea otters 2016" is a point layer representing the locations of sea otter sightings that fall outside the...

  16. Avian botulism in the southern San Joaquin valley 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A joint effort of the Department of Fish and' Game and the U. S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife contained botulism losses in the southern San Joaquin Valley...

  17. Southern Watersheds Common Reed Project, Final Report [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds Common Reed Project is an interagency effort to demonstrate effective control of the invasive wetland plant, common reed, while...

  18. Final critical habitat for Southern Clubshell (Pleurobema decisum)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Polygon shapefile of critical habitat for the Southern Clubshell (Pleurobema decisum) based on the description provided in the Federal Register.

  19. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State. ... the contribution of risk factors such as age, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), ... Methods: Fasting venous plasma glucose (FVPG) levels were obtained from a total of ...

  20. European population substructure: clustering of northern and southern populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Seldin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between "northern" and "southern" European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek have >85% membership in the "southern" population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the "northern" population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the "southern" population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups. Based on this work, we have developed a core set of informative SNP markers that can control for this partition in European population structure in a variety of clinical and genetic studies.

  1. Forests, rangelands and climate change in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the implications of climate change for forests and rangelands in southern Africa. The extent of the resources and their economic and social functions and drivers of change is outlined. The vulnerability...

  2. Southern Great Plains rapid ecoregional assessment : Pre-assessment report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of...

  3. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  4. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Alberta: May 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1991. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  5. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  6. [Experience with amalgams manufactured by Southern Dental Industries (Australia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, I; Gábris, K; Balaton, P; Dénes, J

    1990-09-01

    The gamma 2 phaseless amalgam of the firm Southern Dental Industries (SDI) was tested. None of the 205 fillings showed level deviations, unevenness, secondary caries and breakage. A minimum size gap was found in 2 cases.

  7. Preservation management in university libraries in Southern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preservation management in university libraries in Southern Nigeria. ... activities of biological agents, theft and mutilation, mishandling and disasters. ... facilities and equipment, inadequate funding and lack of preservation policy and strategies ...

  8. Vestalaria vinnula spec. nov. from southern Vietnam (Odonata: Calopterygidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hämäläinen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Vestalaria vinnula spec.nov. (holotype male, southern Vietnam, Lam Dong province, Blao, 1962) is described in both sexes and compared with other species of Vestalaria May, 1935 (= the Vestalis smaragdina - group), which is ranked as valid genus.

  9. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern and central Alberta: May 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern and central Alberta during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  10. Final critical habitat for Southern Pigtoe (Pleurobema georgianum)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Polygon shapefile of critical habitat for the Southern Pigtoe (Pleurobema georgianum) based on the description provided in the Federal Register.

  11. Review: Current writing: Text and reception in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Combrink

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Current writing: Text and reception in Southern Africa. (Published by the University of Natal under the joint editorship of Margaret Lenta, Michael Chapman, Margaret Daymond and Johan U. Jacobs. Volume 1, 1989 - editor: Margaret Lenta

  12. Vestalaria vinnula spec. nov. from southern Vietnam (Odonata: Calopterygidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hämäläinen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Vestalaria vinnula spec.nov. (holotype male, southern Vietnam, Lam Dong province, Blao, 1962) is described in both sexes and compared with other species of Vestalaria May, 1935 (= the Vestalis smaragdina - group), which is ranked as valid genus.

  13. Land and agronomic potential for biofuel production in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Maltitz, Graham P

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African region, from a purely biophysical perspective, has huge potential for biofuel production, especially in Mozambique and Zambia. Although many of the soils are sandy and acidic, with careful management and correct fertilization...

  14. THE ORIGINS OF THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN MAMMAL FAUNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Africa can be geographically subdivided into different biotic zones, differing from ..... probably continuous, providing a route by means of which forest species were .... "African ecology and human evolution", July 1961, 61 pp., roneo.

  15. Final Critical Habitat for Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A geospatial data set depicting the boundaries of marine areas designated as critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) for Southern Resident killer...

  16. The beginnings of the Southern Child/Pediatric Neurology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyken, Paul Richard; Bodensteiner, John B

    2015-04-01

    The founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society was in many ways parallel to that of the Child Neurology Society. The organization started out as the Southern Child Neurology Society but the name was changed at the time of incorporation so as to avoid confusion of identity and purpose with the larger Child Neurology Society. Although there are archives of early days and the later development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society, the details have never been set down in a narrative explaining the events that led to the development of the organization. In this paper, we try to produce a written record of the history of the founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society.

  17. Malnutrition among children in Southern Ethiopia: Levels and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition among children in Southern Ethiopia: Levels and risk factors. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Both bivariate and multivariate techniques were employed in order to identify risk factors of child malnutrition. The results ...

  18. Status of southern James Bay population of Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides background on the southern James Bay population (SJBP) of Canada geese, as well as a summary of problems confronting SJBP and recommendations...

  19. Final Critical Habitat for Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A geospatial data set depicting the boundaries of marine areas designated as critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) for Southern Resident killer...

  20. Waterfowl production survey: Southern and central Alberta: July 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern and central Alberta during 1996. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  1. Climate Prediction Center Equatorial Southern Oscillation Index (1949-present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains Equatorial Southern Oscillation Index (standardized sea level pressure differences between...

  2. The Pali Aike Windstreak Field, Southern Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Kargel, J. S.; Tanaka, K. L.; Yamamoto, A.; Sasaki, S.

    2008-03-01

    Windstreaks are amongst the most common aeolian landforms on Mars, yet they are extremely rare on Earth. We have identified and carried out field based observations of an outstanding zone of windstreaks in southern Patagonia Argentina.

  3. Southern Philippines Public Perception Survey Exploration and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    23 Table 3. Factor Analysis Results for Cotabato. The dark shaded region of the tables indicates common factors with common loadings, the lighter... tourism , security, etc. It is home to Western Mindanao Command and some of the Philippine Air Forces. It also enjoys reliable power most of the time...Philippines as part of a widespread Islamic state which would span Indonesia, Malaysia , southern Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, and the southern Philippines

  4. The hydrothermal system in southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163-173C. This report discusses results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations used in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system. (USGS)

  5. Transboundary Water Resources in Southern Africa: Conflict or cooperation?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patrick, MJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available to explain why states might choose cooperation over conflict where a critical shared resource could limit future development potential. KEYWORDS hydropolitical complex; water wars; southern African development community; river basin management... the management of the various transboundary river basins that form the hydrological foundation of the SADC economy. This observation is remarkable given the known history of intense conflict that was as- sociated with the ColdWar-era in southern Africa...

  6. Southern annular mode: tropical-extratropical interactions and impacts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fauchereau, N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available ?Dept.,?University?of?Cape?Town,?South?Africa 1.?Introduction The?Southern?Annular?Mode?(SAM,?also?called?Antarctic? Oscillation)?is?the?dominant?mode?of?extratropical?(south? of ? 20S) ? low?frequency ? atmospheric ? variability ? ? in ? the? Southern?Hemisphere.?It ?basically...?with?a?seasonally?adjusted?principal?component? index,?17th?Climate?diagnostics?workshop,?Norman,?OK,? 52?57. ...

  7. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  8. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Manit Nuinoon; Kwanta Kruachan; Warachaya Sengking; Dararat Horpet; Ubol Sungyuan

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...

  9. Operational Practice and Prospects of China Southern Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiuling; Wang Ben

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Applied Research on Higher Voltage Class for China Southern Power Grid completed at the end of 2004 pointed to a conclusion that transmission schemes using ±800-kV DC and 1000-kV AC are feasible to the southern grid. According to the grid's 11th Five-Year Plan, the ultra-high voltage transmission will take its place in the power grid soon.

  10. A synopsis of Peristrophe (Acanthaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Balkwill

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A synopsis of Peristrophe Nees (Acanthaceae in southern Africa is provided. Peristrophe comprises nine species, one with two subspecies in southern Africa. A key for identification and descriptions of species not included in recent literature are provided. Morphology of tertiary bracts,indumentum on stems and distribution is illustrated and diagnostic characters, distribution, habitat, flowering  time and conservation status are discussed for each species.

  11. Wetland vegetation of southern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perkins

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation data from southern KwaZulu-Natal were analysed. TWINSPAN classification separated the entire data set (547 releves into five subsets. One subset, representing the vegetation of the wetlands of southern Kw aZulu-Natal, was further classified by Braun-Blanquet procedures. Eight plant communities and fourteen subcommunities were identified and described. The results can be integrated with existing phytosociological classifications of the Grassland Biome.

  12. The Molonglo Southern 4 Jy sample (MS4). I. Definition

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, A M

    2005-01-01

    We have defined a complete sample of 228 southern radio sources at 408 MHz with integrated flux densities S_408 > 4.0 Jy, Galactic latitude |b| > 10 deg and declination -85 deg 10.9 Jy (SMS4), provides a southern sample closely equivalent to the well-studied northern 3CRR sample. Comparison of SMS4 with 3CRR shows a reassuring similarity in source density and median flux density between the two samples.

  13. 77 FR 31004 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ...] Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 9, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209, filed... Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), and Southern's blanket certificate issued in...

  14. 76 FR 66054 - Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 7, 2011, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C. (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501... application should be directed to Glenn A. Sheffield, Director--Rates and Regulatory, Southern Natural...

  15. 78 FR 14400 - Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading March 1, 2013. It appears to the... securities of Southern USA Resources, Inc. (``Southern USA'') because of questions regarding the accuracy of... company's outstanding shares. Southern USA's securities are quoted on the OTC Link, operated by...

  16. A numerical investigation of the Southern Gyre using ROMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamoyo, Majambo; Reason, Chris J. C.; Collins, Charine

    2017-05-01

    A numerical model (The Regional Ocean Modelling System-ROMS), configured over the western Indian Ocean and driven by monthly climatology winds and heat fluxes, is applied to examine the Southern Gyre in the Somali Current system during the Southwest Monsoon. Despite the Southern Gyre playing a role in transporting water masses and other properties northwards across the equator, it has not been much studied. The model results indicate that the Southern Gyre appears in early June in the upper ocean as a result of instability in the northward flowing Somali Current. The arrival of downwelling Rossby wave energy at the East African coast intensifies the recirculation of the Southern Gyre and causes its northward movement. The Southern Gyre is characterized as a shallow feature which deepens from 100 m in June to 300 m in July-August. The average spatial scale of the gyre is about 400 km with subsequent development of positive vorticity bursts which are identified as potential contributors to the decay of the Southern Gyre. Cool and fresh waters observed in the gyre resulted from advection via the South Equatorial Current and then through the Somali Current (SC).

  17. Characteristics of cyclone climatology and variability in the Southern Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Lixin; QIN Ting

    2016-01-01

    A new climatology of cyclones in the Southern Ocean is generated by applying an automated cyclone detection and tracking algorithm (developed by Hodges at the Reading University) for an improved and relatively high-resolution European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts atmospheric reanalysis during 1979–2013. A validation shows that identified cyclone tracks are in good agreement with a available analyzed cyclone product. The climatological characteristics of the Southern Ocean cyclones are then analyzed, including track, number, density, intensity, deepening rate and explosive events. An analysis shows that the number of cyclones in the Southern Ocean has increased for 1979–2013, but only statistically significant in summer. Coincident with the circumpolar trough, a single high-density band of cyclones is observed in 55°–67°S, and cyclone density has generally increased in north of this band for 1979–2013, except summer. The intensity of up to 70% cyclones in the Southern Ocean is less than 980 hPa, and only a few cyclones with pressure less than 920 hPa are detected for 1979–2013. Further analysis shows that a high frequency of explosive cyclones is located in the band of 45°–55°S, and the Atlantic Ocean sector has much higher frequent occurrence of the explosive cyclones than that in the Pacific Ocean sector. Additionally, the relationship between cyclone activities in the Southern Ocean and the Southern Annular Mode is discussed.

  18. Characteristics of Southern California coastal aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Hanson, R.T.; Reichard, E.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Most groundwater produced within coastal Southern California occurs within three main types of siliciclastic basins: (1) deep (>600 m), elongate basins of the Transverse Ranges Physiographic Province, where basin axes and related fluvial systems strike parallel to tectonic structure, (2) deep (>6000 m), broad basins of the Los Angeles and Orange County coastal plains in the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province, where fluvial systems cut across tectonic structure at high angles, and (3) shallow (75-350 m), relatively narrow fluvial valleys of the generally mountainous southern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province in San Diego County. Groundwater pumped for agricultural, industrial, municipal, and private use from coastal aquifers within these basins increased with population growth since the mid-1850s. Despite a significant influx of imported water into the region in recent times, groundwater, although reduced as a component of total consumption, still constitutes a significant component of water supply. Historically, overdraft from the aquifers has caused land surface subsidence, flow between water basins with related migration of groundwater contaminants, as well as seawater intrusion into many shallow coastal aquifers. Although these effects have impacted water quality, most basins, particularly those with deeper aquifer systems, meet or exceed state and national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Municipalities, academicians, and local water and governmental agencies have studied the stratigraphy of these basins intensely since the early 1900s with the goals of understanding and better managing the important groundwater resource. Lack of a coordinated effort, due in part to jurisdictional issues, combined with the application of lithostratigraphic correlation techniques (based primarily on well cuttings coupled with limited borehole geophysics) have produced an often confusing, and occasionally conflicting

  19. Physical properties of Southern infrared dark clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyunina, T.; Linz, H.; Henning, Th.; Stecklum, B.; Klose, S.; Nyman, L.-Å.

    2009-05-01

    Context: What are the mechanisms by which massive stars form? What are the initial conditions for these processes? It is commonly assumed that cold and dense Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) represent the birth-sites of massive stars. Therefore, these clouds have been receiving an increasing amount of attention, and their analysis offers the opportunity to tackle the afore mentioned questions. Aims: To enlarge the sample of well-characterised IRDCs in the southern hemisphere, where ALMA will play a major role in the near future, we have developed a program to study the gas and dust of southern infrared dark clouds. The present paper attempts to characterize the continuum properties of this sample of IRDCs. Methods: We cross-correlated 1.2 mm continuum data from SIMBA bolometer array mounted on SEST telescope with Spitzer/GLIMPSE images to establish the connection between emission sources at millimeter wavelengths and the IRDCs that we observe at 8 μm in absorption against the bright PAH background. Analysing the dust emission and extinction enables us to determine the masses and column densities, which are important quantities in characterizing the initial conditions of massive star formation. We also evaluated the limitations of the emission and extinction methods. Results: The morphology of the 1.2 mm continuum emission is in all cases in close agreement with the mid-infrared extinction. The total masses of the IRDCs were found to range from 150 to 1150 M_⊙ (emission data) and from 300 to 1750 M_⊙ (extinction data). We derived peak column densities of between 0.9 and 4.6 × 1022 cm-2 (emission data) and 2.1 and 5.4 × 1022 cm-2 (extinction data). We demonstrate that the extinction method is unreliable at very high extinction values (and column densities) beyond AV values of roughly 75 mag according to the Weingartner & Draine (2001) extinction relation RV = 5.5 model B (around 200 mag when following the common Mathis (1990, ApJ, 548, 296) extinction calibration

  20. The bi-decadal rainfall cycle, Southern Annular Mode and tropical cyclones over the Limpopo River Basin, southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malherbe, J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between bi-decadal rainfall variability over southern Africa and the rainfall contributed by tropical cyclonic systems from the Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) provides a potential means towards understanding decadal-scale variability...

  1. Nearshore marine fish diversity in southern California using trawl information from the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of mean fish diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water Research...

  2. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 – to restore, sustain and enhance...

  3. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada Executive Summary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 – to restore, sustain and enhance...

  4. Neogene foreland tectonics in the southern Appenines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roure, F.; Casero, P.; Moretti, I.; Mueller, C.; Sage, L.; Vially, R. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison)

    1988-08-01

    Combined structural and biostratigraphic analyses and seismic interpretation help them to balance cross sections through the southern Apennines from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian Sea and to propose an overall model for the evolution of the belt. Three lithostratigraphic units have been distinguished according to their Mesozoic facies and style of deformation: the western platform (upper unit), the Lagonegro-Molise basin, and the eastern platform. Foreland deformation migrated from west to east, and external domains were reached progressively by synorogenic flysch deposits (foredeep) and later incorporated into the thrust sheets. Presently, only the most external part of the eastern platform is still unaffected by thrusting, while internal parts are building the overthrust belt at depth, which is masked on the surface by allochthonous basinal nappes. The evolutive geometry of thrust and piggy-back basins results from the continuous understacking of new material at the bottom of the tectonic prism. The deeper basement is also progressively involved in the deformation, giving rise to large nappe anticlines. Despite the early subsidence and deformation of the western platform and basinal domains in Langhian to Tortonian time, all the deformation of the eastern platform has occurred since Messinian time. These compressive structures are thus contemporaneous with the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. To the west, the upper tectonic units of the Apennines are indeed affected by listric normal faulting, with previous thrust planes having been locally reactivated during the distension. Post-Messinian shortening in the sedimentary cover is accompanied by a crustal thickening outlined by the Moho's geometry. The authors interpret it as a result of the subduction of the Apulian continental lithosphere. Recent uplift of the Apennines is indeed directly related to this crustal root.

  5. Predicting biological condition in southern California streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry R.; May, Jason T.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Ode, Peter R.; Waite, Ian R.; Kennen, Jonathan G.

    2012-01-01

    As understanding of the complex relations among environmental stressors and biological responses improves, a logical next step is predictive modeling of biological condition at unsampled sites. We developed a boosted regression tree (BRT) model of biological condition, as measured by a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (BIBI), for streams in urbanized Southern Coastal California. We also developed a multiple linear regression (MLR) model as a benchmark for comparison with the BRT model. The BRT model explained 66% of the variance in B-IBI, identifying watershed population density and combined percentage agricultural and urban land cover in the riparian buffer as the most important predictors of B-IBI, but with watershed mean precipitation and watershed density of manmade channels also important. The MLR model explained 48% of the variance in B-IBI and included watershed population density and combined percentage agricultural and urban land cover in the riparian buffer. For a verification data set, the BRT model correctly classified 75% of impaired sites (B-IBI < 40) and 78% of unimpaired sites (B-IBI = 40). For the same verification data set, the MLR model correctly classified 69% of impaired sites and 87% of unimpaired sites. The BRT model should not be used to predict B-IBI for specific sites; however, the model can be useful for general applications such as identifying and prioritizing regions for monitoring, remediation or preservation, stratifying new bioassessments according to anticipated biological condition, or assessing the potential for change in stream biological condition based on anticipated changes in population density and development in stream buffers.

  6. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  7. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  8. Cephalopods distribution in the southern Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. LEFKADITOU

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns faunal composition and distribution of cephalopods in the southern Aegean Sea (35Ζ 13’ 19’’- 37Ζ 55’ 25’’ N, 23Ζ 00’ 15’’ - 28Ζ 15’ 37’’ E. Samples were collected from 708 hauls, obtained by an experimental bottom trawl net during eight surveys carried out in the summers of the years 1994-2001, as well as by commercial trawl net during four surveys carried out in September 1995, December 1995, May and September 1996. The hauls were performed at depths ranging from 16 to 778 m. A total of 34 species of cephalopod in 12 families were identified, including 11 oegopsid squid, 3 myopsid squid, 7 octopod, 3 cuttlefish and 10 sepiolid. Trawling with the experimental net resulted in the capturing of some uncommon pelagic species, such as Ctenopteryx siculaand Octopoteuthis sicula, which were recorded for the first time in the Aegean Sea. Most of the species showed a wide depth and geographical range. The species: Sepia officinalis, Sepietta neglecta, Sepietta obscuraand Sepiola rondeletiwere caught only on the continental shelf, whereas the Ancistroteuthis lichtensteini, Bathypolypous sponsalis, Brachioteuthis riisei, Chiroteuthis veranyi, Ctenopteryx sicula, Heteroteuthis dispar, Histioteuthis reversa, Neorossia caroli and Pyroteuthis margaritiferawere found only on the slope. The rest of the species extended in both continental shelf and slope. The spatial distribution of different species groups is discussed in relation to the hydrology and topography of the study area and the species ecology.

  9. Tuberculosis in a southern Brazilian prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Kuhleis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of tuberculosis (TB in prisons has been described as an alarming public health problem in many countries, especially in developing nations. The objective of this study was to conduct a survey among prisoners with TB respiratory symptoms in order to estimate the incidence of the disease, to analyze the drug susceptibility profile and genotype the isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the city of Charqueadas, southern of Brazil. The TB incidence was 55/1,900 inhabitants in the prison; this corresponds to an incidence of 3,789/100,000 inhabitants, with a prevalence of 72/1,900 (4,960/100,000 inhabitants. Drug susceptibility test was performed and, among the analyzed isolates, 85% were susceptible to all drugs tested and 15% were resistant to at least one drug, of which 89% were resistant only to isoniazid (INH or in combination with another drug. The genotype classification of spoligotyping analysis showed that 40% of the isolates belong to LAM family, 22% to T family, 17.5% to Haarlem family, 12.5% to U family and 3% to X family. The shared international spoligotypes most frequently found were 729 (27%, 50 (9.5%, 42 (8%, 53 (8% and 863 (8%. In conclusion, it was observed that TB in this specific population had been caused, mostly, by strains that have been transmitted in the last few years, as demonstrated by the large level of genotype clustering. In addition, it was found specific large clusters, which were not often found in the general population from the same period and in the same region.

  10. Venomous snakebites in children in southern Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabuva, Svjetlana; Vrkić, Ivana; Brizić, Ivica; Ivić, Ivo; Lukšić, Boris

    2016-03-15

    This retrospective study represents observation of 160 children and adolescents aged up to 18 years that experienced venomous snakebites in southern Croatia and were treated in the Clinical Department of Infectious Diseases in the University Hospital Centre Split from 1979 to 2013. The main purpose of this research was to determine the epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentation, local and general complications, and received treatment. Most bites occurred during warm months, from early May to late August (80%), mostly in May and June. Upper limb bites were more frequent (59%) than lower limb bites (40%). Out of the total number of poisoned children, 24% developed local, and 25% general complications. The most common local complications were haemorrhagic blisters that occurred in 20% children, followed by compartment syndrome presented in 7.5% patients. The most dominated general complication was cranial nerve paresis or paralysis, which was identified in 11.2% patients, whereas shock symptoms were registrated in 7% children. According to severity of poisoning, 9.4% children had minor, 35% mild, 30.6% moderate, and 24.4% had severe clinical manifestation of envenomation. Only one (0.6%) child passed away because of snakebite directly on the neck. All patients received antivenom produced by the Institute of Immunology in Zagreb, tetanus prophylaxis as well, and almost all of them received antibiotics, and a great majority of them also received corticosteroids and antihistamines. Neighter anaphylactic reaction nor serum disease were noticed in our patients after administrating antivenom. A total of 26% children underwent surgical interventions, and incision of haemorrhagic blister was the most common applied surgical treatment, which was preformed in 15.6% patients, while fasciotomy was done in 7.5% subjects. All of our surgically treated patients recovered successfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cephalopods distribution in the southern Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. LEFKADITOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns faunal composition and distribution of cephalopods in the southern Aegean Sea (35Ζ 13’ 19’’- 37Ζ 55’ 25’’ N, 23Ζ 00’ 15’’ - 28Ζ 15’ 37’’ E. Samples were collected from 708 hauls, obtained by an experimental bottom trawl net during eight surveys carried out in the summers of the years 1994-2001, as well as by commercial trawl net during four surveys carried out in September 1995, December 1995, May and September 1996. The hauls were performed at depths ranging from 16 to 778 m. A total of 34 species of cephalopod in 12 families were identified, including 11 oegopsid squid, 3 myopsid squid, 7 octopod, 3 cuttlefish and 10 sepiolid. Trawling with the experimental net resulted in the capturing of some uncommon pelagic species, such as Ctenopteryx siculaand Octopoteuthis sicula, which were recorded for the first time in the Aegean Sea. Most of the species showed a wide depth and geographical range. The species: Sepia officinalis, Sepietta neglecta, Sepietta obscuraand Sepiola rondeletiwere caught only on the continental shelf, whereas the Ancistroteuthis lichtensteini, Bathypolypous sponsalis, Brachioteuthis riisei, Chiroteuthis veranyi, Ctenopteryx sicula, Heteroteuthis dispar, Histioteuthis reversa, Neorossia caroli and Pyroteuthis margaritiferawere found only on the slope. The rest of the species extended in both continental shelf and slope. The spatial distribution of different species groups is discussed in relation to the hydrology and topography of the study area and the species ecology.

  12. Acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Adrien

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the epidemiological and pathological aspects of an outbreak of acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil. Fifteen out of 70 three-year-old pregnant cows lost weight in the 30-40 days prior to calving. Clinical signs included diarrhea, weakness, mild anemia and jaundice. Dark yellow fluid in the abdominal cavity was observed at necropsy. Fibrin and clotted blood were adhered to the pericardium and lung, primarily in the diaphragmatic lobes. The liver was enlarged, and the capsular surface was irregular with clear areas and petechiae. At the cut surface, the liver was irregular, firm and edematous, and several hemorrhagic channels could be observed. Areas of fibrosis through the parenchyma and whitish thrombi occluding the great vessels were also observed. The livers of 10 cows that not died were condemned at slaughter for lesions of fasciolosis similar to those observed at necropsy. Microscopically, the liver showed areas of coagulation necrosis, extensive hemorrhages in the streaks or foci and disruption of the parenchyma with neutrophil and eosinophil infiltration. Fibrosis and bile duct proliferation were also observed. Immature Fasciola hepatica flukes were observed in the parenchyma surrounded by degenerated hepatocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and hemorrhages. The outbreak occurred on a farm located in an area endemic for fasciolosis, although the acute form of the disease is not common in cattle in this region. It is likely that the cows were infected by F. hepatica metacercariae released in the late fall or early spring in the rice stubble where the herd was grazing prior to calving. Although mortality due to fasciolosis in cattle is infrequent, outbreaks can occur and treatments that are effective in both the immature and adult forms of the parasite should be administered to prevent economic losses.

  13. Ultraviolet Index measurements in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Corrêa, Marcelo; Morégula, Andréa; Fausto, Agnes; Okuno, Emico; Mol, Anderson; Santos, João C.

    2009-03-01

    This work presents results of the Joint Project for Solar UV Index Measurements in Southern Bahia State (PIU Project), and represents the first effort to measure UV radiation in this tourist region. The project goal is twofold: it has a scientific component in which the distribution of UV Index will be mapped out, and it also intends to disseminate the data as a mean of divulgation of the UV Index levels to the population. This constitutes a meaningful effort to reduce health risks from excessive solar radiation exposure in a country that reports more than 120,000 new skin cancer cases each year. This project is within the framework of a larger initiative to studying UV index distribution in Brazilian regions. PIU project has had two phases: 1) seasonal measurements were performed during the summer and winter seasons of 2006 and 2007 on a sandy beach in Ilhéus (15,0° S; 39,0° W; sea level), as well as on an asphalt surface in the urban perimeter of Itabuna (14,8° S; 39,3° W; 54 m ASL); and 2) since October 2007, measurements have been continuously conducted on a concrete surface, about 20 km from the beach, in a urban area of Ilhéus. During the summer season, UV Index reaches extreme values (>11), and in winter, results range between high (6

  14. Characterization of African dust over southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A.; Dee Tomasi, F.; Filippo, E.; Manno, D.; Perrone, M. R.; Serra, A.; Tafuro, A. M.; Tepore, A.

    2003-12-01

    Dust samples from rainfall residues have been collected in southeast Italy (40º 20' N, 18º 6' E) during dust outbreaks occurred from April to June 2002 to characterize morphological and elemental particle composition by different techniques, and investigate the dependence of particle properties on source regions. Four-day analytical back trajectories and satellite images have been used to infer source regions of the investigated dust samples. It has been found that the TOMS absorbing aerosol index was in the range 0.7-2.2 over Southern Italy when samples have been collected. The particle-size and -shape analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has revealed either that the particle-diameter distribution was between 0.3 and 30 mm with median-diameter values between 1.7-2.4 mm, and that the particles were characterized by a roundness factor varying from 0.8 to 2.5. The infrared transmission spectra have allowed recognizing that all dust samples contained a significant amount of illite. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDX) measurements have revealed that the Al/Si ratio of the transported dust varies from 0.41 to 0.50, and that the Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, and Fe/Ca ratios differ according to source regions and therefore can be used as indicators of dust source regions. Indeed, it has been found that dust samples with larger Ca/Al and Si/Al ratios and lower Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios, have been collected along dust events with a source region in northwestern Sahara. On the contrary, the samples collected along dust events with the origin mainly in Chad, Niger, Algeria and Lybia were characterized by larger Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios.

  15. Characterization of African dust over southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blanco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dust samples from rainfall residues have been collected in southeast Italy (40º 20' N, 18º 6' E during dust outbreaks occurred from April to June 2002 to characterize morphological and elemental particle composition by different techniques, and investigate the dependence of particle properties on source regions. Four-day analytical back trajectories and satellite images have been used to infer source regions of the investigated dust samples. It has been found that the TOMS absorbing aerosol index was in the range 0.7-2.2 over Southern Italy when samples have been collected. The particle-size and -shape analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM has revealed either that the particle-diameter distribution was between 0.3 and 30 mm with median-diameter values between 1.7-2.4 mm, and that the particles were characterized by a roundness factor varying from 0.8 to 2.5. The infrared transmission spectra have allowed recognizing that all dust samples contained a significant amount of illite. The X-ray energy dispersive (EDX measurements have revealed that the Al/Si ratio of the transported dust varies from 0.41 to 0.50, and that the Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, and Fe/Ca ratios differ according to source regions and therefore can be used as indicators of dust source regions. Indeed, it has been found that dust samples with larger Ca/Al and Si/Al ratios and lower Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios, have been collected along dust events with a source region in northwestern Sahara. On the contrary, the samples collected along dust events with the origin mainly in Chad, Niger, Algeria and Lybia were characterized by larger Fe/Ca and K/Ca ratios.

  16. Phenological changes in the southern hemisphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda E Chambers

    Full Text Available Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand, South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias, although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially

  17. Natural hazards at the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) (southern Turkey): Tsunami evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogretmen, Nazik; Cosentino, Domenico; Gliozzi, Elsa; Cipollari, Paola; Radeff, Giuditta; Yıldırım, Cengiz

    2016-04-01

    In regions that are located in steep, orogenic plateau margins, such as the coastal area of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) southern margin, natural hazard studies related to active tectonics and events that are triggered by active tectonics (e.g., earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis) are very essential in the context of preventing possible damages. This work herein, represents some evidence of the tsunami hazard along the coast between Aydıncık and Narlıkuyu, in southern Turkey. The work is based on a study on out-of-place beachrock-slab boulder acummulation in Aydıncık district, which were transported onshore by sliding process, and on out-of-place more rounded boulders that were transported by saltation process in Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık districts. The presence of intertidal organisms (e.g., lithophaga boring, balanids, oysters, etc.) encrusting the boulders of both localities shows that those boulders were carried onland from a marine environment. According to their dimensions and weight, in agreement with out-of-place boulders from areas surely affected by tsunamis, those out-of-place boulders here are interpreted as due to tsunami waves. The tsunamites in the Aydıncık area are located on beachrock slabs. They are platty and some of those blocks are embricated and oriented perpendicular to the shoreline (NE-SW direction). Those boulders have been interpreted as transported by sliding process, in relation with the coastal morphology and the boulder geometry, which means that to move those boulders the energy of the tsunami not necessarily should have been as high as in saltation or rolling transport processes. On the contrary, in Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık localities, the boulders are well-rounded and ellipsoidal shaped, suggesting that they were transported by rolling and/or saltation mode rather than by sliding. To carry onland the tsunami boulders observed in the Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık districts, which in the Yeşilovacık area they are

  18. Testing support for the northern and southern dispersal routes out of Africa: an analysis of Levantine and southern Arabian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Deven N; Al-Meeri, Ali; Mulligan, Connie J

    2017-09-15

    The Northern Dispersal Route (NDR) and Southern Dispersal Route (SDR) are hypothesized to have been used by modern humans in the dispersal out of Africa. The NDR follows the Nile into Northeast Africa and crosses the Red Sea into the Levant. The SDR emerges from the Horn of Africa and crosses the Bab el-Mandeb into southern Arabia. In this study, we analyze genetic data from populations living along the NDR and SDR to test support for each dispersal route. We genotyped 90 Yemeni samples on the Affymetrix Human Origins array. We analyzed these data with published data from Levantine and other southern Arabian populations as well as 157 comparative populations for a total sample size of >550,000 genetic variants from >2,000 individuals in >160 populations. We calculated outgroup f3 statistics to test how Levantine and southern Arabian populations relate to African populations living along the NDR and SDR and to other non-African populations. We find that Levantine and southern Arabian populations bear similar genetic relationships to both African and non-African populations, thus providing no support for the use of one dispersal route over the other. Our results are consistent with a history of gene flow between the Levant and southern Arabia. Consideration of genetic, archaeological, and paleoclimate data provide a slight edge for the SDR but, ultimately, more data are needed to definitively identify which dispersal route out of Africa was used. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Fast, Matthew

    2009-12-31

    The Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Program is designed to demonstrate, in a day-to-day bus operation, the reliability and efficiency of a hydrogen bus operation under extreme conditions. By using ICE technology and utilizing a virtually emission free fuel, benefits to be derived include air quality enhancement and vehicle performance improvements from domestically produced, renewable energy sources. The project objective is to help both Ford and the City demonstrate and evaluate the performance characteristics of the E-450 H2ICE shuttle buses developed by Ford, which use a 6.8-liter supercharged Triton V-10 engine with a hydrogen storage system equivalent to 29 gallons of gasoline. The technology used during the demonstration project in the Ford buses is a modified internal combustion engine that allows the vehicles to run on 100% hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen gives a more thorough fuel burn which results in more power and responsiveness and less pollution. The resultant emissions from the tailpipe are 2010 Phase II compliant with NO after treatment. The City will lease two of these E-450 H2ICE buses from Ford for two years. The buses are outfitted with additional equipment used to gather information needed for the evaluation. Performance, reliability, safety, efficiency, and rider comments data will be collected. The method of data collection will be both electronically and manually. Emissions readings were not obtained during the project. The City planned to measure the vehicle exhaust with an emissions analyzer machine but discovered the bus emission levels were below the capability of their machine. Passenger comments were solicited on the survey cards. The majority of comments were favorable. The controllable issues encountered during this demonstration project were mainly due to the size of the hydrogen fuel tanks at the site and the amount of fuel that could be dispensed during a specified period of time. The uncontrollable issues encountered during this

  20. Flood of April 2007 in Southern Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Up to 8.5 inches of rain fell from April 15 through 18, 2007, in southern Maine. The rain - in combination with up to an inch of water from snowmelt - resulted in extensive flooding. York County, Maine, was declared a presidential disaster area following the event. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), determined peak streamflows and recurrence intervals at 24 locations and peak water-surface elevations at 63 sites following the April 2007 flood. Peak streamflows were determined with data from continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations where available and through hydraulic models where station data were not available. The flood resulted in peak streamflows with recurrence intervals greater than 100 years throughout most of York County, and recurrence intervals up to 50 years in Cumberland County. Peak flows for selected recurrence intervals varied from less than 10 percent to greater than 100 percent different than those in the current FEMA flood-insurance studies due to additional data or newer regression equations. Water-surface elevations observed during the April 2007 flood were bracketed by elevation profiles in FEMA flood-insurance studies with the same recurrence intervals as the recurrence intervals bracketing the observed peak streamflows at seven sites, with higher elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at six sites, and with lower elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at one site. The April 2007 flood resulted in higher peak flows and water-surface elevations than the flood of May 2006 in coastal locations in York County, and lower peak flows and water-surface elevations than the May 2006 flood further from the coast and in Cumberland County. The Mousam River watershed with over 13 dams and reservoirs was severely impacted by both events. Analyses indicate that the April 2007 peak streamflows in the Mousam River watershed

  1. The new southern novel: a bibliographical assay The new southern novel: a bibliographical assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Kiernan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Any attempt to chronicle the contemporary southern novel is beset by troublesome, interlocking questions. Is the very existence of the genro presumptive? If not, does its tradition continue to instill a sectional awareness among writers flourishing in the last years of the twentieth century? If so, is it not the case that to read any literary text as a mimetic expression of a geographical region is to confine each to the other and to ignore the quiddity of both? no task of the chronicler is further beset by the tenets of recent literary theory, for a notion prevails that there are no essential differences between fiction and hístory and that the writings of literary theorists are not to be distinguished from literary texts - with implications that run amok in a historically and critically-haunted literature like that of the American South. Any attempt to chronicle the contemporary southern novel is beset by troublesome, interlocking questions. Is the very existence of the genro presumptive? If not, does its tradition continue to instill a sectional awareness among writers flourishing in the last years of the twentieth century? If so, is it not the case that to read any literary text as a mimetic expression of a geographical region is to confine each to the other and to ignore the quiddity of both? no task of the chronicler is further beset by the tenets of recent literary theory, for a notion prevails that there are no essential differences between fiction and hístory and that the writings of literary theorists are not to be distinguished from literary texts - with implications that run amok in a historically and critically-haunted literature like that of the American South.

  2. The unusual wet summer (July) of 2014 in Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna, Satyaban B.; Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Cherchi, Annalisa; Wang, Wanqiu; Yamagata, Toshio

    2017-06-01

    Southern Europe (Italy and the surrounding countries) experienced an unusual wet summer in 2014. The monthly rainfall in July 2014 was 84% above (more than three standard deviation) normal with respect to the 1982-2013 July climatology. The heavy rainfall damaged agriculture, and affected tourism and overall economy of the region. In this study, we tried to understand the physical mechanisms responsible for such abnormal weather by using model and observed datasets. The anomalously high precipitation over Italy is found to be associated with the positive sea surface temperature (SST) and convective anomalies in the tropical Pacific through the atmospheric teleconnection. Rossby wave activity flux at upper levels shows an anomalous tropospheric quasi-stationary Rossby wave from the Pacific with an anomalous cyclonic phase over southern Europe. This anomalous cyclonic circulation is barotropic in nature and seen extending to lower atmospheric levels, weakening the seasonal high and causing heavy precipitation over the Southern Europe. The hypothesis is verified using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) coupled forecast system model (CFSv2) seasonal forecasts. It is found that two-month lead forecast of CFSv2 was able to capture the wet summer event of 2014 over Southern Europe. The teleconnection pattern from Pacific to Southern Europe was also forecasted realistically by the CFSv2 system.

  3. Plio-Pleistocene Biogenic Opal Deposition in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, G.; Gersonde, R.

    2002-12-01

    About 2/3 of the annual supply of silicic acid to the World Ocean is buried in the Southern Ocean as biogenic silica (BSi), formed by diatoms and radiolaria in surface waters and exported to the seafloor. Main BSi accumulation occurs in an area between the sea ice edge and the Polar Front Zone and seems to be steered by a complex interaction of biological and physical parameters governing the modern Southern Ocean ecosystem. Sediment cores recovered during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 177 and expeditions with RV POLARSTERN reveal the history of the opal deposition in the Atlantic and Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean during the Pliocene and the Pleistocene. This period is characterized by distinct changes and variability in global climate and ocean circulation that can be related to the spatial-temporal distribution of BSi deposition on long and short time scales. Changes in ocean circulation, water mass structure, sea ice and climatic variability that impact the distribution of silicic acid and the development of coarsly silicified diatoms (e.g. Actinocyclus ingens, Thalassiosira antarctica, Fragilariopsis kerguelensis), presenting the major carriers of biogenic opal, control past BSi deposition in the Southern Ocean. Major deposition in the area of the modern Southern Ocean opal belt starts at the Plio/Pleistocene transition. Such strong export of BSi and related organic carbon might have reinforced the trend of global cooling observed since the Mid-Pliocene climate optimum.

  4. Enhanced activity of the Southern Taurids in 2005 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olech, A.; Żołądek, P.; Wiśniewski, M.; Tymiński, Z.; Stolarz, M.; Bęben, M.; Dorosz, D.; Fajfer, T.; Fietkiewicz, K.; Gawroński, M.; Gozdalski, M.; Kałużny, M.; Krasnowski, M.; Krygiel, H.; Krzyżanowski, T.; Kwinta, M.; Łojek, T.; Maciejewski, M.; Miernicki, S.; Myszkiewicz, M.; Nowak, P.; Polak, K.; Polakowski, K.; Laskowski, J.; Szlagor, M.; Tissler, G.; Suchodolski, T.; Węgrzyk, W.; Woźniak, P.; Zaręba, P.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of Polish Fireball Network (PFN) observations of enhanced activity of the Southern Taurid meteor shower in 2005 and 2015. In 2005, between October 20 and November 10, seven stations of the PFN determined 107 accurate orbits, with 37 of them belonging to the Southern Taurid shower. In the same period of 2015, 25 stations of the PFN recorded 719 accurate orbits with 215 orbits of the Southern Taurids. Both maxima were rich in fireballs, which accounted for 17 per cent of all observed Taurids. The whole sample of Taurid fireballs is uniform in the sense of starting and terminal heights of the trajectory. However, a clear decreasing trend in geocentric velocity with increasing solar longitude was observed. The orbital parameters of observed Southern Taurids were compared to orbital elements of near-Earth objects (NEOs) from the NEODyS-2 data base. Using the Drummond criterion D΄ with a threshold as low as 0.06, we found over 100 fireballs strikingly similar to the orbit of asteroid 2015 TX24. Several dozens of Southern Taurids have orbits similar to three other asteroids: 2005 TF50, 2005 UR and 2010 TU149. All mentioned NEOs have orbital periods very close to the 7 : 2 resonance with Jupiter's orbit. This confirms the theory of a resonant meteoroid swarm within the Taurid complex, which predicts that, in specific years, the Earth is hit by a greater number of meteoroids capable of producing fireballs.

  5. Atmospheric Teleconnections of Northern Hemisphere cooling to the Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes, and implications for Southern Ocean ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, John; Lee, Shih-Yu; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Tokos, Kathy

    2010-05-01

    Recent marine proxy studies, most notably by Anderson et al. (2009), show intensification of wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean during Heinrich events, and suggesting the possibility of robust atmospheric teleconnections from the Northern Hemisphere affecting the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude westerlies. We explore the latter hypothesis using simulations of an AGCM coupled to a reduced-gravity ocean, and with reference to current thinking regarding extratropical-tropical atmospheric dynamical linkages. When we simulate a Heinrich-like event in our model (by cooling the North Atlantic), we find a significant strengthening of the southern midlatitude westerlies, in particular during the austral winter (JJA), and in the South Pacific. The other pronounced climate change is a marked southward shift of the tropical rainbelt, indicating alteration of the Hadley circulation. Our analysis indicates that the teleconnection can be broken into two parts: first, the northern hemisphere cooling shifting the ITCZ southwards with a pronounced effect on the Hadley circulation (Lindzen and Hou 1988), and then the altered Hadley circulation in turn affecting the southern midlatitude westerlies through the former's control of the southern subtropical westerlies and subsequent effect on the eddy-driven midlatitude westerlies (Lee and Kim, 2003). The seasonal (JJA) and regional (South Pacific) preference of the teleconnection's effects can be explained in terms of the peculiarities of the regional atmospheric dynamics. As an aside, we also find that the growth or decay of the Laurentide ice sheet can also generate this type of north-south teleconnection, although the dynamics are somewhat different. With regards to possible implications for southern ocean ventilation and atmospheric CO2: we applied the wind changes we obtained in our AGCM 'Heinrich' simulation to a global biogeochemical model (the Minnesota Earth System Model for Ocean biogeochemistry), and found a ~20ppm

  6. Microbiome of Yermic Regosol in southern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutovaya, Olga; Lebedeva, Marina; Tkhakakhova, Azida

    2014-05-01

    Biological activity is of utmost importance for the genesis of extremely arid desert soils. The soil surface in arid regions is often covered by biofilms representing a complex biocenosis of algae, bacteria, micromycetes, and, sometimes, mosses or lichens. Biofilms of extremely arid soils form a significant part of the living matter in the desert ecosystems and play the central role in their dynamics. Study of the genetic material recovered directly from the soil samples is the main approach in soil metagenomics. Modern sequencing methods were used to describe the diversity of the microorganisms in soil samples. For the first time, such data were obtained for the extremely arid desert soil (Yermic Regosol) in southern Kazakhstan (flat alluvial plain; 43° 42'53.2" N; 79°25'29.1" E; 615 m asl). Taxonomic identification of nucleotide sequences and comparative analysis of microbial communities were performed using VAMPS. The classification of the sequences was performed using RDP. As the primers used were based on the sequences of 16S-rRNA gene of bacteria and archaea, we could analyze the prokaryotic community. Along with bacteria and archaea with established systematic position, all soil samples contained unidentified sequences (5.2-5.3%). Bacteria predominated at the domain level (65.9-74.9%), although their portion was much lower in comparison with that in less arid soils, where it reached 94-100%. Archaea were present as minor components (0.3-0.5%). Dominant groups of bacteria were represented by Proteobacteria (43.9-50.8%), Actinobacteria (9.5-10%), Firmicutes (0.8-2.4%), Verrucomicrobia (1.1-3%), Acidobacteria (1.1-2%), Bacteroidetes (1.2-1.4%). The portion of other phyla was less than 1%. Thus, bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria constitute the core component of the microbiome. Archaea are represented by phylum Crenarchaeota. A key feature of the extremely arid soils is the presence of large numbers (24.7-33.6%) of cyanobacteria

  7. Lassa Virus Seroprevalence in Sibirilia Commune, Bougouni District, Southern Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogoba, Nafomon; Rosenke, Kyle; Adjemian, Jennifer; Diawara, Sory Ibrahim; Maiga, Ousmane; Keita, Moussa; Konaté, Drissa; Keita, Abdoul Salam; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Boisen, Matt; Nelson, Diana; Oottamasathien, Darin; Millett, Molly; Garry, Robert F; Branco, Luis M; Traoré, Sékou F; Doumbia, Seydou; Feldmann, Heinz; Safronetz, David

    2016-04-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to several nations in West Africa. In Mali, LASV was unknown until an exported case of Lassa fever was reported in 2009. Since that time, rodent surveys have found evidence of LASV-infected Mastomys natalensis rats in several communities in southern Mali, near the border with Côte d'Ivoire. Despite increased awareness, to date only a single case of Lassa fever has been confirmed in Mali. We conducted a survey to determine the prevalence of LASV exposure among persons in 3 villages in southern Mali where the presence of infected rodents has been documented. LASV IgG seroprevalence ranged from 14.5% to 44% per village. No sex bias was noted; however, seropositivity rates increased with participant age. These findings confirm human LASV exposure in Mali and suggest that LASV infection/Lassa fever is a potential public health concern in southern Mali.

  8. Density structure of the cratonic mantle in southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Vinnik, Lev P.

    2016-01-01

    . An unusually high topography may be caused by a low density (high depletion) of the cratonic lithospheric mantle and/or by the dynamic support of the mantle with origin below the depth of isostatic compensation (assumed here to be at the lithosphere base). We use free-board constraints to examine the relative...... contributions of the both factors to surface topography in the cratons of southern Africa. Our analysis takes advantage of the SASE seismic experiment which provided high resolution regional models of the crustal thickness.We calculate the model of density structure of the lithospheric mantle in southern Africa...... and show that it has an overall agreement with xenolith-based data for lithospheric terranes of different ages. Density of lithospheric mantle has significant short-wavelength variations in all tectonic blocks of southern Africa and has typical SPT values of ca. 3.37-3.41g/cm3 in the Cape Fold and Namaqua...

  9. Biodiversity of macrozoobenthos some running waters of southern Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Sukop

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work gives the results of the research of macrozoobenthos some running waters drai­na­ge areas of the Dyje River (southern Moravia – Czech Republic. Altogether, 762 taxa of macrozoobenthos were determined from the running waters of southern Moravia. Porifera (3, Hydrozoa (3, Turbellaria (8, Nematoda (14, Nematomorpha (1, Oligochaeta (60, Hirudinea (18, Bryozoa (5, Mollusca (44, Isopoda (2, Amphipoda (4, Decapoda (2, Hydracarina (17, Ephemeroptera (65, Plecoptera (55, Odonata (26, Heteroptera (3, Plannipennia (2, Trichoptera (128, Coleoptera (59, Diptera (243. Some taxa of macrozoobenthos are extinct unfortunately in running waters of Southern Moravia at present time. Another ones appear newly, for example snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum from New Zealand or Dreissena polymorpha from Pontic region. The data presented in this paper may serve as a basis for future monitoring of water quality and zoobenthos composition in connection with presumption of climate changes.

  10. A Critical Approach towards Jade Axes in Southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    Southern Scandinavian jade axes have been interpreted as items of prestigious exchange illustrating contact with the agrarian societies of Central Europe and reflecting agrarian ideas and ideology. They are therefore important in the discussion concerning the process of neolithisation in Northern...... Europe, but the difficulties in differentiating between Neolithic axes of alpine jade from axes imported from other continents has attracted some criticism. Furthermore, some of the jade axes found in Southern Scandinavian collections originate from private collectors, many of whom had contacts all over...... Europe. The axes lack therefore secure archaeological contexts, and may suggest that they have not been found in Scandinavian soil. The aim of this paper is to maintain a critical approach towards the question of the origin of the jade axes from Southern Scandinavia. However, the many imitations of jade...

  11. Simulating Groundwater Recharge Across the Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, S. J.; Haacker, E. M.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying recharge and water availability across the Southern High Plains is a difficult, but necessary, challenge for future groundwater and agricultural projections. Overland flow is not common due to limited precipitation, dry soils, and high evapotranspiration. The majority of runoff is temporarily stored in playa lakes, leading to the bulk of recharge across the region occurring in localized infiltration zones beneath these lakes. Despite the importance of regional recharge estimates, limited information exists that integrates complex characteristics of the land, climate, and hydrology in order to quantify recharge across the entire Southern High Plains aquifer. This study applies the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) to capture these characteristics and simulate surface water flow and groundwater recharge. This model simulates the complete water cycle across large regions, including irrigation estimates, establishing a framework to estimate recharge and groundwater availability in the Southern High Plains region. Results from this study can be used to predict the likely impacts of climate change and improve water management strategies.

  12. Notes on southern Africa Jerusalem crickets (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Sia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David B; Bazelet, Corinna S

    2013-02-18

    The Old World Jerusalem cricket (JC) subfamily Siinae contains one genus, Sia, with two subgenera: Sia (Sia) with two fully winged species from southeast Asia, and Sia (Maxentius) with four wingless species from southern Africa. Because there is a dearth of published data about the behavior and biology of these insects, we present new field and laboratory research on southern African Sia (Maxentius), gather museum and literature information, and present guidelines for collecting and rearing specimens. While we make no taxonomic decisions, this review should be useful for future studies, including a needed taxonomic revision. We also compare results from these southern African JCs with recent investigations on related New World taxa, where fascinating biological traits and extensive cryptic biodiversity have been uncovered. DNA analysis reveals that these Old and New World JCs are polyphyletic.

  13. Southern Appalachian assessment. Summary report, Report 1 of 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This final report for the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program is comprised of two documents: (1) a brief summary of programs and projects, and (2) a more extensive summary report included as an attachment. The purpose of the program is to promote a sustainable balance between the conservation of biological diversity, compatible economic uses, and cultural values across the Southern Appalachians. Program and project areas addressing regional issues include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development/sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resources, and public information and education. The attached summary report is one of five that documents the results of the Southern Appalachian Assessment; it includes atmospheric, social/cultural/economic, terrestrial, and aquatic reports.

  14. Assessment of Southern California environment from ERTS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.; Viellenave, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery is a useful source of data for evaluation of earth resources in Southern California. The improving quality of ERTS-1 imagery, and our increasing ability to enhance the imagery has resulted in studies of a variety of phenomena in several Southern California environments. These investigations have produced several significant results of varying detail. They include the detection and identification of macro-scale tectonic and vegetational patterns, as well as detailed analysis of urban and agricultural processes. The sequential nature of ERTS-1 imagery has allowed these studies to monitor significant changes in the environment. In addiation, some preliminary work has begun directed toward assessing the impact of expanding recreation, agriculture and urbanization into the fragile desert environment. Refinement of enhancement and mapping techniques and more intensive analysis of ERTS-1 imagery should lead to a greater capability to extract detailed information for more precise evaluations and more accurate monitoring of earth resources in Southern California.

  15. The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Martinón-Torres, María; Cai, Yan-jun; Xing, Song; Tong, Hao-wen; Pei, Shu-wen; Sier, Mark Jan; Wu, Xiao-hong; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Li, Yi-yuan; Yang, Xiong-xin; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Wu, Xiu-jie

    2015-10-29

    The hominin record from southern Asia for the early Late Pleistocene epoch is scarce. Well-dated and well-preserved fossils older than ∼45,000 years that can be unequivocally attributed to Homo sapiens are lacking. Here we present evidence from the newly excavated Fuyan Cave in Daoxian (southern China). This site has provided 47 human teeth dated to more than 80,000 years old, and with an inferred maximum age of 120,000 years. The morphological and metric assessment of this sample supports its unequivocal assignment to H. sapiens. The Daoxian sample is more derived than any other anatomically modern humans, resembling middle-to-late Late Pleistocene specimens and even contemporary humans. Our study shows that fully modern morphologies were present in southern China 30,000-70,000 years earlier than in the Levant and Europe. Our data fill a chronological and geographical gap that is relevant for understanding when H. sapiens first appeared in southern Asia. The Daoxian teeth also support the hypothesis that during the same period, southern China was inhabited by more derived populations than central and northern China. This evidence is important for the study of dispersal routes of modern humans. Finally, our results are relevant to exploring the reasons for the relatively late entry of H. sapiens into Europe. Some studies have investigated how the competition with H. sapiens may have caused Neanderthals' extinction (see ref. 8 and references therein). Notably, although fully modern humans were already present in southern China at least as early as ∼80,000 years ago, there is no evidence that they entered Europe before ∼45,000 years ago. This could indicate that H. neanderthalensis was indeed an additional ecological barrier for modern humans, who could only enter Europe when the demise of Neanderthals had already started.

  16. Large-Scale Weather Disturbances in Mars’ Southern Extratropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.

    2015-11-01

    Between late autumn and early spring, Mars’ middle and high latitudes within its atmosphere support strong mean thermal gradients between the tropics and poles. Observations from both the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) indicate that this strong baroclinicity supports intense, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems (i.e., transient synoptic-period waves). These extratropical weather disturbances are key components of the global circulation. Such wave-like disturbances act as agents in the transport of heat and momentum, and generalized scalar/tracer quantities (e.g., atmospheric dust, water-vapor and ice clouds). The character of large-scale, traveling extratropical synoptic-period disturbances in Mars' southern hemisphere during late winter through early spring is investigated using a moderately high-resolution Mars global climate model (Mars GCM). This Mars GCM imposes interactively lifted and radiatively active dust based on a threshold value of the surface stress. The model exhibits a reasonable "dust cycle" (i.e., globally averaged, a dustier atmosphere during southern spring and summer occurs). Compared to their northern-hemisphere counterparts, southern synoptic-period weather disturbances and accompanying frontal waves have smaller meridional and zonal scales, and are far less intense. Influences of the zonally asymmetric (i.e., east-west varying) topography on southern large-scale weather are examined. Simulations that adapt Mars’ full topography compared to simulations that utilize synthetic topographies emulating key large-scale features of the southern middle latitudes indicate that Mars’ transient barotropic/baroclinic eddies are highly influenced by the great impact basins of this hemisphere (e.g., Argyre and Hellas). The occurrence of a southern storm zone in late winter and early spring appears to be anchored to the western hemisphere via orographic influences from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre

  17. Southern images - RGP gmap | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RGP gmap Southern images Data detail Data name Southern images DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00318-...01-003 Description of data contents Parents Southern hybridization image files. Data file File name: rgp_gmap_southe...rn_image.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rgp-gmap/LATEST/rgp_gmap_southern_image.zi...p File size: 37.3 MB Simple search URL - Data acquisition method Southern hybridi...zation Data analysis method For genotype segregation in F2 plants, Southern hybridization was performed with DNAs digested with the

  18. Southern images - RGP gmap98 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RGP gmap98 Southern images Data detail Data name Southern images DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc0031...8-02-006 Description of data contents Parental Southern hybridization image files. Data file File name: rgp_gmap98_southe...rn_image.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rgp-gmap98/LATEST/rgp_gmap98_southern..._image.zip File size: 69.2 MB Simple search URL - Data acquisition method Souther...n hybridization Data analysis method For genotype segregation in F2 plants, Southern hybridization was perfo

  19. Antarctic stratospheric ozone and seasonal predictability over southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, FA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available -latitude tropospheric circulation in summer (e.g. Thompson and Solomon, 2002). However, in most state- of-the-art seasonal forecasting or climate simulation systems applied to predict/simulate Southern Hemisphere climate variability, this form of time... stratospheric ozone and seasonal predictability over southern Africa Francois A. Engelbrecht1,2, Thando Ndarana1, Yushi Morioka3, Swadhin Behera3, Marcus Thatcher4 and John L. McGregor4 1CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment – Climate Studies...

  20. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition. In the early 1970s, the Bolivian government introduced the first tractors to southern Bolivia’s Salar region......, and rapid drainage during precipitation and snow melt events. It appears that many of the first quinoa fields were established on flood plain deposits, where good yields could be anticipated despite the apparent risk of erosion. The subsequent expansion of production areas was paralleled by an increase...

  1. Climate change: an issue for parliamentarians in Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala; Anderson, Simon; Schoch, Corinne; Smith, Barry

    2011-11-15

    Parliamentarians can play a key role in building climate resilience by bringing constituents' concerns into national forums, scrutinising how governments are responding to domestic and global climate change issues, and ensuring policy continuity. In the Southern African Customs Union, members of parliament often struggle to fulfill this role, hampered by limited understanding of the issues, fragmented policy and legal frameworks and competing priorities. Boosting parliamentarians' capacity to engage effectively with climate change in Southern Africa requires them to strengthen their research capabilities, diversify their sources of information and build cross-party groups on climate change.

  2. James Dunlop's historical catalogue of southern nebulae and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozens, Glen; Walsh, Andrew; Orchiston, Wayne

    2010-03-01

    In 1826 James Dunlop compiled the second ever catalogue of southern star clusters, nebulae and galaxies from Parramatta (NSW, Australia) using a 23-cm reflecting telescope. Initially acclaimed, the catalogue and author were later criticised and condemned by others - including Sir John Herschel and both the catalogue and author are now largely unknown. The criticism of the catalogue centred on the large number of fictitious or ‘missing’ objects, yet detailed analysis reveals the remarkable completeness of the catalogue, despite its inherent errors. We believe that James Dunlop was an important early Australian astronomer, and his catalogue should be esteemed as the southern equivalent of Messier's famous northern catalogue.

  3. Options for suitable biofuel farming: Experience from Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Maltitz, Graham P

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available -WIDER project on ‘Regional growth and development in Southern Africa’. Copyright © UNU-WIDER 2017 Information and requests: publications@wider.unu.edu ISSN 1798-7237 ISBN 978-92-9256-324-0 Typescript prepared by Joseph Laredo. The United Nations...-WIDER acknowledges specific programme contribution from the National Treasury of South Africa to its project ‘Regional growth and development in Southern Africa’ and core financial support to its work programme from the governments of Denmark, Finland, Sweden...

  4. A synopsis of the tribe Desmodieae (Fabaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Schrire

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Desmodieae has a pantropical distribution and is one of the most advanced tribes in the subfamily Papilionoideae. Its greatest centres of development are in tropical Asia and America. Africa is relatively poorly endowed and only four genera comprising 16 species occur in the flora of southern Africa. Many of these species are widespread in the Old World tropics and the few African endemics appear to be closely related to them. A synopsis of the genera Desmodium, Pseudarthria, Alysicarpus and Lespedeza is given for southern Africa.

  5. Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis, C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available .11. Annual rainfall anomalies for the whole southern Africa region (1901-2009) 20 3Table of Contents Figure 2.1. Multi-model probabilistic forecast for the likelihood of February-March-April 26 2011 rainfall totals exceeding the 85th (extremely wet...) and 15th (extremely dry) percentiles of the climatological record Figure 2.2. Multi-model probabilistic El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecast, 27 issued in early June 2010 for the period July to December of the same year Figure 3.1. Median...

  6. Ecosystem stressors in southern Nevada: Chapter 2 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Burton K.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Ostoja, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems and their associated resources are subject to a number of global and regional/local stressors that are affecting the sustainability of the region. Global stressors include elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated changes in temperature and precipitation patterns and amount, solar radiation, and nutrient cycles (Smith and others 2009b). Global stressors are ubiquitous in nature and interact both directly and indirectly with regional or local stressors. Regional/local stressors in southern Nevada include: population growth and urbanization and associated increases in nitrogen deposition, energy development, water development, and recreation; increased effects of insects and disease; ongoing effects of livestock, wild horse and burro grazing; new and expanding invasive species; and altered fire regimes. This chapter provides background information on the stressors affecting southern Nevada's ecosystems that is needed to address Goal 1.0 in the SNAP Science Research Strategy, which is to restore, sustain, and enhance southern Nevada's ecosystems (Turner and others 2009). Human population growth and changes in land use strongly affect the type and magnitude of local/regional stressors. From 1960 to 2010, Nevada's growth rate was the highest in the nation (www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-01.pdf). Clark County has experienced particularly high growth, with a population increase of greater than 40 percent since the 2000 census. Factors like land ownership, historic and current land use, proximity to human and energy developments, and desirability for recreation all influence the level of human-caused stress. The strong elevation/climate gradients and large difference in the environmental characteristics of southern Nevada ecosystems (fig. 1.2; Chapter 1) have a major influence on both patterns of land use and the dominant stressors for different ecosystem types. Shifts in land use related to population growth

  7. Tidal and inertial currents in the southern Bay of Campeche, southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposito-Diaz, G.

    2007-05-01

    Data from March 1 to June 17, 1997 of currents, water temperature, salinity, and sea level in the southern Bay of Campeche were used to describe tidal and inertial currents. Data were low pass filtered using a Lanczos type filter, and transformed to the frequency space with classical Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), and Morlet Wavelets Method (MWM). Results presented the strongest currents in the southwestern part of the bay, with a dominant east-west component. The predominant direction of the current was parallel to the coast, and followed the bathymetry, depicting the strong barotropic effect. The amplitude of tidal current was very small when compared to total amplitudes. The spectral energy was concentrated at the low frequencies bands, correspond to inertial periods, with an approximate duration between two to three days. Some of these oscillations were also observed in the progressive vectors diagrams. The dominance of the spectral energy at low frequencies demonstrated the influence of the mesoscale cyclonic and the small anticyclonic eddies, of the northeastern Bay of Campeche, in southwestern currents.

  8. The Southern Tyrrhenian subduction system. Recent evolution and neotectonic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argnani, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna (Italy). Ist. per la Geologia Marina

    2000-06-01

    Geological and geophysical data have been integrated with the aim of presenting a new evolutionary model for the Southern Tyrrhenian (Mediterranean Sea) and adjacent regions. The Southern Tyrrhenian back arc basin opened within a plate convergence regime because of sinking slab was torn apart on either side in the last 2 Ma and this process controlled the neotectonic of the Southern Apennines - Tyrrhenian region. On the north-eastern side the slab broke off from NW to SE and this process triggered volcanism and NW-SE extension along the Eastern Tyrrhenian margin, and strike-slip tectonics along NW-SE trending faults in Northern Calabria (Italy). On the south-western side the slab broke off from W to E along the Aeolian Island alignment, although the tear has currently been reoriented along the favouring the NNW-SSE Malta escarpment. During its sinking the subducted slab also detected from the overriding plate, favouring the wedging of the asthenosphere between the two plates and the regional uplift of the Calabrian arc and surroundings. This regional uplift promoted gravitational instability within the orogenic wedge, particularly towards low topography areas; the large-scale sliding of the Calabrian arc towards the Ionian basin can be the Apennines can be related to accommodation of vertical motions within the fold-nd-thrust belt. The pattern of responsible for extensional earthquakes in Calabria and the Southern Apennines, whereas Africa plate convergence can account for compressional earthquakes in Sicily.

  9. Citizen Participation in School Affairs in Two Southern Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaden, Arliss L.

    The effectiveness of organizations for citizen participation in school affairs depends on their influence in effecting school policies and decisions, and on their stability for sustained influence. In Atlanta, neither citizen initiated (Southern Leadership Conference) nor school initiated (Committee of 100) system-wide mechanisms have been very…

  10. Procamacolaimus Dorylaimus Sp. Nov. (Nematoda: Leptolaimidae) from the southern atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.

    2003-01-01

    Procamacolaimus dorylaimus sp. nov. is described from the Southern Atlantic (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). The species is characterised by 3.4-3.5 mm long body; coarsely annulated cuticle without lateral field, epidermal glands and body pores absent, somatic setae present; labial sensilla pap

  11. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vivek Srinivas,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize canine parvovirus circulating in Southern India by genetic analysis of VP2 capsid protein gene.Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 samples were collected from nine different locations covering five Southern Indian states (Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . Out of 128 samples, 69 samples were found to be positive by PCR assay. Out of 69 positive samples, 36 were randomly selected and processed for virus isolation. Twenty viruses could be isolated successfully and 18 randomly selected isolate were subjected to VP2 gene sequence analysis along with 6 random clinical samples.Result: Seventeen isolates and 5 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala. But one isolate and one clinical sample had amino acids variations which were characteristics of New CPV-2b. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2b strains of India; rest other sequences was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a reference strains of Japan, China, Thailand and India.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the predominant CPV strain circulating in Southern India is New CPV-2a. There is also enough indication of New CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India.

  12. A new species of Fernandezina (Araneae, Palpimanidae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ott

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Fernandezina Birabén, 1951, F. nica sp. nov. is described from Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. Fernandezina pulchra Birabén, 1951, is registered for Brazil and a new geographic record in Brazil is presented for F. pelta Platnick, 1975.

  13. Self-harm and self-poisoning in southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anuradha; Sandal Sejbaek, Camilla; Suganthy, Pearline

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To record cases of suicide and attempted suicide among a population of 108 000 people living in a primarily rural area of southern India, with the aim of guiding policies and strategies to restrict access to poisonous compounds at community level. METHOD: Community-based surveillance...

  14. Water and water use in southern Nevada [Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne R. Belcher; Michael J. Moran; Megan E. Rogers

    2013-01-01

    Water and water use in southern Nevada is an important issue. The scarcity of water resources for both human and biologic communities often leads to intense competition for both surface and groundwaters. Anthropogenic and climate change impacts on scarce water resources need to be understood to assess human and ecosystem health for the study area.

  15. Rendezvous with the World: Missouri Southern State University's Themed Semesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Although most universities emphasize study abroad as the primary vehicle to internationalize the campus, in reality only a small percentage of students actually participate in this endeavor. The internationally themed semesters at Missouri Southern State University (MSSU) reach virtually every student, and provide a global perspective and cultural…

  16. Oceans around Southern Africa and regional effects of global change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lutjeharms, JRE

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, a great deal of work has been carried out on the nature of the oceanic circulation around southern Africa. Attempts have been made to determine regional ocean-atmosphere interactions and the effect of changing sea...

  17. History of ‘swine fever’ in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The histories of the two swine fevers in southern Africa differ widely. Classical swine fever (hog cholera has been known in the northern hemisphere since 1830 and it is probable that early cases of ‘swine fever’ in European settlers’ pigs in southern Africa were accepted to be that disease. It was only in 1921 that the first description of African swine fever as an entity different from classical swine fever was published after the disease had been studied in settlers’ pigs in Kenya. Shortly after that, reports of African swine fever in settlers’ pigs emerged from South Africa and Angola. In South Africa, the report related to pigs in the north-eastern part of the country. Previously (in 1905 or earlier a disease assumed to be classical swine fever caused high mortality among pigs in the Western Cape and was only eradicated in 1918. African swine fever was found over the following years to be endemic in most southern African countries. Classical swine fever, however, apart from an introduction with subsequent endemic establishment in Madagascar and a number of introductions into Mauritius, the last one in 2000, had apparently remained absent from the region until it was diagnosed in the Western and subsequently the Eastern Cape of South Africa in 2005. It was eradicated by 2007. The history of these diseases in the southern African region demonstrates their importance and their potential for spread over long distances, emphasising the need for improved management of both diseases wherever they occur.

  18. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Laurent, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The Early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene fluvio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which corre...

  19. Brief Analysis of E-business in China Southern Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航; 崔涛; 焦斌

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of internet is causing another industrial revolution. Developing E-business is necessary for Chinese airlines to keep their competitive advantages. It is quite urgent for China Southern Airlines to enlarge and improve its E-business strategies so that it can consolidate its leading position in this market segment.

  20. World Small Hydropower Development Report 2013 - Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available , Namibia, and Swaziland produce all or a majority of their electricity from hydropower, while South Africa is mostly coal dependent. All countries are members of the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP)i; Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland are net importers...

  1. Dynamical seasonal prediction of Southern African summer precipitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yuan, C

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction skill for southern African (16°–33°E, 22°–35°S) summer precipitation in the Scale Interaction Experiment-Frontier coupled model is assessed for the period of 1982–2008. Using three different observation datasets, deterministic forecasts...

  2. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the southern part of denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens K; Svendsen, Anders J; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the southern part of Denmark. Using a screening questionnaire, telephone interview, register data, and a clinical examination cases were ascertained from a random sample of 4995 individuals over the age of 15...

  3. Incorporating Phaeocystis into a Southern Ocean ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanlin; Moore, J. Keith

    2011-01-01

    Phaeocystis antarctica is an important phytoplankton species in the Southern Ocean. We incorporated P. antarctica into the biogeochemical elemental cycling ocean model to study Southern Ocean ecosystem dynamics and biogeochemistry. The optimum values of ecological parameters for Phaeocystis were sought through synthesizing laboratory and field observations, and the model output was evaluated with observed chlorophyll a, carbon biomass, and nutrient distributions. Several factors have been proposed to control Southern Ocean ecosystem structure, including light adaptation, iron uptake capability, and loss processes. Optimum simulation results were obtained when P. antarctica had a relatively high α (P-I curve initial slope) value and a higher half-saturation constant for iron uptake than other phytoplankton. Simulation results suggested that P. antarctica had a competitive advantage under low irradiance levels, especially in the Ross Sea and Weddell Sea. However, the distributions of P. antarctica and diatoms were also strongly influenced by iron availability. Although grazing rates had an influence on total biomass, our simulations did not show a strong influence of grazing pressure in the competition between P. antarctica and diatoms. However, limited observations and the relative simplicity of zooplankton in our model suggest further research is needed. Overall, P. antarctica contributed ˜13% of annual primary production and ˜19% of sinking carbon export in the Southern Ocean (>40°S) in our best case simulation. At higher latitudes (>60°S) P. antarctica accounts for ˜23% of annual primary production and ˜30% of sinking carbon export.

  4. A new fauna from the Colorado group of southern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeside, John B.

    1925-01-01

    This paper describes a small but interesting fauna collected in 1921 by W. T. Thorn, Jr., Gail F. Moulton, T. W. Stanton, and K. C. Heald in the Crow Indian Reservation in southern Montana. The locality is in sec. 36, T. 6 S., R. 32 E., Big Horn County, and is 2 miles east of the Soap Creek oil field.

  5. Seasonal forecasts: communicating current climate variability in southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa, seasonal rainfall and temperature forecasts have been made for almost two decades already and these forecasts have been developed to improve the ability of users to cope with fluctuations in rainfall and temperatures on a...

  6. A history of southern forest science, management, and sustainability issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Michael Rauscher

    2004-01-01

    The 13 Southern States from Virginia to Texas have a combined area of approximately 500 million acres. Our understanding of the complex cultural and ecological history of this large region is still evolving. It may be fair to say that until recently, our view of the native peoples of the South and the landscape in which they lived derived chiefly from reports provided...

  7. Water use by short rotation Eucalyptus woodlots in southern Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugunga, C.P.; Kool, D.; Wijk, van M.T.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus is abundant in Rwanda, mainly planted in short rotation woodlots, scattered in small clusters over the hilly landscape. A study was done in Butare and Busoro catchments, southern Rwanda from May to November 2007 to estimated water use of eucalypts in representative catchments in Rwanda,

  8. Geranium kikianum sp nov (Geraniaceae) from the southern Peloponnese, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, K.; Siljak-Yakovlev, S.; Vold, G.

    2011-01-01

    Geranium kikianum Kit Tan & G. Vold sp. nov. (Geraniaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to Greece. It occurs beside streams and other wet places in open Pinus nigra forest at the foothills of Mt Taigetos in the southern Peloponnese. It is closely related to G. macrorrhizu...

  9. External fruit morphology of southern African Arundineae (Arundinoideae: Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Barker

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of a number of taxa of all indigenous southern African arundinoid genera were examined by means of SEM. Size, shape, compression, surface sculpturing, embryo anti hilum features were recorded and fruits of all genera are illustrated. Results are compared to existing descriptions. The genera are placed in five informal groups according to similarities noted in the fruits.

  10. A Grammar of Southern Pomo: An Indigenous Language of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Neil Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Southern Pomo is a moribund indigenous language, one of seven closely related Pomoan languages once spoken in Northern California in the vicinity of the Russian River drainage, Clear Lake, and the adjacent Pacific coast. This work is the first full-length grammar of the language. It is divided into three parts. Part I introduces the sociocultural…

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Wild Asian Elephants, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Arun; Pandiyan, Jeganathan; Madhavilatha, G K; Mundayoor, Sathish; Chandramohan, Bathrachalam; Sajesh, P K; Santhosh, Sam; Mikota, Susan K

    2017-03-01

    We tested 3 ild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in southern India and confirmed infection in 3 animals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate human pathogen, by PCR and genetic sequencing. Our results indicate that tuberculosis may be spilling over from humans (reverse zoonosis) and emerging in wild elephants.

  12. Editorial: Towards an effective commons governance system in Southern Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Magole (Lapologang); S.D. Turner (Stephen); B.E. Büscher (Bram)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis special feature presents several papers generated under the EUfunded ‘Cross Sectoral Commons Governance in Southern Africa’ (CROSCOG) project. The feature builds on knowledge generated in case studies which explored existing integrated resource knowledge and governance practices

  13. Miscellaneous notes on Southern African Gastropoda Euthyneura (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1967-01-01

    SUMMARY The following new distribution records of southern African terrestrial molluscs seem to be of particular interest: Pupilla fontana (Krss.), Rachis jejuna (M. & P.), Guppya rumrutiensis (Prest.), Xerocerastus burchelli (Gray) (all four new for Rhodesia), Euonyma damarica Jaeck. (new for Cape

  14. 173 Christian Missionaries and Civilization in Southern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    The history of Christian mission in the southern part of Nigeria is in essence the story of the .... Nigerian society. In order to achieve this purpose, a new .... women missionaries, also did some amount of good work in the spread of European ...

  15. An Argument for an Integrated Approach to Teaching Southern Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Grace

    1978-01-01

    In addition to such writers as William Faulkner, Flannery O'Connor, Carson McCullers, and Eudora Welty, a good course in modern Southern fiction should include black writers such as Zora Hurston, Nella Larsen, Jean Toomer, Richard Wright, Maya Angelou, and Alice Walker. (MKM)

  16. Trace metal evidence for a poorly ventilated glacial Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Meghan; Hendy, Ingrid L.

    2017-08-01

    Glacial benthic δ13C and Δ14C measurements from the Atlantic Ocean have been interpreted to indicate the existence of a poorly ventilated Southern Ocean with greater CO2 and nutrient contents compared to present. Enhanced storage of CO2 in the deep ocean predicts that oxygen concentrations should have declined at the same time-a prediction increasingly supported by evidence for oxygen depletion in the glacial Southern Ocean. Here we take a novel approach by using a suite of redox-sensitive trace metals (Ag, Cd, Re and Mo) to show that Southern Ocean sediments from two cores in the Atlantic sector were suboxic during and prior to deglaciation, implying changes to ocean circulation and/or elevated export production that significantly altered deep water chemistry. In the Cape Basin, enrichments of the authigenically deposited trace metal Re are comparable to those found in oxygen minimum zones, pointing to substantial decreases in oxygenation. Furthermore, trace metal results suggest potential spatial heterogeneity in the glacial Southern Ocean, and a more complicated oceanographic and oxygenation history than has previously been assumed.

  17. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKay, R.; Naish, T.; Carter, L.; Riesselman, C.; Dunbar, R.; Sjunneskog, C.; Winter, D.; Sangiorgi, F.; Warren, C.; Pagani, M.; Schouten, S.; Willmott, V.; Levy, R.; DeConto , R.M.; Powell, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL

  18. Equatorial ionospheric electrodynamic perturbations during Southern Hemisphere stratospheric warming events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, M. E.; Fejer, B. G.; Stolle, Claudia;

    2013-01-01

    We use ground-based and satellite measurements to examine, for the first time, the characteristics of equatorial electrodynamic perturbations measured during the 2002 major and 2010 minor Southern Hemisphere sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. Our data suggest the occurrence of enhanced qu...

  19. Patch based predation in a southern Appalachian stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. Gibson; R.E. Ratajezak; G.D. Grossman

    2004-01-01

    Streams are characterized by high degrees of patchiness that could influence the role of predators in these systems. Here we assess the impact of predatory benthic fishes on benthic macroinvertebrate density, biomass, and community structure at the patch scale in a fourth order stream in the southern Appalachians. We tested the role of predation in two different patch...

  20. New taxa of southern African Sesiini (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Daniel

    2015-05-11

    Two new genera of Sesiini from southern Africa, each comprising only a single species are described and figured: Microsesia nana, new gen., new sp. (holotype in TMPS) and Coccophila, new gen., with Coccophila pythes (Druce, 1899), new comb. (holotype in BMNH). Bionomical data for Coccophila pythes are given for the first time.

  1. GAP SIZE AND SUCCESSIONAL PROCESSES IN SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used clearcut logging in establishing four replicated sizes of canopy openings (0.016, 0.08, 0.4, and 2.0 ha) in a southern Appalachian hardwood forest in 1981 to examine the long-term effects of disturbance size on plant community structure, biomass accumulation, aboveground ...

  2. A Christian Value? Faculty Diversity at Southern Evangelical Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marquita; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2016-01-01

    This case study research project examined efforts at three member institutions of the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU), all located in the southern United States, to increase faculty diversity. The study also explored how these efforts related to institutional mission and what aspects within the history of evangelicalism…

  3. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKay, R.; Naish, T.; Carter, L.; Riesselman, C.; Dunbar, R.; Sjunneskog, C.; Winter, D.; Sangiorgi, F.; Warren, C.; Pagani, M.; Schouten, S.; Willmot, V.; Levy, R.; DeConto, R.; Powell, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL AND-1

  4. Severe wind phenomena in Southern Africa and the related damage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goliger, Adam M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the types and magnitude of strong and extreme wind events that develop over the southern portion of the African continent. The origin of such events is given, together with selected statistics and examples of damage...

  5. Coastal zone management around the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, R.; Van de Wetering, B.G.M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Southern North Sea is bordered by Great-Britain, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The North Sea basin and its adjacent shorelines are intensively used. Management of the basin and the coastal zone is therefore essential. Because of the small scale of the area, the dense pop

  6. Challenging School Leadership in Thailand's Southern Border Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxcy, Brendan D.; Sungtong, Ekkarin; Nguyen, Thu Su'o'ng Thi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the challenges facing public school leadership in southern Thailand, a region destabilized by renewal of a longstanding insurgency. Seeking to implement national educational reforms on shifting social, political and cultural terrain, educators in this region face extraordinary challenges as they reconsider and renegotiate…

  7. A new species of Symplocos (Symplocaceae) from southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa Ulloa, Carmen; Ståhl, Bertil; Minga, Danilo; Ansaloni, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    A new species from Ecuador, Symplocos limonensis, is here described and illustrated. It resembles Symplocos clethrifolia but differs by having larger leaves with evident (i.e., not concealed) areoles on lower surface, sessile inflorescences, smaller white corollas, and fewer stamens. The species is only known from three collections in the Andean forests of Morona-Santiago Province in southern Ecuador.

  8. Climate and southern Africa's water-energy-food nexus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conway, D

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa, the connections between climate and the water–energy–food nexus are strong. Physical and socioeconomic exposure to climate is high in many areas and in crucial economic sectors. Spatial interdependence is also high, driven...

  9. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  10. Marketing in Southern Ghana: towards a planning typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Dunham (David)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractThere are a number of strong historical and practical grounds for a regional planner operating in Southern Ghana to study marketing structures. The recent history of the area confirms an important axiom of regional theory, namely that the organisation of marketing has a considerable infl

  11. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  12. Ethane and propane in the Southern marine troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, T. S.; Martin, R. J.; Rudolph, J.

    Nearly 500 measurements of the ethane and propane mixing ratios have been made in clean marine air at Baring Head (New Zealand) and Scott Base (Antarctica) between 1991 and 1996. The annual averages of the mixing ratios (285 and 40 ppt) are lower than previously reported for the Southern Hemisphere. A striking feature of the seasonal cycle is the abrupt drop in mixing ratios of both compounds around November and a corresponding increase in the ethane/propane ratio (from about 7 in winter to > 10 in summer), suggesting a sharp decrease in Southern Hemisphere sources (e.g. biomass burning or fossil gas emissions) of these compounds in the spring. From a simple budget estimate it is concluded that biomass burning is most likely the dominant source of ethane and propane in the Southern Hemisphere. The seasonal variability of the emissions which are required to balance the Southern Hemisphere propane budget agrees very well with the seasonality derived for ethane emissions in a previous study.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesco, G; Buffolano, W; La Chiusa, S

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the burden of Toxoplasma gondii-infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy and the risk factors for infection. Sera from 1961 sheep were collected just before slaughtering from 62 farms located in 8 out of 9 Sicilian administrative districts. The sera were...

  14. Intention for Healthy Eating among Southern Appalachian Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…

  15. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management (Chapter 9): Wild Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson

    2003-01-01

    A traditional and very important game species of southern forests is the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). The wild turkey is a truly wild creature and inspires an amazing level of admiration and devotion among turkey hunters. Wild turkeys have stout legs that support the heavy bird and are used to scratch for food, and short powerful wings...

  16. Acateco de la Frontera Sur (Acateco of the Southern Border).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Roberto Zavala

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Acatec, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken along Mexico's southern border. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the linguistic…

  17. Intention for Healthy Eating among Southern Appalachian Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…

  18. Marketing in Southern Ghana: towards a planning typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Dunham (David)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractThere are a number of strong historical and practical grounds for a regional planner operating in Southern Ghana to study marketing structures. The recent history of the area confirms an important axiom of regional theory, namely that the organisation of marketing has a considerable

  19. Ruffed grouse population dynamics in the central and southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Giuliano Tirpak; C. Allan Miller; Thomas J. Allen; Steve Bittner; David A. Buehler; John W. Edwards; Craig A. Harper; William K. Igo; Gary W. Norman; M. Seamster; Dean F. Stauffer

    2006-01-01

    Ruffed grouse (Bonasa urnbellus; hereafter grouse) populations in the central and southern Appalachians are in decline. However, limited information on the dynamics of these populations prevents the development of effective management strategies to reverse these trends. We used radiotelemetry data collected on grouse to parameterize 6 models of...

  20. Linguistic Struggles within and beyond the Southern African Development Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki Mmangaka

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the linguistic struggles faced by the Southern African Development Community (the SADC) represent common linguistic struggles found in Africa and the world where some languages are accused of dominating, stifling and suppressing others. However, the language situation within the SADC is interesting because it offers us a…

  1. Southern Ocean warming delayed by circumpolar upwelling and equatorward transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kyle C.; Marshall, John; Scott, Jeffery R.; Donohoe, Aaron; Newsom, Emily R.

    2016-07-01

    The Southern Ocean has shown little warming over recent decades, in stark contrast to the rapid warming observed in the Arctic. Along the northern flank of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, however, the upper ocean has warmed substantially. Here we present analyses of oceanographic observations and general circulation model simulations showing that these patterns--of delayed warming south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and enhanced warming to the north--are fundamentally shaped by the Southern Ocean's meridional overturning circulation: wind-driven upwelling of unmodified water from depth damps warming around Antarctica; greenhouse gas-induced surface heat uptake is largely balanced by anomalous northward heat transport associated with the equatorward flow of surface waters; and heat is preferentially stored where surface waters are subducted to the north. Further, these processes are primarily due to passive advection of the anomalous warming signal by climatological ocean currents; changes in ocean circulation are secondary. These findings suggest the Southern Ocean responds to greenhouse gas forcing on the centennial, or longer, timescale over which the deep ocean waters that are upwelled to the surface are warmed themselves. It is against this background of gradual warming that multidecadal Southern Ocean temperature trends must be understood.

  2. Sex discourses and gender constructions in Southern Sotho: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sex discourses and gender constructions in Southern Sotho: a case study of police ... (e.g. Europe, North America, Australia), with very sketchy reports on research ... I also indicate how an understanding of such gender inequality could lead to ...

  3. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Sadr

    Full Text Available After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which 'infiltrated' livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa.

  4. Review of coastal currents in Southern African waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harris, TFW

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available A review has been made of existing knowledge of the coastal currents in Southern African waters between Pretoria to Oudtshoorn on the northeast border, and the Orange River on the west coast. These waters have been divided into five sectors...

  5. An Argument for an Integrated Approach to Teaching Southern Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Grace

    1978-01-01

    In addition to such writers as William Faulkner, Flannery O'Connor, Carson McCullers, and Eudora Welty, a good course in modern Southern fiction should include black writers such as Zora Hurston, Nella Larsen, Jean Toomer, Richard Wright, Maya Angelou, and Alice Walker. (MKM)

  6. Preparing for a "Big One": The great southern California shakeout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.M.; Benthien, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Great Southern California ShakeOut was a week of special events featuring the largest earthquake drill in United States history. On November 13, 2008, over 5 million Southern Californians pretended that the magnitude-7.8 ShakeOut scenario earthquake was occurring and practiced actions derived from results of the ShakeOut Scenario, to reduce the impact of a real, San Andreas Fault event. The communications campaign was based on four principles: 1) consistent messaging from multiple sources; 2) visual reinforcement: 3) encouragement of "milling"; and 4) focus on concrete actions. The goals of the Shake-Out established in Spring 2008 were: 1) to register 5 million people to participate in the drill; 2) to change the culture of earthquake preparedness in Southern California; and 3) to reduce earthquake losses in Southern California. Over 90% of the registrants surveyed the next year reported improvement in earthquake preparedness at their organization as a result of the ShakeOut. ?? 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  7. A lateral cephalometric study of sella turcica in Southern Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Makhbuol, MZB; Wong, RWK; Rabie, ABM

    2012-01-01

    The dimensions of sella might be associated with pathological conditions, yet data related to these are scanty. This study is to quantitatively investigate the dimensions of sella in southern Chinese population. This retrospective pilot study consists 150 randomly selected Chinese lateral cephalometric radiographs (50 females and 100 males) presented to PPDH for Orthod...

  8. Environmental Education Research in Southern Africa: Dilemmas of Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

    2004-01-01

    These multiple framings of our reflections on environmental education research in southern Africa are written as dilemmas of interpretation that aim to disrupt any temptation to generalise or essentialise its qualities and characteristics. Recognising that research is a textual practice, we use J. M. Coetzee's portrayal of the dilemmas faced by…

  9. Towards a spatial development perspective for Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available , although ham-strung by the lack of readily packaged spatial economic growth and development data, a recent CSIR scoping study presents a first -cut spatial development perspective on southern Africa. The overwhelming evidence from the study points...

  10. 75 FR 77677 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Background The Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee) is the holder of the Renewed... Exemptions'', SNC has, by letter dated May 12, 2010 (the application), requested an exemption from the fuel.... In Section V of the application, SNC provides a technical basis supporting the...

  11. "Democratic" Collaboration for School Turnaround in Southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the democratic nature of collaboration and related principal influences in one successful Southern Arizona elementary school in a changing demographic and border context in the US Southwest and where the principal did not share the same ethnic identity/cultural background.…

  12. Marketing in Southern Ghana: towards a planning typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Dunham (David)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractThere are a number of strong historical and practical grounds for a regional planner operating in Southern Ghana to study marketing structures. The recent history of the area confirms an important axiom of regional theory, namely that the organisation of marketing has a considerable infl

  13. Towards an effective commons governance system in Southern Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapologang Magole

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This special feature presents several papers generated under the EU-funded ‘Cross Sectoral Commons Governance in Southern Africa’ (CROSCOG project. The feature builds on knowledge generated in case studies which explored existing integrated resource knowledge and governance practices of rural people living in Southern African commons. In earlier generations, especially during the pre-colonial periods, most Southern African societies developed quite effective indigenous institutions for the management of entire landscapes and their component ecosystems, when this was in their interest. Few of these integrated Southern African systems are effective today as they have gone through massive changes, for example due to colonial influences, the increased role of the market and/or conflicts over use and access to natural resources. Meanwhile, most efforts to rebuild or affirm (the management of the commons through various initiatives, have been specific to certain resources or localised areas. Conversely, the smaller number of ecosystem-wide land use planning initiatives that sought to enhance overall environmental health have been dominated by technical, anti-political approaches that failed to understood the differential roles of resources in the spectrum of local livelihoods, and failed to achieve the required broader reinforcement of local governance. This introduction and the papers it introduces explore opportunities and challenges with respect to integrating scale – landscapes, ecosystems, and governing systems – into the local commons.

  14. Nuances and nuisances : crop production intensification options for smallholder farming systems of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinamhodzi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: crop production, intensification, extensification, farming systems, tradeoff analysis, maize, legume, manure, fertiliser, southern Africa Soil fertility decline and erratic rainfall are major constraints to crop productivity on smallholder farms in southern Africa. Crop

  15. SRKW seasonal occurence - Patterns of seasonal occurrence of Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of seasonal occurrence of Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) throughout their range. Southern Resident Killer Whales are listed as a Distinct Population...

  16. 77 FR 50712 - Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... local sharing networks that structure contemporary subsistence-cash economies using research methods... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence... in Alaska, ``Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study.'' DATES: Submit written...

  17. Insular endemism in Recent Southern Ocean benthic Ostracoda from Marion Island: palaeozoogeographical and evolutionary implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dingle, R.V.

    2002-01-01

    benthic ostracods, subantarctic, endemism, insularity, Marion Island, Southern Ocean, colonisation, quaternary, eyes, ocular-rejuvenation, dormant genes, evolution......benthic ostracods, subantarctic, endemism, insularity, Marion Island, Southern Ocean, colonisation, quaternary, eyes, ocular-rejuvenation, dormant genes, evolution...

  18. Skillful seasonal predictions of winter precipitation over southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo; Scaife, Adam A.; Dunstone, Nick; Smith, Doug; Ren, Hong-Li; Liu, Ying; Eade, Rosie

    2017-07-01

    Southern China experiences large year-to-year variability in the amount of winter precipitation, which can result in severe social and economic impacts. In this study, we demonstrate prediction skill of southern China winter precipitation by three operational seasonal prediction models: the operational Global seasonal forecasting system version 5 (GloSea5), the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) and the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC-CSM1.1m). The correlation scores reach 0.76 and 0.67 in GloSea5 and CFSv2, respectively; and the amplitude of the ensemble mean forecast signal is comparable to the observed variations. The skilful predictions in GloSea5 and CFSv2 mainly benefit from the successful representation of the observed ENSO teleconnection. El Niño weakens the Walker circulation and leads to the strengthening of the subtropical high over the northwestern Pacific. The anti-cyclone then induces anomalous northward flow over the South China Sea and brings water vapor to southern China, resulting in more precipitation. This teleconnection pattern is too weak in BCC-CSM1.1m, which explains its low skill (0.13). Whereas the most skilful forecast system is also able to simulate the influence of the Indian Ocean on southern China precipitation via changes in southwesterly winds over the Bay of Bengal. Finally, we examine the real-time forecast for 2015/16 winter when a strong El Niño event led to the highest rainfall over southern China in recent decades. We find that the GloSea5 system gave good advice as it produced the third wettest southern China in the hindcast, but underestimated the observed amplitude. This is likely due to the underestimation of the Siberian High strength in 2015/2016 winter, which has driven strong convergence over southern China. We conclude that some current seasonal forecast systems can give useful warning of impending extremes. However, there is still need for further model improvement to fully represent the complex

  19. The Southern Tyrrhenian subduction system: recent evolution and neotectonic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Argnani

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Geological and geophysical data have been integrated with the aim of presenting a new evolutionary model for the Southern Tyrrhenian and adjacent regions. The Southern Tyrrhenian backarc basin opened within a plate convergence regime because of sinking and rollback of the oceanic Ionian lithosphere. On the basis of seismological observations, I infer that the sinking slab was torn apart on either side in the last 2 Ma and this process controlled the neotectonics of the Southern Apennines - Tyrrhenian region. On the north-eastern side the slab broke off from NW to SE and this process triggered volcanism and NW-SE extension along the Eastern Tyrrhenian margin, and strike-slip tectonics along NW-SE trending faults in Northern Calabria. On the south-western side the slab broke off from W to E along the Aeolian Island alignment, although the tear has currently been reoriented along the NNW-SSE Malta escarpment. During its sinking the subducted slab also detached from the overriding plate, favouring the wedging of the asthenosphere between the two plates and the regional uplift of the Calabrian arc and surroundings. This regional uplift promoted gravitational instability within the orogenic wedge, particularly towards low topography areas; the large-scale sliding of the Calabrian arc towards the Ionian basin can be the cause of CW rotation and graben formation in Calabria. Also the E-dipping extensional faults of the Southern Apennines can be related to accommodation of vertical motions within the fold-and-thrust belt. The pattern of recent seismicity reflects this neotectonics where crustal-scale gravity deformation within the orogenic wedge is responsible for extensional earthquakes in Calabria and the Southern Apennines, whereas Africa plate convergence can account for compressional earthquakes in Sicily.

  20. Insecticide resistance status in Anopheles gambiae in southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbel Vincent

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae has become a serious concern to the future success of malaria control. In Benin, the National Malaria Control Programme has recently planned to scaling up long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS for malaria prevention. It is, therefore, crucial to monitor the level and type of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae, particularly in southern Benin where reduced efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and IRS has previously been reported. Methods The protocol was based on mosquito collection during both dry and rainy seasons across forty districts selected in southern Benin. Bioassay were performed on adults collected from the field to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticide-impregnated papers (permethrin 0.75%, delthamethrin 0.05%, DDT 4%, and bendiocarb 0.1% following WHOPES guidelines. The species within An. gambiae complex, molecular form and presence of kdr and ace-1 mutations were determined by PCR. Results Strong resistance to permethrin and DDT was found in An. gambiae populations from southern Benin, except in Aglangandan where mosquitoes were fully susceptible (mortality 100% to all insecticides tested. PCR showed the presence of two sub-species of An. gambiae, namely An. gambiae s.s, and Anopheles melas, with a predominance for An. gambiae s.s (98%. The molecular M form of An. gambiae was predominant in southern Benin (97%. The kdr mutation was detected in all districts at various frequency (1% to 95% whereas the Ace-1 mutation was found at a very low frequency (≤ 5%. Conclusion This study showed a widespread resistance to permethrin in An. gambiae populations from southern Benin, with a significant increase of kdr frequency compared to what was observed previously in Benin. The low frequency of Ace-1 recorded in all populations is encouraging for the use of bendiocarb as an alternative insecticide to

  1. Complex patterns of genomic admixture within southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree C Petersen

    Full Text Available Within-population genetic diversity is greatest within Africa, while between-population genetic diversity is directly proportional to geographic distance. The most divergent contemporary human populations include the click-speaking forager peoples of southern Africa, broadly defined as Khoesan. Both intra- (Bantu expansion and inter-continental migration (European-driven colonization have resulted in complex patterns of admixture between ancient geographically isolated Khoesan and more recently diverged populations. Using gender-specific analysis and almost 1 million autosomal markers, we determine the significance of estimated ancestral contributions that have shaped five contemporary southern African populations in a cohort of 103 individuals. Limited by lack of available data for homogenous Khoesan representation, we identify the Ju/'hoan (n = 19 as a distinct early diverging human lineage with little to no significant non-Khoesan contribution. In contrast to the Ju/'hoan, we identify ancient signatures of Khoesan and Bantu unions resulting in significant Khoesan- and Bantu-derived contributions to the Southern Bantu amaXhosa (n = 15 and Khoesan !Xun (n = 14, respectively. Our data further suggests that contemporary !Xun represent distinct Khoesan prehistories. Khoesan assimilation with European settlement at the most southern tip of Africa resulted in significant ancestral Khoesan contributions to the Coloured (n = 25 and Baster (n = 30 populations. The latter populations were further impacted by 170 years of East Indian slave trade and intra-continental migrations resulting in a complex pattern of genetic variation (admixture. The populations of southern Africa provide a unique opportunity to investigate the genomic variability from some of the oldest human lineages to the implications of complex admixture patterns including ancient and recently diverged human lineages.

  2. Complex patterns of genomic admixture within southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Desiree C; Libiger, Ondrej; Tindall, Elizabeth A; Hardie, Rae-Anne; Hannick, Linda I; Glashoff, Richard H; Mukerji, Mitali; Fernandez, Pedro; Haacke, Wilfrid; Schork, Nicholas J; Hayes, Vanessa M

    2013-01-01

    Within-population genetic diversity is greatest within Africa, while between-population genetic diversity is directly proportional to geographic distance. The most divergent contemporary human populations include the click-speaking forager peoples of southern Africa, broadly defined as Khoesan. Both intra- (Bantu expansion) and inter-continental migration (European-driven colonization) have resulted in complex patterns of admixture between ancient geographically isolated Khoesan and more recently diverged populations. Using gender-specific analysis and almost 1 million autosomal markers, we determine the significance of estimated ancestral contributions that have shaped five contemporary southern African populations in a cohort of 103 individuals. Limited by lack of available data for homogenous Khoesan representation, we identify the Ju/'hoan (n = 19) as a distinct early diverging human lineage with little to no significant non-Khoesan contribution. In contrast to the Ju/'hoan, we identify ancient signatures of Khoesan and Bantu unions resulting in significant Khoesan- and Bantu-derived contributions to the Southern Bantu amaXhosa (n = 15) and Khoesan !Xun (n = 14), respectively. Our data further suggests that contemporary !Xun represent distinct Khoesan prehistories. Khoesan assimilation with European settlement at the most southern tip of Africa resulted in significant ancestral Khoesan contributions to the Coloured (n = 25) and Baster (n = 30) populations. The latter populations were further impacted by 170 years of East Indian slave trade and intra-continental migrations resulting in a complex pattern of genetic variation (admixture). The populations of southern Africa provide a unique opportunity to investigate the genomic variability from some of the oldest human lineages to the implications of complex admixture patterns including ancient and recently diverged human lineages.

  3. Bioremediation of Southern Mediterranean oil polluted sites comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel; Mapelli, Francesca; Cherif, Ameur; Lafraya, Alvaro; Malkawi, Hanan I; Yakimov, Michail M; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Blaghen, Mohamed; Golyshin, Peter N; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Boon, Nico; Magagnini, Mirko; Fava, Fabio

    2013-09-25

    Mediterranean Sea is facing a very high risk of oil pollution due to the high number of oil extractive and refining sites along the basin coasts, and the intense maritime traffic of oil tankers. All the Mediterranean countries have adopted severe regulations for minimizing pollution events and bioremediation feasibility studies for the most urgent polluted sites are undergoing. However, the analysis of the scientific studies applying modern 'meta-omics' technologies that have been performed on marine oil pollution worldwide showed that the Southern Mediterranean side has been neglected by the international research. Most of the studies in the Mediterranean Sea have been done in polluted sites of the Northern side of the basin. Those of the Southern side are poorly studied, despite many of the Southern countries being major oil producers and exporters. The recently EU-funded research project ULIXES has as a major objective to increase the knowledge of the bioremediation potential of sites from the Southern Mediterranean countries. ULIXES is targeting four major polluted sites on the coastlines of Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia, including seashore sands, lagoons, and oil refinery polluted sediments. The research is designed to unravel, categorize, catalogue, exploit and manage the diversity and ecology of microorganisms thriving in these polluted sites. Isolation of novel hydrocarbon degrading microbes and a series of state of the art 'meta-omics' technologies are the baseline tools for improving our knowledge on biodegradation capacities mediated by microbes under different environmental settings and for designing novel site-tailored bioremediation approaches. A network of twelve European and Southern Mediterranean partners is cooperating for plugging the existing gap of knowledge for the development of novel bioremediation processes targeting such poorly investigated polluted sites.

  4. 75 FR 53688 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...] Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference August 25, 2010. Take notice that Commission... Commission, 888 First Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426. On June 7, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG) filed a tariff sheet to revise its tariff with respect to gas quality and...

  5. 75 FR 51989 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application August 16, 2010. Take notice that on August 4, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), Post Office Box 2563... with certain facilities located at its liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal on Elba Island,...

  6. 40 CFR 81.156 - Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.156 Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southern Maryland Intrastate...

  7. 40 CFR 81.158 - Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.158 Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southern Wisconsin Intrastate...

  8. Restoration planting options for limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. M. A. Casper; W. R. Jacobi; Anna Schoettle; K. S. Burns

    2016-01-01

    Limber pine Pinus flexilis James populations in the southern Rocky Mountains are threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. To develop restoration planting methods, six P. flexilis seedling planting trial sites were installed along a geographic gradient from southern Wyoming to southern Colorado. Experimental...

  9. SOTER-based soil parameter estimates for Southern Africa (ver. 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    This harmonized set of soil parameter estimates for Southern Africa has been derived from the 1:2M scale Soil and Terrain Database for Southern Africa (SOTERSAF ver. 1.0) and ISRIC-WISE soil profile database. The land surface of Southern Africa has been characterized using 4022 unique SOTER units, c

  10. 76 FR 18216 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on March 16, 2011, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), Post Office Box 2563... and 157.216 of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended, to abandon...

  11. 77 FR 24483 - Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 5, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C. (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209, filed an application, pursuant to Section 7(b) of the Natural Gas...

  12. 77 FR 75265 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...) establishing a database for identifying the optimal sustainable population level for the southern sea otter. We... species in kelp forest habitats; the presence of sea otters would enhance biodiversity in southern... biodiversity in southern California waters; the presence of sea otters would enhance the economy by producing...

  13. 40 CFR 81.99 - New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.99 New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Arizona-New Mexico Southern Border Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region and has been revised to consist...

  14. 77 FR 41975 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky 42301, filed...

  15. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  16. 78 FR 68835 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on October 31, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  17. 78 FR 25264 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  18. 78 FR 53746 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 13, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  19. 77 FR 14517 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2012 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56,...

  20. 78 FR 13663 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 11, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, P.O. Box...

  1. 75 FR 8053 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization February 16, 2010. Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...

  2. Exhumation history of the southern Altiplano plateau (southern Bolivia) constrained by apatite fission track thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ege, H.; Sobel, E. R.; Scheuber, E.; Jacobshagen, V.

    2007-02-01

    Although the structural geometry of the Cenozoic Altiplano-Puna plateau in the central Andes is well defined, the temporal evolution of this contractile deformation is poorly constrained. To address this shortcoming, we used apatite fission track thermochronology (AFT) to quantify the cooling and exhumation history along a transect at 21°S in southern Bolivia, through the deformed intermontane Altiplano basin, the doubly vergent thrust belt of the Eastern Cordillera and the inner foreland thrust belt east of the plateau (Interandean Zone). Thermal history modeling combined with published balanced cross sections and stratigraphic data constrain exhumation histories. Exhumation started during the late Eocene (40-36 Ma) in the central Eastern Cordillera, possibly due to bivergent thrusting and Cretaceous rift structure inversion. During the early Oligocene (33-27 Ma), exhumation spread across the study area as the current boundary thrusts of the Eastern Cordillera were activated. The inner west vergent thrust system became active in irregular order until circa 20 Ma, whereas the east vergent Interandean thrust belt formed by eastward propagating deformation since circa 30 Ma. Plateau exhumation continued at ˜0.2 mm/yr until shortening terminated by 11-7 Ma. Shortening within the plateau since circa 30 Ma did not evolve by lateral accretion of thrust wedges; the propagating deformation style is spatially confined to the foreland thrust belt, which initiated coeval to plateau deformation (Interandean Zone) but propagated mainly after circa 10 Ma (Subandean Zone). Early Oligocene plateau-wide tectonically driven exhumation suggests that subduction-related processes had already thermally weakened the continental lithosphere prior to the 27-25 Ma onset of volcanic activity.

  3. Crustal Seismicity and Recent Faults in Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C.; Comte, D.; Tavera, H.; Audin, L.; Herail, G.

    2004-12-01

    Most seismological studies in southern Peru have been focused on the downgoing slab seismicity in order to constrain the Wadati-Benioff zone. This study deals with the intra-continental seismicity of the southern Peru forearc (17,3° S - 18,5° S) in a post-seismic context (Arequipa thrust earthquake, Mw=8.4, 23 June, 2001). It is difficult to identify historical crustal earthquake from available catalogues, however some crustal events teleseismically recorded can be found since 1976; they exhibit normal focal mechanism solutions in the southern Peru volcanic arc and inverse focal mechanism solutions in the Central Depression. Following a notable increase of shallow crustal seismicity located close to the Western Cordillera after the 23 June 2001, a temporary seismic network was deployed between January and March 2003 in order to study the Wadati-Benioff zone and monitoring the crustal seismicity in southern Peru. From the about 1700 events locally recorded by the local network, 300 crustal earthquakes were identified in the Peruvian forearc between Tacna and Moquegua. This crustal seismicity is distributed along a lineament located at depths between 0 and 60 km, dipping at about 45° from the Western Cordillera towards the coast, almost perpendicular to the subducting slab; this behaviour was previously observed in northern Chile and in southern Peru, north of the study zone (16° S). In the Central Depression, seismic activity is not superficial occurring between 25-60 km depth and it is mostly characterized by inverse focal mechanism solutions. Superficial faults situated in the Central Depression and in the Coastal Cordillera can not be associated with the seismic activity observed in this area. However, in the Pre-Cordillera, crustal seismicity occurs at depths between 0-15 km and can be correlated with shallow fault systems recognized by satellite images and on the field. For examples, the Incapuquio fault system which was a transpressive system in Cretaceous

  4. The genus Trichodesma (Boraginaceae: Boraginoideae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Retief

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichodesma R.Br. is a genus of about 45 species known from tropical and subtropical regions of Africa. Asia and Australia. The group comprises predominantly perennial herbs, the flowers characterized by anthers with prolonged connectives, often twisting above the thecae. and a prominent accrescent calyx. Five species and three subspecies of 7rii hodesma are currently recognized in southern Africa, with  T. angustifolium Harv. subsp. argenteum Relief & A.E.van Wyk newly described. These taxa are widespread in southern Africa, occurring in various vegetation types. A key to the species, descriptions, distribution maps and illustrations of various micro- and macromorphological as well as palvnological features are provided.

  5. Origin of Quaternary Red Clay of Southern Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXUEFENG; YUANGUODONG; 等

    1998-01-01

    The particle-size distribution,heavy mineral constituents and rare earth elements(REE) characteristics of the Quaternary red clay of southern Anhui Province were studied to explore the origin of the clay.The results showed that the clay had some properties of areolian deposits,which could be compared with,those of the loess in North China ;and its chondrite-normalized curves of REE were similar to those of the Xiashu loess implying tha they shared the same orighin.It was concluded in combination with the results rported by other researchers that the Quaternary red clay of southern Anhui Province originated from aolian deposts, and this could reveal the cycles of warm and cold climates in the area during the Quaternary period.

  6. Lower Cretaceous calcareous nannofossils from the Southern Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Vulc

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Lower Cretaceous calcareous nannofossils from Southern Apuseni Mts. The studied section from Bucium Cerbu quarry is characterized by flysch deposits (rhythmical interbedded marls and sandstones, which were assigned to the Căbeşti Formation. The studied nannofossil assemblages yielded a high diversity. The Early Aptian age of the studied deposits was assigned based on both the Tethyan and Boreal calcareous nannofossil zonations. Several reworked Valanginian nannofossils were also observed in the Early Aptian in situ nannofloras. The nannofloras are dominated by tethyan and cosmopolitan species. Besides Boreal species are also present. The presence of boreal taxa (e.g. Kokia borealis, K. stelatta in the Tethyan Realm reflects the palaeobiogeographical distribution and the biotic changes between Tethys and Boreal Realms in the Southern Apuseni Mts. In the studied assemblages, the dominant species are Diazomatolithus lehmanii and Watznaueria barnesiae, which can reflect a high fertility in the surface water masses.

  7. Tuberculosis Treatment Completion Rates in Southern New Mexico Colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Maria Arroyo; Huttlinger, Kathleen; Schultz, Pamela; Mullins, Iris; Forster-Cox, Sue

    2016-04-01

    TB medication completion treatment rates for active TB patients living in impoverished US-Mexico border communities called colonias in southern New Mexico counties are unknown. It might be suspected that residents of colonias have lower completion rates than those living in incorporated and medically more accessible areas. A retrospective record review of closed TB case records from 1993 to 2010 of southern New Mexico border counties, was conducted using a modified version of the New Mexico Department of Health Tuberculosis Targeted Health Assessment/History form (Appendix 1). Study findings reveal that despite their unincorporated status, poorer living conditions and questionable legal status, colonia TB patients had a higher medication completion rate than their non-colonia counterparts. A robust New Mexico TB treatment program contributed to high completion rates with death being the number-one reason for treatment non-completion in both colonia and non-colonias.

  8. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hodges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of many communities for increasing supplies. We find that using water bags to transport fresh water between northern and southern California is in some instances a low-cost alternative to desalination. The choice is constrained, however, by concerns about reliability and, thus, risk. Case-study results demonstrate the challenges of water supply augmentation in water-constrained regions.

  9. Annual Incidence of Lassa Virus Infection in Southern Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronetz, David; Sogoba, Nafomon; Diawara, Sory Ibrahim; Bane, Sidy; Rosenke, Kyle; Maiga, Ousmane; Boisen, Matt; Garry, Robert F; Branco, Luis M; Lindsay, L Robbin; Traoré, Sékou F; Feldmann, Heinz; Doumbia, Seydou

    2017-01-16

    Previously, we reported a high seroprevalence rate of Lassa virus antibodies in inhabitants of three villages in southern Mali where infected rodents have been demonstrated. Herein, we report a 1-year follow-up study in which we were able to collect a second blood samples from 88.7% of participants of the same cohort. We identified 23 seroconversions for IgG antibodies reactive against Lassa virus, representing an incidence of 6.3% (95% confidence interval = 3.8-8.8%). Seroconversion was frequently seen in preteenage children (12/23, 51.7%) and two household/familial clusters were identified. These results confirm active transmission of Lassa virus is occurring in southern Mali and appropriate diagnostic testing should be established for this often severe etiological agent viral hemorrhagic fever.

  10. Boundaries inside the body: women's sufferings in southern peasant Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, M

    1990-06-01

    In a village of Southern Italy the secret world of women's emotions is fundamentally expressed through the body. The female body is open to events of the world and absorbs and feels their effect and defines a new identity, a minimal one. This gives rise to a symbolic anatomy, pathology, and physiology that serve to distinguish male and female worlds and to bridge inner and outer experience. These "traces" of external and extraordinary events, which in the past and in daily life have cut the secret and emotional world of women, are inscribed on the body. This body becomes a phenomenological memoir that opens a new way of interpreting distress and suffering and illness. This article represents a bridge from the interpretation of suffering and illness in Southern Italy via Gramsci and De Martino to a metacultural process of creating a polysemic and multilevel sense of self.

  11. ENSO effects on primary productivity in Southern Atacama desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Squeo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the winter-rain southern Atacama Desert of the Coquimbo Region of Chile, El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO events modulate primary productivity. In this region, there are important changes in water availability between La Niña (dry and El Niño (rainy years. Using inter-annual comparisons of LANDSAT images from 30° to 31° S latitude, we observed changes in primary productivity between dry and rainy years at the regional level. There were also significant, negative correlations between productivity and elevation, with changes occurring first at low elevation during rainy years. The limiting factors to dryland vegetation primary productivity is different in regard to elevation. Rain during an El Niño year is the main factor that explains the increase in primary productivity at low elevation, while lower temperatures reduce and delay the net primary productivity at mid elevation.

  12. Birth of two volcanic islands in the southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin

    2015-05-26

    Submarine eruptions that lead to the formation of new volcanic islands are rare and far from being fully understood; only a few such eruptions have been witnessed since Surtsey Island emerged to the south of Iceland in the 1960s. Here we report on two new volcanic islands that were formed in the Zubair archipelago of the southern Red Sea in 2011–2013. Using high-resolution optical satellite images, we find that the new islands grew rapidly during their initial eruptive phases and that coastal erosion significantly modified their shapes within months. Satellite radar data indicate that two north–south-oriented dykes, much longer than the small islands might suggest, fed the eruptions. These events occurred contemporaneously with several local earthquake swarms of the type that typically accompany magma intrusions. Earthquake activity has been affecting the southern Red Sea for decades, suggesting the presence of a magmatically active zone that has previously escaped notice.

  13. Two new species of Nemesia (Scrophulariaceae from southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Steiner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new annual species of Nemesia Vent, are described from southern Africa. N. williamsonii is characterized by bright orange flowers with an inflated yellow palate. It differs from the related N. maxii Hiern by having a spur that projects backwards, not downwards, and bracts that are lanceolate with a truncate base, not triangular or cordate. It is unusual for the genus in having dimorphic seeds.  N. williamsonii occurs almost exclusively in the Richtersveld. but has been collected in a few localities across the Orange River in southern Namibia. N. hemiptera is a delicate, wiry-stemmed annual with small white flowers. The flowers are characterized by a tiny nipple-like spur and a seed that is winged on onlv one side. N. hemiptera isendemic to the Kamiesberg from near Garies to Kamieskroon.

  14. Modulation of the Southern Hemisphere climate by solar radiation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Steven; Lenton, Andrew; Rotstayn, Leon; Gupta, Alex Sen; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Tilmes, Simone

    2015-04-01

    Geoengineering is increasingly being considered as a means to lessen the climatic impacts of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. However, it is not without significant risks of its own. In this study, we investigate the response of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) climate to solar radiation management (SRM) using Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project experiments G3 and G3solar. We find that the response to SRM is characterized by a contraction of the Hadley Cell and subtropical dry zones. This is accompanied by a shift towards a less positive state of the Southern Annular Mode and a northward shift of the SH westerly winds, mitigating the trends under projected future anthropogenic forcing. These changes result in an increase in precipitation minus evaporation in the SH subtropics, suggesting that SRM may be effective at counteracting the anthropogenically-driven drying trend in this region. However, any beneficial impacts cease abruptly as soon as geoengineering is terminated.

  15. On the "hidden" phytoplankton blooms on Australia's southern shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Jochen; Kavi, Ankit

    2017-02-01

    Phytoplankton blooms on Australia's southern shelves are revisited using satellite-derived monthly data of chlorophyll a concentrations for the period 2003-2015. It is known that the region hosts a seasonal coastal upwelling system that develops in austral summer (January-March) with chlorophyll a concentrations of >2 mg/m3. While this summer upwelling is spatially limited to a few hot spots, here we show that widespread phytoplankton blooms of moderate ( 1 mg/m3) chlorophyll a concentrations develop during autumn and early winter on most of Australia's extensive southern shelves—from the vast shelves of the Great Australian Bight (GAB) in the west to Bass Strait in the east. This surprising finding disproves the widespread belief that shelf waters of the GAB are generally oligotrophic and may explain the relatively high abundance of both forage fish (sardines) and upper trophic-level predators (e.g., tuna and whales) in the region.

  16. Asymmetric auroral intensities in the Earth's Northern and Southern hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundal, K. M.; Østgaard, N.

    2009-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that the aurora borealis (Northern Hemisphere) and aurora australis (Southern Hemisphere) are mirror images of each other because the charged particles causing the aurora follow the magnetic field lines connecting the two hemispheres. The particles are believed to be evenly distributed between the two hemispheres, from the source region in the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere. Although it has been shown that similar auroral features in the opposite hemispheres can be displaced tens of degree in longitude and that seasonal effects can cause differences in global intensity, the overall auroral patterns were still similar. Here we report observations that clearly contradict the common assumption about symmetric aurora: intense spots are seen at dawn in the Northern summer Hemisphere, and at dusk in the Southern winter Hemisphere. The asymmetry is interpreted in terms of inter-hemispheric currents related to seasons, which have been predicted but hitherto had not been seen.

  17. Will krill fare well under Southern Ocean acidification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, So; Kurihara, Haruko; King, Robert; Hale, Lillian; Berli, Thomas; Robinson, James P; Ishida, Akio; Wakita, Masahide; Virtue, Patti; Nicol, Stephen; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2011-04-23

    Antarctic krill embryos and larvae were experimentally exposed to 380 (control), 1000 and 2000 µatm pCO₂ in order to assess the possible impact of ocean acidification on early development of krill. No significant effects were detected on embryonic development or larval behaviour at 1000 µatm pCO₂; however, at 2000 µatm pCO₂ development was disrupted before gastrulation in 90 per cent of embryos, and no larvae hatched successfully. Our model projections demonstrated that Southern Ocean sea water pCO₂ could rise up to 1400 µatm in krill's depth range under the IPCC IS92a scenario by the year 2100 (atmospheric pCO₂ 788 µatm). These results point out the urgent need for understanding the pCO₂-response relationship for krill developmental and later stages, in order to predict the possible fate of this key species in the Southern Ocean.

  18. Tree ring reconstructed rainfall over the southern Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lidio; Stahle, David; Villalba, Ricardo; Torbenson, Max; Feng, Song; Cook, Edward

    2017-07-01

    Moisture sensitive tree ring chronologies of Centrolobium microchaete have been developed from seasonally dry forests in the southern Amazon Basin and used to reconstruct wet season rainfall totals from 1799 to 2012, adding over 150 years of rainfall estimates to the short instrumental record for the region. The reconstruction is correlated with the same atmospheric variables that influence the instrumental measurements of wet season rainfall. Anticyclonic circulation over midlatitude South America promotes equatorward surges of cold and relatively dry extratropical air that converge with warm moist air to form deep convection and heavy rainfall over this sector of the southern Amazon Basin. Interesting droughts and pluvials are reconstructed during the preinstrumental nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but the tree ring reconstruction suggests that the strong multidecadal variability in instrumental and reconstructed wet season rainfall after 1950 may have been unmatched since 1799.

  19. Phytoplankton composition and biomass across the southern Indian Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlüter, Louise; Henriksen, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton composition and biomass was investigated across the southern Indian Ocean. Phytoplankton composition was determined from pigment analysis with subsequent calculations of group contributions to total chlorophyll a (Chl a) using CHEMTAX and, in addition, by examination in the microscope....... The different plankton communities detected reflected the different water masses along a transect from Cape Town, South Africa, to Broome, Australia. The first station was influenced by the Agulhas Current with a very deep mixed surface layer. Based on pigment analysis this station was dominated by haptophytes......, pelagophytes, cyanobacteria, and prasinophytes. Sub-Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean were encountered at the next station, where new nutrients were intruded to the surface layer and the total Chl a concentration reached high concentrations of 1.7 μg Chl a L−1 with increased proportions of diatoms...

  20. Multi-element geochemical mapping in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhizhong; Xie, Xuejing; Yao, Wensheng; Feng, Jizhou; Zhang, Qin; Fang, Jindong

    2014-04-01

    The 76-element Geochemical Mapping (76 GEM) Project was undertaken in southwestern China in 2000 and in southeastern China in 2008. In this project, 5244 composite samples of stream sediment at a density of one composite sample for each 1:50,000-scale map sheet were prepared from sample archives of the China Regional Geochemistry-National Reconnaissance (RGNR) Project, which have been available since 1978. The 76 elements were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In the present study, a new quality-control method known as the visualized standard map method was applied to the results of the 76 GEM project. Mean value and background value, which indicate the average concentration of the 76 elements in southern China, were derived from statistical data. Moreover, geochemical maps were compiled to demonstrate the distribution of the 76 elements in southern China.