WorldWideScience

Sample records for 1998-2000 shadoz southern

  1. SHADOZ in the Aura Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Froidevaux, L.; Schmidlin, F.; Calpini, B.; Shiotani, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Posny, F.; Vomel, H.; Chow, K. K.; Coetzee, G. R.; Kelder, H.

    2007-01-01

    We present comparisons of observed tropical and sub-tropical ozone from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project with satellite measurements using Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments. Satellite products of total and derived tropospheric column ozone from OMI and profiles of ozone in the UT/LS region from MLS are used.

  2. Discoveries about Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from Satellite and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) and a Future Perspective on NASA's Ozone Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne

    2003-01-01

    We have been producing near-real tropical tropospheric ozone ('TTO') data from TOMS since 1997 with Prof. Hudson and students at the University of Maryland. Maps for 1996-2000 for the operational Earth-Probe instrument reside at: . We also have archived 'TTO' data from the Nimbus 7/TOMS satellite (1979-1992). The tropics is a region strongly influenced by natural variability and anthropogenic activity and the satellite data have been used to track biomass burning pollution and to detect interannual variability and climate signals in ozone. We look forward to future ozone sensors from NASA; four will be launched in 2004 as part of the EOS AURA Mission. The satellite view of chemical-dynamical interactions in tropospheric ozone is not adequate to capture vertical variability. Thus, in 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ augments launches at selected sites and provides a public archive of ozonesonde data from twelve tropical and subtropical stations at http://croc.nsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. The stations are: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; R,union Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil, Malindi, Kenya; Paramaribo, Surinam. From the first 3-4 years of data (presently greater than 1700 sondes), the following features emerge: (a) highly variable tropospheric ozone; (b) a zonal wave-one pattern in tropospheric column ozone; (c) tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays strong convective signatures.

  3. Gravity and Rossby Wave Signatures in the Tropical Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere Based on Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ), 1998-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Allen, Amber L.; Lee, Sukyoung; Miller, Sonya K.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior investigations attempted to determine the relative influence of advection and convective processes on ozone and water vapor distributions in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through analyses of tracers, related physical parameters (e.g., outgoing long-wave radiation, precipitable water, and temperature), or with models. In this study, stable laminae in Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde Network (SHADOZ) ozone profIles from 1998 to 2007 are interpreted in terms of gravity waves (GW) or Rossby waves (RW) that are identified with vertical and quasi-horizontal displacements, respectively. Using the method of Pierce and Grant (1998) as applied by Thompson et al. (2007a, 2007b, 2010, 2011), amplitudes and frequencies in ozone laminae are compared among representative SHADOZ sites over Africa and the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. GW signals maximize in the TTL and lower stratosphere. Depending on site and season, GW are identified in up to 90% of the soundings. GW are most prevalent over the Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, a distribution consistent with vertically propagating equatorial Kelvin waves. Ozone laminae from RW occur more often below the tropical tropopause and with lower frequency 20%). Gravity wave and Rossby wave indices (GWI, RWI) are formulated to facilitate analysis of interannual variability of wave signatures among sites. GWI is positively correlated with a standard ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) index over American Samoa (14degS, 171degW) and negatively correlated at Watukosek, Java (7.5degS, 114degE), Kuala Lumpur (3degN, 102degE), and Ascension Island (80degS, 15degW). Generally, the responses of GW and RW to ENSO are consistent with prior studies.

  4. Research at GANIL 1998/2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present compilation, which gathers 72 articles, tends to reflect a variety of experimental and theoretical works performed at GANIL in the years 1998-2000. This ''just-before-SPIRAL'' period was characterized in nuclear physics by a strong increase in the number of experiments dedicated to the study of the structure of nuclei far from stability. The identification of the doubly-magic 48Ni and study of the neighbouring nuclei are among the most spectacular results of this research. The contributions have been parted into the following topics: 1) nuclear theory, 2) exotic nuclei: reactions, 3) exotic nuclei: spectroscopy, 4) hot nuclei and hot matter, 5) instrumentation, 6) collisions of ions with atoms and molecules, 7) collisions with solids and surfaces, transport phenomena, energy deposition and sputtering, 8) induced effects in condensed matter including nano-structuration, and 9) radiation chemistry and radiobiology. (A.C.)

  5. Research at GANIL 1998/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankland, J.; Rothard, H.; Bex, M. (eds.)

    2002-01-01

    The present compilation, which gathers 72 articles, tends to reflect a variety of experimental and theoretical works performed at GANIL in the years 1998-2000. This ''just-before-SPIRAL'' period was characterized in nuclear physics by a strong increase in the number of experiments dedicated to the study of the structure of nuclei far from stability. The identification of the doubly-magic {sup 48}Ni and study of the neighbouring nuclei are among the most spectacular results of this research. The contributions have been parted into the following topics: 1) nuclear theory, 2) exotic nuclei: reactions, 3) exotic nuclei: spectroscopy, 4) hot nuclei and hot matter, 5) instrumentation, 6) collisions of ions with atoms and molecules, 7) collisions with solids and surfaces, transport phenomena, energy deposition and sputtering, 8) induced effects in condensed matter including nano-structuration, and 9) radiation chemistry and radiobiology. (A.C.)

  6. STUK research projects 1998-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goal of STUK, the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, is to prevent and limit the harmful effects of radiation. The research conducted by STUK yields new information related to the use, occurrence and effects of radiation and promotes the supervision of nuclear safety. STUK research projects 1998 - 2000 summarizes STUK's own research projects and commissioned research designed to promote the supervision of nuclear safety. Information on the research projects and related publications is also available on STUK's WWW pages at www.stuk.fi. The work done on the safe use of nuclear power and nuclear waste management mainly comprises commissioned research projects which derive from the needs of authorities, and are funded and directed by STUK. This research is conducted by organizations outside STUK, but supervised by STUK experts. In some cases, STUK personnel are also involved. The goal of this research work is to produce the information needed for decision-making, to develop supervisory methods and to ensure that recent developments in science and technology are taken into account in action to promote safe use of nuclear power. STUK's own research focuses on radiation protection and the health effects of radiation. During 1998 - 2000, the main emphasis will be on projects supporting the Finnish national environmental health action plan, the health risks of radiation, emergency preparedness and cooperation with neighbouring CEE areas. EU directives on radiation protection and medical exposure to radiation also influence the course taken by research carried out at STUK. STUK's research activities are now more international than ever; the institute is involved in more then 20 research projects funded by EU. Apart from the EU and the Nordic countries, STUK's main partners are to be found in Russia, Estonia and the USA. (orig.)

  7. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Ozone Climatology (2005-2009): Tropospheric and Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) Profiles with Comparisons to Omi-based Ozone Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Miller, Sonya K.; Tilmes, Simone; Kollonige, Debra W.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Schmidlin, F. J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Komala, Ninong; Maata, Matakite; bt Mohammad, Maznorizan; Nguyo, J.; Mutai, C.; Ogino, S-Y; Da Silva, F. Raimundo; Paes Leme, N. M.; Posny, Francoise; Scheele, Rinus; Selkirk, Henry B.; Shiotani, Masato; Stubi, Rene; Levrat, Gilbert; Calpini, Bertrand; Thouret, Valerie; Tsuruta, Haruo; Canossa, Jessica Valverde; Voemel, Holger; Yonemura, S.; Andres Diaz, Jorge; Tan Thanh, Nguyen T.; Thuy Ha, Hoang T.

    2012-01-01

    We present a regional and seasonal climatology of SHADOZ ozone profiles in the troposphere and tropical tropopause layer (TTL) based on measurements taken during the first five years of Aura, 2005-2009, when new stations joined the network at Hanoi, Vietnam; Hilo, Hawaii; Alajuela Heredia, Costa Rica; Cotonou, Benin. In all, 15 stations operated during that period. A west-to-east progression of decreasing convective influence and increasing pollution leads to distinct tropospheric ozone profiles in three regions: (1) western Pacific eastern Indian Ocean; (2) equatorial Americas (San Cristobal, Alajuela, Paramaribo); (3) Atlantic and Africa. Comparisons in total ozone column from soundings, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, on Aura, 2004-) satellite and ground-based instrumentation are presented. Most stations show better agreement with OMI than they did for EPTOMS comparisons (1998-2004; Earth-ProbeTotal Ozone Mapping Spectrometer), partly due to a revised above-burst ozone climatology. Possible station biases in the stratospheric segment of the ozone measurement noted in the first 7 years of SHADOZ ozone profiles are re-examined. High stratospheric bias observed during the TOMS period appears to persist at one station. Comparisons of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone and the daily Trajectory-enhanced Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TTOR) product (based on OMIMLS) show that the satellite-derived column amount averages 25 low. Correlations between TTOR and the SHADOZ sondes are quite good (typical r2 0.5-0.8), however, which may account for why some published residual-based OMI products capture tropospheric interannual variability fairly realistically. On the other hand, no clear explanations emerge for why TTOR-sonde discrepancies vary over a wide range at most SHADOZ sites.

  8. SPAM, Activity report 1998-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the ''Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules'', (SPAM) during the 1998-2000 period: developments in terms of structure, staff, science, collaborations and contracts. SPAM is one of the laboratories in DRECAM (Departement de Recherche sur l'Etat Condense les Atomes et les Molecules), itself depending on the DSM (Direction des Sciences de la Matiere) of the CEA Institution. This report is divided in five chapters. Chapters 1 gathers all the work performed on the light sources, that is to say the evolutions of the femtosecond laser facilities (G1 group) and the achievements on the new SU5 synchrotron line and the Free Electron Laser (part of G3 group). Chapters 2 and 3 focus on the scientific results obtained by the G2 and G3 groups respectively. Chapter 4 gathers all information on SPAM scientific communication while chapter 5 lists interactions with the scientific community. (A.L.B.)

  9. SPAM, Activity report 1998-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the ''Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules'', (SPAM) during the 1998-2000 period: developments in terms of structure, staff, science, collaborations and contracts. SPAM is one of the laboratories in DRECAM (Departement de Recherche sur l'Etat Condense les Atomes et les Molecules), itself depending on the DSM (Direction des Sciences de la Matiere) of the CEA Institution. This report is divided in five chapters. Chapters 1 gathers all the work performed on the light sources, that is to say the evolutions of the femtosecond laser facilities (G1 group) and the achievements on the new SU5 synchrotron line and the Free Electron Laser (part of G3 group). Chapters 2 and 3 focus on the scientific results obtained by the G2 and G3 groups respectively. Chapter 4 gathers all information on SPAM scientific communication while chapter 5 lists interactions with the scientific community. (A.L.B.)

  10. STUK research projects 1998-2000; Saeteilyturvakeskuksen tutkimushankkeet 1998-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomaa, S.; Eloranta, E.; Heimbuerger, H.; Jokela, K.; Jaervinen, H

    1998-07-01

    The primary goal of STUK, the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, is to prevent and limit the harmful effects of radiation. The research conducted by STUK yields new information related to the use, occurrence and effects of radiation and promotes the supervision of nuclear safety. STUK research projects 1998 - 2000 summarizes STUK`s own research projects and commissioned research designed to promote the supervision of nuclear safety. Information on the research projects and related publications is also available on STUK`s WWW pages at www.stuk.fi. The work done on the safe use of nuclear power and nuclear waste management mainly comprises commissioned research projects which derive from the needs of authorities, and are funded and directed by STUK. This research is conducted by organizations outside STUK, but supervised by STUK experts. In some cases, STUK personnel are also involved. The goal of this research work is to produce the information needed for decision-making, to develop supervisory methods and to ensure that recent developments in science and technology are taken into account in action to promote safe use of nuclear power. STUK`s own research focuses on radiation protection and the health effects of radiation. During 1998 - 2000, the main emphasis will be on projects supporting the Finnish national environmental health action plan, the health risks of radiation, emergency preparedness and cooperation with neighbouring CEE areas. EU directives on radiation protection and medical exposure to radiation also influence the course taken by research carried out at STUK. STUK`s research activities are now more international than ever; the institute is involved in more then 20 research projects funded by EU. Apart from the EU and the Nordic countries, STUK`s main partners are to be found in Russia, Estonia and the USA. (orig.)

  11. 8 Hour Ozone Design Value for 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Ozone design value is based on the average of the annual 4th highest daily 8-hour maximum over a 3-year period (1998-2000) in this case. This is a human health...

  12. Comparison of Tropical Ozone from SHADOZ with Remote Sensing Retrievals from Suomi-npp Ozone Mapping Profile Suite (OMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The Ozone Mapping Profile Suite (OMPS) was launched October 28, 2011 on-board the Suomi NPP satellite (http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov). OMPS is the next generation total column ozone mapping instrument for monitoring the global distribution of stratospheric ozone. OMPS includes a limb profiler to measure the vertical structure of stratosphere ozone down to the mid-troposphere. This study uses tropical ozonesonde profile measurements from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ, http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz) archive to evaluate total column ozone retrievals from OMPS and concurrent measurements from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the predecessor of OMPS with a data record going back to 2004. We include ten SHADOZ stations that contain data overlapping the OMPS time period (2012-2013). This study capitalizes on the ozone profile measurements from SHADOZ to evaluate OMPS limb profile retrievals. Finally, we use SHADOZ sondes and OMPS retrievals to examine the agreement with the GEOS-5 Ozone Assimilation System (GOAS). The GOAS uses data from the OMI and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) to constrain the total column and stratospheric profiles of ozone. The most recent version of the assimilation system is well constrained to the total column compared with SHADOZ ozonesonde data.

  13. The Quasi-biennial Oscillation and annual variations in tropical ozone from SHADOZ and HALOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Witte

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the tropical ozone mixing ratio perturbation fields generated from a monthly ozone climatology using 1998 to 2006 ozonesonde data from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ network and the 13 year satellite record from 1993 to 2005 obtained from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE. The lengthy time series and high vertical resolution of the ozone and temperature profiles from the SHADOZ sondes coupled with good tropical coverage north and south of the equator gives a detailed picture of the ozone structure in the lowermost stratosphere down through the tropopause where the picture obtained from HALOE measurements is blurred by coarse vertical resolution. Ozone perturbations respond to annual variations in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation (BDC in the region just above the cold-point tropopause to around 20 km. Strong annual signals of alternating positive and negative ozone anomalies are observed and correlate well with temperature anomalies. Above 20 km, ozone and temperature perturbations are dominated by the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO. Both satellite and sonde records show good agreement between positive and negative ozone mixing ratio anomalies and alternating QBO easterly and westerly wind shears from the Singapore rawinsondes with a mean periodicity of 26 months for SHADOZ and 25 months for HALOE. There is a temporal offset of one to three months with the ozone QBO preceding the wind shear. Horizontal length scales for the annual cycle and the QBO, obtained using the temperature anomalies and wind shears in the thermal wind equation, compare well with theoretical calculations.

  14. DISSAnet: Development of an Information Science Research Network in the Republic of South Africa 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormell, Irene; Bothma, Theo J. D.; Ralebipi, Rocky M. D.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the concept of the NORDIC academic cooperation model (NorFa), in 1998-2000 Danish and international information scientists initiated a co-operative effort to build an education and research network among LIS institutions in South Africa. The paper reports the successful completion of the project, with 20 MA and Ph.D. students selected…

  15. Incidencia de cáncer en Navarra (1998-2000 Incidence of cancer in Navarre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ardanaz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1998 y 2000 se registraron un promedio anual de 3.303 casos de cáncer invasivo en Navarra, el 58% en hombres. Si exceptuamos los tumores de piel no melanoma el número anual de casos fue de 2.495, con tasas de incidencia bruta de 559 y 372 por 100.000 en hombres y en mujeres y unas tasas ajustadas a la población mundial de 312 y 203 por 100.000, respectivamente. Entre los hombres las cuatro localizaciones tumorales más frecuentemente diagnosticadas fueron próstata, pulmón, colorectal y vejiga que sumaron el 57% de todos los casos. Entre las mujeres destacan por su frecuencia los tumores de mama, colorectal, cuerpo de útero y ovario que sumaron el 54% del total de los casos. Respecto al quinquenio 1993-97, la incidencia global de cáncer en el trienio 1998-2000 ha aumentado un 4,2% en los hombres y un 7,4% en las mujeres. A destacar el aumento de incidencia de cáncer de pulmón y linfomas no Hodgkin en ambos sexos y del cáncer de mama en mujeres y próstata en hombres. Continúan descendiendo las tasas de incidencia de cáncer de estómago en ambos sexos, siguiendo la tendencia iniciada en los 70.Between 1998 and 2000 an annual average of 3,303 cases of invasive cancer were registered in Navarre, 58% of them in men. If we except non melanoma skin tumours, the annual number of cases was 2,495, with gross incidence rates of 559 and 372 per 100,000 in men and women, and rates adjusted to the world population of 312 and 203 per 100,000 respectively. Amongst men, the four most frequently diagnosed tumoural localisations were the prostate, lung, colorectal and bladder, accounting for 57% of all cases. The most notable due to their frequency amongst women were tumours of the breast, colorectal, uterus body and ovary, accounting for 54% of all cases. With respect to the five year period from 1993 to1997, the global incidence of cancer in the three year period from 1998 to 2000 has increased 4.2% in men and 7.4% in women. The incidence of

  16. Progress report 1998 - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews all the activities of the CSNSM (nuclear spectrometry and mass spectrometry center). The activities, developments and particular hits or results are presented within 10 themes: 1) nuclear structure, 2) induced fission and exotic nuclei, 3) atomic mass and basic symmetries, 4) nuclear astrophysics, 5) micro-meteorites, 6) mass spectrometry through an accelerator, 7) solid state physics, 8) superconductivity, 9) physical chemistry aspects of irradiation, and 10) electromagnetic separation of ions

  17. Epidemiologi, sygdomspræsentation og forløb af idiopatisk trombocytopenisk purpura hos børn i Danmark 1998-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Mimi; Edslev, Pernille Wendtland; Rosthøj, Steen

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Idopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) is a condition with isolated thrombocytopenia and bleeding symptoms in skin and mucous membranes. It is easy to establish the diagnosis, but treatment is controversial, possibly due to different estimates of the risk for serious bleeding. We...... present the epidemiology and clinical course of ITP during the first 6 months after diagnosis in Danish children diagnosed from 1998-2000. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology conducted a prospective registration study of children with newly diagnosed ITP from...... 1998-2000. The study included children ITP and platelet count (TBC) ITP related episodes was recorded at diagnosis and during the first six months. RESULTS: Of 109 included...

  18. Social class differences in secular trends in established coronary risk factors over 20 years: a cohort study of British men from 1978-80 to 1998-2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena E Ramsay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD mortality in the UK since the late 1970s has declined more markedly among higher socioeconomic groups. However, little is known about changes in coronary risk factors in different socioeconomic groups. This study examined whether changes in established coronary risk factors in Britain over 20 years between 1978-80 and 1998-2000 differed between socioeconomic groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A socioeconomically representative cohort of 7735 British men aged 40-59 years was followed-up from 1978-80 to 1998-2000; data on blood pressure (BP, cholesterol, body mass index (BMI and cigarette smoking were collected at both points in 4252 survivors. Social class was based on longest-held occupation in middle-age. Compared with men in non-manual occupations, men in manual occupations experienced a greater increase in BMI (mean difference = 0.33 kg/m(2; 95%CI 0.14-0.53; p for interaction = 0.001, a smaller decline in non-HDL cholesterol (difference in mean change = 0.18 mmol/l; 95%CI 0.11-0.25, p for interaction≤0.0001 and a smaller increase in HDL cholesterol (difference in mean change = 0.04 mmol/l; 95%CI 0.02-0.06, p for interaction≤0.0001. However, mean systolic BP declined more in manual than non-manual groups (difference in mean change = 3.6; 95%CI 2.1-5.1, p for interaction≤0.0001. The odds of being a current smoker in 1978-80 and 1998-2000 did not differ between non-manual and manual social classes (p for interaction = 0.51. CONCLUSION: Several key risk factors for CHD and type 2 diabetes showed less favourable changes in men in manual occupations. Continuing priority is needed to improve adverse cardiovascular risk profiles in socially disadvantaged groups in the UK.

  19. Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni Penner serotypes in broiler flocks 1998-2000 in a small Danish community with special reference to serotype 4-complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Nielsen, E.M.; Pedersen, Karl

    2003-01-01

    isolated (n = 180) from these farms during 1998-2000 using Penner serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The area and the farms were selected according to their prevalence of campylobacter so that both farms with low and high frequencies of campylobacter positive flocks were included......, while serotypes 2 and 1,44, respectively, were the most frequently isolated from the two remaining farms. This serotype distribution differed from the overall country-wide distribution where serotypes 2 and 1,44 are the most prevalent. All serotype 4-complex isolates from the six selected farms were...... compared by PFGE to serotype 4-complex isolates from the rest of the country. The results showed that there was a high level of diversity among isolates from the whole country, whereas isolates from the six farms were very homogeneous and only displayed one or a few different PFGE patterns on each farm...

  20. Association of stressful life events with acute myocardial infarction in population in the city of Niš within the period from 1998-2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deljanin Zorana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Stressful life events present a very important category of psychosocial stress. A few studies have showed that a psychosocial stress represents a very important risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI, but measures of stress may not be suitable for different countries, cultures and ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of stressful life events with AMI in the period of 1998-2000 in the population of the city of Niš. Methods. A case-control study included 100 patients with the first MI (in the period 1998-2000 and 100 healthy subjects, matched with respect to sex and age (± 2 years from the city of Niš. The data of stressful life events were obtained by the Scaling of life events by Paykel ES, modified by the authors consistent with the examined population and the period of investigation. The Yates χ2 test, odds ratio - OR and their 99% interval of confidence were used as statistical procedures. Results. The results showed that stressful life events in the period of investigation were very important risk factors for AMI with a statistically significant level (p = 0.000. Huge financial problems (OR = 202.36, Ci = 24.82-4387.58, violation of law (OR = 168.00, Ci = 10.66-6658.96 and serious illness of family members (OR = 159.60, Ci = 19.05- 3514.81 were the highest risk for AMI. The patients who reported that his/her son or other member of family had been gone to the army (or mobilization before the illness onset, had 138 times higher risk of AMI (Ci = 14.98-3222.47, χ2 = 40.95, p = 0.000, while the patients who had mobilized themselves had 84 times higher risk (Ci = 7.00- 2363.06, χ2 = 23.87, p = 0.000. Effect of several stressful life events lead to significantly increased risk of AMI and that significance is larger as the number of life events is more frequent (one life event: OR = 28.41, Ci = 3.73- 593.52; χ2 = 17.40, p = 0.000; ≥ 4: OR = 336.00, Ci = 28.31- 9760.28, χ2 = 50

  1. Exploración sobre las migraciones internas en las provincias y los municipios de Cuba (1995-1997 y 1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Montes Rodríguez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las migraciones internas en Cuba atendiendo a dos escalas territoriales: provincial y municipal. El análisis se basa en la comparación de la dinámica migratoria de los períodos 1995-1997 y 1998-2000. La definición de estos períodos la pone el año 1997, año en que el Decreto-Ley 217 va a regular el ingreso temporal o permanente en la Ciudad de La Habana, y especialmente en los municipios de Habana Vieja, Centro Habana, Cerro y 10 de Octubre. Algunos de los resultados de la investigación evidencian como un proceso restrictivo en la llegada de emigrantes a La Capital puede cambiar el sentido de la emigración hacia otros territorios antes no considerados, o considerados menos, como lugar de destino. Las fuentes estadísticas utilizadas ha sido las Estadísticas Continuas desde 1995 al 2000 (Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas y Anuario Demográfico de la Oficina Nacional de Estadística.

  2. Evaluation of Environmental Tritium Level in Air and Precipitation in the Area of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid. 1998-2000; Evaluacion de los niveles de Tritio Ambiental en Aire y Lluvia en el Area del Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid 1998-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero del Hombrebueno, B.; Simon, M.A.; Larena, P.

    2001-07-15

    Concentration of tritium in environmental samples (air, precipitation) has been determined during 1998-2000, by using electrolytic enrichment and liquid scintillation counting. Atmospheric tritium concentration of tritiated water vapor (HTO), expressed in Bq/l varies within a range of 0,77-10.82 giving an overall average value of 1,81{+-}1,82. HTO expressed in mBq/m''3 air varies within a range of 4,6-70; no correlation with the atmospheric humidity was observed. Tritium concentration in the precipitation ranges from 0.35 to 2,18 Bq/l, without seasonal variations. The tritium concentration in the air of the laboratory was approximately five times higher than in the atmosphere due to evaporation of tritium standard water during the process of the samples. (Author) 9 refs.

  3. A vigilância sanitária em Feira de Santana no processo de descentralização da saúde (1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraildes Andrade Juliano

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a organização da Vigilância Sanitária (Visa de Feira de Santana no processo de descentralização da saúde (1998-2000, apontando avanços e limites no cenário local. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, de abordagem qualitativa, numa perspectiva histórico-social, cujo recorte espacial foi a Divisão de Vigilância Sanitária da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde. Os materiais empíricos foram os depoimentos de gestores, técnicos, inspetores sanitários e fontes documentais. A análise evidenciou a ausência de um projeto político para a gestão descentralizada das ações de Visa no município. Aponta limites: (desarticulação com o nível regional, recursos humanos temporários e sem qualificação técnica, dificuldades na utilização do incentivo financeiro, insuficiência de infra-estrutura e interferências políticas. Destaca avanços: cumprimento da Programação Pactuada e Integrada, cadastramento dos estabelecimentos sujeitos à fiscalização sanitária, articulações interinstitucionais. Esse processo necessita da mobilização de sujeitos sociais com capacidade de vocalização para inscrevê-lo numa agenda de prioridades, em prol da qualidade de vida da população.

  4. Water quality of selected rivers in the New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Kimberly W.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Robinson, Keith W.

    2003-01-01

    Nine rivers were monitored routinely for a variety of field conditions, dissolved ions, and nutrients during 1998-2000 as part of the New England Coastal Basins (NECB) study of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The nine rivers, located primarily in the Boston metropolitan area, represented a gradient of increasing urbanization from 1 to 68 percent urban land use. Additional water samples were collected and analyzed for pesticides and volatile organic compounds at two of the nine rivers. Specific conductance data from all rivers were correlated with urban land use; specific conductance values increased during winter at some sites indicating the effect of road de-icing applications. In the more intensely urbanized basins, concentrations of sodium and chloride were high during winter and likely are attributed to road de-icing applications. Concentrations of total nitrogen and the various inorganic and organic nitrogen species were correlated with the percentage of urban land in the drainage basin. Total phosphorus concentrations also were correlated with urbanization in the drainage basin, but only for rivers draining less than 50 square miles. Preliminary U.S. Environmental Protection Agency total nitrogen and total phosphorus criteria for the rivers in the area were frequently exceeded at many of the rivers sampled. At the two sites monitored for pesticides and volatile organic compounds, the Aberjona and Charles Rivers near Boston, greater detection frequencies of pesticides were in samples from the spring and summer when pesticide usage was greatest. At both sites, herbicides were detected more commonly than insecticides. The herbicides prometon and atrazine and the insecticide diazinon were detected in over 50 percent of all samples collected from both rivers. No water samples contained pesticide concentrations exceeding any U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard or criteria for protecting

  5. Infrared spectra of U.S. automobile original finishes (1998-2000). IX. identification of bismuth oxychloride and silver/white mica pearlescent pigments using extended range FT-IR spectroscopy, XRF spectrometry, and SEM/EDS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Edward M

    2014-09-01

    Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) was the first viable synthetic pearl pigment developed 50 years ago. It was only used for a limited time period in automotive paint (model years 1998-2000), serving to produce luster for a single Chrysler black metallic color. Identification of this pigment in an unknown automotive paint can thus facilitate determination of the vehicle of origin. Bismuth oxychloride imparts effects similar to those produced by silver/white mica pearlescent pigments, and such a pigment was used together with bismuth oxychloride in at least one original equipment manufacturer (OEM) basecoat. Silver/white micas are now used primarily in white pearl tricoat systems. This article describes the identification of bismuth oxychloride and silver/white mica pearlescent pigments in automotive finishes using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry, and SEM/EDS analysis. Data for some cadmium pigments, which were used in automotive paint several decades ago, are also presented as they produce infrared absorptions similar to that of bismuth oxychloride. PMID:24646090

  6. Progress report 1998 - 2000; Rapport d'activite 1998 - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document reviews all the activities of the CSNSM (nuclear spectrometry and mass spectrometry center). The activities, developments and particular hits or results are presented within 10 themes: 1) nuclear structure, 2) induced fission and exotic nuclei, 3) atomic mass and basic symmetries, 4) nuclear astrophysics, 5) micro-meteorites, 6) mass spectrometry through an accelerator, 7) solid state physics, 8) superconductivity, 9) physical chemistry aspects of irradiation, and 10) electromagnetic separation of ions.

  7. Scientific report 1998-2000. Service of molecular chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Service of Molecular Chemistry (SCM) constitutes a significant part of fundamental chemistry at the Direction for the Science of Matter (DSM). Furthermore, its scientific programmes benefit from the contact with teams of CEA who carry out applied research relevant to nuclear energy as well as to new technologies and industrial innovation. Several cooperative actions (which involve, among other persons, PhDs and post-docs) with the other operational Directions of CEA (DO) illustrate this will of SCM to establish its fundamental research within the frame of the broader CEA missions acknowledged by the French government. The scientific report is organized as follows: as simplified organization chart relates the SCM to the Department and the Direction to which it is bound, and states the personnel (CEA, CNRS, University, PhDs, post-docs, etc). The organization chart of the SCM then brings to the fore the relationship between thematic Groups and teams. A general presentation of the main guidelines of the researches of the Service, organized by Groups, precedes a detailed description of the results obtained for each of the scientific themes tackled by the teams with mention of the involved scientists. Publications and patents appear at the end. Finally the research perspectives of SCM emphasize the inflexion to our activities which will be given in the next two years. (author)

  8. White-fronted Goose Telementry, 1998-2000 [ds330

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Using radio-telemetry, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) distribution and movements during winter in Central California were determined during...

  9. Scientific report 1998-2000. Service of molecular chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Service of Molecular Chemistry (SCM) constitutes a significant part of fundamental chemistry at the Direction for the Science of Matter (DSM). Furthermore, its scientific programmes benefit from the contact with teams of CEA who carry out applied research relevant to nuclear energy as well as to new technologies and industrial innovation. Several cooperative actions (which involve, among other persons, PhDs and post-docs) with the other operational Directions of CEA (DO) illustrate this will of SCM to establish its fundamental research within the frame of the broader CEA missions acknowledged by the French government. The scientific report is organized as follows: as simplified organization chart relates the SCM to the Department and the Direction to which it is bound, and states the personnel (CEA, CNRS, University, PhDs, post-docs, etc). The organization chart of the SCM then brings to the fore the relationship between thematic Groups and teams. A general presentation of the main guidelines of the researches of the Service, organized by Groups, precedes a detailed description of the results obtained for each of the scientific themes tackled by the teams with mention of the involved scientists. Publications and patents appear at the end. Finally the research perspectives of SCM emphasize the inflexion to our activities which will be given in the next two years. (author)

  10. The prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes in Groningen 1998-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen JWB; Rombout Y; Evers EG; Arends B; Veen A; MGB

    2001-01-01

    Echinococcus multivocularis is de kleine lintworm van de vos, welke een ernstige ziekte bij de mens, alveolaire echinoccose genaamd, kan veroorzaken. Mensen raken besmet door orale opname van de eieren van E. multilocularis, die met de vossenfaeces in het milieu terecht komen. De incubatietijd van

  11. Solar observations with Rio de Janeiro Danjon astrolabe: diameter variations and its correlations (1998-2000)

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Eugênio Reis

    2013-01-01

    This work has aimed to analyze the 1998 to 2000 campaign of solar diameter surveying. The employed instrument was a Danjon astrolabe, at the Observat\\'orio Nacional campus, and specially modified for the solar observations. During the time lapse, 10807 independent measurements of the solar diameter were made, Eastwards and Westwards from the local meridian and evenly distributed. An image treatment has been devised to account for the camera dark current and flat field, using IRAF routines. A study of the observational conditions upon the final outcome was made. The mean temperature at the observation is shown as the most influential parameter upon the final result. Next to it also the temperature variation, the Fried's factor, and the standard deviation of the reflected parabola presented a minor and complex degree of influence. The derived corrections are of the order of hundredths of arc seconds, thus being tenfold smaller than the typical error of one observation. The mean semidiameter for the time lapse (...

  12. Oceanographic Data And Information Network For Africa (Odinafrica) Final Report 1998-2000

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The Agreement between the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Government of Flanders (Kingdom of Belgium) for cooperation in the marine sciences, was signed at UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, France on 6 March 1998 by Dr Federico Mayor, Director-General of UNESCO and Mr. Luc Van den Brande, Minister-President of the Flemish Government. The agreement provided the framework support for the development of the Ocean Data and Information Network for Africa...

  13. NELSWG Common Loon Contaminant Project: New York Field Report, 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anthropogenic inputs of mercury into the environment have resulted in an increasing gradient of mercury from west to east across North America. In conjunction, the...

  14. Barriers to dietary control among pregnant women with phenylketonuria--United States, 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-15

    Newborns in the United States are screened for phenylketonuria (PKU), a metabolic disorder that when left untreated is characterized by elevated blood phenylalanine (phe) levels and severe mental retardation (MR). An estimated 3,000-4,000 U.S.-born women of reproductive age with PKU have not gotten severe MR because as newborns their diets were severely restricted in the intake of protein-containing foods and were supplemented with medical foods (e.g., amino acid-modified formula and modified low-protein foods). When women with PKU do not adhere to their diet before and during pregnancy, infants born to them have a 93% risk for MR and a 72% risk for microcephaly. These risks result from the toxic effects of high maternal blood phe levels during pregnancy, not because the infant has PKU. The restricted diet, which should be maintained for life, often is discontinued during adolescence. This report describes the pregnancies of three women with PKU and underscores the importance of overcoming the barriers to maintaining the recommended dietary control of blood phe levels before and during pregnancy. For maternal PKU-associated MR to be prevented, studies are needed to determine effective approaches to overcoming barriers to dietary control. PMID:11898925

  15. Contaminants in Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Eggs and Prey Items, Arizona, 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study documented concentrations and potential effects of organochlorine compounds and metals in addled eggs and potential prey of the endangered southwestern...

  16. Catch-Up Growth of Children After Renal Transplantation - Labafi-Nejad Hospital (1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Otukesh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with coronary renal failure had problems with their catch-up growth. The aim of this study was the Assessment of catch-up growth of children after renal transplantation by analyzing the 6 months changes in height deficit and height standard deviation scores (SDS on age, sex, initial height deficit, initial SDS, graft function, renal failure duration and renal transplantation duration. Methods and Materials: Between 22 September 1998 and 2000, 25 pediatric recipients followed up quarterly for height in the Labafi-Nejad hospital. Data on height submitted at each 6-month follow-up were converted into height and SDS. All the results were analyzed by simple and multiple regression and t-test. Results: 68 percents were male and 32 percent were female Mean age at transplantation was 10.39±2.95 SD years. The average duration of renal transplantation was 20.7±8.96 SD months. The aerage of height deficit was 20.7 cm (±10.55 SD and SDS -3.5 (±1.72 SD at the time of renal transplantation. The height deficit was more significant in the patients with tubulopathy. Catch-up growth observed at month 12. That was more obvious in females, in patients with tubulopathy disorders, in preemptives and in all three age groups. Simple and stepwise regression analysis showed that at month 12 only initial height deficit (P<0.05 and at month 24, only sex (P<0.05 were independent predictor of improved height post transplantation. Catch-up growth were seen in more student patients and girls. This may be the result of puberty spurt that occur two years sooner in girls than in boys. Conclusion: In this study we concluded that the renal transplantation alone is not sufficient measure for correction of catch-up growth in renal failure children and because of that the other treatments should come under consideration.

  17. Whose Frames Mattered? The Feasibility Study in the Municipality of Tierp 1998-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 2001 SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) presented a ranking list of the eight feasibility studies carried out in Sweden. The feasibility study in Tierp was cited as showing that potentially good bedrock could be found in the municipality and SKB therefore asked to carry out a site investigation. Tierp is a neighbouring municipality to Oesthammar, a municipality that hosts nuclear power plants, with around 20,000 inhabitants and an area of 1543 km2. This paper focuses on why the Municipal Council in Tierp voted 'no' to further investigations even though SKB pointed out the municipality as having potentially good bedrock. In 1998 a feasibility study in Tierp was started. The arguments presented for a feasibility study were: the proximity to Forsmark nuclear power plant in Oesthammar, responsibilities for future generations, and that an investigation of the municipality could be used for other purposes. The main question this paper asks is the following: why did the Municipal Council in Tierp say 'no' to further investigations? This question is of interest since SKB claimed that Tierp had potentially good bedrock. The hypothesis is that the democratic models (representative democracy, discursive democracy or technocracy) present in the feasibility study and the boundary work carried out, i.e. how the boundary between science and politics was drawn, and which actors had access to the discussion on the public agenda, influenced the decision of the Council. The main sources used are interviews and a Swedish governmental investigation report about the feasibility studies. Twelve fairly open interviews with actors from the municipal organization, SKB, local opinion groups and the media were carried out. The questions cover how hey worked with the study, how the municipality organized its work, how they defined the nuclear waste issues and how they tried to communicate their views to other actors

  18. Incidencia de cáncer en Navarra (1998-2000) Incidence of cancer in Navarre

    OpenAIRE

    Ardanaz, E.; Moreno, C; M.E. Pérez de Rada Arístegui; C. Ezponda; N. Navaridas

    2004-01-01

    Entre 1998 y 2000 se registraron un promedio anual de 3.303 casos de cáncer invasivo en Navarra, el 58% en hombres. Si exceptuamos los tumores de piel no melanoma el número anual de casos fue de 2.495, con tasas de incidencia bruta de 559 y 372 por 100.000 en hombres y en mujeres y unas tasas ajustadas a la población mundial de 312 y 203 por 100.000, respectivamente. Entre los hombres las cuatro localizaciones tumorales más frecuentemente diagnosticadas fueron próstata, pulmón, colorectal y v...

  19. Pesticide Impact Assessment in Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges, 1998 - 2000 Growing Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tule Lake and the adjacent Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges (TLNWR and LKNWR) serve as key spring/fall staging and overwintering areas for Pacific Flyway...

  20. SWFSC/MMTD/ETP: Stenella Abundance Research (STAR) 1998-2000, 2003, and 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Stenella Abundance Research Project (STAR) is a multi-year cetacean and ecosystem assessment study designed to assess the status of dolphin stocks which have...

  1. Working Together To Build Beacon Centers in San Francisco: Evaluation Findings from 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen E.; Arbreton, Amy J. A.

    The Beacons Initiative aimed to transform eight public schools (five middle schools and three high schools) into youth and family centers in low-income neighborhoods in San Francisco, California. Using a coalition of local partners and funding from public agencies and foundations, the centers served 7,500 youth and adults between July 1, 1999, and…

  2. Migration and habitats of diadromous Danube River sturgeons in Romania: 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Suciu, R.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Upstream migrant adults of stellate sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus (10 in 1998, 43 in 1999) and Russian sturgeon, A. gueldenstaedtii (three in 1999) were captured at river km (rkm) 58-137, mostly in the spring, and tagged with acoustic tags offering a reward for return. The overharvest was revealed by tag returns (38% in 1998, 28% in 1999) and by harvest within 26 days (and before reaching spawning grounds) of the six stellate sturgeon tracked upstream. A drop-back of > 50% of the tagged sturgeon, some to the Black Sea, shows a high sensitivity to interruption of migration and capture/handling/holding. Harvesting and dropback prevented tracking of sturgeon to spawning sites. Gillnetting and tracking of stellate sturgeon showed that the autumn migration ended in early October (river temperature 16??C) and identified a likely wintering area at river km (rkm) 75-76 (St George Branch). Thus, fishery harvesting after early October captures wintering fish, not migrants. Rare shoreline cliffs in the lower river likely create the only rocky habitat for sturgeon spawning. A survey for potential spawning habitats found five sites with rocky substrate and moderate water velocity, all ???rkm 258. Drift netting caught early life-stages of 17 fish species and one sturgeon, a beluga, Huso huso, larva likely spawned at ???rkm 258. All diadromous Danube sturgeons likely spawn at ???rkm 258.

  3. Application to STVF from CBT for the Period 1998-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1997-01-01

    The application from Center for Broadband Telecommunications summarises research progress and milestones for the period Jan. 1, 1995 - June 30, 1997. It also describes international and national cooperation along with research plans and milestones....

  4. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  5. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  6. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  7. Southern hemisphere observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  8. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  9. Southern (In)hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of "The Status of Race Equity and Diversity in Public Higher Education in the South," an analysis of trends in admissions, enrollment and completion at public colleges and universities in the 19 Southern and border states that maintained segregated systems of higher education in 1954. While work on the project…

  10. Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System, 1998-2000 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Sandra L.

    2001-05-01

    Since 1984, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has conducted an ongoing research and development project to expand and improve technology for Passive-Integrated-Transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB). Work conducted as part of this project during 1999-2000 was divided into six individual projects, which are covered separately in this report.

  11. Assessing the impacts of methylmercury on piscivorous wildlife as indicated by the common loon, 1998-2000: 2000 final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anthropogenic inputs of mercury (Hg) into the environment have significantly increased in the past few decades. In conjunction, the current availability of...

  12. Muelle y edificio de servicios en el puerto de Alicante, España (1997-1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Solera, Juan A.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The competition consisted in designing a quay for thedisembarkation of local passengers and a building housing akiosk and shaded waiting area on top of it. This was asplendid opportunity for exploring the two extremes ofconstruction most closely linked to the sea: the building of adike and platform using civil engineering techniques inaddition to a small building made with the quality ofmaterials, fit and precision characteristic of the best navalarchitecture. Construction of the quay started with largeblocks of concrete and stone, earth moving and underwateranchoring. It then continue above water, as if it were a boat indry dock, with wood and metal, assembling, fitting together,tightening screws...It was proposed to design and asymmetric quay that wouldlook in a specific direction so that the boats would notobstruct the views from the building. The height of thebuilding was kept to a minimun seeking the predominanthorizontality of any view of a port. The building resolutelyraises its own verticality competing masts of the sailboatslining the dock to greet those who arrive at the citty,The building is intend ed to have an ambiguous relationshipwith the sea. The metal balcony, lack of handrails, lightness,lack of definition between inside and outside and between thesea and land all contribute to creating such a relationship.El concurso consistía en el diseño de un muelle para eldesembarque de viajeros de cercanías y, sobre él, unaedificación que albergase un quiosco y sombra de espera.Una oportunidad espléndida para explorar los dos extremosde la construcción más ligada a la mar: la ejecución deldique y su plataforma con técnicas de ingeniería civil y la deuna pequeña construcción realizada con la calidad material,el ajuste y la precisión propias de la mejor arquitecturanaval. Se construye primero con grandes masas de hormigóny piedra, con movimientos de tierras, con fondeossubmarinos. Se construye después en seco, como si de unbarco se tratara, con madera y metal, ensamblando,encajando, atornillando...Se propone un muelle asimétrico que mira en una direcciónconcreta y permite que las embarcaciones no obstruyan consu presencia las vistas desde la edificación. La construcciónse eleva lo mínimo posible, en busca de la horizontalidaddominante en cualquier visión portuaria, y eleva a lo alto,decidida, su propia vertical que, en competencia con lospalos de vela de los barcos que pueblan la dársena, saluda aquienes llegan a la ciudad.Se pretende una relación ambigua con el mar. El vuelometálico, la ausencia de barandillas, la ligereza, laindefinición del exterior-interior, de mar y tierra, lapropician.

  13. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelock, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to ...

  14. Some aspects of the ecology of the Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica (Erxleben, 1777 in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India and their conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica, an endemic species to India, is widely distributed from the evergreen to moist and dry deciduous forests of Western and Eastern Ghats and the central Indian hills. We studied its population distribution, activity, feeding, ranging and nesting behaviour across three major habitats in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India, during 1998-2000 to manage the species effectively. Extensive survey of the three major habitats—tropical moist, dry deciduous and dry thorn—in the sanctuary shows that its distribution is continuous in moist and dry deciduous forests with good canopy contiguity and patchy along riverine areas in dry thorn and dry deciduous forests with sparse trees and broken canopy. Density estimates using 55 direct sightings from 199 km line transects show a mean of 2.9 (plus or minus 0.313 squirrels/km2. Daylight activity and feeding patterns assessed through 24,098 minutes of focal sampling reveal that animals feed and rest equal amounts of time. The diet constitutes seeds, bark, petioles, leaves and fruits from 25 plants, with Tectona grandis as the principal food source (41%. Its home range size varied from 0.8-1.7 ha with a mean of 1.3ha. Nesting characteristics assessed through 83 nests surveyed along 54km transects showed that the squirrel uses 15 of the 33 tree species found, with higher preference to Schleichera oleosa and Mangifera indica. Nest trees are significantly larger in height, gbh and canopy contiguity than nearest non-nest trees, which are attributed to better protection and escape from predators. Maintenance of diverse natural habitats and reduction in anthropogenic pressure are measures suggested for the conservation of giant squirrel populations in the study area.

  15. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  16. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  17. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  18. Fires in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  19. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  20. Erythrineae (Fabaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Franklin Hennessy

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The two genera represented in the flora of southern Africa.  Erythrina L. and  Mucuna Adans. are revised. Keys to the indigenous species and the commonly cultivated exotic species are provided.

  1. Energy Trade in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document deals with possible energy growth in Southern African countries. This region possesses substantial energy resources (including fossil fuels), but because of political instability, government intervention, financial paralysis and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure, this region faces problems in satisfying energy needs. Two key international actions, namely the South African Development Community (SADC) Energy Protocol and the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) are expected to enhance energy trade and promote economic development. (TEC)

  2. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  3. Unemployment Risk in Southern Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Stavros Rodokanakis

    2010-01-01

    The basic aim of this paper is to investigate the impact that educational level of individuals and participation in training programmes have on their job prospects in Southern Greece (namely the regions of Southern Aegean and Crete) during the implementation of the first Community Support Framework (1989-1993). We try to see whether the educational level itself and participation in training programmes increased the chances of finding a job. More specifically, we research what are the social a...

  4. MULES IN SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE: REVISITED

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Martin A., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides additional empirical evidence concerning the choice of the mule as the dominant draft animal in southern agricultural production in the latter 19th and early 20th century. While the mule was uniquely suited to the crops and climate of the region, two divergent arguments have been presented as to why the mule was the dominant draft animal in southern agricultural production. This research reevaluates these arguments and provides evidence that it was, in fact, the characte...

  5. Fire in Southern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 56.4 by 63.5 kilometers (35 by 39

  6. Treasures of the Southern Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Gendler, Robert; Malin, David

    2011-01-01

    In these pages, the reader can follow the engaging saga of astronomical exploration in the southern hemisphere, in a modern merger of aesthetics, science, and a story of human endeavor. This book is truly a celebration of southern skies.  Jerry Bonnell, Editor - Astronomy Picture of the Day The southern sky became accessible to scientific scrutiny only a few centuries ago, after the first European explorers ventured south of the equator. Modern observing and imaging techniques have since revealed what seems like a new Universe, previously hidden below the horizon, a fresh astronomical bounty of beauty and knowledge uniquely different from the northern sky. The authors have crafted a book that brings this hidden Universe to all, regardless of location or latitude. Treasures of the Southern Sky celebrates the remarkable beauty and richness of the southern sky in words and with world-class imagery. In part, a photographic anthology of deep sky wonders south of the celestial equator, this book also celebrates th...

  7. Southern California Adjoint Source Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, J.; Kim, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Southern California Centroid-Moment Tensor (CMT) solutions with 9 components (6 moment tensor elements, latitude, longitude, and depth) are sought to minimize a misfit function computed from waveform differences. The gradient of a misfit function is obtained based upon two numerical simulations for each earthquake: one forward calculation for the southern California model, and an adjoint calculation that uses time-reversed signals at the receivers. Conjugate gradient and square-root variable metric methods are used to iteratively improve the earthquake source model while reducing the misfit function. The square-root variable metric algorithm has the advantage of providing a direct approximation to the posterior covariance operator. We test the inversion procedure by perturbing each component of the CMT solution, and see how the algorithm converges. Finally, we demonstrate full inversion capabilities using data for real Southern California earthquakes.

  8. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the

  9. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  10. Southern Universities: Are They Rising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, John S.

    1986-01-01

    This essay reviews four recent works on Southern universities: (1) "The University of Georgia: A Bicentennial History" (Dyer, 1985); (2) "A Pictorial History of the University of Georgia" (Boney, 1984); (3) To Foster Knowledge: A History of the University of Tennessee 1794-1970" (Montgomery, et al., 1984); and (4) "Gone with the Ivy: A Biography…

  11. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

    2008-09-01

    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed 40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also

  12. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  13. The Southern Altiplano of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Flores, Ricardo; Bommel, Pierre; Bourliaud, Jean; Chevarria Lazo, Marco; Cortes, Geneviève; CRUZ, Pablo; Del Castillo, C.; Gasselin, Pierre; Joffre, Richard; Leger, Francois; Nina Laura, Juan Peter; Rambal, Serge; Rivière, Gilles; Tichit, Muriel; Tourrand, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa has been a staple food for Andean populations for millennia. Today, it is a much-appreciated product on the international health-food, organic and fair-trade food markets. Quinoa producers in the southern Altiplano of Bolivia initiated this change approximately 40 years ago. On high desert land, they succeeded in developing a thriving agricultural crop for export. Although they enjoy lucrative niche markets, quinoa producers are not specialized farmers, nor do most of them live yearrou...

  14. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  15. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Rajesh; M Santosh

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2 ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher fH2O favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  16. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  17. Agro-fuels: southern impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a time of controversies about global warming, agro-fuels production is often presented as a future solution for automotive fuels and as a new way of development for southern countries. However, in Asia, South America and Africa, it very often takes the form of huge mono-culture areas of sugar cane, palm oil and soy bean in the hands of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. The consequences of these land, social and environmental impacts in Southern countries is an increase of disequilibria and a threat for the diet of local populations by changing the appropriation of lands. Deforestation, private monopolization of lands, concentration of profits, soils and water pollution, biodiversity impoverishment, exploitation of vulnerable manpower, populations migration, violation of human rights are today the consequences of mass production of agro-fuels in Southern countries. To what conditions a fair re-appropriation and a sustainable development of agro-fuels production and consumption is foreseeable? The solutions require a re-shaping of economical and agricultural politics. The book gathers testimonies and analyses from specialists who have evaluated locally the consequences of these energy choices. (J.S.)

  18. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  19. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaupo Mändla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer months. The number of thunder days was largest when the centres of southern cyclones passed a measuring station at a distance less than 500 km. The number of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes related to southern cyclones was larger than that of any other thunder events. The results of our study demonstrate that the intensity of thunderstorms related to southern cyclones is higher than that of other thunderstorms. Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and the frequency of southern cyclones, also between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and days of other thunder events.

  20. Geothermal resources of southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabey, Don R.

    1983-01-01

    The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150?C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications, but is lower than the temperature of interest for commercial generation of electricity at the present time. Most of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. By far the largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grand View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107?C and an energy of 4.5? 10 20 joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system has been found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures has not been found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90? and 150?C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain. Areas that appear particularly promising for the occurrence of large high-temperature hydrothermal systems are: the area north of the Snake River Plain and west of the Idaho batholith, the Island Park area, segments of the margins of the eastern Snake River Plain, and the Blackfoot lava field.

  1. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on, in and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account, by decision makers, when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository

  2. Southern Africa CTA Site Proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, P P

    2012-01-01

    Southern Africa has some of the world's best sites for air Cherenkov telescopes. South Africa has only one viable site, which is south of Sutherland and also close to the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This site has very good infrastructure and is easy to access, but only 47% of the night-time has a cloudless sky usable for observations. Namibia, which already hosts the H.E.S.S telescope, has a number of potential sites with much less cloud coverage. The H.E.S.S. site is one of the highest of these sites at 1840 m a.s.l. with about 64% of the night-time cloudless. It also has very low night sky background levels and is relatively close (about 100 km) to Windhoek. Moving further away from Windhoek to the south, the cloud coverage and artificial night sky brightness becomes even less, with the site at Kuibis (between Keetmanshoop and Luderitz) at 1640 m a.s.l. having clear night skies 73% of the time. Even though this site seems remote (being 660 km from Windhoek by road), it is close to the national ...

  3. Seismicity of southern Lake Tanganyika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavayssiere, A.; Gallacher, R. J.; Keir, D.; Ebinger, C. J.; Drooff, C.; Khalfan, M.; Bull, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global seismic networks document frequent and unusually deep earthquakes in East African rift sectors lacking central volcanoes. The deep seismicity means that we can use earthquakes to probe the geometry and kinematics of fault systems throughout the crust, and to understand the distribution of strain between large offset border fault systems and intrabasinal faults. The southern Tanganyika rift zone has the highest seismicity rate within East Africa during the period 1973-present, yet earlier temporary seismometer networks have been too sparse in space and time to relocate earthquakes with location and depth errors of Lake Tanganyika since June 2014 using a network at 12 broadband seismic stations. The distribution of earthquakes shows that deformation primarily occurs on large offset border faults beneath the lake. Subsidiary earthquake activity occurs along the subparrallel Rukwa graben, and beneath the NE-SW striking Mweru rift. The distribution of earthquakes suggests the southern end of lake Tanganyika is characterized by a network of intersecting NNW and NE striking faults. The depths of earthquakes are distributed throughout the crust, consistent with the relatively strong lithosphere.

  4. Beowulf. Lessons from ORIAS Institute on History through Literature in the 6th Grade/7th Grade Core Classrooms, 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinetti, Carolyn

    This lesson plan, featuring the epic, "Beowulf," employs the introduction-quotation exchange to monitor student comprehension while reading the epic. A second exercise, also dealing with reading comprehension, requires students to keep an historical evidence journal and fill out an historical evidence chart. The lesson plan features a hero's…

  5. Hugo Chávez:construcción hegemónica del poder y desplazamiento de los actores tradicionales en Venezuela (1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Romero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la llegada al poder de Hugo Chávez, en las elecciones de 1998, comenzó la configuración de unas nuevas relaciones de poder en el sistema político venezolano (SPV. Estas relaciones estaban determinadas por la naturaleza de los actores políticos que accedieron al poder, el funcionamiento institucional implementado a partir de la convocatoria a una Asamblea Nacional Constituyente (ANC, la formulación de una nueva Carta Magna y la implementación de un Régimen de Transición del poder Público. Chávez, a través de estructuras políticas como el Movimiento Quinta República (MVR y los partidos agrupados en torno al Polo Patriótico (PP ejecutaron un proceso que los llevo a construir una hegemonía dentro del sistema político que tiene como base la Constitución de 1999, relegando a las organizaciones políticas tradicionales.

  6. Data on streamflow and quality of water and bottom sediment in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was initiated to expand upon previous findings that indicated concentrations of dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, and...

  7. Geophysical logging to determine construction, contributing zones, and appropriate use of water levels measured in confined-aquifer network wells, San Luis Valley, Colorado, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendle, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Geophysical logs were recorded in 32 wells in the confined-aquifer monitoring well network maintained by the Rio Grande Water Conservation District. Logging results were used to determine well construction, zones contributing water to the wells, and the purposes for which the ground-water levels measured in the wells can be used. The confined-aquifer well network consists of 42 flowing and nonflowing wells. This network consists of wells used to supply water for irrigation, household use, wildlife refuge supply, and stock use, and wells for water-level monitoring. Geophysical logs recorded in the wells included video, caliper, water specific conductance, water temperature, and water flow. Most wells in the confined-aquifer well network yield a composite water level representing water levels in multiple permeable zones in the confined-aquifer system of the San Luis Valley. A potentiometric-surface map constructed using November 2000 water levels indicates that water levels from most wells in the network are correlated with water levels from nearby network wells. Potentiometric-surface maps that are constructed from water levels measured in most of the wells in the network can be used to understand long-term local and regional changes in water levels in the confined-aquifer system. Water levels measured in 8 of the 42 wells in the confined-aquifer network are not representative of water levels in the confined-aquifer system.

  8. Os projetos de pesquisa de enfermagem no CNPQ: seu percurso, suas temáticas, suas aderências -1998/2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joséte Luzia Leite

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objeto as temáticas dos projetos de pesquisa em Enfermagem encaminhados a uma agência governamental de fomento à pesquisa - o CNPq - no período de novembro de 1998 a novembro de 2000. Tem como objetivos identificar as temáticas predominantes nesses projetos e discutir as aderências das temáticas identificadas com as linhas de pesquisa em estudo pela categoria, com apoio da CAPES e as prioridades estabelecidas pelo CNPq para indução à pesquisa. Para atingir esses objetivos realizou-se um estudo exploratório descritivo cuja fonte primária foram as "planilhas de avaliação de projetos" e as secundárias foram a Resenha Estatística da CNPq, outros estudos e relatórios. Os resultados mostram a concentração de bolsas concedidas na Região Sudeste onde concentram também a maioria dos pesquisadores e os programas de pós-graduação. Revelam a diversidade de temas e as aproximações detectadas entre as temáticas e os parâmetros adotados para o estudo.

  9. La carrera por la comunicación local (1998-2000 “Los grandes” se atreven con “lo pequeño”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Egea Santiago

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se presenta un estudio sobre los diarios regionales y locales que surgen de la mano de grandes grupos de comunicación españoles, entre los años 1998 y 2000. En estos años se producen también significativas alianzas entre los grandes conglomerados de las comunicaciones, que encuentran en el mercado local y regional un lugar desde el que favorecer su expansión. ABSTRACT This article presents an study about the regional and local press belongs to spanish comunications groups and appears betwen 1998 and 2000. These years know aliances of the comunications groups, that see the regional and local market like a place to grow.

  10. Data on Streamflow and Quality of Water and Bottom Sediment in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to expand upon previous findings that indicated concentrations of dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, and uranium were either above geochemical background concentrations or were approaching or exceeding ecological criteria in the lower Humboldt River system. Data were collected from May 1998 to September 2000 to further characterize streamflow and surface-water and bottom-sediment quality in the lower Humboldt River, selected agricultural drains, Upper Humboldt Lake, and Lower Humboldt Drain (ephemeral outflow from Humboldt Sink). During this study, flow in the lower Humboldt River was either at or above average. Flows in Army and Toulon Drains generally were higher than reported in previous investigations. An unnamed agricultural drain contributed a small amount to the flow measured in Army Drain. In general, measured concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and uranium were higher in water from agricultural drains than in Humboldt River water during this study. Mercury concentrations in water samples collected during the study period typically were below the laboratory reporting level. However, low-level mercury analyses showed that samples collected in August 1999 from Army Drain had higher mercury concentrations than those collected from the river or Toulon Drain or the Lower Humboldt Drain. Ecological criteria and effect concentrations for sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, mercury, and molybdenum were exceeded in some water samples collected as part of this study. Although water samples from the agricultural drains typically contained higher concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, and uranium, greater instantaneous loads of these constituents were carried in the river near Lovelock than in agricultural drains during periods of high flow or non-irrigation. During this study, the high flows in the lower Humboldt River produced the maximum instantaneous loads of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and uranium at all river-sampling sites, except molybdenum near Imlay. Nevada Division of Environmental Protection monitoring reports on mine-dewatering discharge for permitted releases of treated effluent to the surface waters of the Humboldt River and its tributaries were reviewed for reported discharges and trace-element concentrations from June 1998 to September 1999. These data were compared with similar information for the river near Imlay. In all bottom sediments collected for this study, arsenic concentrations exceeded the Canadian Freshwater Interim Sediment-Quality Guideline for the protection of aquatic life and probable-effect level (concentration). Sediments collected near Imlay, Rye Patch Reservoir, Lovelock, and from Toulon Drain and Army Drain were found to contain cadmium and chromium concentrations that exceeded Canadian criteria. Chromium concentrations in sediments collected from these sites also exceeded the consensus-based threshold-effect concentration. The Canadian criterion for sediment copper concentration was exceeded in sediments collected from the Humboldt River near Lovelock and from Toulon, Army, and the unnamed agricultural drains. Mercury in sediments collected near Imlay and from Toulon Drain in August 1999 exceeded the U.S. Department of the Interior sediment probable-effect level. Nickel concentrations in sediments collected during this study were above the consensus-based threshold-effect concentration. All other river and drain sediments had constituent concentrations below protective criteria and toxicity thresholds. In Upper Humboldt Lake, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and uranium concentrations in surface-water samples collected near the mouth of the Humboldt River generally were higher than in samples collected near the mouth of Army Drain. Ecological criteria or effect con

  11. Assessment of water chemistry, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at selected stream-quality monitoring sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and habitat data have been collected from a network of sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 to 2003 to assess stream quality. Forty sites in 6 major stream basins were sampled between 1998 and 2000. Biological data were used to determine levels of impairment in the benthic-macroinvertebrate community in Chester County streams and relate the impairment, in conjunction with chemical and habitat data, to overall stream quality. Biological data consisted of benthic-macroinvertebrate samples that were collected annually in the fall. Water-chemistry samples were collected and instream habitat was assessed in support of the biological sampling. Most sites in the network were designated as nonimpacted or slightly impacted by human activities or extreme climatic conditions on the basis of biological-metric analysis of benthic-macroinvertebrate data. Impacted sites were affected by factors, such as nutrient enrichment, erosion and sedimentation, point discharges, and droughts and floods. Streams in the Schuylkill River, Delaware River, and East Branch Brandywine Creek Basins in Chester County generally had low nutrient concentrations, except in areas affected by wastewater- treatment discharges, and stream habitat that was affected by erosion. Streams in the West Branch Brandywine, Christina, Big Elk, and Octoraro Creek Basins in Chester County generally had elevated nutrient concentrations and streambottom habitat that was affected by sediment deposition. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from French Creek, Pigeon Creek (Schuylkill River Basin), and East Branch Brandywine Creek at Glenmoore consistently indicate good stream conditions and were the best conditions measured in the network. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from Trout Creek (site 61), West Branch Red Clay Creek (site 55) (Christina River Basin), and Valley Creek near Atglen (site 34) (Octoraro Creek Basin) indicated fair to poor stream conditions and were the worst conditions measured in the network. Trout Creek is heavily impacted due to erosion, and Valley Creek near Atglen and West Branch Red Clay Creek are influenced by wastewater discharges. Hydrologic conditions in 1999, including a prolonged drought and a flood, influenced chemical concentrations and macroinvertebrate community structure throughout the county. Concentrations of nutrients and ions were lower in 1999 when compared to 1998 and 2000 concentrations. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from 1999 contained lower numbers of individuals when compared to 1998 and 2000 but had similar community structure. Results from chemical and biological sampling in 2000 indicated that the benthic-macroinvertebrate community structure and the concentrations of nutrients and ions recovered to pre-1999 levels.

  12. Monitoring instream turbidity to estimate continuous suspended-sediment loads and yields and clay-water volumes in the upper North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrich, Mark A.; Bragg, Heather M.

    2003-01-01

    Three real-time, instream water-quality and turbidity-monitoring sites were established in October 1998 in the upper North Santiam River Basin on the North Santiam River, the Breitenbush River, and Blowout Creek, the main tributary inputs to Detroit Lake, a large, controlled reservoir that extends from river mile 61 to 70. Suspended-sediment samples were collected biweekly to monthly at each station. Rating curves provided estimated suspended-sediment concentration in 30-minute increments from log transformations of the instream turbidity monitoring data. Turbidity was found to be a better surrogate than discharge for estimating suspended-sediment concentration. Daily and annual mean suspended-sediment loads were estimated using the estimated suspended-sediment concentrations and corresponding streamflow data. A laboratory method for estimating persistent (residual) turbidity from separate turbidity samples was developed. Turbidity was measured over time for each sample. Turbidity decay curves were derived as the suspended sediment settled. Each curve was used to estimate a turbidity value for a given settling time. Medium to fine clay particle (size clay particle persistent turbidity for each site. The monitored instream 30-minute turbidity values were converted to a calculated persistent turbidity value that would have resulted after 8.5 hours of settling in the laboratory. Persistent turbidities of 10 NTU and above were tabulated for each site. (Water of 10 NTU and above can interfere with or damage treatment filters and result in intake closures at drinking-water facilities.) A method was developed that used the persistent turbidity experiments, turbidity decay curves, and stream discharge to estimate the volume of water containing suspended clay that entered Detroit Lake from the three main tributaries. 'Suspended-clay water' was defined as water having a value of at least 10 NTU after settling the required 8.5 hours. The suspended-clay concentrations of 10 NTU or higher were paired with the corresponding stream discharge in the continuous record. These summed discharges represent the annual volume of water containing suspended clay that entered Detroit Lake from the three main tributaries. Higher yields (load per unit area) of suspended sediment and suspended-clay water were observed from the smaller Breitenbush River and Blowout Creek subbasins than from the main-stem North Santiam River for water years 1999 and 2000. The 3-day peak streamflow and turbidity events in 1999 and 2000 carried two-thirds of the annual suspended-sediment load for the three subbasins. Turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration relations within the upper North Santiam River Basin are basin specific and can change annually within a single subbasin. Techniques developed during this study will assist water resource planners in understanding and managing water quality in their watersheds, particularly those in which there are persistent-turbidity problems.

  13. Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John

    2003-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon collection and spawning began in 1998. A total of 114 fish were collected from Johnson Creek and 54 fish (20 males and 34 females) were retained for Broodstock. All broodstock were transported to Lower Snake River Compensation Plan's South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility, operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The remaining 60 fish were released to spawn naturally. An estimated 155,870 eggs from Johnson Creek chinook spawned at the South Fork Salmon River facility were transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for rearing. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,871. Approximately 20,500 eggs from females with high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease were culled. This, combined with green-egg to eyed-egg survival of 62%, resulted in about 84,000 eyed eggs produced in 1998. Resulting juveniles were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery in 1999. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags and 8,043 were also PIT tagged. A total of 78,950 smolts were transported from the McCall Fish Hatchery and released directly into Johnson Creek on March 27, 28, 29, and 30, 2000.

  14. Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in southern Vietnamese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.T.D. Thai; T.Q. Binh; P.T. Giao; H.L. Phuong; L.Q. Hung; N. van Nam; T.T. Nga; M.G.A. Goris; P.J. de Vries

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the seroprevalence of human leptospirosis in southern Vietnam. Methods: All pupils (n = 961) of two primary schools in two communes in southern Vietnam were screened for the presence of serum Leptospira immunoglobulin (Ig)G. Leptospira IgM was tested in 92 randomly selected sa

  15. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  16. Southern company energy storage study :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  17. Southern Impact Testing Alliance (SITA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs, Whitney; Roebuck, Brian; Zwiener, Mark; Wells, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to form this Alliance began in 2008 to showcase the impact testing capabilities within the southern United States. Impact testing customers can utilize SITA partner capabilities to provide supporting data during all program phases-materials/component/ flight hardware design, development, and qualification. This approach would allow programs to reduce risk by providing low cost testing during early development to flush out possible problems before moving on to larger scale1 higher cost testing. Various SITA partners would participate in impact testing depending on program phase-materials characterization, component/subsystem characterization, full-scale system testing for qualification. SITA partners would collaborate with the customer to develop an integrated test approach during early program phases. Modeling and analysis validation can start with small-scale testing to ensure a level of confidence for the next step large or full-scale conclusive test shots. Impact Testing Facility (ITF) was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960's and played a malor role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As a result of return to flight testing after the loss of STS-107 (Columbia) MSFC ITF realized the need to expand their capabilities beyond meteoroid and space debris impact testing. MSFC partnered with the Department of Defense and academic institutions as collaborative efforts to gain and share knowledge that would benefit the Space Agency as well as the DoD. MSFC ITF current capabilities include: Hypervelocity impact testing, ballistic impact testing, and environmental impact testing.

  18. Experimental late brood surveys: Southern Saskatchewan: 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the late brood surveys for southern Saskatchewan during 1991. Survey methods, weather and habitat conditions, production indices, and tables...

  19. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project is an interagency effort to increase public awareness of the common reedgrass problem, demonstrate effective...

  20. Nearshore marine fish assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish benthic trawls were completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data from 425 fisheries independent trawls ranging from 2-215...

  1. Marine Invertebrate assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of invertebrate site clusters calculated from benthic trawls completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data...

  2. Fish assemblages in southern California kelp forests.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of fish assemblages calculated from diver surveys in kelp forests in Southern California. Visual census data was combined for two separate...

  3. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Manitoba: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  4. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  5. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1979. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  6. Residential Segregation in Southern Cities: 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Roof, Wade Clark

    1976-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the age, size, percent black, and occupational income differential in 32 southern cities, the findings show that age is still the strongest predictor of residential segregation. (Author)

  7. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1982. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  8. Southern Hemisphere Ice Limits, 1973-1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly Southern Ocean ice limits, have been digitized from U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility ice charts, at the Max-Planck Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg....

  9. Climate Prediction Center Southern Oscillation Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and Sea Surface Temperature (SST)Indices. It contains Southern Oscillation Index which is standardized sea level...

  10. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds includes the drainages of the Northwest River, the North Landing River, and Back Bay in the southeastern corner of Virginia. Common...

  11. Climatically driven fluctuations in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Eugene J.; Trathan, Philip N; Watkins, Jon L.; Reid, Keith; Meredith, Michael P.; Forcada, Jaume; Thorpe, Sally E.; Johnston, Nadine M; Rothery, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Determining how climate fluctuations affect ocean ecosystems requires an understanding of how biological and physical processes interact across a wide range of scales. Here we examine the role of physical and biological processes in generating fluctuations in the ecosystem around South Georgia in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Anomalies in sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean have previously been shown to be generated through atmosp...

  12. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Leporatti; Guarrera Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture ...

  13. Southern Bohemian route of industrial heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimír Dvořák; Blažena Gehinová; Dagmar Škodová Parmová; Eva Jaderná; Eduard Šitler

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the industrial heritage and its usage in the frame of tourism service supply. There were three so called Anchor Points selected based on the ERIH methodology in the southern Bohemia. And there were also other regional and important places and points named for the future tourist route. The Southern Bohemian Route of Industrial Heritage was invented around the Anchor Point of Schwarzenberg Channel because of its importance in European heritage and its location next to the ...

  14. ENVIRONMENT, INCOME, AND DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Duane

    1993-01-01

    It is widely believed that rural forest and agricultural resources in Southern Africa are overused, in the sense that both biomass and harvest levels are significantly below levels of maximum sustainable yield. However, economic theory suggests that high interest and time preference rates cause the economic optimum to coincide with generally-observed patterns. In addition, low income may be the driving factor behind high interest and time preference rates. In macro-economic terms, Southern Af...

  15. Rice market integration in southern Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Yetty Oktarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates rice market integration among five provinces in southern Sumatra using data from monthly retail rice markets during 2004-2009. The degree of integration was measured across provinces using vector error correction model. Result revealed that there is spatial market integration in southern Sumatra. Province of Bangka Belitung can make price adjustment more quickly compared to others provinces. In the long run period, rice price in Jambi province, Lampung province, and Ba...

  16. What Is the Southern California Earthquake Center?

    OpenAIRE

    Aki, Keiiti; Henyey, Thomas; Heaton, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    On February 11, Congressman George E. Brown, Jr., Chairman of the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology, together with the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey, and state and local officials, helped inaugurate the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) on the campus of the University of Southern California. SCEC is one of 14 new NSF Science and Technology Centers and includes a substantial commitment from the USGS for FY91. The center is a consortium of sev...

  17. Southern California Channel Islands Bibliography, through 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary

    1992-01-01

    The Southern California Channel Islands Bibliography, through 1992, comprises 4035 references to the scientific literature on Southern California's Channel Islands. The Bibliography was compiled by the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and is presented here in a February 1993 version. The Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History presents a California Channel Islands Bibliography on its website. It has more recent references and overlaps considerably with this bibliography. How...

  18. Grey literature revisited : the Southern African perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Moshoeshoe-Chadzingwa, M.M. (ISAS); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1994-01-01

    Re-examines grey literature on Southern Africa. Analyzes the material from the actual geographical field of concern to determine the suitable handling approach. Asses the extent to which the politico-economic and technological changes in Southern Africa have affected this literature, in terms of its quantities, subject matter, formats, use. Determines how to instil awareness of the value of grey literature first to sub-regional information scientists who will them promote networking and secon...

  19. Education for transformative leadership in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Preece, J

    2003-01-01

    This article argues that education for transformative leadership in a southern African context needs to nurture an understanding of the relationship between spirituality and charisma. This argument is based on a review of some literature pertaining to transformative learning, transformative leadership, and African value systems. The article explores the relationship between transformative leadership and transformative learning and education theories, and relates them to a specific southern Af...

  20. 77 FR 17122 - Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant overhead temporary trackage rights to Indiana Southern...

  1. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  2. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  3. Adjoint tomography of the southern California crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Carl; Liu, Qinya; Maggi, Alessia; Tromp, Jeroen

    2009-08-21

    Using an inversion strategy based on adjoint methods, we developed a three-dimensional seismological model of the southern California crust. The resulting model involved 16 tomographic iterations, which required 6800 wavefield simulations and a total of 0.8 million central processing unit hours. The new crustal model reveals strong heterogeneity, including local changes of +/-30% with respect to the initial three-dimensional model provided by the Southern California Earthquake Center. The model illuminates shallow features such as sedimentary basins and compositional contrasts across faults. It also reveals crustal features at depth that aid in the tectonic reconstruction of southern California, such as subduction-captured oceanic crustal fragments. The new model enables more realistic and accurate assessments of seismic hazard. PMID:19696349

  4. The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Crewdson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR is a collaborative bibliography of published resources significant to southern Alberta. Objectives and progress with evolving methodology, technology, issues and challenges are explored within the context of the library field. We investigate a collaborative digital library that allows librarians and non-librarians alike to share information on specific topics through MARC records. An outcome of a collaborative digital library is how to create and sustain interest within the library community. Southern Alberta region was selected based on the authors’ familiarity with the region. Some issues and questions remain to be resolved. Digital formats present a number of challenges in terms of selection and presentation. Legal issues relating to technology such as linking and location information have emerged. Basic technical issues remain, such as, how best to update links.

  5. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  6. Aspectos epidemiológicos da seneciose na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul Epidemiological aspects of seneciosis in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sérgio Castilhos Karam

    2004-12-01

    of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This paper presents epidemiological data of 24 outbreaks in cattle and one in horses, diagnosed by the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory at Pelotas University in southern Rio Grande do Sul, from 1998 to 2000. Additionally, data of 54 outbreaks which occurred in 1978-1997 were analyzed. The farms where outbreaks occurred in 1998-2000 were visited to obtain clinical and epidemiological data and to verify the presence of Senecio spp. Eleven outbreaks (45.83% affected cattle up to 3 years of age, and 13 (54.16% cattle over 3 years. Nine (37.5% outbreaks affected females and 15 (62.5% males. Ten (41.66% outbreaks occurred in spring, 4 (16.66% in summer, 5 (20.83% in autumn, and 5 (20.83% in winter. Morbidity rate was estimated with 4.92% and case fatality with 95.59%. The predomionating Senecio species were S. brasiliensis on 12 farms (57.14%, S. selloi on 10 (47.61%, S. oxyphyllus on 6 (28.57%, S. heterotrichius on 3 (14.28%, and S. leptolobus on 1 farm (4.76%. The main clinical signs were progressive emaciation, incoordination, diarrhea, tenesmus, rectal prolapse and aggressiveness. The clinical manifestation periods of affected cattle observed during the farm visits, or of cattle sent for post-mortem examination,were 24-96 hours in 4 outbreaks (16.66%, 4-7 days in 7 (29.16%, 1-2 weeks in 4 (16.66%, 2-3 weeks in 2 (8.33%, 1-2 months in 2 (8.33%, and 2-3 months in 1 outbreak (4.16%. In 4 outbreaks (16.66% the clinical manifestation period was not established. In outbreaks with longer clinical manifestation periods some animals showed photosensitization. The main necropsy findings were a hard and enlarged liver, distended gall bladder, edema of the mesenterium and abomasum, and increased amount of liquid in the cavities. Histopathological findings were fibroplasia, megalocytosis and biliary ductal proliferation of the liver, and spongy degeneration of the cerebral white matter. Samples of different Senecio species, in different seasons, were

  7. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst

  8. Getting southern Sudanese children to school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibeso Luswata

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Southern Sudan’s Go to School Initiative,supported by UNICEF, which seeks to get 1.6 millionchildren back in school by the end of 2007, incorporateskey elements of the INEE Minimum Standards for Educationin Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction.

  9. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.;

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here...

  10. Groundwater use on southern Idaho dairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy production has expanded in irrigated areas of the western and southwestern US, potentially competing for limited water supplies. Groundwater withdrawal was measured for two years on six dairy farms with 660 to 6400 milk cows in southern Idaho. Groundwater withdrawal was calculated on an equiva...

  11. Seismic imaging of Southern African cratons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad

    the southern African regions. Some of the main research problems that have been dealt with during this research are about (1) the heterogeneity scale of crustal structure and composition, (2) the depth extent of the cratonic keels and their layering, and (3) the strength of crustal anisotropy. The...

  12. Field guide to trees of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishan Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The mainland region of Africa is Southern Africa because it is considered to be robust with an estimate of around 1700 tree species that are native and a couple 100 more that are alien, but have become accustomed to the natural environment; invading, penetrating and replacing vegetation.

  13. Southern African species of Mentha L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of Mentha L. occurring in Southern Africa are reviewed and a key is provided to two indigenous and one naturalized species.  M. wissii Launert is reduced to M. longifolia (L. Huds. subsp. wissii (Launert Codd.

  14. Linguistic Landscapes in Southern Carinthia (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinger, Sebastian M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the linguistic landscape (LL) in the southern Austrian province of Carinthia, which is home to an autochthonous Slovene minority. Following several decades of political and legal debate known as the "Ortstafelstreit" ("dispute of topographic signs"), recent legislation has strengthened the status of Slovene…

  15. Faulkner's Southern belle - myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Intihar Klančar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with heroines of William Faulkner's novels Light in August, Absalom, Absalom!, The Sound and the Fury, The Unvanquished, The Town and his short story "A Rose for Emily". The Southern belle features as a recurring character in Faulkner's fiction, her fragility, modesty, weakness yet strength, beauty, sincerity, generous nature, status and her fall from innocence comprise her central characteristics. Confronted with various expectations of Southern society and with the hardships of war, the belle is faced with many obstacles and challenges. Faulkner's heroines face a wide array of problems that prevent them from being and/or remaining a Southern belle. Let us name a few: Lena's inappropriate social status, Joanna's wrong roots, Mrs. Hightower's inability to fulfill her duties as the minister's wife, Ellen's miserable marriage, Judith's sad love life, Rosa's feelings of inferiority and humiliation, Mrs. Compson's failure as a mother, Caddy's weak rebellion against male convention, Drusilla's male characteristics, Linda's unrequited love and Emily's dark secret, to name a few. Through these characters and their destinies Faulkner shows a decaying South whose position has changed considerably over the years. Can the Southern belle save it? Can she save herself?

  16. Human ocular sparganosis in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Bohrer Mentz; Fernando Procianoy; Marcelo Krieger Maestri; Marilise Brittes Rott

    2011-01-01

    We report the first case of human ocular sparganosis in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A young female patient presented with three periocular moveable inflammatory masses in her right eye, during two years. By surgical excisional biopsy, a helminth larval stage was removed and identified as sparganum. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data on this parasite are presented.

  17. Human ocular sparganosis in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Bohrer Mentz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of human ocular sparganosis in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A young female patient presented with three periocular moveable inflammatory masses in her right eye, during two years. By surgical excisional biopsy, a helminth larval stage was removed and identified as sparganum. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data on this parasite are presented.

  18. Marketing University Education: The Southern African Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a…

  19. Cadmium isotope variations in the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Z.; Rehkämper, M.; Horner, T.J.; Abouchami, W.; Middag, R.; van de Flierd, T.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium concentrations and isotope compositions were determined for 47 seawater samples from the high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) zone of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples include 13 surface waters from a transect of the Weddell Gyre and 3 depth profiles from the Weddell Sea

  20. Southern Rural Education Association Journal, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulick, Chuck, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This journal contains the following articles pertaining to education in rural areas: (1) "The State of the Association" (William Peter) reviews the mission and progress of the Southern Rural Education Association; (2) "Arts Enrichment Programs in Middle Tennessee Rural Schools" (Howard Brahmstedt and Patricia Brahmstedt) describes how these…

  1. Zika Could Spread in Southern Europe This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159369.html Zika Could Spread in Southern Europe This Summer Conditions ... 2016 TUESDAY, June 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus could spread in southern Europe this summer ...

  2. 75 FR 69916 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in... CODE 3410-11-P...

  3. 76 FR 16603 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in..., Designated Federal Official. BILLING CODE 3410-11-P...

  4. Southern Taiwan - an Evolving "Coastal Range"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F. T.; McIntosh, K.; Lavier, L. L.

    2008-12-01

    As a part of the TAIGER research, existing tectonic concepts are continuously being reviewed in light of new data and for experimental design. One of the critical areas for understanding the tectonics of Taiwan is southern Taiwan. Seismicity and recent tomographic imaging confirm that the tectonics of Taiwan is controlled by the subduction and collision of two plates: the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) and the Eurasian plate (EUR). In northern and central Taiwan the PSP is in collision with EUR, and at the same time subducts northward under northern Taiwan [Wu et al., 2008]. Before the PSP subducts to sufficient depth, the collision of PSP and EUR produced the Foothills and the Central Range on the EUR and the Coastal Range on the PSP side. For southern Taiwan, with 22.7°N as a rough demarcation, the tectonic interpretation is at variance and still in debate. To the east of southern Taiwan the inactive andesitic volcanic islands of Lutao and Lanhsu mark the top of the Luzon arc, separated from Taiwan by a somewhat deformed fore-arc basin [McIntosh et al., 2005]. To its west the Manila Trench is the western limit of a series of trend-parallel small thrusts on the ocean floor [Lunberg et al., 1997]. As the Trench approaches the continental shelf from the south it gradually loses its bathymetric signature. Southern Taiwan itself is commonly viewed as a part of the accretionary prism, and yet is also considered a continuation of the Central Range, produced by the collision of the Luzon arc and continental shelf. Suppe [1981] and many others had long recognized the central Taiwan orogeny, as a result of the collision of the Luzon Arc with the EUR continental shelf and Central Range, is built from rocks of the continental shelf. Inspection of a map of bathymetry around Taiwan shows that the continental shelf turns noticeably westward offshore of southwestern Taiwan, and that southern Taiwan is situated off the continental shelf. The presence of the Benioff zone under

  5. The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: III

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Gomez, Karina; Bezdjian, Serena; Niv, Sharon; Raine, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California (USC) was initiated in 1984 and continues to provide an important resource for studies investigating genetic and environmental influences on human behavior. This article provides an update on the current register and its potential for future twin studies using recruitment through school district databases and voter records. An overview is also provided for an ongoing longitudinal twin study investigating the develo...

  6. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  7. Nymphon stipulum, a new pycnogonid species from Southern California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allan Child, C.

    1990-01-01

    A new species of pycnogonid, Nymphon stipulum, from off the Channel Islands, southern California, in 395 meters, is described and figured. Previous literature on southern California pycnogonids is outlined and the relationships of the new species with other southern California Nymphon species is dis

  8. Variation in the abundance of southern fish species in the southern North Sea in relation to hydrography and wind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.; Kamp, van de G.

    1996-01-01

    Is the increased abundance of southern fish species in the southern North Sea during recent years a signal of a long-term trend, or can it be explained by random variability? Time-series data on the abundance of 12 southern fish species were derived from the 1st quarter International Bottom Trawling

  9. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dana L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M; Gaul, Linda; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-06-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico. PMID:27191223

  10. Cassini observations of Saturn's southern polar cusp

    CERN Document Server

    Arridge, C S; Achilleos, N; Bogdanova, Y V; Bunce, E J; Cowley, S W H; Fazakerley, A N; Khurana, K K; Lamy, L; Leisner, J S; Roussos, E; Russell, C T; Zarka, P; Coates, A J; Dougherty, M K; Jones, G H; Krimigis, S M; Krupp, N

    2016-01-01

    The magnetospheric cusps are important sites of the coupling of a magnetosphere with the solar wind. The combination of both ground- and space-based observations at Earth have enabled considerable progress to be made in understanding the terrestrial cusp and its role in the coupling of the magnetosphere to the solar wind via the polar magnetosphere. Voyager 2 fully explored Neptune's cusp in 1989 but highly inclined orbits of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn present the most recent opportunity to repeatedly studying the polar magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet. In this paper we discuss observations made by Cassini during two passes through Saturn's southern polar magnetosphere. Our main findings are that i) Cassini directly encounters the southern polar cusp with evidence for the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp via magnetopause reconnection, ii) magnetopause reconnection and entry of plasma into the cusp can occur over a range of solar wind conditions, and iii) double cusp morphologies are...

  11. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dana L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M; Gaul, Linda; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-06-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico.

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: southern cassowary [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available southern cassowary Casuarius casuarius Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Casuarius_casuarius_L.png Casuarius..._casuarius_NL.png Casuarius_casuarius_S.png Casuarius_casuarius_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casuarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casuarius...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casuarius...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casuarius&t=NS ...

  13. The Dynamics of Conflict in Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Engvall, Anders; Andersson, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The prolonged insurgency in Southern Thailand has claimed thousands of victims since the outbreak of major violence in 2004. Drawing on a unique data-set covering all violent incidents since 2004, a hot spot analysis shows that the bulk of the violence is concentrated in clusters of sub-districts forming hotbeds of conflict. Drivers of conflict are identified through a comparative analysis of the hotspots of violence with less violent areas. The analysis shows that identity manifested in lang...

  14. Competitive destination analysis in Southern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Águas, Paulo; Veiga, Célia; Reis, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the competitiveness of the European Union Member States of Southern Europe (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain) as tourist destinations for European Union Member States of Central and Northern Europe (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Ireland, Sweden and the UK). Design/methodology/approach – Application of the market share analysis tool, initially developed by Faulkner, using secondary data from Eurosta...

  15. Intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa is mapped using records from the Pretoria National Herbarium Computerized Information System (PRECIS, For the entire area, over 85% of the quarter degree grid squares have fewer than 100 specimens recorded. Collecting intensities are compared for different countries, biomes and climatic zones. Future field work from the National Herbarium will be concentrated in areas most seriously under-collected.

  16. Beta-Thalassaemia types in southern Sardinia.

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, A; Furbetta, M; Ximenes, A; Angius, A; Rosatelli, C; Tuveri, T; Scalas, M T; Falchi, A M; Maccioni, L; Melis, M A; R. Galanello

    1981-01-01

    In this study the prevalence of the different beta-thalassaemia types in southern Sardinia was investigated by cellulose acetate and agar gel electrophoresis or globin chain synthesis analysis on column chromatography or both in (1) all the patients (347) presenting with thalassaemia major or intermedia at our haematology service from 1976 to 1979, and (2) a group of 82 patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major randomly chosen from 236 under our care. Apart from six subjects with...

  17. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  18. Cryptococcus gattii in AIDS Patients, Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, Sudha; Dyavaiah, Madhu; Larsen, Robert A.; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2005-01-01

    Cryptococcus isolates from AIDS patients in southern California were characterized by molecular analyses. Pheromone MFα1 and MF a 1 gene fragments were polymerase chain reaction–amplified with fluorescently labeled primers and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) on DNA analyzer. CE–fragment-length analyses (CE-FLAs) and CE–single-strand conformation polymorphisms (CE-SSCPs) were used to determine Cryptococcus gattii (Cg), C. neoformans (Cn) varieties neoformans (CnVN) and grubii (CnVG)...

  19. Seismic hazard in Andalucia region (Southern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Oterino, Belen; Navarro Bernal, Manuel; Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Vidal Sánchez, Francisco; Góngora, Ana; García Rodríguez, María José; Martínez Solares, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The global objective of the SISMOSAN Project has been to provide a general seismic risk assessment of Andalusian region (Southern Spain) associated with the ground motions expected for a return period of 475 years. The project was financed by Civil Defence of Andalusia and its results will be applied to the definition of regional emergency plans. We present here the study and main results of the first phase of the project, aimed at evaluating seismic hazard. In contrast to most of the previou...

  20. Competitive Dynamics of Southern California's Clothing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Allen J. Scott

    2005-01-01

    A general outline of the functional and spatial characteristics of the clothing industry in Southern California is sketched out. Two important trends are noted: (a) the increasing design- and knowledge-intensive structure of the industry and (b) the marked increase in offshore subcontracting by local manufacturers that has occurred in recent years. The predicaments and promises of this situation are explored. Will the industry simply continue to lose its employment base in the region? Will it...

  1. Southern California: The Detroit of Electric Cars?

    OpenAIRE

    Allen J. Scott

    1993-01-01

    The California economy is in the doldrums, especially in the Los Angeles region, owing in large part to the decline of aerospace-defense industries. The region also suffers from the nation's worst pollution problem, owing largely to its dependence on automobiles. So, we're led to ask whether these linked perils might be converted into a combined opportunity. We ask whether we might blunt both the environmental and the employment problems by building a new electric-vehicle industry in Southern...

  2. The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jirarattanasopa P; Panon N; Hiranyachattada S; Bhurayanontachai P

    2014-01-01

    Pichai Jirarattanasopa,1 Nisa Panon,2 Siriphun Hiranyachattada,2 Patama Bhurayanontachai1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand Objective: To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error.Subjects and methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210&n...

  3. The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jirarattanasopa, Pichai

    2014-01-01

    Pichai Jirarattanasopa,1 Nisa Panon,2 Siriphun Hiranyachattada,2 Patama Bhurayanontachai1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand Objective: To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error.Subjects and methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 2...

  4. Regional investments in Southern European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxas, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the capacity of four medium-sized cities in Southern Europe, concerning the current situation of their assets (agglomeration economies, urban infrastructures, factors of labor and cost, etc.), the degree of development policies implementation and effectiveness by local authorities and finally the level of local authorities capacity to plan and implement particular policies and partnerships with the private sector in order to shape a favorable and attractive magnitude inve...

  5. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  6. Propagation characteristics of thunderstorms in southern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, M.; Bartenschlager, B.; Finke, U.

    1998-05-01

    The propagation of thunderstorms in southern Germany was investigated. The thunderstorms were observed by a lightning position system during the summer months of the years 1992 to 1996. On average every second day thunderstorms were observed anywhere in southern Germany. In general thunderstorms approach from westerly and south-westerly directions. The average speed is 13 m/s. No significant relation between the occurrence of thunderstorms and the large scale synoptic pattern described by the Grosswetterlagen (large scale weather pattern) was found. Thunderstorms were observed during almost all Grosswetterlagen. The reduction to 8 weather pattern based on the low-level flow in southern Germany showed that thunderstorms are likely when the flow has westerly directions (43%) or easterly directions (20%). Three distinct groups of different lightning patterns could be identified; stationary, moving thunderstorms and thunderstorm lines. The convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the wind shear were retrieved from the radio soundings from Muenchen and Stuttgart. On average CAPE was 583 J/kg for stationary, 701 J/kg for moving thunderstorms, and 876 J/kg for thunderstorm lines. The average bulk Richardson numbers are 152, 80 and 52 for stationary, moving thunderstorms and thunderstorm lines, respectively. The steering level was found to be at about 3 and 6 km m.s.l. However, it should be noted, that in most cases the soundings do not completely describe the local environment of thunderstorms, since radio soundings are only available twice a day. (orig.)

  7. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  8. [The new migratory deal in Southern Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, G

    1986-09-01

    The author examines migration patterns in Southern Europe during the 1970s and early 1980s, noting particularly the reduction in migration northward from this region. It is noted that "departure potential remains sizable in certain areas of Portugal, Spain, Southern Italy, and most particularly, of Turkey and Yugoslavia. Transoceanic migrations have by no means ceased, as new flows of skilled labor have, since 1974, gone towards Arab states endowed with petrol (oil) revenues. And yet, the paramount fact is most surely the emergence and the proliferation in Greece, Spain, and (especially) in Italy, of basically clandestine (illegal) immigration. This movement is due to the convergence of several factors: economic and demographic disparities between northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, the sealing-off of borders in Northwestern Europe and the 'carry-over' effect upon nations of 'transit', the extent of the flow of refugees, and--most particularly--the appeal provided by the development, in these new employer countries, of an underground economy accompanied by the extension into industry of the practice of 'undeclared' work. And notwithstanding the series of rules lastly drawn up in Spain and in Greece, such forms of clandestine (unauthorized) migration appear highly likely--to say the least--to persist." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12268205

  9. Climate change and wildfire around southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K.

    2013-12-01

    When the climate change in southern Africa is analyzed, the effects of rainfall by Inter Tropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) and cyclone are important. In this study, the rainfall patterns are analyzed with synoptic analysis. The southern limit of ITCZ is around the arid zone around Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. This zone has some effects of both ITCZ and extratropical cyclones by season. As well as this, the eastern part of this area has heavy rainfall by the cyclone from the Indian Ocean once in several years. In the other hand, a lot of wildfire occurs in this area. The main cause of the wildfire is anthropogenic misbehavior of the fire by the slash-and-burn agriculture. Recently we can find the wildfire detected with the satellite imagery like Terra/Aqua MODIS. We can compare the weather environment and the wildfire occurrence with Geographical Information System. We have tried making the fire weather index suitable for the southern African semi-arid area.

  10. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  11. Probabilistic Drought Forecasting in Southern Taiwan Using El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shien-Tsung Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a probabilistic drought forecasting model to forecast meteorological drought in Southern Taiwan using the El Niño-SouthernNiño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO index. Meteorological drought is defined by the standardized precipitation index (SPI, and the ENSO index is El NiñoNiño sea surface temperature (SST. Two probabilistic forecasting model architectures were constructed based on the transition probabilities from El NiñoNiño SSTs to SPIs. Both model architectures forecast a one-month-ahead probability distribution for meteorological drought using different combinations of El NiñoNiño SST variables. Forecasting results showed the robustness of the probabilistic drought forecasting models. In addition, this study discussed the selection of El NiñoNiño SST variables used in the probabilistic drought forecasting model, and found that models with a single SST input outperformed those with multiple SST inputs.

  12. The impact of the Southern Annular Mode on future changes in Southern Hemisphere rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Delage, Francois; Nguyen, Hanh; Min, Seung-Ki; Wheeler, Matthew C.

    2016-07-01

    A robust positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is projected for the end of the 21st century under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario, which results in rainfall decreases in the midlatitudes and increases in the high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We find that this SAM trend also increases rainfall over the SH subtropics in austral summer but not in winter, leading to a pronounced wintertime poleward expansion of the subtropical dry zone. These dynamically driven rainfall changes by the SAM appear to oppose the thermodynamically driven projected rainfall changes in the SH subtropics and midlatitudes, whereas the two components reinforce each other in the high latitudes. However, we show that most climate models fall short in capturing the observed SAM component driven by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and associated rainfall in the austral warm seasons, which limits our confidence in quantifying the contribution of the SAM to projected rainfall changes.

  13. The Future of Southern Ocean Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the Southern Ocean's role in global climate from seasonal to millennial timescales is evolving, with rapidly increasing recognition of the centrality of the Southern Ocean to Earth's heat, carbon, nutrient, and freshwater budgets, and of the impact of interactions between the ocean and the major ice shelves and grounded ice sheets of Antarctica, which have been decreasing in mass. Observations in this data-sparse and logistically remote region have never been so important, and many nations are rising to the challenge of supporting both experiments and long-term sustained observations. As illustrated in the figure from Meredith et al. (Current Op. Env. Sustain. 2013), autonomous in situ technologies are at the fore because of the difficulty and expense of sending ships year-round and because the crucial satellite remote sensing must be accompanied by in situ observations, including beneath sea ice and ice shelves. The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) has grown out of this recognized need for coordinated observations from the Antarctic coastline northward to the subtropics, from the bottom water production regions in coastal polynyas over the continental shelves, to the regions of interaction of warm ocean waters with Antarctic ice shelves, beneath the vast seasonal sea ice region, and in the hot spots of air-sea fluxes and cross-Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) mixing where the ACC interacts with topography and continental boundaries. The future includes international coordination and collaboration and strengthening of new and existing technologies, which include satellite observing, ice-enabled profiling floats, profiling from marine mammals, moored measurements in many strategic locations, glider and other autonomous operations in all regions, and drilling through floating ice shelves to measure the ocean waters below. Improved and consistent weather observations around the Antarctic coastlines will improve forecasting and reanalysis. Ice

  14. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Leporatti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species, Marche (274 and Abruzzo (203. The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised. Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several

  15. Northern and Southern RE Groups Ended Resultlessly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In September 2002, "Organizing of National Rare EarthEnterprises Group" which was delivered by original NationalEconomy & Trade Committee and original National PlanningCommittee, Ministry of Finance P.R.C, Ministry of Land &Resource P.R.C. and Ministry of Foreign Economy & Trade,was approved by the State Council of P.R.C. to organizeSouthern and Northern Rare Earth Groups. On October 30,2002, China Northern RE Group Co., Ltd Preparation Teamheld the foundation convention in Baotou, which drew thecurtain of ...

  16. Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

    1992-12-01

    Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

  17. Epidemiology of cerebral palsy in Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Dunkhase-Heinl, Ulrike; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and neuroimaging findings of cerebral palsy (CP) in a cohort of children born in Southern Denmark. Risk factors were analysed and aetiology considered. METHODS: A population-based cohort study covering 17...... prevention of CP is possible if the numbers of preterm births and multiple pregnancies can be reduced. FUNDING: The Danish Cerebral Palsy Follow-up Programme is supported by the foundation "Ludvig og Sara Elsass Fond". TRIAL REGISTRATION: 2008-58-0034....

  18. The Herpetology of the Southern Kalahari domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D Haacke

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The herpetofauna of the southern Kalahari has mixed affinities, as this area lies on a rainfall gradient in a critical area where a transition between the arid south-west and the moister north-east takes place. As the variation in substrate type is relatively limited, the effect of the rainfall gradient appears to influence and determine the range limits of many taxa in both directions, resulting in an area in which of 55 recorded reptiles, 11 western taxa overlap or form a parapatric zone with 25 eastern taxa, while the remaining taxa are endemic or wideranging.

  19. Ceilometer measurements in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Adrian; Alexander, Simon; French, John; Harvey, Mike; Ichoja, Andrew; Klekociuk, Andrew; Plank, Graeme; Katurji, Marwan

    2016-04-01

    Current climate models display a consistent deficit of reflected shortwave radiation over the Southern Ocean which is mainly due to the poor representation of clouds. Recent work has also shown that reanalysis also perform poorly relative to satellite observations in terms of cloud fraction. In particular, satellite observations have shown that low-level clouds (with tops below 3 km) are ubiquitous over the Southern Ocean. But, most satellite instruments, even the current generation of active satellite instruments, have difficulties in sampling low level clouds. As part of the New Zealand Deep South challenge project focussed on improving the representation of clouds in the Southern Ocean, we have begun to deploy autonomous instruments on 'ships of opportunity'. This study discusses measurements from a Väisälä CL51 laser ceilometer and ancillary instruments on the first two research voyages in the Southern Ocean and initial results. The route of the first voyage covers a return trip from Wellington (New Zealand) to Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica) onboard the R/V Tangaroa and occurred in January to mid-February 2015. The second deployment is onboard the Aurora Australis Australian Antarctic Division supply ship and began in October 2015 and is planned to finish at Macquarie Island in March 2016. The sampling provided by the ships route allows the ceilometer measurements of the height of the cloud base in a region where limited data apart from, potentially biased, satellite measurements of low-level cloud exist. Analysis of the boundary layer height derived from the ceilometer is also presented. The climatological structure derived from the ceilometer measurements is first detailed. We then compare these measurements with satellite and ground-based observations. We then examine variations in these measurements relative to their meteorological context. Details of plans for future voyages are also detailed. We will also present a preliminary analysis of a case study of

  20. The Southern Ocean and South Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, K.; Warnau, Michel; Failler, Pierre; Pecl, Gretta; Turley, Carol; Boeuf, Gilles; Laffoley, Dan; Parker, Laura; Gurney, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region has over 27% of the world’s ocean area and over 98% of the Region’s total area of 91 million km2 is ‘open ocean’. The Region contains less than 5% of...

  1. Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komiyama Noboru H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination in gene targeting experiments. The technique employs a labeled DNA probe to detect a specific DNA sequence in a complex DNA sample that has been separated by restriction-digest and gel electrophoresis. Critically for the technique to succeed the probe must be unique to the target locus so as not to cross-hybridize to other endogenous DNA within the sample. Investigators routinely employ a manual approach to probe design. A genome browser is used to extract DNA sequence from the locus of interest, which is searched against the target genome using a BLAST-like tool. Ideally a single perfect match is obtained to the target, with little cross-reactivity caused by homologous DNA sequence present in the genome and/or repetitive and low-complexity elements in the candidate probe. This is a labor intensive process often requiring several attempts to find a suitable probe for laboratory testing. Results We have written an informatic pipeline to automatically design genomic Sothern blot probes that specifically attempts to optimize the resultant probe, employing a brute-force strategy of generating many candidate probes of acceptable length in the user-specified design window, searching all against the target genome, then scoring and ranking the candidates by uniqueness and repetitive DNA element content. Using these in silico measures we can automatically design probes that we predict to perform as well, or better, than our previous manual designs, while considerably reducing design time. We went on to

  2. The Herpetology of the Southern Kalahari domain

    OpenAIRE

    W. D Haacke

    1984-01-01

    The herpetofauna of the southern Kalahari has mixed affinities, as this area lies on a rainfall gradient in a critical area where a transition between the arid south-west and the moister north-east takes place. As the variation in substrate type is relatively limited, the effect of the rainfall gradient appears to influence and determine the range limits of many taxa in both directions, resulting in an area in which of 55 recorded reptiles, 11 western taxa overlap or form a parapatric zone wi...

  3. Southern Ocean Sector Centennial Climate Variability and Recent Decadal Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Mojib; Martin, Torge; Park, Wonsun

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the notion that some contribution to the recent decadal trends observed in the Southern Hemisphere, including the lack of a strong Southern Ocean surface warming, may have originated from longer-term internal centennial variability originating in the Southern Ocean. The existence of such centennial variability is supported by the instrumental sea surface temperatures (SSTs), a multimillennial reconstruction of Tasmanian summer temperatures from tree rings, and a mill...

  4. The Southern Tyrrhenian subduction system: recent evolution and neotectonic implications

    OpenAIRE

    A. Argnani

    2000-01-01

    Geological and geophysical data have been integrated with the aim of presenting a new evolutionary model for the Southern Tyrrhenian and adjacent regions. The Southern Tyrrhenian backarc basin opened within a plate convergence regime because of sinking and rollback of the oceanic Ionian lithosphere. On the basis of seismological observations, I infer that the sinking slab was torn apart on either side in the last 2 Ma and this process controlled the neotectonics of the Southern Apennines - Ty...

  5. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  6. Study on the Economic Differences between Northern and Southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juncheng; DONG

    2014-01-01

    There are great regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang and the expansion of regional economic differences jeopardize social development and social stability,resulting in more serious polarization between the rich and the poor in northern and southern Xinjiang,thereby hampering further improvement of the economic efficiency in Xinjiang. Using factor analysis,this article carries out comprehensive analysis of regional economic differences in Xinjiang,derives the reasons for regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang,and proposes recommendations for narrowing the regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang.

  7. A CO Survey of the Southern Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, L.; May, J.; Luna, A.

    On December 12th 1982 the 1.2 mSouthern Millimeter Wave Telescope, an instrument specifically designed for CO surveys of molecular clouds in the Southern Galaxy, arrived Cerro Tololo after being constructed and tested atop the roof of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies by Columbia University staff and students, and by Universidad de Chile and NASA personnel. The telescope saw first light on December 22nd 1982, and has been operational ever since. During these years we have completed deep CO surveys of the Carina arm (Grabelsky et al. 1987), the IV galactic quadrant (Bronfman et al. 1988), the III galactic quadrant (May et al. 1993), and the galactic center (Bitran et al. 1997), contributing with a major fraction of the presently available galactic CO data. When combined with CO surveys of the I and II galactic quadrants obtained with its twin instrument, the Northern 1.2m Millimeter Wave Telescope now at the Center for Astrophysics, these data provided for the first time a complete, well sampled, and homogeneous picture of the molecular gas content of the Milky Way.

  8. Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y L; Wang, B J; Yeh, K C; Wang, J C; Kao, H H; Wang, M T; Shih, H C; Chen, C J

    1999-01-01

    Construction workers are known to have occupational dermatoses. The prevalence of such dermatoses was unknown in Taiwanese construction workers. The objective of this study was to determine the work exposure, prevalence of skin manifestations, and sensitivity to common contact allergens in cement workers of southern Taiwan. A total of 1147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high % of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. A high % of dermatitis was noted in the 166 workers examined, which correlated with reported skin problems. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. Sensitivity to chromate or cobalt was associated with reported skin problems, or dorsal hand dermatitis on examination. These workers' dermatitis was under-diagnosed and inadequately managed. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Protective measures, work practice, and physician education should be improved to prevent or manage such problems.

  9. Cassini observations of Saturn's southern polar cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arridge, C. S.; Jasinski, J. M.; Achilleos, N.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Khurana, K. K.; Lamy, L.; Leisner, J. S.; Roussos, E.; Russell, C. T.; Zarka, P.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Jones, G. H.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetospheric cusps are important sites of the coupling of a magnetosphere with the solar wind. The combination of both ground- and space-based observations at Earth has enabled considerable progress to be made in understanding the terrestrial cusp and its role in the coupling of the magnetosphere to the solar wind via the polar magnetosphere. Voyager 2 fully explored Neptune's cusp in 1989, but highly inclined orbits of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn present the most recent opportunity to repeatedly study the polar magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet. In this paper we discuss observations made by Cassini during two passes through Saturn's southern polar magnetosphere. Our main findings are that (i) Cassini directly encounters the southern polar cusp with evidence for the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp via magnetopause reconnection, (ii) magnetopause reconnection and entry of plasma into the cusp can occur over a range of solar wind conditions, and (iii) double cusp morphologies are consistent with the position of the cusp oscillating in phase with Saturn's global magnetospheric periodicities.

  10. Detector Considerations for a HAWC Southern Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    DuVernois, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory in central Mexico is currently the world's only synoptic survey instrument for gamma rays above 1 TeV. Because there is significant interest in covering the full TeV sky with a survey instrument, we have examined options for a Southern Hemisphere extension to HAWC. In addition to providing all-sky coverage of TeV sources, a southern site could complement existing surveys of the densest part of the Galactic Plane, provide continuous monitoring of Galactic and extragalactic transient sources in both Hemispheres, and simplify the analysis of spatially extended signals such as diffuse gamma rays and the TeV cosmic-ray anisotropy. To take advantage of the air-shower physics and lower the energy threshold of the experiment as much as possible, a high altitude site above 5000 m a.s.l (vs. 4100 m a.s.l. at the current site in Mexico) has been specified. To facilitate efficient detector construction at such altitudes, the detector tanks would be assembled at lower a...

  11. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  12. Evaluation of network RTK in southern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Amir

    Network Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) has become popular in the past decade as an efficient method of precise, real-time positioning. Its relatively low cost and ease-of-use makes it a good candidate to replace static relative Global Positioning System (GPS) in, e.g., land surveying. A lack of previous studies aroused the interest of the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) to request York University to complete a comprehensive study of the performance of network RTK in southern Ontario and whether it is a suitable method for MTO control surveying. Extensive fieldwork campaigns in the winter of 2010 and summer of 2011 were carried out and ˜300 hours of static and ˜50 hours of kinematic network RTK data were collected from three different service providers. A set of metrics were defined to characterize the performance of network RTK: availability, time-to-first-fix, precision, accuracy, solution integrity and moving average filtering. The data were used to characterize the horizontal performance of network RTK services and the results along with a set of guidelines and specifications were provided (Saeidi et al., 2011; Bisnath et al., 2012). This thesis presents the horizontal network RTK performance evaluation, as well as the vertical and kinematic performance. The aforementioned metrics are used to evaluate the quality of network RTK in southern Ontario, and to compare to similar services available in other locations. The result have revealed expected ˜2-3 cm (95%) precision for the horizontal and vertical components; however, large horizontal and vertical biases were observed, which can be as high as 4 cm. The solution integrity has shown that typically, 3σ solution uncertainties are larger than the actual errors, unless large biases exist. Moving average filtering has confirmed that due to large outliers and spikes in the solutions, 1 second observation periods are not sufficient to provide a precise solution; larger observation windows should be used, e

  13. Evolution of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwers, L.; Pruyt, E.; Hens, L.; Brans, J.p.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics model to study the spread of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. The HIV/AIDS model includes important feedback mechanisms of the spread of HIV/AIDS, and partly explains the dynamics of the epidemic in a representative Southern African country. The HIV/AIDS model indic

  14. Exploration Breakthrough in Southern Margin of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Zhulin; Zheng Jiandong

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Hutubi structure, located in the southern margin of Junggar Basin, is 60 km norrthwest of Urumqi and 20 km northwest of Changji (Fig. l). The Hu-2 well drilled in the Hutubi structure has gained high-yield gas flow,significant exploration breakthrough in the southern margin of Junggar Basin since the 1950s.

  15. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7 Hesperiidae

  16. 75 FR 39655 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in... sessions. July 6, 2010. Alan E. Koss, Designated Federal Official. BILLING CODE 3410-11-P...

  17. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  18. The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wu; Martinón-Torres, María; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Tong, Hao-Wen; Pei, Shu-Wen; Sier, Mark Jan; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Li, Yi-Yuan; Yang, Xiong-Xin; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Wu, Xiu-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hominin record from southern Asia for the early Late Pleistocene epoch is scarce. Well-dated and well-preserved fossils older than ∼45,000 years that can be unequivocally attributed to Homo sapiens are lacking. Here we present evidence from the newly excavated Fuyan Cave in Daoxian (southern Chi

  19. Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan, Southern Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viniegra-O, F.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1972, numerous large and giant oil fields have been discovered in the Reforma area of Chiapas and Tabasco States, southern Mexico, and on the offshore Campeche shelf west of Campeche State. The huge carbonate bank with which these discoveries are associated is called the Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan. Present trap structures are mainly fractured and faulted domal salt pillows created during the Laramide orogeny. The Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan is believed to include not just the Yucatan Peninsula, but also a part of coastal Veracruz State, where several discoveries have been made in carbonate rocks of Early to Middle Cretaceous ages in thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, which are now buried beneath the coastal plain. It is probable that large, subthrust, anticlinal structures underlie the thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, and these when drilled, may contain important hydrocarbon accumulations. (JMT)

  20. Ixodid ticks on dogs in southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Neves

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of ticks infesting domestic dogs in southern Mozambique. To this end 89 collections were taken from dogs and the geographic coordinates of the localities at which they were made noted. Fifty-eight of these collections were from animals in the city of Maputo and 16 from animals at rural settlements close to Maputo. A further 15 collections were made from dogs in rural environments north of Maputo. Ten ixodid tick species, of which one was only identified to genus level, were recovered. Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most numerous of the ten species, and its prevalence and intensity of infestation were significantly higher on city dogs than on rural dogs (P< 0.01, whereas the converse was true for Haemaphysalis leachi (P< 0.01. Including the city of Maputo, the exact localities at which nine tick species were collected, were recorded.

  1. Southern Orthopaedic Association Abstract Publication Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Mark Adam; Petrus, Cara; Barnes, C Lowry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the publication rate of manuscripts presented at the Southern Orthopaedic Association's (SOA) annual meetings. An extensive literature search was performed using Google Scholar and PubMed search engines and all accepted abstracts (posters or podium presentations) presented at an SOA annual meeting from 2005 to 2011 were evaluated. A total of 568 abstracts were presented at SOA meetings between 2005 and 2011. Of these, 234 (41%) were published in the peer-reviewed literature. The publication rate was 66% in 2005 and 28% in 2010. The average time from presentation to peer-reviewed publication was 1.6 ± 0.24 years (range, 2 years in 2006 to 1 year in 2011). The SOA publication rate was comparable with other major orthopaedic conference publication rates, yet more than half of all abstracts remain unpublished. SOA attendees should be aware that approximately 40% of all accepted presentations will go unpublished. PMID:27518291

  2. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham;

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from...... been conducted. No variation in P-T gradients between the three distinct crustal areas has been discerned. We find that the lithospheric mantle beneath this region extended to a depth of 215 km at the time of eruption, with a geotherm similar to those defined by peridotites from the Slave craton...... and the Kirkland Lake locality within the Superior craton. In supporting previous studies we find that the continental lithospheric mantle is layered and increases in fertility with depth. Twenty-five of 32 investigated samples are estimated to be derived from the diamond stability field that extends...

  3. Prevalence of Asthma in Southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryum Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAsthma is exaggerated response of immune system which is a leading cause of death in the third world. Main causes of asthma are allergy, smoking, drugs like NSAID (Aspirin and family history. Objective of study was to check the prevalence of asthma in different age groups and its impact on socioeconomical behaviors of the peoples of southern Punjab, by developing a questionnaire. Incidence of asthmatic attack in the age group of 20 to 60 years was more than in age group of 20 years, furthermore the incidence was found to be more common in females as compare to males. The smokers were at more risk to develop the disease as compared to the nonsmokers.

  4. Solvent Extraction Developments in Southern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest solvent-extraction plant in the world at the time, the Nchanga Copper Operation, was in Zambia. The first commercial process using solvent extraction for the refining of the platinum-group metals was in South Africa. More recently, the Southern African region has seen the implementation of solvent extraction for other base metals, precious metals, and specialty metals. These include the world firsts of primary production of zinc at Skorpion Zinc in Namibia and the large-scale refining of gold by Harmony Gold in South Africa. Several other flowsheets that use solvent-extraction technology are currently under commissioning, development, or feasibility study for implementation in this part of the world, including those for the recovery of copper, cobalt, nickel, tantalum, and niobium.

  5. Southern marl prairies conceptual ecological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S.M.; Loftus, W.F.; Gaiser, E.E.; Huffman, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    About 190,000 ha of higher-elevation marl prairies flank either side of Shark River Slough in the southern Everglades. Water levels typically drop below the ground surface each year in this landscape. Consequently, peat soil accretion is inhibited, and substrates consist either of calcitic marl produced by algal periphyton mats or exposed limestone bedrock. The southern marl prairies support complex mosaics of wet prairie, sawgrass sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense), tree islands, and tropical hammock communities and a high diversity of plant species. However, relatively short hydroperiods and annual dry downs provide stressful conditions for aquatic fauna, affecting survival in the dry season when surface water is absent. Here, we present a conceptual ecological model developed for this landscape through scientific concensus, use of empirical data, and modeling. The two major societal drivers affecting the southern marl prairies are water management practices and agricultural and urban development. These drivers lead to five groups of ecosystem stressors: loss of spatial extent and connectivity, shortened hydroperiod and increased drought severity, extended hydroperiod and drying pattern reversals, introduction and spread of non-native trees, and introduction and spread of non-native fishes. Major ecological attributes include periphyton mats, plant species diversity and community mosaic, Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), marsh fishes and associated aquatic fauna prey base, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and wading bird early dry season foraging. Water management and development are hypothesized to have a negative effect on the ecological attributes of the southern marl prairies in the following ways. Periphyton mats have decreased in cover in areas where hydroperiod has been significantly reduced and changed in community composition due to inverse responses to increased nutrient availability. Plant species diversity and

  6. Neonatal screening for hypothyroidism in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) determination by a radioimmunoassay on dried blood spots was selected as the screening method for congenital hypothyroidism in Southern Thailand. Blood from the infant's heel was obtained in 7814 newborns on the fifth day of life. Infants with TSH values greater than 25 mU/L were recalled for a more careful clinical examination and to have their T4 (thyroxine) and TSH re-estimated. Fifty-four infants with TSH values between 25 and 50 mU/L were found to be normal at re-evaluation. These are still being followed longitudinally for full confirmation. Two with values above 50 mU/L, although clinically euthyroid, were found to be hypothyroid by T3, T4, thyroid scintigraphy and bone age on roentgenography. Replacement therapy has been started. We have shown that a screening program for neonatal hypothyroidism can be done, and is probably worthwhile and perhaps even cost-effective

  7. Thickness diffusivity in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Carsten

    2006-06-01

    Thickness diffusivity ($\\kappa$) according to the Gent and McWilliams parameterisation which accounts for eddy-driven advection in the ocean, is estimated using output from an eddy-resolving model of the Southern Ocean. A physically meaningful definition of rotational eddy fluxes leads almost everywhere to positive $\\kappa$. Zonally averaged near surface values of $\\kappa$ remain smaller than 200 m2/s poleward of the polar front, increases between 60-45°S to about 600 m2/s and peak between 45-35° S at almost 3000 m2/s. $\\kappa$ stays high in the upper 500 m but decreases with depth and is essentially zero below 2500 m. In addition to the thickness diffusion ($\\kappa$) there is eddy-induced eastward (westward) advection of isopycnal thickness at the poleward (equatorward) flank of the ACC pointing toward strong anisotropic lateral mixing.

  8. Thunderstorms and thunderstorm precipitations in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielec-Bąkowska Zuzanna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses spatial and temporal variability in the occurrence of thunderstorms and related precipitation in southern Poland between 1951 and 2010. The analysis was based on thunderstorm observations and daily precipitation totals (broken down into the few ranges from 15 meteorological stations. It was found that precipitation accompanied an overwhelming majority of thunderstorms. The most frequent range of thunderstorm precipitation totals was 0.1–10.0 mm which accounted for 60% of all values while precipitation higher than 20.0 mm accounted only for ca. 8%. During the study period, long-term change in the number of days with thunderstorm precipitation within a certain range displayed no clear-cut trends. Exceptions included: 1 an increase in the number of days with thunderstorm precipitation in the lowest range of totals (0.1–10.0 mm at Katowice, Tarnów, Rzeszów and Lesko and decrease at Mt. Kasprowy Wierch, 2 an increase in the range 10.1–20.0 mm at Zakopane and 20.1–30.0 mm at Opole, 3 a decrease of the top range (more than 30.0 mm at Mt. Śnieżka. It was found that the heaviest thunderstorm precipitation events, i.e. totalling more than 30 mm, and those events that covered all or most of the study area, occurred at the time of air advection from the southern or eastern sectors and a passage of atmospheric fronts.

  9. Observations of seismic activity in Southern Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirova, T.; Hofstetter, R.

    2013-04-01

    Recent seismic activity in southern Lebanon is of particular interest since the tectonic framework of this region is poorly understood. In addition, seismicity in this region is very infrequent compared with the Roum fault to the east, which is seismically active. Between early 2008 and the end of 2010, intense seismic activity occurred in the area. This was manifested by several swarm-like sequences and continuous trickling seismicity over many days, amounting in total to more than 900 earthquakes in the magnitude range of 0.5 ≤ M d ≤ 5.2. The region of activity extended in a 40-km long zone mainly in a N-S direction and was located about 10 km west of the Roum fault. The largest earthquake, with a duration magnitude of M d = 5.2, occurred on February 15, 2008, and was located at 33.327° N, 35.406° E at a depth of 3 km. The mean-horizontal peak ground acceleration observed at two nearby accelerometers exceeded 0.05 g, where the strongest peak horizontal acceleration was 55 cm/s2 at about 20 km SE of the epicenter. Application of the HypoDD algorithm yielded a pronounced N-S zone, parallel to the Roum fault, which was not known to be seismically active. Focal mechanism, based on full waveform inversion and the directivity effect of the strongest earthquake, suggests left-lateral strike-slip NNW-SSE faulting that crosses the NE-SW traverse faults in southern Lebanon.

  10. The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirarattanasopa P

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pichai Jirarattanasopa,1 Nisa Panon,2 Siriphun Hiranyachattada,2 Patama Bhurayanontachai1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand Objective: To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error.Subjects and methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210 eyes of 105 healthy volunteers (86 women, age 23–83 years in southern Thailand were examined with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography. Subjects with systemic diseases that may affect the choroidal vascular blood vessels, such as diabetes, impaired renal function, and hypertension, were excluded. Refractive error and axial length were measured by autorefractometry and an IOLMaster, respectively. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner scleral border in the subfoveal area.Results: The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 279.4±75.49 µm, and the mean age was 46.4±16.45 years. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age (r2=0.33, P<0.0001 and axial length (r2=0.02, P<0.02. Multivariable regression analysis showed subfoveal choroidal thickness was positively and negatively correlated with a spherical equivalent refractive error and axial length, respectively, when adjusted for age.Conclusion: Age is the most important factor in choroidal thickness rather than axial length and refractive error. Subfoval choroidal thickness was decreased 2.67 µm every year and 14.59 µm with 1 mm increase in axial length. Keywords: choroidal thickness, enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography, swept-source optical coherence tomography

  11. The Southern Argentine Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janches, Diego

    2014-11-01

    The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) is a new generation system deployed in Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (53 S) in May 2008. SAAMER transmits 10 times more power than regular meteor radars, and uses a newly developed transmitting array, which focuses power upward instead of the traditional single-antenna-all-sky configuration. The system is configured such that the transmitter array can also be utilized as a receiver. The new design greatly increases the sensitivity of the radar enabling the detection of large number of particles at low zenith angles. The more concentrated transmitted power enables additional meteor studies besides those typical of these systems based on the detection of specular reflections, such as routine detections of head echoes and non-specular trails, previously only possible with High Power and Large Aperture radars. In August 2010, SAAMER was upgraded to a system capable to determine meteoroid orbital parameters. This was achieved by adding two remote receiving stations approximately 10 km away from the main site in near perpendicular directions. The upgrade significantly expands the science that is achieved with this new radar enabling us to study the orbital properties of the interplanetary dust environment. Because of the unique geographical location, SAAMER allows for additional inter-hemispheric comparison with measurements from Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar, which is geographically conjugate. Initial surveys show, for example, that SAAMER observes a very strong contribution of the South Toroidal Sporadic meteor source, of which limited observational data is available. In addition, SAAMER offers similar unique capabilities for meteor showers and streams studies given the range of ecliptic latitudes that the system enables detailed study of showers at high southern latitudes (e.g July Phoenicids or Puppids complex). Finally, SAAMER is ideal for the deployment of complementary instrumentation in both, permanent

  12. Syntectonic remagnetization in the southern Methow block: Resolving large displacements in the southern Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, R.J.; Mahoney, J.B.; Baker, J.; Kiessling, M.; Haugerud, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Ventura Member of the Goat Wall unit in the southern Methow block of southern British Columbia and northern Washington State holds a syntectonic magnetization. Eight new sites from Manning Park in British Columbia give a mean direction of D = 27.5??, I = 60.1??, k = 304.7, ??95 = 3.2?? after optimal partial tilt correction. Of five groups of bedded sites from farther south in the basin reported by Bazard et al. [1990], four have a syntectonic remanence with a direction similar to what we observe. The exception is one group which has optimal concentration of remanence directions on >100% untilting and an abherent direction which must be rejected. Combining the accepted sites, the optimal differential syntilting direction is D = 11.8??, I = 61.5??, k = 39.3, ??95 = 3.4?? (N = 47), giving a mean pole of 79.8??N, 359.2??E, K = 19.5, and A95 = 4.8??. The age of the remagnetization is constrained to be between 88 and 80 Ma. Compared to cratonic North America, this result indicates that the southern Methow block was displaced from the south by 1800 ?? 500 km, meaning it lay south of the Sierra Nevada subduction zone but well north of other paleomagnetically constrained Cretaceous rock units from the Insular superterrane, including correlative strata of the Mount Tatlow area in the northern Methow block. Among several possibilities to reconcile this discrepancy, the most plausible has the whole Methow block translated coherently but with the southern Methow block strata remagnetized during transit.

  13. The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Laura A.; Barton, Mafalda; Raine, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    The Southern California Twin Register is the result of an effort to recruit twins of all ages in the city of Los Angeles and surrounding areas. The register currently includes an ethnically diverse sample of more than 2600 twin pairs. The most recently recruited pairs have been drawn primarily from computerized records of enrollments in local public school districts, and are comparable in sex and ethnic distributions to the general public school population. An ongoing twin study of social and...

  14. Investment images in Southern Europe: an appreciation of firms in four Southern European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxas, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the capacity of four medium-sized cities in Southern Europe, concerning the current situation of their assets (agglomeration economies, urban infrastructures, factors of labor and cost, etc.), the degree of development policies implementation and effectiveness by local authorities and finally the level of local authorities capacity to plan and implement particular policies and partnerships with the private sector in order to shape a favorable and attractive investment ima...

  15. Ecology and control of an introduced population of Southern Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert; Todd, Brian D; Miano, Oliver J.; Canfield, Mark; Fisher, Robert N.; McMartin, Louanne

    2016-01-01

    Native to the southeastern United States, Southern Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) are known from two sites in California, but their ecological impacts are poorly understood. We investigated the ecology of Southern Watersnakes in Machado Lake, Harbor City, Los Angeles County, California, including an assessment of control opportunities. We captured 306 watersnakes as a result of aquatic trapping and hand captures. We captured snakes of all sizes (162–1063 mm snout–vent length [SVL], 3.5–873.3 g), demonstrating the existence of a well-established population. The smallest reproductive female was 490 mm SVL and females contained 12–46 postovulatory embryos (mean  =  21). Small watersnakes largely consumed introduced Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), while larger snakes specialized on larval and metamorph American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus). Overall capture per unit effort (CPUE) in traps declined with time during an intensive 76-d trapping bout, but CPUE trends varied considerably among traplines and it is unlikely that the overall decline in CPUE represented a major decrease in the snake population size. Although we found no direct evidence that Southern Watersnakes are affecting native species in Machado Lake, this population may serve as a source for intentional or unintentional transportation of watersnakes to bodies of water containing imperiled native prey species or potential competitors.

  16. Potential Dust Emissions from Sources in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachan, A.; D'Odorico, P.; Okin, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Hemisphere currently exhibits low levels of atmospheric dust concentrations relative to the Northern Hemisphere. Recent research suggests that dust concentrations could, however, increase as a result of loss of vegetation cover in the Southern Kalahari and the Mallee. Disturbances resulting from grazing and agriculture are identified as such drivers of land use change in these regions. While studies on the importance of atmospheric dust in global-scale processes are abundant, little has been done to locate the potential dust sources in the Southern Hemisphere because potential new sources are by definition inactive and are undetected in satellite images. To this end, using a combination of laboratory experiments and field observations, we assess that the sediments collected from the dunefields in the Southern Kalahari and Mallee can emit substantial amount of dust, are rich in soluble iron and dust from these sources would reach the Southern Ocean. It is suggested that the supply of soluble iron through atmospheric dust deposition limits the productivity of the Southern Ocean. Thus intensification of land use can potentially make these regions an important source of iron given their proximity to the Southern Ocean. This iron-rich dust could stimulate ocean productivity in future as more areas are reactivated as a result of land-use and droughts.

  17. Stars and Seasons in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedegar, K. V.

    Although the indigenous people of Southern Africa traditionally viewed the sky as a place quite apart from the Earth, they believed celestial phenomena to be natural signs united with those of the Earth in a harmonious synchronicity. There is no substantial evidence that the precolonial Africans imagined a casual relationship between celestial bodies and the seasonal patterns of life on Earth. They did, however, recognize a coincidental relationship. The traditional African cosmos, then, worked as a noetic principle unifying the observed motions of celestial bodies, the sequence of seasons, and the behavior of plants and animals. Such a cosmos, with local peculiarities, was widely understood in Southern Africa before the end of the last century. By the early 20th century European colonial paradigms had largely obliterated this African worldview. This paper will offer a partial reconstruction. Pre-colonial South African people viewed time as a sequence of discrete natural events; through annual repetition these events served as a guide for proper human action. The South Africans analyzed the passage of time in terms of the motions of celestial bodies, the maturation of beneficial plants, and the mating patterns of animals. The rightful course of human life was seen to fit within the seasonal context of these natural phenomena. The visibility of conspicuous stars and asterisms marked significant times of year. For instance, the Lovedu people greeted the dawn rising of Canopus with joy: "The boy has come out." The star was a signal for rainmaking and boys' initiation ceremonies to proceed. The Venda constellation Thutlwa, the giraffes, comprises α and β Crucis and α and β Centauri. In October Thutlwa skims the trees of the evening horizon. The Venda Thutlwa literally means 'rising above the trees,' an allusion to the majestic vegetarian creatures and the stars advising the people to be done with their spring planting. This paper will describe stellar associations

  18. Properties of aftershock sequences in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl; Jones, Lucile M.

    1991-07-01

    The temporal behavior of 39 aftershock sequences in southern California, 1933-1988, was modeled by the modified Omori relation. Minimum magnitudes for completeness of each sequence catalog were determined, and the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters K, p, and c, with the standard errors on each, were determined by the Ogata algorithm. The b value of each sequence was also calculated. Many of the active faults in the region, both strike slip and thrust, were sampled. The p values were graded in terms of the size of the standard error relative to the p value itself. Most of the sequences were modeled well by the Omori relation. Many of the sequences had p values close to the mean of the whole data set, 1.11±0.25, but values significantly different from the mean, as low as 0.7 and as high as 1.8, exist. No correlation of p with either the b value of the sequence or the mainshock magnitude was found. The results suggest a direct correlation of p values is with surface heat flow, with high values in the Salton Trough (high heat flow) and one low value in the San Bernardino Mountains and on the edge of the Ventura Basin (both low heat flow). The large fraction of the sequences with p values near the mean are at locations where the heat flow is near the regional mean, 74 mW/m2. If the hypothesis that aftershock decay rate is controlled by temperature at depth is valid, the effects of other factors such as heterogeneity of the fault zone properties are superimposed on the background rate determined by temperature. Surface heat flow is taken as an indicator of crustal temperature at hypocentral depths, but the effects on heat flow of convective heat transport and variations in near-surface thermal conductivity invalidate any simple association of local variations in heat flow with details of the subsurface temperature distribution. The interpretation is that higher temperatures in the aftershock source volume caused shortened stress relaxation times in the fault

  19. Olivine in the Southern Isidis Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this observation of the transition region between Libya Montes and the Isidis Basin on Mars at 17:16 UTC (12:16 p.m. EST) on January 2, 2007, near 3.6 degrees north latitude, 84.1 degrees east longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (7 miles) wide at its narrowest point. The Isidis Basin resulted from of a gigantic impact on the surface of Mars early in the planet's history. The southern rim, where this target is located, is a region of complex geology and part of the planetary dichotomy boundary that separates the older southern highlands from the lower, younger northern plains. The image on the left was constructed from three visible wavelengths (RGB: 0.71, 0.60, 0.53 microns) and is a close approximation of how the surface would appear to the human eye. The image on the right was constructed from three infrared wavelengths (RGB: 2.49, 1.52, 1.08 microns) chosen to highlight variations in the mineralogy of the area. Of interest is that features in this image not only differ in color, but also in texture and morphology. The gray areas absorb similarly at all wavelengths used in this image, but display absorptions at other wavelengths related to the iron- and magesium-rich mineral pyroxene. The reddest areas absorb strongly at the wavelengths used for green and blue, which is attributable to another iron- and magesium-rich mineral, olivine. The brownish areas show subdued mineral absorptions and could represent some type of mixture between the other two materials. The presence of the mineral olivine is particularly interesting because olivine easily weathers to other minerals; thus, its presence indicates either the lack of weathering in this region or relatively recent exposure. CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits and

  20. IFU spectroscopy of southern PNe: III

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A; Basurah, H M; Amer, M A; Alsulami, R; Alruhaili, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe integral ?eld spectroscopic observations of four southern Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe), M3-4, M3-6, Hen2-29 and Hen2-37 covering the spectral range, 3400-7000?A.We derive the ionisation structure, the physical conditions, the chemical compositions and the kinematical characteristics of these PNe and ?nd good agreement with previous studies that relied upon the long-slit technique in their co-spatial area. From their chemical compositions as well as their spatial and kinematic characteristics, we determined that Hen2-29 is of the Peimbert Type I (He and N rich), while the other three are of Type II. The strength of the nebular He II line reveals that M3-3, Hen2-29 and Hen2-37 are of mid to high excitation classes while M3-6 is a low excitation planetary nebula (PN). A series of emission-line maps extracted from the data cubes were constructed for each PN to describe its overall structure. These show remarkable morphological diversity. Spatially resolved spectroscopy of M3-6, shows...

  1. Objectively classifying Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    There has been a long tradition in attempting to separate extratropical cyclones into different classes depending on their cloud signatures, airflows, synoptic precursors, or upper-level flow features. Depending on these features, the cyclones may have different impacts, for example in their precipitation intensity. It is important, therefore, to understand how the distribution of different cyclone classes may change in the future. Many of the previous classifications have been performed manually. In order to be able to evaluate climate models and understand how extratropical cyclones might change in the future, we need to be able to use an automated method to classify cyclones. Extratropical cyclones have been identified in the Southern Hemisphere from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset with a commonly used identification and tracking algorithm that employs 850 hPa relative vorticity. A clustering method applied to large-scale fields from ERA-Interim at the time of cyclone genesis (when the cyclone is first detected), has been used to objectively classify identified cyclones. The results are compared to the manual classification of Sinclair and Revell (2000) and the four objectively identified classes shown in this presentation are found to match well. The relative importance of diabatic heating in the clusters is investigated, as well as the differing precipitation characteristics. The success of the objective classification shows its utility in climate model evaluation and climate change studies.

  2. CO survey of the Southern Coalsack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, L.A.; Bronfman, L.; Thaddeus, P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have made a complete survey of CO J=1--0 emission from the Southern Coalsack with 8.8' resolution, sampled every 0.125 deg, and covering 26.5 square degrees. In some regions the /sup 13/CO J=1--0 line also was observed. A total mass of about 3500 solar masses was derived for the Coalsack. The CO emission has a very complex structure, with clumps and filaments and in places several velocity components. The agreement between optical extinction and the CO integrated intensity is very good, but in several cases the small, dense, dark globules in the Coalsack can not be distinguished in CO emission, implying that the CO lines become optically thick already in the gas surrounding the globules. The CO excitation temperature is typically between 8 and 11 K. In the regions of the /sup 13/CO observations a fairly high optical depth was derived, between 0.3 and 0.9, possibly with small enhancements toward globules. These CO data reveal no evidence for star formation in the Coalsack: the CO excitation temperature does not exceed 11.2 K anywhere, and in general, the lines are narrow.

  3. Radio detections of southern ultracool dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C.; Murphy, T.; Ravi, V.; Hobbs, G.; Lo, K.; Ward, C.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of a volume-limited survey using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for transient and quiescent radio emission from 15 Southern hemisphere ultracool dwarfs. We detect radio emission from 2MASSW J0004348-404405 increasing the number of radio loud ultracool dwarfs to 22. We also observe radio emission from 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544, two sources with previous radio detections. The radio emission from the three detected sources shows no variability or flare emission. Modelling this quiescent emission we find that it is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission from a magnetosphere with an emitting region radius of (1-2)R*, magnetic field inclination 20°-80°, field strength ˜10-200 G, and power-law electron density ˜104-108 cm-3. Additionally, we place upper limits on four ultracool dwarfs with no previous radio observations. This increases the number of ultracool dwarfs studied at radio frequencies to 222. Analysing general trends of the radio emission for this sample of 15 sources, we find that the radio activity increases for later spectral types and more rapidly rotating objects. Furthermore, comparing the ratio of the radio to X-ray luminosities for these sources, we find 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544 violate the Güdel-Benz relation by more than two orders of magnitude.

  4. Radio detections of southern ultracool dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, C; Ravi, V; Hobbs, G; Lo, K; Ward, C

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a volume-limited survey using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for transient and quiescent radio emission from 15 southern hemisphere ultracool dwarfs. We detect radio emission from 2MASSW J0004348-404405 increasing the number of radio loud ultracool dwarfs to 22. We also observe radio emission from 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544, two sources with previous radio detections. The radio emission from the three detected sources shows no variability or flare emission. Modelling this quiescent emission we find that it is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission from a magnetosphere with an emitting region radius of (1 - 2)$R_*$, magnetic field inclination 20$^{\\circ}$ - 80$^{\\circ}$, field strength $\\sim$10 - 200 G, and power-law electron density $\\sim$10$^4$ - 10$^8$ cm$^{-3}$. Additionally, we place upper limits on four ultracool dwarfs with no previous radio observations. This increases the number of ultracool dwarfs studied at radio freq...

  5. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    to the low thickness of the lithospheric mantle and preheating of the lower crust by earlier Mio-Pliocene volcanism. Rare earth element modelling of mantle melting calls for enriched source compositions and a beginning of melting within the garnet stability field for all Payenia basalts. The Río Colorado......The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...... rocks with 4 to 12 wt.% MgO and 44 to 50 wt.% SiO2. The southern Payenia province is dominated by intraplate basalts and the trace element patterns of the Río Colorado and Payún Matrú lavas suggest little or no influence from subducted slab components. The mantle source of these rocks is similar to some...

  6. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  7. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  8. Photosynthetically active sunlight at high southern latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, John E; Liao, Yixiang

    2005-01-01

    A network of scanning spectroradiometers has acquired a multiyear database of visible solar irradiance, covering wavelengths from 400 to 600 nm, at four sites in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere, from 55 degrees S to 90 degrees S. Monthly irradiations computed from the hourly measurements reveal the character of the seasonal cycle and illustrate the role of cloudiness as functions of latitude. Near summer solstice, the combined influences of solar elevation and the duration of daylight would produce a monthly irradiation with little latitude dependence under clear skies. However, the attenuation associated with local cloudiness varies geographically, with the greatest effect at the most northern locations, Ushuaia, Argentina and Palmer Station on the Antarctic Peninsula. Near summer solstice, the South Pole experiences the largest monthly irradiation of the sites studied, where relatively clear skies contribute to this result. Scaling factors derived from radiative-transfer calculations combined with the measured 400-600 nm irradiances allow estimating irradiances integrated over the wavelength band 400-700 nm. This produces a climatology of photosynthetically active radiation for each month of the year at each site. PMID:15689179

  9. An Activity Catalogue of Southern Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J S; Tinney, C G; Butler, R P; McCarthy, C; Marcy, G W; Pinfield, D J; Carter, B D; Penny, A J

    2006-01-01

    We have acquired high-resolution echelle spectra of 225 F6-M5 type stars in the southern hemisphere. The stars are targets or candidates to be targets for the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. Ca$\\small{\\rmn{\\textsc{II}}}$~HK line cores were used to derive activity indices for all of these objects. The indices were converted to the Mt. Wilson system of measurements and log\\emph{R}$'_{\\rmn{HK}}$ values determined. A number of these stars had no previously derived activity indices. In addition we have also included the stars from Tinney et al. (2002) using our Mt. Wilson calibration. The radial-velocity instability (also known as jitter) level was determined for all 21 planet-host stars in our dataset. We find the jitter to be at a level considerably below the radial-velocity signatures in all but one of these systems. 19 stars from our sample were found to be active (log\\emph{R}$'_{\\rmn{HK}}$~$>$~-4.5) and thus have high levels of jitter. Radial-velocity analysis for planetary companions to these stars should pr...

  10. Milk production characteristics in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Picoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe milk production in Southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and to identify factors that affect milk quality at this region. The average age of regional dairy farmers is 49, and 67.9% has not concluded elementary school. Dairy farming is carried out on properties with an average of 26.06 hectares and 8.4 lactating cows. Most of them (32.83% yield 50 to 100 L/day. Among the properties, 13.21% yield up to 30 L/day, and only 1.89% produces over 500 milk liters a day. Average yield was 6.8 L/day. Regarding to milking procedure, 39.3% farmers milk manually the animals, only 14.2% performed pre-milking teat disinfection, and 53.9% uses a single cloth to dry all animal teats. For infrastructure, 52.8% milks animals in wooden cowsheds. We observed that the average somatic cell count (SCC was within legal parameters, presenting negative correlation with milk production (r = -0.23 and lactose content (r = -0.39. However, the total bacterial count (TBC was above legal parameters. Education level seems to interfere in management and milk quality, because the less educated groups are, the less adequate are infrastructure, management, and product quality. Data show that there is a lower quality milk production where poor management techniques are adopted and owner education level affects milk quality.

  11. Alboran Basin, southern Spain - Part I: Geomorphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A. [Secretaria General de Pesca Maritima, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, M.; Rivera, J.; Acosta, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, I. [Universidad Juan Carlos I, Campus de Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Uchupi, E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Bathymetric, 3D relief and shaded relief maps created from multibeam echo-sounding data image the morphology of the Alboran Basin, a structural low along the east-west-trending Eurasian-African plates boundary. Topographic features in the basin are the consequence of volcanism associated with Miocene rifting, rift and post-rift sedimentation, and recent faulting resulting from the convergence of the African-Eurasian plates. Pleistiocene glacially induced regressions/transgressions when the sea level dropped to about 150 m below its present level gas seeps and bottom currents. Recent faulting and the Pleistocene transgressions/regressions led to mass-wasting, formation of turbidity currents and canyon erosion on the basin's slopes. Recent fault traces at the base of the northern basin slope have also served as passageways for thermogenic methane, the oxidation of which by bacteria led to the formation of carbonate mounds along the fault intercepts on the sea floor. Expulsion of thermogenic or biogenic gas has led to the formation of pockmarks; erosion by bottom currents has resulted in the formation of moats around seamounts and erosion of the seafloor of the Alboran Ridge and kept the southern edge of the 36 10'N high sediment free. (author)

  12. Mechanization in firewood harvesting in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to survey current mechanization level of coppice harvesting in Southern Italy. The cooperation of the General Direction of the National Forest Service (NFS has been a basic tool of survey. A questionnaire compiled on purpose was sent to each Forest Station (hereinafter referred to as CS in the following regions: Basilicata, Campania and Calabria. A high percentage (80% of the CSs did fulfill the questionnaire. The answers highlight that: i the main assortment currently produced is firewood; ii the level of harvesting mechanization is rather low, equipment being quite obsolete: indeed, the most widely used machineries are farm tractors partly adapted to forest harvesting and equipped with cages or back winch; iii the use of animals for hauling (mules and oxen, the latter in Calabria is still quite frequent, while forest tractors, polyethylene chutes and cable cranes are almost absent; iv the use of individual protection (DPI and machinery protection devices (DPM is on average quite low.

  13. The buffalo in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zava

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of buffaloes in the American continent is growing at the explosive rate of 12.7 % a year, well above all other continents. Within this context the different situations of the southern part of South America are described, those countries that two hundred years ago were part of the River Plate Viceroyship and the Chile General Command, both of them part of the Spanish empire. The first steps of buffaloes in Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay. The expansion of buffaloes in Argentina and their recent start up in Chile. The production systems in the region are described, principally Argentina and Paraguay. The major changes and expansion of agriculture in Argentina are displacing cattle production from the North towards the Tropics, where buffalo has proven to be very superior in productivity compared to cattle production thanks to its very good adaptation to the local conditions. In Paraguay, a totally subtropical country, something very similar is happening. Paraguay has consolidated its sales of buffalo hides and beef. Argentina is well on its way to having a very efficient buffalo beef marketing competing with cattle of the highest quality. Buffalo milk production is still not mature in these countries, although there are several projects underway in Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina.

  14. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, Michael; Glueck, Christian; Goldsmith, Paul; Hawkes, Jarryd; Hollenbach, David; Kulesa, Craig; Martin, Chris; Pineda, Jorge; Rowell, Gavin; Simon, Robert; Stark, Tony; Stutzki, Juergen; Tothill, Nick; Urquhart, James; Walker, Chris; Walsh, Andrew; Wolfire, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We present the first results from a new carbon monoxide (CO) survey of the southern Galactic plane being conducted with the Mopra radio telescope in Australia. The 12CO, 13CO and C18O J=1-0 lines are being mapped over the l = 305-345 deg, b = +/- 0.5 deg portion of the 4th quadrant of the Galaxy, at 35" spatial and 0.1 km/s spectral resolution. The survey is being undertaken with two principal science objectives: (i) to determine where and how molecular clouds are forming in the Galaxy and (ii) to probe the connection between molecular clouds and the "missing" gas inferred from gamma-ray observations. We describe the motivation for the survey, the instrumentation and observing techniques being applied, and the data reduction and analysis methodology. In this paper we present the data from the first degree surveyed, l = 323-324 deg, b = +/- 0.5 deg. We compare the data to the previous CO survey of this region and present metrics quantifying the performance being achieved; the rms sensitivity per 0.1 km/s veloc...

  16. Bathymetry of southern Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Garcia, Michael O.; Fox, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Manua Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, lies largely beneath the sea, and until recently only generalized bathymetry of this giant volcano was available. However, within the last two decades, the development of multibeam sonar and the improvement of satellite systems (Global Positioning System) have increased the availability of precise bathymetric mapping. This map combines topography of the subaerial southern part of the volcano with modern multibeam bathymetric data from the south submarine flank. The map includes the summit caldera of Mauna Loa Volcano and the entire length of the 100-km-long southwest rift zone that is marked by a much more pronounced ridge below sea level than above. The 60-km-long segment of the rift zone abruptly changes trend from southwest to south 30 km from the summit. It extends from this bend out to sea at the south cape of the island (Kalae) to 4 to 4.5 km depth where it impinges on the elongate west ridge of Apuupuu Seamount. The west submarine flank of the rift-zone ridge connects with the Kahuku fault on land and both are part of the ampitheater head of a major submarine landslide (Lipman and others, 1990; Moore and Clague, 1992). Two pre-Hawaiian volcanic seamounts in the map area, Apuupuu and Dana Seamounts, are apparently Cretaceous in age and are somewhat younger than the Cretaceous oceanic crust on which they are built.

  17. Intense look at Virgo Southern Extension

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, Igor D

    2012-01-01

    We collected data on radial velocities and distances of galaxies to elucidate structure and kinematics of the filament attached to the Virgo cluster from south. In the region RA = [12.5 - 13.5]h, Dec = [-20 - 0]deg there are 171 galaxies with radial velocities VLG < 2000 km/s, and 98 of them have distance estimates. This galaxy cloud, called as "Virgo Southern Extension", is situated just on the edge of the Virgo "zero-velocity surface". The mean distance to Virgo SEx, 17pm2 Mpc, and the average radial velocity, 1172pm23 km/s, are very close to the Virgo cluster ones. In Supergalactic coordinates the Virgo SEx dimensions are 15x7x2 Mpc, where the major axis is directed along the line of sight, the second-major axis looks towards the Virgo core and the minor one is perpendicular to the Supergalactic plane. This flattened cloud consists of a dozen virialized groups with the total K-band luminosity of 1.7cdot10^12 Lsol and the total virial mass of 6.3cdot10^13 Msol, having a typical dark matter-to-stellar mat...

  18. Competency development of southern African housing officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munita Dunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Report on the Ministerial Committee for the Review of the Provision of StudentHousing at South African Universities (Higher Education and Training, 2011 hasprovided a comprehensive review of residences across several housing functional areas. Inone of the residence management and administration recommendations it stated, “Theprofessionalisation of housing staff is an urgent priority” (p. 141. This coupled with thereport’s estimated “current residence bed shortage of approximately 195 815 beds … witha cost of overcoming this shortage over a period of ten years is estimated at R82.4 billion”(pp. xvii–xviii will mean the hiring and training of hundreds of housing professional staffto meet not only the demand of the additional residence beds but the training of currenthousing staff. In 2010 The Association of College and University Housing Officers –International Southern Africa Chapter (ACUHO-I SAC initiated a Student HousingTraining Institute (SHTI first held in 2011 to meet the demands for professionalisinghousing staff. The SHTI was organised using a competency development model first usedto develop the Association of College and University Housing Officers – International(ACUHO-I James C. Grimm National Housing Training Institute (NHTI held in the US.

  19. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Paul T. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  20. Helminths of the ocelot from southern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Danny B; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda L

    2003-07-01

    In the USA, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a highly endangered felid found only in a few remaining vestiges of native thornshrub brushland in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of extreme southern Texas. From 1987-1998, carcasses of 15 adult ocelots that died of vehicular accidents or natural causes were examined for helminths. All cats had 1-8 (mean = 3) helminth species. All were infected with 1-101 (mean +/- SE = 32 +/- 7) Toxascaris leonina. Other helminths from these ocelots were Alaria marcianae, Brachylaima sp., Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia rileyi, Oncicola canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Physaloptera rara, Ancylostoma tubaeformae, Cylicospirura chevreuxi, Vogeloides felis, and Metathelazia californica. Additionally, two cats had scarring of the aorta with lesions typical of those caused by Spriocerca lupi, although larval nematodes were not seen. A clinal variation in size of nearly three orders of magnitude was noted in the diplostomatid trematodes in the small intestine of one adult male ocelot. Despite the differences in size, all specimens appeared morphologically identical and were regarded as A. marcianae. Helminth prevalences and abundances, including those of potentially pathogenic species like D. immitis, were low. Although a single heartworm infection may have contributed to the death of one ocelot, helminth infections in general seemed to be of no great consequence to this endangered ocelot population. The helminth fauna of ocelots in the LRGV is reflective of that from wild felids in general; all have been reported previously from the bobcat (Lynx rufus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) elsewhere in Texas. PMID:14567231

  1. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-08-24

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  2. Hunting the Southern Skies with SIMBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    First Images from the New "Millimetre Camera" on SEST at La Silla Summary A new instrument, SIMBA ("SEST IMaging Bolometer Array") , has been installed at the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at the ESO La Silla Observatory in July 2001. It records astronomical images at a wavelength of 1.2 mm and is able to quickly map large sky areas. In order to achieve the best possible sensitivity, SIMBA is cooled to only 0.3 deg above the absolute zero on the temperature scale. SIMBA is the first imaging millimetre instrument in the southern hemisphere . Radiation at this wavelength is mostly emitted from cold dust and ionized gas in a variety of objects in the Universe. Among other, SIMBA now opens exciting prospects for in-depth studies of the "hidden" sites of star formation , deep inside dense interstellar nebulae. While such clouds are impenetrable to optical light, they are transparent to millimetre radiation and SIMBA can therefore observe the associated phenomena, in particular the dust around nascent stars . This sophisticated instrument can also search for disks of cold dust around nearby stars in which planets are being formed or which may be left-overs of this basic process. Equally important, SIMBA may observe extremely distant galaxies in the early universe , recording them while they were still in the formation stage. Various SIMBA images have been obtained during the first tests of the new instrument. The first observations confirm the great promise for unique astronomical studies of the southern sky in the millimetre wavelength region. These results also pave the way towards the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the giant, joint research project that is now under study in Europe, the USA and Japan. PR Photo 28a/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17175-3544 PR Photo 28b/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 18434-0242 PR Photo 28c/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17271-3439 PR Photo 28d/01

  3. The Southern Universities Nuclear Institute in retrospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given on the history, management and activities of the Southern Universities Nuclear Institute (SUNI). SUNI was originally established to enable scientists and students of the universities of Stellenbosch and Cape Town to undertake fundamental research in nuclear physics and chemistry. On 1 April 1983 SUNI was integrated with the National Accelerator Centre. Now the Van de Graaff accelerator is also used in basic research. SUNI's research activities in nuclear physics includes: level-structure studies using the inelastic scattering of neutrons; study of nucleon-nucleon interactions; study of related nuclear levels (analogues); study of compound nuclei; fluctuation phenomena in reactions going via the compound state; studies of nuclear level parameters using charged particle induced reactions and physics of the fissionable nuclei. Research in atomic physics includes: inner shell excitation and outer shell excitation. Research is also done in the fields of nuclear analytical chemistry, solid state and materials science, medical and life sciences and the applications of nuclear technology in industry and the environment

  4. Southern Meridional Atmospheric Circulation Associated with IOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Na; CHEN Hongxia

    2006-01-01

    Using the monthly wind and sea surface temperature (SST) data, southern meridional atmospheric circulation cells associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode (IOD) events in the Indian Ocean are for the first time described and examined. The divergent wind and pressure vertical velocity are employed for the identification of atmospheric circulation cells. During the four different phases of the positive IOD events, the anomalous meridional Hadley circulation over the western Indian Ocean shows that the air rises in the tropics, flows poleward in the upper troposphere, sinks in the subtropics, and returns back to the tropics in the lower troposphere. The anomalous Hadley circulation over the eastern Indian Ocean is opposite to that over the western Indian Ocean. During positive IOD events, the meridional Hadley circulation over the eastern Indian Ocean is weakened while it is strengthened over the western Indian Ocean. Correlation analysis between the IOD index and the indices of the Hadley cells also proves that, the atmospheric circulation patterns are evident in every IOD event over the period of record.

  5. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Salin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/−2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/−1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/−0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25–35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  6. The new southern novel: a bibliographical assay The new southern novel: a bibliographical assay

    OpenAIRE

    Robert F. Kiernan

    2008-01-01

    Any attempt to chronicle the contemporary southern novel is beset by troublesome, interlocking questions. Is the very existence of the genro presumptive? If not, does its tradition continue to instill a sectional awareness among writers flourishing in the last years of the twentieth century? If so, is it not the case that to read any literary text as a mimetic expression of a geographical region is to confine each to the other and to ignore the quiddity of both? no task of the chronicler...

  7. GENETIC DIVERSITY WITHIN THE SOUTHERN PLAINS WOODRAT (NEOTOMA MICROPUS) IN SOUTHERN TEXAS

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; HANSON, J. DELTON; Fulhorst, Charles F.; Milazzo, Mary L.; Ruthven, Donald C.; Bradley, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic diversity within a population of the southern plains woodrat was examined using DNA sequences (967 base pairs [bp]) obtained from the control or d-loop region of the mitochondrial genome. One hundred fourteen individuals from 10 collection sites were assigned to 42 haplotypes. Haplotype diversity values were moderate to high (0.974 overall and ranged from 0.524 to 0.964 across collecting sites), whereas nucleotide diversity values were low (0.008 overall and ranged from 0.001 to 0.010...

  8. The beginnings of the Southern Child/Pediatric Neurology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyken, Paul Richard; Bodensteiner, John B

    2015-04-01

    The founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society was in many ways parallel to that of the Child Neurology Society. The organization started out as the Southern Child Neurology Society but the name was changed at the time of incorporation so as to avoid confusion of identity and purpose with the larger Child Neurology Society. Although there are archives of early days and the later development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society, the details have never been set down in a narrative explaining the events that led to the development of the organization. In this paper, we try to produce a written record of the history of the founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society.

  9. Southern Sierra Fisher Conservation Area - Sierra Nevada [ds568

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Southern Sierra Fisher Conservation Area encompasses the known occupied range of the Pacific fisher in the Sierra Nevada. This consists of an elevational band...

  10. Southern States Lagging in Tough Smoking Bans, CDC Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159529.html Southern States Lagging in Tough Smoking Bans, CDC Says Only 6 in 10 Americans covered ... federal government report says. This type of law bans smoking in all indoor areas of workplaces, restaurants ...

  11. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  12. Avian botulism in the southern San Joaquin valley 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A joint effort of the Department of Fish and' Game and the U. S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife contained botulism losses in the southern San Joaquin Valley...

  13. Vestalaria vinnula spec. nov. from southern Vietnam (Odonata: Calopterygidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hämäläinen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Vestalaria vinnula spec.nov. (holotype male, southern Vietnam, Lam Dong province, Blao, 1962) is described in both sexes and compared with other species of Vestalaria May, 1935 (= the Vestalis smaragdina - group), which is ranked as valid genus.

  14. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  15. Three new species of Cladonia (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA M. CHARNEI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cladonia maculata, C. paranaensis and C. quiririensisare described as new to science. These species were found between the altitudes of 900 to 1887 meters on the Serra do Mar Mountain in Southern Brazil.

  16. Final Critical Habitat for Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A geospatial data set depicting the boundaries of marine areas designated as critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) for Southern Resident killer...

  17. Southern African species of Mentha L. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    L. E. Codd

    1983-01-01

    The species of Mentha L. occurring in Southern Africa are reviewed and a key is provided to two indigenous and one naturalized species.  M. wissii Launert is reduced to M. longifolia (L.) Huds. subsp. wissii (Launert) Codd.

  18. Review: Current writing: Text and reception in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Combrink

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Current writing: Text and reception in Southern Africa. (Published by the University of Natal under the joint editorship of Margaret Lenta, Michael Chapman, Margaret Daymond and Johan U. Jacobs. Volume 1, 1989 - editor: Margaret Lenta

  19. Final critical habitat for Southern Pigtoe (Pleurobema georgianum)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Polygon shapefile of critical habitat for the Southern Pigtoe (Pleurobema georgianum) based on the description provided in the Federal Register.

  20. [Experience with amalgams manufactured by Southern Dental Industries (Australia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, I; Gábris, K; Balaton, P; Dénes, J

    1990-09-01

    The gamma 2 phaseless amalgam of the firm Southern Dental Industries (SDI) was tested. None of the 205 fillings showed level deviations, unevenness, secondary caries and breakage. A minimum size gap was found in 2 cases.

  1. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  2. High HIV Rates for Gay Men in Some Southern Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_158914.html High HIV Rates for Gay Men in Some Southern Cities In Jackson, Miss., ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Rates of HIV infection among gay and bisexual men are approaching 30 percent to ...

  3. Final critical habitat for Southern Acornshell (Epioblasma othcaloogensis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Polygon shapefile of critical habitat for the Southern Acornshell (Epioblasma othcaloogensis) based on the description provided in the Federal Register.

  4. Southern Great Plains rapid ecoregional assessment : Pre-assessment report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of...

  5. The conundrum of conservation agriculture and livelihoods in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkala, P.; Mango, N.; Corbeels, M.; Veldwisch, G.J.A.; Huising, J.

    2011-01-01

    Low crop productivity, food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition; inadequate farming knowledge and skills, implements and inputs are characteristic of smallholder agriculture in Southern Africa. Many researchers argue that conservation agriculture can guarantee higher crop productivity, food security

  6. Phytoplankton composition and biomass across the southern Indian Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlüter, Louise; Henriksen, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel;

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton composition and biomass was investigated across the southern Indian Ocean. Phytoplankton composition was determined from pigment analysis with subsequent calculations of group contributions to total chlorophyll a (Chl a) using CHEMTAX and, in addition, by examination in the microscope...

  7. Killer Whale Genetic Data - Southern resident killer whale pedigree analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In this project, we are using genetic variation to infer mating patterns in the southern killer whale community. In Canada, this population was listed as threatened...

  8. A synopsis of Peristrophe (Acanthaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Balkwill

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A synopsis of Peristrophe Nees (Acanthaceae in southern Africa is provided. Peristrophe comprises nine species, one with two subspecies in southern Africa. A key for identification and descriptions of species not included in recent literature are provided. Morphology of tertiary bracts,indumentum on stems and distribution is illustrated and diagnostic characters, distribution, habitat, flowering  time and conservation status are discussed for each species.

  9. Politics and water policy: A Southern Africa example

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, A; Mtisi, S.

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork from the Sustainable Livelihoods in Southern Africa programme - largely undertaken in Zimbabwe, with some additional material from South Africa and Mozambique - this article examines the politics surrounding water resources and policy change in southern Africa. It outlines the policy contexts of water reforms in the three countries. The article then investigates: the process of institution-building accompanying water policy reform and resulting complex and politicised ins...

  10. Regional integration, FDI and competitiveness in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Southern Africa, with its vast natural resources and relatively skilled workforce, should be a magnet for foreign direct investment (FDI). This, however, is not the case. Indeed, even domestic investment is low, though intra-regional investment, mainly from South Africa and Mauritius is notable. This book analyses investment flows within the region and examines the role ofFDI in key industries. It concludes that Southern Africa still has to shake off a reputation for instability and high risk...

  11. Operational Practice and Prospects of China Southern Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiuling; Wang Ben

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Applied Research on Higher Voltage Class for China Southern Power Grid completed at the end of 2004 pointed to a conclusion that transmission schemes using ±800-kV DC and 1000-kV AC are feasible to the southern grid. According to the grid's 11th Five-Year Plan, the ultra-high voltage transmission will take its place in the power grid soon.

  12. The magnitude distribution of earthquakes near Southern California faults

    OpenAIRE

    Alderson, D; Doyle, J; Page, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate seismicity near faults in the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Fault Model. We search for anomalously large events that might be signs of a characteristic earthquake distribution. We find that seismicity near major fault zones in Southern California is well modeled by a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, with no evidence of characteristic earthquakes within the resolution limits of the modern instrumental catalog. However, the b value of the locally observed magnitu...

  13. Socio-economic analysis of conservation agriculture in southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.‏ United Nations Development Programme

    2011-01-01

    Southern Africa, a region little affected by the Green Revolution and likely to suffer severe detrimental impacts from climate change, faces pervasive poverty, hunger, and environmental degradation. Conservation agriculture may be a sustainable and effective way to resolve these issues, but stakeholders need accessible and solid evidence of its effectiveness. The purpose of this report is to analyze the impact of CA on the Southern Africans countries of South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe thro...

  14. Rabbits as a keystone species in southern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Delibes Mateos, Miguel; Redpath, Steve M.; Angulo, Elena; Ferreras, Pablo; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    A keystone species is one that is crucial in maintaining the organization and diversity of their ecological communities. We tested the idea that rabbits act as a keystone species in southern Europe by exploring relationships between rabbit abundance and the abundance and diversity of raptor species. At 20 sites in southern Spain we assessed rabbit abundance through counts of animals along transects and assessed the number of raptor individuals and species through watches from vantage poin...

  15. Developing sustainable conservation agriculture for smallholder farmers in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eash, Neal S.; Walker, Forbes; Thierfelder, Christian; Marake, Makoala V.; Wilcox, M; Lambert, D; Basson, A.

    2012-01-01

    Metadata only record This presentation was given at the Soil Science Society of America annual meeting on October 22nd, 2012 in Cincinnati, Ohio at 11:10 in the morning. Conservation agricultural practices were used in Southern Africa's cropping system to improve soil nutrient, improve food security, sequester carbon, and mitigate green house gases. LTRA-9 (Developing sustainable CAPS for smallholder farmers in Southern Africa)

  16. Characteristics of cyclone climatology and variability in the Southern Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Lixin; QIN Ting

    2016-01-01

    A new climatology of cyclones in the Southern Ocean is generated by applying an automated cyclone detection and tracking algorithm (developed by Hodges at the Reading University) for an improved and relatively high-resolution European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts atmospheric reanalysis during 1979–2013. A validation shows that identified cyclone tracks are in good agreement with a available analyzed cyclone product. The climatological characteristics of the Southern Ocean cyclones are then analyzed, including track, number, density, intensity, deepening rate and explosive events. An analysis shows that the number of cyclones in the Southern Ocean has increased for 1979–2013, but only statistically significant in summer. Coincident with the circumpolar trough, a single high-density band of cyclones is observed in 55°–67°S, and cyclone density has generally increased in north of this band for 1979–2013, except summer. The intensity of up to 70% cyclones in the Southern Ocean is less than 980 hPa, and only a few cyclones with pressure less than 920 hPa are detected for 1979–2013. Further analysis shows that a high frequency of explosive cyclones is located in the band of 45°–55°S, and the Atlantic Ocean sector has much higher frequent occurrence of the explosive cyclones than that in the Pacific Ocean sector. Additionally, the relationship between cyclone activities in the Southern Ocean and the Southern Annular Mode is discussed.

  17. Southern Hemisphere rainfall variability over the past 200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergis, Joëlle; Henley, Benjamin J.

    2016-05-01

    This study presents an analysis of three palaeoclimate rainfall reconstructions from the Southern Hemisphere regions of south-eastern Australia (SEA), southern South Africa (SAF) and southern South America (SSA). We provide a first comparison of rainfall variations in these three regions over the past two centuries, with a focus on identifying synchronous wet and dry periods. Despite the uncertainties associated with the spatial and temporal limitations of the rainfall reconstructions, we find evidence of dynamically-forced climate influences. An investigation of the twentieth century relationship between regional rainfall and the large-scale climate circulation features of the Pacific, Indian and Southern Ocean regions revealed that Indo-Pacific variations of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole dominate rainfall variability in SEA and SAF, while the higher latitude Southern Annular Mode (SAM) exerts a greater influence in SSA. An assessment of the stability of the regional rainfall-climate circulation modes over the past two centuries revealed a number of non-stationarities, the most notable of which occurs during the early nineteenth century around 1820. This corresponds to a time when the influence of ENSO on SEA, SAF and SSA rainfall weakens and there is a strengthening of the influence of SAM. We conclude by advocating the use of long-term palaeoclimate data to estimate decadal rainfall variability for future water resource management.

  18. 76 FR 66054 - Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 7, 2011, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C. (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501... application should be directed to Glenn A. Sheffield, Director--Rates and Regulatory, Southern Natural...

  19. 78 FR 14400 - Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading March 1, 2013. It appears to the... securities of Southern USA Resources, Inc. (``Southern USA'') because of questions regarding the accuracy of... company's outstanding shares. Southern USA's securities are quoted on the OTC Link, operated by...

  20. Southern images - RGP gmap | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us RGP gmap Southern images... Data detail Data name Southern images Description of data contents Parents Southern...y of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Southern images - RGP gmap | LSDB Archive ...

  1. Physical properties of Southern infrared dark clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyunina, T.; Linz, H.; Henning, Th.; Stecklum, B.; Klose, S.; Nyman, L.-Å.

    2009-05-01

    Context: What are the mechanisms by which massive stars form? What are the initial conditions for these processes? It is commonly assumed that cold and dense Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) represent the birth-sites of massive stars. Therefore, these clouds have been receiving an increasing amount of attention, and their analysis offers the opportunity to tackle the afore mentioned questions. Aims: To enlarge the sample of well-characterised IRDCs in the southern hemisphere, where ALMA will play a major role in the near future, we have developed a program to study the gas and dust of southern infrared dark clouds. The present paper attempts to characterize the continuum properties of this sample of IRDCs. Methods: We cross-correlated 1.2 mm continuum data from SIMBA bolometer array mounted on SEST telescope with Spitzer/GLIMPSE images to establish the connection between emission sources at millimeter wavelengths and the IRDCs that we observe at 8 μm in absorption against the bright PAH background. Analysing the dust emission and extinction enables us to determine the masses and column densities, which are important quantities in characterizing the initial conditions of massive star formation. We also evaluated the limitations of the emission and extinction methods. Results: The morphology of the 1.2 mm continuum emission is in all cases in close agreement with the mid-infrared extinction. The total masses of the IRDCs were found to range from 150 to 1150 M_⊙ (emission data) and from 300 to 1750 M_⊙ (extinction data). We derived peak column densities of between 0.9 and 4.6 × 1022 cm-2 (emission data) and 2.1 and 5.4 × 1022 cm-2 (extinction data). We demonstrate that the extinction method is unreliable at very high extinction values (and column densities) beyond AV values of roughly 75 mag according to the Weingartner & Draine (2001) extinction relation RV = 5.5 model B (around 200 mag when following the common Mathis (1990, ApJ, 548, 296) extinction calibration

  2. Preliminary technology report for Southern Sector bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was designed to demonstrate the potential of intrinsic bioremediation and phytoremediation in the Southern Sector of the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site. A subsurface plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) is present in the Lost Lake aquifer upgradient of the study site and is predicted to impact the area at some point in the future. The surface area along the Lost lake aquifer seep line where the plume is estimated to emerge was identified. Ten sites along the seep line were selected for biological, chemical, and contaminant treatability analyses. A survey was undertaken in this area to to quantify the microbial and plant population known to be capable of remediating TCE and PCE. The current groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient of the zone of influence was determined. No TCE or PCE was found in the soils or surface water from the area tested at this time. A TCE biodegradation treatability test was done on soil from the 10 selected locations. From an initial exposure of 25 ppm of TCE, eight of the samples biodegraded up to 99.9 percent of all the compound within 6 weeks. This biodegradation of TCE appears to be combination of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activity as intermediates that were detected in the treatability test include vinyl chloride (VC) and the dichloroethenes (DCE) 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene. The TCE biological treatability studies were combines with microbiological and chemical analyses. The soils were found through immunological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis to have a microbial population of methanotrophic bacteria that utilize the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) and cometabolize TCE

  3. Phenological Changes in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lynda E.; Altwegg, Res; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnard, Phoebe; Beaumont, Linda J.; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Durant, Joel M.; Hughes, Lesley; Keatley, Marie R.; Low, Matt; Morellato, Patricia C.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph E. T.; Woehler, Eric J.; Wolfaardt, Anton C.

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias), although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa) and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially and logistically

  4. Phenological changes in the southern hemisphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda E Chambers

    Full Text Available Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand, South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias, although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially

  5. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  6. Tulbaghia--A Southern African Phytomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styger, Gustav; Aboyade, Oluwaseyi M; Gibson, Diana; Hughes, Gail

    2016-04-01

    The phytomedicine Tulbaghia consists of the fresh or dried subterranean organs of various Tulbaghia species. The genus is endemic to Southern Africa and includes about 20 species, of which only T. alliacea and T. capensis are naturally found in the winter rainfall climate area (the Western Cape). The genus forms part of the Alliaceae family and is a geophyte (plants with an underground perennation organ and leaves that die back annually). Their habitat can range from semi-desert to wet and boggy terrain. Wild garlic is most commonly prepared as an infusion or boiled in water and taken orally. Externally, as a medicated bath, wild garlic is used to treat paralysis and rheumatism and to reduce the temperature in a feverish patient. Internally, rhizome or bulb preparations are taken orally to treat fever; as a remedy for colds and influenza, asthma, tuberculosis, and stomach problems; as an antihypertensive; or to expel intestinal worms. It is also used as a prophylactic against winter infections. Rhizome pieces are often placed in castor oil to make eardrops. For fever and high blood pressure, a tea is made from the bulbs or rhizomes and a small cup taken three times daily. The leaves of the plant are used to treat esophageal cancer and may also be eaten as a vegetable. The demand for Tulbaghia in both formal and informal markets has grown exponentially. Sustainable harvesting focuses on only harvesting enough of the plant so that it still has the capacity for self-renewal. However, because both the above-ground and underground parts of Tulbaghia are commonly used in African traditional medicine, destructive harvesting of the whole plant is inevitable, thus necessitating the large-scale organized propagation of these plants. It is therefore important to establish a new strategy for the sustainable harvesting of these plants as commercial crops. PMID:27008423

  7. Hydrological model uncertainty assessment in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D. A.; Kapangaziwiri, E.; Sawunyama, T.

    2010-06-01

    The importance of hydrological uncertainty analysis has been emphasized in recent years and there is an urgent need to incorporate uncertainty estimation into water resources assessment procedures used in the southern Africa region. The region is characterized by a paucity of accurate data and limited human resources, but the need for informed development decisions is critical to social and economic development. One of the main sources of uncertainty is related to the estimation of the parameters of hydrological models. This paper proposes a framework for establishing parameter values, exploring parameter inter-dependencies and setting parameter uncertainty bounds for a monthly time-step rainfall-runoff model (Pitman model) that is widely used in the region. The method is based on well-documented principles of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, but recognizes the limitations that exist within the region (data scarcity and accuracy, model user attitudes, etc.). Four example applications taken from different climate and physiographic regions of South Africa illustrate that the methods are appropriate for generating behavioural stream flow simulations which include parameter uncertainty. The parameters that dominate the model response and their degree of uncertainty vary between regions. Some of the results suggest that the uncertainty bounds will be too wide for effective water resources decision making. Further work is required to reduce some of the subjectivity in the methods and to investigate other approaches for constraining the uncertainty. The paper recognizes that probability estimates of uncertainty and methods to include input climate data uncertainties need to be incorporated into the framework in the future.

  8. Cephalopods distribution in the southern Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. LEFKADITOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns faunal composition and distribution of cephalopods in the southern Aegean Sea (35Ζ 13’ 19’’- 37Ζ 55’ 25’’ N, 23Ζ 00’ 15’’ - 28Ζ 15’ 37’’ E. Samples were collected from 708 hauls, obtained by an experimental bottom trawl net during eight surveys carried out in the summers of the years 1994-2001, as well as by commercial trawl net during four surveys carried out in September 1995, December 1995, May and September 1996. The hauls were performed at depths ranging from 16 to 778 m. A total of 34 species of cephalopod in 12 families were identified, including 11 oegopsid squid, 3 myopsid squid, 7 octopod, 3 cuttlefish and 10 sepiolid. Trawling with the experimental net resulted in the capturing of some uncommon pelagic species, such as Ctenopteryx siculaand Octopoteuthis sicula, which were recorded for the first time in the Aegean Sea. Most of the species showed a wide depth and geographical range. The species: Sepia officinalis, Sepietta neglecta, Sepietta obscuraand Sepiola rondeletiwere caught only on the continental shelf, whereas the Ancistroteuthis lichtensteini, Bathypolypous sponsalis, Brachioteuthis riisei, Chiroteuthis veranyi, Ctenopteryx sicula, Heteroteuthis dispar, Histioteuthis reversa, Neorossia caroli and Pyroteuthis margaritiferawere found only on the slope. The rest of the species extended in both continental shelf and slope. The spatial distribution of different species groups is discussed in relation to the hydrology and topography of the study area and the species ecology.

  9. Nearshore marine fish diversity in southern California using trawl information from the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of mean fish diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  10. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 – to restore, sustain and enhance...

  11. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada Executive Summary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 – to restore, sustain and enhance...

  12. Hydrography, Our hydrography consist of rivers, lakes streams and small bodies of water. It was complied using steriovision from 1998-2000 Orthophotography., Published in 2007, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as 'Our hydrography consist of rivers, lakes streams...

  13. Flood of April 2007 in Southern Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Up to 8.5 inches of rain fell from April 15 through 18, 2007, in southern Maine. The rain - in combination with up to an inch of water from snowmelt - resulted in extensive flooding. York County, Maine, was declared a presidential disaster area following the event. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), determined peak streamflows and recurrence intervals at 24 locations and peak water-surface elevations at 63 sites following the April 2007 flood. Peak streamflows were determined with data from continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations where available and through hydraulic models where station data were not available. The flood resulted in peak streamflows with recurrence intervals greater than 100 years throughout most of York County, and recurrence intervals up to 50 years in Cumberland County. Peak flows for selected recurrence intervals varied from less than 10 percent to greater than 100 percent different than those in the current FEMA flood-insurance studies due to additional data or newer regression equations. Water-surface elevations observed during the April 2007 flood were bracketed by elevation profiles in FEMA flood-insurance studies with the same recurrence intervals as the recurrence intervals bracketing the observed peak streamflows at seven sites, with higher elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at six sites, and with lower elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at one site. The April 2007 flood resulted in higher peak flows and water-surface elevations than the flood of May 2006 in coastal locations in York County, and lower peak flows and water-surface elevations than the May 2006 flood further from the coast and in Cumberland County. The Mousam River watershed with over 13 dams and reservoirs was severely impacted by both events. Analyses indicate that the April 2007 peak streamflows in the Mousam River watershed

  14. Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Fast, Matthew

    2009-12-31

    The Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Program is designed to demonstrate, in a day-to-day bus operation, the reliability and efficiency of a hydrogen bus operation under extreme conditions. By using ICE technology and utilizing a virtually emission free fuel, benefits to be derived include air quality enhancement and vehicle performance improvements from domestically produced, renewable energy sources. The project objective is to help both Ford and the City demonstrate and evaluate the performance characteristics of the E-450 H2ICE shuttle buses developed by Ford, which use a 6.8-liter supercharged Triton V-10 engine with a hydrogen storage system equivalent to 29 gallons of gasoline. The technology used during the demonstration project in the Ford buses is a modified internal combustion engine that allows the vehicles to run on 100% hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen gives a more thorough fuel burn which results in more power and responsiveness and less pollution. The resultant emissions from the tailpipe are 2010 Phase II compliant with NO after treatment. The City will lease two of these E-450 H2ICE buses from Ford for two years. The buses are outfitted with additional equipment used to gather information needed for the evaluation. Performance, reliability, safety, efficiency, and rider comments data will be collected. The method of data collection will be both electronically and manually. Emissions readings were not obtained during the project. The City planned to measure the vehicle exhaust with an emissions analyzer machine but discovered the bus emission levels were below the capability of their machine. Passenger comments were solicited on the survey cards. The majority of comments were favorable. The controllable issues encountered during this demonstration project were mainly due to the size of the hydrogen fuel tanks at the site and the amount of fuel that could be dispensed during a specified period of time. The uncontrollable issues encountered during this

  15. Microphysics and Southern Ocean Cloud Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Daniel T.

    Global climate models (GCMs) change their cloud properties in the Southern Ocean (SO) with warming in a qualitatively consistent fashion. Cloud albedo increases in the mid-latitudes and cloud fraction decreases in the subtropics. This creates a distinctive 'dipole' structure in the SW cloud feedback. However, the shape of the dipole varies from model to model. In this thesis we discuss the microphysical mechanisms underlying the SW cloud feedback over the mid-latitude SO. We will focus on the negative lobe of the dipole. The negative SW cloud feedback in the mid-latitudes is created by transitions from ice to liquid in models. If ice transitions to liquid in mixed-phase clouds the cloud albedo increases because ice crystals are larger than liquid droplets and therefore more reflective for a constant mass of water. Decreases in precipitation efficiency further enhance this effect by decreasing sinks of cloud water. This transition is dependent on the mixed-phase cloud parameterization. Parameterizations vary wildly between models and GCMs disagree by up to 35 K on the temperature where ice and liquid are equally prevalent. This results in a wide spread in the model predictions of the increase in liquid water path (LWP, where the path is the vertically integrated mass of water) with warming that drives the negative optical depth cloud feedback. It is found that this disagreement also results in a wide array of climate mean-states as models that create liquid at lower temperatures have a higher mean-state LWP, lower ice water path (IWP), and higher condensed (ice and liquid) water path (CWP). This presents a problem in climate models. GCMs need to have a reasonable planetary albedo in their climate mean-state. We show evidence that GCMs have tuned cloud fraction to compensate for the variation in mid-latitude cloud albedo driven by the mixed-phase cloud parameterization. This tuning results in mid-latitude clouds that are both too few and too bright as well as a

  16. Southern Half of Spirit's 'Bonestell' Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This 180-degree panorama shows the southward vista from the location where Spirit is spending its third Martian winter inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The rover's overwintering location is on the northern edge of a low plateau informally called 'Home Plate,' which is about 80 meters or 260 feet in diameter. This view combines 168 different exposures taken with Spirit's panoramic Camera (Pancam) 42 pointings with 4 filters at each pointing. Spirit took the first of these frames during the mission's 1,477th Martian day, or sol, (February 28, 2008) two weeks after the rover made its last move to reach the location where it would stop driving for the winter. Solar energy at Gusev Crater is so limited during the Martian winter that Spirit does not generate enough electricity to drive, nor even enough to take many images per day. The last frame for this mosaic was taken on Sol 1599 (July 2, 2008). The rover team plans for Spirit to finish taking images for the northern half of the scene during the Martian spring. The northwestern edge of Home Plate is visible in the right foreground. The blockier, more sharply shadowed texture there is layered sandstone whose layering is tilted inward toward the edge of the Home Plate platform. A dark rock on top of Home Plate in that area is a porous volcanic basalt unlike rocks nearby. The northeastern edge of Home Plate is visible in the left foreground. Spirit first climbed onto Home Plate on that region, in early 2006. Rover tracks from driving by Spirit are visible on Home plate in the center and right of the image. These were made during Spirit's second exploration on top of the plateau, which began when Spirit climbed onto the southern edge of Home Plate in September, 2007. In the center foreground, the turret of tools at the end of Spirit's robotic arm appears in duplicate because the arm was repositioned between the days when the images making up that part of the mosaic were taken. On the horizon, the highest point is 'McCool Hill

  17. Southern Half of Spirit's 'Bonestell' Panorama (Anaglyph)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This stereo, 180-degree panorama shows the southward vista from the location where Spirit is spending its third Martian winter inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The rover's overwintering location is on the northern edge of a low plateau informally called 'Home Plate,' which is about 80 meters or 260 feet in diameter. The view combines a stereo pair so that it appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses. Spirit took the first of the images that are combined into this view during the mission's 1,477th Martian day, or sol, (February 28, 2008) two weeks after the rover made its last move to reach the location where it would stop driving for the winter. Solar energy at Gusev Crater is so limited during the Martian winter that Spirit does not generate enough electricity to drive, nor even enough to take many images per day. The last frame for this mosaic was taken on Sol 1599 (July 2, 2008). The rover team plans for Spirit to finish taking images for the northern half of the scene during the Martian spring. The northwestern edge of Home Plate is visible in the right foreground. The blockier, more sharply shadowed texture there is layered sandstone whose layering is tilted inward toward the edge of the Home Plate platform. A dark rock on top of Home Plate in that area is a porous volcanic basalt unlike rocks nearby. The northeastern edge of Home Plate is visible in the left foreground. Spirit first climbed onto Home Plate on that region, in early 2006. Rover tracks from driving by Spirit are visible on Home plate in the center and right of the image. These were made during Spirit's second exploration on top of the plateau, which began when Spirit climbed onto the southern edge of Home Plate in September, 2007. In the center foreground, the turret of tools at the end of Spirit's robotic arm appears in duplicate because the arm was repositioned between the days when the images making up that part of the mosaic were taken. On the horizon, the highest point is 'Mc

  18. Microbiome of Yermic Regosol in southern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutovaya, Olga; Lebedeva, Marina; Tkhakakhova, Azida

    2014-05-01

    Biological activity is of utmost importance for the genesis of extremely arid desert soils. The soil surface in arid regions is often covered by biofilms representing a complex biocenosis of algae, bacteria, micromycetes, and, sometimes, mosses or lichens. Biofilms of extremely arid soils form a significant part of the living matter in the desert ecosystems and play the central role in their dynamics. Study of the genetic material recovered directly from the soil samples is the main approach in soil metagenomics. Modern sequencing methods were used to describe the diversity of the microorganisms in soil samples. For the first time, such data were obtained for the extremely arid desert soil (Yermic Regosol) in southern Kazakhstan (flat alluvial plain; 43° 42'53.2" N; 79°25'29.1" E; 615 m asl). Taxonomic identification of nucleotide sequences and comparative analysis of microbial communities were performed using VAMPS. The classification of the sequences was performed using RDP. As the primers used were based on the sequences of 16S-rRNA gene of bacteria and archaea, we could analyze the prokaryotic community. Along with bacteria and archaea with established systematic position, all soil samples contained unidentified sequences (5.2-5.3%). Bacteria predominated at the domain level (65.9-74.9%), although their portion was much lower in comparison with that in less arid soils, where it reached 94-100%. Archaea were present as minor components (0.3-0.5%). Dominant groups of bacteria were represented by Proteobacteria (43.9-50.8%), Actinobacteria (9.5-10%), Firmicutes (0.8-2.4%), Verrucomicrobia (1.1-3%), Acidobacteria (1.1-2%), Bacteroidetes (1.2-1.4%). The portion of other phyla was less than 1%. Thus, bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria constitute the core component of the microbiome. Archaea are represented by phylum Crenarchaeota. A key feature of the extremely arid soils is the presence of large numbers (24.7-33.6%) of cyanobacteria

  19. Notes on southern Africa Jerusalem crickets (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Sia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David B; Bazelet, Corinna S

    2013-02-18

    The Old World Jerusalem cricket (JC) subfamily Siinae contains one genus, Sia, with two subgenera: Sia (Sia) with two fully winged species from southeast Asia, and Sia (Maxentius) with four wingless species from southern Africa. Because there is a dearth of published data about the behavior and biology of these insects, we present new field and laboratory research on southern African Sia (Maxentius), gather museum and literature information, and present guidelines for collecting and rearing specimens. While we make no taxonomic decisions, this review should be useful for future studies, including a needed taxonomic revision. We also compare results from these southern African JCs with recent investigations on related New World taxa, where fascinating biological traits and extensive cryptic biodiversity have been uncovered. DNA analysis reveals that these Old and New World JCs are polyphyletic.

  20. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  1. Seismic Zonation of Central-Southern Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Xu Guangyin; Chen Kun; Gao Mengtan

    2007-01-01

    Based on basic data used in compiling the Zonation Map of Earthquake Ground Motion Parameters in China, recent research on seismic safety assessment for engineering sites in central-southern Hunan Province, the new attenuation relationships of moderate earthquakes and the background seismicity data obtained by modern instrumental earthquake records since 1970, a new result of seismic zonation of central-southern Hunan Province is provided. The result shows that the area with PGA = 0.05g has obviously increased in the new map compared with the previous one and is relatively consistent with the seismic disaster characteristics of moderate earthquakes that took place in the central-southern part of Hunan in recent years.This result will benefit the research and compilation of a new-generation seismic zonation map of earthquake ground motion parameters and the seismic hazard assessment in the moderate earthquake active regions in the central and eastern part of China.

  2. Southern Appalachian assessment. Summary report, Report 1 of 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This final report for the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program is comprised of two documents: (1) a brief summary of programs and projects, and (2) a more extensive summary report included as an attachment. The purpose of the program is to promote a sustainable balance between the conservation of biological diversity, compatible economic uses, and cultural values across the Southern Appalachians. Program and project areas addressing regional issues include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development/sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resources, and public information and education. The attached summary report is one of five that documents the results of the Southern Appalachian Assessment; it includes atmospheric, social/cultural/economic, terrestrial, and aquatic reports.

  3. Decreased calcification in the Southern Ocean over the satellite record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Natalie M.; Lovenduski, Nicole S.

    2015-03-01

    Widespread ocean acidification is occurring as the ocean absorbs anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, threatening marine ecosystems, particularly the calcifying plankton that provide the base of the marine food chain and play a key role within the global carbon cycle. We use satellite estimates of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), surface chlorophyll, and sea surface temperature to provide a first estimate of changing calcification rates throughout the Southern Ocean. From 1998 to 2014 we observe a 4% basin-wide reduction in summer calcification, with ˜9% reductions in large regions (˜1 × 106 km2) of the Pacific and Indian sectors. Southern Ocean trends are spatially heterogeneous and primarily driven by changes in PIC concentration (suspended calcite), which has declined by ˜24% in these regions. The observed decline in Southern Ocean calcification and PIC is suggestive of large-scale changes in the carbon cycle and provides insight into organism vulnerability in a changing environment.

  4. Assessment of Southern California environment from ERTS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.; Viellenave, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery is a useful source of data for evaluation of earth resources in Southern California. The improving quality of ERTS-1 imagery, and our increasing ability to enhance the imagery has resulted in studies of a variety of phenomena in several Southern California environments. These investigations have produced several significant results of varying detail. They include the detection and identification of macro-scale tectonic and vegetational patterns, as well as detailed analysis of urban and agricultural processes. The sequential nature of ERTS-1 imagery has allowed these studies to monitor significant changes in the environment. In addiation, some preliminary work has begun directed toward assessing the impact of expanding recreation, agriculture and urbanization into the fragile desert environment. Refinement of enhancement and mapping techniques and more intensive analysis of ERTS-1 imagery should lead to a greater capability to extract detailed information for more precise evaluations and more accurate monitoring of earth resources in Southern California.

  5. Large-Scale Weather Disturbances in Mars’ Southern Extratropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.

    2015-11-01

    Between late autumn and early spring, Mars’ middle and high latitudes within its atmosphere support strong mean thermal gradients between the tropics and poles. Observations from both the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) indicate that this strong baroclinicity supports intense, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems (i.e., transient synoptic-period waves). These extratropical weather disturbances are key components of the global circulation. Such wave-like disturbances act as agents in the transport of heat and momentum, and generalized scalar/tracer quantities (e.g., atmospheric dust, water-vapor and ice clouds). The character of large-scale, traveling extratropical synoptic-period disturbances in Mars' southern hemisphere during late winter through early spring is investigated using a moderately high-resolution Mars global climate model (Mars GCM). This Mars GCM imposes interactively lifted and radiatively active dust based on a threshold value of the surface stress. The model exhibits a reasonable "dust cycle" (i.e., globally averaged, a dustier atmosphere during southern spring and summer occurs). Compared to their northern-hemisphere counterparts, southern synoptic-period weather disturbances and accompanying frontal waves have smaller meridional and zonal scales, and are far less intense. Influences of the zonally asymmetric (i.e., east-west varying) topography on southern large-scale weather are examined. Simulations that adapt Mars’ full topography compared to simulations that utilize synthetic topographies emulating key large-scale features of the southern middle latitudes indicate that Mars’ transient barotropic/baroclinic eddies are highly influenced by the great impact basins of this hemisphere (e.g., Argyre and Hellas). The occurrence of a southern storm zone in late winter and early spring appears to be anchored to the western hemisphere via orographic influences from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre

  6. Maintaining and restoring sustainable ecosystems in southern Nevada: Chapter 7 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pendleton, Burton K.; Sada, Donald W.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Managers in southern Nevada are challenge with determining appropriate goals and objectives and developing viable approaches for maintaining and restoring sustainable ecosystems in a time of rapid socio-ecological and environmental change. Sustainable or "healthy" ecosystems supply clean air, water and habitat for a diverse array of plants and animals. As described in Chapter 1, sustainable ecosystems retain characteristic processes like hydrological flux and storage, geomorphic processes, biogeochemical cycling and storage, biological activity and productivity, and population regeneration and reproduction over the normal cycle of disturbance events (modified from Chapin and others 1996 and Christensen and others 1996). Ecological restoration of stressed or disturbed ecosystems in an integral part of managing for sustainable ecosystems. The Society of Ecological Restoration International (SERI) defines ecological restoration as the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed (SERI 2004). Many of the southern Nevada's ecosystems are being subjected to anthropogenic stressors that span global, regional, and local scales (Chapter 2)., and are crossing ecological thresholds to new alternative states (Chapter 4 and Chapter 5). These alternative states often represent novel communities with disturbance regimes that differ significantly from historic conditions. Past management and restoration goals often focused on returning ecosystems to pre-disturbance conditions (Harris and others 2006). This approach assumes stable or equilibrium conditions and ignores changes in ecosystems processes due to land uses, increases in CO2 concentrations, and climate change. A more realistic approach is to base management and restoration goals on the current potential of an ecosystem to support a given set of ecological conditions, and on the likelihood of future change due to warming climate (Harris and others 2006). This approach

  7. Invasive species in southern Nevada: Chapter 4 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Chambers, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climactic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species. In addition, the population center of the Las Vegas valley, and the agricultural area scattered throughout Clark, Lincoln, and Nye counties, all connected by a network of roads and highways, plus ephemeral and perennial watercourses, provide abundant opportunities for new invaders to be transported into and within southern Nevada (Brooks 2009; Brookes and Lair 2009). Invasive species are a concern for land managers because they can compete directly with native species (Brooks 2000; Chambers and others 2007; DeFlaco and others 2003, 2007; Mazzola and others 2010), change habitat conditions (Brooks and Esque 2002; Esque and others 2010; Miller and others 2011), and alter ecosystems properties (Brooks and Matchett 2006; Brooks and Pyke 2001; Evans and others 2001). Many invasive species have already established and spread to the point that they are now considered to pose significant problems in southern Nevada. However, there are likely many more than have wither not been transported to or colonized the region, or have established by for various reasons not spread or increased in abundance to the point where they have a significant impact. Land managers must understand both current and potential future problems posed by invasive species to appropriately prioritize management actions. This chapter addressed Sub-goal 1.2 in the SNAP Science Research Strategy (table 1.3; Turner and others 2009), which is to protect southern Nevada's ecosystems from the adverse impacts of invasive species. It provides a brief overview of the key concepts associated with the ecology and management of invasive species, and

  8. A synopsis of the tribe Desmodieae (Fabaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Schrire

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Desmodieae has a pantropical distribution and is one of the most advanced tribes in the subfamily Papilionoideae. Its greatest centres of development are in tropical Asia and America. Africa is relatively poorly endowed and only four genera comprising 16 species occur in the flora of southern Africa. Many of these species are widespread in the Old World tropics and the few African endemics appear to be closely related to them. A synopsis of the genera Desmodium, Pseudarthria, Alysicarpus and Lespedeza is given for southern Africa.

  9. Climate change: an issue for parliamentarians in Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala; Anderson, Simon; Schoch, Corinne; Smith, Barry

    2011-11-15

    Parliamentarians can play a key role in building climate resilience by bringing constituents' concerns into national forums, scrutinising how governments are responding to domestic and global climate change issues, and ensuring policy continuity. In the Southern African Customs Union, members of parliament often struggle to fulfill this role, hampered by limited understanding of the issues, fragmented policy and legal frameworks and competing priorities. Boosting parliamentarians' capacity to engage effectively with climate change in Southern Africa requires them to strengthen their research capabilities, diversify their sources of information and build cross-party groups on climate change.

  10. History of ‘swine fever’ in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2013-01-01

    The histories of the two swine fevers in southern Africa differ widely. Classical swine fever (hog cholera) has been known in the northern hemisphere since 1830 and it is probable that early cases of ‘swine fever’ in European settlers’ pigs in southern Africa were accepted to be that disease. It was only in 1921 that the first description of African swine fever as an entity different from classical swine fever was published after the disease had been studied in settlers’ pigs in Kenya. Shortl...

  11. Ecosystem stressors in southern Nevada: Chapter 2 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Burton K.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Ostoja, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems and their associated resources are subject to a number of global and regional/local stressors that are affecting the sustainability of the region. Global stressors include elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated changes in temperature and precipitation patterns and amount, solar radiation, and nutrient cycles (Smith and others 2009b). Global stressors are ubiquitous in nature and interact both directly and indirectly with regional or local stressors. Regional/local stressors in southern Nevada include: population growth and urbanization and associated increases in nitrogen deposition, energy development, water development, and recreation; increased effects of insects and disease; ongoing effects of livestock, wild horse and burro grazing; new and expanding invasive species; and altered fire regimes. This chapter provides background information on the stressors affecting southern Nevada's ecosystems that is needed to address Goal 1.0 in the SNAP Science Research Strategy, which is to restore, sustain, and enhance southern Nevada's ecosystems (Turner and others 2009). Human population growth and changes in land use strongly affect the type and magnitude of local/regional stressors. From 1960 to 2010, Nevada's growth rate was the highest in the nation (www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-01.pdf). Clark County has experienced particularly high growth, with a population increase of greater than 40 percent since the 2000 census. Factors like land ownership, historic and current land use, proximity to human and energy developments, and desirability for recreation all influence the level of human-caused stress. The strong elevation/climate gradients and large difference in the environmental characteristics of southern Nevada ecosystems (fig. 1.2; Chapter 1) have a major influence on both patterns of land use and the dominant stressors for different ecosystem types. Shifts in land use related to population growth

  12. A Grammar of Southern Pomo: An Indigenous Language of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Neil Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Southern Pomo is a moribund indigenous language, one of seven closely related Pomoan languages once spoken in Northern California in the vicinity of the Russian River drainage, Clear Lake, and the adjacent Pacific coast. This work is the first full-length grammar of the language. It is divided into three parts. Part I introduces the sociocultural…

  13. Evaluation of potential geopressure geothermal test sites in southern Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassiouni, Z.

    1980-04-01

    Six geopressured-geothermal prospects in southern Louisiana were studied in detail to assess their potential use as test sites for the production of geopressure-geothermal energy. Each of the six sites contains substantial quantities of energy. Three of these prospects, Grand Lake, Lake Theriot, and Bayou Hebert, appear to be suitable for a test site. A summary of the findings is presented.

  14. Incorporating Phaeocystis into a Southern Ocean ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanlin; Moore, J. Keith

    2011-01-01

    Phaeocystis antarctica is an important phytoplankton species in the Southern Ocean. We incorporated P. antarctica into the biogeochemical elemental cycling ocean model to study Southern Ocean ecosystem dynamics and biogeochemistry. The optimum values of ecological parameters for Phaeocystis were sought through synthesizing laboratory and field observations, and the model output was evaluated with observed chlorophyll a, carbon biomass, and nutrient distributions. Several factors have been proposed to control Southern Ocean ecosystem structure, including light adaptation, iron uptake capability, and loss processes. Optimum simulation results were obtained when P. antarctica had a relatively high α (P-I curve initial slope) value and a higher half-saturation constant for iron uptake than other phytoplankton. Simulation results suggested that P. antarctica had a competitive advantage under low irradiance levels, especially in the Ross Sea and Weddell Sea. However, the distributions of P. antarctica and diatoms were also strongly influenced by iron availability. Although grazing rates had an influence on total biomass, our simulations did not show a strong influence of grazing pressure in the competition between P. antarctica and diatoms. However, limited observations and the relative simplicity of zooplankton in our model suggest further research is needed. Overall, P. antarctica contributed ˜13% of annual primary production and ˜19% of sinking carbon export in the Southern Ocean (>40°S) in our best case simulation. At higher latitudes (>60°S) P. antarctica accounts for ˜23% of annual primary production and ˜30% of sinking carbon export.

  15. Equatorial ionospheric electrodynamic perturbations during Southern Hemisphere stratospheric warming events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, M. E.; Fejer, B. G.; Stolle, Claudia;

    2013-01-01

    We use ground-based and satellite measurements to examine, for the first time, the characteristics of equatorial electrodynamic perturbations measured during the 2002 major and 2010 minor Southern Hemisphere sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. Our data suggest the occurrence of enhanced qu...... that showed the fundamentally important role of lunar semidiurnal tidal effects on low latitude electrodynamic perturbations during arctic SSW events....

  16. A new species of Symplocos (Symplocaceae) from southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa Ulloa, Carmen; Ståhl, Bertil; Minga, Danilo; Ansaloni, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    A new species from Ecuador, Symplocos limonensis, is here described and illustrated. It resembles Symplocos clethrifolia but differs by having larger leaves with evident (i.e., not concealed) areoles on lower surface, sessile inflorescences, smaller white corollas, and fewer stamens. The species is only known from three collections in the Andean forests of Morona-Santiago Province in southern Ecuador.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vivek Srinivas,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize canine parvovirus circulating in Southern India by genetic analysis of VP2 capsid protein gene.Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 samples were collected from nine different locations covering five Southern Indian states (Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . Out of 128 samples, 69 samples were found to be positive by PCR assay. Out of 69 positive samples, 36 were randomly selected and processed for virus isolation. Twenty viruses could be isolated successfully and 18 randomly selected isolate were subjected to VP2 gene sequence analysis along with 6 random clinical samples.Result: Seventeen isolates and 5 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala. But one isolate and one clinical sample had amino acids variations which were characteristics of New CPV-2b. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2b strains of India; rest other sequences was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a reference strains of Japan, China, Thailand and India.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the predominant CPV strain circulating in Southern India is New CPV-2a. There is also enough indication of New CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India.

  18. Virginia and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details Virginia's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations support SREB's core operations and general…

  19. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, January 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from July 2012 through December 2013. The nation's first regional interstate compact for education, SREB is today the most comprehensive, bringing together states to enable them to achieve…

  20. Southern Regional Education Board: Serving Community Colleges in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan regional compact focused on critical issues with strong potential to improve quality of life by advancing public education. Designed primarily for legislators and other policymakers and policyshapers, SREB's research is policy-oriented, descriptive, and centered on statewide…

  1. Texas and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details Texas' participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations from member states support core operations and general…

  2. Florida and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Florida's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  3. Alabama and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Alabama's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  4. Louisiana and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Louisiana's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  5. Delaware and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Delaware's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  6. North Carolina and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details North Carolina's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array…

  7. Tennessee and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details Tennessee's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations…

  8. Kentucky and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Kentucky's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  9. Oklahoma and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details Oklahoma's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  10. Southern Regional Education Board Final Legislative Report. 2010 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) follows education budgets and legislation during regular and special legislative sessions. Current actions are found in Legislative Reports that are released on a timely basis during the months that SREB state legislatures are in session, usually from January through July. These reports follow education…

  11. South Carolina and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details South Carolina's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core…

  12. Maryland and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Maryland's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  13. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from December 2013 through November 2014. SREB serves a wide range of education policy leaders, including governors, state legislators, executive and legislative staff, and K-12 and postsecondary agency…

  14. A new species of Fernandezina (Araneae, Palpimanidae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ott

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Fernandezina Birabén, 1951, F. nica sp. nov. is described from Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. Fernandezina pulchra Birabén, 1951, is registered for Brazil and a new geographic record in Brazil is presented for F. pelta Platnick, 1975.

  15. Southern Accrediting Agency Takes a Closer Look at College Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Debra E.

    1995-01-01

    The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools' recommendation that the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill place the athletics program solidly in the control of the university, rather than the booster organization, signaled the accrediting agency's willingness to crack down on college sports programs. (MSE)

  16. The distribution of Monechma (Acanthaceae species in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Munday

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of 19 species of Monechma in southern Africa is given and the manner in which their occurrence is related to rainfall is discussed. The possibility of a centre of speciation lying in south-west Namibia/South West Africa is considered.

  17. Acateco de la Frontera Sur (Acateco of the Southern Border).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Roberto Zavala

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Acatec, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken along Mexico's southern border. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the linguistic…

  18. Economic Structure, Productivity, and Infrastructure Quality in Southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Deichmann, Uwe; Fay, Marianne; Koo, Jun; Lall, Somik V.

    2002-01-01

    There are large and sustained differences in the economic performance of sub-national regions in most countries. The authors examine the economic structure and productivity in Southern Mexico and compare it with the rest of the country. The authors use firm level data from Mexican manufacturing to test the relative importance of firm level characteristics (such as human capital and technol...

  19. Integration Strategy for the Southern Cone Gas Networks

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Experts from the governments of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay, who participated in this strategic study for the Southern Cone Gas Pipeline Networks, combined their efforts to identify a shared energy alternative which would help boost the development of natural gas in the sub region, and, thus, its sustainable economic development. This study was developed i...

  20. Identification of major blast resistance genes in the southern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance (R) genes in rice play important roles in preventing infections of rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. In order to identify more R genes for different rice growing areas in the Southern US, an extensive field survey of the blast fungus was performed from 2012 to 2013. A total of 500 is...

  1. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  2. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Laurent, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The Early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene fluvio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which corre...

  3. Challenging School Leadership in Thailand's Southern Border Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxcy, Brendan D.; Sungtong, Ekkarin; Nguyen, Thu Su'o'ng Thi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the challenges facing public school leadership in southern Thailand, a region destabilized by renewal of a longstanding insurgency. Seeking to implement national educational reforms on shifting social, political and cultural terrain, educators in this region face extraordinary challenges as they reconsider and renegotiate…

  4. 76 FR 46722 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act. The... teleconference by calling the conference bridge number at 1-877-855-4797 and authorization code 6540381V...

  5. Reconstruction in the Southern United States: A Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressly, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Compares post-emancipation societies in Haiti, Jamaica, Russia, the southern United States, Cuba, Brazil, and Zaria, relative to the acquisition of land by former slaves. Suggests that this information might provide a comparative perspective for instruction about the efforts of Blacks and Whites after abolition. (KO)

  6. Self-harm and self-poisoning in southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anuradha; Sandal Sejbaek, Camilla; Suganthy, Pearline;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To record cases of suicide and attempted suicide among a population of 108 000 people living in a primarily rural area of southern India, with the aim of guiding policies and strategies to restrict access to poisonous compounds at community level. METHOD: Community-based surveillance...

  7. Climate science: Southern Ocean freshened by sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym, Ted

    2016-09-01

    The Southern Ocean has become less salty during the past few decades. An analysis of sea-ice transport in the ocean suggests that this phenomenon can be explained by coupled changes in sea-ice drift and thickness. See Letter p.89

  8. Marketing in Southern Ghana: towards a planning typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Dunham (David)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractThere are a number of strong historical and practical grounds for a regional planner operating in Southern Ghana to study marketing structures. The recent history of the area confirms an important axiom of regional theory, namely that the organisation of marketing has a considerable infl

  9. Southern Ocean warming delayed by circumpolar upwelling and equatorward transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kyle C.; Marshall, John; Scott, Jeffery R.; Donohoe, Aaron; Newsom, Emily R.

    2016-07-01

    The Southern Ocean has shown little warming over recent decades, in stark contrast to the rapid warming observed in the Arctic. Along the northern flank of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, however, the upper ocean has warmed substantially. Here we present analyses of oceanographic observations and general circulation model simulations showing that these patterns--of delayed warming south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and enhanced warming to the north--are fundamentally shaped by the Southern Ocean's meridional overturning circulation: wind-driven upwelling of unmodified water from depth damps warming around Antarctica; greenhouse gas-induced surface heat uptake is largely balanced by anomalous northward heat transport associated with the equatorward flow of surface waters; and heat is preferentially stored where surface waters are subducted to the north. Further, these processes are primarily due to passive advection of the anomalous warming signal by climatological ocean currents; changes in ocean circulation are secondary. These findings suggest the Southern Ocean responds to greenhouse gas forcing on the centennial, or longer, timescale over which the deep ocean waters that are upwelled to the surface are warmed themselves. It is against this background of gradual warming that multidecadal Southern Ocean temperature trends must be understood.

  10. Brief Analysis of E-business in China Southern Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航; 崔涛; 焦斌

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of internet is causing another industrial revolution. Developing E-business is necessary for Chinese airlines to keep their competitive advantages. It is quite urgent for China Southern Airlines to enlarge and improve its E-business strategies so that it can consolidate its leading position in this market segment.

  11. 'Fishing' for Alternatives to Mountaintop Mining in Southern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal mining (MTR) is a major industry in southern West Virginia with many detrimental effects for small to mid-sized streams, and interest in alternative, sustainable industries is on the rise. As a first step in a larger effort to assess the value of sport fisheri...

  12. Intention for Healthy Eating among Southern Appalachian Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…

  13. The Southern Tyrrhenian subduction system. Recent evolution and neotectonic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argnani, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna (Italy). Ist. per la Geologia Marina

    2000-06-01

    Geological and geophysical data have been integrated with the aim of presenting a new evolutionary model for the Southern Tyrrhenian (Mediterranean Sea) and adjacent regions. The Southern Tyrrhenian back arc basin opened within a plate convergence regime because of sinking slab was torn apart on either side in the last 2 Ma and this process controlled the neotectonic of the Southern Apennines - Tyrrhenian region. On the north-eastern side the slab broke off from NW to SE and this process triggered volcanism and NW-SE extension along the Eastern Tyrrhenian margin, and strike-slip tectonics along NW-SE trending faults in Northern Calabria (Italy). On the south-western side the slab broke off from W to E along the Aeolian Island alignment, although the tear has currently been reoriented along the favouring the NNW-SSE Malta escarpment. During its sinking the subducted slab also detected from the overriding plate, favouring the wedging of the asthenosphere between the two plates and the regional uplift of the Calabrian arc and surroundings. This regional uplift promoted gravitational instability within the orogenic wedge, particularly towards low topography areas; the large-scale sliding of the Calabrian arc towards the Ionian basin can be the Apennines can be related to accommodation of vertical motions within the fold-nd-thrust belt. The pattern of responsible for extensional earthquakes in Calabria and the Southern Apennines, whereas Africa plate convergence can account for compressional earthquakes in Sicily.

  14. THE OSSETS IN THE SOUTHERN CAUCASUS: NATIVES OR NEWCOMERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Bubenok, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a look at the formation of the Ossetian ethnos in the Southern Caucasus. The author attempts to analyze the different approaches to this issue, particularly those relating to the ethnogenesis and identification of the Ossets, and to coordinate these processes with possible ways to settle the South Osset-Georgian ethnopolitical conflict.

  15. Towards an effective commons governance system in Southern Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapologang Magole

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This special feature presents several papers generated under the EU-funded ‘Cross Sectoral Commons Governance in Southern Africa’ (CROSCOG project. The feature builds on knowledge generated in case studies which explored existing integrated resource knowledge and governance practices of rural people living in Southern African commons. In earlier generations, especially during the pre-colonial periods, most Southern African societies developed quite effective indigenous institutions for the management of entire landscapes and their component ecosystems, when this was in their interest. Few of these integrated Southern African systems are effective today as they have gone through massive changes, for example due to colonial influences, the increased role of the market and/or conflicts over use and access to natural resources. Meanwhile, most efforts to rebuild or affirm (the management of the commons through various initiatives, have been specific to certain resources or localised areas. Conversely, the smaller number of ecosystem-wide land use planning initiatives that sought to enhance overall environmental health have been dominated by technical, anti-political approaches that failed to understood the differential roles of resources in the spectrum of local livelihoods, and failed to achieve the required broader reinforcement of local governance. This introduction and the papers it introduces explore opportunities and challenges with respect to integrating scale – landscapes, ecosystems, and governing systems – into the local commons.

  16. A new species of Thelypteris (Thelypteridaceae) from southern Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Fernando B.; Smith, Alan R.; Labiak, Paulo H.

    2010-01-01

    A new species, Thelypteris beckeriana (Thelypteridaceae), is here described. It belongs to subgenus Goniopteris because of the presence of forked and stellate hairs on some parts of its blades. It is a narrow endemic to the Atlantic Rain Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. A complete description, illustrations, and comparisons with the most similar species are provided.

  17. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the southern part of denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens K; Svendsen, Anders J; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the southern part of Denmark. Using a screening questionnaire, telephone interview, register data, and a clinical examination cases were ascertained from a random sample of 4995 individuals over the age of 15...

  18. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKay, R.; Naish, T.; Carter, L.; Riesselman, C.; Dunbar, R.; Sjunneskog, C.; Winter, D.; Sangiorgi, F.; Warren, C.; Pagani, M.; Schouten, S.; Willmott, V.; Levy, R.; DeConto , R.M.; Powell, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL AND-1

  19. The gelechiid fauna of the southern Ural Mountains, part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junnilainen, Jari; Karsholt, Ole; Nupponen, Kari;

    2010-01-01

    A list comprising 236 species in the family Gelechiidae from the southern Ural Mountains is presented. The material was collected during 1996–2007 on 21 different Finnish-Russian expeditions. The following new combinations are proposed: Caulastrocecis interstratella (Christoph, 1873) comb. n., Me...

  20. History of ‘swine fever’ in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The histories of the two swine fevers in southern Africa differ widely. Classical swine fever (hog cholera has been known in the northern hemisphere since 1830 and it is probable that early cases of ‘swine fever’ in European settlers’ pigs in southern Africa were accepted to be that disease. It was only in 1921 that the first description of African swine fever as an entity different from classical swine fever was published after the disease had been studied in settlers’ pigs in Kenya. Shortly after that, reports of African swine fever in settlers’ pigs emerged from South Africa and Angola. In South Africa, the report related to pigs in the north-eastern part of the country. Previously (in 1905 or earlier a disease assumed to be classical swine fever caused high mortality among pigs in the Western Cape and was only eradicated in 1918. African swine fever was found over the following years to be endemic in most southern African countries. Classical swine fever, however, apart from an introduction with subsequent endemic establishment in Madagascar and a number of introductions into Mauritius, the last one in 2000, had apparently remained absent from the region until it was diagnosed in the Western and subsequently the Eastern Cape of South Africa in 2005. It was eradicated by 2007. The history of these diseases in the southern African region demonstrates their importance and their potential for spread over long distances, emphasising the need for improved management of both diseases wherever they occur.

  1. 75 FR 61835 - Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written Assignment of Trackage Rights and Other Joint Facility Agreements (Trackage Agreement) dated September 16, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has...

  2. SRKW seasonal occurence - Patterns of seasonal occurrence of Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of seasonal occurrence of Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) throughout their range. Southern Resident Killer Whales are listed as a Distinct...

  3. 77 FR 50712 - Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... local sharing networks that structure contemporary subsistence-cash economies using research methods... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence... in Alaska, ``Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study.'' DATES: Submit written...

  4. Nuances and nuisances : crop production intensification options for smallholder farming systems of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinamhodzi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: crop production, intensification, extensification, farming systems, tradeoff analysis, maize, legume, manure, fertiliser, southern Africa Soil fertility decline and erratic rainfall are major constraints to crop productivity on smallholder farms in southern Africa. Crop

  5. The Southern Tyrrhenian subduction system: recent evolution and neotectonic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Argnani

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Geological and geophysical data have been integrated with the aim of presenting a new evolutionary model for the Southern Tyrrhenian and adjacent regions. The Southern Tyrrhenian backarc basin opened within a plate convergence regime because of sinking and rollback of the oceanic Ionian lithosphere. On the basis of seismological observations, I infer that the sinking slab was torn apart on either side in the last 2 Ma and this process controlled the neotectonics of the Southern Apennines - Tyrrhenian region. On the north-eastern side the slab broke off from NW to SE and this process triggered volcanism and NW-SE extension along the Eastern Tyrrhenian margin, and strike-slip tectonics along NW-SE trending faults in Northern Calabria. On the south-western side the slab broke off from W to E along the Aeolian Island alignment, although the tear has currently been reoriented along the NNW-SSE Malta escarpment. During its sinking the subducted slab also detached from the overriding plate, favouring the wedging of the asthenosphere between the two plates and the regional uplift of the Calabrian arc and surroundings. This regional uplift promoted gravitational instability within the orogenic wedge, particularly towards low topography areas; the large-scale sliding of the Calabrian arc towards the Ionian basin can be the cause of CW rotation and graben formation in Calabria. Also the E-dipping extensional faults of the Southern Apennines can be related to accommodation of vertical motions within the fold-and-thrust belt. The pattern of recent seismicity reflects this neotectonics where crustal-scale gravity deformation within the orogenic wedge is responsible for extensional earthquakes in Calabria and the Southern Apennines, whereas Africa plate convergence can account for compressional earthquakes in Sicily.

  6. Insecticide resistance status in Anopheles gambiae in southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbel Vincent

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae has become a serious concern to the future success of malaria control. In Benin, the National Malaria Control Programme has recently planned to scaling up long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS for malaria prevention. It is, therefore, crucial to monitor the level and type of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae, particularly in southern Benin where reduced efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and IRS has previously been reported. Methods The protocol was based on mosquito collection during both dry and rainy seasons across forty districts selected in southern Benin. Bioassay were performed on adults collected from the field to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticide-impregnated papers (permethrin 0.75%, delthamethrin 0.05%, DDT 4%, and bendiocarb 0.1% following WHOPES guidelines. The species within An. gambiae complex, molecular form and presence of kdr and ace-1 mutations were determined by PCR. Results Strong resistance to permethrin and DDT was found in An. gambiae populations from southern Benin, except in Aglangandan where mosquitoes were fully susceptible (mortality 100% to all insecticides tested. PCR showed the presence of two sub-species of An. gambiae, namely An. gambiae s.s, and Anopheles melas, with a predominance for An. gambiae s.s (98%. The molecular M form of An. gambiae was predominant in southern Benin (97%. The kdr mutation was detected in all districts at various frequency (1% to 95% whereas the Ace-1 mutation was found at a very low frequency (≤ 5%. Conclusion This study showed a widespread resistance to permethrin in An. gambiae populations from southern Benin, with a significant increase of kdr frequency compared to what was observed previously in Benin. The low frequency of Ace-1 recorded in all populations is encouraging for the use of bendiocarb as an alternative insecticide to

  7. Microwave remote sensing of the Southern Ocean ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Grenfell, Thomas C.; Lange, Manfred; Lohanick, Alan W.; Moore, Richard K.; Wadhams, Peter

    The Southern Ocean sea ice cover grows dramatically to about 20 × 106 km2 in the spring and breaks up abruptly to about 4 × 106 km2 in the summer (e.g., Zwally et al. [1983b]). This makes it one of the most seasonally variable climate parameters on the surface of the globe. Compared to the Northern Hemisphere, the ice cover in the Southern Ocean is about 20% greater at its maximum extent [Comiso and Zwally, 1984; Gloersen and Campbell, 1988]. By virtue of its size alone, the impact of the Southern Ocean ice cover on the regional and global climate can be considerable, since sea ice drastically changes surface albedo and roughness and insulates the ocean from the atmosphere. Seasonal and interannual variations in the spatial distribution of sea ice also cause the redistribution of salts, which, in turn, cause changes in the vertical stratification of the ocean. Compared to the Arctic, the environmental geographical background for sea ice in the Antarctic is also very different. Land surrounds most of the southern limits of the Arctic ice cover, whereas in the Antarctic, there is no corresponding land boundary in the north. The Southern Ocean ice cover is more divergent since it is more vulnerable to dynamic forcing than its Arctic counterpart. Accurate estimation of the percentage of open water is important because heat and salinity fluxes increase considerably even with just small increases in the fraction of open water or new ice [Maykut, 1978; Allison, 1981]. These fluxes are, in turn, closely linked with bottom water formation, ocean circulation, and momentum exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere. Oceanic heat flux is also believed to be a major determinant of ice growth rate [Bagriantsev et. al., 1989].

  8. Mechanisms for the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils of southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jin-Bo; Cai, Zu-cong; Zhu, Tong-bin; Yang, Wen-Yan; Müller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils in southern China are not well understood. Here, we simultaneously quantified the gross N transformation rates of various subtropical acidic forest soils located in southern China (southern soil) and those of temperate forest soils located in northern China (northern soil). We found that acidic southern soils had significantly higher gross rates of N mineralization and significantly higher turnover rates but a much ...

  9. 77 FR 41975 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky 42301, filed...

  10. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  11. 78 FR 68835 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on October 31, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  12. 78 FR 25264 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  13. 78 FR 53746 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 13, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  14. 77 FR 14517 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2012 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56,...

  15. 78 FR 13663 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 11, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, P.O. Box...

  16. 75 FR 8053 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization February 16, 2010. Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...

  17. SOTER-based soil parameter estimates for Southern Africa (ver. 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2004-01-01

    This harmonized set of soil parameter estimates for Southern Africa has been derived from the 1:2M scale Soil and Terrain Database for Southern Africa (SOTERSAF ver. 1.0) and ISRIC-WISE soil profile database. The land surface of Southern Africa has been characterized using 4022 unique SOTER units, c

  18. 77 FR 31004 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 9, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite....210 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA),...

  19. 76 FR 18216 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on March 16, 2011, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), Post Office Box 2563... and 157.216 of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended, to abandon...

  20. 77 FR 24483 - Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 5, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C. (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209, filed an application, pursuant to Section 7(b) of the Natural Gas...

  1. 40 CFR 81.99 - New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.99 New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Arizona-New Mexico Southern Border Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed...

  2. Southern images - RGP gmap98 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us RGP gmap98 Southern image...s Data detail Data name Southern images Description of data contents Parental South...te History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Southern images - RGP gmap98 | LSDB Archive ...

  3. Assessing the dust generation potential of soils/sediments in Southern Kalahari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Kalahari encompasses one of the largest drylands and sand seas in the southern hemisphere, and has potential to become a large source of atmospheric dust in the relatively low-dust southern hemisphere. It has been observed that in the southern Kalahari dunes are being reactivated as a result of ...

  4. Crustal Boundaries in the Southern MidContinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. C.

    2006-12-01

    Four crustal boundaries appear to intersect in the area of southern Oklahoma and north-central Texas. These span the period 1.4Ga to 300Ma. Thus part of the EarthScope effort should be focussed on following these boundaries from where they are more simply displayed and known toward the area of intersection with the attempt to decipher how the lithosphere was created or modified during these 4 events. These events have effectively defined the southern boundary (in today's coordinates) of Laurentia and the North American Plate. The oldest of these events is a compressive plate margin recorded in geochemistry of the Arbuckle basement 3.9 to 3.7Ga by Lidiak and colleagues. This boundary marks the southern terminus of the Granite-Rhyolite Terrane, but does not seem widely appreciated. The next oldest of these events is the Grenville Suture (Llano Front) of west Texas whose age is ~1.0Ga. This suture marks the joining of the Texas Craton to Laurentia but it has not been well tracked to the intersection area. The next youngest event is the rifting represented by the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, which marks the departure of part of the Texas Craton to the present Precordillera of Argentina. This rifting event created the Paleozoic southern margin of North America, and now seems to be fairly well-defined at 540-525Ma, with the age of the Mount Scott Granite at 534 +/- 1.5Ma from Hogan, Wright, and Gilbert, as a specific tie point. The last event is the Ouachita closure at 350-300Ma. Crustal structure of the eastern part of this boundary is perhaps best known through the work of COCORP and Keller and associates. Although work has been done on each of these boundaries to the sides of the intersection area, the crustal structure and lithosphere of the intersection area itself has not been well studied. The upper crust of the area is known extremely well because of its famous petroleum potential, but the lower crust and upper mantle have been largely ignored. A crustal model

  5. The 2007 southern California wildfires: Lessons in complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Safford, H.; Fotheringham, C.J.; Franklin, J.; Moritz, M.

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 wildfire season in southern California burned over 1,000,000 ac (400,000 ha) and included several megafires. We use the 2007 fires as a case study to draw three major lessons about wildfires and wildfire complexity in southern California. First, the great majority of large fires in southern California occur in the autumn under the influence of Santa Ana windstorms. These fires also cost the most to contain and cause the most damage to life and property, and the October 2007 fires were no exception because thousands of homes were lost and seven people were killed. Being pushed by wind gusts over 100 kph, young fuels presented little barrier to their spread as the 2007 fires reburned considerable portions of the area burned in the historic 2003 fire season. Adding to the size of these fires was the historic 2006-2007 drought that contributed to high dead fuel loads and long distance spotting. As in 2003, young chaparral stands and fuel treatments were not reliable barriers to fire in October 2007. Second, the Zaca Fire in July and August 2007 showed that other factors besides high winds can sometimes combine to create conditions for large fires in southern California. Spring and summer fires in southern California chaparral are usually easily contained because of higher fuel moisture and the general lack of high winds. However, the Zaca Fire burned in a remote wilderness area of rugged terrain that made access difficult. In addition, because of its remoteness, anthropogenic ignitions have been low and stand age and fuel loads were high. Coupled with this was severe drought that year that generated fuel moisture levels considerably below normal for early summer. A third lesson comes from 2007 conifer forest fires in the southern California mountains. In contrast to lower elevation chaparral, fire suppression has led to major increases in conifer forest fuels that can lead to unnaturally severe fires when ignitions escape control. The Slide and Grass Valley

  6. Crustal Seismicity and Recent Faults in Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C.; Comte, D.; Tavera, H.; Audin, L.; Herail, G.

    2004-12-01

    Most seismological studies in southern Peru have been focused on the downgoing slab seismicity in order to constrain the Wadati-Benioff zone. This study deals with the intra-continental seismicity of the southern Peru forearc (17,3° S - 18,5° S) in a post-seismic context (Arequipa thrust earthquake, Mw=8.4, 23 June, 2001). It is difficult to identify historical crustal earthquake from available catalogues, however some crustal events teleseismically recorded can be found since 1976; they exhibit normal focal mechanism solutions in the southern Peru volcanic arc and inverse focal mechanism solutions in the Central Depression. Following a notable increase of shallow crustal seismicity located close to the Western Cordillera after the 23 June 2001, a temporary seismic network was deployed between January and March 2003 in order to study the Wadati-Benioff zone and monitoring the crustal seismicity in southern Peru. From the about 1700 events locally recorded by the local network, 300 crustal earthquakes were identified in the Peruvian forearc between Tacna and Moquegua. This crustal seismicity is distributed along a lineament located at depths between 0 and 60 km, dipping at about 45° from the Western Cordillera towards the coast, almost perpendicular to the subducting slab; this behaviour was previously observed in northern Chile and in southern Peru, north of the study zone (16° S). In the Central Depression, seismic activity is not superficial occurring between 25-60 km depth and it is mostly characterized by inverse focal mechanism solutions. Superficial faults situated in the Central Depression and in the Coastal Cordillera can not be associated with the seismic activity observed in this area. However, in the Pre-Cordillera, crustal seismicity occurs at depths between 0-15 km and can be correlated with shallow fault systems recognized by satellite images and on the field. For examples, the Incapuquio fault system which was a transpressive system in Cretaceous

  7. Birth of two volcanic islands in the southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin

    2015-05-26

    Submarine eruptions that lead to the formation of new volcanic islands are rare and far from being fully understood; only a few such eruptions have been witnessed since Surtsey Island emerged to the south of Iceland in the 1960s. Here we report on two new volcanic islands that were formed in the Zubair archipelago of the southern Red Sea in 2011–2013. Using high-resolution optical satellite images, we find that the new islands grew rapidly during their initial eruptive phases and that coastal erosion significantly modified their shapes within months. Satellite radar data indicate that two north–south-oriented dykes, much longer than the small islands might suggest, fed the eruptions. These events occurred contemporaneously with several local earthquake swarms of the type that typically accompany magma intrusions. Earthquake activity has been affecting the southern Red Sea for decades, suggesting the presence of a magmatically active zone that has previously escaped notice.

  8. Modulation of the Southern Hemisphere climate by solar radiation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Steven; Lenton, Andrew; Rotstayn, Leon; Gupta, Alex Sen; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Tilmes, Simone

    2015-04-01

    Geoengineering is increasingly being considered as a means to lessen the climatic impacts of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. However, it is not without significant risks of its own. In this study, we investigate the response of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) climate to solar radiation management (SRM) using Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project experiments G3 and G3solar. We find that the response to SRM is characterized by a contraction of the Hadley Cell and subtropical dry zones. This is accompanied by a shift towards a less positive state of the Southern Annular Mode and a northward shift of the SH westerly winds, mitigating the trends under projected future anthropogenic forcing. These changes result in an increase in precipitation minus evaporation in the SH subtropics, suggesting that SRM may be effective at counteracting the anthropogenically-driven drying trend in this region. However, any beneficial impacts cease abruptly as soon as geoengineering is terminated.

  9. Will krill fare well under Southern Ocean acidification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, So; Kurihara, Haruko; King, Robert; Hale, Lillian; Berli, Thomas; Robinson, James P.; Ishida, Akio; Wakita, Masahide; Virtue, Patti; Nicol, Stephen; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Antarctic krill embryos and larvae were experimentally exposed to 380 (control), 1000 and 2000 µatm pCO2 in order to assess the possible impact of ocean acidification on early development of krill. No significant effects were detected on embryonic development or larval behaviour at 1000 µatm pCO2; however, at 2000 µatm pCO2 development was disrupted before gastrulation in 90 per cent of embryos, and no larvae hatched successfully. Our model projections demonstrated that Southern Ocean sea water pCO2 could rise up to 1400 µatm in krill's depth range under the IPCC IS92a scenario by the year 2100 (atmospheric pCO2 788 µatm). These results point out the urgent need for understanding the pCO2-response relationship for krill developmental and later stages, in order to predict the possible fate of this key species in the Southern Ocean. PMID:20943680

  10. Two new species of Nemesia (Scrophulariaceae from southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Steiner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new annual species of Nemesia Vent, are described from southern Africa. N. williamsonii is characterized by bright orange flowers with an inflated yellow palate. It differs from the related N. maxii Hiern by having a spur that projects backwards, not downwards, and bracts that are lanceolate with a truncate base, not triangular or cordate. It is unusual for the genus in having dimorphic seeds.  N. williamsonii occurs almost exclusively in the Richtersveld. but has been collected in a few localities across the Orange River in southern Namibia. N. hemiptera is a delicate, wiry-stemmed annual with small white flowers. The flowers are characterized by a tiny nipple-like spur and a seed that is winged on onlv one side. N. hemiptera isendemic to the Kamiesberg from near Garies to Kamieskroon.

  11. Serological Survey of Canine Leptospirosis in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayou Shi1§, Mingchao Liu§, Shining Guo1, Shenquan Liao2, Mingfei Sun2, Jianzhu Liu*, Lin Wang, Zhenyong Wang, Shujing Wang, Dubao Yang and Tongjie Chai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study conducts a serological survey on the presence of canine leptospirosis in domestic dogs using ELISA kit. A total of 314 household dogs (168 females and 146 males in Chongqing, Kunming, Nanchang, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Shenzheng, and Nanning in Southern China were examined. Of the 314 dogs, 23 (7.3% were seropositive for leptospirosis. No statistically significant difference was observed in terms of sex and age in the seroprevalence of leptospirosis, but statistically significant differences were observed among different regional groups in the seroprevalence of leptospirosis (P<0.05. The results of this survey indicate that the control and treatment of leptospirosis have been effective in some cities of Southern China. However, further implementation of integrated strategies is necessary to prevent and control leptospirosis in dogs.

  12. The Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey - Data Release 1

    CERN Document Server

    Braiding, Catherine; Blackwell, Rebecca; Glueck, Christian; Hawkes, Jarryd; Kulesa, Craig; Maxted, Nigel; Rebolledo, David; Rowell, Gavin; Stark, Tony; Tothill, Nick; Urquhart, James S; Voisin, Fabien; Walsh, Andrew J; de Wilt, Phoebe C; Wong, Graeme F

    2015-01-01

    We present observations of the first ten degrees of longitude in the Mopra carbon monoxide (CO) survey of the southern Galactic plane (Burton et al. 2013), covering Galactic longitude l = 320-330{\\deg} and latitude b = $\\pm$0.5{\\deg}, and l = 327-330{\\deg}, b = +0.5-1.0{\\deg}. These data have been taken at 35 arc sec spatial resolution and 0.1 km/s spectral resolution, providing an unprecedented view of the molecular clouds and gas of the southern Galactic plane in the 109-115 GHz J = 1-0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, C18O and C17O. Together with information about the noise statistics from the Mopra telescope, these data can be retrieved from the Mopra CO website and the CSIRO-ATNF data archive.

  13. On the lack of southern hemisphere polar mesosphere summer echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsley, B. B.; Woodman, R. F.; Sarango, M.; RodríGuez, R.; Urbina, J.; Ragaini, E.; Carey, J.; Huaman, M.; Giraldez, A.

    1995-06-01

    We report VHF radar observations of the southern high-latitude mesopause region using wind profilers that were installed recently on King George Island, Antarctica, and Ushuaia, Argentina. Briefly, our observations, which were made during January and February 1993, show almost no evidence of so-called polar mesosphere summer echoes, or PMSE. Since these echoes are a predominant feature of the northern high-latitude mesosphere in summer, their absence in the southern hemisphere is both surprising and intriguing. In this paper we present evidence demonstrating the virtual absence of the echoes and demonstrate that our systems were capable of detecting them had they been present. We also outline some of the consequences of this intriguing result, which are supported by observed hemispheric differences in polar mesospheric clouds, mesospheric temperatures, upper atmospheric gravity wave activity, and mean circulation patterns.

  14. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hodges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of many communities for increasing supplies. We find that using water bags to transport fresh water between northern and southern California is in some instances a low-cost alternative to desalination. The choice is constrained, however, by concerns about reliability and, thus, risk. Case-study results demonstrate the challenges of water supply augmentation in water-constrained regions.

  15. Human Leukocyte Antigen Diversity: A Southern African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mqondisi Tshabalala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasingly well-documented evidence of high genetic, ethnic, and linguistic diversity amongst African populations, there is limited data on human leukocyte antigen (HLA diversity in these populations. HLA is part of the host defense mechanism mediated through antigen presentation to effector cells of the immune system. With the high disease burden in southern Africa, HLA diversity data is increasingly important in the design of population-specific vaccines and the improvement of transplantation therapeutic interventions. This review highlights the paucity of HLA diversity data amongst southern African populations and defines a need for information of this kind. This information will support disease association studies, provide guidance in vaccine design, and improve transplantation outcomes.

  16. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    in field density. Locally, this implied a reduction of fallowing length and the incorporation of marginal lands. The almost complete removal of natural (i.e. protecting) vegetation over large and continuous areas, results in increased wind erosion and partial crop failure. While production extended...... like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition. In the early 1970s, the Bolivian government introduced the first tractors to southern Bolivia’s Salar region...... with the intention to push agricultural development – with obvious success. The cultivation of quinoa is today the most important land use, with a continued increase in production volume and areal extent. We here trace back land-use changes from 1972 to 2013 in one of the most important areas of quinoa production...

  17. Origin of Quaternary Red Clay of Southern Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXUEFENG; YUANGUODONG; 等

    1998-01-01

    The particle-size distribution,heavy mineral constituents and rare earth elements(REE) characteristics of the Quaternary red clay of southern Anhui Province were studied to explore the origin of the clay.The results showed that the clay had some properties of areolian deposits,which could be compared with,those of the loess in North China ;and its chondrite-normalized curves of REE were similar to those of the Xiashu loess implying tha they shared the same orighin.It was concluded in combination with the results rported by other researchers that the Quaternary red clay of southern Anhui Province originated from aolian deposts, and this could reveal the cycles of warm and cold climates in the area during the Quaternary period.

  18. Interannual variability of the southern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敦欣; 王庆业

    2004-01-01

    Temperature data collected in the sections of 34°N, 35°N and 36°N in August from 1975 through2003 were analyzed using Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) to investigate interannual variability of the southern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). The first mode (EOF1) reveals variations of basin-wide thermocline depth, which is mainly caused by surface heating. The second mode (EOF2) presents fluctuations of vertical circulation, resulting mainly from interannual variability of cold front intensity. In addition, it is found that the upward extent of upwelling in the cold front is basically determined by wind stress curl and the zonal position of the warm water center in the southern Yellow Sea is correlated with spatial difference of net heat flux.

  19. Quantifying mass balance processes on the Southern Patagonia Icefield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, M.; Machguth, Horst; Falvey, M.;

    2014-01-01

    We present surface mass balance simulations of the Southern Patagonia Icefield driven by downscaled reanalysis data. The simulations were validated and interpreted using geodetic mass balances, measured point balances and a complete velocity field of 5 the Icefield from spring 2004. The high...... measured accumulation of snow as well as the high measured ablation is reproduced by the model. The overall modeled surface mass balance was positive and increasing during 1975–2011. Subtracting the surface mass balance from geodetic balances, calving fluxes were inferred. Mass losses of the SPI due to...... spatially distributed accumulation measurements can help to reduce the uncertainties of the different terms in the mass balance of the Southern Patagonia Icefield....

  20. Dendroclimatic reconstruction of summer temperatures in Southern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Horia HOLOBÂCĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A significant summer temperature warming trend and little or no change in precipitation variation have been observed in the southern part of the Carpathians after 1980. In this paper we seek to find similar past climatic conditions using a dendroclimatic reconstruction of summer temperatures. Regional dendroclimatic reconstruction has been conducted in four different massifs (Bucegi, Piatra Craiului, Făgăraş and Parâng Massifs belonging to the Southern Carpathians. The four sampling sites are located nearby the upper timberline, the forest stands being here dominated by Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L Karst. A tree-ring width (TRW chronology of P. abies has been used here to reconstruct summer temperatures back to the end of 19th century. Results indicate that during the considered period, the decadal periods characterized by cold summers alternate with those with warm summer temperatures

  1. Challenges and opportunities for Korean missionaries in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung H. Oh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history of missions in Korea as well as the challenges and opportunities for Korean missionaries in Southern Africa. The most significant problems encountered by Korean missionaries include understanding local context, language and culture acquisition, and meeting the expectations of local people and local churches as well as those of sending churches in Korea. On a personal level, missionaries have to cope with family concerns, maintaining their spiritual life, health problems, financial concerns, frustrations and unfulfilled ideals. Korean missionaries in Southern Africa do, however, have a unique opportunity to serve the Church in its mission and, above all, to serve the Lord of the Church in his mission, although there are indeed difficulties to overcome and challenges to face.

  2. Mission Applications of a HIAD for the Mars Southern Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winski, Richard; Bose, Dave; Komar, David R.; Samareh, Jamshid

    2013-01-01

    Recent discoveries of evidence of a flowing liquid in craters throughout the Mars Southern Highlands, like Terra Sirenum, have spurred interest in sending science missions to those locations; however, these locations are at elevations that are much higher (0 to +4 km MOLA) than any previous landing site (-1 to -4 km MOLA). New technologies may be needed to achieve a landing at these sites with significant payload mass to the surface. A promising technology is the hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD); a number of designs have been advanced but the stacked torus has been recently successfully flight tested in the IRVE-2 and IRVE-3 projects through the NASA Langley Research Center. This paper will focus on a variety of mission applications of the stacked torus type attached HIAD to the Mars southern highlands.

  3. Relating Cenozoic North Sea sediments to topography in southern Norway:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Stratford, Wanda Rose

    2010-01-01

    sources for progradational influx of clastic sediments from Scotland, the Shetland platform and, to a lesser degree, southwestern Norway. The Eocene sedimentation pattern was similar to the Palaeocene, with lower rates of accumulation associated with flooding and tectonic quiescence. Sediment influx from...... the Shetland platform continued throughout the Cenozoic while supply from southern Norway increased markedly around the Eocene–Oligocene, coeval with the greenhouse–icehouse transition. Mass balance calculations of sediment and eroded rock volumes suggest that while some topography along the western...... margin of Norway may be pre-Cenozoic, significant uplift of the main Paleic surface in southern Norway occurred around the early Oligocene. Sedimentation rates were almost ten-fold higher than the Cenozoic average in the Plio-Pleistocene, slightly higher than the global average. Mass balance calculations...

  4. Tuberculosis Treatment Completion Rates in Southern New Mexico Colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Maria Arroyo; Huttlinger, Kathleen; Schultz, Pamela; Mullins, Iris; Forster-Cox, Sue

    2016-04-01

    TB medication completion treatment rates for active TB patients living in impoverished US-Mexico border communities called colonias in southern New Mexico counties are unknown. It might be suspected that residents of colonias have lower completion rates than those living in incorporated and medically more accessible areas. A retrospective record review of closed TB case records from 1993 to 2010 of southern New Mexico border counties, was conducted using a modified version of the New Mexico Department of Health Tuberculosis Targeted Health Assessment/History form (Appendix 1). Study findings reveal that despite their unincorporated status, poorer living conditions and questionable legal status, colonia TB patients had a higher medication completion rate than their non-colonia counterparts. A robust New Mexico TB treatment program contributed to high completion rates with death being the number-one reason for treatment non-completion in both colonia and non-colonias.

  5. Literary consumption in indigenous languages: revitalization experiences from Southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Córdova Hernández

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes, from several ethnographic experiences in Southern Mexico, the way in which agents for language revitalization design the programs or projects of literacy in indigenous languages. From the field of revitalization, promotion of literacy is a prerequisite for the production and consumption of literature in these languages. Mainly, this article discusses the production of literary goods from the reading skills of potential consumers. In addition, it interrogates how literac...

  6. The Southern Uplands Terrane in Scotland : a notional controversy revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, P

    2014-01-01

    Development of a regional geological interpretation for the Southern Uplands Terrane has been driven historically by advances in graptolite biostratigraphy, sandstone petrography and turbidite sedimentology (particularly the recognition of reliable way-up criteria), then, more recently, by a growing appreciation of the nature of accretionary processes at active plate margins. The latter has led to the widely held view of the terrane as an archetypal fossil accretionary prism, built up by the ...

  7. Climatology of Aerosol Optical Properties in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queface, Antonio J.; Piketh, Stuart J.; Eck, Thomas F.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    A thorough regionally dependent understanding of optical properties of aerosols and their spatial and temporal distribution is required before we can accurately evaluate aerosol effects in the climate system. Long term measurements of aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent and retrieved single scattering albedo and size distribution, were analyzed and compiled into an aerosol optical properties climatology for southern Africa. Monitoring of aerosol parameters have been made by the AERONET program since the middle of the last decade in southern Africa. This valuable information provided an opportunity for understanding how aerosols of different types influence the regional radiation budget. Two long term sites, Mongu in Zambia and Skukuza in South Africa formed the core sources of data in this study. Results show that seasonal variation of aerosol optical thicknesses at 500 nm in southern Africa are characterized by low seasonal multi-month mean values (0.11 to 0.17) from December to May, medium values (0.20 to 0.27) between June and August, and high to very high values (0.30 to 0.46) during September to November. The spatial distribution of aerosol loadings shows that the north has high magnitudes than the south in the biomass burning season and the opposite in none biomass burning season. From the present aerosol data, no long term discernable trends are observable in aerosol concentrations in this region. This study also reveals that biomass burning aerosols contribute the bulk of the aerosol loading in August-October. Therefore if biomass burning could be controlled, southern Africa will experience a significant reduction in total atmospheric aerosol loading. In addition to that, aerosol volume size distribution is characterized by low concentrations in the non biomass burning period and well balanced particle size contributions of both coarse and fine modes. In contrast high concentrations are characteristic of biomass burning period, combined with

  8. Final report to DOE [Global guardianship initiative in southern Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this project is to establish models for community renewable energy deployment as a strategy for protected area management and an alternative to grid extension in developing countries in Latin America and Asia. Working together with the Nature Conservancy, the Center for Resource Solutions chose Southern Mexico and its 10 protected areas to launch this program. DOE funds supported Phase One activities: establishment of an advisory committee and selection of six to ten communities for renewable energy plans.

  9. Risk Assessment of Agricultural Drought Disaster in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Lan Wang; Jing Wang; Jin-Song Wang

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment of drought disaster is necessary for the sustained agriculture development under the background of global climate change, and, meanwhile, it is an urgent scientific issue needed to be solved in agricultural risk assessment discipline. In this paper, collecting the areas covered by drought disasters, areas affected by drought disasters, areas with no harvest by drought disasters, areas planted, and yield per unit area data, agricultural drought disasters losses of the southern ...

  10. Alluvial plain dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardo, U

    2015-01-01

    Alluvial plains are formed with sediments that rivers deposit on the adjacent flood-basin, mainly through crevasse splays and avulsions. These result from a combination of processes, some of which push the river towards the crevasse threshold, while others act as triggers. Based on the floodplain sedimentation patterns of large rivers in the southern Amazonian foreland basin, it has been suggested that alluvial plain sediment accumulation ...

  11. Serological prevalence of tularemia in cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Cooper, M

    1990-04-01

    Sera of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) collected in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984 were screened for the presence of antibodies against Francisella tularensis by rapid slide agglutination and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay techniques; 6% of 118 and 16% of 119 samples were positive by these methods, respectively. Rabbits gained, lost and maintained titers over at least an 8 mo period. Francisella tularensis tularensis was isolated from one serologically negative, clinically healthy rabbit. PMID:2338733

  12. Adoption of Improved Maize Seed Varieties in Southern Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson Kalinda; Gelson Tembo; Elias Kuntashula

    2014-01-01

    Maize is the principal agricultural crop produced by Zambian smallholder farmers for household consumption and sale. Their production strategy is therefore important in meeting food security and income needs. This study uses data collected from a survey of a random sample of farm households in southern Zambia to develop a Tobit regression model. The model identifies farm and farmer characteristics important for adoption of improved maize seed varieties as well as to determine the role of farm...

  13. Petroleum System Modelling of Onshore Mandawa Basin - Southern, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Maganza, Neema Ernest

    2014-01-01

    The Mandawa Basin is located along the coast in the southern part of Tanzania, and is potentially one of the most hydrocarbon prospective in the country, as it believed to contain all the essential petroleum system elements. Hydrocarbon exploration and drilling in the basin has been done since the 1950’s but, in spite of the considerable exploration and drilling activities that have been carried out, no economical discoveries have been made. Gas and oil shows in a few wells significantly...

  14. The Ertebølle Zooarchaeological Dataset from Southern Scandinavia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gron, Kurt; Robson, Harry Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Interdisciplinary archaeological research in southern Scandinavia has a long history of practice, beginning in the mid-19th century. In particular, research concerning the late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fisher Ertebølle culture (5400-3950 cal BC) has resulted in a large zooarchaeological dataset useable in large-scale comparative or meta-analyses. In this paper, we review this dataset, and the quantity and character of the data is described. We then address particularities of the published d...

  15. The Ertebølle Zooarchaeological Dataset from Southern Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Gron, Kurt s; Robson, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Interdisciplinary archaeological research in southern Scandinavia has a very long history of practice, starting in the mid-19th Century and continuing to the present. In particular, research concerning the late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fisher Ertebølle culture (5400-3950 cal BC) has resulted in a large zooarchaeological dataset potentially useable in large-scale comparative, or meta-analyses. In this paper, we review this dataset, and the quantity and character of the data is described. We ...

  16. Recent Extreme Marine Events at Southern Coast of Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Kirezci, Cagil; Baykal, Cuneyt; Gokhan Guler, Hasan; Erol, Onur; Zaytsev, Andrey; Kurkin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The utilization at the coastal areas of Black Sea basin has increased in the recent years with the projects such as large commercial ports, international transportation hubs, gas and petrol pipelines, touristic and recreational infrastructures both along surrounding shoreline. Although Black Sea is a closed basin, extreme storms and storm surges have also been observed with an increasing frequency in the recent years. Among those events, February 1999, March 2013 and September 2014 storms impacted Southern coast of Black sea have clearly shown that the increasing economic value at the coastal areas caused the increasing cost of damages and loss of property by natural hazards. The storm occurred on February 19-20, 1999 is one of the most destructive storm in the last decades. The 1999 event (1999 Southern Black sea storm) caused destruction at all harbors and coastal protection structures along the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The complete damage of the breakwater of Giresun Harbor and damage on the harbor structures and cargo handling equipment were the major impacts of the 1999 Southern Black sea storm. Similar coastal impact have also been observed during the September 24, 2014 storm at 500m East of Giresun harbor. Although there are considerable number of destructive storms observed at southern coast of Black sea recently, data on these events are limited and vastly scattered. In this study the list of recent extreme marine events at South coast of the Black sea compiled and related data such as wind speed, wave height, period, and type of damages are cataloged. Particular attention is focused on the 1999 and 2014 storm events. The meteorological and morphological characteristics which may be considered as the reasons of the generation and coastal amplification of these storms are discussed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This study is partly supported by Turkish Russian Joint Research Grant Program by TUBITAK (Turkey) and RFBR (Russia), and TUBITAK 213M534 Research Project.

  17. Foundering lithosphere imaged beneath the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Oliver S; Jones, Craig H; Sheehan, Anne F

    2004-07-30

    Seismic tomography reveals garnet-rich crust and mantle lithosphere descending into the upper mantle beneath the southeastern Sierra Nevada. The descending lithosphere consists of two layers: an iron-rich eclogite above a magnesium-rich garnet peridotite. These results place descending eclogite above and east of high P wave speed material previously imaged beneath the southern Great Valley, suggesting a previously unsuspected coherence in the lithospheric removal process.

  18. Dissolved manganese in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middag, R.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Laan, P.; Cai, P. H.; van Ooijen, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    The first comprehensive dataset (492 samples) of dissolved Mn in the Southern Ocean shows extremely low values of 0.04 up to 0.64 nM in the surface waters and a subsurface maximum with an average concentration of 0.31 nM (n=20; S.D.=0.08 nM). The low Mn in surface waters correlates well with the nut

  19. Ethnic Violence in Southern Thailand: the Anomaly of Satun

    OpenAIRE

    Conlon, Kevin T.

    2012-01-01

    This research uses a historical comparative analysis to investigate the differences between two specific Muslim-majority regions of Thailand the province of Satun, along the western coast of southern Thailand, and provinces of Yala, Narathiwat, Pattani, and Songkhla, which border the Malaysian state of Kelantan and the Gulf of Thailand. The formation of ethnic identities in Satun and Patani has followed different paths over time, and these variations in development have produced dramatically ...

  20. The Field Project CLEOPATRA May - July 1992 in Southern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Meischner, P.; Hagen, M; Hauf, T.; Heimann, D.; H. Höller; U. Schumann; Jaeschke, W; Mauser, W.; Puppracher, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    CLEOPATRA (Cloud Experiment Oberpfaffenhofen and Transports) is described. This field program was performed in southern Germany 50 km north of the Alpine foothills, an area of known enhanced thunderstorm activity. The general goal is to quantify elements of the hydrological cycle on a regional scale in dependence upon precipitation events and the vegetation state. Embedded goals are to describe the mechanisms that force organizations of deep convective systems, to compare theories and observa...

  1. A theropod tooth from the Late Triassic of southern Africa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghamitra Ray; Anusuya Chinsamy

    2002-06-01

    An isolated, large recurved and finely serrated tooth found associated with the prosauropod Euskelosaurus from the Late Triassic part of the Elliot Formation is described here. It is compared to the Triassic thecodonts and carnivorous dinosaurs and its possible affinity is discussed. The tooth possibly belongs to a basal theropod and shows some features similar to the allosauroids. This tooth is of significance, as dinosaur remains except for some footprints and trackways, are poorly known in the Late Triassic horizons of southern Africa.

  2. Re-Think Russian Investment in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasimchuk, Ivetta

    2009-01-01

    Russia’s direct investment of about USD 3 billon in Southern Africa over the past decade has placed before the country’s government and corporate sector two choices in the accelerating race among foreign investors into Africa. The first choice is to follow the established path of direct investment from developed economies that has, in the words of a famous African leader Walter Rodney, ‘underdeveloped Africa’ and involved a serious negative environmental impact. The second choice is one that ...

  3. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Tagarelli Antonio; Tagarelli Giuseppe; Piro Anna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy). The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used ...

  4. Characteristics of fermented plant beverages in southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Charernjiratrakul, W.; Kantachote, D.; Asavaroungpipop, N.

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of fermented plant beverages based on a sensory test, physico-chemical properties, enumeration of microorganisms present and their microbiological quality were investigated. A total of 19 samples of beverages collected from various sources in southern Thailand were examined. It was found that odor, color and clarity and the presence of Cu, Zn, K and Na were mainly dependent on the types of plant used and the additive of sugar or honey. Therefore, the appearance of the beve...

  5. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  6. Environmental Forcing of Red Tides in the Southern Benguela

    OpenAIRE

    Mark R. Jury

    2014-01-01

    The Southern Benguela cape upwelling plumes have inshore wind shadows prone to red tides in late summer. Their intensity and coverage are estimated by satellite fluorescence measurements in the period 1997–2012 and qualified by in situ reports. High satellite fluorescence cases are identified at daily to seasonal time scales, and characteristics of the upper ocean and lower atmosphere are studied using third generation reanalyses. A dominant feature is easterly winds over the Cape Peninsula (...

  7. Kimmeridgian pliosaurids (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from Tlaxiaco, Oaxaca, southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jair Israel Barrientos-Lara; Marta S Fernández; Jesús Alvarado-Ortega

    2015-01-01

    Fossil remains of two specimens of the family Pliosauridae aredescribed in the present manuscript. These fossils are from theKimmeridgian shallow marine strata belonging to the informallyknown Sabinal formation deposited in the Tlaxiaco Basin, which areexposed in Yosobé, near Tlaxiaco town, Oaxaca State, southern Mexico.The first of these specimens consists of a fragment of premaxilla withteeth, which show diagnostic characters that allow its taxonomicalidentification as member of the genus L...

  8. Archaeology and the Origins of Social Stratification in Southern Bougainville

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, John

    2014-01-01

    One of the Lessons of modern economic geography, abstract theory of graphs, and contemporary thinking in theoretical biology appears to be that hierarchical control networks are one solution to the problem of what to do about systems that are so complex, they may be unstable, unworkable, uneconomical, or any of these in combination. The issue explored in this essay is : Had the dynamics of life in southern Bougainville Led to the evolution of a hierarchical (stratified) system of social contr...

  9. A synopsis of the tribe Desmodieae (Fabaceae) in southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schrire, B D

    1988-01-01

    The tribe Desmodieae has a pantropical distribution and is one of the most advanced tribes in the subfamily Papilionoideae. Its greatest centres of development are in tropical Asia and America. Africa is relatively poorly endowed and only four genera comprising 16 species occur in the flora of southern Africa. Many of these species are widespread in the Old World tropics and the few African endemics appear to be closely related to them. A synopsis of the genera Desmodium, Pseudarthria, Alysic...

  10. Contingency planning in southern africa: Events rather than processes?

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Mabaso; Siambabala B. Manyena

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing frequency, magnitude and impact of disasters, there is growing focus on contingency planning as a tool for enhancing resilience. Yet, there is little empirical evidence that reflects on the practice of contingency planning systems within the context of disaster risk reduction. This article explores the practice of contingency planning in southern Africa, focussing on Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. A qualitative comparative analysis informed by fieldwork ...

  11. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr...

  12. THE QUINOA ADVENTURE OF THE BOLIVIAN SOUTHERN ALTIPLANO

    OpenAIRE

    Riemer, Rikke Stokholm; Kelder, Yonatan

    2010-01-01

    In the last years the market demand from Europe and USA for quinoa, a traditional Andean cereal has increased significantly. This has led to an increase in cultivation of the most demanded quinoa type on the Bolivian Southern Altiplano. In this works we are studying the interplay of socioeconomic and environmental consequences of the increased quinoa production. We discuss changing land use patterns, land degradation and biodiversity loss, economic and social change and the gov...

  13. The southern altiplano of Bolivia : chapter 5.1.b

    OpenAIRE

    Winkel, Thierry; Alvarez-Flores, R.; Bommel, P. van; Bourliaud, J.; Chevarria Lazo, M.; Cortes, G.; De Cruz, P.; Del Castillo, C.; Gasselin, P.; Joffre, R; Léger, F; Nina Laura, J.P.; Rambal, S.; Rivière, G.; Tichit, M.

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa has been a staple food for Andean populations for millennia. Today, it is a much-appreciated product on the international health-food, organic and fair-trade food markets. Quinoa producers in the southern Altiplano of Bolivia initiated this change approximately 40 years ago. On high desert land, they succeeded in developing a thriving agricultural crop for export. Although they enjoy lucrative niche markets, quinoa producers are not specialized farmers, nor do most of them live year...

  14. Concepts for mechanized tree planting in southern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Ersson, Back Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The underlying reason for mechanizing tree planting in southern Sweden is the biologically good planting results produced by today's tree planting machines. Nevertheless, the productivity of these tracked excavators with crane-mounted tree planting devices is too low for them to compete economically with manual planting. The objective of this thesis was to investigate concepts for 1) seedling packaging, 2) base machines, 3) planting devices, and 4) seedling carousels that could cost-effic...

  15. Phylogeography of recently emerged DENV-2 in southern Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia A Rabaa

    Full Text Available Revealing the dispersal of dengue viruses (DENV in time and space is central to understanding their epidemiology. However, the processes that shape DENV transmission patterns at the scale of local populations are not well understood, particularly the impact of such factors as human population movement and urbanization. Herein, we investigated trends in the spatial dynamics of DENV-2 transmission in the highly endemic setting of southern Viet Nam. Through a phylogeographic analysis of 168 full-length DENV-2 genome sequences obtained from hospitalized dengue cases from 10 provinces in southern Viet Nam, we reveal substantial genetic diversity in both urban and rural areas, with multiple lineages identified in individual provinces within a single season, and indicative of frequent viral migration among communities. Focusing on the recently introduced Asian I genotype, we observed particularly high rates of viral exchange between adjacent geographic areas, and between Ho Chi Minh City, the primary urban center of this region, and populations across southern Viet Nam. Within Ho Chi Minh City, patterns of DENV movement appear consistent with a gravity model of virus dispersal, with viruses traveling across a gradient of population density. Overall, our analysis suggests that Ho Chi Minh City may act as a source population for the dispersal of DENV across southern Viet Nam, and provides further evidence that urban areas of Southeast Asia play a primary role in DENV transmission. However, these data also indicate that more rural areas are also capable of maintaining virus populations and hence fueling DENV evolution over multiple seasons.

  16. The European Southern Observatory and VLT telescopes on Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boley, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) on Cerro Paranal is one of the most influential observing complexes in the world. In this overview lecture, an introduction to the ESO organization and VLT telescopes is presented, along with a small selection of scientific works. Particular attention is given to the importance of the VLT for the Russian scientific community, as well as to present and future perspectives for making use of ESO and VLT data.

  17. The causes and prospect of the Southern Philippines secessionist movement

    OpenAIRE

    David, Ricardo A.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Southern Philippines secessionist movement has developed once again into a major security concern of the Republic of the Philippines. The hostilities have taken a heavy toll on the nation's human and physical resources and hurt to the nation's economy. Likewise, the rebellion has afflicted both regional and global security because of the reported linkages of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and the Abu Sayyaf with the Islamic mil...

  18. Paleoparasitological analysis of a raptor pellet from southern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugassa, M H; Sardella, N H; Denegri, G M

    2007-04-01

    Organic remains attributable to one regurgitated pellet were examined. The pellet, belonging to a bird of prey and collected from a cave of Southern Patagonia, was dated at 6,540 +/- 110 yr. With standard paleoparasitological procedures, eggs of Capillaria sp. and a mite, Demodex sp., were found. The parasites found in the pellet belong to a rodent ingested by the bird. The present report constitutes the first paleoparasitological study of a regurgitated pellet. PMID:17539429

  19. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Hodges; Kristiana Hansen; Donald McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of ...

  20. Reef builders found along southern coastline of Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Together with a local co-worker, TANG Zhican, a specialist in benthonic bioecology and taxonomy of coral,hydra and other cnidarian organisms from the Qingdao-based CAS Institute of Oceanology, has proved the existence of hermatype (reefbuilding) corals on the seabed in Nanji Islands along the southern coastline of East China's Zhejiang Province, pushing the distribution line of the coastal reef corals in this country further northward.

  1. Tectonic control on southern Sierra Nevada topography, California

    OpenAIRE

    Mahéo, Gweltaz; Saleeby, Jason; Saleeby, Zorka; Farley, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we integrate the apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometric technique with geomorphic, structural, and stratigraphic studies to pursue the origin and evolution of topographic relief related to extensive late Cenozoic faulting in the southern Sierra Nevada. The geomorphology of this region reflects a transition from a vast region to the north characterized by nonequilibrium fluvial modification of a relict low-relief landscape, little affected by internal deformation, to a more complex...

  2. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA a...

  3. Risk mapping for northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Coppock, David Layne

    2001-01-01

    We used results from 120 group interviews collected in 1998 to quantify how inhabitants across northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia perceive and rank various risks to their livelihoods. We also mapped risk patterns using Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates. Respondents recognized 15 sources of risk overall, with the most common being reliable access to food and water. Other risks were not mentioned by a majority of respondents and reflected diversity in local situations. Country of re...

  4. Pastoralism Under Pressure: Tracking System Change in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Coppock, David Layne; Desta, Solomon

    2003-01-01

    While economic development has proven elusive in African pastoral systems, change is pervasive. The Kajiado Maasai, for example, have endured declines in terms of per capita livestock holdings and other aspects of human welfare over the past 50 years. Activity diversification has occurred in Maasailand as the population copes with pressure from human population growth. We surveyed up to 317 Borana households during the late 1990s to see if similar patterns occurred in southern Ethiopia. Once ...

  5. Ocelot management and conservation along transportation corridors in Southern Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Tewes, Michael E.; Robert W Hughes

    2001-01-01

    The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is an endangered cat with less than 120 individuals remaining in the United States. Ocelot roadkills are an important problem potentially threatening ocelot persistence in southern Texas. Landscape planning can provide options for the resolution of traffic-ocelot conflicts. We suggest several conservation strategies and tactics involving important road-habitat interfaces, road underpasses, and fences. Support of alternative recovery strategies (e.g., habitat re...

  6. Diversity and distribution patterns in high southern latitude sponges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel V Downey

    Full Text Available Sponges play a key role in Antarctic marine benthic community structure and dynamics and are often a dominant component of many Southern Ocean benthic communities. Understanding the drivers of sponge distribution in Antarctica enables us to understand many of general benthic biodiversity patterns in the region. The sponges of the Antarctic and neighbouring oceanographic regions were assessed for species richness and biogeographic patterns using over 8,800 distribution records. Species-rich regions include the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, Eastern Weddell Sea, Kerguelen Plateau, Falkland Islands and north New Zealand. Sampling intensity varied greatly within the study area, with sampling hotspots found at the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, north New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, with limited sampling in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies we found that eurybathy and circumpolar distributions are important but not dominant characteristics in Antarctic sponges. Overall Antarctic sponge species endemism is ∼43%, with a higher level for the class Hexactinellida (68%. Endemism levels are lower than previous estimates, but still indicate the importance of the Polar Front in isolating the Southern Ocean fauna. Nineteen distinct sponge distribution patterns were found, ranging from regional endemics to cosmopolitan species. A single, distinct Antarctic demosponge fauna is found to encompass all areas within the Polar Front, and the sub-Antarctic regions of the Kerguelen Plateau and Macquarie Island. Biogeographical analyses indicate stronger faunal links between Antarctica and South America, with little evidence of links between Antarctica and South Africa, Southern Australia or New Zealand. We conclude that the biogeographic and species distribution patterns observed are largely driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the timing of past continent

  7. Small Farmer Organizations and Transformed Markets in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Neven, David; Hopkins, Rose; Weatherspoon, Dave D.; Reardon, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    There are many interesting illustrations of the strong economic impact of commercial farmers in Southern Africa. For example, over just the last five years, tobacco production in Zimbabwe dropped dramatically from 240 to 60 million while at the same time in Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique tobacco production increased to record highs and spurred the development of tobacco processing infrastructure (The Economist 2004). The main driving force behind this change are the hundreds of (white) commerc...

  8. Issues in African land policy: Experiences from Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Julian F.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides an overview of current land policy issues in the southern African region, drawn from assessments of six individual country experiences. It sets out the issues surrounding land policy development and land reform in Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe, and of wider relevance in the region as a whole. The first chapter offers an overview of major land policy issues facing the countries of the region. Chapter Two provides a brief review of recent literature which assesses the rel...

  9. The conundrum of conservation agriculture and livelihoods in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nkala, P.; Mango, N.; Corbeels, M.; Veldwisch, G.J.A.; J. Huising

    2011-01-01

    Low crop productivity, food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition; inadequate farming knowledge and skills, implements and inputs are characteristic of smallholder agriculture in Southern Africa. Many researchers argue that conservation agriculture can guarantee higher crop productivity, food security, improved livelihoods and environmental protection, better than the unsustainable traditional systems of slash and burn practices. In this paper, we present the results of a meta-analysis of over ...

  10. Strong responses of Southern Ocean phytoplankton communities to volcanic ash

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, T.J.; Bouman, H. A.; Henderson, G. M.; Mather, T.A.; D. M. Pyle; Schlosser, Christian; Woodward, E.M.S.; Moore, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions have been hypothesized as an iron supply mechanism for phytoplankton blooms; however, little direct evidence of stimulatory responses has been obtained in the field. Here we present the results of twenty-one 1-2day bottle enrichment experiments from cruises in the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean which conclusively demonstrated a photophysiological and biomass stimulation of phytoplankton communities following supply of basaltic or rhyolitic volcanic ash. Furthermore, expe...

  11. Continental Airlines and China Southern Airlines Announce Strategic Partnership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Frequent flyer reciprocity to start in September: codesharing to start in November. Continental Airlines and China Southern Airlines. the largest airline in the People's Republic of China. announced on June 18, 2007 that they have entered into a strategic partnership for frequent flyer and airport lounge access reciprocity and extensive codesharing, providing better service to customers who travel between the U.S.and China and transfer between the two carriers.

  12. An Epidemiological Study on Ankylosing Spondylitis in Southern Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Koko, Vjollca; Ndrepepa, Ana; Skënderaj, Skënder; Ploumis, Avraam; Backa, Teuta; Tafaj, Argjend

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in southern Albania and to assess the association of various demographic risk factors with the severity of disease. Material and methods: This is an observational study with cross-sectional analyses, conducted in the region of Gjirokaster, between 1995 until 2011. The diagnosis of AS was based on the modified New York criteria. Data on population are obtained from the reports of the National Institute of Stati...

  13. American segregationist ideology and white Southern Africa, 1948-1975

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Zoe Laura

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between segregationist organisations, publications and individuals in the United States and their pro-apartheid counterparts in southern Africa. It uncovers a sustained and extensive foreign policy of segregationists that has hitherto been overlooked and a relationship between the countries that goes beyond existing analyses of Cold War cooperation or comparative studies of the countries’ racial systems. When the civil rights movement began, steadfast...

  14. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region

  15. On the birth of near-modern Southern Ocean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, A.; Bohaty, S. M.; Passchier, S.; Roehl, U.; Bijl, P.; Pross, J.; Stickley, C. E.; van de Flierdt, T.; Escutia, C.; Klaus, A.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2011-12-01

    It has become widely appreciated that the initiation of major Antarctic glaciation occurred around Eocene - Oligocene boundary times (~34-33 Ma). Some studies suggest that this greenhouse-icehouse transition (GIT) invoked a more productive Southern Ocean and therefore circum-Antarctic marine systems as a result of e.g., increased wind-stress and upwelling after ice-sheet arrival and related atmospheric reorganization. Yet, actual documentation of such presumed major reorganization among plankton communities in the Southern Ocean is quite limited. This is partly due to scarce and incomplete records, and/or lack of suitable plankton remains for various reasons. Principally on the basis of the recent Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 318, drilling of the Wilkes Land margin, and in context with studies into e.g., XRF-geochemistry, ice rafted debris, and clay mineralogy, we here discuss late Eocene to early Oligocene dinoflagellate cyst assemblage changes related to the GIT, and compare results with several other circum-Antarctic sites. Conspicuously, the earliest Oligocene circum-Antarctic dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are consistently dominated by protoperidinioid taxa, in sharp contrast to the Eocene assemblages. Extant protoperidinioid dinoflagellates have a heterotrophic feeding strategy, are therefore found in association with high productivity ecosystems, and particularly dominate modern southern ocean settings. Combined results indicate the birth of near modern circum-Antarctic marine ecosystems to coincide with the GIT.

  16. The genus Ehretia (Boraginaceae: Ehretioideae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Retief

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Ehretia P.Browne in southern Africa is revised. Six species and five subspecies of Ehretia are currently rec­ognized in southern Africa, of which E. alba Retief & A.E.van Wyk, E. namibiensis Retief & A.E.van Wyk subsp. namibi­ensis,  E. namibiensis subsp.  kaokoensis Retief & A.E.van Wyk,  E. rigida subsp.  silvatica  Retief & A.E.van Wyk and E. rigida subsp. nervifolia Retief & A.E.van Wyk are newly described. The genus is widely distributed in the region and occurs in a variety of habitats, ranging from the forests of the Eastern Cape to the hot, arid, semidesert parts of Namibia. Members of Ehretia in southern Africa are predominantly multistemmed shrubs or small trees. Characters of the leaf, the trichome com­plement, inflorescence and corolla are used to distinguish between the different species. A key to the species, distribution maps and illustrations of various micro- and macromorphological as well as palynological features are provided.

  17. Seismotectonic implications of sand blows in the southern Mississippi Embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R.T.; Hill, A.A.; Larsen, D.; Holzer, T.; Forman, S.L.; Noce, T.; Gardner, C.; Morat, J.

    2007-01-01

    We explore seismically-induced sand blows from the southern Mississippi Embayment and their implications in resolving the question of near or distal epicentral source region. This was accomplished using aerial photography, field excavations, and cone penetration tests. Our analysis shows that three sand blow fields exhibit a distinct chronology of strong ground motion for the southern embayment: (1) The Ashley County, Arkansas sand blow field, near the Arkansas/Louisiana state border, experienced four Holocene sand venting episodes; (2) to the north, the Desha County field experienced at least three episodes of liquefaction; and (3) the Lincoln-Jefferson Counties field experienced at least one episode. Cone penetration tests (CPT) conducted in and between the sand blow fields suggest that the fields may not be distal liquefaction associated with New Madrid seismic zone earthquakes but rather are likely associated with strong earthquakes on local faults. This conclusion is consistent with the differences in timing of the southern embayment sand venting episodes and those in the New Madrid seismic zone. These results suggest that active tectonism and strong seismicity in intraplate North America may not be localized at isolated weak spots, but rather widespread on fault systems that are favorably oriented for slip in the contemporary stress field. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. On the Chronological Structure of the Solutrean in Southern Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascalheira, João; Bicho, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    The Solutrean techno-complex has gained particular significance over time for representing a clear demographic and techno-typological deviation from the developments occurred during the course of the Upper Paleolithic in Western Europe. Some of Solutrean's most relevant features are the diversity and techno-typological characteristics of the lithic armatures. These have been recurrently used as pivotal elements in numerous Solutrean-related debates, including the chronological organization of the techno-complex across Iberia and Southwestern France. In Southern Iberia, patterns of presence and/or absence of specific point types in stratified sequences tend to validate the classical ordering of the techno-complex into Lower, Middle and Upper phases, although some evidence, namely radiocarbon determinations, have not always been corroborative. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of the currently available radiocarbon data for the Solutrean in Southern Iberia. We use a Bayesian statistical approach from 13 stratified sequences to compare the duration, and the start and end moments of each classic Solutrean phase across sites. We conclude that, based on the current data, the traditional organization of the Solutrean cannot be unquestionably confirmed for Southern Iberia, calling into doubt the status of the classically-defined type-fossils as precise temporal markers.

  19. On the Chronological Structure of the Solutrean in Southern Iberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cascalheira

    Full Text Available The Solutrean techno-complex has gained particular significance over time for representing a clear demographic and techno-typological deviation from the developments occurred during the course of the Upper Paleolithic in Western Europe. Some of Solutrean's most relevant features are the diversity and techno-typological characteristics of the lithic armatures. These have been recurrently used as pivotal elements in numerous Solutrean-related debates, including the chronological organization of the techno-complex across Iberia and Southwestern France. In Southern Iberia, patterns of presence and/or absence of specific point types in stratified sequences tend to validate the classical ordering of the techno-complex into Lower, Middle and Upper phases, although some evidence, namely radiocarbon determinations, have not always been corroborative. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of the currently available radiocarbon data for the Solutrean in Southern Iberia. We use a Bayesian statistical approach from 13 stratified sequences to compare the duration, and the start and end moments of each classic Solutrean phase across sites. We conclude that, based on the current data, the traditional organization of the Solutrean cannot be unquestionably confirmed for Southern Iberia, calling into doubt the status of the classically-defined type-fossils as precise temporal markers.

  20. Meteor stream survey in the southern hemisphere using SAAMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janches, D.; da Silva, D.; Pifko, S.; Hormaechea, J.; Hocking, W.; Brunini, C.; Close, S.; Fritts, D.

    2014-07-01

    We present in this manuscript two meteor shower surveys in the Southern Hemisphere utilizing the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER). SAAMER, which operates at the southern most region of South America, is a new generation SKiYMET system designed with significant differences from typical meteor radars including high transmitted power and an 8-antenna transmitting array enabling large detected rates at low zenith angles. For the first survey, we applied the statistical methodology developed by Jones and Jones (2006) to the data collected each day during 4 years and compiled the results into 1 composite representative year at 1-degree resolution in Solar Longitude. We then search for enhancements in the activity, which last for at least 3 days and evolve temporally as is expected for a meteor shower. Using this methodology, we have identified in our data 32 shower radiants, two of which were not part of the IAU commission 22 meteor shower working list (Janches et al., 2014). Recently, SAAMER's capabilities were enhanced by adding two remote stations to receive meteor forward scatter signals from meteor trails and thus enable the determination of meteoroid orbital parameters. SAAMER started recording orbits in January 2012. We also present a 1-year survey using a wavelet-transform approach (Galligan and Baggaley, 2002ab; Brown et al., 2008) of this new orbital dataset to isolate enhancements in radiant density in geocentric coordinates resulting in not only radiant information but shower orbital properties.

  1. Communal goat production in Southern Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K

    2009-10-01

    Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of using goats in rural development in Southern Africa. Farmers in Southern Africa largely use the village goat management system. There are various goat breeds in Southern Africa, of which the Mashona, Matabele, Tswana, Nguni and the Landim are the dominant ones. It is, however, not clear if these breeds are distinct. Major constraints to goat production include high disease and parasite prevalence, low levels of management, limited forage availability and poor marketing management. Potential research areas that are required to ensure that goats are vehicles for rural development include evaluation of constraints to goat production, assessing the contribution of goats to household economies and food securities throughout the year, genetic and phenotypic characterisation of the indigenous breeds to identify appropriate strains and sustainable methods of goat improvement through either selection or crossbreeding.

  2. Poorly characterized critical rock units within the southern Oklahoma Aulacogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, M.C.; Hogan, J.P. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics); Denison, R.E. (Kingstree, Dallas, TX (United States)); Lidiak, E.G. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planet Science)

    1993-02-01

    The Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen (SOA) apparently developed during late Proterozoic-early Cambrian rifting of the southern continental margin. This margin appears to be related to the Grenville suture' formed when the Llano terrane was accreted to N.A. The SOA is representative, as well as the best exposed, of a series of penecontemporaneous rifts along the southern and eastern margin of the North American plate. Pronounced Pennsylvanian structural inversion has lifted the igneous basal sections of this rift (the SOA) to shallow crustal levels and exposed parts of it in the Wichita Mountains. Two previously identified but poorly characterized rock units within the SOA, the Tillman Metasedimentary Group and the Navajoe Mountain Basalt/Spilite Group, do not crop out at the surface, having only been recognized from well cuttings. No well-described or well-dated samples exist. The Tillman may be the basement rock which was extended during initial rifting and hosted the igneous infill of the SOA. The Navajoe may represent the earliest phase of magmatism in the SOA. Isotopic dating and geochemistry, and textural/structural relations, of 100--500 m core sections in these two units would go a long way toward clarifying paleotectonic relations and crustal structure in the late Proterozoic. Several drill sites for scientific holes up to 1 km in depth targeted to these enigmatic units can be identified and the rationale for their selection will be presented.

  3. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Robert; Naish, Tim; Carter, Lionel; Riesselman, Christina; Dunbar, Robert; Sjunneskog, Charlotte; Winter, Diane; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Warren, Courtney; Pagani, Mark; Schouten, Stefan; Willmott, Veronica; Levy, Richard; DeConto, Robert; Powell, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL AND-1B sediment core recovered from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf. We provide evidence for a major expansion of an ice sheet in the Ross Sea that began at ~3.3 Ma, followed by a coastal sea surface temperature cooling of ~2.5 °C, a stepwise expansion of sea ice, and polynya-style deep mixing in the Ross Sea between 3.3 and 2.5 Ma. The intensification of Antarctic cooling resulted in strengthened westerly winds and invigorated ocean circulation. The associated northward migration of Southern Ocean fronts has been linked with reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation by restricting surface water connectivity between the ocean basins, with implications for heat transport to the high latitudes of the North Atlantic. While our results do not exclude low-latitude mechanisms as drivers for Pliocene cooling, they indicate an additional role played by southern high-latitude cooling during development of the bipolar world.

  4. Low-frequency sound level in the Southern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang-Hin-Sun, Eve; Royer, Jean-Yves; Leroy, Emmanuelle C

    2015-12-01

    This study presents long-term statistics on the ambient sound in the Southern Indian Ocean basin based on 2 years of data collected on six widely distributed autonomous hydrophones from 47°S to 4°S and 53°E to 83°E. Daily mean power spectra (10-100 Hz) were analyzed in order to identify the main sound sources and their space and time variability. Periodic signals are principally associated with the seasonal presence of three types of blue whales and fin whales whose signatures are easily identified at specific frequencies. In the low frequencies, occurrence of winter lows and summer highs in the ambient noise levels are well correlated with iceberg volume variations at the southern latitudes, suggesting that icebergs are a major sound source, seasonally contributing to the ambient noise, even at tropical latitudes (26°S). The anthropogenic contribution to the noise spectrum is limited. Shipping sounds are only present north and west of the study area in the vicinity of major traffic lanes. Acoustic recordings from the southern sites may thus be representative of the pristine ambient noise in the Indian Ocean.

  5. Agro-fuels: southern impacts; Agrocarburants: impacts au Sud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duterme, B.

    2011-07-01

    At a time of controversies about global warming, agro-fuels production is often presented as a future solution for automotive fuels and as a new way of development for southern countries. However, in Asia, South America and Africa, it very often takes the form of huge mono-culture areas of sugar cane, palm oil and soy bean in the hands of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. The consequences of these land, social and environmental impacts in Southern countries is an increase of disequilibria and a threat for the diet of local populations by changing the appropriation of lands. Deforestation, private monopolization of lands, concentration of profits, soils and water pollution, biodiversity impoverishment, exploitation of vulnerable manpower, populations migration, violation of human rights are today the consequences of mass production of agro-fuels in Southern countries. To what conditions a fair re-appropriation and a sustainable development of agro-fuels production and consumption is foreseeable? The solutions require a re-shaping of economical and agricultural politics. The book gathers testimonies and analyses from specialists who have evaluated locally the consequences of these energy choices. (J.S.)

  6. Archosaur evolution during the Jurassic: a southern perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. M. Rauhut

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fossil record of archosaurs - crocodylomorphs, pterosaurs and dinosaurs - from the Jurassic of the Southern Hemisphere is critically reviewed, and its evolutionary implications are evaluated. Although several important faunas and also isolated finds are known from Gondwana, the record in total is still very patchy, and any evolutionary scenario based on this record should be seen as tentative. Compared to the Northern Hemisphere, southern archosaurs are much more poorly known, which is especially true for terrestrial crocodiles and pterosaurs. Marine crocodiles are rather well represented in south-western South America, whereas the report of terrestrial archosaurs is currently best for Africa. However, in South America, important and especially promising archosaur faunas are known from the Callovian Cañadón Asfalto and the (?Tithonian Cañadón Calcáreo formations of Chubut province, Argentina. Early and Middle Jurassic Gondwanan archosaurs demonstrate that the faunas of that period still had a generally Pangean distribution, whereas first indications of differential archosaur evolution in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are evident in Late Jurassic Gondwanan faunas.

  7. Conjugate observations of Saturn's northern and southern H3+ aurorae

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donoghue, James; Melin, Henrik; Cowley, Stan W H; Badman, Sarah V; Moore, Luke; Miller, Steve; Tao, Chihiro; Baines, Kevin H; Blake, James S D

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of recent high spatial and spectral resolution ground-based infrared observations of H3+ spectra obtained with the 10-metre Keck II telescope in April 2011. We observed H3+ emission from Saturn's northern and southern auroral regions, simultaneously, over the course of more than two hours, obtaining spectral images along the central meridian as Saturn rotates. Previous ground-based work has derived only an average temperature of an individual polar region, summing an entire night of observations. Here we analyse 20 H3+ spectra, 10 for each hemisphere, providing H3+ temperature, column density and total emission in both the northern and southern polar regions simultaneously, improving on past results in temporal cadence and simultaneity. We find that: 1) the average thermospheric temperatures are 527+/-18 K in northern Spring and 583+/-13 K in southern Autumn, respectively; 2) this asymmetry in temperature is likely to be the result of an inversely proportional relationship between the t...

  8. Weichselian stratigraphy, geomorphology and glacial dynamics in southern Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertti Sarala

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary stratigraphy and geomorphology were investigated by using aerial photo interpretation, digital elevation models and stratigraphical studies in southern Finnish Lapland. The development of glacial morphology was examined by reconstructing glacial flow patterns and subglacial conditions with emphasis on glacial dynamics. By comparing the climate history and available chronological data the ice-sheet development during the Weichselian was modelled in the area. Also, the Quaternary lithostratigraphy with descriptions, formalnames and type sections of the Peräpohja Group was proposed. Glacial morphology with clear indication of glacial flow directions represents two Weichselian glacial advances in the area of southern Finnish Lapland. The older, northwest-southeast oriented glacial movement was seen as a drumlin field and was preserved under a later cold-based ice sheet. A west-east oriented landform assemblage of ribbed moraines, drumlins and flutings mainly indicated the younger glacial phase. Of the age of ice sheet development during the Weichselian two alternative interpretations have been presented:In the first model, the first glacial advance occurred during the Early Weichselian and was followed by interstadial about 85–74 ka ago. The Middle and Late Weichselian glaciation was continuously covering southern Finnish Lapland after that. The second model includes a new interpretation, in which the first glacial advance that reached the area is connected to the beginning of the Middle Weichselian. Ice-free interstadial occurred about 50–30 ka ago before the Late Weichselian glacial advance, when the Weichselian maximum wasreached.

  9. Carbon balance of a southern taiga spruce stand in European Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milyukova, I.M.; Varlagin, A.V.; Vygodskaya, N.N. [Sukachev' s Laboratory of the Inst. of Evolution and Ecology Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kolle, O.; Schulze, E.D.; Lloyd, J. [Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    We present results from nearly three years of net ecosystem flux measurements above a boreal spruce stand growing in European Russia. Fluxes were measured by eddy covariance using conventional techniques. In all years examined (1998-2000), the forest was a significant source of carbon to the atmosphere. However, the magnitude of this inferred source depended upon assumptions regarding the degree of 'flux loss' under conditions of low turbulence, such as typically occur at night. When corrections were not made, the forest was calculated to be only a modest source of C to the atmosphere (3-5 mol C/m{sup 2}/yr). However, when the corrections were included, the apparent source was much larger (20-30 mol C/m{sup 2}/yr). Using a simple model to describe the temperature dependencies of ecosystem respiration on air and soil temperatures, about 80% of the night-time flux was inferred to be from soil respiration, with the remainder being attributable to foliage, branches and boles. We used reasonable assumptions to estimate the rate of ecosystem respiration during the day, allowing an estimation of canopy photosynthetic rates and hence the annual Gross Primary Productivity of the ecosystem. For the two full years examined (1999 and 2000), this was estimated at 122 and 130 mol C/m{sup 2}/yr, respectively. This value is similar to estimates for boreal forests in Scandinavia, but substantially higher than has been reported for Canadian or Siberian boreal forests. There was a clear tendency for canopy photosynthetic rates to increase with both light and temperature, but the slope of the temperature response of photosynthesis was less steep that that of ecosystem respiration. Thus, on most warm days in summer the forest was a substantial source of carbon to the atmosphere; with the forest usually being a net sink only on high insolation days where the average daily air temperatures were below about 18 deg C. These data, along with other studies on the current balance of

  10. A Political Economy of Water in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Swatuk

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is a region characterised by extensive socio-economic underdevelopment. Given water’s key role in social organisation, water allocation, use and management in Southern Africa is embedded in deep historical and structural processes of regional underdevelopment. Gini coefficients of income inequality in several states of the region are the most extreme in the world. Recent data from South Africa shows that Gini coefficients of water inequality vary directly with income inequality. Recent attempts to improve water resources management in the region through IWRM have failed to consider these facts, focusing instead on a mix of institutional, policy and legal reforms. The results of these reforms have been poor. In this essay, I employ a modified version of Allan’s (2003 'water paradigms' framework to locate and assess the positions and interests of actors involved in water resources management in Southern Africa. The essay shows that Southern Africa’s history of underdevelopment has created a dense web of powerful political, economic and social interests linked by a shared technocentric understanding of and approach to water use: i.e. water for 'high modern-style' development, or as labelled by Allen, 'the hydraulic mission'. What is less readily acknowledged is the wide-spread societal support for this mission. For this reason, ecocentric approaches to water management most commonly associated with influential international actors such as the IUCN and World Wide Fund for Nature have limited local support and are of minor relevance to Southern African decision-makers. However, actors supportive of an ecocentric perspective demonstrate considerable ability to inhibit water infrastructure development across the region. In the face of abiding poverty and inequality, and vulnerability to water insecurity, widespread societal support for a technocentric approach to resource use offers a pathway toward broad-based social benefits

  11. Patagonian and southern South Atlantic view of Holocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Strelin, J. A.; Denton, G. H.; Anderson, R. F.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Finkel, R. C.; Schwartz, R.; Travis, S. G.; Garcia, J. L.; Martini, M. A.; Nielsen, S. H. H.

    2016-06-01

    We present a comprehensive 10Be chronology for Holocene moraines in the Lago Argentino basin, on the east side of the South Patagonian Icefield. We focus on three different areas, where prior studies show ample glacier moraine records exist because they were formed by outlet glaciers sensitive to climate change. The 10Be dated records are from the Lago Pearson, Herminita Península-Brazo Upsala, and Lago Frías areas, which span a distance of almost 100 km adjacent to the modern Icefield. New 10Be ages show that expanded glaciers and moraine building events occurred at least at 6120 ± 390 (n = 13), 4450 ± 220 (n = 7), 1450 or 1410 ± 110 (n = 18), 360 ± 30 (n = 5), and 240 ± 20 (n = 8) years ago. Furthermore, other less well-dated glacier expansions of the Upsala Glacier occurred between ~1400 and ∼1000 and ∼2300 and ∼2000 years ago. The most extensive glaciers occurred over the interval from ∼6100 to ∼4500 years ago, and their margins over the last ∼600 years were well within and lower than those in the middle Holocene. The 10Be ages agree with 14C-limiting data for the glacier histories in this area. We then link southern South American, adjacent South Atlantic, and other Southern Hemisphere records to elucidate broader regional patterns of climate and their possible causes. In the early Holocene, a far southward position of the westerly winds fostered warmth, small Patagonian glaciers, and reduced sea ice coverage over the South Atlantic. Although we infer a pronounced southward displacement of the westerlies during the early Holocene, these conditions did not occur throughout the southern mid-high latitudes, an important exception being over the southwest Pacific sector. Subsequently, a northward locus and/or expansion of the winds over the Patagonia-South Atlantic sector promoted the largest glaciers between ∼6100 and ∼4500 years ago and greatest sea ice coverage. Over the last few millennia, the South Patagonian Icefield has experienced

  12. True Love Waits: Do Southern Baptists? Premarital Sexual Behavior Among Newly Married Southern Baptist Sunday School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Janet E.; Weathersbee, Byron

    2011-01-01

    This study measures premarital sex prevalence, sources of sex education, and support for secular sex education among 151 newly married young adults surveyed at 9 Texas Southern Baptist churches. More than 70% of respondents reported having had premarital vaginal or oral sex, but more than 80% regretted premarital sex. The proportion of premarital sex exceeded 80% in 6 of 9 churches, among men and women married after age 25 and women married before age 21. School sex education was the only sou...

  13. An initial meteoroid stream survey in the southern hemisphere using the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janches, D.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Brunini, C.; Hocking, W.; Fritts, D. C.

    2013-04-01

    We present in this manuscript a 4 year survey of meteor shower radiants utilizing the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER). SAAMER, which operates at the southern most region of South America, is a new generation SKiYMET system designed with significant differences from typical meteor radars including high transmitted power and an 8-antenna transmitting array enabling large detected rates at low zenith angles. We applied the statistical methodology developed by Jones and Jones (Jones, J., Jones, W. [2006]. Month. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 367, 1050-1056) to the data collected each day and compiled the results into 1 composite representative year at 1° resolution in Solar Longitude. We then search for enhancements in the activity which last for at least 3 days and evolve temporally as is expected from a meteor shower. Using this methodology, we have identified in our data 32 shower radiants, two of which were not part of the IAU commission 22 meteor shower working list. Recently, SAAMER's capabilities were enhanced by adding two remote stations to receive meteor forward scatter signals from meteor trails and thus enable the determination of meteoroid orbital parameters. SAAMER started recording orbits in January 2012 and future surveys will focus on the search for unknown meteor streams, in particular in the southern ecliptic sky.

  14. Structural characteristics of middle and southern Xainza-Dinggye Normal Fault System and its relationship to Southern Tibetan Detachment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Xainza-Dinggye Normal Fault System (XDNFS) is a large-scale nearly-north-south trending extensional structure across central and southern Tibet. Its middle segment developed in Tethys Himalaya with features of earlier magmatic core complex and later normal faults dipping moderately to northwest-west. The magmatic core complex is made up by mylonitic leucogrante with a low-angle detachment fault on the top of it and overlain by lower-grade meta-sedimentary rocks. The structural pattern of the southern segment of XDNFS take the shape of a detachment fault dipping to southeast-east with the High-Himalayan rock series as the lower plate. The Southern Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) is expressed as a ductile shear zone composed of mylonitic leucogranite in the studied area of this note. STDS was cut by the later XDNFS, which presents that nearly-east-west striking STDS is not the controlling or adjusting structure of the nearly-north-south trending extensional structures. The origin of nearly-north-south trending extensional structures in Tibet may be the result of deformational partition of north-south compression.

  15. The buried southern continuation of the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary and Oaxaca Fault, southern Mexico: Magnetotelluric constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Corbo-Camargo, F.; Arzate-Flores, J.; Keppie, J. D.; Arango-Galván, C.; Unsworth, M.; Belmonte-Jiménez, S. I.

    2013-04-01

    Thirty magnetotelluric soundings were made along two NW-SE profiles to the north and south of Oaxaca City in southern Mexico. The profiles crossed the N-S Oaxaca Fault and the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary defined by the Juarez mylonitic complex. Dimensionality analysis of the MT data showed that the subsurface resistivity structure is 2D or 3D. The Oaxaca and correlative Guichicovi terranes consist of ca. 1-1.4 Ga granulitic continental crust overlain by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks, characterized by high and low resistivities, respectively. The Juarez terrane consists of oceanic Mesozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks, characterized by a low to medium resistivity layer, that is approximately 10 km thick. The Oaxaca Fault is a Cenozoic aged, normal fault that reactivated the dextral and thrust Juarez mylonitic complex north of Oaxaca City: its location south of Oaxaca City is uncertain. In the southern profile, the MT data show a ca. 20-50 km wide, west-dipping, relatively low resistivity zone material that extends through the entire crust. This is inferred to be the Juarez terrane bounded on either side by the ca. 1-1.4 Ga granulites. The Oaxaca Fault is imaged only by a major electrical resistivity discontinuity (low to the west, high to the east) along both the western border of the Juarez mylonitic complex (northern profile) and the San Miguel de la Cal mountains (southern profile) suggesting continuity.

  16. A century of climate variability in central Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, and its relation to Southern Annular Mode and El Nino-Southern Oscillation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.S.; Thamban, M.; Laluraj, C.M.; Redkar, B.L.; Chaturvedi, A.

    relation to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The delta sup(18)O records showed a significant relation to the SAM with a dominant approx. 4 years variability, except during specific periods (1918-1927, 1938...

  17. Modulation of the Southern Africa precipitation response to the El Niño Southern Oscillation by the subtropical Indian Ocean Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Chris; Zinke, Jens; Harrison, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The climate of Southern Africa, defined as the land area bound by the region 15°S-35°S; 12.5°E-42.5°E, during the December-March rainy season is driven by Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Subtropical Indian Ocean Dipole (SIOD). The observed December-March 1979-2014 Southern Africa precipitation during the four ENSO and SIOD phase combinations suggests that the phase of the SIOD can disrupt or enhance the Southern Africa precipitation response to ENSO. Here, we use a large ensemble of model simulations driven by global SST and ENSO-only SST to test whether the SIOD modifies the relationship between Southern Africa precipitation and ENSO. Since ENSO-based precipitation forecasts are used extensively over Southern Africa, an improved understanding of how other modes of SST variability modulate the regional response to ENSO is important. ENSO, in the absence of the SIOD, forces an equivalent barotropic Rossby wave over Southern Africa that modifies the regional mid-tropospheric vertical motions and precipitation anomalies. El Niño (La Niña) is related with high (low) pressure over Southern Africa that produces anomalous mid-tropospheric descent (ascent) and decreases (increases) in precipitation relative to average. When the SIOD and ENSO are in opposite phases, the SIOD compliments the ENSO-related atmospheric response over Southern Africa by strengthening the regional equivalent barotropic Rossby wave, anomalous mid-tropospheric vertical motions and anomalous precipitation. By contrast, when the SIOD and ENSO are in the same phase, the SIOD disrupts the ENSO-related atmospheric response over Southern Africa by weakening the regional equivalent barotropic Rossby wave, anomalous mid-tropospheric vertical motions and anomalous precipitation.

  18. Morphological expression of active tectonics in the Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Hergarten, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Evolving drainage pattern and corresponding metrics of the channels (e.g. normalized steepness index) are sensitive indicators for tectonic or climatic events punctuating the evolution of mountain belts and their associated foreland basins. The analysis of drainage systems and their characteristic properties represents a well-established approach to constrain the impact of tectonic and climatic drivers on mountainous landscapes in the recent past. The Southern Alps (SA) are one of the seismically most active zones in the periphery of northern Adria. Recent deformation is caused by the ongoing convergence of the Adriatic and European plate and is recorded by numerous earthquakes in the domain of the SA. Deformation in the SA is characterized by back-thrusting causing crustal thickening and should therefore result in uplift and topography formation. The vertical velocity field determined by GPS-data clearly indicates a belt of significant uplift in the south South alpine indenter between Lake Garda in the west and the Triglav in the east and strong subsidence of the foreland basin surrounding the Mediterranean Sea near Venice, although subsidence is often related to ongoing subduction of the Adriatic microplate underneath Appennines. Despite of these short term time series, timing, rates and drivers of alpine landscape evolution are not well constrained and the linkage between crustal deformation and topographic evolution of this highly active alpine segment remains unclear for the following reasons: (1) The eastern Southern Alps were heavily overprinted by the Pleistocene glaciations and tectonic signals in the alpine landscape are blurred. Only the transition zone to the southern foreland basin remained unaffected and allows an analysis of a glacially undisturbed topography. (2) The major part of this domain is covered by lithology (carbonatic rocks) which is unsuitable for low temperature geochronology and cosmogenic isotope dating so that exhumation and erosion

  19. Southern African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines the ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested in cooperation with the South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Initial results from the System Planning and Test (SPLAT) model show that the share of renewable technologies in Southern Africa could increase from the current 10% to as much as 46% in 2030, with 20% of decentralised capacity coming from renewable sources and nearly 80% of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 being provided by renewable energy technologies. Deployment and export of hydropower from the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Inga hydropower project to the SADC region would significantly reduce average electricity generation costs. Analysis using SPLAT – along with a similar model developed for West Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  20. Three cryptic new species of Aristea (Iridaceae from southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Field work in southern Africa over the past several years has resulted in the discovery of three new species of the sub- Saharan African and Madagascan genus Aristea Aiton, which now comprises some 53 species. Aristea has a pronounced centre in southern Africa and a centre of diversity in the winter rainfall zone of the subcontinent, where all three new species occur, one extending eastward into the adjacent southern edge of the summer rainfall zone. All three novelties have been collected in the past but were confused with related species. A elliptica (subgenus Eucapsulares, confused in the past with A. pusilla (Thunb. Ker Gawl., has a more robust habit, usually with 4 or 5 flower clusters per flowering stem, pale blue flowers, smooth ellipsoid seeds with flattened surface cells, and pollen shed as monads, whereas A. pusilla usually has 1-3 flower clusters per flowering stem, dark blue flowers, pollen shed as tetrads, and globose seeds with faint foveate sculpturing and colliculate surface cells. A. nana (also subgenus  Eucapsulares, known from few collections, and also confused with A. pusilla or A. anceps Eckl. ex Klatt. has the unbranched and leafless flowering stem of the latter but has large green floral spathes, flowers borne on long pedicels, and lacks a leaf subtending the single terminal flower cluster in contrast to nearly sessile flowers in A. pusilla and A. anceps, and in the latter, dry, rusty spathes. A. cistiflora (subgenus Pseudaristea closely resembles A. teretifoha Goldblatt & J.C.Manning but has linear to narrowly sword-shaped leaves and ± secund flowers with the outer tepals only slightly smaller than the inner and with small, dark brown markings at the bases of all the tepals. In contrast, A. teretifolia has narrower, sometimes terete leaves and flowers held upright with the outer tepals notice-ably smaller than the inner and bearing dark markings covering the lower half, whereas the inner tepals are unmarked.

  1. Isotopic source signatures for atmospheric lead: the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollhöfer, A.; Rosman, K. J. R.

    2000-10-01

    Aerosols collected between 1994 and 1999 at more than 70 different sites affecting the Southern Hemisphere have been measured for their 206Pb/ 207Pb, 208Pb/ 207Pb and 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios and Pb concentrations. Lower ratios are found at the southern tips of Africa, Australia and South America probably due to the supply of alkyllead from a common supplier such as Associated Octel. The ratios increase in a northerly direction probably due to a changing market share in alkyllead or an increasing industrial Pb contribution. The geographical variations in isotopic signatures made it possible to broadly characterize the different regions that influence the Southern Hemisphere. Brazil and Argentina exhibited 206Pb/ 207Pb, 208Pb/ 207Pb and 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios in aerosols of 1.141-1.184, 2.416-2.442 and 17.77-18.57, respectively. Mexican aerosols had values of 1.188-1.197, 2.452-2.463 and 18.46-18.73. Aerosols sampled in Chile had low ratios in the South of 1.063-1.094, 2.337-2.373 and 16.46-17.13 which increased in a northerly direction. Emissions from South Africa were characterized by ratios 1.067-1.090, 2.340-2.358 and 16.53-16.99. In 1994-1995 Australia and New Zealand had ratios of 1.060-1.193, 2.324-2.445 and 16.08-18.54. In 1997 however, the range was narrower: 1.072-1.112, 2.342-2.398 and 16.55-17.36, respectively. These isotopic signatures are potentially useful for tracing sources of pollution and the movement of air-masses on a global scale.

  2. Australia's southern margin: a product of oblique extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, J. B.; Stagg, H. M. J.

    1990-02-01

    Recently developed detachment models of continental margin formation interpret the southern margin of Australia to have formed when the lower-plate Australian margin was pulled out from beneath the upper-plate Antarctic margin. Data now available and summarised in this paper, point very strongly to a generally NW-SE direction of initial continental extension for the southern margin, in contrast to the widely held picture of simple N-S rifting. The evidence for this extension direction comes from the analysis of deep Seismic data acquired by the Bureau of Mineral Resources in 1986 in the central Great Australian Bight (GAB), the gravity field of the GAB, Seismic and magnetic basement structures in the Eyre Sub-basin, Polda Trough, Ceduna Depocentre and Duntroon Basin and from the analysis of the magnetic seafloor spreading anomalies produced during the slow first phase of drifting between Australia and Antarctica. Further, it is now believed that the formation of the southern margin of Australia can be described in terms of three phases of continental extension (El to E3) and two phases of drifting (D1 and D2). In summary, these phases were as follows. E1: approximately 300 km of Late Jurassic (?or older) to Early Cretaceous NW-SE-oriented extension in the GAB, with strike-slip motion in the nascent Otway Basin and along the Tasmanian margin. E2: 120 km of Early Cretaceous NNE-SSW-oriented extension which formed the basins of southeastern Australia (Otway, Bass, Gippsland) and which probably produced a structural overprinting in the GAB Basin. E3/D1: minor continental extension and the first 500 km of slow drift between Australia and Antarctica on an azimuth of 165°; wrenching on the Tasmanian margin. D2: 2600 km of fast drifting between Australia and Antarctica on a N-S azimuth.

  3. Risk assessment of drought disaster in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Drought has become an increasing concern in southern China, but the drought risk has not been adequately studied. This study presents a method for the spatial assessment of drought risk in southern China using a conceptual framework that emphasizes the combined role of hazard, vulnerability, and exposure.A drought hazard map was retrieved with a compound index of meteorological drought method in a GIS environment. Normally, a large variation in the disaster-inducing factor implies a high probability of economic/social losses caused by a drought disaster. The map indicated that areas with a higher risk of drought hazard were mainly distributed in mid-east Yunnan and the basins in eastern Sichuan.The vulnerability indices were based on climate factors as well as land use, geomorphological types, soil properties, and drainage density. The water preserving capability of purple calcareous soil in the basins in Sichuan and mid-east Yunnan, and the lateritic red soil in northeastern Guangdong is relatively weak. The main geomorphological features in Guangxi and Guangdong are hills, which leads to a serious expectation of soil and water losses. Thus, the main areas with a high risk of drought vulnerability are mid-east Yunnan and the basins in eastern Sichuan.The exposure indices were based on population density and agricultural production because population and agriculture experience the main impacts of a drought disaster. Higher exposure indices mean higher economic/social losses due to drought disasters. Areas with high exposure indices were mainly distributed in Guangdong and southern Guangxi.The overall risk was then calculated as the product of the hazard, vulnerability, and exposure. The results indicated a higher risk of drought disaster in the basins in eastern Sichuan,, northeastern Yunnan, and northeastern Guangdong. The main factor influencing the risk of a drought disaster was the hazard, but the vulnerability and exposure also played important roles.

  4. Siberian Pine Decline and Mortality in Southern Siberian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Im, S. T.; Oskorbin, P. A.; Petrov, I. A.; Ranson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The causes and resulting spatial patterns of Siberian pine mortality in eastern Kuznetzky Alatau Mountains, Siberia were analyzed based on satellite (Landsat, MODIS) and dendrochronology data. Climate variables studied included temperature, precipitation and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) drought index. Landsat data analysis showed that stand mortality was first detected in the year 2006 at an elevation of 650 m, and extended up to 900 m by the year 2012. Mortality was accompanied by a decrease in MODIS derived vegetation index (EVI).. The area of dead stands and the upper mortality line were correlated with increased drought. The uphill margin of mortality was limited by elevational precipitation gradients. Dead stands (i.e., >75% tree mortality) were located mainly on southern slopes. With respect to slope, mortality was observed within a 7 deg - 20 deg range with greatest mortality occurring on convex terrain. Tree radial incrementmeasurements correlate and were synchronous with SPEI (r sq = 0.37, r(sub s) = 80). Increasing synchrony between tree ring growth and SPEI indicates that drought has reduced the ecological niche of Siberian pine. The results also showed the primary role of drought stress on Siberian pine mortality. A secondary role may be played by bark beetles and root fungi attacks. The observed Siberian pine mortality is part of a broader phenomenon of "dark needle conifers" (DNC, i.e., Siberian pine, fir and spruce) decline and mortality in European Russia, Siberia, and the Russian Far East. All locations of DNC decline coincided with areas of observed drought increase. The results obtained are one of the first observations of drought-induced decline and mortality of DNC at the southern border of boreal forests. Meanwhile if model projections of increased aridity are correct DNC, within the southern part of its range may be replaced by drought-resistant Pinus silvestris and Larix sibirica.

  5. Accumulation of plutonium from fallout in southern Finns and Lapps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The body burden of 239,240Pu and 238Pu from fallout in southern Finns and Lapps was determined by ion exchange and alpha-spectrometry through analyses of autopsy tissue samples. Comparing the body burden against the inhalation and ingestion intake of plutonium of these population groups the fractional absorption factor for plutonium from the human gastrointestinal tract and lungs was estinated. In addition, the determined tissue values were compared with those computed with the aid of the ICRP lung model and plutonium content of surface air in the Helsinki area. The 239,240Pu concentrations per wet weight of tissue descended in the order liver>lymph nodes>bone>lung>testes>muscle. A dependence of plutonium content of tissues on the amount of air inhaled by the person during the fallout period and, thus, on the age of the person, was shown. The skeletal distribution of plutonium in man was roughly similar to that reported for animals. The ratio of 239,240Pu content in vertebrae to that in ribs was 1.4, on the average, and the rib/femur ratio 1.0. The average body burden of 239,240Pu in adult southern Finn and Lapp males was estimated to be 1.2 pCi (44.4 mBq), of which about 51 per cent was located in liver and 40 per cent in skeleton. The estimates for the ingestion and inhalation intake of 239,240Pu during the period 1945-78 were 36 and 18 pCi (1.3, 0.67 Bq) and 540 and 13 pCi (19.9, 0.48 Bq) for southern Finn and Lapp males, respectively. The estimated fractional absorption factor of plutonium in humn GI-tract was of the order (6-9)x10-4 and in lungs (7.5-8.5)x10-2. (author)

  6. Hospital Mortality Associated with Stroke in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Borhani-Haghighi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unlike the western hemisphere, information about stroke epidemiology in southern Iran is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the main epidemiological characteristics of patients with stroke and its mortality rate in southern Iran. Methods: A retrospective, single-center, hospital-based longitudinal study was performed at Nemazee Hospital in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Patients with a diagnosis of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes were identified based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th editions, for the period between 2001 and 2010. Demographics including age, sex, area of residence, socioeconomic status, length of hospital stay, and discharge destinations were analyzed in association with mortality. Results: 16351 patients with a mean age of 63.4 years (95% CI: 63.1, 63.6 were included in this analysis. Men were slightly predominant (53.6% vs. 46.4%. Forty-seven percent of the total sample was older than 65,17% were younger than 45, and 2.6% were children younger than 18. The mean hospital stay was 6.3 days (95% CI: 6.2, 6.4. Among all types of strokes, the overall hospital mortality was 20.5%. Multiple logistic regression revealed significantly higher in-hospital mortality in women and children (P<0.001 but not in patients with low socioeconomic status or from rural areas. During the study period, the mortality proportions increased from 17.8% to 22.2%. Conclusion: In comparison to western countries, a larger proportion of our patients were young adults and the mortality rate was higher.

  7. Performance of a Southern Ocean sea ice forecast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, P.; Roberts, A.; Budd, W.

    2003-12-01

    The presentation examines the forecast peformance of an oriented fracture sea ice model applied to the Southern Ocean to predict sea ice state up to five days in advance. The model includes a modified Coulombic elastic-viscous-plastic rheology, enthalpy conserving thermodynamics and a new method of parameterising thickness distribution mechanics. 15 ice thickness classes are employed within each grid cell with a horizontal resolution of 50km. The model provides considerable insight into the thickness evolution and climatology of Antarctic sea ice. To date, thickness evolution of the Southern Ocean sea ice zone has mostly been assessed using course two-category models in climate simulations and results presented in this talk provide much greater detail over some existing model output. Simulations are presented from the model driven with NCEP-2 atmospheric analyses, NOAA sea surface temperatures, and mean climatogological currents generated using an eddy resolving ocean model. Analyses are generated by nudging ice concentrations with daily satellite derived open water fractions, and simulations using this method are compared to those without. There are important considerations in assimilating passive microwave ice concentration data into thickness distribution models, and particular attention is given to the treatment of lead ice and the impact this has on estimated total Southern Ocean sea ice volume. It is shown that nudging the model with satellite derived concentrations has an impact on ice mechanics as judged from simulated buoy tracks. A comparison with sonar soundings of sea ice draft is also favourable but shows variation with location. Whilst 5 day forecasts are reasonably skilled, predictive performance changes with season. Application of this research to operational ocean data assimilation systems is discussed in the final stages of the talk.

  8. Complex brittle deformation pattern along the Southern Patagonian Andes (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberón, Vanesa; Sue, Christian; Ronda, Gonzalo; Ghiglione, Matías

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Patagonian Andes is located in the southern extreme of the Pacific subduction zone, where the Antartic oceanic plate sinks underneath South America. The history of the area begins with compression during Paleozoic, Jurassic extension associated to the rift and opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, then a sag stage in the Lower Cretaceous followed by a foreland phase as a result of plate tectonics (Ghiglione et al., 2016). The kinematic study is concentrated in the Argentinean foothills, between 46°40' and 48° SL. We measured around 800 fault planes and their striaes with the sense of movement in order to characterize the stress field. The software used to make the stress inversion were Tensor (Delvaux, 2011) and Multiple Inverse Method MIM (Yamaji et al., 2011). The stress field map was built with the results of the MIM. We present new data from 48 sites located in the northern sector of the Southern Patagonian Andes. The measurements were made in several rocks from Paleozoic to Lower Cretaceous, even though most were taken in pyroclastic jurassic rocks from El Quemado Complex. Paleostress tensors obtained are mostly strike-slip, although a 25% is normal and there are a few compresional. The pattern of faults found is complex. In some sites the tensor can be locally linked to satellite images and observations from the field or be related to a major thrust front. There is no clear correlation between the age and/or lithology with the tensor since the youngest rocks measured are Lower Cretaceous. Probably there are several generations of family faults connected to different and recent tectonic phases then the paleostress tensors might correspond to the latest tectonic events.

  9. Cryptococcus gattii-Induced Infections in Dogs from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Di Santis, Giovana Wingeter; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Costa, Thais Correa; da Silva, Elisangela Olegário; Pretto-Giordano, Lucienne Garcia; Gomes, Lucas Alécio; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico R L

    2015-10-01

    Cryptococcus gattii-induced cryptococcosis is an emerging infectious disease of humans and animals worldwide, with rare descriptions of this infection in domestic animals from Brazil. This study presents the findings associated with C. gattii in dogs from Londrina, Paraná, Southern Brazil. Two dogs, a 3-year-old, female German shepherd and a 6-year-old, male Boxer, were evaluated by a combination of pathological, mycological, and molecular diagnostic techniques. Significant pathological alterations included cryptococcal lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, tonsillitis, and rhinitis with nasal cryptococcomas in the German shepherd dog, while cryptococcal lymphadenitis and pneumonia were observed in the Boxer; both dogs had pseudocystic cryptococcosis. The mucicarmine histochemical stain readily identified the intralesional cryptococcal budding organisms in all affected tissues. Mycological culture and isolation confirmed the yeasts as C. gattii due to positive reaction with the L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue agar. A PCR assay using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS)1 and ITS2 primers, which target the ITS1 and 2 regions including the 5.8S rRNA gene, amplified the desired amplicons; direct sequencing confirmed the isolate as C. gattii. ITS nucleotide differentiation demonstrated that the isolate forms part of the ITS type 4 Cryptococcus organisms which corresponds to the C. gattii VGII molecular subtype or the RAPD type 2 Cryptococcus organisms. Collectively, these findings confirmed the participation of C. gattii in the etiopathogenesis of the lesions observed in these dogs and expanded the epidemiological niche of this important mycotic agent to include Southern Brazil. It is noteworthy to mention that previous epidemiological studies have suggested that C. gattii-induced cryptococcosis is more frequently diagnosed in Northern relative to Southern Brazil, so these findings might suggest an expansion of the distribution of this agent within continental

  10. METRIC Estimated ET Evaluation on the Semiarid Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, J. L.; Gowda, P. H.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Evett, S. R.; Howell, T. A.; Copeland, K.

    2007-05-01

    Declining groundwater levels in the Southern High Plains of the United States, and the fact that agriculture in this region uses more than 90% of groundwater withdrawals, combine to increase the demand for efficient agricultural water use. Accurate regional evapotranspiration (ET) maps would provide valuable information on crop water use. In this study, we applied METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution using Internalized Calibration), a remote sensing based ET algorithm, and micrometeorological data measured at a grass reference ET weather station maintained by the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration Network (TXHPET). For this purpose, a Landsat Thematic Mapper image covering a major portion of the Southern High Plains (parts of Texas Panhandle and northeastern New Mexico) was acquired for 23 July 2006 at 11:26 AM CST. Comprehensive ground-truth data were collected to develop a detailed land use map showing major crops grown in the region. Performance of the METRIC model was evaluated using measured ET data on five weighing lysimeters at Bushland, TX [35 Deg. 11' N, 102 Deg. 06' W; 1,170 m elevation MSL] managed by the Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS. Lysimeter-measured ET rates varied from 2.4 to 7.8 mm/d. Good agreement was found between the remote sensing based ET and measured ET. Comparison of estimated daily mapped ET values with lysimetric measurements had an accuracy within 9% of the measured ET (r2 = 0.89) with a mean square error of 0.9 mm/d. The use of METRIC for advective conditions of the Southern High Plains is promising; however, more evaluation is needed for different agroclimatological conditions.

  11. A cardioactive peptide from the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K; Hackett, M; Cirelli, M A; Schegg, K M; Wang, H; Shabanowitz, J; Hunt, D F; Schooley, D A

    1999-01-01

    A cardioactive peptide was isolated from extracts of whole heads of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania. This peptide has the sequence ENFAVGCTPGYQRTADGRCKPTF (Mr = 2516.8), determined from both Edman sequencing and tandem mass spectrometry in combination with off-line micropreparative capillary liquid chromatography. This peptide, termed Spoer-CAP23, has excitatory effects on a semi-isolated heart from larval Manduca sexta, causing an inotropic effect at low concentrations of peptide and chronotropic and inotropic effects at high doses. The threshold concentration for stimulatory effects of the synthetic peptide on the semi-isolated heart was about 1 nM, suggesting a physiological role as a neuropeptide. PMID:10098624

  12. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale effects. An outlook

  13. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale

  14. Geopolitics representation: Chile and Argentina in southern ice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Isabel Manzano Itura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitics, from concept named in 1917 by Rudolf Kjellén has been in continuous evolution until today. Since the incorporation of the representations, the first concept has been of vital importance in different territorial conflicts’ analysis. By means of a geopolitical analysis, the present article intends to understand the geopolitical representations in the area of southern ice fields, the last boundaries issue that still remains in abeyance between Chile and Argentina and how is that both countries have discussed the problem on a basis of representations, in which maps have been the image of each one facing the other, favoring in this way competition between states.

  15. Polymorphisms associated with sickle cell disease in Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghpanah, S; Nasirabadi, S; Kianmehr, M; Afrasiabi, A; Karimi, M

    2012-07-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder. We aimed to describe the spectrum of haplotyes of BS-gene and to investigate a relationship with disease phenotype in patients with SCD in Southern Iran. We didn't find any significant association between BS-globin gene haplotypes and clinical severity of the disease in an Iranian population. The exact mechanism by which the BS-globin gene polymorphism affects clinical presentation is not obvious; however, further detailed studies at the molecular level, with a larger sample size are required to show the mechanisms that influence the clinical presentation of SCD in Iranian population. PMID:22988776

  16. Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB), Blumenau, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andre de Gasper; Alexander Christian Vibrans; Luis Adriano Funez; Morilo José Rigon-Jr.; Felipe Bittencourt; Carina Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the wh...

  17. Hematology and serum chemistry of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A

    1991-10-01

    In 1983 and 1984 blood was collected from 79 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to an outdoor enclosure in southern Illinois to establish reference values for hematology and serum chemistry. Packed cell volume, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, calcium, carbon dioxide, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, and osmolality were measured. Sex and age (adult versus juvenile) of rabbit as well as season (June to September versus October to May) and method of capture (trap versus shot) variously affected most hematology and serum chemistry variables. PMID:1758030

  18. Milk production on smallholder dairy cattle farms in Southern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Vo

    2011-01-01

    Dairy production is a rather new and not a traditional system in Vietnam. It is mainly based on smallholder dairy farms. The general aim of the studies in this thesis was to improve milk production on smallholder dairy farms in Southern Vietnam and also to create a foundation that could be used in the advisory service or/and in further research for better milking management routines. Studies were done to cover the specific objectives of this thesis. The studies were designed to identify the p...

  19. Measurements of Scattering Function of sea water in Southern Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, W.; Król1, T.; Martynov, O. V.; Shybanov, E. B.; Hapter, R.

    2007-05-01

    The Volume Scattering Functions (VSF) were measured in Southern Baltic area. The instrument used to this aim allow to measure in full range of angles and for four wavelengths. Obtained characteristics create the set of data which is need to solve the radiative transfer equation. Measured functions were compared with Petzold Average-Particle Phase Function. Spectral variations of measured scattering coefficients and backscattering coefficients are presented. Furthermore the instability of measured scattering ratios is discussed in this paper. Such instability have not been mentioned in the literature before.

  20. Radioactive contamination of the forests of southern Poland and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data of caesium and ruthenium radioactivity in chosen parts of forest ecosystems in Finland and Southern Poland are presented and compared. Measurements were performed with a low-background gamma-rays spectrometer with the Ge(Li) detector. The maximum caesium 137 activity in litter from Poland is 2.5 kBq, in that from Finland 3.9 kBq, in spruce needles it is 0.4 kBq (Poland), 0.9 kBq (Finland) and in fern leaves it is as high as 15.9 kBq per kg of dry mass in one sample from Poland. (author)