WorldWideScience

Sample records for 1990s measurement distribution

  1. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  2. Large Permafrost Warming in Northern Alaska During the 1990's Determined from GTN-P Borehole Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior currently maintains 9 automated active-layer monitoring stations and an array of 21 deep boreholes in northern Alaska as part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P). The GTN-P network is used both for climate change detection and for documenting the sensitivity of permafrost to climate change; GTN-P is one component of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS), which in turn is part of the long-term Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). During August 2002, temperatures were re-measured in the majority of the DOI/GTN-P boreholes to determine the present thermal state of deep permafrost in northern Alaska. A preliminary comparison with earlier temperature logs from the borehole array shows that permafrost on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain and Alaskan Arctic Foothills has warmed ~ 3 K since the late 1980's. This warming of the Arctic cryosphere coincides with the shift in atmospheric dynamics described by the Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode (NAM) that also began in the late 1980's.

  3. 20世纪90年代瑞典分配制度改革及启示%The reform and enlightenment of Swedish distribution system in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠波

    2015-01-01

    In the 1990s,Sweden fell into “stagflation”.To get rid of the crisis,the Swedish government carried out a series of reforms in the income distribution field.The reforms of primary distribution and redistribution increased the vigor of Swedish economy,and provided the beneficial enlightenment for the distribution system reformations of China.%20世纪90年代瑞典陷入“滞涨”,为摆脱危机,瑞典政府对收入分配制度方面进行了一系列改革,初次分配和再分配领域的改革为瑞典经济增加了活力,同时也为中国的分配制度改革提供了有益的启示。

  4. Retirement Age Declines Again in 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendell, Murray

    2001-01-01

    The average retirement age continued to decline in the 1990s after having leveled off during the preceding 10-15 years. The resumption of the decline is attributed largely to a rise in the labor force participation rate of older men and women between the mid-1980s and 2000. (Author/JOW)

  5. Marketing ambulatory services in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S

    1992-07-01

    The ability to predict, to adapt to change, and to develop strategic low cost marketing plans are the components essential to remaining financially solvent in today's health care environment. The marketing process is analogous to the nursing process and should support the institution's mission statement, philosophy, and goals. Managers who are able to empower their personnel to become the sales force and implement the marketing plan will be the survivors in the 1990s.

  6. FERMILAB: Physics in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainstorming workshops are a regular feature of the high energy physics scene, but a recent Workshop on Physics at Fermilab in the 1990s was one of the most important in the Laboratory's 20-year history, charting the aims of a research centre which will retain the distinction of having the highest energy accelerator in the world well into the next decade

  7. Trend analysis of fertility in China in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, E; Su, R

    1996-01-01

    This article analyzes Chinese fertility rates during the 1990s. Fertility during the early 1990s dropped below replacement level. The concern is whether delayed marriage and childbearing will result in higher fertility in the mid- and late-1990s. Maintaining replacement level fertility will depend upon continued family planning efforts. Current low fertility is attributed to strong administrative family planning measures and controlled social and economic development. Challenges include the difficulty of providing access to family planning for the floating population, the unevenness of development between regions, the high fertility rates in some backward regions, and the desire among most farmers for two children, including one boy. Family planning workers must adjust strategies to the new socialist market economy in order to maintain effectiveness. The authors view future family planning efforts as "arduous and prolonged." Statistical reporting is still beset with problems of underreporting of births. The 1989 census reports total fertility as 2.25 children/woman, which may be too low by as much as 8%. Estimates for readjustments of data can never be as reliable as precise values. The authors consider that survey data in the 1990s on first marriage and first birth were quite reliable. The State Statistical Bureau reports from population-shift sample surveys that the total fertility rate was 2.01 in 1991, 1.86 in 1992, 1.85 in 1993, and 1.84 in 1994. The authors emphasize that fertility rate has a period effect and that changes must be viewed over a prolonged period of time. Analysis of the period effect reveals that age at first marriage increased during the early 1990s and the total first marriage rate was reduced to 0.90 in 1992. The one-child fertility rate was 0.94 in 1994. The interval to first birth fluctuated but was not significantly extended. Second-child fertility rates are gradually declining. The authors warn of the danger of birth "heaping" after the

  8. Physics through the 1990s: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume details the interaction of physics and society, and presents a short summary of the progress in the major fields of physics and a summary of the other seven volumes of the Physics through the 1990s series. Issues and recommended policy changes are described regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs. Three supplements report in detail on international issues in physics (the US position in the field, international cooperation and competition--especially on large projects, freedom for scientists, free flow of information, and education of foreign students), the education and supply of physicists (the changes in US physics education, employment and manpower, and demographics of the field), and the organization and support of physics (government, university, and industry research; facilities; national laboratories; and decision making). An executive summary contains recommendations for maintaining excellence in physics. A glossary of scientific terms is appended

  9. Computing possibilities in the mid 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, T.

    1988-09-01

    This paper describes the kind of computing resources it may be possible to make available for experiments in high energy physics in the mid and late 1990s. We outline some of the work going on today, particularly at Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program, that projects to the future. We attempt to define areas in which coordinated R and D efforts should prove fruitful to provide for on and off-line computing in the SSC era. Because of extraordinary components anticipated from industry, we can be optimistic even to the level of predicting million VAX equivalent on-line multiprocessor/data acquisition systems for SSC detectors. Managing this scale of computing will require a new approach to large hardware and software systems. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Physics through the 1990s: A summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary presents some highlights of the recently released physics survey Physics Through the 1990s. The purpose of the survey is to provide an authoritative research assessment of the major fields of physics. To accomplish that, the Physics Survey Committee prepared six volumes on the fields of physics and two cross-cutting volumes - Scientific interfaces and Technological Applications and An Overview. This brief summary can do little more than pique the reader's interest in the more complete treatment in those eight volumes, which provide convincing documentation of a physics enterprise that is vital and productive. The summary is organized into three parts. The first part sketches the progress that has occurred over the past decade and gives an indication of where the field is headed. Only a few highlights have been included; in each field of physics, important elements have been omitted for the sake of brevity. The second part relates physics to other sciences and the needs of society. The first two sections are quite selective; applications have received strong emphasis as a principal theme of this summary. The third part indicates some of the requirements for maintaining excellence in physics and includes a brief synopsis of the major recommendations of the Physics Survey Committee

  11. Fertility trends in Serbia during the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1990s represent an exceptionally complex period for the population of Serbia. In addition to the impact of long-term factors, various tumultuous events affected its demographic development, such as breaking apart of former Yugoslavia, armed conflicts in the neighboring countries, sanctions imposed by the international community, social changes (transition transformation or regression, deep economic crisis, collapse of social stratification political problems, institutional crisis, and NATO military intervention. Maladjustment to the changed system of values and norms, lower level of personal attainment, feeling of insecurity, and living under permanent stress are the main features of life at an individual psychological level. Deprivation or living at the subsistence level are the main elements of the economic cost sustained by the majority of the population. How have these changes affected an individual's decision to have children? The analysis of futility indicators points to an obvious decline in the number of births across low fertility regions of Serbia. Also, the analysis has raised the question why the decline in population fertility in the low fertility regions was not even higher, bearing in mind the experiences undergone by the countries with economy in transition as well as the depth of the crisis in society. In that sense several factors come to mind. The most important are the universality of marriage socio-psychological investigations confirmed domination of the traditional character or mentality in Serbia during the 1990s, and the government’s approach to the issue of fertility improved during this time. Besides demographic needs were carefully taken into account in all amendments to the old and formulation of the new measures in the area of social policy. Mention should be made of measures ensuring employment rights of women and their entitlement to maternity leave, maternity pay, and provision of institutionalized care for

  12. 1990's annual report of INPE's Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the 1990's annual report of INPE's Plasma Associated Laboratory it contains information on current research developed at the laboratory including quiescent plasma, magnetized plasma, plasma centrifuge, plasma and radiation (gyrotron), ionic propulsion, and toroidal plasma. (A.C.A.S.)

  13. Completing School in Australia: Trends in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    After a period of dramatic growth in secondary school completion in Australia, school retention rates are declining. Analysis of state, system, geographic, social, and gender patterns suggests that during the 1990s the downturn in completion rate has been uneven; some groups who had come to rely on schooling during the 1980s for future economic…

  14. Shakespeare for the 1990s: A Multicultural Tempest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey-Webb, Allen

    1993-01-01

    Argues that William Shakespeare's "The Tempest" is the play that is best suited for the high school English curriculum of the 1990s. Discusses historical and critical aspects the play's key themes. Shows ways of using the play in high school classes, and describes 19 works to read alongside of"The Tempest." (HB)

  15. Overcoming Learned Helplessness: Managerial Strategies for the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhold, Rose Marie; Razak, W. Nevell

    1991-01-01

    Discusses problems of work force quality in the United States in the 1990s, strategies for managerial response to these problems, and sources of employee resistance to change. Notes that business and industry may be forced to hire minorities and women with orientations to self and work different from those held by white middle-class men.…

  16. U.S. Energy Policy During the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses U.S. energy policy and the associated evolution of energy supply, energy demand, energy prices and the industrial organization of the domestic energy industries during the period 1991 through 2000. This period covers the last two years of the George H. W. Bush administration and the entire Clinton administration. The paper begins with a background discussion of energy supply, consumption and energy policy prior to the 1990s. It then provides an overview of the evolution o...

  17. Evolution of Retail Payments in Finland in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Snellman, Jussi

    2000-01-01

    During the 1990s the availability of location-specific retail payment services in Finland declined substantially, but at the same time there was a surge of development of self-service methods. These new methods, which make use eg of mobile phones and the Internet, dramatically increased the availability of payment services that are not tied to location. More traditional forms of payment still exist; for example, the use of cash remains significant. In Europe there are marked differences betwe...

  18. Characteristics of Induced Abortion in China in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-chun QIAO

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand the characteristics of induced abortion in China in the 1990s,and to find out the influential factors.Methods The overall number of induced abortions, calculate cohort induced abortion frequency, explore the impact of a child's sex and the number of previous children on induced abortions were estimated by using the data from the "National Population and Reproductive Health Survey" conducted by the National Family Planning Commission in November 1997.Results Induced abortions in China had their own characteristics, which were far different from other countries. The main difference was led by the fact that the country was driven by an implemented family planning program and nationwide population policies. The key cause of induced abortions was due to an inconsistency with the requirements of the family planning policy. However, as a result of effective and prevalent contraception, the rates of induced abortions were not quite high in the 1990s,when compared with other countries. Even though, in the early 1990s, the government had reinforced the family planning program through administration and legislation,unlike during the early 1980s when the one-child policy was implemented, the induced abortion rate and the number of induce abortions did not increase as the fertility rate substantially decreased.Concltsion This finding implies that the fertility declines in the 1990s were not caused by the number of induced abortions. The transition of the fertility ideology of the people has played an important role in the fertility decline, as institutional reform and socioeconomic development are implemented.

  19. Helioseismology in the 1980s and 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Philip R.

    2014-02-01

    Over more than twenty years, Wojtek Dziembowski and I collaborated on nearly fifty papers, which were concentrated in helioseismology through the 1980s and 1990s, but extended early into the new century. In this review, I discuss the most significant results of this collaboration and some of the underlying sociology that contributed to the intensity and longevity of our collaboration. Our work began with placing limits on the Sun's buried magnetic field and ended with extracting from the solar-cycle dependent oscillation frequency changes the roles (and net result) of competing dynamical drivers of changes in the solar diameter.

  20. The decline of job security in the 1990s: displacement, anxiety, and their effect on wage growth

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Aaronson; Sullivan, Daniel G.

    1998-01-01

    This article shows that job displacement rates for high-seniority workers and a consistently constructed measure of workers' fears of job loss both rose during the 1990s. It then explores the relationship between these measures of job displacement and worker anxiety and wage growth.

  1. Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, P R

    2001-09-01

    The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.

  2. Growth opportunities in electric generation in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author has been asked to give a background perspective on the relative roles of two fuels, coal and natural gas, as the electric utility industry looks out over the remainder of the century and beyond. The goal of this review is to provide a better understanding of the forces shaping the competition between coal and gas, and the direction this competition is likely to take in the years ahead. In speaking to the question of the emerging role of gas in the electric utility industry, the author addresses four questions: (1) the mix of new generation planned for the 1990s; (2) the reasons for renewed interest in gas; (3) the long run potential for gas; and (4) operational challenges unique to gas. He concludes with a simple question: will gas and coal really compete, or will they serve different markets?

  3. European Telecommunications Conference. Strategic Planning for the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. F.

    1990-06-01

    The European Telecommunications Conference Strategic Planning for the 1990s provided information to delegates and their companies on strategic planning for the European market, particularly after the advent of the European Single Market at the end of 1992. The conference objective was to examine the impact of the initiatives of the European Commission (EC) and the changing attitudes to service provision by public and private sector organizations on industry and marketing. Organized by Blenheim Online and Logica, 40 delegates attended this conference, mainly from Europe, but with a few from the U.S. The papers were designed to illuminate such questions as emerging market sectors, impact of U.S telecommunications organizations in Europe, mergers and acquisition, standards, and value-added services.

  4. Secondary Education in Argentina during the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Gorostiaga

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The reform of secondary education has been a fundamental part of national educational policy in Argentina since the beginning of the 1990s. Along with the decentralization of responsibilities to provinces and a new structure of primary and secondary education, changes have affected the areas of curriculum design, teaching methods, teacher training, school management, and information and evaluation systems. This study describes the main policies on secondary education implemented during the last decade, including their objectives and rationales. Focusing on how the reform can be seen to relate to issues of access, quality and equity, the study presents an analysis of its implementation, and discusses some of its effects. We argue that political, economic and technical factors as well as the strategies chosen by the national government resulted in a limited implementation, and we highlight the need for considering more focused reform strategies, alternative models of teacher training, and a more active involvement of teachers.

  5. Mortality trends in Serbia during the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penev Goran D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Troubled historical events from the 1990s considerably influenced the latest demographic trends in Serbia (excluding Kosovo and Metohija. In the domain of mortality, these trends were reflected through the manifestation of many unfavorable changes. Such mortality changes in Serbia were relatively short-lived and considerably less pronounced than in most countries in transition, especially in comparison to some former Soviet republics. Taking into consideration the scale and duration of the general social crisis in Serbia, we could evaluate these aggravations as moderate. On the other hand, improvements of mortality trends that arose during the 1990s were considerably less pronounced than in other European countries, especially in comparison to improvements that were realized in some other countries in the second half of the 1990s. During the 1990s, the annual number of deaths as well as the crude death rates continued increasing. The crude death rate of 13.8 per 1000 in the year 2000 represents the maximum in the last 50 years. Consequently, at the end of the 20th century, Serbia (excluding Kosovo and Metohija is above the European average according to crude mortality rates, and observed by countries, higher rates were registered only in a few former socialist countries. During the 1990s, significant changes in age-specific mortality rates were not realized. The relatively greatest decrease was in infant mortality rate (from 21.8 in 1991 to 11.7 per 1000 in 2001. Despite the unexpectedly favorable trends, Serbia is considerably behind many other European countries in which the infant mortality rate is reduced to a very low level (under 5 per 1000 live births. As for 1991 and 1992, and partly for 1993, a rapid increase of younger adult population deaths was noted. Such trends, though, did not cause considerable changes either in the total number of deaths or in the life expectancy. The mortality of older adult population (40-59 at the end of the

  6. Television, Rituals, Struggle for Public Memory in Serbia during 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Erdei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to point to the the role of television (mainly state owned and controlled and ritual actions, in creating and distributing messages concerning important social and political events during the 1990s. The main argument is that the urban street political protest actions that were performed by the political and social opponents of the ruling regime, mainly in Belgrade streets and squares, were a logical outcome of the regime’s media policy, and closely dependent on it. The aim of that policy was to silence the opposing voices and make them invisible, but also to avoid speaking about events that might threaten the image of the ruling regime as tolerant, peaceful and patriotic, the examples of which were information on war crimes, and devastations of Vukovar, Dubrovnik and Sarajevo. Political protests and ritual actions have created a place where these issues could safely be spoken out, thus creating an emerging public counter sphere. Instead of considering media and rituals as separated ways of communication, it will be showed how in particular social and political context in Serbia during 1990s, television and rituals have reached a point of mutual constitution and articulation.

  7. Resisting Postmodernity: Swedish social policy in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce ideas that have emerged during the course of writing a book on Swedish welfare in the 1990s. The book is the result of many years of writing about two subjects: Swedish drug policy and the Swedish welfare state. The one very specialised, the other, more general. I first became interested in Swedish drug policy on a research visit to Örebro Län in 1986. A social worker showed me a copy of the county's drug policy programme and explained the significance of the 'restrictive line'. I have spent the years since that visit, trying to understand and explain the Swedish goal of a drug-free society (Gould 1988, 1994, 1996b. I only began to write about the welfare state in Sweden in the early 1990s, just as things were beginning to go wrong for the economy (Gould 1993a, 1993b, 1996a, 1999. For the last few years I have intended to write a book on the events covered by the period 1991-1998 - the years of a Bourgeois and a Social Democratic Government -which would bring the two halves of my work together. Material for this study has been accumulated over many years. A number of research visits have been made; large numbers of academics, politicians, civil servants, journalists, unemployed people, social workers and their clients have been interviewed; and extensive use has been made of academic, administrative and public libraries. Since September 1991 I have systematically collected articles from Dagens Nyheter about social services, social insurance, health care, employment, social issues and problems, the economy and politics. The journal Riksdag och Departement (Parliament and Ministry, which summarises a wide range of public documents, has been invaluable. Friends and informal contacts have also given me insights into the Swedish way of life. The new book is based upon all of these experiences. This paper will begin with a brief account of major global social and economic changes that have occurred in the

  8. Childbirth education in the 1990s and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwelling, E

    1996-06-01

    Childbirth education has been evolving for centuries. It has been a part of the experience of pregnancy and birth since the beginning of time, although it did not exist in the formal structure that exists today. It began in response to a need to improve prenatal care and maternal-infant outcomes. It experienced an awakening fueled by the women's movement and the grass roots consumer movement between 1960 and 1980 and had an impact on the development of family-centered maternity care. It has been influenced by institutional control in the 1980s and 1990s. Throughout these decades the goals of childbirth education have changed and evolved. As we near the year 2000, childbirth education approaches a crossroads and faces many challenges for the future. A number of factors will influence the direction that childbirth education takes in the next century. These factors include demographic trends, health care reform, the philosophy of health care providers, goals and responsibilities of consumers, goals of educational programs, consumer access to education programs, the philosophy and role of childbirth educators, research, and standards of practice. PMID:8791230

  9. Financing uranium exploration and development projects in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium production industry experienced momentous change during the decade of the 1980s. The Three Mile Island accident took place in the spring of 1979 and, while not necessarily creating the uranium open-quotes bustclose quotes of the ensuing decade, certainly set the tone for the entire nuclear power industry. Ever-increasing forecasts of installed commercial nuclear power coupled with a growing concern regarding the adequacy of uranium reserves and production capacity, ignited a wave of exploration and production capacity development in the mid-to-late 1970s which continued into the early 1980s. This momentum lead to over-production of uranium concentrates when compared to the eventual operation of commercial nuclear power plants. This material resulted in expanding inventories held by uranium producers and consumers alike. As these stockpiles inevitably found their way into the spot market, the price (as indicated by the NUEXCO Exchange Value) fell from a peak of $43.40 per pound U3O8 in May 1978 to its current level of $8.80 per pound U3O8 on April 30, 1990. As the nuclear power industry enters the 1990s, the debate regarding global warming and the subsequent role of nuclear power generation take on more importance. In any event, the nuclear power programs initiated principally in the 1970s are nearing completion. Even though new orders of power reactors have dropped precipitiously in the 1980s, the generation of electricity by nuclear fission accounts for almost twenty percent of WOCA (World Outside Centrally Planned Economies) electricity production. In order to place my main topic of financing future uranium exploration projects in perspective, I will review the conclusions of a uranium market study recently completed by NUEXCO Information Services, a group which closely monitors and evaluates the nuclear power industry and the nuclear fuel cycle

  10. Population Growth in the 1990s: Patterns within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Examines population growth during the 1990s for a variety of geographic levels including regions, divisions, states, metropolitan areas, counties, and large cities. Compares growth rates for the 1990s with earlier decades to provide an historical context for present-day trends in population growth and decline. Discusses how differential population…

  11. An Abrupt Increase in the Summer High Temperature Extreme Days across China in the mid-1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ke; CHEN Wen

    2011-01-01

    Based on the daily maximum surface air temperature records from an updated homogenized temperature dataset for 549 Chinese stations during 1960-2008,we reveal that there is an abrupt increase in the number of days with high temperature extremes (HTEs,an HTE day is defined when the maximum temperature exceeds the 95th percentile of the daily maximum temperature distributions) across China in the mid-1990s.Before this regime shift,the average number of HTE days is about 2.9 d yr-1 during the period from the 1970s to the early 1990s,while it rocketed to about 7.2 d yr-1 after the mid-1990s.We show that the significant HTE day increase occurs uniformly across the whole of China after the regime shift.The observational evidence raises the possibility that this change in HTE days is associated with global-scale warming as well as circulation adjustment.Possible causes for the abrupt change in the HTE days are discussed,and the circulation adjustment is suggested to play a crucial role in the increase in HTE days in this region.

  12. LUCC and Accompanied Soil Degradation in China from 1960's to 1990's

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Qigang; Shintaro GOTO; Hiroki TAKAMURA

    2002-01-01

    This paper tries to qualitatively analyze land use and cover changes (LUCC) and accompanied soil degradation in China, the data of World Atlas of Agriculture in 1969, Land Cover Data of Asia in 1992 and Global Assessment of Human Induced Soil Degradation in 1992, etc. have been used. From 1960' s to 1990's, the area of forestland had increased, arable land and paddy as well as grassland had significantly decreased in China. The major type of soil degradation is due to water erosion, which is widely distributed especially in Loess Plateau and in Southeast and Southwest China, this happened in forestland, grassland and arable land and mainly resulted from deforestation. The secondary type is wind erosion, which is mainly distributed in Northwest China, it happened in arable land and grassland and was caused by overgrazing. Chemical deterioration is distributed in North and Northwest China, which happened in paddy, arable land and grassland. Physical deterioration only concentrated in local area in North China, it happened in arable and paddy. Chemical and physical deteriora-tion mainly resulted from unreasonable activity. Because of different human activities, different LUCC and different natural conditions, the types and strength of soil degradation can be different.

  13. Gendered Patterns in Computing Work in the Late 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteli, Niki; Stack, Janet; Ramsay, Harvie

    2001-01-01

    Data on information technology employment in Britain and interviews in four companies depicted experiences of women in computing. Gender disparities in numbers and distribution, salaries, division of labor, and career progression were found. Masculine values in computing culture, gender differences in working style, and attitudes toward computers…

  14. The Advanced Placement Expansion of the 1990s:How Did Traditionally Underserved Students Fare?

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Klopfenstein

    2004-01-01

    The College Board’s Advanced Placement (AP) Program, which allows students to take college-level courses while in high school, enjoyed tremendous growth in the 1990s. Despite overall growth, small rural schools and high poverty schools continue to offer relatively few AP courses, and black, Hispanic, and low income students remain grossly underrepresented in AP classes. During the 1990s, AP incentive programs primarily subsidized test fees for low income students, but this provided no incenti...

  15. Northward expansion of the western Pacific Warm Pool in late 1990s and early 2000s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuxing; WANG Faming

    2012-01-01

    Based on 48-year (1958-2006) ocean reanalysis data of Simple Ocean Data Assimilation and 23-year (1984-2006) global ocean-surface heat flux products developed by the Objectively Analyzed AirSea Heat Flux Project,meridional variation of the western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) is addressed.The results show that there is a significant expansion of the northern edge of the WPWP in the late 1990s and early 2000s.This variation is mainly within 120°E-160°E by 8°N-20°N,we define this region (120°E-160°E by 8°N-20°N) as the core region.Furthermore,analyses on upper ocean heat budget show that the short wave radiation plays a key role in the northward expansion of the northern edge of the WPWP in the core region.It is proved that the northward expansion may be caused by the change of the mixed layer which became shallower in 1994-2006 compared with 1984-1993 in the study region.The short wave radiation flux distribution within the shallower mixed layer leads to a positive anomaly in seawater temperature,promoting the northward expansion of the WPWP.

  16. Changes in Land Surface Water Dynamics since the 1990s and Relation to Population Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, C.; Papa, F.; Aires, F.; Jimenez, C.; Rossow, W. B.; Matthews, E.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a remote sensing approach based on multi-satellite observations, which provides an unprecedented estimate of monthly distribution and area of land-surface open water over the whole globe. Results for 1993 to 2007 exhibit a large seasonal and inter-annual variability of the inundation extent with an overall decline in global average maximum inundated area of 6% during the fifteen-year period, primarily in tropical and subtropical South America and South Asia. The largest declines of open water are found where large increases in population have occurred over the last two decades, suggesting a global scale effect of human activities on continental surface freshwater: denser population can impact local hydrology by reducing freshwater extent, by draining marshes and wetlands, and by increasing water withdrawals. Citation: Prigent, C., F. Papa, F. Aires, C. Jimenez, W. B. Rossow, and E. Matthews (2012), Changes in land surface water dynamics since the 1990s and relation to population pressure, in section 4, insisting on the potential applications of the wetland dataset.

  17. Optimal distribution of measurement time in single channel measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspar, J

    2008-01-01

    Single channel measurements play a minor role in today physics, but they are sometimes unavoidable. Comparing to multichannel measurements, there is distribution of measurement time to be chosen in an experiment design. A method to optimize distribution of measurement time is given, where optimal distribution minimizes standard deviation of a selected fit parameter. As an example, the method is applied to electron spectroscopy experiments.

  18. Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular and optical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents a program of research initiatives in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The current state of atomic, molecular, and optical physics in the US is examined with respect to demographics, education patterns, applications, and the US economy. Recommendations are made for each field, with discussions of their histories and the relevance of the research to government agencies. The section on atomic physics includes atomic theory, structure, and dynamics; accelerator-based atomic physics; and large facilities. The section on molecular physics includes spectroscopy, scattering theory and experiment, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The section on optical physics discusses lasers, laser spectroscopy, and quantum optics and coherence. A section elucidates interfaces between the three fields and astrophysics, condensed matter physics, surface science, plasma physics, atmospheric physics, and nuclear physics. Another section shows applications of the three fields in ultra-precise measurements, fusion, national security, materials, medicine, and other topics.

  19. An unexpected rise in strontium-90 in US deciduous teeth in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Joseph J; Gould, Jay M; Sternglass, Ernest J; Sherman, Janette D; McDonnell, William

    2003-12-30

    For several decades, the United States has been without an ongoing program measuring levels of fission products in the body. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) concentrations in 2089 deciduous (baby) teeth, mostly from persons living near nuclear power reactors, reveal that average levels rose 48.5% for persons born in the late 1990s compared to those born in the late 1980s. This trend represents the first sustained increase since the early 1960s, before atmospheric weapons tests were banned. The trend was consistent for each of the five states for which at least 130 teeth are available. The highest averages were found in southeastern Pennsylvania, and the lowest in California (San Francisco and Sacramento), neither of which is near an operating nuclear reactor. In each state studied, the average Sr-90 concentration is highest in counties situated closest to nuclear reactors. It is likely that, 40 years after large-scale atmospheric atomic bomb tests ended, much of the current in-body radioactivity represents nuclear reactor emissions.

  20. Measuring Robustness on Generalized Gaussian Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Cheol Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Different from previous work that measured robustness its own distribution, measuring robustness with a robust estimator on a generalized Gaussian distribution is introduced here. In detail, an unbiased Maximum Likelihood (ML variance estimator and a robust variance estimator of the Gaussian distribution with a given censoring value are applied to the generalized Gaussian distribution that represents Gaussian, Laplace, and Cauchy distributions; then, Mean Square Error (MSE is calculated to measure robustness. Afterward, how robustness changes is shown because the actual distribution varies over the generalized Gaussian distribution. The results indicate that measuring the MSE of the system can be used to point out how robust the system is when the system distribution changes.

  1. Immigration in the U.S. Midwest During the 1990s: A Decade of Rapid Change

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Wallace

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines immigration trends and economic impacts of immigration on the Midwest over the 1990s, especially for rural and agricultural labor markets and places them in context relative to changes in California, Florida, and Texas and the whole United States. The 1990s was a period of rapid change, and it seem likely that new immigrants will not be assimilated quickly because a majority of them have low education, do not speak English well, or know the local culture. The paper conclud...

  2. Flooding 1990s along the Yangtze River, has it concern of global warming?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There were a series of severe floods along the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River (Changjiang River) in China during the 1990s. The extensive summer (June, July and August) precipitation is mostly responsible for the flooding. The summer rainfall in the 1980s and the 1990s is much higher than that in the previous 3 decades. The means for 1990-1999 is +87.62 mm above normal, marked the 1990s the wettest decade since the 1950s. Six stations with a time span of 1880-1999 are selected to establish century-long rainfall series. This series also shows that the 1990s is the wettest decade during the last 120 years. In the wettest 12 years, four occurred in the 1990s (1991,1996,1998 and 1999). Both global and China's temperature show there is a relative lower air temperature during the 1960-1970s, and a rapid warming in the 1980-1990s. Comparisons of rainfall between 1960-1979 and 1980-1999 show there are dramatic changes. In the cold period 1960-1979, the summer rainfall along the Yangtze River is 3.8 % to 4.7 % below the normal, during the warm period 1980-1999, over 8.4 % to 18.2 % of summer rainfall occurs. Over the whole eastern China, the summer rainfall shows opposite spatial patterns from the 1960-1970s to 1980-1990s. The consistent trend toward more rainfall with global warming is also presented by the greenhouse scenario modeling. A millennial Drought/flood Index for the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River showed that although the surplus summer rainfall in the 1990s is the severest during the past 150 years, it is not outstanding in the context of past millennium. Power spectra of the Drought/flood Index show significant interdecadal periods at 33.3 and 11.8 years. Thus, both the natural inter-decadal variations and the global warming may play important roles in the frequent floods witnessed during the last two decades.

  3. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  4. Foreign Direct Investment, Linkage Formation and Supplier Development in Thailand during the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s inbound FDI became a significant factor in Thailand's industrial transformation. At the same time there was increasing concerns about whether the new TNC-driven export industries actually contributed to the long-term competitiveness and a sustainable pattern of industrialisation...

  5. "Goodbye Radicalism!" : conceptions of conservatism among Chinese intellectuals during the early 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Els van

    2009-01-01

    This research has analyzed the topic of “conservatism” (baoshou zhuyi) in early 1990s China from a twofold perspective. Firstly, in the tradition of conceptual history (Begriffsgeschichte), the concrete use of the concept of “conservatism” in Chinese intellectual discourse has been studied in relati

  6. Mexican American Women's Activism at Indiana University in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…

  7. Rethinking School Finance: An Agenda for the 1990s. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan R., Ed.

    This book lays the groundwork for rethinking school finance in the context of new educational policy directions for the 1990s. Proposed educational reforms have created several school finance issues: (1) the linkage between the basic school finance structure, educational goals, and the cost of effective schoolwide strategies; (2) site-based…

  8. Residential segregation and public policies: São Paulo in the 1990's

    OpenAIRE

    Haroldo da Gama Torres; Ana Maura Tomesani

    2006-01-01

    The article aims at assessing the evolution of residential segregation in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, in the 1990's, which saw a significant increase of socioeconomic segregation. In addition to interpreting the phenomenon, the article proposes a discussion on the reasons the residential segregation should be considered a fundamental issue for the formulation of social urban policies.

  9. El Nino During the 1990's: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990's has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein; however, appear to mitigate this belief.

  10. El Nino during the 1990s: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990s has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein, however, appear to mitigate this belief. For example, regarding the frequency and severity of El Nino, the decade of the 1990s is found to compare quite favorably with that of preceding decades. Hence, the 1990s probably should not be regarded as being anomalous. On the other hand, the number of El Nino-related months per decade has sharply increased during the 1990s, as compared to the preceding four decades, hinting of a marginally significant upward trend. Perhaps, this is an indication that the Earth is now experiencing an ongoing global climatic change. Continued vigilance during the new millennium, therefore, is of paramount importance for determining whether or not this "hint" of a global change is real or if it merely reflects a normal fluctuation of climate.

  11. El Nino During the 1990s: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990's has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein; however, appear to mitigate this belief.

  12. Migration of Retirement-Age Blacks to Nonmetropolitan Areas in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Calvin L.; Fuguitt, Glenn V.

    2011-01-01

    Older blacks migrated to nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) communities in the 1990s to a degree not true of the past. Some of the nonmetro counties that attracted them are well-known retirement areas also favored by other retirees, mostly whites. Two-thirds of black retirement counties, however, are areas in the Old South that are not attracting other…

  13. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  14. Danish Architecture Sales to Germany in the 1990s. Ph.d.-serie 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    Danish Architecture Sales to Germany in the 1990s - An IMP/INPM Approach to Examining the Professional Service and Project-related Internationalization of Danish Architectural Service Firms 40 Summary in English or Danish can be obtained from the author (e-mail: mask@asb.dk). The dissertation won...... the American Marketing Association's "Liam Glynn Services Research Award" in the year 2001....

  15. Patterns in Payout Policy and Payout Channel Choice of UK Firms in the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Trojanowski, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines the payout policy of UK firms listed on the London Stock Exchange during the 1990s.We complement the existing payout literature studies by analyzing jointly the trends in dividends and share repurchases.Unlike in the US, we find that, in the UK, firms do not demonstrate a decreasi

  16. Transport Policy Implementation And Outcomes:The Case of Yaounde in the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eddia, S.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the implementation and outcomes of market friendly reforms in urban public transport in the city of Yaonde in Cameroon in the 1990s under auspices and pressure from Bretton Woods Institutions in favour of the new development doctrine that preached minimal state. It seeks to expa

  17. The Role of Communication Satellites in Education and Training: The 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Kenneth A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of satellite technology and trends in its use, reviews the evolution of education and training applications of communication satellites, and prognosticates about the possible national and international uses during the 1990s. A bibliography of 26 items is included. (CHC)

  18. Measuring the distribution of spitefulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik O Kimbrough

    Full Text Available Spiteful, antisocial behavior may undermine the moral and institutional fabric of society, producing disorder, fear, and mistrust. Previous research demonstrates the willingness of individuals to harm others, but little is understood about how far people are willing to go in being spiteful (relative to how far they could have gone or their consistency in spitefulness across repeated trials. Our experiment is the first to provide individuals with repeated opportunities to spitefully harm anonymous others when the decision entails zero cost to the spiter and cannot be observed as such by the object of spite. This method reveals that the majority of individuals exhibit consistent (non-spitefulness over time and that the distribution of spitefulness is bipolar: when choosing whether to be spiteful, most individuals either avoid spite altogether or impose the maximum possible harm on their unwitting victims.

  19. Direct measurements show decreasing methane emissions from natural gas local distribution systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Brian K; Edburg, Steven L; Ferrara, Thomas W; Howard, Touché; Harrison, Matthew R; Kolb, Charles E; Townsend-Small, Amy; Dyck, Wesley; Possolo, Antonio; Whetstone, James R

    2015-04-21

    Fugitive losses from natural gas distribution systems are a significant source of anthropogenic methane. Here, we report on a national sampling program to measure methane emissions from 13 urban distribution systems across the U.S. Emission factors were derived from direct measurements at 230 underground pipeline leaks and 229 metering and regulating facilities using stratified random sampling. When these new emission factors are combined with estimates for customer meters, maintenance, and upsets, and current pipeline miles and numbers of facilities, the total estimate is 393 Gg/yr with a 95% upper confidence limit of 854 Gg/yr (0.10% to 0.22% of the methane delivered nationwide). This fraction includes emissions from city gates to the customer meter, but does not include other urban sources or those downstream of customer meters. The upper confidence limit accounts for the skewed distribution of measurements, where a few large emitters accounted for most of the emissions. This emission estimate is 36% to 70% less than the 2011 EPA inventory, (based largely on 1990s emission data), and reflects significant upgrades at metering and regulating stations, improvements in leak detection and maintenance activities, as well as potential effects from differences in methodologies between the two studies. PMID:25826444

  20. Services Discovery for Distributed Network Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    More and more distributed applications are deployed around interconnected network, which makes it necessary for network measurement services to address the scalability and robustness requirements. This paper discusses a service discovery for integrated network measurement architecture (INMA), including finding the location of measurement agent, the path of the measurement and the network attributes of the end-to-end path or host. It also describes the functions of the major building blocks used to construct the measurement architecture.

  1. The Reform of Secondary Education in Indonesia during the 1990s: Basic Education Expansion and Quality Improvement through Curriculum Decentralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Min-Ho; Acedo, Clementina; Utomo, Erry

    2002-01-01

    Case study of two main secondary education reforms in Indonesia in the 1990s: Expansion of basic education and the decentralization of curriculum. Discusses the social, political, and economic trends in the 1990s, context of the secondary education reforms, and the rationale for the reforms. Focuses on the curriculum decentralization design and…

  2. The Advanced Placement Expansion of the 1990s:How Did Traditionally Underserved Students Fare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Klopfenstein

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The College Board’s Advanced Placement (AP Program, which allows students to take college-level courses while in high school, enjoyed tremendous growth in the 1990s. Despite overall growth, small rural schools and high poverty schools continue to offer relatively few AP courses, and black, Hispanic, and low income students remain grossly underrepresented in AP classes. During the 1990s, AP incentive programs primarily subsidized test fees for low income students, but this provided no incentive for low income and rural schools to expand their AP course offerings and did nothing to strengthen the weak academic preparation of low income, black and Hispanic students. Recent federal funding changes provide a step in the right direction by supporting a comprehensive approach to increasing the AP access and participation of traditionally underserved students.

  3. The Residency and Lives of Migrants in Japan Since the Mid-1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISHII, Yuka

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, Japan has been facing various issues related to the foreign residents who have settled in Japan and who have been slowly gaining recognition in Japanese society. The number of migrants and foreign residents has been increasing, and the perception of Japanese society vis-a-vis this new community has been changing gradually. However, Japanese society still faces the challenge of how to develop an awareness of diversity. This paper examines several problems in relation to the working environment, the residential and living environment, children's education, and the ethnic networks of these residents. Through analysing policy papers and statistics and reviewing the results of fieldwork by Japanese scholars in the 1990s and the 2000s, the author tries to reach a better understanding of the present situation of the multicultural Japanese society.

  4. Accelerated deforestation in the humid tropics from the 1990s to the 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Sexton, Joseph O.; Townshend, John R.

    2015-05-01

    Using a consistent, 20 year series of high- (30 m) resolution, satellite-based maps of forest cover, we estimate forest area and its changes from 1990 to 2010 in 34 tropical countries that account for the majority of the global area of humid tropical forests. Our estimates indicate a 62% acceleration in net deforestation in the humid tropics from the 1990s to the 2000s, contradicting a 25% reduction reported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Forest Resource Assessment. Net loss of forest cover peaked from 2000 to 2005. Gross gains accelerated slowly and uniformly between 1990-2000, 2000-2005, and 2005-2010. However, the gains were overwhelmed by gross losses, which peaked from 2000 to 2005 and decelerated afterward. The acceleration of humid tropical deforestation we report contradicts the assertion that losses decelerated from the 1990s to the 2000s.

  5. Doing it right? The US labour market response to the 1980s/1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Richard B.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper I examine both the positive and negative aspects of the US labor market response to the economic world of the 1980s/1990s. I review the economic development that created difficulties in the US and other advanced economies post the first oil shock; consider how a decentralised labor market might be expected to respond to them; and summarise the American response. I conclude by assessing the social welfare consequences of the American response relative to that in Europe.

  6. The high-tech investment boom and economic growth in the 1990s: accounting for quality

    OpenAIRE

    Michael R. Pakko

    2002-01-01

    The rapid pace of economic growth in the 1990s was associated with an increasingly prominent role for investment, particularly for information processing and communications technologies. Given the evident pace of technological advancement in these sectors, official economic statistics have been constructed to take careful account of improvements in the quality of these high-tech capital goods. In this article, Michael R. Pakko examines the possibility that this selective accounting for qualit...

  7. Ethnic Small Business and Employment Creation in Australia in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Jock Collins

    1996-01-01

    NESB immigrants continue to bear the greatest burden of economic recession and economic restructuring in Australia in the 1990s. Some, like the Vietnamese and Lebanese, continue to have rates of unemployment four to five times the national average. There is the danger of the emergence of an underclass of economically disadvantaged and socially-isolated immigrants. Given continued downsizing by the corporate and public sector, the best hope of jobs for these NESB immigrants is the ethnic small...

  8. Residential segregation and public policies: São Paulo in the 1990's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo da Gama Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at assessing the evolution of residential segregation in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, in the 1990's, which saw a significant increase of socioeconomic segregation. In addition to interpreting the phenomenon, the article proposes a discussion on the reasons the residential segregation should be considered a fundamental issue for the formulation of social urban policies.

  9. Transformational leaders. Ten practices to help executives meet the challenges of the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, D A

    1992-11-01

    Today, healthcare chief executive officers (CEOs) face many pressing issues. To survive the 1990s, CEOs must master "transformational practices" such as continuous quality improvement. CEOs can adopt the following 10 practices to help them become transformational leaders: Establish and act on key commitments. Form teams. Establish a job shadow program. Brainstorm more. Befriend the opposition. Communicate more. Wipe out gossip. Look for breakdowns. Revise the appraisal system.

  10. U.S. Organic Farming Emerges in the 1990s: Adoption of Certified Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Catherine R.

    2001-01-01

    Farmers have been developing organic farming systems in the United States for decades. State and private institutions also began emerging during this period to set organic farming standards and provide third-party verification of label claims, and legislation requiring national standards was passed in the 1990s. More U.S. producers are considering organic farming systems in order to lower input costs, conserve nonrenewable resources, capture high-value markets, and boost farm income. Organic ...

  11. A post-1990s assessment of strategic hospital alliances and their marketplace orientations: time to refocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Peter C; Roggenkamp, Susan D; Luke, Roice D

    2002-01-01

    In past years, many SHAs formed in local urban markets to better compete for managed care contracts. In response to 1990s forces, these SHAs appear to have adapted product, production, and selling orientations to their markets, aimed at large institutional purchasers of health care. However, health care markets have evolved differently than anticipated. SHAs and their hospitals should now adopt the marketing orientation and focus more on patients and enrollees. PMID:11985290

  12. Gay and Bisexual men's use of the Internet: Research from the 1990s through 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013. Over that time, gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: sexual health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Gay and bisexual men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet—from logging int...

  13. Labor Market Flexibility, Wages and Incomes in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Kingdon, Geeta; Sandefur, Justin; Teal, Francis

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of how African labor markets have performed in the 1990s. It is argued that the failure of African labor markets to create good paying jobs has resulted in excess labor supply in the form of either open unemployment or a growing self-employment sector. One explanation for this outcome is a lack of labor market `flexibility` keeping formal sector wages above their equilibrium level and restricting job creation. We identify three attributes of labor market flexib...

  14. Acoustic CT system for temperature distribution measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinji Ohyama; Toyofumi Oga; Kazuo Oshima; Junya Takayama

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,a measurement method for crosssectional temperature distribution is addressed. A novel method based on an acoustic CT technique is proposed. Specifically,the temperature distributions are estimated using the time of flight data of several ultrasonic propagation paths. The times of the flight data contain both temperature and wind effect,and the method to select only temperature component is introduced. A filtered back projection method is applied to reconstruct the temperature distributions from the time of flight data. An experimental system was designed and fabricated to realize simultaneous temperature and wind velocity distribution measurements. Through this system,the effectiveness of the proposed measurement method is confirmed.

  15. Resurgence of malaria in Bombay (Mumbai) in the 1990s: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, V

    2000-06-01

    Bombay has achieved extraordinary success in controlling its malaria problem for nearly six decades by relying primarily on legislative measures and non-insecticidal methods of mosquito abatement. In 1992, however, malaria reemerged in Bombay with a vengeance. During 1992-1997, the city witnessed a manifold increase in the number of malaria cases diagnosed and treated by the public health system. The large number of malaria patients treated by private practitioners was not recorded by the municipal malaria surveillance system during this period. In 1995, at the peak of the resurgence, public health officials of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay (MCGB) confirmed that 170 persons in the city had died due to malaria. The crisis was unprecedented in Bombay's modern public health history. In response to intense criticism from the media, the city's public health officials attributed the resurgence to the global phenomenon of mosquito-vector resistance to insecticides, and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Local scientists who investigated the problem offered no support to this explanation. So what might explain the resurgence? What factors led the problem to reach an epidemic level in a matter of two or three years? In addressing the above principal questions, this paper adopts a historical perspective and argues that in the resurgence of malaria in Bombay in the 1990s, there is an element of the 'presence of the past'. In many ways the present public health crisis in Bombay resembles the health scenario that characterized the city at the turn of the 19th century. It is possible to draw parallels between the early public health history of malaria control in Bombay, which was punctuated by events that followed the bubonic plague epidemic of 1896, and the present-day malaria epidemic punctuated by the threat of a plague epidemic in 1994. As such, the paper covers a long period, of almost 100 years. This time-depth is used to

  16. Demographic momentum. International population assistance should be a continued priority during the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, T W

    1992-08-01

    . Although the needs for population assistance have changed over 29 years, there is still a need to give population the highest priority due to its impact on economic development. Maintaining the present levels and exceeding those levels are crucial for the 1990s. 9-10 billion dollars is an estimate of need. PMID:12343899

  17. Phase-OFDR for distributed disturbance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Sascha; Krebber, Katerina

    2016-05-01

    We introduce the optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) technique based on intensity modulation frequency sweep measurement for distributed disturbance measurement in optical fibres. By evaluating interferometric Rayleigh scattering changes along the fibre, strain and temperature changes are detected with 100 n(epsilon) sensitivity and 10 mK resolution. The vibration frequencies for low frequencies and up to the kHz-range can be obtained from power change evaluation in the spatial domain. This novel OFDR approach is a low-cost alternative for distributed disturbance measurement up to distances of several kilometres.

  18. Social media content distribution: measurement and enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xu

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, such popular social media as YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter have substantially changed the content distribution landscape and become an important part in people's everyday life. Extensive research works have been conducted to understand them in the recent years. However, a number of new features emerge and a number of directions are yet to be explored. This thesis largely extends the current research efforts on social media content distribution by measurements and enhancem...

  19. THE WOMEN’S STATE POLICY IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE 1990S (using the materials of the Krasnoyarsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Urjevna Nikolaeva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of studying women’s state policy problems in the 1990s in Russia is determined by political, socio-economic and cultural reforms because political organization and social structure of the society have changed. This caused the changing of women role in policy, economics and family.The aim of work is to find out the state policy impact to women’s position in the 1990s.In the article the following methods were used: historical approach and objectivism. Theoretical and methodological basis is stratification methodology, theoretical positions of gender approach.The results of work are analyses of the women’s state policy impact to socio-demographic situation in the Krasnoyarsk region. In the scientific usage new materials and materials of local archives were introduced.The study of women’s position in the 1990s enables to make a conclusion that it is necessary to work out state measures to overcome the demographic crises caused by socio-economic reforms during the “Perestroyka” Period.

  20. Changes in the northern Benguela ecosystem over three decades: 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heymans, J.J.; Shannon, L.J.; Jarre, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    The northern Benguela ecosystem has been overfished and physically challenged over the past three decades. Ecopath with Ecosim was used to construct three ecosystem models (1971-1977, 1980-1989, and 1990-1995) and to compare differences in ecosystem structure. In the 1970s, the system sustained...... existence. The importance of ecosystem-environmental interactions are highlighted by the abundance of horse mackerel, mesopelagics, small pelagics, and hake in the 1980s and the reduced biomass of most species in the 1990s, not only due to overfishing, but also due to the Benguela Nino that occurred in 1995...

  1. Lovable Anarchism: Campus Protest in Japan From the 1990s to Today

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Cassegård

    2014-01-01

    This is a paper on the transformation of campus activism in Japan since the 1990's. Japan's so-called freeter movements (movements of young men and women lack-ing regular employment) are often said to have emerged as young people shifted their base of activism from campuses to the 'street'. However, campuses have continued to play a role in activism. Although the radical student organisations of the New Left have waned, new movements are forming among students and pre-carious university emplo...

  2. Lunar and interplanetary explorations by electric propulsions in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Kyoichiro; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro

    Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science has undertaken an evaluation of electric (rather than chemically-fueled) propulsion systems for lunar and planetary missions in the 1990s. A lunar-penetrator and a Venus orbiter mission are taken as baselines against which to determine the characteristics and evaluate the implementation constraints of realistic electrically propelled vehicles. Attention is given to dc arcjet thrusters. It is suggested that solar cell output should be shared through the spacecraft power bus rather than dedicated to propulsion.

  3. Lesbi in the metropolis: fatal attraction in an Indonesian movie from the early 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Murtagh, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Indonesian cinema of the early 1990s has often been noted for its lowbrow and erotic content. One film from this era, Gadis metropolis, which earned something of a reputation for its exploitation of the female body, is also notable for its lesbi, and to a lesser extent, gay storylines. This representation of alternative sexualities constitutes the particular concern of this article. The film’s producer argued that in making Gadis metropolis he sought to ‘explain the lives of lesbi’ in Indones...

  4. Remembering the popular music of the 1990s: dance music and the cultural meanings of decade-based nostalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeven, Arno

    2014-01-01

    textabstractFollowing the popularisation of dance music in the 1990s, and the consolidation of disc jockeys (DJs) as global stars, this article examines the attachment of music audiences to this decade by examining the popular flashback dance parties held in the Netherlands. By drawing on theories of cultural heritage, memory and nostalgia, this article explores 1990s-themed parties as spaces where music audiences construct cultural identities and engage with their musical memories. Based on ...

  5. The Nordic welfare state in the 1990s: consequences of disinflation and fiscal consolidation in the three Nordic EU countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kiander, Jaakko

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the current state of the so called Nordic welfare state, and the experiences of Denmark, Finland and Sweden in the 1990s in adjusting their public sectors to fiscal consolidation. The economic crises and structural changes of the 1990s are viewed as a part of adjustment to integration and globalisation, especially to financial deregulation. Even after these hardships the Nordic model remains clearly distinctive and in many respects successful. Although the Nordic welfare mo...

  6. Did concentration on core competencies drive merger and acquisition activities in the 1990s? Empirical evidence for Germany.

    OpenAIRE

    Hussinger, Katrin

    2005-01-01

    In the context of increasing globalization of markets, merger and acquisition activities in the 1990s are said to be driven by reorganization processes with respect to concentration on firms? core competencies in order to increase or maintain market power in international markets. This paper empirically investigates a sample of German domestic mergers in the 1990s to detect the impact of technology and market relatedness on the choice of the merging partner. Results from a conditional logit m...

  7. Evaluating Women’s Labour in 1990s Japan: The Changing Labour Standards Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Rawstron

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the legislative changes regarding Japanese working women in the 1990s, specifically the changes to the Labour Standards Law. This Law was altered in 1997 (effective 1999 by the removal of a number of provisions known as the Women’s ‘Protection’ Provisions (josei hogo kitei. These gender-specific provisions restricted Japanese women from working particular jobs and hours, and limited overtime and holiday work. The role of these gender-specific provisions is examined through a collection of articles from four of Japan’s mainstream daily, widely-circulated newspapers: the Asahi Shinbun, the Mainichi Shinbun, the Nihon Keizai Shinbun, and the Yomiuri Shinbun. These newspapers were of the opinion that the provisions were simultaneously protective and restrictive towards women. The newspapers all supported the removal of the provisions in order to increase equality in Japan’s workforce and society. However, all presented strong concerns that Japanese society was unable to support these changes. This article situates the law reform within the wider context of 1990s Japan, by tracing the links between labour legislation and socio-cultural issues in Japan, particularly the low fertility rate. This article closes with an evaluation of changes within Japanese society and working habits since the removal of the provisions.

  8. Welfare and poverty in the Europe of the 1990s: social progress or social dumping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, P E

    1991-01-01

    Social policy in Europe is changing fundamentally from a system of public (government) support to a welfare pluralism, or a "welfare mix" supported by the private and public sectors and by voluntary agencies. The overall tendencies are privatization, decentralization, and debureaucratization. With the prospect of a single-market economy within the European Communities in 1993, the fight against poverty in member nations may lead to "social dumping." Two major problems are identified: the lack of guaranteed minimum income schemes in the so-called "Latin Rim" countries, and the effect on workers' and citizens' rights in an integrated Europe. The fight against poverty is--despite some efforts from the Commission of the European Communities--basically left to the individual member states. This portends a gloomy scenario for the poorer populations of Europe in the 1990s. The author examines welfare state types within clusters of countries: the modern (Scandinavia), the corporatist (Federal Republic of Germany), the residual (Britain), and the rudimentary (Latin Rim). The conclusion, unfortunately, is that future overall development of European welfare systems in the 1990s will probably be toward "Americanization," with a move away from the modern, or Scandinavian, model toward a corporatist model for welfare policy. PMID:2071305

  9. Literature analysis and research progress of the landscape ecology in China in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper makes analysis of published articles and books on landscape ecology in the 1990s through literature collection. The analytical results showed that the study of landscape ecology had made a great advance during the past decade in China. By incomplete survey, Chinese researchers at home and abroad published 619 scientific articles and 13 monographs on landscape ecology in the 1990s, and most of them (more than 90%) were published in Chinese with English abstracts. The published articles on basic theory accounted for 39.6% (245 articles), and those concerning application and methods accounted for 36.8% (228) and 23.6% (146), respectively. According to the objects of research, the published articles on landscape ecology were classified into nine catalogues. The urban landscape ranks first in terms of number of published articles, accounting for 13.4% of the total, followed by regional and river basin landscape, cold and arid landscape, forest landscape, habitat and bio-diversity landscape, agricultural landscape, wetlands, suburban landscape, and vegetation landscape. Based on the analysis, some discussions were made on the existing problems and development trend of landscape ecology study in China

  10. Neutron tomography for void distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron tomography has previously been performed using large, stationary neutron sources such as reactors and spallation sources for applications where the object under study can be transported to the source. This paper accounts for the challenges met when applying neutron tomography using a portable accelerator driven neutron generator, which is required when studying non-transportable objects. In general, portable sources offer significantly lower neutron yields than stationary sources, implying the need for either longer measurement times or highly efficient measurement and/or analysis procedures. The particular application investigated here is the mapping of steam distributions in water (void distribution), which is of high importance for the performance of nuclear fuel assemblies in boiling water reactors (BWR). The void distribution cannot be measured directly in a reactor core, so instead various electrically-heated thermal-hydraulic test loops are used. In these loops, void correlations can be determined in full-size fuel assembly models, such as FRIGG in Sweden and DESIRE in Holland, but measurements are also performed in smaller, less complicated geometries. Previously, gamma tomography has been used to measure the void distribution in the FRIGG loop. However, improved capabilities to map the void distribution can be expected using neutrons because of their higher sensitivity to water relative to metal structures, as compared to gamma rays. At the same time, neutrons as probe also give rise to some challenges, such as high background from scattering. This paper investigates the possibility to use neutron tomography at axially symmetric objects such as the HWAT test loop in Sweden, where an annular two-phase flow of water/void is confined and heated by a steel cylinder. Monte Carlo simulations of the HWAT geometry and a suggested measurement setup have been carried out, using the particle transport code MCNPX. A reconstruction technique which exploits the

  11. Assembly for activity distribution measurement of wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation method is used as a basic method for the neutron fluence measurement in the LVR-15 research reactor. Activation foils have usually been used as the monitors. At present an assembly for the measurement of linear specific activity distribution of wires has been developed. The assembly allows the activation wires to be used for neutron fluence measurement mainly in the reactor core. More detailed results of linear distribution and simpler handling with radioactive material are the advantages of activation wires compared with foils. More difficult calibration and processing of measured data are disadvantages on the other hand. The assembly consists of a spectrometer with HPGe detector for gamma activity measurement, a Pb shielding collimator around the detector, an outer Pb shielding, a transporting equipment and a controlling PC. The diameter of the collimator is 20 mm. The wire from Cu, Fe, Ni or Co material with diameter of 0.3 mm to 1.0 mm is placed on a support Al stick with diameter of 6 mm. After irradiation the stick with the wire is placed in the transporting equipment above the Pb shielding collimator and measured. Response function for the point radiation source on the line, where the wire is placed during the measurement, is the main characteristic of the assembly. The response function also depends on the energy of gamma radiation. The design of the Pb shielding collimator is described and the measured response functions for a few point radiation sources are given in the paper. During the measurement the stick with the wire moves above the collimator aperture and the peak count rates depending on position of wire with step of 10 mm to 50 mm are measured. As the response function for point source has not the ideal rectangular distribution (i.e. constant positive value above the collimator aperture and zero value for points out of the aperture) the evaluation of activities is not so simple as for measurement of individual samples. In the paper the

  12. The practice of infectious diseases in the 1990s: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlech, W F

    1995-02-01

    A survey of the members of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society was carried out to determine the content of an infectious diseases consultative practice in the 1990s. Respondents were asked to identify all new inpatient, outpatient, and telephone consultations during a 1-week period in 1990. Consultations were categorized by the infectious disease syndrome of the patient and by the microorganism that was identified. Bacterial infections were the most common cause of inpatient consultations, while viral infections were more common in outpatients. Consultations for parasitic infections were primarily for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). "Newer" infectious disease syndromes such as chronic fatigue syndrome, toxic shock syndrome, and Lyme disease were all represented in the responses for the 1-week study period. The significant impact of HIV infection on the overall consultative load suggests that there will be a continuing need for newly trained infectious disease consultants into the 21st century.

  13. Stable incidence of atopic dermatitis among children in Denmark during the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Bang, Karen; Juul, Svend;

    2005-01-01

    incidence of AD in 1993 and 1998. Further, we studied the severity and management of AD among children. Two samples of children born in Denmark were drawn from the Danish Medical Birth Register. In the 1993 and 1998 studies a mailed questionnaire with identical questions concerning AD was sent out....... In the 1998 follow-up study the questionnaire included a severity score and questions concerning management of AD. In the 1993 study the cumulative incidence of AD at age 7 was 18.9% and in 1998 it was 19.6%. There was no difference in the age-adjusted AD incidence in the 5-year observation period......An increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been reported since the 1960s. The increase could be due to many factors including a genuine increase of incidence or duration of AD. We decided to study if the increasing trend persisted during the 1990s by comparing the cumulative...

  14. Protest Leadership and Repertoire: A Comparative Analysis of Peasant Protest in Hunan in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on detailed ethnographic fieldwork, this paper compares two cases of peasant protest against heavy taxes and fees in a northern Hunan county in the 1990s. It argues that peasant protest did not arise spontaneously. Rather, it erupted when leaders emerged who used central policy documents on lowering peasant taxes and fees to mobilise peasants. Protest leaders were articulate and public-spirited peasants who had received political training from the local party-state. Furthermore, the number of leaders, their education level, and their relationship with the local party-state explain why the repertoire and the scope of the two protests varied. Protests led by less educated veteran Communist Party cadres tended to be milder and smaller than those led by better-educated peasants more distant from the local party-state. This paper helps us to understand the process of peasant mobilisation in contemporary China and explains why peasant protest varies across cases.

  15. The "Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy" of the 1990s: A glimpse from inside a totalitarian disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Coutin-Churchman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990s, Cuba was struck by a rare epidemic disease. Up to 50,000 people were affected by a pathology compromising primarily the optic nerve but also peripheral nerves and even spinal cord. This is a testimony from a direct witness and participant in the initial study of the epidemics showing that in spite of claims of a "multifactorial" etiology, still in the literature, the root cause of this disease is just result of the deliberate deprivation of the most elementary economic rights by extreme Government control over a population left unable to tend to its elementary survival by itself, in spite of a thorough Government-sponsored, universally celebrated Universal Healthcare System.

  16. HEPAP Subpanel on the US High Energy Physics Research Program for the 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The entire community of high energy physicists looks expectantly to the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) era. The SSC is the highest priority in the US high energy physics (HEP) program, and physics at the SSC will increasingly become its focus. In this report, the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) Subpanel on the US High Energy Physics Research Program for the 1990's examines how the National HEP program can go forward vigorously in the period of preparation for the SSC. The Subpanel concluded early that a viable and productive physics research program in the next decade on a range of promising fronts is essential for this field to continue to attract and educate scientists of great creativity. The Subpanel found that such a program requires both exploiting existing opportunities and undertaking some new initiatives. The recommendations are based on the ''constant budget scenario,'' which the Subpanel interprets as averaging the FY 1991 budget level over the next decade

  17. Macroeconomic adjustment, food availability and nutrition status in Nigeria. A look at the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbedioh, S O

    1990-12-01

    Faced with balance of payment problems, declining commodity prices, and a corresponding reduction in foreign exchange earnings, Nigeria implemented a structural adjustment program in 1986. This step was taken in response to encouragement from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and was aimed to accomplish the following: find the true value of the official currency; overcome public sector inefficiency through improved public expenditure and parastatal rationalization; reschedule medium- and long-term debt to relieve debt burden; and encourage net foreign capital inflow while limiting foreign loans. Implementing and adhering to these macroeconomic adjustment policies has brought unprecedented inflation, lower real earnings, and increased malnutrition among lower income sectors of the population. The poor have suffered diminishing access to nutritious foods. Conscribed access to food and compromised nutritional status will most likely persist into the 1990s unless corrective policies are adopted. Appropriate policy would aim to increase the poor's access to food and limit population growth. PMID:12285940

  18. Trend of heavy metal and sulphur deposition in Finland from the 1980`s to 1990`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubin, E.; Lippo, H. [Forest Research Inst., Muhos (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The moss technique to survey atmospheric heavy metal deposition was developed in Sweden in the late 1960`s. The surveys has extended from regional and national basis to cover all the Nordic countries in 1985, to northern Europe in 1990 and to a large part of Europe in 1990-92. National reports have also been published in many countries. The Forest Research Institute established a network of 3009 secret permanent monitoring sites all over the country in 1985 and 1986 for forest inventory and for monitoring the situation and changes in the forests. One essential part has been to study the effects of air pollution - including heavy metal and sulphur deposition on forests. Deposition has been monitored by collecting bioindicators and analysing the element concentrations. The purpose of this report is to show the trend of the heavy metal and sulphur deposition from the 1980`s to 1990`s and in addition to produce information about the emission sources. (author)

  19. [Flame temperature distribution measurement of solid propellants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-hua; Zhu, Shu-guang; Li, Yan; Fang, Zhong-yan; Yang, Rong-jie; Li, Yu-ping; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yun-fei

    2004-09-01

    Many high temperature bodies such as flame, in which chemical reactions are very complex, emit their own spectra. These emission spectra usually consist of the spectral lines, spectral bands and the continuous spectra. In some cases, the spectral lines gather together. It is very difficult to find the right single spectral line when the spectral line intensity method is used. To deal with this problem, the idea that the single spectral line intensity is replaced by the total intensity of many spectral lines to measure the temperature is mentioned. And the relative intensity method is also changed to deal with this idea. The measurement of the temperature distribution based on this improved method is successful, and the measurement results are compared with the results of the thermocouple method.

  20. Comparison of carbon chemistry data in the East China Sea between the 1990s and 2000s: implications for the impact of eutrophication from the Changjiang River (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, W.; Gong, G.; Tseng, C.; Hung, C.

    2010-12-01

    The nutrient loads exported from the Changjiang River into the East China Sea (ECS) has increased over 10-fold since the 1960s because of anthropogenic disturbance such as intensive use of chemical fertilizers and the discharge of industrial and municipal waste waters. Elevated nutrient discharge causes eutrophication of the coastal waters, and stimulates harmful algal blooms and hypoxia events, both of which have been observed with increased frequently on the inner shelf off Changjiang River. To the best of our knowledge, there is, however, no study to date addressing the potential impacts of this eutrophication on carbonate chemistry in the ECS. In this study, we investigated the spatial distributions of dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, total alkalinity, and pCO2 in the entire ECS shelf in winter 2008, and compared the present results with previously published datasets. Results showed that pCO2 was negatively correlated with temperature for surface waters lower than 20oC in 2008, in contrast to the positive correlation found in the 1990s. Moreover, the wintertime ΔpCO2 in the inner shelf near the Changjiang River estuary has appreciably decreased since the early 1990s, suggesting a decline of CO2 sequestration capacity in this region. These changes can be explained by the seasonal overturn of enhanced summer accumulation of respired CO2 in bottom waters between the 1990s and the 2000s, which may be associated with the increased eutrophication/hypoxia in the inner shelf near the Changjiang River estuary over recent decades. Considering the high intra-seasonal and inter-annual variations in the ECS, more long-term studies are, therefore, certainly needed to unveil the fundamental relationship between the changes in the CO2 sequestration capacity and the increased eutrophication/hypoxia in the ECS.

  1. Past Changes in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone Part 1: Measurement Techniques, Uncertainties and Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, B.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Staehelin, J.; August, T.; Bhartia, P. K.; Clerbaux, C.; Degenstein, D.; Maziere, M. De; Dinelli, B. M.; Dudhia, A.; Dufour, G.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Granville, J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Hoppel, K.; Hubert, D.; Kasai, Y.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrola, E.; Lambert, J.-C.; Levelt, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; McPeters, R. D.; Munro, R.; Nakajima, H.; Parrish, A.; Raspollini, P.; Remsberg, E. E.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Rozanov, A.; Sano, T.; Sasano, Y.; Shiotani, M.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and other ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical) and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N) Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based) available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument). Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  2. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone - Part 1: Measurement techniques, uncertainties and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, B.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Staehelin, J.; August, T.; Bhartia, P. K.; Clerbaux, C.; Degenstein, D.; De Mazière, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Dudhia, A.; Dufour, G.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Granville, J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Hoppel, K.; Hubert, D.; Kasai, Y.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrölä, E.; Lambert, J.-C.; Levelt, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; McPeters, R. D.; Munro, R.; Nakajima, H.; Parrish, A.; Raspollini, P.; Remsberg, E. E.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Rozanov, A.; Sano, T.; Sasano, Y.; Shiotani, M.; Smit, H. G. J.; Stiller, G.; Tamminen, J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Urban, J.; van der A, R. J.; Veefkind, J. P.; Vigouroux, C.; von Clarmann, T.; von Savigny, C.; Walker, K. A.; Weber, M.; Wild, J.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and other ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical) and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N) Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based) available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument). Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  3. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 1: Measurement techniques, uncertainties and availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hassler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC and other ozone depleting substance (ODS concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP/World Meteorological Organization (WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument. Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  4. Measurements of soil-solution distribution coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Sakurai, Naoyuki; Koyama, Kenji [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Radioecology, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The soil-solution distribution coefficient (Kd) is defined as the ratio of element concentrations in a soil-solid phase to that in a solution phase. It is commonly used as an important parameter for transfer models of radionuclides in different environments, such as describing the migration behavior in the geosphere and transfer behavior in the biosphere. We plan to measure the Kd of elements by means of an extraction method in soils throughout Aomori Prefecture and to probe related factors affecting their variance. However, Kd values vary widely, dependent upon conditions of measurements even if a similar soil sample is measured. Therefore, measurement conditions for the Kd of elements were examined in the present study and the following conditions were adopted. A collected soil sample was passed through a 2 mm sieve and dried at 50degC. The ratio of solution to solid was 10. The mixture sample was shaken for 24 h at 20degC in a clean centrifuge bottle which was made of polypropylene copolymer (PPCO). According to the literature, common soil types in Aomori Prefecture are as follows: andosols in the Sanpachi-Kamikita region, gray lowland and upland soils in the Tsugaru region, sand-dune regosols in Kizukuri-machi, peat soils around lakes and so on. The Kd values for those soil types will be measured hereafter. (author)

  5. [Prevalence of tobacco use in Switzerland in the 1990's--estimation of consumption trends based on 2 methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmel, G

    2000-01-01

    Smoking prevalence rates in Switzerland in the 1990s++ have been estimated from Perma data, which have been available quarterly since 1991, as well as from the data of the first and second Swiss Health Surveys, conducted in 1992/93 and 1997. Both sources--each providing data on more than 10,000 respondents--have been large-scale surveys that have used different but complementary survey designs. The probabilistic sampling design of the Health Surveys assures representative findings; the Perma data, although obtained through a non-probabilistic sampling design, permits trend analysis as Perma uses multiple measurement points and therefore time-series methodology can be applied. Both Perma and the Health Surveys yielded approximately the same prevalence of 37% male smokers in 1992/93 and 39% in 1997. For females Perma gave 4% higher prevalence rates than the Health Surveys (Surveys 1992/93: 24%; 1997: 31%). For both sexes the increase in total smoking prevalence was accounted for mainly by adolescents and young adults. Whereas the Surveys showed an increase from 29% to 41% (18% to 39%) in males (females) aged 15 to 19 years, the corresponding increase derived from Perma was 50% less. Except for this youngest age-group, differences between the methods remained within standard statistical norms. There is no doubt, however, that smoking in adolescents increased between 1992/93 and 1997.

  6. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing

    2012-03-30

    How to remove detector side channel attacks has been a notoriously hard problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a simple solution to this problem--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD). It not only removes all detector side channels, but also doubles the secure distance with conventional lasers. Our proposal can be implemented with standard optical components with low detection efficiency and highly lossy channels. In contrast to the previous solution of full device independent QKD, the realization of our idea does not require detectors of near unity detection efficiency in combination with a qubit amplifier (based on teleportation) or a quantum nondemolition measurement of the number of photons in a pulse. Furthermore, its key generation rate is many orders of magnitude higher than that based on full device independent QKD. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over say 200 km will remain secure even with seriously flawed detectors. PMID:22540686

  7. Measurement device independent quantum key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Qi, Bing

    2011-01-01

    How to remove detector side channel attacks has been a notoriously hard problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a simple solution to this problem---*measurement* device independent quantum key distribution. It not only removes all detector side channels, but also doubles the secure distance with conventional lasers. Our proposal can be implemented with standard optical components with low detection efficiency and highly lossy channels. In contrast to the previous solution of full device independent QKD, the realization of our idea does not require detectors of near unity detection efficiency in combination with a qubit amplifier (based on teleportation) or a quantum non-demolition measurement of the number of photons in a pulse. Furthermore, its key generation rate is many orders of magnitude higher than that based on full device independent QKD. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over say 200km will remain secure even with seriously flawed detectors.

  8. Online Distributed Fault Detection of Sensor Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jianliang; XU Yongjun; LI Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a faulty sensor may produce incorrect data and transmit them to the other sensors. This would consume the limited energy and bandwidth of WSNs. Furthermore, the base station may make inappropriate decisions when it receives the incorrect data sent by the faulty sensors. To solve these problems, this paper develops an online distributed algorithm to detect such faults by exploring the weighted majority vote scheme. Considering the spatial correlations in WSNs, a faulty sensor can diagnose itself through utilizing the spatial and time information provided by its neighbor sensors. Simulation results show that even when as many as 30% of the sensors are faulty, over 95% of faults can be correctly detected with our algorithm. These results indicate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance in detecting fault of sensor measurements in WSNs.

  9. Determinants and Contagion in Private Capital Flows: Preliminary Evidence from the 1970s and 1990s Determinants and Contagion in Private Capital Flows: Preliminary Evidence from the 1970s and 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Valdés

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the determinants of private capital flows to developing countries during the last two episodes of large inflows, the late 1970s-early 1980s and the 1990s. The paper also tests for contagion effects in capital flows among recipient countries, and tries to identify specific channels through which such effects can occur. It tests for neighborhood effects, trade-related effects, and for contagion based on the countries having similar macroeconomic indicators. The results show strong evidence for the first two effects during the 1990s, and indicate that the third effect varies depending on the type of capital flow. This paper studies the determinants of private capital flows to developing countries during the last two episodes of large inflows, the late 1970s-early 1980s and the 1990s. The paper also tests for contagion effects in capital flows among recipient countries, and tries to identify specific channels through which such effects can occur. It tests for neighborhood effects, trade-related effects, and for contagion based on the countries having similar macroeconomic indicators. The results show strong evidence for the first two effects during the 1990s, and indicate that the third effect varies depending on the type of capital flow.

  10. Freshwater components and transports in the Fram Strait – recent observations and changes since the late 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rabe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the late summer distribution and transports of freshwater components in the upper western part of the Fram Strait during 1998, 2004 and 2005. Hydrographic data and and water δ18O values are analyzed to distinguish Atlantic Water, ice-melt (IMW and freshwater removal from ice formation (IFW, and Meteoric Water (precipitation and riverine sources; MW. Concentrations of these water masses are combined with volume transport estimates from an inverse model. The average liquid freshwater transport relative to a reference salinity of 34.92, was 2500 km3/yr or 80 mSv southward, which is at the upper end of values reported in the literature. Our results indicate that not only the region of the continental slope but also parts of the East Greenland Shelf are important for freshwater transports.

    The average transports of MW and IFW were 160 mSv (5000 km3/yr and 90 mSv (2800 km3/yr southward, respectively. The southward transport of MW was higher in 2005 than in 1998, but was compensated by a higher IFW transport. These differences in transports were associated with stronger southward velocities and the absence of northward velocities over the continental slope and the eastern East Greenland Shelf in 2005. A simulation using the North Atlantic-Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model (NAOSIM shows that the high transport of MW in the Fram Strait in 2005 is in agreement with the temporary storage of river water on the Siberian shelf in the mid-1990s, which reached the north of Greenland in 2003. Our results indicate that IFW follows the same pathways as MW before reaching the Fram Strait.

  11. Progress of gastric cancer etiology: N-nitrosamides in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da Jun Deng

    2000-01-01

    Stomach carcinoma is still the leading cause of cancer death in China and the second one in the world. Its possible causes include: A) chemical factors such as intragastric formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) and high salt intake; B ) biological factors such as infection of Helicobacter pylori and biotoxins intake; and C ) nutritional factors such as deficiency of vitamin C, selenium, and other antioxidants. Nitrogenous precursors of NOC, e.g., alkylamines, alkylureas, alkylguanidines, and alkylamides, occur widely in nature and potential nitrosating agents, e.g., nitrite (NO2-) and NOx (the gaseous oxides of nitrogen ) are similarly widespread. Relationship between exposure to NOC and causes of human cancer was investigated extensively ten years ago. Results indicated that the exposures of NOC might contribute to the occurrences of malignancy in the upper digestive tracts including stomachs. It was also observed that both high salt intake and deficiency of some micronutrients enhanced NOC-induced carcinogenicity. Recent studies show that infection of H. pylori can lead to atrophic gastritis and achlorhydria, and promote endogenous formation of NOC indirectly[1] . Much attention has been paid to stomach cancer and NOC regarding the characterization of natural N-nitrosamides in human environment in the 1990s.

  12. Gay and bisexual men's use of the Internet: research from the 1990s through 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S; Newcomb, Michael E; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    We document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013-including shifting technology as well as research methods to study gay and bisexual men online. Gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: for health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet-from logging on via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social-sexual networking via handheld devices. In kind, researchers have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide outreach. PMID:24754360

  13. Environment, economy and energy: Meeting the multiple challenges of the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fall of 1991, New England Electric System (NEES) released its third major resource plan, 'NEESPLAN 3: Environment, Economy, and Energy in the 1990s.' In it, the Company set three major goals for the decade: (1) to reduce continuously the environmental impacts of providing electric service, including a 45% reduction in our weighted air emissions index between 1990 and 2000; (2) to maintain competitiveness by keeping price increases at or below inflation, on average, through the year 2000; and, (3) to ensure resource diversity and reliability by increasing nonutility generation, repowering existing power plants, and exploring new technologies. NEES developed these goals to provide a unified central vision for the company to respond to changing times. NEES is basing their corporate direction on their fundamental beliefs that environmental concerns are here to stay, and that these concerns must be met in tandem with cost and service challenges. By implementing NESSPLAN 3, NEES wants to demonstrate that many of the public policy goals of the environmental and regulatory communities can be better achieved by focusing on overall results rather than by litigating the details of individual power supply decisions. This article discusses the development of NEESPLAN 3, while paying particular attention to the various alternatives they examined to reach the goal of a 45% reduction in air emissions

  14. Drewry: Mideast in firm control of world oil supplies for 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surging economic growth in the Far East will push up world crude oil demand steadily in the 1990s despite the current economic downturn. It will fall to members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to meet that increased demand, given the expected decline in non-OPEC production. And because OPEC members in the Persian Gulf region are best positioned to meet the increase, the balance of power in oil markets will shift even more in favor of the Middle East. Seaborne oil exports from the Middle East will jump almost 30% by 1997 from 1991 levels. There will be a worldwide rise of 16% in the volume of seaborne crude oil trade, with a 29% hike in movements of refined products by tanker. Those are among the findings of a report by Drewry Shipping Consultants Ltd., London. Drewry said, It is expected that 1992 will be a low point in non-OPEC output and that production levels will recover steadily from 1993 onward, although not rapidly enough to match the anticipated rise in demand. Drewry estimates non-OPEC production in 1997 at 37.1 million b/d vs. 38.1 million b/d in 1991. With non-OPEC production falling by 2.6% between 1991 and 1997, OPEC producers will have the scope to increase their output by almost 32% over the same period

  15. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions

  16. Rapid channel incision of the lower Pearl River (China since the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. X. Lu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported a dramatic channel incision (>10 m in the deepest cut during the past 10 years or so in the lower Pearl River, the second largest river in terms of water discharge in China. The channel incision had caused changes both in the channel geometry as well as in the river hydraulics. Also, the water exchange between the two major tributaries of the Pearl River, the Xijiang and Beijing, had been significantly changed due to the channel incision. The rapid channel incision was principally the result of extensive sand mining in the lower Pearl River and the delta region due to the booming economy in the Pearl Delta region. Slight increase of water discharge and significant decrease of sediment load since the early 1990s in both the Xijiang and Beijiang also likely contributed to the observed dramatic river bed donwcutting to some extent. This has important implications for river management, as the large Chinese rivers have seen a dramatic depletion of sediment fluxes due to the combined effects of declining rainfall, dam constructions, water diversion, reforestation and afforestation, and sediment mining over the recent decades.

  17. The Asia-Pacific petroleum market: Critical issues for the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The late 1980s saw an astonishing turnaround in the Asian oil market. After years of stagnation, three main factors - economic dynamism, lower oil prices and reduced government regulation of the market - resulted in a consumption surge that surprised even those analysts who had predicted such a recovery. The chronically capacity-surplus refining industry saw a leap in profitability, and new construction began. Rapid demand growth spread from the middle distillates to such formerly depressed products as gasoline and fuel oil, and naphtha markets began to expand again as the petrochemical industry resumed rapid growth. At the same time that demand has been rising and demand patterns have been shifting, other changes have begun. A new environmental awareness has taken root in Asia, and new environmental standards are being set almost daily, not only in the richer countries of East Asia, but also in many of the region's developing nations. Unfortunately, traditional sources of low-sulphur oil for power generation may be limited in the coming decade. Despite many new discoveries within the region, Asian crude availability is shrinking, both in terms of availability on the international market and in terms of percentage contribution to regional oil demand. After years of decreasing reliance, the region will face rapid increases in imports from the Persian Gulf in the 1990s. (author). 16 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Toward Expanding Tremor Observations in the Northern San Andreas Fault System in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiao, L. G.; Dreger, D. S.; Nadeau, R. M.; Taira, T.; Guilhem, A.; Luna, B.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    The connection between tremor activity and active fault processes continues to expand our understanding of deep fault zone properties and deformation, the tectonic process, and the relationship of tremor to the occurrence of larger earthquakes. Compared to tremors in subduction zones, known tremor signals in California are ~5 to ~10 smaller in amplitude and duration. These characteristics, in addition to scarce geographic coverage, lack of continuous data (e.g., before mid-2001 at Parkfield), and absence of instrumentation sensitive enough to monitor these events have stifled tremor detection. The continuous monitoring of these events over a relatively short time period in limited locations may lead to a parochial view of the tremor phenomena and its relationship to fault, tectonic, and earthquake processes. To help overcome this, we have embarked on a project to expand the geographic and temporal scope of tremor observation along the Northern SAF system using available continuous seismic recordings from a broad array of 100s of surface seismic stations from multiple seismic networks. Available data for most of these stations also extends back into the mid-1990s. Processing and analysis of tremor signal from this large and low signal-to-noise dataset requires a heavily automated, data-science type approach and specialized techniques for identifying and extracting reliable data. We report here on the automated, envelope based methodology we have developed. We finally compare our catalog results with pre-existing tremor catalogs in the Parkfield area.

  19. Turbofolk reconsidered. Some thoughts on migration and the appropriation of music in early 1990s Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaden, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s aim is to shed a light on the emergence, meanings and contexts of early 1990s turbofolk. While this music-style has been exhaustively investigated with regard to Yugoslavia and Serbia, its appropriation by Yugoslav labour migrants has hitherto been no subject of particular interest. Departing from this research gap this paper focuses on “Ex-Yugoslav” evening entertainment and music venues in Berlin and the role turbofolk possessed. We hope to contribute to the ongoing research on this music relying on insights we gained from our fieldwork and the interviews conducted in early and mid-2013. After criticizing some suggestions that have been made regarding the construction of group belongings by applying a dichotomous logic with turbofolk representing the supposedly “inferior”, this approach could serve to investigate the interplay between music and the making of everyday social boundaries. Drawing on the gathered interview material we, beyond merely confirming ethnic and national segmentations, suggest the emergence of new actors and the increase of private initiatives and regional solidarity to be of major importance for negotiating belongings. In that regard, turbofolk events – far from being an unambiguous signifier of group loyalty – were indeed capable to serve as a context that bridged both national as well as social cleavages.

  20. NOTES ON SPATIAL-STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN URBAN SOUTH AFRICA - THE 1990S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanus S. GEYER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal businesses used to be something that was only tolerated in the former black townships during the years of apartheid. Since then the informal business sector has become an integral part of the central business setup of cities in South Africa. It not only serves to widen the security net of the urban poor in cities, it also epresents the outcome of the democratization process in the country over the past fifteen years. Yet, there has been a tendency amongst local authorities to take steps to reduce the footprint of this sector in the urban environment in recent years. This trend ties in with the new approach of government to transform South African cities to become ’world class’ centres—a step that is aimed at making the cities more visually acceptable to visitors from abroad. In this paperan attempt is made to demonstrate the importance of the informal ector within the urban business makeup and to show what role it played in the spatial-structural evolution of the urban economies during the 1990s. The paper analyzes the structure of the urban business sector as a whole and structurally links the formal and informal sectors, demonstrating the importance of both sectors in the economic makeup of the cities. It analyses the structure of the informal sector and shows how different layers of the sector potentially relates to the formal urban sector.

  1. Outsourcing of Services and the Productivity Recovery in U.S. Manufacturing in the 1980s and 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.; Wolff, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    Manufacturing productivity growth recovered during the 1980s and 1990s, while other sectors, particularly services, did not. In the same period U.S. manufacturing has engaged in the "outsourcing" or "contracting-out" of service functions. Has the recovery of manufacturing been accomplished by indust

  2. A Decade of Christian Democratic Decline: The Dilemmas of the CDU, ÖVP and CDA in the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, Fraser

    2006-01-01

    This article explores Christian Democratic electoral decline in the 1990s through an examination of the key problems faced by the CDU, the ÖVP and the CDA. Although the problems of Christian Democracy in this period are identified as arising from exogenous changes, the article goes beyond a mechanis

  3. Determinants of Police Strength in Large U.S. Cities during the 1990s: A Fixed-Effects Panel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, William P.; Ren, Ling; Zhao, Jihong

    2012-01-01

    The 1990s represented a unique decade in which to analyze the determinants of police strength in the United States. This decade was a time in which crime initially increased, then substantially decreased. Furthermore, this decade also was characterized by increases in the minority population throughout large American cities. Finally, the 1990s…

  4. Remembering the popular music of the 1990s: dance music and the cultural meanings of decade-based nostalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. van der Hoeven (Arno)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractFollowing the popularisation of dance music in the 1990s, and the consolidation of disc jockeys (DJs) as global stars, this article examines the attachment of music audiences to this decade by examining the popular flashback dance parties held in the Netherlands. By drawing on theories o

  5. Changing Returns to Education in Portugal during the 1980s and Early 1990s: OLS and Quantile Regression Estimators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hartog; J.A.C. Vieira

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of the returns to education in Portugal over the 1980s and early 1990s. The main findings indicate that the returns to education have increased, particularly after joining the European Union in 1986. Since this occurred along with an increase in the level of educati

  6. Changing returns to education in Portugal during the 1980s and early 1990s: OLS and quantile regression estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hartog; P.T. Pereira; J.A. Cabral Vieira

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of the returns to education in Portugal over the 1980s and early 1990s. The main ® ndings indicate that the returns to education have increased, particularly after joining the European Union in 1986. Since this occurred along with an increase in the level of educati

  7. Particulate sulfate ion concentration and SO2 emission trends in the United States from the early 1990s through 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Malm

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined particulate sulfate ion concentrations across the United States from the early 1990s through 2010 using remote/rural data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE network and from early 2000 through 2010 using data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA urban Chemical Speciation Network (CSN. We also examined measured sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions from power plants from 1995 through 2010 from the EPA's Acid Rain Program. The 1992–2010 annual mean sulfate concentrations at long-term rural sites in the United States have decreased significantly and fairly consistently across the United States at a rate of −2.7% yr−1 (p −1 (p −1 (p 2 emissions from power plants across the United States have decreased at a similar rate as sulfate concentrations from 2001 to 2010 (−6.2% yr−1, p 2 emissions and average sulfate concentrations. This linearity was strongest in the eastern United States and weakest in the West where power plant SO2 emissions were lowest and sulfate concentrations were more influenced by non-power-plant and perhaps international SO2 emissions. In addition, annual mean, short-term sulfate concentrations decreased more rapidly in the East relative to the West due to differences in seasonal trends at certain regions in the West. Specifically, increased wintertime concentrations in the central and northern Great Plains and increased springtime concentrations in the western United States were observed. These seasonal and regional positive trends could not be explained by changes in known local and regional SO2 emissions, suggesting other contributing influences. This work implies that on an annual mean basis across the United States, air quality mitigation strategies have been successful in reducing the particulate loading of sulfate in the atmosphere; however, for certain seasons and regions, especially in the West, current mitigation strategies appear insufficient.

  8. The United States Supreme Court and psychiatry in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, J R

    1999-03-01

    In the 1990s, the Supreme Court has decided several cases that have had an impact on psychiatry and psychiatric patients in the criminal justice system, on psychiatric hospitalization, and on psychotherapist-patient privilege. Of the seven cases discussed in this article, Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justice Scalia voted similarly in all seven cases. Since joining the court, Justice Thomas has voted with them. Justice Scalia interprets the Constitution, using what has been termed "textualism": avoid reference to legislative history, and interpret the Constitution according to the plain language meaning of the relevant section. Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justices Scalia and Thomas are inclined to protect states' rights from court decisions that expand US Constitutional power in cases involving civil plaintiffs and criminal defendants. They seek to protect states from being sued in federal courts, and, if there is doubt, lean toward not interfering with state prerogatives. They tend to not find unenumerated rights and prefer clear-cut rules over amorphous standards. Justices Kennedy and O'Connor, at times joined by Justice Souter in the middle of the court, provide the deciding votes in many cases. They seem to prefer a case-by-case pragmatism over a global jurisprudential philosophy. Approaching cases one at a time, they usually avoid broad philosophic pronouncements when they join with Chief Justice Rehnquist. Justice Stevens, joined by Justices Breyer and Ginsburg since they have been appointed to the court, is more likely to favor a broader reading of the 14th Amendment's Due Process and Equal Protection clauses. Of the seven cases, Kennedy and O'Connor voted with the majority in five cases, the dissent in one case (Zinermon v Burch), and split their votes in one case (Foucha v Louisiana, with O'Connor siding with the Court and Kennedy with the dissent). Commager, a noted historian, believed that political issues can be explored, explained, and debated and that

  9. Brazilian trade policies: some observed and estimated effects of the 1990s liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Tyler

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine economic effects of Brazil's trade policy liberalization in the early-1990s. The effects in Brazil, along with those of many other countries pursuing similar reforms, have been contentious. The period in question was one of macroeconomic turmoil followed by successful stabilization, and various policies were pursued sometimes simultaneously, rendering it analytically difficult to separate out various policy effects. The paper examines the existing evidence on the country's productivity growth and employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE model to simulate the effects of trade policy changes. The analysis suggests that the trade policy reforms resulted in significant welfare gains for Brazil.Este trabalho intenciona examinar efeitos econômicos da liberalização brasileira de políticas comerciais introduzidas durante os anos iniciais da década de 1990. Os efeitos no Brasil, como em muitos outros países seguindo reformas parecidas, tem sido contenciosos. O período em questão foi de tumulto ma-croeconômico seguido por estabilização bem-sucedida, e diversas políticas foram implementadas às vezes simultaneamente, tornando-se analiticamente difícil separar e isolar os vários efeitos. O trabalho examina a evidência existente sobre o crescimento da produtividade do País e utiliza também um modelo computável de equilíbrio geral (CGE em simular os efeitos de mudanças em política comercial. A análise sugere que as reformas nas políticas comerciais resultaram em ganhos significativos de bem-estar para o País.

  10. Distributed Capacitive Sensor for Sample Mass Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Risaku; McKinney, Colin; Jackson, Shannon P.; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Manohara, Harish; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey

    2011-01-01

    Previous robotic sample return missions lacked in situ sample verification/ quantity measurement instruments. Therefore, the outcome of the mission remained unclear until spacecraft return. In situ sample verification systems such as this Distributed Capacitive (DisC) sensor would enable an unmanned spacecraft system to re-attempt the sample acquisition procedures until the capture of desired sample quantity is positively confirmed, thereby maximizing the prospect for scientific reward. The DisC device contains a 10-cm-diameter pressure-sensitive elastic membrane placed at the bottom of a sample canister. The membrane deforms under the weight of accumulating planetary sample. The membrane is positioned in close proximity to an opposing rigid substrate with a narrow gap. The deformation of the membrane makes the gap narrower, resulting in increased capacitance between the two parallel plates (elastic membrane and rigid substrate). C-V conversion circuits on a nearby PCB (printed circuit board) provide capacitance readout via LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling) interface. The capacitance method was chosen over other potential approaches such as the piezoelectric method because of its inherent temperature stability advantage. A reference capacitor and temperature sensor are embedded in the system to compensate for temperature effects. The pressure-sensitive membranes are aluminum 6061, stainless steel (SUS) 403, and metal-coated polyimide plates. The thicknesses of these membranes range from 250 to 500 m. The rigid substrate is made with a 1- to 2-mm-thick wafer of one of the following materials depending on the application requirements glass, silicon, polyimide, PCB substrate. The glass substrate is fabricated by a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication approach. Several concentric electrode patterns are printed on the substrate. The initial gap between the two plates, 100 m, is defined by a silicon spacer ring that is anodically bonded to the glass

  11. The Gender Economics: The Debate Over Gender Inequality and “Human” Poverty During The 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ufuk Turan

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the debate in the 1990s between two main approaches on gender economics, the Capabilities-entitlements and the New Poverty Agenda approaches. The objective of this paper is to discuss the main topics of the debate: the gender inequality and poverty. This paper intends to determine the main differences on those topics between those approaches. In addition to that, this paper discusses the refined definitions of those approaches on various topics of gender economics. ...

  12. Public Investment as a Fiscal Stimulus; Evidence from Japan’s Regional Spending During the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Tuladhar; Markus Bruckner

    2010-01-01

    How effective was public investment in stimulating the Japanese economy during the economic stagnation of the 1990s? Using a dataset of regional public investment spending, we find that investment multipliers were higher than for public consumption, although they were relatively low and declining over time. The paper also finds that the effectiveness of economic infrastructure investment, implemented mainly by the central government, is lower than that of social investment mostly undertaken b...

  13. Variance Ratio Test of Random Walk for Foreign Trade: The Study in India during the Globalization Era of 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Rudra Prakash Pradhan

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the random walk properties of foreign trade. The data used in the empirical test correspond to monthly exports and imports of India in the globalization era of 1990s. The test of random walk employed in this study is the variance ratio test, developed by Lo and Mackinlay. The empirical results indicate that the series contain large permanent component and small temporary component for both exports and imports. This suggests that foreign trade follows a random walk.

  14. Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a

  15. Can we reconcile differences in estimates of carbon fluxes from land-use change and forestry for the 1990s?

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, A; Penner, J. E.; Prather, M. J.; De Campos, C. P.; Houghton, R. A.; Kato, T.; A. K. Jain; X. Yang; Hurtt, G. C.; Frolking, S; Fearon, M. G.; Chini, L. P.; Wang, A.; Price, D. T.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Land Use Change and Forestry (LUCF) on terrestrial carbon fluxes can be regarded as a carbon credit or debit under the UNFCCC, but scientific uncertainty in the estimates for LUCF remains large. Here, we assess the LUCF estimates by examining a variety of models of different types with different land cover change maps in the 1990s. Annual carbon pools and their changes are separated into different components for separate geographical regions, while annual land cover change areas...

  16. Impact of independent directors and the regulatory environment on bank merger prices: evidence from takeover activity in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah Brewer; Jackson, William E.; Julapa Jagtiani

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the primary motivation of the bank merger waves in the 1990s. Our investigation of the factors that determine bid premiums paid for target banks focuses on the importance of the financial characteristics of the targets, composition of their boards of directors, and the regulatory environment. ; The value of the target bank to the acquiring bank should reflect its present discounted value of future net cash flows. Thus, at a minimum, the bid price should be a combination ...

  17. Commodities consumed in Italy, Greece and other Mediterranean countries compared with Australia in 1960s and 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Ann; Truswell, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Consumption figures for 15 major commodities (cereals, wheat, rice, maize, potato, pulses, olive oil, other vegetable oils, vegetables, fruits, wine, meats, animal fats, milk + products, and fish + seafood) were collected from FAO Food Balance Sheets during the 1960s (1961-1969) and late 1990s (1995-1999). For some nutritionists the "model Mediterranean diet" is the Italian or Greek diet of the 1960s, for others the concept of Mediterranean countries is more general. Analysis shows: (1) In the 1960s, Australia consumed more meat, milk, animal fat than Italy or Greece and less cereals, wheat, pulses, olive oil, vegetables, fruits and wine. (2) In the 1960s, Australia's olive oil, vegetables, fruits and wine consumption were within the range for all 18 Mediterranean countries (i.e. Spain, France, Italy, Malta, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco). (3) In the 1990s, food consumptions have evolved; Australia's wine and milk consumption is now similar to Italy and Greece; consumption of wheat, olive oil, vegetables, fruits and fish are lower; consumption of potato, pulses, other vegetable oils and meat are higher than Italy or Greece. (4) Australia's consumption of the 15 commodities is within the range of all Mediterranean countries in the late 1990s, except wheat consumption was lower. PMID:12737007

  18. Contribution of the phase transition of Pacific Decadal Oscillation to the late 1990s' shift in East China summer rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    zhu, yali

    2016-04-01

    Based on our previous study, the interdecadal changes in summer rainfall over East China in the late 1990s are further explored here. The increased local rising motion is implicated as the dominant factor of increased rainfall in the lower Huang-Huai River valley (LHR). Both the observation and numerical experiments using Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 suggest that the negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) mode can result in rising anomalies and thus more rainfall in the LHR. The East Asian westerly jet stream (EAWJS) is suggested as a bridge to link the Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies and East Asian summer rainfall. Model results reveal that the negative PDO mode can lead to significant easterly anomalies over East Asia. As a result, the EAWJS is weakened and shifts poleward, which coincides with observed changes in EAWJS after the late 1990s. In addition, weakened and poleward shifted EAWJS can result in an anomalous ascending motion to its south (in the LHR) by modulating the jet-related secondary meridional-vertical circulation. Consequently, rainfall increased in the LHR after the late 1990s. Besides, the positive Atlantic Meridional Oscillation can only induce insignificant changes over East Asia and partly counteract the negative PDO effect there.

  19. Weakening of Interannual Variability in the Summer East Asian Upper-tropospheric Westerly Jet since the Mid-1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Riyu; YE Hong; Jong-Ghap JHUN

    2011-01-01

    In this study,we found that the intensity of interannual variability in the summer upper-tropospheric zonal wind has significantly weakened over Northeast Asia and the subtropical western North Pacific (WNP) since the mid-1990s,concurrent with the previously documented decrease of the westerly jet over North China and Northwest China. Corresponding to this weakening of zonal wind variability,the meridional displacement of the East Asian westerly jet (EAJ) manifested as the leading mode of zonal wind variability over the WNP and East Asia (WNP-EA) before the mid-1990s but not afterward.The energetics of the anomalous pattern associated with the meridional displacement of the EAJ suggests that barotropic energy conversion,from basic flow to anomalous patterns,has led to the weakening of the variability in the EAJ meridional displacement and to a change in the leading dominant mode since the mid-1990s.The barotropic energy conversion efficiently maintained the anomalies associated with the variability in the EAJ meridional displacement during 1979-1993 but acted to dampen the anomalies during 1994 2008.A further investigation of the energetics suggests that the difference in the patterns of the circulation anomaly associated with either the first leading mode or the meridional displacenent of the EAJ.i.e.,a southwest northeast tilted pattern during 1979-1993 and a zonally oriented pattern during 1994-2008,has contributed greatly to the change in barotropic energy conversion.

  20. Multifractal Measure of Post Distribution in Post System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; HUANG Deng-shi

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the true post distribution in the whole society, microelasticity (MIE) and macroelasticity (MAE) were defined by regarding all posts as a system. On this basis, the method for measuring post distribution was proposed. Using the Legendre dual transformation between MIE and MAE to highlight the probabilities of different levels, the post distribution were analyzed hierarchically. The two-scale Cantor model verified that the multifractal measure is applicable to the post distribution evolution process.

  1. THE DISTRIBUTION AND POLARIZATION OF INCOME IN KOREA, 1965-2005: A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Yeung Kwack; Young Sun Lee(Department of Astronomy and Space Science Chungnam National University Daejeon 305-764, Repulic of Korea)

    2007-01-01

    Four measures of inequality in the distribution of income, income sources, consumption, and saving for salary-and-wage-earner households in cities of Korea are reported. Polarization measures are also computed. Income distribution shows improvement during the early part of the 1990s, but modest deterioration during the period 1998-2005. The income inequality variations are found to result mostly from variations in wage inequality. We find that income gaps between the top 10 percent and the bo...

  2. Evolution of surname distribution under gender-equality measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Lafuerza, L F

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model for the evolution of the surnames distribution under a gender-equality measurement presently discussed in the Spanish parliament (the children take the surname of the father or the mother according to alphabetical order). We quantify how this would bias the alphabetical distribution of surnames, and analyze its effect on the present distribution of the surnames in Spain.

  3. Indirect measurement of the spectral distribution of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurements of the spectral distribution of X-rays is often not possible since photon flux may be too high. It is therefore necessary to use indirect methods; two of these are described, i.e. reduction of photon flux by absorption and measurement of scattered photons at a target. The calculation of primary spectral distribution is discussed and illustrated. (orig.)

  4. Measures of Fault Tolerance in Distributed Simulated Annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Aaditya

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the different measures of Fault Tolerance in a Distributed Simulated Annealing process. Optimization by Simulated Annealing on a distributed system is prone to various sources of failure. We analyse simulated annealing algorithm, its architecture in distributed platform and potential sources of failures. We examine the behaviour of tolerant distributed system for optimization task. We present possible methods to overcome the failures and achieve fault tolerance for t...

  5. A Program to Generate a Particle Distribution from Emittance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, DS; Lallement, JB

    2010-01-01

    We have written a program to generate a particle distribution based on emittance measurements in x-x’ and y-y’. The accuracy of this program has been tested using real and constructed emittance measurements. Based on these tests, the distribution generated by the program can be used to accurately simulate the beam in multi-particle tracking codes, as an alternative to a Gaussian or uniform distribution.

  6. Measuring and modelling continuous quality distributions of soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bruun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM is important for our ability to develop management practices that preserve soil quality and sequester carbon. Most SOM decomposition models represent the heterogeneity of organic matter by a few discrete compartments with different turnover rates, while other models employ a continuous quality distribution. To make the multi-compartment models more mechanistic in nature, it has been argued that the compartments should be related to soil fractions actually occurring and having a functional role in the soil. In this paper, we make the case that fractionation methods that can measure continuous quality distributions should be developed, and that the temporal development of these distributions should be incorporated into SOM models. The measured continuous SOM quality distributions should hold valuable information not only for model development, but also for direct interpretation. Measuring continuous distributions requires that the measurements along the quality variable are so frequent that the distribution is approaching the underlying continuum. Continuous distributions leads to possible simplifications of the model formulations, which considerably reduce the number of parameters needed to describe SOM turnover. A general framework for SOM models representing SOM across measurable quality distributions is presented and simplifications for specific situations are discussed. Finally, methods that have been used or have the potential to be used to measure continuous quality SOM distributions are reviewed. Generally, existing fractionation methods have to be modified to allow measurement of distributions or new fractionation techniques will have to be developed. Developing the distributional models in concert with the fractionation methods to measure the distributions will be a major task. We hope the current paper will help spawning the interest needed to accommodate this.

  7. THE MEASUREMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF WOOD DUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rosario Proto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the woodworking industry presents many issues in terms of occupational health and safety. This study on exposure to wood dust could contribute to the realization of a prevention model in order to limit exposure to carcinogenic agents to the worker. The sampling methodology illustrated the analysis of dust emissions from the woodworking machinery in operation throughout the various processing cycles. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of exposure was performed using two different methodologies. The levels of wood dust were determined according to EN indications and sampling was conducted using IOM and Cyclon personal samplers. The qualitative research of wood dust was performed using an advanced laser air particle counter. This allowed the number of particles present to be counted in real time. The results obtained allowed for an accurate assessment of the quality of the dust emitted inside the workplace during the various processing phases. The study highlighted the distribution of air particles within the different size classes, the exact number of both thin and ultra-thin dusts, and confirmed the high concentration of thin dust particles which can be very harmful to humans.

  8. A New Measure of Distributive Justice by Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Ueda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, distributive justice has been measured with multiple question items to which respondents indicate the degree to which their working situation corresponds with those described in the question items. This article proposes an alternative method to measure distributive justice, using the data envelopment analysis (DEA approach. We apply an efficiency measure calculated in DEA for the inputs/outcomes ratio to judge distributive justice in the organization. Using the data collected from accounting workers who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area, the results of correlation analysis show that this new measure of distributive justice has significant positive correlations with all three satisfaction variables in a male sample, and with one satisfaction variable in a female sample, providing some justification for using this new variable as a measure of distributive justice.

  9. Measuring SNM Isotopic Distributions using FRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-02

    The first group of slides provides background information on the isotopic composition of plutonium. It is shown that 240Pu is the critical isotope in neutron coincidence/multiplicity counting. Next, response function analysis to determine isotopic composition is discussed. The isotopic composition can be determined by measuring the net peak counts from each isotope and then taking the ratio of the counts for each isotope relative to the total counts for the element. Then FRAM (Fixed energy Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies) is explained. FRAM can control data acquisition, automatically analyze newly acquired data, analyze previously acquired data, provide information on the quality of the analysis, and facilitate analysis in unusual situations (non-standard energy calibrations, gamma rays from non-SNM isotopes, poor spectra (within limits)).

  10. Abrupt summer warming and changes in temperature extremes over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s: Drivers and physical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaodong; Lu, Riyu; Sun, Ying

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the drivers and physical processes for the abrupt decadal summer surface warming and increases in hot temperature extremes that occurred over Northeast Asia in the mid-1990s. Observations indicate an abrupt increase in summer mean surface air temperature (SAT) over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s. Accompanying this abrupt surface warming, significant changes in some temperature extremes, characterized by increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature (Tmax), daily minimum temperature (Tmin), annual hottest day temperature (TXx), and annual warmest night temperature (TNx) were observed. There were also increases in the frequency of summer days (SU) and tropical nights (TR). Atmospheric general circulation model experiments forced by changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, and anthropogenic aerosol (AA) forcing, relative to the period 1964-93, reproduced the general patterns of observed summer mean SAT changes and associated changes in temperature extremes, although the abrupt decrease in precipitation since the mid-1990s was not simulated. Additional model experiments with different forcings indicated that changes in SST/SIE explained 76% of the area-averaged summer mean surface warming signal over Northeast Asia, while the direct impact of changes in GHG and AA explained the remaining 24% of the surface warming signal. Analysis of physical processes indicated that the direct impact of the changes in AA (through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions), mainly related to the reduction of AA precursor emissions over Europe, played a dominant role in the increase in TXx and a similarly important role as SST/SIE changes in the increase in the frequency of SU over Northeast Asia via AA-induced coupled atmosphere-land surface and cloud feedbacks, rather than through a direct impact of AA changes on cloud condensation nuclei. The modelling results also imply

  11. Marital decision-making and the timing of first birth in rural China before the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying

    2006-11-01

    Using a sample of couples drawn from the three provinces of Guangdong, Shandong, and Shaanxi, we investigated whether couples' increasing freedom to choose whom to marry influenced the timing of first birth in rural China during the four decades before the 1990s. The shortening of first-birth intervals in the period is found to be associated with the shift from arranged to free-choice marriages. The association is attributed largely to increased intimacy and coital frequency after marriage together with postponement of age at first marriage.

  12. Is globalization undermining the welfare state? The evolution of the welfare state in developed capitalist countries during the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John; Astudillo, Javier

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyze the evolution of macro-indicators of social and economic well-being during the 1990s in the majority of developed capitalist countries, grouped according to their dominant political traditions since the end of World War II. Their analysis shows that, despite the economic globalization of commerce and finance, "politics still matters" in explaining the evolution of the welfare states and labor markets in these countries; the impact of the globalization of financial capital in forcing reductions in the financial resources available for welfare state purposes has been exaggerated.

  13. The formation of a new transnational labour market: Polish labour migration to Vienna in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlbacher, Josef; Reeger, Ursula

    1998-01-01

    After the fall of the Iron Curtain Austria's position within the framework of Europe's migration league table shifted from a marginal one to that of an appealing "Gateway to the Golden West" with a strong attraction for migrants. So it is not surprising that the inflow of labour force from Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary was growing during the 1990s. This has led to the formation of a new transnational labour market which includes the eastern regions of Austria and the countr...

  14. Could there have been substantial declines in sexual risk behavior across sub-Saharan Africa in the mid-1990s?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne F. Awad

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The hypothesis that HIV prevalence declines in SSA have been driven by declines in sexual risk behavior is self-consistent and provides a convincing narrative for an evolving HIV epidemiology in this region. The hypothesized declines must have been remarkable in their intensity, rapidity, and synchronicity to explain the temporal trends in HIV prevalence. These findings provide contextual support for the hypothesis that changes in sexual behavior that materialized in the 1990s are a dominant driver of the recent decreases in HIV prevalence.

  15. Did the dual-earner model become stronger or weaker in Finland and Sweden in the 1990s?

    OpenAIRE

    Haataja, Anita; Nyberg, Anita

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the dual-earner model in families with children in Finland and Sweden from the end of the 1980s to the beginning of the 2000s. During this period the two countries introduced the same kind as well as different kinds of policies in relation to the dual-earner model. Simultaneously both countries experienced a very deep economic crisis in the beginning of the 1990s, which also could be expected to influence the dual-earner model. The study focuses on both two-parent fa...

  16. Application of Digital Photogrammetry to Measure Distribution of Tree Postions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chao; Zhang Qing; Wang Xuefeng

    2004-01-01

    The application of digital photogrammetry to measure distribution of tree positions with stereo image couple is introduced in detail, and the procedure of stereo vision applied in forestry environment is explored. Nonlinear error in measure model is adopted in the camera calibration; the interactive correlation matching is used under constraint of epipolar line and edge of tree detected by Canny operator. Results prove that application of digital photogrammetry technology to measure distribution of tree positions can meet demand of precision in experimental conditions.

  17. NORMALLY DISTRIBUTED PROBABILITY MEASURE ON THE METRIC SPACE OF NORMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Á.G. HORVÁTH

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method to construct probability measures on the space of convex bodies. For this purpose, first, we introduce the notion of thinness of a body. Then we show the existence of a measure with the property that its pushforward by the thinness function is a probability measure of truncated normal distribution. Finally, we improve this method to find a measure satisfying some important properties in geometric measure theory.

  18. Non-Gaussian Error Distributions of LMC Distance Moduli Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Crandall, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We construct error distributions for a compilation of 232 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) distance moduli values from de Grijs et al. 2014 that give an LMC distance modulus of (m-M)_{0}=18.49 \\pm 0.13 (median and 1\\sigma symmetrized error). Central estimates found from weighted mean and median statistics are used to construct the error distributions. The weighted mean error distribution is non-Gaussian --- flatter and broader than Gaussian --- with more (less) probability in the tails (center) than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution; this could be the consequence of unaccounted-for systematic uncertainties. The median statistics error distribution, which does not make use of the individual measurement errors, is also non-Gaussian --- more peaked than Gaussian --- with less (more) probability in the tails (center) than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution; this could be the consequence of publication bias and/or the non-independence of the measurements.

  19. Surveillance of antimalarial drug resistance in China in the 1980s–1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, De-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Since the successful preparation of the microplates and the medium for field application, the resistance degree and its geographical distribution of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, the fluctuation of the resistance degree of P. falciparum to chloroquine, and the sensitivity of the parasite to commonly used antimalarial drugs were investigated between 1980 and 2003 by the in vitro microtest and the in vivo four-week test recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The resu...

  20. Tractable Counterparts of Distributionally Robust Constraints on Risk Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postek, K.S.; den Hertog, D.; Melenberg, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study distributionally robust constraints on risk measures (such as standard deviation less the mean, Conditional Value-at-Risk, Entropic Value-at-Risk) of decision-dependent random variables. The uncertainty sets for the discrete probability distributions are defined using statisti

  1. Luminous Flame Temperature Distribution Measurement Using the Emission Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Flame temperature distribution is one of the most important characteristic parameters in combustion research. The emission method is a good way to measure the luminous flame temperature field. The maximum entropy method is introduced to the temperature distribution measurement of a luminous flame using the emission method. A simplified mathematical model was derived by combining the thermal radiation theory, reconstruction algorithm and maximum entropy method. Suitable parameters were selected in the computing process. Good experimental results were obtained with pulverized coal flames.

  2. Study of indoor radon distribution using measurements and CFD modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement and/or prediction of indoor radon (222Rn) concentration are important due to the impact of radon on indoor air quality and consequent inhalation hazard. In recent times, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling has become the cost effective replacement of experimental methods for the prediction and visualization of indoor pollutant distribution. The aim of this study is to implement CFD based modeling for studying indoor radon gas distribution. This study focuses on comparison of experimentally measured and CFD modeling predicted spatial distribution of radon concentration for a model test room. The key inputs for simulation viz. radon exhalation rate and ventilation rate were measured as a part of this study. Validation experiments were performed by measuring radon concentration at different locations of test room using active (continuous radon monitor) and passive (pin-hole dosimeters) techniques. Modeling predictions have been found to be reasonably matching with the measurement results. The validated model can be used to understand and study factors affecting indoor radon distribution for more realistic indoor environment. - Highlights: • Indoor radon distribution has been studied using active and passive measurements and CFD simulation. • At low ventilation, non-uniformity of radon concentration was observed. • Measured wall radon flux and ventilation rate has been used in simulations. • CFD simulation results were found to be close to measurements

  3. Study on utilizing ultrasonic for measurement of sediment concentration distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaChunjuan; TangMaoguan

    1998-01-01

    In the course of sedimentation research, the measurement of sediment concentration and its distribution is very important. At present, most traditional methods are arduous and cannot measure the sediment timely and successively. In order to seek the new measurement method,the paper reports utilizing ultrasonic measurement. When ultrasonic wave spreads along the depth in aqueous suspensions, the scatter intensity of sediment particles changes the depth and sediment concentration. Based on this principle,

  4. On the asymptotic distribution of an alternative measure of kurtosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagba Suaray

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pearson defined the fourth standardized moment of a symmetric distribution as its kurtosis. There has been much discussion in the literature concerning both the meaning of kurtosis, as well as the effectiveness of the classical sample kurtosis as a reliable measure of peakedness and tail weight. In this paper, we consider an alternative measure, developed by Crow and Siddiqui, used to describe kurtosis. Its value is calculated for a number of common distributions, and a derivation of its asymptotic distribution is given. Simulations follow, which reveal an interesting connection to the literature on the ratio of normal random variables.

  5. Impacts of LUCC processes on potential land productivity in China in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jiyuan; XU; Xinliang; ZHUANG; Dafang

    2005-01-01

    Using meteorological data and RS dynamic land-use observation data set, the potential land productivity that is limited by solar radiation and temperature is estimated and the impacts of recent LUCC processes on it are analyzed in this paper. The results show that the influence of LUCC processes on potential land productivity change has extensive and unbalanced characteristics. It generally reduces the productivity in South China and increases it in North China, and the overall effect is increasing the total productivity by 26.22 million tons. The farmland reclamation and original farmlands losses are the primary causes that led potential land productivity to change. The reclamation mostly distributed in arable-pasture and arable-forest transitional zones and oasises in northwestern China has made total productivity increase by 83.35 million tons, accounting for 3.50% of the overall output. The losses of original farmlands driven by built-up areas invading and occupying arable land are mostly distributed in the regions which have rapid economic development, e.g. Huang-Huai-Hai plain, Yangtze River delta, Zhujiang delta, central part of Gansu, southeast coastal region, southeast of Sichuan Basin and Urumqi-Shihezi. It has led the total productivity to decrease 57.13 million tons, which is 2.40% of the overall output.

  6. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated temperature extreme changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day temperature and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these temperature extremes. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor

  7. Pulmonary blood flow distribution measured by radionuclide computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distributions of pulmonary blood flow per unit lung volume were measured in sitting patients with a radionuclide computed tomography (RCT) by intravenously administered Tc-99m macroaggregates of human serum albumin (MAA). Four different types of distribution were distinguished, among which a group referred as type 2 had a three zonal blood flow distribution as previously reported (West and co-workers, 1964). The pulmonary arterial pressure (Pa) and the venous pressure (Pv) were determined in this group of distribution. These values showed satifactory agreements with the pulmonary artery pressure (Par) and the capillary wedged pressure (Pcw) measured by Swan-Ganz catheter in eighteen supine patients. Those good correlations enable to establish a noninvasive methodology for measurement of pulmonary vascular pressures

  8. Measuring distributed leadership agency in a hospital context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Thomas; Unterrainer, Christine; Jeppesen, Hans Jeppe;

    2016-01-01

    and valid quantitative instrument that measures how much employees’ at all hierarchical levels are involved in concrete leadership activities in the hospital context. Taking a normative perspective we could show that Distributed Leadership – measured with the DLA-questionnaire – has positive effects......Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an instrument that can measure Distributed Leadership as employees’ active participation in distributed leadership tasks. We designate this as the Distributed Leadership Agency (DLA). Methodology: Data were collected throughout all......, discriminant and convergent validity, and ANOVAs were applied to analyze group differences in DLA. Findings: The identified uni-dimensional questionnaire consists of seven items, as it is different from, but associated with, empowering leadership, organizational influence, attitude to participation and trust...

  9. Political economy of China's trade policy:the evidence from industrial protection in 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Bin

    2006-01-01

    The theory of the political economy of trade policy,combining public choice and neoclassical trade theories,studies the level and pattern of trade intervention from the perspective of policy decision-making process,by stressing on income distribution instead of economic efficiency.The paper attempts to apply such an endogenous trade theory to an empirical study of China.On the basis of a formal revised model of political economy of trade protection,it tests theoretical hypotheses concerning the political and economic determinants of cross-sector trade protection in the Chinese industry at various periods.The results show that trade protection in China fits into China's national development strategy of fast catching-up with the developed world.

  10. Transformation of the structure professions in higher agricultural schools of Siberia at the end of 1950-s – beginning of 1990-s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrik Valeriy V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the transformations happened to the specialties structure in Higher agricultural education of Siberia at the end of the 1950s-the beginning of the 1990s. On the basis of archive documents there were analyzed the measures taken by central administrative structures, local authorities and the academic staff of the region for further development and perfection of major organization departments in eight agricultural institutes and their branches. It is stated that to the end of the period reviewed the number of faculties and specialties in Siberian agricultural higher educational institutions rose two times in comparison with the beginning of the period. Some of the agricultural institutes and their branches showed the rise in three or four times. In consequence of the measures they raised the number of specialists trained in Agronomics, Livestock engineering, Mechanics, Power engineering, Veterinary, Economics, for rapidly developing branches of regional agriculture. The article is intended to people interested in history of Higher education in Russia.

  11. A new setup to measure bidirectional reflectance distribution functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, P.P.J.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Bartholomeus, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Plant Facility, a new laboratory goniometer system, built by the Wageningen University has been tested in order to take bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements. An ASD FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer mounted on an industrial robot arm is able to measure small targets ov

  12. Disparities in child health in the Arab region during the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyerson-Knox Sonya

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Arab countries showed an impressive decline in child mortality rates during the past few decades, gaps in mortality by gender and socioeconomic status persisted. However, large socioeconomic disparities in child health were evident in almost every country in the region. Methods Using available tabulations and reliable micro data from national household surveys, data for 18 Arab countries were available for analysis. In addition to infant and child mortality, child health was measured by nutritional status, vaccination, and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI. Within-country disparities in child health by gender, residence (urban/rural and maternal educational level were described. Child health was also analyzed by macro measures of development, including per capita GDP (PPP, female literacy rates, urban population and doctors per 100,000 people. Results Gender disparities in child health using the above indicators were less evident, with most showing clear female advantage. With the exception of infant and child survival, gender disparities demonstrated a female advantage, as well as a large urban advantage and an overall advantage for mothers with secondary education. Surprisingly, the countries' rankings with respect to disparities were not associated with various macro measures of development. Conclusion The tenacity of pervasive intra-country socioeconomic disparities in child health calls for attention by policy makers and health practitioners.

  13. Measuring polarized gluon and quark distributions with meson photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors calculate polarization asymmetries in photoproduction of high transverse momentum mesons, focusing on charged pions, considering the direct, fragmentation, and resolved photon processes. The results at very high meson momentum measure the polarized quark distributions and are sensitive to differences among the existing models. The results at moderate meson momentum are sensitive to the polarized gluon distribution and can provide a good way to measure it. Suitable data may come as a by-product of deep inelastic experiments to measure g1 or from dedicated experiments

  14. Measuring Polarized Gluon and Quark Distributions with Meson Photoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, A M; Wahlquist, C; Afanasev, Andrei; Carlson, Carl E.; Wahlquist, Christian

    1998-01-01

    We calculate polarization asymmetries in photoproduction of high transverse momentum mesons, focusing on charged pions, considering the direct, fragmentation, and resolved photon processes. The results at very high meson momentum measure the polarized quark distributions and are sensitive to differences among the existing models. The results at moderate meson momentum are sensitive to the polarized gluon distribution and can provide a good way to measure it. Suitable data may come as a by-product of deep inelastic experiments to measure $g_1$ or from dedicated experiments.

  15. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  16. State policy decisions in the 1990s with implications for the financial well-being of later-life families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gretchen J

    2006-01-01

    This study explores trends and patterns in states' policy decisions affecting the economic well-being of later-life individuals and families in the United States in recent decades, focusing on the 1990s. Rules were selected from the areas of inheritance, estate taxes, homestead exemptions, Medicaid eligibility, estate recovery, and filial responsibility. Results indicate an increasing use of a broad definition of family, one implying that spouses, the nuclear family, extended kin, step-relations, and sometimes in-laws constitute an ongoing collective whose members share economic resources and risks over their lives and beyond. Despite this global trend, states varied in their rules addressing intrafamilial financial obligations and families' accountability to states. While some seemed interested in facilitating the conservation of familial resources, others seemed willing to minimize public assistance while coercing kin into accepting financial responsibility for one another. Research was suggested to answer questions raised by this study.

  17. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960's through 1990's)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the time period covered in this report (1960's through early 1990's), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site's general design, (2) each site's inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site's chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington

  18. Expectations and beliefs in science communication: Learning from three European gene therapy discussions of the early 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-04-01

    There is widespread agreement that the potential of gene therapy was oversold in the early 1990s. This study, however, comparing written material from the British, Danish and German gene therapy discourses of the period finds significant differences: Over-optimism was not equally strong everywhere; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical-ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention to internalised beliefs.

  19. CEO expectation: the Star Wars materiel manager of the 1990s, or C-3PO as role model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenty, T F; Olson, M R

    1993-05-01

    Materiel-intensive expenditures account for a significant portion of all hospital costs, second only to salaries and wages, yet materiel managers may often be overlooked as key members of the management team. This is alarming since the potential exists for materiel managers to impact annual savings of hundreds of thousands of dollars by operating efficient departments. Materiel managers have a tremendous opportunity to enhance their image and improve hospital productivity in the coming decade. The challenges of the 1990s will stretch materiel managers' skills toward enhancing their professionalism and achieving the expectations of themselves and top management. If materiel managers will effectively utilize (C3)PO they will increase their educational levels, continue to learn new skills, maintain a customer-oriented management style, exercise creativity, develop and adhere to standards, and be proactive in their responsibilities. The benefits of their success will be felt by patients, hospitals, the industry, and materiel managers everywhere.

  20. Imaging and Measuring Electron Beam Dose Distributions Using Holographic Interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Holographic interferometry was used to image and measure ionizing radiation depth-dose and isodose distributions in transparent liquids. Both broad and narrowly collimated electron beams from accelerators (2–10 MeV) provided short irradiation times of 30 ns to 0.6 s. Holographic images and measur......Holographic interferometry was used to image and measure ionizing radiation depth-dose and isodose distributions in transparent liquids. Both broad and narrowly collimated electron beams from accelerators (2–10 MeV) provided short irradiation times of 30 ns to 0.6 s. Holographic images...... and measurements of absorbed dose distributions were achieved in liquids of various densities and thermal properties and in water layers thinner than the electron range and with backings of materials of various densities and atomic numbers. The lowest detectable dose in some liquids was of the order of a few k...

  1. Department of Medicine Local Area Network: A Strategic Solution for the 1990's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Ronald N.; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J.

    1989-01-01

    In 1986 the Department of Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center (LUMC) Chicago chose local area network technology (LAN) for implementing an integrated departmental health care computing system. LAN technology was selected for its: 1) low cost; 2) flexibility/adaptability in system design; and, 3) wealth of end user software. The departmental network (MED-LAN) consists of six LANs, running Novell Netware 2.1 on Intel 80386 microcomputer file servers, with 75 nodes and 120 users. Each LAN encompasses one or more buildings and is internetworked through a campus-wide ethernet. These LANs provide access to applications such as electronic mail, wordprocessing, spreadsheet, database management and statistics. The Section of Medical Informatics has developed over 40 integrated applications utilizing distributed data management techniques that include: 1) new patient appointment system (14,000 patients annually); 2) patient charge capturing system; 3) clinical research databases; and, 4) patient management systems. To date MED-LAN has proven to be flexible and efficient in meeting the department's informational needs.

  2. The matilda effect in science: awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Anne E; Pincus, Stephanie; Koster, Janet Bandows; Leboy, Phoebe S

    2012-04-01

    Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the 'Matthew Effect'. Contrary to the Mertonian norm of universalism--the expectation that the personal attributes of scientists do not affect evaluations of their scientific claims and contributions--in practice, a great deal of evidence suggests that the scientific efforts and achievements of women do not receive the same recognition as do those of men: the 'Matilda Effect'. Awards in science, technology, engineering and medical (STEM) fields are not immune to these biases. We outline the research on gender bias in evaluations of research and analyze data from 13 STEM disciplinary societies. While women's receipt of professional awards and prizes has increased in the past two decades, men continue to win a higher proportion of awards for scholarly research than expected based on their representation in the nomination pool. The results support the powerful twin influences of implicit bias and committee chairs as contributing factors. The analysis sheds light on the relationship of external social factors to women's science careers and helps to explain why women are severely underrepresented as winners of science awards. The ghettoization of women's accomplishments into a category of 'women-only' awards also is discussed.

  3. The `hockey stick' and the 1990s: a statistical perspective on reconstructing hemispheric temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Nychka, Douglas W.; Ammann, Caspar M.

    2007-10-01

    The short instrumental record of about 100-150 yr forces us to use proxy indicators to study climate over long timescales. The climate information in these indirect data is embedded in considerable noise, and the past temperature reconstructions are therefore full of uncertainty, which blurs the understanding of the temperature evolution. To date, the characterization and quantification of uncertainty have not been a high priority in reconstruction procedures. Here we propose a new statistical methodology to explicitly account for three types of uncertainties in the reconstruction process. Via ensemble reconstruction, we directly obtain the distribution of decadal maximum as well as annual maximum. Our method is an integration of linear regression, bootstrapping and cross-validation techniques, and it (1) accounts for the effects of temporal correlation of temperature; (2) identifies the variability of the estimated statistical model and (3) adjusts the effects of potential overfitting. We apply our method to the Northern Hemisphere (NH) average temperature reconstruction. Our results indicate that the recent decadal temperature increase is rapidly overwhelming previous maxima, even with uncertainty taken into account, and the last decade is highly likely to be the warmest in the last millennium.

  4. Surface ozone scenario at Pune and Delhi during the decade of 1990s

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaushar Ali; S R Inamdar; G Beig; S Ghude; Sunil Peshin

    2012-04-01

    Data on surface ozone concentration compiled for a 10-year period from 1990 to 1999 for Pune and Delhi are analyzed in terms of its frequency distribution, annual trend, diurnal variation and its relation with various meteorological and chemical parameters. It is found that the surface ozone concentration range showing highest frequency of occurrence at Pune is 0–5 ppb during winter and post-monsoon seasons and 15–20 ppb and 5–10 ppb during summer and monsoon seasons, respectively. It is 0–5 ppb at Delhi during all the seasons. The surface ozone concentration has shown a decreasing trend at Pune during the observational period with an average rate of decrease of 1.54 ppb/year. On the other hand, there is no trend whatsoever in the variation of surface ozone concentration at Delhi. Minimum value of surface ozone occurs before sunrise and maximum in the afternoon hours. Regression analyses of surface ozone with maximum temperature ( = 0.46 for Pune and 0.51 for Delhi, significant at more than 0.1%) and NO2 at respective locations indicate that surface ozone at these locations is mainly produced by photochemistry. Transport mechanism is also understood to have contributed significantly to the total concentration of ozone. Inverse relationship obtained between surface ozone concentration and relative humidity indicates that major photochemical paths for removal of ozone become effective when humidity increases at these locations.

  5. The matilda effect in science: awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Anne E; Pincus, Stephanie; Koster, Janet Bandows; Leboy, Phoebe S

    2012-04-01

    Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the 'Matthew Effect'. Contrary to the Mertonian norm of universalism--the expectation that the personal attributes of scientists do not affect evaluations of their scientific claims and contributions--in practice, a great deal of evidence suggests that the scientific efforts and achievements of women do not receive the same recognition as do those of men: the 'Matilda Effect'. Awards in science, technology, engineering and medical (STEM) fields are not immune to these biases. We outline the research on gender bias in evaluations of research and analyze data from 13 STEM disciplinary societies. While women's receipt of professional awards and prizes has increased in the past two decades, men continue to win a higher proportion of awards for scholarly research than expected based on their representation in the nomination pool. The results support the powerful twin influences of implicit bias and committee chairs as contributing factors. The analysis sheds light on the relationship of external social factors to women's science careers and helps to explain why women are severely underrepresented as winners of science awards. The ghettoization of women's accomplishments into a category of 'women-only' awards also is discussed. PMID:22849001

  6. Sensitizing events as trigger for discursive renewal and institutional change in Flanders’ environmental health approach, 1970s-1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitizing events may trigger and stimulate discursive renewal. From a discursive institutional perspective, changing discourses are the driving force behind the institutional dynamics of policy domains. Theoretically informed by discursive institutionalism, this article assesses the impact of a series of four sensitizing events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders between the 1970s till the 1990s, and led onto the gradual institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. Methods The Policy Arrangement Approach is used as the analytical framework to structure the empirical results of the historical analysis based on document analysis and in-depth interviews. Results Until the 1990s, environmental health was characterized as an ad hoc policy field in Flanders, where agenda setting was based on sensitizing events – also referred to as incident-driven. Each of these events contributed to a gradual rethinking of the epistemological discourses about environmental health risks and uncertainties. These new discourses were the driving forces behind institutional dynamics as they gradually resulted in an increased need for: 1) long-term, policy-oriented, interdisciplinary environmental health research; 2) policy coordination and integration between the environmental and public health policy fields; and 3) new forms of science-policy interactions based on mutual learning. These changes are desirable in order to detect environmental health problems as fast as possible, to react immediately and communicate appropriately. Conclusions The series of four events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders provided the opportunity to rethink and re-organize the current affairs concerning environmental health and gradually resulted into the institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. PMID:23758822

  7. Europe-wide fertility trends since the 1990s: Turning the corner from declining first birth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Burkimsher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the period 1995-2002 there was a change in trajectory from decline to rise in first birth fertility rates across Europe. Objective: A number of previous studies have looked at the demographic causes of the transition. This study evaluates their conclusions by analysing a comprehensive set of indicators for fifteen countries with data in the Human Fertility Database. Methods: Comparisons are made between the four years before and after the fertility trough, to discover what changed between these two periods. Results: In the period before the trough, peak age-specific fertility rates were falling; these tended to stabilise after the year of minimum fertility. The width of the fertility curve, however, was already widening in the 1990s, and this trend continued. The transition from fall to rise in TFR1 occurred when the increase in the width of the curve more than compensated for any further falls in peak rates; this explanation is valid for countries in both Eastern and Western Europe. The increasing width of the fertility curve was caused by two factors: the decline in young (pre-modal fertility slowed, whilst the rise in older (post-modal fertility accelerated. For some countries, a rise in underlying cohort rates also contributed to the rise in period rates. The likelihood of childless women entering motherhood also rose in some but not all countries. Conclusions: During the 1990s, women were postponing first births across Europe. A rebound took place for several reasons, with the overarching driver being the strong rise in late fertility. Comments: In some countries the steep rise in late fertility had an unexpected and paradoxical effect on postponement rates (defined as the year-on-year increase in mean age at first birth. Recuperation at post-modal ages of postponed first births caused an acceleration in 'postponement' rates, as defined by this metric.

  8. [Biological psychiatry (neuropsychiatry)--status and perspectives for for the 1990s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, R

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, research into biological aspects of psychiatric disorders has had high priority. Biological psychiatry, or neuropsychiatry, is characterised by (a) empiricist epistemology, (b) a diathesis-stress disease model, (c) neurobiological pathogenetic theories, (d) chemical or physical treatment as an essential though not necessarily sufficient measure, and (e) a patient-oriented ethical approach. A short review of some major topics is given, including standardised assessment, clinical and molecular genetics, neurotransmitter theories, neuro-imaging techniques, panic disorder, classic and novel psychopharmacological compounds, and alcohol and drug dependence. Avenues of future research endeavours are delineated, and it is concluded that in the future neuropsychiatry should play a major part in psychiatry, though closely integrated with psychological and social theory. PMID:8098866

  9. Globalization : the challenge of the 1990s for the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenges facing the chemical industry in Canada were discussed. In recent years, Canada has scored low in polls measuring public confidence in the chemical industry. The industry is also suffering from continuing recession, global competition, increased environmental demands and strict legislation. The impact of globalization, total quality management, free trade, environmental concerns, and government policies on the chemical industry were reviewed. In the view of this author (President and CEO of Dow Chemicals) globalization is not a matter of choice, it is an industry imperative. Survival in the globalized economy will require not only to be successful competitors, but even more importantly to be successful cooperators with other stakeholders, and successful in forming partnerships with customers

  10. A strategy for space biology and medical science for the 1980s and 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A guideline is provided for developing NASA's long-term mission plans and a rational, coherent research program. Ten topical areas for research are addressed: developmental biology, gravitropism in plants, sensorimotor integration, bone and mineral metabolism, cardiovascular/pulmonary function, muscle remodeling, nutrition, human reproduction, space anemia, and human behavior. Scientific goals, objectives, and required measurements and facilities for each of the major areas of space biology and medicine are identified and described along with primary goals and objectives for each of these disciplines. Proposals are made concerning the use of scientific panels to oversee the implementation of the strategy, life sciences' need for continuous access to spaceflight opportunities, the advantages of a focused mission strategy, certain design features that will enhance spaceflight experimentation, and general facilities. Other topics that are considered include mission planning, crew selection and training, and interagency and international cooperation.

  11. Advanced measurement approach with loss distribution in operational risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Atilla ÇİFTER; Chambers, Nurgül

    2007-01-01

    According to the last proposal by Basel Committee, commercial banks are allowed to use advanced measurement approach for operational risk. Since basic indicator and standard approach considers operational risk as a percentage of gross profit, these methodologies are not satisfactory as real lost or probability of lost are not taken into consideration. In this article, loss distribution approach is applied with simulated data. 20 nonparametric loss distributions and mixing internal and externa...

  12. Challenging the Future - Journey to Excellence. Aeropropulsion strategic plan for the 1990's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past several months, the Lewis Aeropropulsion Management Council (AMC) has conducted a critical assessment of its strategic plan. This assessment clearly indicated a need for change, both in the aeropropulsion program emphasis and in the approach to carrying out that program. Customers sent a strong message that the program must improve the timeliness of research and technology products and services and must work more closely with them to develop and transfer new technology. The strategic plan defines AMC's vision for the future and underlying organizational values. It contains a set of broad strategies and actions that point the way toward achieving the goals of customer satisfaction, organizational effectiveness, and programmatic excellence. Those strategies are expected to form the basis for the development of specific tactical plans by Lewis aeropropulsion thrust teams, divisions, and branches. To guide tactical planning of the aeropropulsion program, this strategic plan outlines the agency's strategic directions and long-range aeronautics goals, the aeropropulsion goals and key objectives for achieving them, projections of Lewis aeropropulsion budgets, planned allocations of resources, and the processes that will be used to measure success in carrying out the strategic plan.

  13. Size distribution measurements and chemical analysis of aerosol components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The principal aims of this work were to improve the existing methods for size distribution measurements and to draw conclusions about atmospheric and in-stack aerosol chemistry and physics by utilizing size distributions of various aerosol components measured. A sample dissolution with dilute nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath and subsequent graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric analysis was found to result in low blank values and good recoveries for several elements in atmospheric fine particle size fractions below 2 {mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic particle diameter (EAD). Furthermore, it turned out that a substantial amount of analyses associated with insoluble material could be recovered since suspensions were formed. The size distribution measurements of in-stack combustion aerosols indicated two modal size distributions for most components measured. The existence of the fine particle mode suggests that a substantial fraction of such elements with two modal size distributions may vaporize and nucleate during the combustion process. In southern Norway, size distributions of atmospheric aerosol components usually exhibited one or two fine particle modes and one or two coarse particle modes. Atmospheric relative humidity values higher than 80% resulted in significant increase of the mass median diameters of the droplet mode. Important local and/or regional sources of As, Br, I, K, Mn, Pb, Sb, Si and Zn were found to exist in southern Norway. The existence of these sources was reflected in the corresponding size distributions determined, and was utilized in the development of a source identification method based on size distribution data. On the Finnish south coast, atmospheric coarse particle nitrate was found to be formed mostly through an atmospheric reaction of nitric acid with existing coarse particle sea salt but reactions and/or adsorption of nitric acid with soil derived particles also occurred. Chloride was depleted when acidic species reacted

  14. Probability distributions for measures of placental shape and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birthweight at delivery is a standard cumulative measure of placental growth, but is a crude summary of other placental characteristics, such as, e.g., the chorionic plate size, and the shape and position of the umbilical cord insertion. Distributions of such measures across a cohort reveal information about the developmental history of the chorionic plate which is unavailable from an analysis based solely on the mean and standard deviation. Various measures were determined from digitized images of chorionic plates obtained from the pregnancy, infection, and nutrition study, a prospective cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina between 2002 and 2004. Centroids (geometric centers) and umbilical cord insertions were taken directly from the images. Chorionic plate outlines were obtained from an interpolation based on a Fourier series, while eccentricity (of the best-fit ellipse), skewness, and kurtosis were determined from the method of moments. Histograms of each variable were compared against the normal, lognormal, and Lévy distributions. Only a single measure (eccentricity) followed a normal distribution. All others followed lognormal or ‘heavy-tailed’ distributions for moderate to extreme deviations from the mean, where the relative likelihood far exceeded those of a normal distribution. (paper)

  15. Measurement of bidirectional reflection distribution function on material surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Hongyuan Wang; Zhile Wang

    2009-01-01

    Two automatic measurement methods of bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) are pre sented based on absolute and relative definition. Measurement principle and scheme of the methods are analyzed. A real-time measurement device is developed, the measurement spectral range of which is from ultraviolet to near infrared with 2.4-nm wavelength resolution, and the angular range is 0掳鈥? 360掳 in az imuth angle and 0掳 - 85掳 in zenith angle with 0.01掳 angle resolution. Absolute measurements of BRDF on tinfoil and ceramic tile are performed and the test materials present apparent specular reflection char acteristics. The theoretical error in the experiment is about 6.05%. The BRDF measurement results are closely related to the precision of measurement platform, the sensitivity of measurement instrument, and the stability of illuminating light source.

  16. Measurements of the angular distribution of diffuse irradiance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Nielsen, Kristian Pagh; Dragsted, Janne;

    2015-01-01

    Advanced solar resource assessment and forecasting is necessary for optimal solar energy utilization. In order to investigate the short-term resource variability, for instance caused by clouds it is necessary to investigate how clouds affect the solar irradiance, including the angular distribution...... of the solar irradiance. The investigation is part of the Danish contribution to the taskforce 46 within the International Energy Agency and financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The investigation focuses on the distribution of the diffuse solar irradiance and is based on horizontal measurements of the solar...... irradiance from 8 different parts of the sky as well as horizontal measurements of the total beam and total diffuse irradiance....

  17. Study of indoor radon distribution using measurements and CFD modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Neetika; Chauhan, R P; Joshi, M; Agarwal, T K; Aggarwal, Praveen; Sahoo, B K

    2014-10-01

    Measurement and/or prediction of indoor radon ((222)Rn) concentration are important due to the impact of radon on indoor air quality and consequent inhalation hazard. In recent times, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling has become the cost effective replacement of experimental methods for the prediction and visualization of indoor pollutant distribution. The aim of this study is to implement CFD based modeling for studying indoor radon gas distribution. This study focuses on comparison of experimentally measured and CFD modeling predicted spatial distribution of radon concentration for a model test room. The key inputs for simulation viz. radon exhalation rate and ventilation rate were measured as a part of this study. Validation experiments were performed by measuring radon concentration at different locations of test room using active (continuous radon monitor) and passive (pin-hole dosimeters) techniques. Modeling predictions have been found to be reasonably matching with the measurement results. The validated model can be used to understand and study factors affecting indoor radon distribution for more realistic indoor environment.

  18. Determination and optimization of spatial samples for distributed measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, Xiaoming (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Tran, Hy D.; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Kim, Heeyong (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

    2010-10-01

    There are no accepted standards for determining how many measurements to take during part inspection or where to take them, or for assessing confidence in the evaluation of acceptance based on these measurements. The goal of this work was to develop a standard method for determining the number of measurements, together with the spatial distribution of measurements and the associated risks for false acceptance and false rejection. Two paths have been taken to create a standard method for selecting sampling points. A wavelet-based model has been developed to select measurement points and to determine confidence in the measurement after the points are taken. An adaptive sampling strategy has been studied to determine implementation feasibility on commercial measurement equipment. Results using both real and simulated data are presented for each of the paths.

  19. Measurement of intensity distribution of CSR in LEBRA PXR beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year, the intensity of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) in LEBRA PXR beamline was measured. As a result, it turned out that the intensity of CSR was stronger than anticipation. It is suggested that Coherent Edge Radiation (CER) is mixed with CSR. Then, in order to confirm whether CER is contained, the intensity distribution of CSR was measured. The result of the experiment is reported in this paper. (author)

  20. Measured multipole moments of continuum electron transfer angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The velocity space distribution of electrons emitted near the forward direction from collisions involving fast, highly stripped oxygen ions with gaseous and solid targets is presented and described in terms of multipole moments of the ejected charge distribution, which permits direct comparison with recent theory. The measurements are produced by employing position-sensitive electron detection to combine emission angle definition with conventional electrostatic spectrometry. Agreement obtained between theory and distributions observed for binary continuum electron loss processes coupled with a similar multipole content observed with solid targets suggests a model of convoy electron production dominated by electron loss from the projectile within the bulk of the target. Further, the connection between multipoles of the projectile electron emission distribution in single collisions and the state of excitation of that projectile excited states may provide the basis for a probe of the state of ions traversing bulk solid matter. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Why has the energy intensity fallen in China's industrial sector in the 1990s?: the relative importance of structural change and intensity change

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhong Xiang

    2001-01-01

    Abstract There have been a variety of studies investigating the relative importance of structural change and real intensity change to the change in China’s energy consumption in the 1980s. However, no detailed analysis to date has been done to examine whether or not the increased energy efficiency trend in the 1980s still prevails in the 1990s. This article has filled this gap by investigating the change in energy consumption in China’s industrial sector in the 1990s, based on the data sets o...

  2. Measuring an antibody affinity distribution molecule by molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Temirov, Jamshid [INVITROGEN

    2008-01-01

    Single molecule fluorescence mIcroscopy was used to observe the binding and unbinding of hapten decorated quantum dots with individual surface immobilized antibodies. The fluorescence time history from an individual antibody site can be used to calculate its binding affinity. While quantum dot blinking occurs during these measurements, we describe a simple empirical method to correct the apparent/observed affinity to account for the blinking contribution. The combination of many single molecule affinity measurements from different antibodies yields not only the average affinity, it directly measures the full shape and character of the surface affinity distribution function.

  3. Rapid channel incision of the lower Pearl River (China since the 1990s as a consequence of sediment depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. X. Lu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported a dramatic channel incision (>10 m in the deepest cut during the past 10 y or so in the lower Pearl River, the second largest river in terms of water discharge in China. The channel incision had caused changes both in the channel geometry as well as in the river hydraulics. Also, the water exchange between the two major tributaries of the Pearl River, the Xijiang and Beijiang, had been significantly changed due to the channel incision. The rapid channel incision was principally the result of extensive sand mining in the lower Pearl River and the delta region due to the booming economy in the Pearl Delta region. Slight increase of water discharge and significant decrease of sediment load since the early 1990s in both the Xijiang and Beijiang also likely contributed to the observed dramatic river bed downcutting to some extent. This has important implications for river management, as the large Chinese rivers have seen a dramatic depletion of sediment fluxes due to the combined effects of declining rainfall, dam constructions, water diversion, reforestation and afforestation, and sediment mining over the recent decades.

  4. Urban land expansion and arable land loss of the major cities in China in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Minghong; LI Xiubin; LU Changhe

    2005-01-01

    Based on the land-use data in 1990 and 2000, determined by interpreting Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery, this paper defines the extent of urban construction land, and extracts patches of urban construction land of 145 cities with the largest areas in 1990 and arable land patches around these cities. With these data, this paper analyzes the characteristics of urban construction land expansion and the consequent arable land loss in East, Middle and West China, and further identifies the social, economic and spatial factors of the urban land use changes, using GIS (Geographical Information System) and multivariate regression approaches. The results show that total urban land of the 145 cities expanded by 39.8%, with about 70% of the new urban land converted from arable land in the 1990s. The urban land expansion varied among the three regions, with a value of 43.0% in the East, 33.1% in the West (33.1%) and 17.8% in the Middle. Moreover, mean urban construction land per capita increased by10.7% in the East, but it decreased by 7.7% in the Middle, 1.4% in the West. Statistical analysis indicated that total wages of staff and workers could best explain the differences of urban land expansion.

  5. To decentralize or not to decentralize, is that the question? Nicaraguan health policy under structural adjustment in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, A E; Zimmerman, S; Garfield, R

    2000-01-01

    Since 1990, health services decentralization in Nicaragua has been accompanied by structural adjustment, resulting in reduced equity and accountability. Sandinista efforts in the 1980s to extend access to primary care and reduce class and regional disparities in the delivery of health services were accompanied by modest attempts to increase local-level accountability and responsiveness. The escalation of war in the late 1980s transformed this effort into greater de facto decentralization. Over the past decade, Nicaragua has used decentralization policy to restructure the health system through health spending cuts and the favoring of curative over preventive services; privatization and the promotion of user fees; and confusion of lines of accountability. The authors analyze the 1990s' health policies in Nicaragua, paying particular attention to the blending of decentralization policy with the fiscal and administrative reforms advanced by the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and other international agencies. They conclude that analyzing decentralization as a sector-specific reform that can be ameliorated through technocratic modifications is insufficient. A full understanding of the problems and possibilities of decentralization requires an analysis of the political and economic context that conditions these policies. PMID:10707302

  6. Can National History Be De-Provincialized? U.S. History Textbook Controversies in the 1940s and 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bender

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Bender’s 2009 essay “Can National History Be De-Provincialized? U.S. History Textbook Controversies in the 1940s and 1990s,” originally published in Contexts: The Journal of Educational Media, Memory, and Society, asks the important question of how a nation-specific curriculum in history—that is, how “American” history itself—can be taught with the least influence of political factions and the least interference of commercial factors, in light of the fact that both elements, the political and the commercial, have played a role in the construction of the US history textbook. Bender’s essay demonstrates the complexity of the problem as multiple stakeholders seek to control, limit, or promote particular elements of the narratives of US history. Professional historians, Bender argues, like history itself, have “no responsibility to supply comfort”—that is, no role in promoting nationalism or American exceptionalism—yet he also warns that, due to changes in the textbook industry, they also may have little role in determining what is finally published. Bender’s essay, which specifically discusses the impact of political conditions—World War II, for example—on the daily practice of teaching and writing about history, serves as an insightful reminder of the complexity and vulnerability of a nation’s memory.

  7. 16 Years of Ulysses Interstellar Dust Measurements in the Solar System: I. Mass Distribution and Gas-to-Dust Mass Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, Harald; Gruen, Eberhard; Sterken, Veerle J

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, contemporary interstellar dust (ISD) penetrating deep into the heliosphere was identified with the in-situ dust detector on board the Ulysses spacecraft. Between 1992 and the end of 2007 Ulysses monitored the ISD stream. The interstellar grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar medium surrounding our solar system. Earlier analyses of the Ulysses ISD data measured between 1992 and 1998 implied the existence of 'big' ISD grains [up to 10^-13kg]. The derived gas-to-dust-mass ratio was smaller than the one derived from astronomical observations, implying a concentration of ISD in the very local interstellar medium. We analyse the entire data set from 16 yr of Ulysses ISD measurements in interplanetary space. This paper concentrates on the overall mass distribution of ISD. An accompanying paper investigates time-variable phenomena in the Ulysses ISD data, and in a third paper we present the results from dynamical modelling of the ISD flow applied to Ulysses. We...

  8. Temperature measurement inside metallic cables using distributed temperature system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Vasinek, Vladimir; Mach, Veleslav; Hruby, David; Kajnar, Tomas; Perecar, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, metallic cables are produced so as to avoid the maximum allowable temperature of the cable by the normal operation and the maximum allowable temperature for short-circuit the exceeding the maximum allowable internal temperature. The temperature increase is an unwanted phenomena causing losses in the cable and its abrasion. Longterm overload can lead to damaging of the cable or to the risk of fire in extreme cases. In our work, we present the temperature distribution measurement inside the metallic cables using distributed temperature system. Within the cooperation with manufacturer of the metallic cables, optical fibers were implemented into these cables. The cables are double coated and the fibers are allocated between these coatings and also in the centre of the cable. Thus we are able to measure the temperature inside the cable and also on the surface temperature along the whole cable length with spatial resolution 1 m during the cable heating. This measurement method can be also used for short-circuit prediction and detection, because this phenomena is always accompanied with temperature increase. Distributed temperature systems are already successfully implemented in temperature measurements in industry environment, such as construction, sewer systems, caliducts etc. The main advantage of these systems is electromagnetic resistance, low application price and the possibility of monitoring several kilometers long distances.

  9. Measuring distributed leadership agency in a hospital context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jønsson, Thomas; Unterrainer, Christine; Jeppesen, Hans-Jeppe; Jain, Ajay Kumar

    2016-09-19

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate an instrument that can measure distributed leadership (DL) as employees' active participation in DL tasks. The authors designate this as the distributed leadership agency (DLA). Design/methodology/approach Data were collected throughout all departments and occupational groups at a merged centralized hospital setting in Denmark. A total of 1,774 employees from 24 hospital departments and 16 occupational groups completed our survey. Structural equation model and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to identify appropriate items and a test for measurement invariance, predictive, discriminant and convergent validity, and ANOVAs were applied to analyse group differences in DLA. Findings The identified unidimensional questionnaire consists of seven items, as it is different from, but associated with, empowering leadership, organizational influence, attitude to participation and trust in management. As theoretically predicted, DLA is positively related to self-efficacy, job satisfaction and innovative behaviour. Chief physicians, permanent employees and employee representatives scored higher on the scale than the rest of their respective counterparts. Practical implications The survey offers a method to assess a distribution of leadership agency in hospital organizations. Such assessment may provide a basis for organizational and leadership development. Originality/value The present study provides a reliable and valid quantitative instrument that measures how much employees at all hierarchical levels are involved in concrete leadership activities in the hospital context. Taking a normative perspective the authors could show that DL - measured with the DLA-questionnaire - has positive effects on employees' behaviour. PMID:27681024

  10. An entropy based measure for comparing distributions of complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, R.; Castellani, B.

    2016-07-01

    This paper is part of a series addressing the empirical/statistical distribution of the diversity of complexity within and amongst complex systems. Here, we consider the problem of measuring the diversity of complexity in a system, given its ordered range of complexity types i and their probability of occurrence pi, with the understanding that larger values of i mean a higher degree of complexity. To address this problem, we introduce a new complexity measure called case-based entropyCc - a modification of the Shannon-Wiener entropy measure H. The utility of this measure is that, unlike current complexity measures-which focus on the macroscopic complexity of a single system-Cc can be used to empirically identify and measure the distribution of the diversity of complexity within and across multiple natural and human-made systems, as well as the diversity contribution of complexity of any part of a system, relative to the total range of ordered complexity types.

  11. Development of TDR distributed sensors for land subsidence measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chih-Chung; Lin, Chih-Ping

    2016-04-01

    The influences subjected by land subsidence and notably inundation are raising in Taiwan recently. To efficiently access the problems, historical trends and the instant field measurement data (at least by days), including multi-depth subsidence leveling and water leveling, are essential and urgent. However, current multi-depth subsidence leveling with magnetic rings conducted by manual operating, for example, lacks high temporal and spatial resolution data, which cannot evaluate the consistency between the subsidence leveling and the limited underground water levels in the same aquifer layer appropriately. To improve the field measurements, this study is carried out based on the core technology of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). In the preliminary idea, TDR distributed sensors, as magnetic rings for land subsidence measurements in a borehole, are developed with the underground water level sensors embedded. The prototypes of TDR distributed sensors indicates the feasibility of measuring, but the influence of signal dissipating due to the long transmission line (>100 m) need to be brought attention to, as well as the corresponding measurement accuracy. Therefore, a laboratorial physical modeling is suggested for further evaluation, and this modeling is constructed now. All the measurement data are expected to be employed and fed back as the calibrators and indicators to propose the defense strategy for land subsidence and inundation.

  12. Measurement of dose distributions using film in therapeutic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using film dosimetry data as the input data for patient treatment planning was evaluated. The central-axis depth dose and the off-axis ratios obtained from film measurements in a solid phantom were compared with those of ion-chamber measurements in water. Two techniques were used to generate isodose distributions. The first technique used only the film data, i.e., the central-axis depth dose and the off-axis ratios used for the reconstruction were determined from the film optical density (corrected for film nonlinearity). In the second technique, the central-axis depth dose measured by an ion chamber in a water phantom was combined with the off-axis ratios measured using film in the ''solid water'' phantom. The resulting isodose distributions from both techniques were compared with the ion-chamber measurements in water for 7-, 12-, and 18-MeV electrons, and the second technique showed better agreement with the ion-chamber measurements than did the first technique. The differences were within a clinically acceptable range

  13. A FRAMEWORK FOR MEASURING AND IMPROVING EFFICIENCY IN DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Andrejić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of products is largely conditioned by the efficiency of logistics processes. The efficient logistics processes provide loyal and satisfied customers, dominant position on the market and revenue. In this paper new approach for measuring and improving efficiency of logistics processes in distribution channel is proposed. Model based on the Principal Component Analysis – Data Envelopment Analysis approach evaluates efficiency of ordering, warehousing, packaging, inventory management and transport processes as well as distribution channel efficiency. Proposed approach also gives information about corrective actions for efficiency improvement. According results efficiency should be improved in several ways: information system improvement, failures decreasing, utilization increasing and output increasing. The results of proposed approach testing show great applicability of developed approach.

  14. Why do ethno-national conflicts reach different degrees of violence? Insights from Kosovo, Macedonia, and Bulgaria during the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Koinova

    2009-01-01

    Why did ethnonational conflicts reach different degrees of violence during the 1990s: high in Kosovo, middle-ranged in Macedonia, and low in Bulgaria? This article analyzes the relationship between the Albanians of Macedonia and Kosovo, the Turks of Bulgaria, and their respective states. Challenging

  15. The Effect of Local Labor Market Conditions in the 1990s on the Likelihood of Community College Students' Persistence and Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzl, Gregory S.; Alfonso, Mariana; Melguizo, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence of local labor market conditions on the year-to-year persistence and attainment decisions of a sample of traditional-aged students who attended community colleges during the 1990s. The findings suggest that the enrollment and attainment decisions of these first-time community college students were not made purely…

  16. The managers’ moment in Dutch politics: A case study of management as politics in the 1980s and 1990s in Western-Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Keulen; R. Kroeze

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the us of management as form of political leadership in the In the 1980s and 1990s via the casestudy of The Netherlands. In those years a successful political leader was a ‘manager’, who communicated a managerial ideology and introduced businesslike methods in government and

  17. What Have Peace Education Commission Papers Dealt with in the 1990s? Comments on a Guide to Five Conference Reports. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 857.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    Five international conferences were held during the 1990s by the Peace Education Commission, a semi-independent subgroup of the International Peace Research Association. The conferences were held in Groningen (The Netherlands), Firenze (Italy), Kyoto (Japan), Budapest (Hungary), and Valletta (Malta). This document is a brief commentary on the…

  18. Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, we present the development of a remote microwave measurement system. This method employs an arc discharge lamp that serves as an energy converter from microwave to visible light, which can propagate without transmission medium. Observed with a charge coupled device, quantitative microwave power distribution can be achieved when the operators and electronic instruments are in a distance from the high power region in order to reduce the potential risk. We perform the experiments using pulsed microwaves, and the results show that the system response is dependent on the microwave intensity over a certain range. Most importantly, the microwave distribution can be monitored in real time by optical observation of the response of a one-dimensional lamp array. The characteristics of low cost, a wide detection bandwidth, remote measurement, and room temperature operation make the system a preferred detector for microwave applications

  19. Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Zhong; Ding, Wenzheng; Yang, Sihua; Chen, Qun, E-mail: redrocks-chenqun@hotmail.com, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn; Xing, Da, E-mail: redrocks-chenqun@hotmail.com, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2016-01-04

    In this letter, we present the development of a remote microwave measurement system. This method employs an arc discharge lamp that serves as an energy converter from microwave to visible light, which can propagate without transmission medium. Observed with a charge coupled device, quantitative microwave power distribution can be achieved when the operators and electronic instruments are in a distance from the high power region in order to reduce the potential risk. We perform the experiments using pulsed microwaves, and the results show that the system response is dependent on the microwave intensity over a certain range. Most importantly, the microwave distribution can be monitored in real time by optical observation of the response of a one-dimensional lamp array. The characteristics of low cost, a wide detection bandwidth, remote measurement, and room temperature operation make the system a preferred detector for microwave applications.

  20. Distribution Line Parameter Estimation Under Consideration of Measurement Tolerances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander; Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena;

    2016-01-01

    conductance that the absolute compensated error is −1.05% and −1.07% for both representations, as opposed to the expected uncompensated error of −79.68%. Identification of a laboratory distribution line using real measurement data grid yields a deviation of 6.75% and 4.00%, respectively, from a calculation...... based on the manufacturer’s cable specifications and estimated line length. The transformed power flow equations deliver similar results despite the reduced problem complexity....

  1. Measurement of Baseline and Orientation between Distributed Aerospace Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Qin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging app...

  2. On the measurement of the (multidimensional) inequality of health distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    Health outcomes are often described according to two dimensions: quality of life and quantity of life. We analyze the measurement of inequality of health distributions referring to these two dimensions. Our analysis relies on a novel treatment of the quality-of-life dimension, which might not have...... a standard mathematical structure. We single out two families of (absolute and relative) multidimensional health inequality indices, inspired by the classical normative approach to income inequality measurement. We also discuss how to extend the analysis to deal with the related problem of health deprivation...

  3. Distributed dynamic strain measurement using optical frequency-domain reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Da-Peng; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2016-08-20

    Distributed dynamic strain measurement based on optical frequency-domain reflectometry is proposed. The technique makes use of the wide scanning range of a tunable laser source in a short sweeping time, and subdivides the overall spectrum into narrower frequency windows. The advantage of subdividing the laser spectral range is to improve the measurement uncertainty induced by the laser wavelength difference between repeated scans. The noise-limited dynamic strain resolution is investigated experimentally, indicating that a minimum detectable strain is less than 200 nε for a spatial resolution of 20 cm. By measuring the subdivided spectral shifts in the time sequence along the sensing fiber, the dynamic strain can be properly quantified over a 30 m measurement range for a highest sampling rate of up to 50 Hz. PMID:27556996

  4. Measurements of parallel electron velocity distributions using whistler wave absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuecks, D J; Skiff, F; Kletzing, C A

    2012-08-01

    We describe a diagnostic to measure the parallel electron velocity distribution in a magnetized plasma that is overdense (ω(pe) > ω(ce)). This technique utilizes resonant absorption of whistler waves by electrons with velocities parallel to a background magnetic field. The whistler waves were launched and received by a pair of dipole antennas immersed in a cylindrical discharge plasma at two positions along an axial background magnetic field. The whistler wave frequency was swept from somewhat below and up to the electron cyclotron frequency ω(ce). As the frequency was swept, the wave was resonantly absorbed by the part of the electron phase space density which was Doppler shifted into resonance according to the relation ω - k([parallel])v([parallel]) = ω(ce). The measured absorption is directly related to the reduced parallel electron distribution function integrated along the wave trajectory. The background theory and initial results from this diagnostic are presented here. Though this diagnostic is best suited to detect tail populations of the parallel electron distribution function, these first results show that this diagnostic is also rather successful in measuring the bulk plasma density and temperature both during the plasma discharge and into the afterglow.

  5. Can we reconcile differences in estimates of carbon fluxes from land-use change and forestry for the 1990s?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Land Use Change and Forestry (LUCF on terrestrial carbon fluxes can be regarded as a carbon credit or debit under the UNFCCC, but scientific uncertainty in the estimates for LUCF remains large. Here, we assess the LUCF estimates by examining a variety of models of different types with different land cover change maps in the 1990s. Annual carbon pools and their changes are separated into different components for separate geographical regions, while annual land cover change areas and carbon fluxes are disaggregated into different LUCF activities and the biospheric response due to CO2 fertilization and climate change. We developed a consolidated estimate of the terrestrial carbon fluxes that combines book-keeping models with process-based biogeochemical models and inventory estimates and yields an estimate of the global terrestrial carbon flux that is within the uncertainty range developed in the IPCC 4th Assessment Report. We examined the USA and Brazil as case studies in order to assess the cause of differences from the UNFCCC reported carbon fluxes. Major differences in the litter and soil organic matter components are found for the USA. Differences in Brazil result from assumptions about the LUC for agricultural purposes. The effects of CO2 fertilization and climate change also vary significantly in Brazil. Our consolidated estimate shows that the small sink in Latin America is within the uncertainty range from inverse models, but that the sink in the USA is significantly smaller than the inverse models estimates. Because there are different sources of errors at the country level, there is no easy reconciliation of different estimates of carbon fluxes at the global level. Clearly, further work is required to develop data sets for historical land cover change areas and models of biogeochemical changes for an accurate representation of carbon uptake or emissions due to LUC.

  6. Can we reconcile differences in estimates of carbon fluxes from land-use change and forestry for the 1990s?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Land Use Change and Forestry (LUCF on terrestrial carbon fluxes can be regarded as a carbon credit or debit under the UNFCCC, but scientific uncertainty in the estimates for LUCF remains large. Here, we assess the LUCF estimates by examining a variety of models of different types with different land cover change maps in the 1990s. Annual carbon pools and their changes are separated into different components for separate geographical regions, while annual land cover change areas and carbon fluxes are disaggregated into different LUCF activities and the biospheric response due to CO2 fertilization and climate change. We developed a consolidated estimate of the terrestrial carbon fluxes that combines book-keeping models with process-based biogeochemical models and inventory estimates and yields an estimate of the global terrestrial carbon flux that is within the uncertainty range developed in the IPCC 4th Assessment Report. We examined the USA and Brazil as case studies in order to assess the cause of differences from the UNFCCC reported carbon fluxes. Major differences in the litter and soil organic matter components are found for the USA. Differences in Brazil result from assumptions about the LUC for agricultural purposes. The effects of CO2 fertilization and climate change also vary significantly in Brazil. Our consolidated estimate shows that the small sink in Latin America is within the uncertainty range from inverse models, but that the sink in the USA is significantly smaller than the inverse models estimates. Because there are different sources of errors at the country level, there is no easy reconciliation of different estimates of carbon fluxes at the global level. Clearly, further work is required to develop data sets for historical land cover change areas and models of biogeochemical changes for an accurate representation of carbon uptake or emissions due to LUC.

  7. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  8. [Measuring pressure distribution on the human tibia in ski boots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, P; Hauser, W

    1987-09-01

    Pressure distribution inside shoes is of great importance for orthopaedic and biomechanical inquiries. Especially in sports, safety and comfort depend essentially on this quantity, which also determines whether a shoe is well suited for a certain discipline. Therefore, the measurement of pressure distribution allows detailed and objective statements about these factors. Using a set of newly developed thin and highly flexible measuring mats and the corresponding electronic equipment, such statements have become possible. First results with this method were obtained in alpine skiing. 8 different types of ski boots (sizes 5 and 8) worn by 14 subjects were tested on different foreward leans and temperatures using 7-point measuring mats (2 cm2/point) fixed between the boot shaft and the front of the lower leg of each leg. Additional measurements on three different types of boots using a 3 x 24-point mat (1 cm2/point) for the lower leg, as well as measurements underneath the foot with a 14-point (2 cm2/point) and a 80-point (1 cm2/point) mat were performed. A complementary determination of the force at the heel element of a ski binding and a registration of muscular activity (EMG) helped in the interpretation of the results. Some field research using telemetry completed our study. Considerable variations between different boots were found in value and location of pressure maxima. Traditional boots show high pressure values over the instep at foreward leans of 35 degrees and a rise of pressure underneath the forefoot while fixing the buckles, whereas minimal pressure over the instep, no compression of the forefoot and a pressure maximum near the upper end of the shaft are observed in rear entry boots. The force at the heel-important for binding release-varies widely between different boots at the same foreward lean. There was no asymmetry between the pressure distributions of right and left. The pressure distributions for different subjects measured in the same boot were

  9. [Measuring pressure distribution on the human tibia in ski boots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, P; Hauser, W

    1987-09-01

    Pressure distribution inside shoes is of great importance for orthopaedic and biomechanical inquiries. Especially in sports, safety and comfort depend essentially on this quantity, which also determines whether a shoe is well suited for a certain discipline. Therefore, the measurement of pressure distribution allows detailed and objective statements about these factors. Using a set of newly developed thin and highly flexible measuring mats and the corresponding electronic equipment, such statements have become possible. First results with this method were obtained in alpine skiing. 8 different types of ski boots (sizes 5 and 8) worn by 14 subjects were tested on different foreward leans and temperatures using 7-point measuring mats (2 cm2/point) fixed between the boot shaft and the front of the lower leg of each leg. Additional measurements on three different types of boots using a 3 x 24-point mat (1 cm2/point) for the lower leg, as well as measurements underneath the foot with a 14-point (2 cm2/point) and a 80-point (1 cm2/point) mat were performed. A complementary determination of the force at the heel element of a ski binding and a registration of muscular activity (EMG) helped in the interpretation of the results. Some field research using telemetry completed our study. Considerable variations between different boots were found in value and location of pressure maxima. Traditional boots show high pressure values over the instep at foreward leans of 35 degrees and a rise of pressure underneath the forefoot while fixing the buckles, whereas minimal pressure over the instep, no compression of the forefoot and a pressure maximum near the upper end of the shaft are observed in rear entry boots. The force at the heel-important for binding release-varies widely between different boots at the same foreward lean. There was no asymmetry between the pressure distributions of right and left. The pressure distributions for different subjects measured in the same boot were

  10. Scaling precipitation input to distributed hydrological models by measured snow distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegeli, Christian; Lehning, Michael; Wever, Nander; Bavay, Mathias; Bühler, Yves; Marty, Mauro; Molnar, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Precise knowledge about the snow distribution in alpine terrain is crucial for various applications such as flood risk assessment, avalanche warning or water supply and hydropower. To simulate the seasonal snow cover development in alpine terrain, the spatially distributed, physics-based model Alpine3D is suitable. The model is often driven by spatial interpolations from automatic weather stations (AWS). As AWS are sparsely spread, the data needs to be interpolated, leading to errors in the spatial distribution of the snow cover - especially on subcatchment scale. With the recent advances in remote sensing techniques, maps of snow depth can be acquired with high spatial resolution and vertical accuracy. Here we use maps of the snow depth distribution, calculated from summer and winter digital surface models acquired with the airborne opto-electronic scanner ADS to preprocess and redistribute precipitation input data for Alpine3D to improve the accuracy of spatial distribution of snow depth simulations. A differentiation between liquid and solid precipitation is made, to account for different precipitation patterns that can be expected from rain and snowfall. For liquid precipitation, only large scale distribution patterns are applied to distribute precipitation in the simulation domain. For solid precipitation, an additional small scale distribution, based on the ADS data, is applied. The large scale patterns are generated using AWS measurements interpolated over the domain. The small scale patterns are generated by redistributing the large scale precipitation according to the relative snow depth in the ADS dataset. The determination of the precipitation phase is done using an air temperature threshold. Using this simple approach to redistribute precipitation, the accuracy of spatial snow distribution could be improved significantly. The standard deviation of absolute snow depth error could be reduced by a factor of 2 to less than 20 cm for the season 2011/12. The

  11. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C H

    2016-03-03

    Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence.

  12. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  13. Measurement-device-independent entanglement-based quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Zhenqiang; Li, Zuohan; Lian, Shibin; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan

    2016-05-01

    We present a quantum key distribution protocol in a model in which the legitimate users gather statistics as in the measurement-device-independent entanglement witness to certify the sources and the measurement devices. We show that the task of measurement-device-independent quantum communication can be accomplished based on monogamy of entanglement, and it is fairly loss tolerate including source and detector flaws. We derive a tight bound for collective attacks on the Holevo information between the authorized parties and the eavesdropper. Then with this bound, the final secret key rate with the source flaws can be obtained. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over 144 km can be made secure using only standard threshold detectors.

  14. Distributed measurement of flow rate in conduits using heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Raúl; Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis

    2016-04-01

    In some cases flow varies along conduits, such as in irrigated land drainage pipes and channels, irrigation laterals and others. Detailed knowledge of flow rate along the conduit makes possible analytical evaluation of water distribution and collection systems performance. Flow rate can change continuously in some systems, like in drainage pipes and channels, or abruptly, like in conduits bifurcations or emitter insertions. A heat pulse along the conduit makes possible to get flow rate from continuity and heat balance equations. Due to the great value of specific heat of water, temperature changes along conduit are smaller than the noise that involves the measurement process. This work presents a methodology that, dealing with the noise of distributed temperature measurements, leads to flow rate determination along pressurized pipes or open channel flows.

  15. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  16. Pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements of embedded charge distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, J. R.; Pearson, Lee H.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and evolution of embedded charge in thin dielectric materials has important applications in semiconductor, high-power electronic device, high-voltage DC power cable insulation, high-energy and plasma physics apparatus, and spacecraft industries. Knowing how, where, and how much charge accumulates and how it redistributes and dissipates can predict destructive charging effects. Pulsed Electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements— and two closely related methods, Pressure Wave Propagation (PWP) and Laser Intensity Modulation (LIMM)— nondestructively probe such internal charge distributions. We review the instrumentation, methods, theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments, as well as the related PPW and LIMM methods. We emphasize system improvements required to achieve high spatial resolution for in vacuo measurements of thin dielectrics charged using electron beam injection.

  17. Measurement of Three-jet Distributions in Photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Abramowicz, H; Acosta, D; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Ahn, S H; Amelung, C; An Shiz Hong; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Arneodo, M; Bacon, Trevor C; Badgett, W F; Bailey, D C; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barbagli, G; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Barret, O; Bashindzhagian, G L; Bashkirov, V; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Bednarek, B; Behrens, U; Beier, H; Bellagamba, L; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bienlein, J K; Blaikley, H E; Bohnet, I; Bokel, C; Bornheim, A; Borzemski, P; Boscherini, D; Botje, M; Breitweg, J; Briskin, G; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Burgard, C; Burow, B D; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlin, R; Cartiglia, N; Cashmore, R J; Castellini, G; Catterall, C D; Chapin, D; Chekanov, S; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cirio, R; Cloth, P; Coboken, K; Coldewey, C; Cole, J E; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Cottingham, W N; Crittenden, J; Cross, R; D'Agostini, G; Dagan, S; Dal Corso, F; Dardo, M; De Pasquale, S; Deffner, R; Deppe, O; Derrick, M; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desler, K; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Dosselli, U; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Dulinski, Z; Durkin, L S; Eckert, M; Edmonds, J K; Eisenberg, Y; Eisenhardt, S; Engelen, J; Epperson, D E; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Fagerstroem, C P; Fernández, J P; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fricke, U; Frisken, W R; Fusayasu, T; Gadaj, T; Galea, R; Gallo, E; García, G; Garfagnini, A; Gendner, N; Gialas, I; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Glasman, C; Göbel, F; Golubkov, Yu A; Göttlicher, P; Grabosch, H J; Graciani, R; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grothe, M; Grzelak, G; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hanna, D S; Harnew, N; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartmann, J; Hartner, G F; Hasell, D; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Hebbel, K; Heinloth, K; Heinz, L; Hernández, J M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Homma, K; Hong, S J; Howell, G; Hughes, V W; Iacobucci, G; Iannotti, L; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Ishii, T; Jakob, H P; Jelen, K; Jeoung, H Y; Jing, Z; Johnson, K F; Jones, T W; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karshon, U; Kasemann, M; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Kerger, R; Khakzad, M; Khein, L A; Kim, C L; Kim, J Y; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klanner, Robert; Klimek, K; Koch, W; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Lamberti, L; Lane, J B; Laurenti, G; Lee, J H; Lee, S B; Lee, S W; Levi, G; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Lindemann, L; Ling, T Y; Liu, W; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Long, K R; Lopez-Duran Viani, A; Lukina, O Yu; Ma, K J; Maccarrone, G; MacDonald, N; Magill, S; Mallik, U; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Markun, P; Martin, J F; Martínez, M; Maselli, S; Massam, Thomas; Mastroberardino, A; Matsushita, T; Mattingly, M C K; Mattingly, S E K; McCance, G J; McCubbin, N A; McFall, J D; Mellado, B; Menary, S; Meyer, A; Meyer-Larsen, A; Milewski, J; Milite, M; Miller, D B; Monaco, V; Mönig, K; Monteiro, T; Morandin, M; Murray, W N; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nam, S W; Nania, R; Nigro, A; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Noyes, V A; Nylander, P; Ochs, A; Oh, B Y; Okrasinski, J R; Orr, R S; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Palmonari, F; Park, I H; Park, S K; Parsons, J A; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pawlak, R; Pelfer, Pier Giovanni; Pellegrino, A; Pelucchi, F; Peroni, C; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Pfeiffer, M; Piccioni, D; Pin, C; Piotrzkowski, K; Poelz, G; Polenz, S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Prinias, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Puga, J; Quadt, A; Raach, H; Raso, M; Redondo, I; Reeder, D D; Repond, J; Ritz, S; Riveline, M; Rohde, M; Roldán, J; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Ruske, O; Ruspa, M; Ryan, J J; Sabetfakhri, A; Sacchi, R; Sadrozinski, H F W; Salehi, H; Sampson, S; Sartorelli, G; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schnurbusch, H; Schwarzer, O; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Seiden, A; Selonke, F; Shah, T P; Shcheglova, L M; Sideris, D; Sievers, M; Simmons, D; Sinclair, L E; Skillicorn, I O; Smalska, B; Smith, W H; Solano, A; Solomin, A N; Son, D; Saint-Laurent, M G; Staiano, A; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Stanek, R; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Straub, P B; Strickland, E; Stroili, R; Surrow, B; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, I; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Toothacker, W S; Tsurugai, T; Tuning, N; Tymie-, T; Umemori, K; Vaiciulis, A W; Verkerke, W; Voci, C; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Votano, L; Walczak, R; Walker, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D S; Waugh, R; Weber, A; Westphal, D; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, R; Wick, K; Wieber, H; Wiggers, L; Wildschek, T; Williams, D C; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wodarczyk, M; Wolf, G; Wölfle, S; Wollmer, U; Wróblewski, A K; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Za, L; Zajac, J; Zakrzewski, J A; Zamora Garcia, Y; Zetsche, F; Zeuner, W; Zhu, Q; Zichichi, Antonino; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J; Van Sighem, A

    1998-01-01

    The cross section for the photoproduction of events containing three jets with a three-jet invariant mass of M_3J > 50 GeV has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The three-jet angular distributions are inconsistent with a uniform population of the available phase space but are well described by parton shower models and O(alpha alpha_s^2) pQCD calculations. Comparisons with the parton shower model indicate a strong contribution from initial state radiation as well as a sensitivity to the effects of colour coherence.

  18. The optimization of measurement device independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Jiao, Rong-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Measurement device independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is a promising method for realistic quantum communication which could remove all the side-channel attacks from the imperfections of the devices. Here in this study, we theoretically analyzed the performance of the MDI-QKD system. The asymptotic case rate with the increment of the transmission distance at different polarization misalignment, background count rate and intensity is calculated respectively. The result may provide important parameters for practical application of quantum communications.

  19. Alternative schemes for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Xiongfeng

    2012-01-01

    A practical scheme for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution using phase and path/time encoding is presented. In addition to immunity to existing loopholes in detection systems, our setup employs simple encoding and decoding modules without relying on polarization maintenance or optical switches. Moreover, by handling, with a modified sifting technique, the dead time limitations in single-photon detectors, our scheme can be run with only two single-photon detectors. With a phase-post-selection technique, a decoy-state variant of our scheme is also proposed, whose secret key generation rate scales linearly with the channel transmittance.

  20. Remote measurement of temperature distribution using an optical fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Hartog, A.H.; Payne, D. N.

    1982-01-01

    A new fibre sensor which measures temperature-distribution is proposed. The sensor uses optical-time-domain reflectometry to determine temperature-induced changes in the levels of the backscatter signal. Experiments using liquid-core fibres have demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.018 dBk over distances of more than 100m. The proposed sensor is able to monitor the temperature of over 100 points simultaneously. Solid core fibres have also been used; they exhibit a wide temperature range, but somew...

  1. Positron annihilation: the ACAR method measures electron momentum distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a positron annihilates with an electron, the energy is dissipated preferentially in the form of antiparallel 0.5 MeV γ-rays, whose angle and Doppler shift correlates with electron momentum density. The Geneva group has built a system which permits the precise and efficient measurement of the ACAR radiation. In ordinary metals, where independent particles methods (IPM) apply, there is often satisfactory agreement between measured and calculated Two Particle Momentum Distributions (TPMD). The same is true for the Fermi Surfaces which can be constructed from TPMD. The effect of correlations can be handled as perturbation. In the case of oxides we found so far no convincing agreement between theory and experiment. We are working to improve apparatus, experiment and theory and hope to understand also our results in High Temperature Superconductors (High Tc Sc)

  2. Airborne measurements of spatial NO2 distributions during AROMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Andreas Carlos; Seyler, André; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides, NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. In addition to their directly harmful effects on the respiratory system of living organisms, they influence the levels of tropospheric ozone and contribute to acid rain and eutrophication of ecosystems. As they are produced in combustion processes, they can serve as an indicator for anthropogenic air pollution. In September 2014 several European research groups conducted the ESA funded Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign to test and intercompare newly developed airborne observation sytsems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies. The IUP Bremen contributed to this campaign with its Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) on board a Cessna 207 turbo, operated by the FU Berlin. AirMAP allows the retrieval of integrated NO2 column densities in a stripe below the aircraft at a fine spatial resolution of up to 30 x 80 m2, at a typical flight altitude. Measurements have been performed over the city of Bucharest, creating for the first time high spatial resolution maps of Bucharest's NO2 distribution in a time window of approx. 2 hours. The observations were synchronised with ground-based car MAX-DOAS measurements for comparison. In addition, measurements were taken over the city of Berlin, Germany and at the Rovinari power plant, Romania. In this work the results of the research flights will be presented and conclusions will be drawn on the quality of the measurements, their applicability for satellite data validation and possible improvements for future measurements.

  3. Probing of incomplete fusion dynamics by spin-distribution measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming to probe incomplete fusion dynamics in 16O + 169Tm system, spin-distributions of various reaction products populated via xn-, α/2αxn-channels have been measured at E∼5.6MeV/nucleon. Prompt γ-rays in coincidence with fast charged particles (Z=1,2) have been recorded to achieve the information about involved reaction processes on the basis of their experimentally observed spin-populations during de-excitation. The experimentally observed spin-distributions for direct-α-emitting channels (associated with incomplete fusion) have been found to be distinctly different than that observed for fusion-evaporation (complete fusion) channels. The mean value of driving input angular momenta associated with various direct-α/2αxn-channels have been found to be higher than that observed for fusion-evaporation xn/αxn-channels, and increases with direct-α-multiplicity in forward cone. Experimentally measured, normalized production yields of fusion-evaporation xn/αxn-channels have been found to be in good agreement with the predictions of theoretical model code PACE4. Further, in order to understand the feeding probability in both complete and incomplete fusion reaction products, an attempt has been made to generate feeding intensity profiles from spin-distribution data. It has been observed that the complete fusion products are strongly fed over a broad spin range, while incomplete fusion products are found to be less fed and/or the population of lower spin states are strongly hindered

  4. Probing of incomplete fusion dynamics by spin-distribution measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pushpendra P. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)], E-mail: pushpendrapsingh@gmail.com; Singh, B.P. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India)], E-mail: bpsinghamu@gmail.com; Sharma, M.K.; Gupta, Unnati [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Kumar, Rakesh [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Singh, D. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Singh, R.P.; Murlithar, S. [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Ansari, M.A.; Prasad, R. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Bhowmik, R.K. [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)], E-mail: ranjan@iuac.ernet.in

    2009-01-12

    Aiming to probe incomplete fusion dynamics in {sup 16}O + {sup 169}Tm system, spin-distributions of various reaction products populated via xn-, {alpha}/2{alpha}xn-channels have been measured at E{approx}5.6MeV/nucleon. Prompt {gamma}-rays in coincidence with fast charged particles (Z=1,2) have been recorded to achieve the information about involved reaction processes on the basis of their experimentally observed spin-populations during de-excitation. The experimentally observed spin-distributions for direct-{alpha}-emitting channels (associated with incomplete fusion) have been found to be distinctly different than that observed for fusion-evaporation (complete fusion) channels. The mean value of driving input angular momenta associated with various direct-{alpha}/2{alpha}xn-channels have been found to be higher than that observed for fusion-evaporation xn/{alpha}xn-channels, and increases with direct-{alpha}-multiplicity in forward cone. Experimentally measured, normalized production yields of fusion-evaporation xn/{alpha}xn-channels have been found to be in good agreement with the predictions of theoretical model code PACE4. Further, in order to understand the feeding probability in both complete and incomplete fusion reaction products, an attempt has been made to generate feeding intensity profiles from spin-distribution data. It has been observed that the complete fusion products are strongly fed over a broad spin range, while incomplete fusion products are found to be less fed and/or the population of lower spin states are strongly hindered.

  5. Tuberculose na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil: o perfil na década de 1990 Tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Mota Xavier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico da tuberculose (incidência e mortalidade no Município de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, na década de 1990, foram analisadas as características demográficas, clínicas e laboratoriais dos casos e óbitos por esta doença ocorridos no período. Foram calculadas as taxas médias anuais de mortalidade e da incidência por sexo, faixa etária e formas clínicas da doença com base nas informações dos bancos de dados do Sistema de Informações de Tuberculose da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado da Bahia e do Sistema de Informações de Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde. Analisou-se a distribuição espacial da tuberculose segundo distritos sanitários. Ficou evidente o predomínio dos casos e óbitos no sexo masculino e na faixa etária de 15 a 39 anos. A forma pulmonar apresentou uma maior taxa de incidência e de mortalidade. Sobre a hipótese de que, a co-infecção AIDS/tuberculose possa contribuir para manter elevadas taxas de mortalidade, os dados existentes não corroboram para esta associação. A maior ocorrência de tuberculose em determinados distritos sanitários pode estar associada à densidade populacional e às condições desfavoráveis de vida.The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB cases and deaths were analyzed in order to characterize the epidemiological profile of TB (incidence and mortality in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in the 1990s. Annual incidence and mortality rates were calculated by gender, age bracket, and clinical forms of the disease using databases from the Tuberculosis Information System of the Bahia State Health Secretariat and the Mortality Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. TB spatial distribution was analyzed according to health district. Cases and deaths were predominantly in males in the 15 to 39 year group. The pulmonary form showed the highest incidence and mortality. The existing data did not corroborate the hypothesis that AIDS

  6. Formation Evaluation of High-Angle and Horizontal (HA/HZ) Well: 1990s' Issues, 2000s'Learnings, and 2010s' Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillot, Philippe; Mendoza, Alberto; Zhou, Jinjuan; Mardon, Duncan; Wertanen, Scott; Passey, Quinn

    2010-05-01

    The 1990s can be seen retrospectively as "the decade of the horizontal well," because it was during this period that sharper seismic imaging, new drilling technology and reliable geosteering were recognized as leading to increased hydrocarbon production from extended-reach wells with correspondingly lower unit costs. Subsequent advances in logging-while-drilling and in the deployment of wireline tools in the 2000s have allowed horizontal-well data broadly to match vertical-well databases in terms of the achievable range of along-hole measurements. However, tool environmental corrections in horizontal wells are more complex, particularly because of the 3D manifestations of differential invasion (of water-base mud filtrate) and of formation heterogeneity. The technological advances in data acquisition have widened still further the gap between our ability to measure along hole and our ability to interpret the resulting log data. Indeed, even with current logging technology, it may not be possible to evaluate accurately some of the parameters we wish to quantify. The interpretation of environmentally-corrected, horizontal-well logs can be far more difficult than for corresponding logs in vertical or even relatively high-angle wells. The situation is compounded by dipping beds and by undulating well trajectories. An overriding issue is the nature and scale of formation anisotropy, especially that which relates to formation resistivity. After having introduced industry-recognized issues related to formation evaluation in high-angle/ horizontal (HA/HZ) wells, this paper reviews current academic and industry research efforts to develop methods for faster modeling and inversion of tool response in more complex geometries and more realistic formations. A workflow that combines azimuthal nuclear and scalar resisistivity logging-while-drilling (LWD) logs to construct a common subsurface model is illustrated. Data include standard LWD triple-combo logs of wells with an

  7. Theoretical foundation for measuring the groundwater age distribution.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, William Payton; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we use PFLOTRAN, a highly scalable, parallel, flow and reactive transport code to simulate the concentrations of 3H, 3He, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 39Ar, 81Kr, 4He and themean groundwater age in heterogeneous fields on grids with an excess of 10 million nodes. We utilize this computational platform to simulate the concentration of multiple tracers in high-resolution, heterogeneous 2-D and 3-D domains, and calculate tracer-derived ages. Tracer-derived ages show systematic biases toward younger ages when the groundwater age distribution contains water older than the maximum tracer age. The deviation of the tracer-derived age distribution from the true groundwater age distribution increases with increasing heterogeneity of the system. However, the effect of heterogeneity is diminished as the mean travel time gets closer the tracer age limit. Age distributions in 3-D domains differ significantly from 2-D domains. 3D simulations show decreased mean age, and less variance in age distribution for identical heterogeneity statistics. High-performance computing allows for investigation of tracer and groundwater age systematics in high-resolution domains, providing a platform for understanding and utilizing environmental tracer and groundwater age information in heterogeneous 3-D systems. Groundwater environmental tracers can provide important constraints for the calibration of groundwater flow models. Direct simulation of environmental tracer concentrations in models has the additional advantage of avoiding assumptions associated with using calculated groundwater age values. This study quantifies model uncertainty reduction resulting from the addition of environmental tracer concentration data. The analysis uses a synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and the calibration of a flow and transport model using the pilot point method. Results indicate a significant reduction in the uncertainty in permeability with the addition of environmental tracer data, relative

  8. Spatiotemporal measurement of surfactant distribution on gravity-capillary waves

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Stephen L; Daniels, Karen E

    2015-01-01

    Materials adsorbed to the surface of a fluid -- for instance, crude oil, biogenic slicks, or industrial/medical surfactants -- will move in response to surface waves. Due to the difficulty of non-invasive measurement of the spatial distribution of a molecular monolayer, little is known about the dynamics that couple the surface waves and the evolving density field. Here, we report measurements of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the density field of an insoluble surfactant driven by gravity-capillary waves in a shallow cylindrical container. Standing Faraday waves and traveling waves generated by the meniscus are superimposed to create a non-trivial surfactant density field. We measure both the height field of the surface using moir\\'e-imaging, and the density field of the surfactant via the fluorescence of NBD-tagged phosphatidylcholine, a lipid. Through phase-averaging stroboscopically-acquired images of the density field, we determine that the surfactant accumulates on the leading edge of the traveling menis...

  9. Distributed Sensible Heat Flux Measurements for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwald, H.; Brauchli, T.; Lehning, M.; Higgins, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance is typically computed using eddy covariance or two point profile measurements while alternative approaches such as the flux variance method based on convective scaling has been much less explored and applied. Flux variance (FV) certainly has a few limitations and constraints but may be an interesting and competitive method in low-cost and power limited wireless sensor networks (WSN) with the advantage of providing spatio-temporal sensible heat flux over the domain of the network. In a first step, parameters such as sampling frequency, sensor response time, and averaging interval are investigated. Then we explore the applicability and the potential of the FV method for use in WSN in a field experiment. Low-cost sensor systems are tested and compared against reference instruments (3D sonic anemometers) to evaluate the performance and limitations of the sensors as well as the method with respect to the standard calculations. Comparison experiments were carried out at several sites to gauge the flux measurements over different surface types (gravel, grass, water) from the low-cost systems. This study should also serve as an example of spatially distributed sensible heat flux measurements.

  10. Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayi, Christiana; Razavi, Mohsen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    A protocol with the potential of beating the existing distance records for conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) systems is proposed. It borrows ideas from quantum repeaters by using memories in the middle of the link, and that of measurement-device-independent QKD, which only requires optical source equipment at the user's end. For certain memories with short access times, our scheme allows a higher repetition rate than that of quantum repeaters with single-mode memories, thereby requiring lower coherence times. By accounting for various sources of nonideality, such as memory decoherence, dark counts, misalignment errors, and background noise, as well as timing issues with memories, we develop a mathematical framework within which we can compare QKD systems with and without memories. In particular, we show that with the state-of-the-art technology for quantum memories, it is potentially possible to devise memory-assisted QKD systems that, at certain distances of practical interest, outperform current QKD implementations.

  11. Multipartite distribution property of one way discord beyond measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the distribution property of one way discord in the multipartite system by introducing the concept of polygamy deficit for one way discord. The difference between one way discord and quantum discord is analogue to the one between entanglement of assistance and entanglement of formation. For tripartite pure states, two kinds of polygamy deficits are presented with the equivalent expressions and physical interpretations regardless of measurement. For four-partite pure states, we provide a condition which makes one way discord polygamy satisfied. In addition, we generalize these results to the case for N-partite pure states. Those results can be applicable to multipartite quantum systems and are complementary to our understanding of the shareability of quantum correlations.

  12. Distributed fibre optic strain measurements on a driven pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woschitz, Helmut; Monsberger, Christoph; Hayden, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In civil engineering pile systems are used in unstable areas as a foundation of buildings or other structures. Among other parameters, the load capacity of the piles depends on their length. A better understanding of the mechanism of load-transfer to the soil would allow selective optimisation of the system. Thereby, the strain variations along the loaded pile are of major interest. In this paper, we report about a field trial using an optical backscatter reflectometer for distributed fibre-optic strain measurements along a driven pile. The most significant results gathered in a field trial with artificial pile loadings are presented. Calibration results show the performance of the fibre-optic system with variations in the strain-optic coefficient.

  13. Warming, Contraction, and Freshening of Antarctic Bottom Water since the 1990s, with a Potential Ice-Sheet Melt Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gregory; Purkey, Sarah; Rintoul, Stephen; Swift, James

    2013-04-01

    We analyze changes in Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW) around the deep Southern Ocean using repeat section data collected between 1981 and 2012. The international World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program collected a global high-quality baseline of full-depth, accurate oceanographic transects in the 1980s and 1990s. Since the 2000s, some of these transects are being reoccupied, again through international collaboration, as part of GO-SHIP (The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program). The average dates of the first and last data used to estimate these trends are circa 1991 and 2008. Temperature analyses reveal a nearly global-scale signature of warming in the abyssal ocean ventilated from the Antarctic. In the deep basins around Antarctica, AABW warmed at a rate of 0.02 to 0.05 °C per decade below 4000 m. In addition, the waters between 1000 and 4000 m within and south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current warmed at a rate of about 0.03 °C per decade. With this warming, cold, deep isotherms are sinking in the Southern Ocean. The 0 °C potential isotherm sinking rate is around 100 m per decade, implying a 8.2 (±2.6) Sv contraction rate of AABW, about 7% per decade. In addition to this contraction, AABW freshening is observed within the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean. The freshening signal is stronger closer to AABW sources. Its spatial pattern implies recent changes in AABW formation, perhaps partly owing to freshening of the shelf waters, which has been linked to increases in glacial ice sheet melt. The observed rate of water-mass freshening for AABW colder than 0°C in the Indian and Pacific Sectors of the Southern Ocean is about half of the estimated increase in mass lost by glacial ice sheets there in recent years. A positive feedback loop might link the AABW contraction and ice sheet melt-influenced freshening as follows: Increased ocean heat flux drives enhanced basal melt of floating ice shelves

  14. Interdecadal changes on the seasonal prediction of the western North Pacific summer climate around the late 1970s and early 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaofan; Lu, Riyu; Dong, Buwen

    2016-04-01

    Identifying predictability and the corresponding sources for the western North Pacific (WNP) summer climate in the case of non-stationary teleconnections during recent decades benefits for further improvements of long-range prediction on the WNP and East Asian summers. In the past few decades, pronounced increases on the summer sea surface temperature (SST) and associated interannual variability are observed over the tropical Indian Ocean and eastern Pacific around the late 1970s and over the Maritime Continent and western-central Pacific around the early 1990s. These increases are associated with significant enhancements of the interannual variability for the lower-tropospheric wind over the WNP. In this study, we further assess interdecadal changes on the seasonal prediction of the WNP summer anomalies, using May-start retrospective forecasts from the ENSEMBLES multi-model project in the period 1960-2005. It is found that prediction of the WNP summer anomalies exhibits an interdecadal shift with higher prediction skills since the late 1970s, particularly after the early 1990s. Improvements of the prediction skills for SSTs after the late 1970s are mainly found around tropical Indian Ocean and the WNP. The better prediction of the WNP after the late 1970s may arise mainly from the improvement of the SST prediction around the tropical eastern Indian Ocean. The close teleconnections between the tropical eastern Indian Ocean and WNP summer variability work both in the model predictions and observations. After the early 1990s, on the other hand, the improvements are detected mainly around the South China Sea and Philippines for the lower-tropospheric zonal wind and precipitation anomalies, associating with a better description of the SST anomalies around the Maritime Continent. A dipole SST pattern over the Maritime Continent and the central equatorial Pacific Ocean is closely related to the WNP summer anomalies after the early 1990s. This teleconnection mode is quite

  15. Inequality of living standards in Russia: internal and international context (the early 1990s and the 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the relationship of social groups about income distribution and goods consumption. It is dedicated to the internal and international aspects of inequality of living standards in Russia during the period of capitalist transformations of 1990-2000’s. Problems of the dynamics of inequality in living standards are analyzed. Methods of comparative analysis and comparison of performance indicators with normative social standards are used. On this basis, the population is classified into social groups and then follows the analysis of their social position. Such indicators are used: income inequality by consumption; inequality by housing, by education and health care availability. Russia is compared with countries of G20. Social inequality reasons in Russia are revealed. The obtained results can be applied within national economic and social policy. The findings indicated that the high social inequality in Russia undermines the ability of a large part of the population to be «included» in economic growth, for it limits access to its results. In such situation, an attempt to solve both the problem of speeding up economic growth and the eradication of poverty cannot lead to success if appropriate measures to reduce social inequality are not developed and implemented.

  16. Device for measuring charge density distribution in charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device to measure charge density distribution in charged particle beams has been described. The device contains a set of hollow interinsulated current-receiving electrodes, recording system, and cooling system. The invention is aimed at the increase of admissible capacity of the beams measured at the expense of cooling efficiency increase. The aim is achieved by the fact, that in the device a dynamic evaporating-condensational cooling of electrodes is realized by means of cooling agent supply in perpendicular to their planes through the tubes introduced inside special cups. Spreading in radial direction over electrode surface the cooling agent gradually and intensively washes the side surface of the cup, after that, it enters the cooling cavity in the form of vapour-liquid mixture. In the cavity the cooling agent, supplied using dispensina and receiving collectors in which vapoUr is condensed, circulates. In the device suggested the surface of electrode cooling is decreased significantly at the expense of side surface of the cups which receives the electrode heat

  17. Global distribution of pauses observed with satellite measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Venkat Ratnam; P Kishore; Isabella Velicogna

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have been carried out on the tropopause, stratopause, and mesopause (collectively termed as ‘pauses’) independently; however, all the pauses have not been studied together. We present global distribution of altitudes and temperatures of these pauses observed with long-term space borne high resolution measurements of Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) aboard Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. Here we study the commonality and differences observed in the variability of all the pauses. We also examined how good other datasets will represent these features among (and in between) different satellite measurements, re-analysis, and model data. Hemispheric differences observed in all the pauses are also reported. In addition, we show that asymmetries between northern and southern hemispheres continue up to the mesopause. We analyze inter and intra-seasonal variations and long-term trends of these pauses at different latitudes. Finally, a new reference temperature profile is shown from the ground to 110 km for tropical, mid-latitudes, and polar latitudes for both northern and southern hemispheres.

  18. Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Size Distributions During PACDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D. C.; Gandrud, B.; Campos, T.; Kok, G.; Stith, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Pacific Dust Experiment (PACDEX) is an airborne project that attempts to characterize the indirect aerosol effect by tracing plumes of dust and pollution across the Pacific Ocean. This project occurred during April-May 2007 and used the NSF/NCAR HIAPER research aircraft. When a period of strong generation of dust particles and pollution was detected by ground-based and satellite sensors, then the aircraft was launched from Colorado to Alaska, Hawaii, and Japan. Its mission was to intercept and track these plumes from Asia, across the Pacific Ocean, and ultimately to the edges of North America. For more description, see the abstract by Stith and Ramanathan (this conference) and other companion papers on PACDEX. The HIAPER aircraft carried a wide variety of sensors for measuring aerosols, cloud particles, trace gases, and radiation. Sampling was made in several weather regimes, including clean "background" air, dust and pollution plumes, and regions with cloud systems. Altitude ranges extended from 100 m above the ocean to 13.4 km. This paper reports on aerosol measurements made with a new Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS), a Radial Differential Mobility Analyzer (RDMA), a water-based CN counter, and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP). These cover the size range 10 nm to 10 um diameter. In clear air, dust was detected with the UHSAS and CDP. Polluted air was identified with high concentrations of carbon monoxide, ozone, and CN. Aerosol size distributions will be presented, along with data to define the context of weather regimes.

  19. Size distribution measurements of stable Pb and 210Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High volume impactor measurements were taken to define the particle size distribution of atmospheric stable Pb and 210Pb. This was done in an effort to establish if a particle size effect could be responsible for the differences in wet and dry deposition values of stable Pb and 210Pb. Duplicate impactor tests were run on the roof of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) and at the Regional Baseline Station in Chester, NJ, to determine the feasibility of collecting flow controlled impactor samples over extended sampling periods. The test results indicate that 210Pb is associated more with smaller particles than is the stable Pb (63% vs 53%, on the average for particles less than 0.58 μm). This difference, although not large, is beyond the experimental error. The duplicate samples gave results that are in good agreement. The differences observed between the total air concentrations at the urban and rural sites are as expected, since 210Pb has a natural source while Pb is of anthropogenic origin

  20. Upscaling of lysimeter measurements to regional groundwater nitrate distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann; Kupfersberger, Hans; Rock, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    For many European countries nitrate leaching from the soil zone into the aquifer due to surplus application of mineral fertilizer and animal manure by farmers constitutes the most important threat to groundwater quality. This is a diffuse pollution situation and measures to change agricultural production have to be investigated at the aquifer scale to safeguard drinking water supply from shallow groundwater resources Lysimeters are state-of-the-art measurements for water and solute fluxes through the unsaturated zone towards groundwater at the point scale, but due to regional heterogeneities (especially concerning soil conditions) lysimeters cannot provide aquifer-wide groundwater recharge and solute leaching. Thus, in this work the numerical simulation model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM (Stenitzer, 1988; Feichtinger, 1998) for quantifying groundwater recharge and nitrate leaching at aquifer scale is applied. Nevertheless, according to Groenendijk et al. (2014) a model calibration by means of lysimeter measurements is essential, since uncalibrated models are generally far from acceptable. Thus, a lysimeter provides the basis for the parameterization of numerical simulation models. To quantify also the impact on regional nitrate distribution in the groundwater, we couple the unsaturated zone model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM with the saturated groundwater flow and solute transport model FELOW (Diersch, 2009) sequentially. In principal, the problem could be solved by the 3 dimensional equation describing variable saturated groundwater flow and solute transport. However, this is computationally prohibitive due to the temporal and spatial scope of the task, particularly in the framework of running numerous simulations to compromise between conflicting interests (i.e. good groundwater status and high agricultural yield). To account for the unknown regional distribution of crops grown and amount, timing and kind of fertilizers used a stochastic tool (Klammler et al, 2011) is developed that

  1. Sensor intercomparison of distributed surface radiation measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Baocheng; Wen, Jianguang; Li, Xiuhong; Liu, Qiang; Xiao, Qing; Bai, Junhua; Peng, Jingjing; Lin, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhigang; Wu, Xiaodan; Cai, Erli; Zhang, Jialin; Chang, Chongyan

    2015-12-01

    The Wireless Sensor Networks of Coarse-resolution Pixel Parameters (CPP-WSN) was established to monitor the heterogeneity of coarse spatial resolution pixel, with consideration of different categories of land surface parameters in Huailai, Hebei province, China (40.349°N, 115.785°E). The observation network of radiation parameters (RadNet) in CPP-WSN was developed for multi-band radiation measurement and consisted of 6 nodes covering 2km*2km area to capture its heterogeneity. Each node employed four sensors to observe the five radiation parameters. The number and location of nodes in RadNet were determined through the representativeness-based sampling method. Thus, the RadNet is a distributed observation system with nodes work synchronously and measurements used together. The intercomparison experiment for RadNet is necessary and was conducted in Huailai Remote Sensing Station from 5th Aug to 10th Aug in 2012. Time series observations from various sensors were collected and analyzed. The maximum relative differences among sensors of UVR, SWR, LWR, PAR, and LST are 4.83%, 5.3%, 3.71%, 11%, and 0.54%, respectively. Sensor/parameter differences indeed exist and are considerable large for PAR, SWR, UVR, and LWR, which cannot be ignored. The linear normalization and quadratic polynomial normalization perform similar for CUV5/UVR, PQS1/PAR, CNR4/SWR, and SI-111/LST. As for CNR4/LWR, quadratic polynomial normalization show higher accuracy than linear normalization, especially in node2, node4, and node5. Thus, the LWR measured by CNR4 is proved to be nonlinear, and should be normalized with quadratic polynomial coefficients for higher precision.

  2. Aerosol size distribution seasonal characteristics measured in Tiksi, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi, E.; Kondratyev, V.; Brus, D.; Laurila, T.; Lihavainen, H.; Backman, J.; Vakkari, V.; Aurela, M.; Hatakka, J.; Viisanen, Y.; Uttal, T.; Ivakhov, V.; Makshtas, A.

    2016-02-01

    Four years of continuous aerosol number size distribution measurements from the Arctic Climate Observatory in Tiksi, Russia, are analyzed. Tiksi is located in a region where in situ information on aerosol particle properties has not been previously available. Particle size distributions were measured with a differential mobility particle sizer (in the diameter range of 7-500 nm) and with an aerodynamic particle sizer (in the diameter range of 0.5-10 μm). Source region effects on particle modal features and number, and mass concentrations are presented for different seasons. The monthly median total aerosol number concentration in Tiksi ranges from 184 cm-3 in November to 724 cm-3 in July, with a local maximum in March of 481 cm-3. The total mass concentration has a distinct maximum in February-March of 1.72-2.38 μg m-3 and two minimums in June (0.42 μg m-3) and in September-October (0.36-0.57 μg m-3). These seasonal cycles in number and mass concentrations are related to isolated processes and phenomena such as Arctic haze in early spring, which increases accumulation and coarse-mode numbers, and secondary particle formation in spring and summer, which affects the nucleation and Aitken mode particle concentrations. Secondary particle formation was frequently observed in Tiksi and was shown to be slightly more common in marine, in comparison to continental, air flows. Particle formation rates were the highest in spring, while the particle growth rates peaked in summer. These results suggest two different origins for secondary particles, anthropogenic pollution being the important source in spring and biogenic emissions being significant in summer. The impact of temperature-dependent natural emissions on aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei numbers was significant: the increase in both the particle mass and the CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) number with temperature was found to be higher than in any previous study done over the boreal forest region. In addition

  3. Enthalpy Distributions of Arc Jet Flow Based on Measured Laser Induced Fluorescence, Heat Flux and Stagnation Pressure Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Leonard E.; Milhoan, James D.; Oelke, Lance; Godfrey, Dennis; Larin, Maksim Y.; Scott, Carl D.; Grinstead, Jay H.; DelPapa, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The centerline total enthalpy of arc jet flow is determined using laser induced fluorescence of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Each component of the energy, kinetic, thermal, and chemical can be determined from LIF measurements. Additionally, enthalpy distributions are inferred from heat flux and pressure probe distribution measurements using an engineering formula. Average enthalpies are determined by integration over the radius of the jet flow, assuming constant mass flux and a mass flux distribution estimated from computational fluid dynamics calculations at similar arc jet conditions. The trends show favorable agreement, but there is an uncertainty that relates to the multiple individual measurements and assumptions inherent in LIF measurements.

  4. Measurement system for adjacent electric field and magnetic field distributions on an IC package

    OpenAIRE

    Kazama, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    International audience; We have developed an adjacent electromagnetic field distribution measurement system using a unique sensor and three-input phase-difference measurement technique that can simultanously measure electric and magnetic field (magnitude and phase) distribution upto 3 GHz. The system can measure vector electric and magnetic field distribution on an IC package with lead frame level resolution. These electromagnetic distributions are effective in evaluatinf the EMI from an IC.

  5. Measurement of Concentration Distribution of Hydrogen Gas Flow by Measuring the Intensity of Raman Scattering Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Ippei; Ninomiya, Hideki

    An experimental study to visualize and measure the concentration distribution of hydrogen gas flow using the Raman scattering was performed. A Nd:YAG laser of wavelength at 355 nm was used, and the beam pattern was transformed into a rectangle and a sheet beam was formed. The Raman scattered light was observed at a right angle with respect to the laser beam axis using a gated ICCD camera and an interference filter. Shadowgraph images were obtained at the same condition. The Raman scattering light image from atmospheric nitrogen was first acquired and the function of Raman scattering light acquisition and the background light suppression was confirmed. Next, images of the Raman scattering light image and shadowgraph of hydrogen gas discharged from a nozzle into the atmosphere were acquired. The two obtained Raman images were compared and the spatial concentration distribution of the flow of the hydrogen gas at different flow rates was calculated. This method is effective for visualizing the gas flow and measuring the concentration distribution of the Raman active molecules, such as hydrogen gas.

  6. Study on the changes in the East Asian precipitation in the mid-1990s using a high-resolution global downscaled atmospheric data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Kim, Jung-Eun; Wu, Renguang; Yoshimura, Kei

    2014-03-01

    A high-resolution global atmospheric data set (DA126) is used to understand the East Asian summer precipitation variability. It is found that a fine resolution of the DA126 precipitation data is able to reveal the detailed structures of the rainfall variability over East Asia and southern China in comparison with global analysis precipitation data sets such as the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). The first two empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the DA126 precipitation data over East Asia accurately reflect a decadal shift in rainfall over southern China in the mid-1990s. Furthermore, the first EOF-related precipitation of the DA126 is related to the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability (i.e., El Niño/Southern Oscillation), and the second EOF-related precipitation is associated with the Indian Ocean SST variability. Consequently, the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean SSTs have different associations with the East Asian monsoon precipitation variability. However, it is difficult to find such a relationship in the first two EOFs of the CMAP data set over East Asia. Using the DA126 precipitation data set, our further analysis indicates that warming of both the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean causes an increase in the rainfall anomaly over southern China after the mid-1990s, which results in a decadal shift in the rainfall anomaly after the mid-1990s. In addition, the first EOF-related precipitation is associated with both the Pacific-Japan-like (PJ-like) pattern and the Eurasian-like pattern. In contrast, the second EOF-related precipitation is only associated with the PJ-like wave trains from the western Pacific to East Asia.

  7. Graphical technologies, innovation and aesthetics in the video game industry: a case study of the shift from 2d to 3d graphics in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Arsenault

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of a research project currently in progress at the Université de Montréal (Québec, Canada. Funded by the FQRSC (Fonds de recherche Québec – Société et Culture / Quebec Fund for Research – Society and Culture for a three-year period (from May 2012 to May 2015, the project studies the transition from 2D to 3D graphics in gaming during the 1990s

  8. Who has really paid for the Reconstruction of East Germany? Expected and Realized Returns on Real Estate Investments in East and West Germany in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Bensemann; Dirk Kiesewetter

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores cultural differences in risky choices between Australian and German students. The purpose of this paper is to challenge the wide-spread view that investment in residential property in East Germany after unification has turned out to be a financial disaster in most cases by calculating (1) the after-tax return an investor in real property might have expected at the beginning of the 1990s and (2) the after-tax return that has been realized ten years after. We compare investm...

  9. Who has really paid for the Reconstruction of East Germany? Expected and Realized Returns on Real Estate Investments in East and West Germany in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Kiesewetter; Tina Bensemann; Kristin Schönemann

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the profitability of investments in residential property in Germany after unification with a focus on the comparison of East and West Germany. Calculations are carried out for (1) the after-tax return an investor might have expected at the beginning of the 1990s, and (2) the after-tax return that has been realized ten years after. We compare a set of statistical data for investments in fifty major cities by using complete financial budgeting. The results show that tax subsidies co...

  10. Study on the Characteristics and Driving Forces of Changes of the Urban Land-Use Structure in Wuhan in 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYaobin; 5ongXuefeng

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the information entropy and equilibrium degree of urban land-use spatial structure, the paper analyzes the characteristics and rules of urban land-use spatial structure changes in Wuhan in 1990s, in which the types of land-use are shrinking and urban land-use changes are disequilibria. With PCA and GRA employed, the driving forces have also been analyzed. The driving force of city welfare and social structure, the towing force of city industrial structure transition, and the pressing force of city construction and reconstruction are main momentum factors. Moreover, the latter forces are more significant.

  11. Substance-abusing urban homeless in the late 1990s: How do they differ from non-substance-abusing homeless persons?

    OpenAIRE

    O’Toole, Thomas P.; Conde-Martel, Alicia; Gibbon, Jeanette L; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Freyder, Paul J.; Fine, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Much of our understanding of substance abuse and homelessness comes from data from the 1980s and may not necessarily reflect issues or trends prevalent during the 1990s. We report data from a two-city, community-based, populations-proportionate sample of 531 randomly selected homeless adults; the study was conducted in 1997 and compared substance-abusing to non-substance-abusing respondents. Most (78.3%) met criteria for substance abuse/dependence and were abusing either cocaine or alcohol an...

  12. Inter-decadal Shift of East Asian Summer Monsoon in the Early 1990s%20世纪90年代初东亚夏季风的年代际转型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐佳; 武炳义

    2012-01-01

    Using JRA-25 and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data from 1979 to 2009, dominant modes of summer season (June-August) 850 hPa wind field variability over East Asia is revealed by means of the complex vector empirical orthogonal function method. The two reanalysis data are consistent with the description of the first East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) mode, whereas the first mode had been studied, showing that the first mode could not reflect the inter-decadal shift of Chinese summer precipitation in the early 1990s. Consequently, the inter-decadal shift feature of the second EASM mode is deeply analyzed, as well as its effect on summer precipitation in China. Moreover, the possible external forcing factors exerting effects on the inter-decadal shift of EASM are discussed. Results show that, EASM which is revealed,by two sets of reanalysis data to have undergone one inter-decadal shift in the early 1990s. The inter-decadal shift time of EASM is consistent with the inter-decadal shift time of summer precipitation in China. EASM is closely related to the mid-high latitude atmospheric circulation anomalies. Corresponding anomalous 500 hPa geopotential height fields show an anomalous quasi-zonal teleconnection pattern in northern Eurasia, whereas the distribution of summer precipitation anomalies show a meridional dipole pattern. Accompanied by the inter-decadal shift of EASM, after the early 1990s, summer precipitation decreases in the majority of northern China, especially in north of the northeast and the area between the Yangtze River and the Yellow River in the vicinity of 105° E. While summer precipitation increases significantly in South China and the Huaihe River Basin. From the perspective of dynamic, the characteristics of inter-decadal shift of summer precipitation in China are described. The difference distribution of summer 500 hPa geopotential height fields between two periods (1993-2009 and 1979-1992) show northern Eurasian quasi-zonal teleconnection pattern, then

  13. Performance Measurement, Visualization and Modeling of Parallel and Distributed Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Mehra, Pankaj; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for debugging the performance of message-passing programs on both tightly coupled and loosely coupled distributed-memory machines. The AIMS (Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System) toolkit, a suite of software tools for measurement and analysis of performance, is introduced and its application illustrated using several benchmark programs drawn from the field of computational fluid dynamics. AIMS includes (i) Xinstrument, a powerful source-code instrumentor, which supports both Fortran77 and C as well as a number of different message-passing libraries including Intel's NX Thinking Machines' CMMD, and PVM; (ii) Monitor, a library of timestamping and trace -collection routines that run on supercomputers (such as Intel's iPSC/860, Delta, and Paragon and Thinking Machines' CM5) as well as on networks of workstations (including Convex Cluster and SparcStations connected by a LAN); (iii) Visualization Kernel, a trace-animation facility that supports source-code clickback, simultaneous visualization of computation and communication patterns, as well as analysis of data movements; (iv) Statistics Kernel, an advanced profiling facility, that associates a variety of performance data with various syntactic components of a parallel program; (v) Index Kernel, a diagnostic tool that helps pinpoint performance bottlenecks through the use of abstract indices; (vi) Modeling Kernel, a facility for automated modeling of message-passing programs that supports both simulation -based and analytical approaches to performance prediction and scalability analysis; (vii) Intrusion Compensator, a utility for recovering true performance from observed performance by removing the overheads of monitoring and their effects on the communication pattern of the program; and (viii) Compatibility Tools, that convert AIMS-generated traces into formats used by other performance-visualization tools, such as ParaGraph, Pablo, and certain AVS/Explorer modules.

  14. The Public-Private Sector Wage Gap in Zambia in the 1990s: A Quantile Regression Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of wages in Zambia and based on the quantile regression approach, we analyze how their effects differ at different points in the wage distribution and over time. We use three cross-sections of Zambian household data from the early nineties, which was a period...

  15. Changes in Dietary Patterns and Certain Nutrition-related Diseases in Urban and Rural Residents of Jiangsu Province, China, During the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate into the changes of dietary patterns and their impacts on health of urban and rural residents in Jiangsu Province, China during the 1990s. Methods On the basis of the results of food consumption survey, the calorie intake was calculated according to the balanced diet method and the quality of diet was assessed by scores of desirable dietary pattern (DDP).Results It was found that food consumption and dietary patterns changed remarkably during the 1990s. Grain consumption was decreasing year by year, but the consumption of animal food was markedly increasing. Although the score of desirable dietary pattern (DDP) in urban residents was more than 90, the deducted score due to over-consumption of animal food increased. The mortality from infectious diseases evidently decreased in the whole province, while the death rates of some chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, colorectal cancer and breast cancer, were increasing rapidly in urban areas. Conclusions Sufficient attention should be paid to the negative effects of change in dietary patterns on people's health, especially in the urban residents.

  16. Income Distribution Dependence of Poverty Measure: A Theoretical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, A K; Chattopadhyay, Amit K; Mallick, Sushanta K

    2005-01-01

    With a new deprivation (or poverty) function, in this paper, we theoretically study the changes in poverty with respect to the `global' mean and variance of the income distribution using Indian survey data. We show that when the income obeys a log-normal distribution, a rising mean income generally indicates a reduction in poverty while an increase in the variance of the income distribution increases poverty. This altruistic view for a developing economy, however, is not tenable anymore once the poverty index is found to follow a pareto distribution. Here although a rising mean income indicates a reduction in poverty, due to the presence of an inflexion point in the poverty function, there is a critical value of the variance below which poverty decreases with increasing variance while beyond this value, poverty undergoes a steep increase followed by a decrease with respect to higher variance. Following these results, we make quantitative predictions to correlate a developing with a developed economy.

  17. Evaluation of the FBR MONJU core breeding ratio and the power distribution from the reaction rate distribution measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Shin; Suzuki, Takayuki; Sasaki, Kenji; Deshimaru, Takehide [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan). Monju Construction Office; Nakashima, Fumiaki

    1996-09-01

    In MONJU, reaction rate distribution measurements were made by foil activation methods from May through September 1994. On the basis of the reaction rate measurement data, the MONJU initial core breeding ratio and the power distribution, etc. were evaluated. As a result, the evaluated values and the calculated values showed good agreement, and we confirmed that the core performance of MONJU and the method of core calculations were satisfactory. (author)

  18. Extractive Industries and Local Development in the Peruvian Highlands: Socio-Economic Impacts of the Mid-1990s Mining Boom

    OpenAIRE

    Ticci, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Since the late Nineties, the mining sector in Peru has been experiencing a protracted period of rapid growth. This paper investigates local impacts of the mining boom on migration, on access to basic services, on labour market and on occupational distribution across sectors. By applying propensity score matching technique, mining and non-mining districts are compared. The results show that recent mining expansion has encouraged migration inflows to mining districts and affected the sectoral c...

  19. Extractive Industries and Local Development in the Peruvian Highlands: Socio-Economic Impacts of the Mid-1990s Mining Boom

    OpenAIRE

    Ticci, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Since the late Nineties, the mining sector in Peru has been experiencing a protracted period of rapid growth. This paper investigates local impacts of the mining boom on migration, on access to basic services, on labour market and on occupational distribution across sectors. By applying propensity score matching technique, mining and non-mining districts are compared. The results show that recent mining expansion has encouraged migration inflows to mining districts and affected th...

  20. Determination of size distribution of elliptical microvessels from size distribution measurement of their section profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoperov, R A; Gerasimov, A N

    2003-01-01

    In transmission electron microscopy, microvessels (MVs) are studied as profiles on ultrathin sections. To determine MV sizes from measurements made on MV profiles, an assumption must be made about MV shape, a circular cylinder being used to approximate the latter on limited lengths. However, this model is irrelevant in case MVs have some flatness. The elliptical cylinder model is preferable, although relationships between the cylinder profile (two-dimensional; 2D) and its true (three-dimensional; 3D) sizes are not yet known. We have obtained the 2D/3D functions that express the relationships between such profile sizes as the minor radius (Y), major radius (X), axial ratio (X/Y), area (S), and perimeter (P) on the one hand, and the corresponding MV sizes (Y(0), X(0), X(0)/Y(0), S(0), and P(0)) on the other. The 2D/3D functions make it possible to derive elliptical MV sizes from section profile size distributions, probability density functions (PDFs) for the latter being determined. We have applied the 2D/3D functions in studying axial ratios of thyroid hemocapillaries. A factual X/Y frequency histogram has been constructed and fitted by theoretical X/Y PDFs plotted for different sets of capillary sizes. The thyroid capillaries have been revealed to be clustered, 72.7% of them having X(0)/Y(0) approximately 1.6, 17.6%, X(0)/Y(0) approximately 1.0, and 9.7%, X(0)/Y(0) approximately 3.2. The proposed technique is instrumental in precise modeling of microcirculatory network geometry. PMID:12524478

  1. The neutron distribution in nuclei as measured with parity violating electron scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Alberico, W. M.; Molinari, A.

    1999-01-01

    A short review of the present knowledge of the nucleons distribution in nuclei is given. A proposal is made about a possible measurements of the neutron distribution through polarized electron scattering off nuclei.

  2. Comment on "Quantum key distribution without alternative measurements"

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Yu Shun; Guo Guang Can; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2001-01-01

    In a recent paper [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. A 61, 052312 (2000)], a quantum key distribution protocol based on entanglement swapping was proposed. However, in this comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure if Eve use a special strategy to attack.

  3. Probability Measure of Navigation pattern predition using Poisson Distribution Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.V.Valli Mayil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web has become one of the most important media to store, share and distribute information. The rapid expansion of the web has provided a great opportunity to study user and system behavior by exploring web access logs. Web Usage Mining is the application of data mining techniques to large web data repositories in order to extract usage patterns. Every web server keeps a log of all transactions between the server and the clients. The log data which are collected by web servers contains information about every click of user to the web documents of the site. The useful log information needs to be analyzed and interpreted in order to obtainknowledge about actual user preferences in accessing web pages. In recent years several methods have been proposed for mining web log data. This paper addresses the statistical method of Poisson distribution analysis to find out the higher probability session sequences which is then used to test the web application performance.The analysis of large volumes of click stream data demands the employment of data mining methods. Conducting data mining on logs of web servers involves the determination of frequently occurring access sequences. A statistical poisson distribution shows the frequency probability of specific events when the average probability of a single occurrence is known. The Poisson distribution is a discrete function wich is used in this paper to find out the probability frequency of particular page is visited by the user.

  4. Measuring perceived quality of social space in distributed learning groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreijns, K.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.; Buuren, H. van

    2004-01-01

    Distributed learning in groups is usually supported by computer-supported collaborative learning environments. Although these environments have the potential to facilitate working in groups, they often do not fulfill this potential because of their inability to provide a sound social space where soc

  5. Distributed Optical Fiber Sensor for Multi-point Temperature Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-tian; LIU Zhan-wei; HOU Pei-guo; SHAN Wei

    2004-01-01

    The distributed optical fiber sensing technology is overviewed, which is based on Raman scattering light theory. Basic operation principle, structure, system characteristics and signal processing are discussed. This structure and method of the signal processing possess of certain spatial resolution, hence will ensure the practicability of system.

  6. LAND-USE CHANGE AND CARBON FLUX BETWEEN 1970S AND 1990S IN CENTRAL HIGHLANDS OF CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present results of a study in an intensively impacted and highly fragmented landscape in which we apply field-measured carbon (C) density values to land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) statistics to estimate the flux of C between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from the 1970s...

  7. Uncertainties Associated with Flux Measurements Due to Heterogeneous Contaminant Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass flux and mass discharge measurements at contaminated sites have been applied to assist with remedial management, and can be divided into two broad categories: point-scale measurement techniques and pumping methods. Extrapolation across un-sampled space is necessary when usi...

  8. Research on Collaboration Theory of Distributed Measurement System and Real-Time of Communication Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yan

    2005-01-01

    @@ With developments of technology of computer and network, researching on distributed measurement system becomes one of the hot problems in the field of automatic test. However, existing resolutions to distributed measurement system still have great limit,e.g. intelligence, self-adaptivity, collaboration, system load balance and integer view, and their capabilities need to be enhanced. Based on two key projects, this paper studies on collaboration mechanism and real-time of communication platform in distributed measurement system comprehensively and systematically.

  9. Fission prompt γ-ray multiplicity distribution measurements and simulations at DANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nearly energy independence of the DANCE efficiency and multiplicity response to γ rays makes it possible to measure the prompt γ-ray multiplicity distribution in fission. We demonstrate this unique capability of DANCE through the comparison of γ-ray energy and multiplicity distribution between the measurement and numerical simulation for three radioactive sources 22Na, 60Co, and 88Y. The prospect for measuring the γ-ray multiplicity distribution for both spontaneous and neutron-induced fission is discussed.

  10. Measuring real-time performance in distributed object oriented systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kihl, Maria; Nyberg, Christian; Widell, Niklas

    1999-01-01

    The principles of distributed object oriented programming offer great possibilities for flexible architectures in multiple fields. In telecommunications, an architecture called Telecommunication Information Networking Architecture (TINA) has been developed using these very principles. It allows telecommunication services to be implemented using software objects that in turn can be executed in a location transparent way in a network. The location transparency offers great flexibility for servi...

  11. Measurement of continuous distributions of ventilation-perfusion ratios - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, P. D.; Saltzman, H. A.; West, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    The resolution of the technique considered is sufficient to describe smooth distributions containing blood flow to unventilated regions (shunt), ventilation to unperfused regions (dead space), and up to three additional modes over the range of finite ventilation-perfusion ratios. In particular, areas whose ventilation-perfusion ratios are low can be separated from unventilated regions and those whose ventilation-perfusion ratios are high can similarly be distinguished from unperfused areas.

  12. Measurement of NSLS distributed diode sputter ion pump characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the DI pump to have acceptable pumping speed, the pump must be glow discharge conditioned after the 1500C max vacuum bakeout. Other DI pump conditioning procedures have not been investigated. Glow discharge conditioning of the system using the DI pump anode significantly improves the pumping speed at low pressures and high pressure pumping speed is slightly improved. The NSLS DI pump speed is not linear with pressure even though the average current is. Pumping speed drops to less than 25% of the high pressure speed at pressures below 10-9 torr, depending on the pump condition. The pumping speed is sufficiently close to its calculated value at high pressure. These results agree with actual ring experience with the distributed pump. The DI pump is most efficient pumping distributed gas loads from beam operation rather than gas loads introduced at the ends of the pump. Most of the gas load is distributed adjacent to the pump during beam operation due synchrotron radiation included desorption. 11 references, 5 figures

  13. Decadal Changes in Climatological Intraseasonal Fluctuation of Subseasonal Evolution of Summer Precipitation over the Korean Peninsula in the mid-1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WonMoo KIM; Jong-Ghap JHUN; Kyung-Ja HA; Masahide KIMOTO

    2011-01-01

    Decadal changes in the subseasonal evolution and the phase-locked climatological intraseasonal fluctuation of summertime rainfall over the Korean Peninsula before and after the mid-1990s are investigated. The activity and the migration speed of the monsoon rain band over the East Asian region are altered in the recent decade, resulting in the drier conditions in late spring and the earlier onset of Changma. In early August when a climatological monsoon break was clear in the earlier decade, the precipitation has increased dramatically with a meridional coherency. The response to the enhanced convection over the South China Sea and southeastern China provides a favorable condition for more precipitation in early August through the changes in moisture transport and tropical cyclone passage.

  14. Decadal Changes in Climatological Intraseasonal Fluctuation of Subseasonal Evolution of Summer Precipitation over the Korean Peninsula in the mid-1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Decadal changes in the subseasonal evolution and the phase-locked climatological intraseasonal fluctuation of summertime rainfall over the Korean Peninsula before and after the mid-1990s are investigated.The activity and the migration speed of the monsoon rain band over the East Asian region are altered in the recent decade,resulting in the drier conditions in late spring and the earlier onset of Changma.In early August when a climatological monsoon break was clear in the earlier decade,the precipitation has increased dramatically with a meridional coherency.The response to the enhanced convection over the South China Sea and southeastern China provides a favorable condition for more precipitation in early August through the changes in moisture transport and tropical cyclone passage.

  15. A reasonable model or a liberal failure? The economic model in Latin America from the 1990s to the great crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sánchez Ancochea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically evaluates the results in terms of economic growth and structural transformation of the new economic model implemented by most Latin American countries since the early 1990s. The new model, which had macroeconomic stability and export orientation as its core components, has been unable to develop more dynamic comparative advantages in the current global era and, as a result, has resulted in lower rates of economic growth than in Asia. The paper closes with an analysis of the impact of the current financial crisis in the region. It highlights the short-term costs, but also acknowledges the opportunities that the crisis is creating to promote a greater number of new progressive development alternatives that place more emphasis on the role of learning and innovation.

  16. Who has really paid for the Reconstruction of East Germany? Expected and Realized Returns on Real Estate Investments in East and West Germany in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kiesewetter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the profitability of investments in residential property in Germany after unification with a focus on the comparison of East and West Germany. Calculations are carried out for (1 the after-tax return an investor might have expected at the beginning of the 1990s, and (2 the after-tax return that has been realized ten years after. We compare a set of statistical data for investments in fifty major cities by using complete financial budgeting. The results show that tax subsidies could not always protect investors from losing money, but they have boosted realized returns after tax considerably. Therefore, it was indeed the taxpayers, not the investors, who have borne the cost of reconstructing East Germany.

  17. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone - Part 1: Measurement techniques, uncertainties and availability

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, B.; Petropavlovskikh, I; J. Staehelin; August, T.; Bhartia, P. K.; Clerbaux, Cathy; Degenstein, D.; De Mazière, M.; DINELLI, B. M.; Dudhia, A.; Dufour, G.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Granville, J.

    2014-01-01

    Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and other ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations were reached in the mid to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of ...

  18. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone - Part 1: Measurement techniques, uncertainties and availability

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, B.; Petropavlovskikh, I; J. Staehelin; August, T.; Bhartia, P. K.; Clerbaux, C.; Degenstein, D.; De Mazière, M.; DINELLI, B. M.; Dudhia, A.; Dufour, G.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; S. Godin-Beekmann; Granville, J.

    2014-01-01

    Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and other ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone ch...

  19. Impact of summer heat on urban population mortality in Europe during the 1990s: an evaluation of years of life lost adjusted for harvesting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Baccini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Efforts to prevent and respond to heat-related illness would benefit by quantifying the impact of summer heat on acute population mortality. We estimated years of life lost due to heat in 14 European cities during the 1990s accounting for harvesting. METHODS: We combined the number of deaths attributable to heat estimated by the PHEWE project with life expectancy derived from population life tables. The degree of harvesting was quantified by comparing the cumulative effect of heat up to lagged day 30 with the immediate effect of heat, by geographical region and age. Next, an evaluation of years of life lost adjusted for harvesting was obtained. RESULTS: Without accounting for harvesting, we estimated more than 23,000 years of life lost per year, 55% of which was among individuals younger than 75. When 30 day mortality displacement was taken into account, the overall impact reduced on average by 75%. Harvesting was more pronounced in North-continental cities than in Mediterranean cities and was stronger among young people than among elderly. CONCLUSIONS: High ambient temperatures during summer were responsible for many deaths in European cities during the 1990s, but a large percentage of these deaths likely involved frail persons whose demise was only briefly hastened by heat exposure. Differences in harvesting across regions and classes of age could reflect different proportions of frail individuals in the population or could be indicative of heterogeneous dynamics underlying the entry and exit of individuals from the high-risk pool which is subject to mortality displacement.

  20. Restoring urbanization process in China in the 1990s by using non-radiance-calibrated DMSP/OLS nighttime light imagery and statistical data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Chunyang; SHI Peijun; LI Jinggang; CHEN Jin; PAN Yaozhong; LI Jing; ZHUO Li; Ichinose Toshiaki

    2006-01-01

    Since current administrative unit-based urban land area statistical data in China lack enough spatial information, the urbanization process research at large scale cannot be effectively supported.Based on the current administrative unit-based urban land area statistical data in China, a new approach to quickly and cheaply derive urban land information from the non-radiance-calibrated Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light imagery is presented in this paper. With the new approach, the urban pattern information in China in 1992, 1996 and 1998 was derived with the urbanization processes in China in the 1990s restored by using the non-radiance-calibrated DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery. The accuracy assessment based on the statistical data showed that the relative error between the derived total urban land area and the statistical data at national scale was less than 2% in 1992, and less than 1% in 1996 and 1998, and the maximum relative error at province scale do not exceed 10% with most of the provinces less than 3%. In addition, the urban patterns derived from the high-resolution Landsat TM imagery were compared with those from the DMSP/OLS data. The results showed that the urban pattern characteristics derived from DMSP/OLS were basically coincident with those from TM imagery with the total accuracy of about 80%. Thus it can be seen that our restored urbanization process in China in the 1990s by using the non-radiance DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery can be accepted and can represent the actual urban development in China at that time on the whole.

  1. MPL-Net Measurements of Aerosol and Cloud Vertical Distributions at Co-Located AERONET Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Spinhirne, James D.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the first small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar system was developed, the Micropulse Lidar (MPL). The MPL acquires signal profiles of backscattered laser light from aerosols and clouds. The signals are analyzed to yield multiple layer heights, optical depths of each layer, average extinction-to-backscatter ratios for each layer, and profiles of extinction in each layer. In 2000, several MPL sites were organized into a coordinated network, called MPL-Net, by the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) using funding provided by the NASA Earth Observing System. tn addition to the funding provided by NASA EOS, the NASA CERES Ground Validation Group supplied four MPL systems to the project, and the NASA TOMS group contributed their MPL for work at GSFC. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) also agreed to make their data available to the MPL-Net project for processing. In addition to the initial NASA and ARM operated sites, several other independent research groups have also expressed interest in joining the network using their own instruments. Finally, a limited amount of EOS funding was set aside to participate in various field experiments each year. The NASA Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) project also provides funds to deploy their MPL during ocean research cruises. All together, the MPL-Net project has participated in four major field experiments since 2000. Most MPL-Net sites and field experiment locations are also co-located with sunphotometers in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network. (AERONET). Therefore, at these locations data is collected on both aerosol and cloud vertical structure as well as column optical depth and sky radiance. Real-time data products are now available from most MPL-Net sites. Our real-time products are generated at times of AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. The AERONET AOD is used as input to our

  2. Race and Space in the 1990s: Changes in the Geographic Scale of Racial Residential Segregation, 1990-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Reardon, Sean F.; Farrell, Chad R.; Matthews, Stephen A.; O'Sullivan, David; BISCHOFF, KENDRA; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    We use newly developed methods of measuring spatial segregation across a range of spatial scales to assess changes in racial residential segregation patterns in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas from 1990 to 2000. Our results point to three notable trends in segregation from 1990 to 2000: 1) Hispanic-white and Asian-white segregation levels increased at both micro- and macro-scales; 2) black-white segregation declined at a micro-scale, but was unchanged at a macro-scale; and 3) for all ...

  3. Measuring Technique of Bubble Size Distributions in Dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsurou; Do, Gab-Soo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Oguchi, Kosei; Tsuta, Mizuki

    A novel technique to recognize bubbles in bread dough and analyze their size distribution was developed by using a Micro-Slicer Image Processing System (MSIPS). Samples were taken from the final stage of the mixing process of bread dough which generally consists of four distinctive stages. Also, to investigate the effect of freeze preservation on the size distribution of bubbles, comparisons were made between fresh dough and the dough that had been freeze preserved at .30°C for three months. Bubbles in the dough samples were identified in the images of MSIPS as defocusing spots due to the difference in focal distance created by vacant spaces. In case of the fresh dough, a total of 910 bubbles were recognized and their maximum diameter ranged from 0.4 to 70.5μm with an average of 11.1μm. On the other hand, a total of 1,195 bubbles were recognized from the freeze-preserved sample, and the maximum diameter ranged from 0.9 to 32.7μm with an average of 6.7μm. Small bubbles with maximum diameters less than 10μm comprised approximately 59% and 78% of total bubbles for fresh and freeze-preserved dough samples, respectively. The results indicated that the bubble size of frozen dough is smaller than that of unfrozen one. The proposed method can provide a novel tool to investigate the effects of mixing and preservation treatments on the size, morphology and distribution of bubbles in bread dough.

  4. Measurements of charged-particle distributions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cairo, Valentina Maria Martina

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive charged-particle measurements probe the low-energy region of the non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The ATLAS collaboration has recently measured the charged-particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at centre-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements at 8 TeV cover a wide spectrum using charged-particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged-particle multiplicities, some of which are studied for the first time by ATLAS. The measurements at 13 TeV also present detailed studies with a minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV. The measurements are compared with predictions of various tuned Monte Carlo generators and are found to provide strong constraints on these. None of the Monte Carlo generators with their respective tunes are able to reproduce all the features of the data.

  5. Measurement of dead time by time interval distribution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkani, Mohammad, E-mail: markani@aeoi.org.ir [Reactor Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raisali, Gholamreza, E-mail: graisali@aeoi.org.ir [Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-21

    Non-random event losses due to dead time effect in nuclear radiation detection systems distort the original Poisson process into a new type of distribution. As the characteristics of the distribution depend on physical properties of the detection system, it is possible to estimate the dead time parameters based on time interval analysis, this is the problem investigated in this work. A BF{sub 3} ionization chamber is taken as a case study to check the validity of the method in experiment. The results are compared with the data estimated by power rising experiment performed in Esfahan Heavy Water Zero Power Reactor (EHWZPR). Using Monte Carlo simulation, the problem is elaborately studied and useful range for counting rates of the detector is determined. The proposed method is accurate and applicable for all kinds of radiation detectors with no potential difficulty and no need for any especial nuclear facility. This is not a time consuming method and advanced capability of online examination during normal operation of the detection system is possible.

  6. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) - A concept for an orbiting submillimeter-infrared telescope for the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, P. N.; Gulkis, S.; Kulper, T. B. H.; Kiya, M.

    1983-01-01

    The history and background of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) are reviewed. The results of the June 1982 Asilomar (CA) workshop are incorporated into the LDR science objectives and telescope concept. The areas where the LDR may have the greatest scientific impact are in the study of star formation and planetary systems in the own and nearby galaxies and in cosmological studies of the structure and evolution of the early universe. The observational requirements for these and other scientific studies give rise to a set of telescope functional requirements. These, in turn, are satisfied by an LDR configuration which is a Cassegrain design with a 20 m diameter, actively controlled, segmented, primary reflector, diffraction limited at a wavelength of 30 to 50 microns. Technical challenges in the LDR development include construction of high tolerance mirror segments, surface figure measurement, figure control, vibration control, pointing, cryogenics, and coherent detectors. Project status and future plans for the LDR are discussed.

  7. Risk Measure and Premium Distribution on Catastrophe Reinsurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUN LI; WANG DE-HUI

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a new risk measure which is based on the Orlicz premium principle to characterize catastrophe risk premium.The intention is to develop a formulation strategy for Catastrophe Fund.The logarithm equivalent form of reinsurance premium is regarded as the retention of reinsurer,and the differential earnings between the reinsurance premium and the reinsurer's retention is accumulated as a part of Catastrophe Fund.We demonstrate that the aforementioned risk measure has some good properties,which are further confirmed by numerical simulations in R environment.

  8. A measure of mutual divergence among a number of probability distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kapur

    1987-01-01

    major inequalities due to Shannon, Renyi and Holder. The inequalities are then used to obtain some useful results in information theory. In particular measures are obtained to measure the mutual divergence among two or more probability distributions.

  9. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  10. MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS: A MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of hydrologists to perform field measurements of aquifer hydraulic properties must be enhanced in order to significantly improve the capacity to solve groundwater contamination problems at Superfund and other sites. The primary purpose of this manual is to provide ne...

  11. Measuring Robustness of Timetables at Stations using a Probability Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex

    Stations are often the limiting capacity factor in a railway network. This induces interdependencies, especially at at-grade junctions, causing network effects. This paper presents three traditional methods that can be used to measure the complexity of a station, indicating the robustness...

  12. Measuring Robustness of Timetables in Stations using a Probability Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex

    vulnerable to delays (less robust) while the other will be less vulnerable (more robust), but this cannot be measured by the above methods. In the light of this, the article will describe a new method where the complexity of a given station with a given timetable can be calculated based on a probability...

  13. A Study of Model for Distributed Measurement and Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang,Jin; Zhong,Yifang

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a method for formingdistributed measurement and control system. A three-layerstructure model based on network, physical node layer and func-tion node layer is discussed. It is designed on object-orientedsoftware method. The model has a fine application prospect.

  14. Aerosol mobility imaging for rapid size distribution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Hering, Susanne Vera; Spielman, Steven Russel; Kuang, Chongai

    2016-07-19

    A parallel plate dimensional electrical mobility separator and laminar flow water condensation provide rapid, mobility-based particle sizing at concentrations typical of the remote atmosphere. Particles are separated spatially within the electrical mobility separator, enlarged through water condensation, and imaged onto a CCD array. The mobility separation distributes particles in accordance with their size. The condensation enlarges size-separated particles by water condensation while they are still within the gap of the mobility drift tube. Once enlarged the particles are illuminated by a laser. At a pre-selected frequency, typically 10 Hz, the position of all of the individual particles illuminated by the laser are captured by CCD camera. This instantly records the particle number concentration at each position. Because the position is directly related to the particle size (or mobility), the particle size spectra is derived from the images recorded by the CCD.

  15. LASER ULTRASONIC FOR MEASUREMENTS OF VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION IN PIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navarrete

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the development of a photoacoustic flowmeter with probe-beam deflection. A pulsedlaser beam produces an acoustic pulse, whose propagation is registered by its deflection effects on two cw probebeams. The acoustic pulse in a flowing fluid is produced by absorption of a laser pulse (30 ns, 1.1 mJ focused overa path flow line. The acoustic propagations, along and against the flow, are monitored by two cw probe beams. Inthe interaction, the probe beam undergoes a transient deflection that is detected by a fast response photodiode.The velocity distribution data profile of a square pipe is obtained by means of the acoustic pulse arrival timemeasured through its cross section applying the cylindrical shockwave model developed by Vlasses. The profilesdetermined with this experimental technique are compared with two turbulent pipe flow models.

  16. Race and space in the 1990s: changes in the geographic scale of racial residential segregation, 1990-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F; Farrell, Chad R; Matthews, Stephen A; O'Sullivan, David; Bischoff, Kendra; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2009-03-01

    We use newly developed methods of measuring spatial segregation across a range of spatial scales to assess changes in racial residential segregation patterns in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas from 1990 to 2000. Our results point to three notable trends in segregation from 1990 to 2000: (1) Hispanic-white and Asian-white segregation levels increased at both micro- and macro-scales; (2) black-white segregation declined at a micro-scale, but was unchanged at a macro-scale; and (3) for all three racial groups and for almost all metropolitan areas, macro-scale segregation accounted for more of the total metropolitan area segregation in 2000 than in 1990. Our examination of the variation in these trends among the metropolitan areas suggests that Hispanic-white and Asian-white segregation changes have been driven largely by increases in macro-scale segregation resulting from the rapid growth of the Hispanic and Asian populations in central cities. The changes in black-white segregation, in contrast, appear to be driven by the continuation of a 30-year trend in declining micro-segregation, coupled with persistent and largely stable patterns of macro-segregation.

  17. Mercado de trabalho: revendo conceitos e aproximando o campo da saúde. A década de 90 em destaque Labor market: reviewing concepts and bringing the health field together. A view on the 1990's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza Christina Varella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o mercado de trabalho em saúde, em comparação com o mercado de trabalho brasileiro em geral. Apresenta inicialmente uma aproximação teórica sobre o tema, para sustentar o debate. Discute as características do mercado de trabalho em geral, buscando evidenciar se o quadro de desestruturação e desregulamentação verificado pode, em parte, ser reflexivo na configuração do setor saúde. Evidencia um movimento migratório de empregos públicos da esfera federal para a municipal, e também que, na década de 90, sobretudo o setor público se valeu de modalidades mais flexíveis para a contratação de profissionais de saúde.This paper analyzes health labor market in comparison with Brazilian labor market in general. It first presents a theoretical study on the subject, to support debate. The characteristics of the labor market in general are discussed, in an effort to evince if the current stage of lack of structuring measures and of regulation can, in part, be reflected on the configuration of the health sector. It evinces a migratory movement of public jobs from the federal sphere to the municipal one, and shows that, in the 1990's, the health public sector made use of more flexible modalities to recruit health professionals.

  18. An optical fiber sensing technique for temperature distribution measurements in microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce an optical fiber sensing technique that can measure the temperature distributions along a fiber during microwave heating. We used a long-length fiber Bragg grating (FBG) as an electromagnetic-immune sensor and interrogated temperature distributions along the FBG by an optical frequency domain reflectometry. Water in a glass tube with a length of 820 mm was heated in a microwave oven, and its temperature distribution along the glass tube was measured using the sensing system. The temperature distribution was obtained in 5 mm intervals. Infrared radiometry was also used to compare the temperature measurement results. Time and spatial variations of the temperature distribution profiles were monitored for several microwave input powers. The results clearly depict inhomogeneous temperature profiles. The applicability and effectiveness of the optical fiber distributed measurement technique in microwave heating are demonstrated. (paper)

  19. An optical fiber sensing technique for temperature distribution measurements in microwave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Daichi; Sugiyama, Jun-ichi; Zushi, Hiroaki; Murayama, Hideaki

    2015-08-01

    We introduce an optical fiber sensing technique that can measure the temperature distributions along a fiber during microwave heating. We used a long-length fiber Bragg grating (FBG) as an electromagnetic-immune sensor and interrogated temperature distributions along the FBG by an optical frequency domain reflectometry. Water in a glass tube with a length of 820 mm was heated in a microwave oven, and its temperature distribution along the glass tube was measured using the sensing system. The temperature distribution was obtained in 5 mm intervals. Infrared radiometry was also used to compare the temperature measurement results. Time and spatial variations of the temperature distribution profiles were monitored for several microwave input powers. The results clearly depict inhomogeneous temperature profiles. The applicability and effectiveness of the optical fiber distributed measurement technique in microwave heating are demonstrated.

  20. Freshwater Variability in the Arctic Ocean and Subpolar North Atlantic: a Comparison from the 1990s to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Myriel; Rabe, Benjamin; Schauer, Ursula

    2016-04-01

    A significant increase in liquid freshwater content has been observed in the Arctic Ocean over the last 20 years, whereas the Arctic sea ice volume shrank significantly. In contrast, the North Atlantic became more saline in recent years. Both regions are of great importance for the global ocean circulation and climate, and salinity changes may have a profound impact on the global climate. We found that for the period between 1992 and 2013, the liquid freshwater content of the subpolar North Atlantic, calculated from objectively mapped in-situ salinity measurements, and the total freshwater content of the Arctic Ocean, i.e. the liquid freshwater content and freshwater stored in sea ice, are significantly negative correlated (r=-0.77). Moreover, the amount of the anomalies are of the same size. Furthermore, the time series hint at multi-decadal oscillations. The highest negative correlation with the total freshwater content of the Arctic Ocean can be found in the Irminger and Labrador Seas, while we observed a positive correlation east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the path of the North Atlantic Current, which is the source of Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean through the Nordic Seas. We suggest a redistribution of freshwater as a response to frequent changes in atmospheric pressure patterns. Under certain conditions the freshwater is re-routed and kept in the Arctic Ocean, while it is released under other conditions. We conclude that decadal scale changes of the freshwater content in the North Atlantic, particularly those in the deep water formation sites like the Labrador Sea, are originating in the Arctic Ocean.

  1. Measuring the Galactic Distribution of Transiting Planets with WFIRST

    CERN Document Server

    Montet, Benjamin T; Penny, Matthew T

    2016-01-01

    The WFIRST microlensing mission will measure precise light curves and relative parallaxes for millions of stars, giving it the potential to characterize short-period transiting planets all along the line of sight and into the galactic bulge. These light curves will enable the detection of more than 100,000 transiting planets whose host stars have measured distances. Although most of these planets cannot be followed up, several thousand hot Jupiters can be confirmed directly by detection of their secondary eclipses in the WFIRST data. Additionally, some systems of small planets may be confirmed by detecting transit timing variations over the duration of the WFIRST microlensing survey. Finally, many more planets may be validated by ruling out potential false positives. The combination of WFIRST transits and microlensing will provide a complete picture of planetary system architectures, from the very shortest periods to unbound planets, as a function of galactocentric distance.

  2. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions measured with a Time Projection Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinrath, Verena [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-28

    The subject is presented in a series of slides with the following organization: Introduction (What is anisotropy? Relevance (Theory and ratio cross section), Previous measurements); Experiment (Particle tracking in the fissionTPC, Neutron time of flight, Data analysis & uncertainty calculation, Preliminary result for 235U); and Future Work (Refine 235U result, Process 239Pu data).

  3. The development of MOPED - a mobile tool for performance measurement and evaluation during distributed team training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, A.M.F.; Berlo, M.P.W. van; Hoekstra, W.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed team training, often in joint settings, is becoming more and more important in military training today. Performance measurement and feedback are crucial for effective team training. To support observers during distributed team training the Mobile tool for Performance measurement and Eval

  4. Measurements of non-linear noise re-distribution in an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Tromborg, Bjarne; Mørk, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of the noise statistics after a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) demonstrate non-linear noise re-distribution with a strong power and bandwidth dependence.......Measurements of the noise statistics after a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) demonstrate non-linear noise re-distribution with a strong power and bandwidth dependence....

  5. In situ potential distribution measurement in an all-vanadium flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinghua; Turhan, Ahmet; Zawodzinski, Thomas A; Mench, Matthew M

    2013-07-18

    An experimental method for measurement of local redox potential within multilayer electrodes was developed and applied to all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). Through-plane measurement at the positive side reveals several important phenomena including potential distribution, concentration distribution of active species and the predominant reaction location within the porous carbon electrodes. PMID:23736771

  6. In situ potential distribution measurement in an all-vanadium flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinghua; Turhan, Ahmet; Zawodzinski, Thomas A; Mench, Matthew M

    2013-07-18

    An experimental method for measurement of local redox potential within multilayer electrodes was developed and applied to all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). Through-plane measurement at the positive side reveals several important phenomena including potential distribution, concentration distribution of active species and the predominant reaction location within the porous carbon electrodes.

  7. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    OpenAIRE

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma def...

  8. Two-Dimensional Automatic Measurement for Nozzle Flow Distribution Using Improved Ultrasonic Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Changyuan Zhai; Chunjiang Zhao; Xiu Wang; Ning Wang; Wei Zou; Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Spray deposition and distribution are affected by many factors, one of which is nozzle flow distribution. A two-dimensional automatic measurement system, which consisted of a conveying unit, a system control unit, an ultrasonic sensor, and a deposition collecting dish, was designed and developed. The system could precisely move an ultrasonic sensor above a pesticide deposition collecting dish to measure the nozzle flow distribution. A sensor sleeve with a PVC tube was designed for the ultras...

  9. Trust Measurements Yeld Distributed Decision Support in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Dias Canedo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the creation of a trust model to ensure the reliable files exchange between the users of a private cloud. To validate the proposed model, a simulation environment with the tool CloudSim was used. Its use to run the simulations of the adopted scenarios allowed us to calculate the nodes (virtual machines trust table and select those considered more reliable; identify that the metrics adopted by us directly influenced the measurement of trust in a node and verify that the trust model proposed effectively allows the selection of the most suitable machine to perform the exchange of files.

  10. HERMES measurements of the strange parton distribution and strange quark helicity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchenko, Polina [PNPI, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The helicity density of the strange quark sea in the proton has been extracted from measurements of polarized semi-inclusive production of charged kaons in deep inelastic scattering of positrons from a polarized deuteron target. The isoscalar nature of the deuteron target (assuming isospin symmetry) and lack of isospin for strange quarks allows the deuteron target to be used independently without relying on fragmentation models or other experimental data. In the region of measurement of x>0.02 the helicity density is zero within experimental error and the measured first moment of the density is 0.006+/-0.029(stat)+/-0.007(sys)/. The first moment of the axial charge in the measured region is substantially less than that inferred from hyperon semi-leptonc decays.

  11. Multiplexed low coherence interferometry instrument for measuring microbicide gel thickness distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Tyler K; Robles, Francisco E; Wax, Adam

    2009-04-01

    We present a Fourier-domain, multiplexed low coherence interferometry (LCI) instrument designed for application to intravaginal measurement of microbicidal gel distribution. Microbicide gels are topical products developed to combat sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, by acting as delivery vehicles for active drugs and barrier layers to vaginal tissue. Measuring microbicide gel vaginal distribution is key to understanding the gel's biological effectiveness. This study presents a new LCI system for measuring gel distribution that uses six multiplexed channels to achieve broad area scanning without the need for a mechanical scanner. The presented results characterize the performance of the Fourier-domain multiplexed LCI system in measuring gel thickness distribution. The system demonstrates good optical signal-to-noise ratio, steady performance across all channels, negligible cross talk, and accurate measurement with micrometer scale resolution. The potential impact of using a multiplexed LCI system for in vivo measurements is also discussed. PMID:19340102

  12. Direct Measurement of Kirkwood-Rihaczek distribution for spatial properties of coherent light beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bollen, Viktor; Lee, Kim Fook

    2009-01-01

    We present direct measurement of Kirkwood-Rihaczek (KR) distribution for spatial properties of coherent light beam in terms of position and momentum (angle) coordinates. We employ a two-local oscillator (LO) balanced heterodyne detection (BHD) to simultaneously extract distribution of transverse position and momentum of a light beam. The two-LO BHD could measure KR distribution for any complex wave field (including quantum mechanical wave function) without applying tomography methods (inverse Radon transformation). Transformation of KR distribution to Wigner, Glauber Sudarshan P- and Husimi or Q- distributions in spatial coordinates are illustrated through experimental data. The direct measurement of KR distribution could provide local information of wave field, which is suitable for studying particle properties of a quantum system. While Wigner function is suitable for studying wave properties such as interference, and hence provides nonlocal information of the wave field. The method developed here can be us...

  13. 1990年代以来日本大都市圈的结构变化%Changes in Spatial Structure of Japanese Metropolitan Areas Since 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    日野正辉; 刘云刚

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present a general view of changes in spatial structures of Japanese metropolitan areas after the 1990s based on previous studies. Discontinuation of suburban expansion and recovery of inner area population have been observed in the Tokyo metropolitan area since the 1990s. Both the collapse of land myth and the continuous decrease in land price during the 1990s were pointed out as major factors directly contributing to these phenomena. The land myth which kept the land value increasing had induced vigorous investments in land since the post-war rapid economic growth period. This movement had been busted in the collapse of bubble economy of the late 1980s. As a result, the amount of land supplies in the inner part of Japanese metropolitan areas became increased, and the construction of affordable condominiums became active significantly. On the other hand, the trend of low birthrate weakened the inner-to-suburb residential migration in metropolitan areas according to life cycle. Increasing number of aged residents prefer condominiums in the inner areas to detached houses in suburbs because of convenience in living without depending on automobiles. In fact, there were many senior citizens who migrated from suburbs to inner areas. On the contrary, the residential areas without adjacency to the convenient public transportation system in outer suburbs tend to become less popular among all generation, thus the population in such areas began to decrease. Furthermore, the similar phenomena are also seen in provincial metropolitan areas. Population in such areas is predicted to decrease in the near future. Therefore, some of major provincial cities have already proposed "compact city planning" policies to regulate new suburban development and improve public transportation systems by providing both train and bus services in the inner areas.%基于既有研究综述了1990年代以来日本大都市圈的发展动态.1990年代初期,东京都市圈郊区

  14. Direct measurements of nitric oxide height distribution in the middle atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The [NO] distribution over the entire range of middle atmosphere altitudes (∼20-100 km) has been obtained in only one experiment involving measurement of solar radiation absorption in the infrared range; the measurements were performed aboard the orbital station Spacelab-1. This study presents results of the first direct rock measurements of the height distribution of nitric oxide in the range ∼30-90 km, performed by an RFI photoionization sensor

  15. Measurement of distributed strain due to laying and recovery of submarine optical fiber cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, T; Horiguchi, T; Yoshizawa, N; Tada, H; Tateda, M

    1991-01-20

    Strain distribution due to cable laying and recovery is measured, using Brillouin optical fiber time domain analysis in a 3.7-km long submarine optical fiber cable. We believe this is the first time that the residual strain distribution in the recovered submarine cable has been measured. The residual strains measured in some cable sections due to the cable laying and recovery are found to be as small as 0.02 and 0.04%, respectively. PMID:20581987

  16. EGR distribution and fluctuation probe based on CO2 measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, II, James E.; Partridge, Jr., William P.; Yoo, Ji Hyung

    2015-06-30

    A diagnostic system having a laser, an EGR probe, a detector and a processor. The laser may be a swept-.lamda. laser having a sweep range including a significant CO.sub.2 feature and substantially zero absorption regions. The sweep range may extend from about 2.708 .mu.m to about 2.7085 .mu.m. The processor may determine CO.sub.2 concentration as a function of the detector output signal. The processor may normalize the output signal as a function of the zero absorption regions. The system may include a plurality of EGR probes receiving light from a single laser. The system may include a separate detector for each probe. Alternatively, the system may combine the light returning from the different probes into a composite beam that is measured by a single detector. A unique modulation characteristic may be introduced into each light beam before combination so that the processor can discriminate between them in the composite beam.

  17. Tevatron in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in 1978, Fermilab set out a goal of building a superconducting accelerator (Energy Saver) which would raise the proton energy to close to 1000 GeV for operation in two modes. Tevatron I would provide proton-antiproton collisions at a total CM energy of near 2.0 TeV to study the particle mass domain beyond 100 GeV. Tevatron II would provide extensive facilities for the programmatic study of Standard Model physics in an upgraded fixed-target program. There was of course the realization that with the right mixture of precision and imagination, the collider could add significantly to Standard Model physics (e.g. W and Z physics, W, Z pairs, B-physics) and that the fixed-target program could explore beyond the Standard Model (e.g., rare K-decays, CP violation). In 1988, we are engaged in setting out the future program of the Laboratory based upon the success of the Energy Saver, TeV I and TeV II construction programs. This future program assures the operation of the TEVATRON facility for physics is the overriding priority between now and perhaps 1993 and it also assumes that the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) will be funded for construction in 1990 and will begin producing physics by 1999. A brief history of upgrades is presented in section XI

  18. Measuring inequalities in the distribution of health workers: the case of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munga Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall human resource shortages and the distributional inequalities in the health workforce in many developing countries are well acknowledged. However, little has been done to measure the degree of inequality systematically. Moreover, few attempts have been made to analyse the implications of using alternative measures of health care needs in the measurement of health workforce distributional inequalities. Most studies have implicitly relied on population levels as the only criterion for measuring health care needs. This paper attempts to achieve two objectives. First, it describes and measures health worker distributional inequalities in Tanzania on a per capita basis; second, it suggests and applies additional health care needs indicators in the measurement of distributional inequalities. Methods We plotted Lorenz and concentration curves to illustrate graphically the distribution of the total health workforce and the cadre-specific (skill mix distributions. Alternative indicators of health care needs were illustrated by concentration curves. Inequalities were measured by calculating Gini and concentration indices. Results There are significant inequalities in the distribution of health workers per capita. Overall, the population quintile with the fewest health workers per capita accounts for only 8% of all health workers, while the quintile with the most health workers accounts for 46%. Inequality is perceptible across both urban and rural districts. Skill mix inequalities are also large. Districts with a small share of the health workforce (relative to their population levels have an even smaller share of highly trained medical personnel. A small share of highly trained personnel is compensated by a larger share of clinical officers (a middle-level cadre but not by a larger share of untrained health workers. Clinical officers are relatively equally distributed. Distributional inequalities tend to be more pronounced

  19. Vertical profile and aerosol size distribution measurements in Iceland (LOAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Vignelles, Damien; Verdier, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Cold climate and high latitudes regions contain important dust sources where dust is frequently emitted, foremost from glacially-derived sediments of riverbeds or ice-proximal areas (Arnalds, 2010; Bullard, 2013). Iceland is probably the most active dust source in the arctic/sub-arctic region (Dagsson-Waldhauserova, 2013). The frequency of days with suspended dust exceeds 34 dust days annually. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin; it is very dark in colour and contains sharp-tipped shards with bubbles. Such properties allow even large particles to be easily transported long distances. Thus, there is a need to better understand the spatial and temporal variability of these dusts. Two launch campaigns of the Light Optical Aerosols Counter (LOAC) were conducted in Iceland with meteorological balloons. LOAC use a new optical design that allows to retrieve the size concentrations in 19 size classes between 0.2 and 100 microm, and to provide an estimate of the main nature of aerosols. Vertical stratification and aerosol composition of the subarctic atmosphere was studied in detail. The July 2011 launch represented clean non-dusty season with low winds while the November 2013 launch was conducted during the high winds after dusty period. For the winter flight (performed from Reykjavik), the nature of aerosols strongly changed with altitude. In particular, a thin layer of volcanic dust was observed at an altitude of 1 km. Further LOAC measurements are needed to understand the implication of Icelandic dust to the Arctic warming and climate change. A new campaign of LAOC launches is planned for May 2014. Reference: Arnalds, O., 2010. Dust sources and deposition of aeolian materials in Iceland. Icelandic Agricultural Sciences 23, 3-21. Bullard, J.E., 2013. Contemporary glacigenic inputs to the dust cycle. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38, 71-89. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P., Arnalds O., Olafsson H. 2013. Long-term frequency and characteristics of dust storm events in

  20. Fission prompt gamma-ray multiplicity distribution measurements and simulations at DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Ullmann, J; Jandel, M; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Norman, E

    2010-08-24

    The nearly energy independence of the DANCE efficiency and multiplicity response to {gamma} rays makes it possible to measure the prompt {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution in fission. We demonstrate this unique capability of DANCE through the comparison of {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution between the measurement and numerical simulation for three radioactive sources {sup 22}Na, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 88}Y. The prospect for measuring the {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution for both spontaneous and neutron-induced fission is discussed.

  1. Measuring-basis-encrypted six-state quantum key distribution scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Pan; DENG Fuguo; WANG Pingxiao; LONG Guilu

    2006-01-01

    A six-state quantum key distribution scheme with measuring-basis encryption technique, which is based on the six-state protocol and the MBE protocol, is proposed. In this modified six-state quantum key distribution protocol, Alice and Bob use a control key to synchronize the use of their measuring-basis so that they always use the same measuring-basis. This modified six-state quantum key distribution protocol retains the advantage of higher security and at the same time has a higher efficiency.

  2. The co-production of a "relevant" expertise – administrative and scientific cooperation in the French water policies elaboration and implementation since the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Deroubaix

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at understanding the social and political uses of the principle of integrated management and its possible impacts on the elaboration and implementation processes of public policies in the French water management sector. The academic and political innovations developed by scientists and agents of the administration these last 25 years are analysed, using some of the theoretical tools developed by the science studies and public policy analysis. We first focus on the construction of intellectual public policy communities such as the GIP Hydro systems, at the origin of large interdisciplinary research programs in the 1990s. A common cognitive framework is clearly built during this period on the good governance of the aquatic ecosystems and on the corresponding needs and practices of research. The second part of the paper focuses on the possibilities to build political communities and more or less integrated expertises in the decision making processes concerning various issues related to water management. Eutrophication and its inscription on the French political agenda is a very significant case for analysing the difficulty to build such a political community. On the contrary, when there is an opportunity for policy evaluation, which was the case concerning the management of wetlands in France or the implementation of compulsory flows on the French rivers, these communities can emerge. However, the type of integrated expertise and management proposed in these cases of policy evaluations much depends on their methodological choices.

  3. HOW TO ATTAIN THE GOLDEN AGE – THE ROLE OF THE BALCEROWICZ PLAN IN THE SUCCESSFUL TRANSFORMATION OF POLAND IN THE 1990S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Fąfara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s Poland went through a major political transformation that completely reshaped the country. One of the key pillars of these changes was the so-called ‘Balcerowicz Plan’ - an ambitious process that enabled a significant shift in the economic and social landscape through the introduction of fundamental changes in the Polish legal system. The thesis advanced in this paper is that the successful transformation of the state’s system of government in post-Soviet countries depended not only on democratization and political changes but also required an effective program of economic reforms. This will be demonstrated by reference to the ‘Balcerowicz Plan.’ The first part discusses the transition from the former economic order in Poland to the free market order by means of the new legal norms, describing briefly the eleven legislative acts which brought wide-ranging and fundamental changes to the Polish legal system. The second part explains the impact that these reforms had on Polish society both in the short and long-term. Despite the initial problems associated with the change of the economic system, they eventually brought significant improvements to the quality of individuals’ lives. The conclusion reiterates the thesis that the successful transformation of the state’s regime in post-Soviet countries depended not only on political changes, but also on effective economic reforms.

  4. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of photon energy distributions in MAYAK PA workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanin, M; Vasilenko, E; Semenov, M; Xanthos, S; Takoudis, G; Clouvas, A; Silva, J; Potiriadis, C

    2008-01-01

    Photon energy distributions were measured in different workplaces of the Mayak Production Association (MPA), which was the first plutonium production plant in the former Soviet Union. In situ gamma spectrometry measurements were performed with a portable germanium detector. The spectral stripping method is used for the conversion of the in situ gamma-ray spectra to photon fluence rate energy distribution. This method requires the simulation of the portable germanium detector, which has been performed based on the MCNP code of Los Alamos. Measured photon fluence rate energy distributions were compared with calculated photon energy distributions (with the MCNP code) in two different workplaces: in the first workplace the geometry exposure was known. On the contrary, in the second workplace, as in most workplaces of MPA, the exposure geometry was unknown. The results obtained from the comparison between the experimental and calculated photon fluence rate energy distributions are presented and discussed. PMID:18682405

  5. Complete velocity distribution in river cross-sections measured by acoustic instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    To fully understand the hydraulic properties of natural rivers, velocity distribution in the river cross-section should be studied in detail. The measurement task is not straightforward because there is not an instrument that can measure the velocity distribution covering the entire cross-section. Particularly, the velocities in regions near the free surface and in the bottom boundary layer are difficult to measure, and yet the velocity properties in these regions play the most significant role in characterizing the hydraulic properties. To further characterize river hydraulics, two acoustic instruments, namely, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and a "BoogieDopp" (BD) were used on fixed platforms to measure the detailed velocity profiles across the river. Typically, 20 to 25 stations were used to represent a river cross-section. At each station, water velocity profiles were measured independently and/or concurrently by an ADCP and a BD. The measured velocity properties were compared and used in computation of river discharge. In a tow-tank evaluation of a BD, it has been confirmed that BD is capable of measuring water velocity at about 11 cm below the free-surface. Therefore, the surface velocity distribution across the river was extracted from the BD velocity measurements and used to compute the river discharge. These detailed velocity profiles and the composite velocity distribution were used to assess the validity of the classic theories of velocity distributions, conventional river discharge measurement methods, and for estimates of channel bottom roughness.

  6. The Turbulent Warm Ionized Medium: Emission Measure Distribution and MHD Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Alex S.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Kowal, Grzegorz; Reynolds, Ronald J.; Haffner, L. Matthew; Lazarian, Alex

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of the distribution of H-alpha emission measures for the warm ionized medium (WIM) of the Galaxy using data from the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) Northern Sky Survey. Our sample is restricted to Galactic latitudes |b| > 10. We removed sightlines intersecting nineteen high-latititude classical H II regions, leaving only sightlines that sample the diffuse WIM. The distribution of EM sin |b| for the full sample is poorly characterized by a single normal distribution, bu...

  7. Importance measures for imprecise probability distributions and their sparse grid solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Pan; LU; ZhenZhou; CHENG; Lei

    2013-01-01

    For the imprecise probability distribution of structural system, the variance based importance measures (IMs) of the inputs are investigated, and three IMs are defined on the conditions of random distribution parameters, interval distribution parameters and the mixture of those two types of distribution parameters. The defined IMs can reflect the influence of the inputs on the output of the structural system with imprecise distribution parameters, respectively. Due to the large computational cost of the variance based IMs, sparse grid method is employed in this work to compute the variance based IMs at each reference point of distribution parameters. For the three imprecise distribution parameter cases, the sparse grid method and the combination of sparse grid method with genetic algorithm are used to compute the defined IMs. Numerical and engineering examples are em-ployed to demonstrate the rationality of the defined IMs and the efficiency of the applied methods.

  8. Measurements and simulations of non-linear noise re-distribution in an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Tromborg, Bjarne; Mørk, Jesper;

    2005-01-01

    Measurements and numerical simulations of the noise statistics after a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) demonstrate non-linear noise re-distribution. The re-distribution, which depends on self-modulation due to gain saturation and carrier dynamics, show a strong power and bandwidth dependence...... and can be important for SOA based regenerators....

  9. Average incore axial power distribution measurement by a multi excore detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French 1300 MWe reactors Protection System against DNB and excessive linear power is based on the average incore axial power distribution continuous measurement by multi-excore detectors. This paper describes the main results obtained during the first power escalation of PALUEL Unit 1 and 2, first units of 1300 MWe reactors and shows some INCORE/EXCORE power distribution comparisons. (author)

  10. A simple method for measuring the spatial distribution of soil hydraulic properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lascano, R.J.; Stroosnijder, L.

    1993-01-01

    A method to calculate the statistical distribution of a scaling factor from soil-water retention curves consists of measuring the particle-size distribution by laser scattering, computing soil water retention curves using the Arya and Paris model, and calculating a scale factor for each function. Th

  11. Radiochemical measurement of mass distribution in 16O+238U reaction at sub-barrier energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present, radiochemical study of the mass distribution in 16O+238U has been carried out at sub-barrier energy to investigate the nature of mass distribution in CFF and TF channels. In addition, cross sections of evaporation residues formed in one nucleon transfer/pick-up reactions have also been measured

  12. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V D [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  13. Velocity distribution measurements in atomic beams generated using laser induced back-ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Denning, A; Lee, S; Ammonson, M; Bergeson, S D

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of the velocity distribution of calcium atoms in an atomic beam generated using a dual-stage laser back-ablation apparatus. Distributions are measured using a velocity selective Doppler time-of-flight technique. They are Boltzmann-like with rms velocities corresponding to temperatures above the melting point for calcium. Contrary to a recent report in the literature, this method does not generate a sub-thermal atomic beam.

  14. Measurements and simulations of non-linear noise re-distribution in an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Tromborg, Bjarne; Mørk, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    Measurements and statistical simulations demonstrate that a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) induces non-linear noise re-distribution with a strong power and bandwidth dependence. © 2004 Optical Society of America......Measurements and statistical simulations demonstrate that a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) induces non-linear noise re-distribution with a strong power and bandwidth dependence. © 2004 Optical Society of America...

  15. Optimization of Equipment for Tomographic Measurements of Void Distributions using Fast Neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This licentiate thesis describes a novel nondestructive measuring technique for determiningspatial distributions of two-phase water flows. In Boiling Water Reactors, which compose themajority of the world's commercial nuclear reactors, this so called void distribution is of importance for safe operation. The presented measurement technique relies on fast neutron transmission tomography using portable neutron generators. Varying hardware options for such an instrument based on this technique a...

  16. Radon distribution measurement of Lugo Coal Mine by CSR track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss relationship between the Alpha radioactivity derived from Uranium and Thorium natural radioactive systems, especially from Radon and the safe production in coalmine region. The Alpha radioactive distributions of different sites were detected and measured by using CSR technique in Lugo Coalmine. Measurement shows that the radon density distributions under the ground is less than that on the ground under today's productive condition in a large area in Henan Lugo coalmine. (author)

  17. Temperature Grid Sensor for the Measurement of Spatial Temperature Distributions at Object Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Hampel; Thomas Schäfer; Markus Schubert

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of the development and application of a new temperature grid sensor based on the wire-mesh sensor principle. The grid sensor consists of a matrix of 256 Pt1000 platinum chip resistors and an associated electronics that measures the grid resistances with a multiplexing scheme at high speed. The individual sensor elements can be spatially distributed on an object surface and measure transient temperature distributions in real time. The advantage compared with other t...

  18. Doing language: Narratives from an activist world in the Austrian art-world of the 1990s: the Art Activism of WochenKlausur, Martin Krenn, Oliver Ressler and maiz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Fotiadi

    2012-01-01

    The article refers to the political art scene in Austria during the 1990s and early 2000s. Participatory art-activism projects by the group WochenKlausur and by Martin Krenn and Oliver Ressler are juxtaposed to artistic work used for political activism by the women migrants' organization maiz. All c

  19. Summary of significant results from studies of triazine herbicides and their degradation products in surface water, ground water, and precipitation in the midwestern United States during the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Thurman, E.M.; Goolsby, Donald A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Battaglin, William A.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2005-01-01

    Nonpoint-source contamination of water resources from triazine herbicides has been a major water-quality issue during the 1990s in the United States. To address this issue, studies of surface water, ground water, and precipitation have been carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Midwestern United States.

  20. Investigation of the limits of a fibre optic sensor system for measurement of temperature distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Johnson, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop an innovative temperature sensor system which is able to measure the temperature distribution along a fibre optical cable. This technique for temperature measurement is based on Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR). ©2006 IEEE.......The aim of this project is to develop an innovative temperature sensor system which is able to measure the temperature distribution along a fibre optical cable. This technique for temperature measurement is based on Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR). ©2006 IEEE....

  1. Two-Dimensional Automatic Measurement for Nozzle Flow Distribution Using Improved Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyuan Zhai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Spray deposition and distribution are affected by many factors, one of which is nozzle flow distribution. A two-dimensional automatic measurement system, which consisted of a conveying unit, a system control unit, an ultrasonic sensor, and a deposition collecting dish, was designed and developed. The system could precisely move an ultrasonic sensor above a pesticide deposition collecting dish to measure the nozzle flow distribution. A sensor sleeve with a PVC tube was designed for the ultrasonic sensor to limit its beam angle in order to measure the liquid level in the small troughs. System performance tests were conducted to verify the designed functions and measurement accuracy. A commercial spray nozzle was also used to measure its flow distribution. The test results showed that the relative error on volume measurement was less than 7.27% when the liquid volume was 2 mL in trough, while the error was less than 4.52% when the liquid volume was 4 mL or more. The developed system was also used to evaluate the flow distribution of a commercial nozzle. It was able to provide the shape and the spraying width of the flow distribution accurately.

  2. The Dirichlet distribution with respect to the Aitchison measure on the simplex - a first approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mateu i Figueras, Glòria; Pawlowsky-Glahn, Vera

    2005-01-01

    The algebraic-geometric structure of the simplex, known as Aitchison geometry, is used to look at the Dirichlet family of distributions from a new perspective. A classical Dirichlet density function is expressed with respect to the Lebesgue measure on real space. We propose here to change this measure by the Aitchison measure on the simplex, and study some properties and characteristic measures of the resulting density Geologische Vereinigung; Institut d’Estadística de Cataluny...

  3. The Distributional Impact of the Norwegian Tax Reform Measured by Disproportionality

    OpenAIRE

    Thor Olav Thoresen

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the measurement of progressivity and the distributional effect of the Norwegian tax reform of 1992. Progressivity is measured by the degree of disproportionality, which implies that the burden of taxes is estimated when income units are ranked according to pre-tax incomes. The measure of disproportionality is decomposed to estimate the influence from different parts of the tax system on total disproportionality. For instance, the measure of the contribution from net taxe...

  4. Spin distribution measurement for 64Ni + 100Mo at near and above barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Varinderjit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin distribution measurements were performed for the reaction 64Ni + 100Mo at three beam energies ranging from 230 to 260 MeV. Compound nucleus (CN spin distributions were obtained channel selective for each evaporation residue populated by the de-excitation cascade. A comparison of the spin distribution at different beam energies indicates that its slope becomes steeper and steeper with increasing beam energy. This change in slope of the spin distribution is mainly due to the onset of fission competition with particle evaporation at higher beam energies.

  5. Measurements of the charged particle multiplicity distribution in restricted rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Meinhard, H; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stierlin, U; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Duarte, H; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Si Mohand, D; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1995-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicity distributions have been measured with the ALEPH detector in restricted rapidity intervals |Y| \\leq 0.5,1.0, 1.5,2.0\\/ along the thrust axis and also without restriction on rapidity. The distribution for the full range can be parametrized by a log-normal distribution. For smaller windows one finds a more complicated structure, which is understood to arise from perturbative effects. The negative-binomial distribution fails to describe the data both with and without the restriction on rapidity. The JETSET model is found to describe all aspects of the data while the width predicted by HERWIG is in significant disagreement.

  6. Non-destructive in situ measurement of radiological distributions in Hanford Site waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of radiological materials in defense nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site is being used to indicate material distributions. Both safety assessment and future processing challenges are dependent on knowledge of the distribution kinds, and quantities of various key components. Data from CdTe and neutron detector measurements are shown and correlated with physical sampling and laboratory results. The multiple assay approach is shown to increase the confidence about the material distributions. As a result, costs of physical sampling and destructive analyses can be controlled while not severely limiting the uncertainty of results

  7. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  8. A comparison of magnetic resonance methods for spatially resolved T2 distribution measurements in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring porous media are usually characterized by a distribution of pore sizes. If the material is fluid saturated, the 1H magnetic resonance (MR) signal depends on the pore size, the surface relaxivity and the fluid itself. Measurement of the transverse relaxation time T2 is a well-established technique to characterize material samples by means of MR. T2 distribution measurements, including T2 distribution mapping, are widely employed in clinical applications and in petroleum engineering. T2 distribution measurements are the most basic measurement employed to determine the fluid-matrix properties in MR core analysis. Three methods for T2 distribution mapping, namely spin-echo single point imaging (SE-SPI), DANTE-Z Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) and adiabatic inversion CPMG are compared in terms of spatial resolution, minimum observable T2 and sensitivity. Bulk CPMG measurement is considered to be the gold standard for T2 determination. Bulk measurement of uniform samples is compared to the three spatially resolved measurements. SE-SPI is an imaging method, which measures spatially resolved T2s in samples of interest. A variant is introduced in this work that employs pre-equalized magnetic field gradient waveforms and is therefore able to measure shorter T2s than previously reported. DANTE-Z CPMG and adiabatic inversion CPMG are faster, non-imaging, local T2 distribution measurements. The DANTE-Z pulse train and adiabatic inversion pulse are compared in terms of T1 or T2 relaxation time effects during the RF pulse application, minimum pulse duration, requisite RF pulse power, and inversion profile quality. In addition to experimental comparisons, simulation results are presented. (paper)

  9. Distributed tracking for networked Euler-Lagrange systems without velocity measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingkai Yang; Hao Fang; Yutian Mao; Jie Huang

    2014-01-01

    The problem of distributed coordinated tracking control for networked Euler-Lagrange systems without velocity measure-ments is investigated. Under the condition that only a portion of the fol owers have access to the leader, sliding mode estimators are developed to estimate the states of the dynamic leader in fi-nite time. To cope with the absence of velocity measurements, the distributed observers which only use position information are designed. Based on the outputs of the estimators and observers, distributed tracking control laws are proposed such that al the fol-lowers with parameter uncertainties can track the dynamic leader under a directed graph containing a spanning tree. It is shown that the distributed observer-control er guarantees asymptotical stabil-ity of the closed-loop system. Numerical simulations are worked out to il ustrate the effectiveness of the control laws.

  10. Research on measurement method of 220Rn progeny aerosol size distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for measuring 220Rn progeny aerosol activity particle size distributions was introduced through ELPI system, α spectroscopy and the energy discrimination method. The different particle sizes of the 220Rn progeny aerosols were collected and the activity size distributions in the 220Rn laboratory of the University of South China were measured by this method. The experiment results show that the activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of ThB aerosol is 237 nm, and that of ThC is 245 nm. The simple and quick method can be used to monitor the particle size distributions of 220Rn progeny aerosol in real time, the aerosol activity size distributions of ThB and ThC can be obtained by this method at the same time, and the measurement accuracy of the energy spectrum is higher than that of custom method. (authors)

  11. Digital particle image velocimetry measurements of the downwash distribution of a desert locust Schistocerca gregaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Taylor, Graham K; Lawson, Nicholas J; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2006-04-22

    Actuator disc models of insect flight are concerned solely with the rate of momentum transfer to the air that passes through the disc. These simple models assume that an even pressure is applied across the disc, resulting in a uniform downwash distribution. However, a correction factor, k, is often included to correct for the difference in efficiency between the assumed even downwash distribution, and the real downwash distribution. In the absence of any empirical measurements of the downwash distribution behind a real insect, the values of k used in the literature have been necessarily speculative. Direct measurement of this efficiency factor is now possible, and could be used to compare the relative efficiencies of insect flight across the Class. Here, we use Digital Particle Image Velocimetry to measure the instantaneous downwash distribution, mid-downstroke, of a tethered desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria). By integrating the downwash distribution, we are thereby able to provide the first direct empirical measurement of k for an insect. The measured value of k = 1.12 corresponds reasonably well with that predicted by previous theoretical studies.

  12. Stability Analysis of Distributed Parameter Systems on Temperature Measurement of Large-scale Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenliang DING; Li ZHONG; Feng YUAN

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanical construction, thermal regulator design and temperature measurement system of a local area were set up for large-scale linear measurement. Numerical analysis based on temperature correlated characteristic is discussed to obtain optimal observation points for the measurements. The horizontal temperature distribution of the measured area is compared with the measurement of the variation of temperature at 15℃ and 20℃ over time, and characteristic of dynamic response is also discussed. In addition, the long-time stability of measured temperature is analyzed by means of using the standard deviation. It characterizes the temperature distribution performance of a large area and how it may impact the measurement of a large-scale object.

  13. Quantitative Impacts of Climate Change and Human Activities on Water-Surface Area Variations from the 1990s to 2013 in Honghu Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianrong Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The water-surface areas of the lakes in the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, have undergone significant changes under the combined impacts of global climate change and local anthropogenic stress. As a typical lake in this region, the Honghu Lake features water-surface area variations that are documented in this study based on high–resolution remote sensing images from the 1990s to 2013. The impact of human activities is analyzed by a novel method based on land use data. The relative impacts of each driving force are further distinguished by the statistical analysis method. Results show that the water-surface area has significant inter-annual and seasonal variabilities, and the minimum of which generally occurs in spring. The degree to which climate factors and land use structure affect the water-surface area varies between different stages. In the April-May period, the sum of the water demands of paddies and aquaculture has a negative effect that is greater than the positive effect of the difference between the monthly precipitation and monthly evaporation. In the June–October period, the precipitation features a positive impact that is greater than the negative effect of the water demand of agriculture. Meanwhile, climate factors and human activities have no influence on the lake area in the November–March period. With the land use being altered when annual precipitations are close in value, paddy field areas decrease, ponds areas increase, and the water demand of agriculture rises in both flood and drought years. These findings provide scientific foundation for understanding the causes of water-surface area variations and for effectively maintaining the stability of the Honghu Lake area through adjustments in land use structure.

  14. The distributing law on product measuring dimension and its application in reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As some measuring errors exist generally, there are mis-acceptance and mis-rejection that come from random measuring error. A new method which lowers mis-acceptance rate and mis-rejection rate of products is presented in this paper. By analyzing the relationship between measuring error and measuring value, the distributing law on measuring value of over-tolerance and in-tolerance products is obtained under the condition of steady process and measurement. The calculating formulae and the data table of mis-acceptance rate and mis-rejection rate are given also. Finally, the reliability of manufacture products is analyzed based on the data table for actual application

  15. Measuring the Length Distribution of a Fibril System: a Flow Birefringence Technique applied to Amyloid Fibrils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, S.S.; Venema, P.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.; Donald, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Relaxation of flow birefringence can give a direct measure of the rotational diffusion of rodlike objects in solution. With a suitable model of the rotational diffusivity, a length distribution can be sought by fitting the decay curve. We have measured the flow birefringence decay from solutions of

  16. Measuring-Basis Encrypted Quantum Key Distribution with Four-State Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Pan; LI Yan-Song; DENG Fu-Guo; LONG Gui-Lu

    2007-01-01

    A measuring-basis encrypted quantum key distribution scheme is proposed by using twelve nonorthogonal states in a four-state system and the measuring-basis encryption technique. In this scheme, two bits of classical information can be encoded on one four-state particle and the transmitted particles can be fully used.

  17. Residence Time Distribution Measurement and Analysis of Pilot-Scale Pretreatment Reactors for Biofuels Production: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, D.; Kuhn, E.; Tucker, M.; Stickel, J.; Wolfrum, E.

    2013-06-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data is the focus of this study where data collection methods were developed specifically for the pretreatment reactor environment. Augmented physical sampling and automated online detection methods were developed and applied. Both the measurement techniques themselves and the produced RTD data are presented and discussed.

  18. A practical divergence measure for survival distributions that can be estimated from Kaplan-Meier curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Trevor F; Czanner, Gabriela

    2016-06-30

    This paper introduces a new simple divergence measure between two survival distributions. For two groups of patients, the divergence measure between their associated survival distributions is based on the integral of the absolute difference in probabilities that a patient from one group dies at time t and a patient from the other group survives beyond time t and vice versa. In the case of non-crossing hazard functions, the divergence measure is closely linked to the Harrell concordance index, C, the Mann-Whitney test statistic and the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve. The measure can be used in a dynamic way where the divergence between two survival distributions from time zero up to time t is calculated enabling real-time monitoring of treatment differences. The divergence can be found for theoretical survival distributions or can be estimated non-parametrically from survival data using Kaplan-Meier estimates of the survivor functions. The estimator of the divergence is shown to be generally unbiased and approximately normally distributed. For the case of proportional hazards, the constituent parts of the divergence measure can be used to assess the proportional hazards assumption. The use of the divergence measure is illustrated on the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26842429

  19. A practical divergence measure for survival distributions that can be estimated from Kaplan-Meier curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Trevor F; Czanner, Gabriela

    2016-06-30

    This paper introduces a new simple divergence measure between two survival distributions. For two groups of patients, the divergence measure between their associated survival distributions is based on the integral of the absolute difference in probabilities that a patient from one group dies at time t and a patient from the other group survives beyond time t and vice versa. In the case of non-crossing hazard functions, the divergence measure is closely linked to the Harrell concordance index, C, the Mann-Whitney test statistic and the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve. The measure can be used in a dynamic way where the divergence between two survival distributions from time zero up to time t is calculated enabling real-time monitoring of treatment differences. The divergence can be found for theoretical survival distributions or can be estimated non-parametrically from survival data using Kaplan-Meier estimates of the survivor functions. The estimator of the divergence is shown to be generally unbiased and approximately normally distributed. For the case of proportional hazards, the constituent parts of the divergence measure can be used to assess the proportional hazards assumption. The use of the divergence measure is illustrated on the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deyang; Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-11-01

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O3+ ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  1. Normalized entropy of rank distribution: a novel measure of heterogeneity of complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jun; Tan Yue-Jin; Deng Hong-Zhong; Zhu Da-Zhi

    2007-01-01

    Many unique properties of complex networks result from heterogeneity. The measure and analysis of heterogeneity are important and desirable to the research of the properties and functions of complex networks. In this paper, the rank distribution is proposed as a new statistic feature of complex networks. Based on the rank distribution, a novel measure of the heterogeneity called a normalized entropy of rank distribution (NERD) is proposed. The NERD accords with the normal meaning of heterogeneity within the context of complex networks compared with conventional measures. The heterogeneity of scale-free networks is studied using the NERD. It is shown that scale-free networks become more heterogeneous as the scaling exponent decreases and the NERD of scale-free networks is independent of the number of vertices, which indicates that the NERD is a suitable and effective measure of heterogeneity for networks with different sizes.

  2. Measurement of the ambient organic aerosol volatility distribution: application during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment (FAME-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A variable residence time thermodenuder (TD was combined with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS to measure the volatility distribution of aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May of 2008 (FAME-2008. A new method for the quantification of the organic aerosol volatility distribution was developed combining measurements of all three instruments together with an aerosol dynamics model.

    Challenges in the interpretation of ambient thermodenuder-AMS measurements include the potential resistances to mass transfer during particle evaporation, the effects of particle size on the evaporated mass fraction, the changes in the AMS collection efficiency and particle density as the particles evaporate partially in the TD, and finally potential losses inside the TD. Our proposed measurement and data analysis method accounts for all of these problems combining the AMS and SMPS measurements.

    The AMS collection efficiency of the aerosol that passed through the TD was found to be approximately 10% lower than the collection efficiency of the aerosol that passed through the bypass. The organic aerosol measured at Finokalia is approximately 2 orders of magnitude less volatile than fresh laboratory-generated biogenic secondary organic aerosol. This low volatility is consistent with its highly oxygenated AMS mass spectrum. The results are found to be highly sensitive to the mass accommodation coefficient of the evaporating species.

  3. Techniques to Measure Solar Flux Density Distribution on Large-Scale Receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Röger, Marc; Herrmann, Patrik; Ulmer, Steffen; Ebert, Miriam; Prahl, Christoph; Göhring, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Flux density measurement applied to central receiver ystems delivers the spatial distribution of the concentrated solar radiation on the receiver aperture, measures receiver input power, and monitors and might control heliostat aimpoints. Commercial solar tower plants have much larger aperture surfaces than the receiver prototypes tested in earlier research and development (R&D) projects. Existing methods to measure the solar flux density in the receiver aperture face new challenges reg...

  4. Measurement of Velocity Distribution in Atomic Beam by Diode Laser with Narrow Line width

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jingbiao; WANG Fengzhi; YANG Donghai; WANG YiQiu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, by using the detecting laser beam interacts with the atomic beam at a sharp angle and the Doppler frequency shift effect, the velocity distribution in cesium atomic beam is measured with a diode laser of narrow linewidth of 1 MHz. The effects of the atomic natural line width and cycling transition detecting factor on the measured results have been analyzed. Finally, the measured results have been compared with the theoretical calculation.

  5. Measuring heat balance residual at lake surface using distributed temperature sensing

    OpenAIRE

    van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Rimmer, A.; Lechinsky, Y.; Wenker, K.J.R.; Nussboim, S.; Van De Giesen, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a new method to verify the measurements of surface fluxes and the heat balance at a lake surface, by means of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) measurements from 0.5 m above to 1.5 m below the surface. Using a polyvinyl chloride hyperboloid construction, a floating standalone measuring device was developed. Being an open construction, it is almost insensitive to direct radiation. With this construction, a spiral-shaped fiberoptic cable setup was created that obtaine...

  6. Real-time measurements and their effects on state estimation of distribution power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; You, Shi; Thordarson, Fannar;

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the potential value of using different real-time metering and measuring instruments applied in the low voltage distribution networks for state-estimation. An algorithm is presented to evaluate different combinations of metering data using a tailored state estimator. It...... is followed by a case study based on the proposed algorithm. A real distribution grid feeder with different types of meters installed either in the cabinets or at the customer side is selected for simulation and analysis. Standard load templates are used to initiate the state estimation. The...... deviations between the estimated values (voltage and injected power) and the measurements are applied to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated grid states. Eventually, some suggestions are provided for the distribution grid operators on placing the real-time meters in the distribution grid....

  7. Combined local current distribution measurements and high resolution neutron radiography of operating Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alexander; Wippermann, Klaus; Mergel, Juergen; Lehnert, Werner; Stolten, Detlef [Institute of Energy Research, IEF-3: Fuel Cells, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Sanders, Tilman; Baumhoefer, Thorsten; Sauer, Dirk U. [Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, Jaegerstrasse 17-19, 52066 Aachen (Germany); Manke, Ingo; Banhart, John [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Berlin Institute of Technology, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Centre Berlin (Hahn-Meitner-Institute), SF3, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, Andre; Schloesser, Jana [Helmholtz Centre Berlin (Hahn-Meitner-Institute), SF3, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Hartnig, Christoph [Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW), Helmholtzstrasse 8, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The current and fluid distribution in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) was investigated in situ by means of combined high resolution neutron radiography and locally resolved current distribution measurements. The used neutron radiography set-up allows high spatial resolutions down to 70 {mu}m at the full test cell area. A local formation of water droplets in the cathode flow field channels could be observed. Strongly inhomogeneous current distributions during cathodic flooding processes result in a performance loss of up to 30% of the initial value. Single CO{sub 2} bubbles can be observed at low current densities. The water and current distribution during bi-functional operation of a DMFC was measured for the first time. (author)

  8. A Study of Transmission Control Method for Distributed Parameters Measurement in Large Factories and Storehouses

    OpenAIRE

    Shujing Su; Min Yi; Wei Ji; Qing He; Xiufeng Xie

    2015-01-01

    For the characteristics of parameters dispersion in large factories, storehouses, and other applications, a distributed parameter measurement system is designed that is based on the ring network. The structure of the system and the circuit design of the master-slave node are described briefly. The basic protocol architecture about transmission communication is introduced, and then this paper comes up with two kinds of distributed transmission control methods. Finally, the reliability, extendi...

  9. Measuring Flux Distributions for Diffusion in the Small-Numbers Limit

    OpenAIRE

    Seitaridou, Effrosyni; Inamdar, Mandar M.; Phillips, Rob; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Dill, Ken

    2007-01-01

    For the classical diffusion of independent particles, Fick's law gives a well-known relationship between the average flux and the average concentration gradient. What has not yet been explored experimentally, however, is the dynamical distribution of diffusion rates in the limit of small particle numbers. Here, we measure the distribution of diffusional fluxes using a microfluidics device filled with a colloidal suspension of a small number of microspheres. Our experiments show that (1) the f...

  10. Implementation of Non-Intrusive Jet Exhaust Species Distribution Measurements Within a Test Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, P ; McCormick, D ; Kliment, J ; Ozanyan, K ; Tsekenis, S ; Fisher, E ; McCann, H ; Archilla, V ; González-Núñez, A ; Johnson, M ; Black, J ; Lengden, M ; Wilson, D ; Johnstone, W ; Feng, Y ; Nilsson, J

    2016-01-01

    We report on the installation and commissioning of two systems for the measurement of cross-sectional distributions of pollutant species in jet exhaust, within the engine ground test facility at INTA, Madrid. These systems use optical tomography techniques to estimate the cross-sectional distributions of CO2 and soot immediately behind the engine. The systems are designed to accommodate the largest civil aviation engines currently in service, without obstruction of the exhaust or bypass flows...

  11. Unfolding the fission prompt gamma-ray energy and multiplicity distribution measured by DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J; Laptev, A

    2010-10-16

    The nearly energy independence of the {gamma}-ray efficiency and multiplicity response for the DANCE array, the unusual characteristic elucidated in our early technical report (LLNL-TR-452298), gives one a unique opportunity to derive the true prompt {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution in fission from the measurement. This unfolding procedure for the experimental data will be described in details and examples will be given to demonstrate the feasibility of reconstruction of the true distribution.

  12. Unfolding the fission prompt γ-ray energy and multiplicity distribution measured by DANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nearly energy independence of the γ-ray efficiency and multiplicity response for the DANCE array, the unusual characteristic elucidated in our early technical report (LLNL-TR-452298), gives one a unique opportunity to derive the true prompt γ-ray energy and multiplicity distribution in fission from the measurement. This unfolding procedure for the experimental data will be described in details and examples will be given to demonstrate the feasibility of reconstruction of the true distribution.

  13. Measurement of marine radionuclide distribution using a towed sea-bed spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry to the measurement of radionuclide concentration in sea water and sea-bed sediment is discussed with special reference to a towed sea-bed gamma-ray spectrometer survey of radio-effluent distribution in the Irish Sea. Contour maps produced from the spectrometer profiles are matched with the distribution of bottom sediment types and conclusions are drawn concerning the modes of transport and deposition of 137Cs in the Irish Sea. (author)

  14. Dam Safety. Distributed Strain Measurements for Embankment Dams - Field Tests at Ajaure Dam 2004-05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Sam [HydroResearch Sam Johansson AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Watley, Dan [Sensornet Ltd, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    There is growing interest to measure strain in many civil structures such as dams, bridges and tunnels. Optical fibre sensors are increasingly used to measure both temperature and, strain in such constructions. Essential development of this application for dams has been made previously by Sensornet and HydroResearch, within three research projects funded by Elforsk AB. In September 2004, the first distributed measurement of strain in an embankment dam was undertaken using the Sensornet DTSS. The system allows the strain and temperature to be measured simultaneously and independently at all points along the fibre. The measurement was carried out at Vattenfall Vattenkraft's Ajaure dam in Sweden. The aim was to compare the measurements taken during September, at full reservoir level, with measurements to be taken at low reservoir level in May 2005. The measured difference of strain between the two measurements is small, indicating no significant localized movement of the dam. These initial measurements demonstrate the potential of distributed strain measurements. Whilst undertaking strain measurement at Ajaure, a series of tests were also performed to demonstrate the ability of the DTSS to determine the size of localized deflection in the dam which could be detected by distributed strain measurements. Similar tests were also repeated in the Sensornet Laboratory. Those tests have demonstrated that a deflection of the dam by just 5 mm will be detectable. The current sensitivity of the system is suitable for detecting very small localized changes of the dam structure. However, the sensitivity is set to improve with further development, providing enhanced temperature correction and hence much increased strain accuracy. Distributed optical sensing will be an essential tool for dam monitoring, providing location specific information which has not been available before. The distributed technology provides an excellent complement to conventional inclinometers. Further

  15. Application of fiber optic distributed sensor for strain measurement in civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Toshio; Usu, Tomonori; Tanaka, Kuniaki; Nobiki, Atsushi; Sato, Masashi; Nakai, Kenji

    1997-11-01

    We report on civil engineering applications of a fiber optic distributed strain sensor. It consists of a sensing fiber and a high performance optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR), for measuring both strain and optical loss distribution along optical fibers by accessing only one end of the fiber. The OTDR can measure distributed strain with an accuracy of better than +/- 60 X 10-6 and a high spatial resolution of up to 1 m over a 10 km long fiber. In model experiments using the OTDR, we measured the strain changes in fibers attached to the surface of a concrete test beam. The performance of the fiber strain sensor was tested by measuring the strain distribution in optical fibers and comparing the results with resistance strain gage measurements for several loads. We found that the two sets of results were similar, and in addition, we demonstrated experimentally that the sensor was able to measure an induced strain change of less than 100 by 10-6, which is nearly the elastic limit of the concrete material. These results show the potential of the OTDR to extend the application of monitoring systems to such areas as large building diagnostics for civil engineering.

  16. Measurement of the angular distribution of neutron-proton scattering at 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative angular distribution of neutrons scattered from protons was measured at an incident neutron energy of 10 MeV at the Ohio University Accelerator Laboratory. An array of 11 detector telescopes at laboratory angles of 0 to 60 degrees was used to detect recoil protons from neutron interactions with a CH2 (polypropylene) target. Data for 7 of these telescopes were obtained with one set of electronics and are presented here. These data, from 108 to 180 degrees for the center-of-mass scattering angles, have a small slope which agrees better with angular distributions predicted by the Arndt phase shifts than with the ENDF/B-VI angular distribution

  17. Application of carbon stripping foil to HIRFL-CSR and measurement of charge state distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged ions may be injected into the CSRm by means of the charge stripping injection or the multiple multi-turn injection. The charge state distribution of the ions passing through the carbon foil has great influence on the performance of the accelerator and thus plays a key role in the charge stripping injection. It's found that the charge state distribution is dependent on the thicknesses of the carbon foil and the energy of the ions. In present work, the carbon stripper was applied to HIRFL-CSR and the best optional charge state distribution was measured. (authors)

  18. A uniform measurement expression for cross method comparison of nanoparticle aggregate size distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudkiewicz, Agnieszka; Wagner, Stephan; Lehner, Angela;

    2015-01-01

    Available measurement methods for nanomaterials are based on very different measurement principles and hence produce different values when used on aggregated nanoparticle dispersions. This paper provides a solution for relating measurements of nanomaterials comprised of nanoparticle aggregates...... by increased retention of smaller nanomaterials (SEM). This study thereby presents a successful and conclusive cross-method comparison of size distribution measurements of aggregated nanomaterials. The authors recommend the uniform MED size expression for application in nanomaterial risk assessment studies...... determined by different techniques using a uniform expression of a mass equivalent diameter (MED). The obtained solution is used to transform into MED the size distributions of the same sample of synthetic amorphous silica (nanomaterial comprising aggregated nanoparticles) measured by six different...

  19. Distributed strain measurement system in one-dimensional by means of multipoint FBG sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Zhu, Jun; Tang, Haiyu; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Zhao; Shui, Tao; Yu, Benli

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we described a distributed strain measurement scheme in one-dimensional. The sensing information of FBG is demodulated by a CCD spectrometer, the discrete strain is achieved by fitting and processing discrete signal demodulated utilizing labVIEW virtual instrument technology. Then it could be achieved by Using polynomial fitting method to one-dimensional discrete strain distributed detection. Experimentally, measurement was implemented in Cantilever to prove the system performance. The experimental result shows that the system can reflect the strain distribution in one-dimensional and an order strain modal characteristics of cantilever accurately. The detection system can achieve real-time and dynamic measurements, the response time for 2kHz, the response accuracy for 4μɛ.

  20. Distributed sampling measurement method of network traffic in high-speed IPv6 networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Qiao; Pei Changxing

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of large-scale and high-speed IPv6 network technology, an effective multi-point traffic sampling is becoming a necessity. A distributed multi-point traffic sampling method that provides an accurate and efficient solution to measure IPv6 traffic is proposed. The proposed method is to sample IPv6 traffic based on the analysis of bit randomness of each byte in the packet header. It offers a way to consistently select the same subset of packets at each measurement point, which satisfies the requirement of the distributed multi-point measurement. Finally, using real IPv6 traffic traces, the conclusion that the sampled traffic data have a good uniformity that satisfies the requirement of sampling randomness and can correctly reflect the packet size distribution of full packet trace is proved.

  1. Neutron diffraction measurement and finite element analysis of stress distribution in welded 316L stainless pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress distribution in welded AISI 316 L stainless steel pipes (diameter 4'' and 10'') was measured using residual stress instrument installed at 30MWt HANARO reactor of KAERI. The measurements were made along the axial direction transverse to the weld direction from the weld center to the pipe edge. Measurement tracks were repeated at the depth of 1.5mm from the surfaces of the pipes and at the mid-thickness of the pipes wall. As a whole the stress distribution in diameter 4'' and diameter 10'' pipes showed the similar tendency. The stress analysis of the welded pipe was carried out using the finite element method. Reasonable agreement in stress distribution with experimental data was observed. (orig.)

  2. Device for measuring the ion angular distribution of 2XIIB plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.

    1977-04-06

    A device that measures charge-exchange flux to determine the angular distribution of the 2XIIB plasma is described. Charge-exchange products heat circular nickel foils (placed at 15/sup 0/ intervals in theta and at constant radius on an arc parallel to the z-axis) and the voltage drop across the foils (produced by constant-current sources) provides a measure of the changes in resistivity. The charge-exchange flux at each foil is proportional to the plasma distribution at that angle. Use of this technique is limited by the resistivity and heat resistance of the circular nickel foils, but could conceivably be extended to other shapes and materials. The Hall-Simonen and ''time-average'' measurement of angular distribution are compared and the characteristic times of loss (gain) are calculated from theory. The g(..mu..) detector may be used to experimentally verify these times of loss (gain) and also to analyze plasma pressure stability. Current microwave measurements show that plasma has an exponential density dependence in z and assumes a flux tube rather than a p(B) density dependence. A distinct angular distribution (determinable by the detector) is associated with each of these dependencies. The codes to simulate injection and resulting angular distribution, charge-exchange capture, and heating and signal of the detectors are also described.

  3. Measurement of power density distribution and beam waist simulation for electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims to measure the power density distribution of the electron beam (EB) for further estimating its characteristics. A compact device combining deflection signal controller and current signal acquisition circuit of the EB was built. A software modelling framework was developed to investigate structural parameters of the electron beam. With an iterative algorithm, the functional relationship between the electron beam power and its power density was solved and the corresponding contour map of power density distribution was plotted through isoline tracking approach. The power density distribution of various layers of cross-section beam was reconstructed for beam volume by direct volume rendering technique. The further simulation of beam waist with all-known marching cubes algorithm reveals the evolution of spatial appearance and geometry measurement principle was explained in detail. The study provides an evaluation of promising to replace the traditional idea of EB spatial characteristics. - Highlights: ► We build a framework for measuring power density distribution for electron beam. ► We capture actual electron and build transient spatial power distribution for EB. ► Tracing algorithm of power density contour for cross-section was designed. ► The volume and waist of the beam are reconstructed in 4D mode. ► Geometry measurement is finished which is befit for designing of process welding.

  4. Have I Been a Data Scientist from the Start? Parallels from the Geographic Information Science Community in the Early 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the early 1990s the author came of age as the technology driving the geographic information system or GIS was beginning to successfully 'handle' geospatial data at a range of scales and formats, and a wide array of information technology products emerged from an expanding GIS industry. However, that small community struggled to reflect the diverse research efforts at play in understanding the deeper issues surrounding geospatial data, and the impediments to that effective use of that data. It was from this need that geographic information science or GIScience arose, to ensure in part that GIS did not fall into the trap of being a technology in search of applications, a one-time, one-off, non-intellectual 'bag of tricks' with no substantive theory underpinning it, and suitable only for a static period of time (e.g., Goodchild, 1992). The community has since debated the issue of "tool versus science' which has also played a role in defining GIS as an actual profession. In turn, GIS has contributed to "methodological versus substantive" questions in science, leading to understandings of how the Earth works versus how the Earth should look. In the author's experience, the multidimensional structuring and scaling data, with integrative and innovative approaches to analyzing, modeling, and developing extensive and spatial data from selected places on land and at sea, have revealed how theory and application are in no way mutually exclusive, and it may often be application that advances theory, rather than vice versa. Increasingly, both the system and science of geographic information have welcomed strong collaborations among computer scientists, information scientists, and domain scientists to solve complex scientific questions. As such, they have paralleled the emergence and acceptance of "data science." And now that we are squarely in an era of regional- to global-scale observation and simulation of the Earth, produce data that are too big, move too fast, and do not

  5. Reestruturação produtiva no setor bancário: a realidade dos anos 90 Productive Restructuring in bankins sector: the reality of the 1990's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M.G. Larangeira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é levantar questões relativas à reestruturação produtiva nos bancos e suas implicações sociais (emprego, qualificação, formação e treinamento, salário e ação sindical, no contexto dos anos 90. As observações e conclusões apresentadas resultam da análise de um estudo de caso que teve como objeto um banco estatal em vias de privatização, bem como da utilização de estatísticas gerais sobre o setor. Dentre as conclusões, caberia destacar que os ganhos para a força de trabalho, resultantes do processo em estudo, poderiam ser relativizados, já que os mesmos são acompanhados de efeitos negativos, como maior desgaste físico e mental da força de trabalho, além da ocorrência de altas taxas de desemprego. Nesse sentido, conclui-se que, a uma possível elevação da qualificação dos que permanecem no emprego, corresponderia uma degradação das condições de vida em termos mais gerais.The article aims to raise some issues related to the restructuring process in the banking sector and its social implications (employment, skills, training, wage and union's action, in the context of the 1990's. The observations and conclusions presented result from the analysis of a case-study in a Brazilian state bank preparing for privatization, as well as from the use of statistics concerning the sector as a whole. Among the conclusions, it is worth to mention that the gains obtained by the work-force in the process under study should be assessed vis-à-vis the negative effects as physical and mental stress for those who remain employed, as well as the occurrence of high rates of unemployment. The main conclusion, therefore, would be that the skills raising in employment would correspond to a degradation of living conditions in general.

  6. Results on the neutron energy distribution measurements at the RECH-1 Chilean nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, P.; Molina, F.; Romero-Barrientos, J.

    2016-07-01

    Neutron activations experiments has been perform at the RECH-1 Chilean Nuclear Reactor to measure its neutron flux energy distribution. Samples of pure elements was activated to obtain the saturation activities for each reaction. Using - ray spectroscopy we identify and measure the activity of the reaction product nuclei, obtaining the saturation activities of 20 reactions. GEANT4 and MCNP was used to compute the self shielding factor to correct the cross section for each element. With the Expectation-Maximization algorithm (EM) we were able to unfold the neutron flux energy distribution at dry tube position, near the RECH-1 core. In this work, we present the unfolding results using the EM algorithm.

  7. A ctivation measurement of neutron distribution in intermediate energy heavy ion target area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiGui-Sheng; WangJing; 等

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of neutrons produced by the reaction of 50MeV/u 12C-ion on a thick Cu target are studied.The neutrons are measured with threshold activation detectors.Al.F,C,Al and In activation samples were used to measure neutrons with energy greater than 7,11,20,50MeV and thermal neutrons,respectively,The fluence rate,energy and angular distributions of neutrons,total neutron yield of 12C-ion and the emission rate in the forward direction of neutrons over 11 and 20MeV were obtained.

  8. Methods to determine fast-ion distribution functions from multi-diagnostic measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Naulin, Volker; Salewski, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of fast ions in a fusion plasma is very important, since the fusion-born alpha particles are expected to be the main source of heating in a fusion power plant. Preferably, the entire fast-ion velocity-space distribution function would be measured. However, no fast-ion diagnostic is capable of measuring the entire distribution function. The velocity space sensitivity of a fast-ion diagnostic is given by so-called velocity-space weight functions. Here, the developmen...

  9. Two-Nucleon Momentum Distributions Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    CERN Document Server

    Niyazov, R A; Weinstein, L B; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Barrow, S; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, Barry L; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cetina, C; Chen, S; Ciciani, L; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D C; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Eckhause, M; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girard, P; Gordon, C I O; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M R; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kelley, J H; Khandaker, M; Kim, D H; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, M S; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuang, Y; Kuhn, S E; Kühn, J; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Ji Li; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Muccifora, V; Müller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Nelson, S O; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Park, K; Pasyuk, E A; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O I; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatie, F; Sabourov, K; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Sargsyan, M; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabyan, Yu G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A V; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zhang, B

    2004-01-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2 GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for `fast' nucleons (p > 250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less, and the third nucleon has most of the transferred energy. These fast pp and pn pairs are back-to-back with little momentum along the three-momentum transfer, indicating that they are spectators. Experimental and theoretical evidence indicates that we have measured distorted two-nucleon momentum distributions by striking the third nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair.

  10. Zenith distribution and flux of atmospheric muons measured with the 5-line ANTARES detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, J.A. [Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC - Univ. de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Albert, A. [GRPHE - Inst. univ. de technologie de Colmar, Colmar (France); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S.; Lamare, P.; Lo Presti, D. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere - Inst. de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers - Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ardid, M. [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia, Gandia (Spain); Assis Jesus, A.C. [FOM Inst. voor Subatomaire Fysica Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aubert, J.J.; Brown, A.M.; Brunner, J.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Lambard, G.; Lelaizant, G.; Melissas, M.; Payre, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Reed, C.; Zaborov, D. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Univ. de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France); Kouchner, A.; Moscoso, L.; Van Elewyck, V. [Lab. AstroParticule et Cosmologie, UMR 7164, CNRS, Univ. Paris 7 Diderot, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, Paris (France); Tasca, L. [Lab. d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Marseille (France); Charvis, Ph.; Pillet, R. [Geoazur - Univ. de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS/INSU, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur and Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Villefranche-sur-mer (France); Cottini, N.; Loucatos, S.; Maurin, G.; Naumann, C.; Picq, C.; Schuller, J.P.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Vallage, B.; Vernin, P. [Inst. de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dekeyser, I.; Lefevre, D.; Tamburini, C. [Centre d' Oceanologie de Marseille, CNRS/INSU et Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France); Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Dept. de Physique, Orsay (France); Guillard, G.; Lyons, K.; Pradier, T. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Univ. de Strasbourg et CNRS/IN2P3, Strasbourg (France)

    2010-07-01

    The ANTARES high-energy neutrino telescope is a three-dimensional array of about 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 mooring lines installed in the Mediterranean Sea. Between February and November 2007 it acquired data in a 5-line configuration. The zenith angular distribution of the atmospheric muon flux and the associated depth-intensity relation are measured and compared with previous measurements and Monte Carlo expectations. An evaluation of the systematic effects due to uncertainties on environmental and detector parameters is presented. (authors)

  11. Zenith distribution and flux of atmospheric muons measured with the 5-line ANTARES detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ANTARES high-energy neutrino telescope is a three-dimensional array of about 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 mooring lines installed in the Mediterranean Sea. Between February and November 2007 it acquired data in a 5-line configuration. The zenith angular distribution of the atmospheric muon flux and the associated depth-intensity relation are measured and compared with previous measurements and Monte Carlo expectations. An evaluation of the systematic effects due to uncertainties on environmental and detector parameters is presented. (authors)

  12. Two-nucleon momentum distributions measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyazov, R A; Weinstein, L B; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Barrow, S; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Bertozzi, W; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cetina, C; Chen, S; Ciciani, L; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; Dashyan, N; DeVita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Eckhause, M; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Gavalian, G; Gilad, S; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girard, P; Gordon, C I O; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ingram, W; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Joo, K; Juengst, H G; Kelley, J H; Kellie, J; Khandaker, M; Kim, D H; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, M S; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuang, Y; Kuhn, S E; Kuhn, J; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Li, Ji; Livingston, K; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McLauchlan, S; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Nelson, S O; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatié, F; Sabourov, K; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zhang, B

    2004-02-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2 GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for "fast" nucleons (p>250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less, and the third nucleon has most of the transferred energy. These fast pp and pn pairs are back to back with little momentum along the three-momentum transfer, indicating that they are spectators. Calculations by Sargsian and by Laget also indicate that we have measured distorted two-nucleon momentum distributions by striking one nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair. PMID:14995301

  13. A Study of Transmission Control Method for Distributed Parameters Measurement in Large Factories and Storehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the characteristics of parameters dispersion in large factories, storehouses, and other applications, a distributed parameter measurement system is designed that is based on the ring network. The structure of the system and the circuit design of the master-slave node are described briefly. The basic protocol architecture about transmission communication is introduced, and then this paper comes up with two kinds of distributed transmission control methods. Finally, the reliability, extendibility, and control characteristic of these two methods are tested through a series of experiments. Moreover, the measurement results are compared and discussed.

  14. Measurement of angular distribution of cosmic-ray muon fluence rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jeng-Wei [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, Natioanl Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Fu [Department of Engineering and System Science, Natioanl Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Rong-Jiun [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Shiang-Huei, E-mail: Shjiang@mx.nthu.edu.t [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, Natioanl Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering and System Science, Natioanl Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-21

    In this work a Berkeley Lab cosmic ray detector was used to measure the angular distribution of the cosmic-ray muon fluence rate. Angular response functions of the detector at each measurement orientation were calculated by using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code, where no energy attenuation was taken into account. Coincidence counting rates were measured at ten orientations with equiangular intervals. The muon angular fluence rate spectrum was unfolded from the measured counting rates associated with the angular response functions using both the MAXED code and the parameter adjusting method.

  15. Reconstruction of biologically equivalent dose distribution on CT-image from measured physical dose distribution of therapeutic beam in water phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the standpoint of quality assurance in radiotherapy, it is very important to compare the dose distributions realized by an irradiation system with the distribution planned by a treatment planning system. To compare the two dose distributions, it is necessary to convert the dose distributions on CT images to distributions in a water phantom or convert the measured dose distributions to distributions on CT images. Especially in heavy-ion radiotherapy, it is reasonable to show the biologically equivalent dose distribution on the CT images. We developed tools for the visualization and comparison of these distributions in order to check the therapeutic beam for each patient at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). To estimate the distribution in a patient, the dose is derived from the measurement by mapping it on a CT-image. Fitting the depth-dose curve to the calculated SOBP curve also gives biologically equivalent dose distributions in the case of a carbon beam. Once calculated, dose distribution information can be easily handled to make a comparison with the planned distribution and display it on a grey-scale CT-image. Quantitative comparisons of dose distributions can be made with anatomical information, which also gives a verification of the irradiation system in a very straightforward way. (author)

  16. Distributed measurement of mode coupling in birefringent fibers with random polarization modes

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Jing, Wencai; Zhang, Hongxia; Jia, Dagong; Zhang, Xuemin; Zhou, Ge; Zhang, Yimo

    2016-01-01

    A scanning white light interferometer is developed to measure the distributed polarization coupling (DPC) in high birefringence polarization maintaining fibers (PMFs). Traditionally, this technique requests only one polarization mode to be excited or both polarization modes to be excited with equal intensity in the PMF. Thus, an accurate alignment of the polarization direction with the principal axis in PMF is strictly required, which is not facilely realized in practical measurement. This paper develops a method to measure the spatial distribution of polarization mode coupling with random modes excited using a white light Michelson interferometer. The influence of incident polarization extinction ratio (PER) on polarization coupling detection is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. It is also analyzed and validated in corresponding measurement that the sensitivity of the polarization coupling detection system can be improved more than 100 times with the rotation of the analyzer.

  17. Local T2 distribution measurements with DANTE-Z slice selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Oleg V.; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2012-02-01

    A CPMG pulse sequence incorporated with a DANTE-Z slice selection scheme for measuring spatially-resolved T2 distributions has been presented. The DANTE-Z pulse train with sinc-modulated pulses selects a single, quasi-rectangular slice of less than 0.8 cm wide at an arbitrary position over a 6-cm long sample. The measured T2 distributions are of almost the same quality as regular (bulk) CPMG measurements, with the lower T2 limit being as good as c.a. 0.5 ms. The sequence can be found useful as a supplement or alternative to MRI-based techniques for T2 mapping in short relaxation time samples (water-saturated rocks, building materials, wood, food products, rubbers, etc.), particularly when T2 is required to be measured at only few positions along the sample and the resolution of ˜1 cm is acceptable.

  18. A laser speckle sensor to measure the distribution of static torsion angles of twisted targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, B.; Imam, H.; Hanson, Steen Grüner;

    1998-01-01

    A novel method for measuring the distribution of static torsion angles of twisted targets is presented. The method is based on Fourier transforming the scattered field in the direction perpendicular to the twist axis, while performing an imaging operation in the direction parallel to the axis....... A cylindrical lens serves to image the closely spaced lateral positions of the target along the twist axis onto corresponding lines of the two dimensional image sensor. Thus, every single line of the image sensor measures the torsion angle of the corresponding surface position along the twist axis of the target....... Experimentally, we measure the distribution of torsion angles in both uniform and non-uniform deformation zones. It is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally that the measurements are insensitive to object shape and target distance if the image sensor is placed in the Fourier plane. A straightforward...

  19. Precision measurement of transverse velocity distribution of a strontium atomic beam

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gao; Liu, H.; P. Xu; Tian, X.; Y Wang; Ren, J; Haibin Wu; Hong Chang

    2014-01-01

    We measure the transverse velocity distribution in a thermal Sr atomic beam precisely by velocity-selective saturated fluorescence spectroscopy. The use of an ultrastable laser system and the narrow intercombination transition line of Sr atoms mean that the resolution of the measured velocity can reach 0.13 m/s, corresponding to 90$\\mu K$ in energy units. The experimental results are in very good agreement with the results of theoretical calculations. Based on the spectroscopic techniques use...

  20. Measurement of flow field and local heat transfer distribution on a scraped heat exchanger crystalliser surface

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Marcos; Ravelet, Florent; Delfos, Rene; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2008-01-01

    In a cylindrical scraped heat exchanger crystallizer geometry the flow field influence on the local heat transfer distribution on an evenly cooled scraped heat exchanger surface has been studied by direct measurements of the heat exchanger surface temperature and the fluid velocity field inside the crystallizer. Liquid Crystal Thermometry revealed that the local heat transfer is higher in the middle area of the scraped surface. Stereoscopic PIV measurements demonstrated that the secondary flo...

  1. Dose distribution measurements in reaction vessel of pilot plant at EPS Kaweczyn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concise description of fast electrons interaction with matter, useful for dosimetric methods applied for the gas phase, is presented. The polymer film dosimeters (PVC and CTA foils) for the spatial dose distribution inside the process vessel of pilot plant facility at EPS Kaweczyn was used. Complementary measurements using an original method of EB induced fluorescence of thr air were also performed. The agreement between experimentally measured and theoretically predicted results is satisfactory. (author)

  2. Researches on the measurement of distribution image of radiated noise using focused beamforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI Juan; HU Dan; HUI Junying; YIN Jingwei

    2008-01-01

    A method using focused beamforming to measure the distribution image (under-water image) of submarine and surface ship's noise sources is presented. Level linear array can measure the target image on water level, but the multi-path interference of underwater acoustic channel may affect the quality of it. Virtual time reversal mirror and virtual array can both solve the problem very well; they make the image with high resolution.

  3. Measurement of the ambient organic aerosol volatility distribution: application during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment (FAME-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Lee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A variable residence time thermodenuder (TD was combined with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS to measure the volatility distribution of aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May of 2008 (FAME-2008. A new method for the quantification of the organic aerosol volatility distribution was developed combining measurements of all three instruments together with an aerosol dynamics model.

    Challenges in the interpretation of ambient thermodenuder-AMS measurements include the potential resistances to mass transfer during particle evaporation, the effects of particle size on the evaporated mass fraction, the changes in the AMS collection efficiency and particle density as the particles evaporate partially in the TD, and finally potential losses inside the TD. Our proposed measurement and data analysis method accounts for all of these problems combining the AMS and SMPS measurements.

    The AMS collection efficiency of the aerosol that passed through the TD was found to be approximately 10% lower than the collection efficiency of the aerosol that passed through the bypass. The organic aerosol measured at Finokalia is approximately 2 or more orders of magnitude less volatile than fresh laboratory-generated monoterpene (α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene under low NOx conditions secondary organic aerosol. This low volatility is consistent with its highly oxygenated AMS mass spectrum. The results are found to be highly sensitive to the mass accommodation coefficient of the evaporating species. This analysis is based on the assumption that there were no significant reactions taking place inside the thermodenuder.

  4. Measurement of the ambient organic aerosol volatility distribution: application during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment (FAME-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. H.; Kostenidou, E.; Hildebrandt, L.; Riipinen, I.; Engelhart, G. J.; Mohr, C.; Decarlo, P. F.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Pandis, S. N.

    2010-12-01

    A variable residence time thermodenuder (TD) was combined with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) to measure the volatility distribution of aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May of 2008 (FAME-2008). A new method for the quantification of the organic aerosol volatility distribution was developed combining measurements of all three instruments together with an aerosol dynamics model. Challenges in the interpretation of ambient thermodenuder-AMS measurements include the potential resistances to mass transfer during particle evaporation, the effects of particle size on the evaporated mass fraction, the changes in the AMS collection efficiency and particle density as the particles evaporate partially in the TD, and finally potential losses inside the TD. Our proposed measurement and data analysis method accounts for all of these problems combining the AMS and SMPS measurements. The AMS collection efficiency of the aerosol that passed through the TD was found to be approximately 10% lower than the collection efficiency of the aerosol that passed through the bypass. The organic aerosol measured at Finokalia is approximately 2 or more orders of magnitude less volatile than fresh laboratory-generated monoterpene (α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene under low NOx conditions) secondary organic aerosol. This low volatility is consistent with its highly oxygenated AMS mass spectrum. The results are found to be highly sensitive to the mass accommodation coefficient of the evaporating species. This analysis is based on the assumption that there were no significant reactions taking place inside the thermodenuder.

  5. Measurement of rat heart fatty acid binding protein by ELISA. Tissue distribution, developmental changes and subcellular distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisman, T S; Claffey, K P; Saouaf, R; Hanspal, J; Brecher, P

    1987-05-01

    A class of soluble, low molecular weight proteins collectively called fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) are thought to function in the intracellular movement of fatty acids. To understand more clearly the role of FABP in cardiac metabolism, we used ELISA and immunoblotting techniques to study the distribution of heart FABP in several rat tissues, compare male and female rat heart content, quantitate developmental changes, and determine its subcellular distribution. Immunoreactive protein was found in appreciable amounts in rat heart, red skeletal muscle and kidney. Adult rat heart contained about 1.5 mg FABP/g tissue wet weight with the atrial content being approximately 50% of the ventricular concentration. No significant difference was detected between the sexes. The amount of FABP increased progressively during development from fetal to adult animals, and measureable amounts were found in 17-day-old fetal tissue. Comparisons between myoglobin and FABP showed that FABP appeared earlier than myoglobin in development, but myoglobin was more abundant than FABP at birth. Using immunoblots it was determined that rat heart FABP was localized in the cytosol with no detectable intramitochondrial material. PMID:3625779

  6. Investigating the reliability of coronal emission measure distribution diagnostics using 3D radiative MHD simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Paola; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph onboard Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using 3D radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models, and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the "true" distributions from the model we assess the limitations of the diagnostics, as a function of the plasma parameters and of the signal-to-noise of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with signif...

  7. Automated Anomaly Detection in Distribution Grids Using $\\mu$PMU Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Jamei, Mahdi; Roberts, Ciaran; Stewart, Emma; Peisert, Sean; McParland, Chuck; McEachern, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The impact of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) for providing situational awareness to transmission system operators has been widely documented. Micro-PMUs ($\\mu$PMUs) are an emerging sensing technology that can provide similar benefits to Distribution System Operators (DSOs), enabling a level of visibility into the distribution grid that was previously unattainable. In order to support the deployment of these high resolution sensors, the automation of data analysis and prioritizing communication to the DSO becomes crucial. In this paper, we explore the use of $\\mu$PMUs to detect anomalies on the distribution grid. Our methodology is motivated by growing concern about failures and attacks to distribution automation equipment. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated through both real and simulated data.

  8. Measurements of solar flux density distribution on a plane receiver due to a flat heliostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.M.; Fathalah, K.A.; Al-Rabghi, O.M. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-06-01

    An experimental facility is designed and manufactured to measure the solar flux density distribution on a central flat receiver due to a single flat heliostat. The tracking mechanism of the heliostat is controlled by two stepping motors, one for tilt angle control and the other for azimuth angle control. A x-y traversing mechanism is also designed and mounted on a vertical central receiver plane, where the solar flux density is to be measured. A miniature solar sensor is mounted on the platform of the traversing mechanism, where it is used to measure the solar flux density distribution on the receiver surface. The sensor is connected to a data acquisition card in a host computer. The two stepping motors of the heliostat tracking mechanism and the two stepping motors of the traversing mechanism are all connected to a controller card in the same host computer. A software `TOWER` is prepared to let the heliostat track the sun, move the platform of the traversing mechanism to the points of a preselected grid, and to measure the solar flux density distribution on the receiver plane. Measurements are carried out using rectangular flat mirrors of different dimensions at several distances from the central receiver. Two types of images were identified on the receiver plane - namely, apparent (or visible) and mirror-reflected radiation images. Comparison between measurements and a mathematical model validates the mathematical model. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  9. A retarding field energy analyser to measure the energy distributions of liquid metal ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the setup and use of a retarding field energy analyser to measure the energy distribution of LMIS will be presented. An introduction in the technology and mechanism of LMIS will be given in chapter 2. The experimental configuration of the retarding field energy analyser, together with an error estimation and a computer program, to control the energy analyser and to calculate the energy distribution, will be discussed in chapter 3. To test the energy analyser an electron source, consisting of a tungsten thermoionic cathode, will be used. Energy distribution measurements of a gallium LMIS will be presented in chapter 4. Finally in chapter 5, the accuracy of the energy analyser and suggestions for improvement will be presented. (orig.)

  10. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  11. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R; Cappelli, Mark A; Rieker, Gregory B

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  12. Measurement of concentration and size distribution of radon decay products in homes using air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By removing particles, air cleaners can also eliminate radon decay products. However, by removing the particles, the open-quotes unattachedclose quotes fraction of the radon progeny is increased leading to a higher dose per unit exposure. Thus, both the concentration and size distributions of the radon decay products are needed to evaluate air cleaners. Three types of room air cleaners, NO-RAD Radon Removal System, Electronic Air Cleaner and PUREFLOW Air Treatment System were tested in a single family home in Arnprior, Ontario (Canada). Semi-continuous measurements of radon gas concentration and radon decay product activity weighted size distribution were performed in the kitchen/dining room under real living conditions. The effects of air cleaners on both the concentration and size distribution of the radon decay products were measured, and their impact on the dose of radiation given to the lung tissue were examined

  13. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  14. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R; Cappelli, Mark A; Rieker, Gregory B

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively. PMID:21267082

  15. A reinterpretation of Volcano Range lateral distribution measurements to infer the mass composition of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dova, M T; Mariazzi, A G; McCauley, T P; Watson, A A

    2002-01-01

    In the course of its operation, the Volcano Ranch array collected data on the lateral distribution of showers produced by cosmic rays at energies above $10^{17}$ {\\rm eV}. From these data very precise measurements of the steepness of the lateral distribution function, characterized by the $\\eta$ parameter, were made. The current availability of sophisticated hadronic interaction models has prompted a reinterpretation of the measurements. We use the interaction models {\\sc qgsjet} and {\\sc sibyll} in the {\\sc aires} Monte Carlo code to generate showers together with {\\sc geant4} to simulate the response of the detectors to ground particles. As part of an effort to estimate the primary mass composition of cosmic rays at this energy range, we present the results of our preliminary analysis of the distribution of $\\eta$.

  16. Nonideal Quantum Measurement Effects on the Switching Currents Distribution of Josephson Junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Pierro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The quantum character of Josephson junctions is ordinarily revealed through the analysis of the switching currents, i.e. the current at which a finite voltage appears: A sharp rise of the voltage signals the passage (tunnel) from a trapped state (the zero voltage solution) to a running state (the finite voltage solution). In this context, we investigate the probability distribution of the Josephson junctions switching current taking into account the effect of the bias sweeping rate and introducing a simple nonideal quantum measurements scheme. The measurements are modelled as repeated voltage samplings at discrete time intervals, that is with repeated projections of the time dependent quantum solutions on the static or the running states, to retrieve the probability distribution of the switching currents. The distribution appears to be immune of the quantum Zeno effect, and it is close to, but distinguishable from, the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. For energy barriers comparable to the quantum fund...

  17. Velocity Distribution Measurement Using Pixel-Pixel Cross Correlation of Electrical Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGXiang; PENGLihui; YAODanya; ZHANGBaofen

    2004-01-01

    Electrical tomography (ET) provides a novel means of visualizing the internal behavior of twophase flow in industrial process. Using a dual-sensingplane Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) or Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system, the raw data of two different section images can be acquired synchronously and the two images reflecting the inner medium distribution respectively can also be reconstructed by using imaging algorithm. Further, the analysis of pixel-pixel cross correlation is able to be setup and the measurement of velocity distribution of two-phase flow could be achieved. The principle is described in the paper. The FFT algorithm for gray value computation and cross correlation function calculation is also introduced. Some experimental results of velocity distribution measurement using pixelpixel cross correlation in vertical slug flow are presented.

  18. Distributed consensus estimation for diffusion systems with missing measurements over sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengxian; Cui, Baotong; Lou, Xuyang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the problem of distributed consensus estimation with randomly missing measurements is investigated for a diffusion system over the sensor network. A random variable, the probability of which is known a priori, is used to model the randomly missing phenomena for each sensor. The aim of the addressed estimation problem is to design distributed consensus estimators depending on the neighbouring information such that, for all random measurement missing, the estimation error systems are guaranteed to be globally asymptotically stable in the mean square. By using Lyapunov functional method and the stochastic analysis approach, the sufficient conditions are derived for the convergence of the estimation error systems. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed distributed consensus estimator design scheme.

  19. Tomography of fast-ion velocity-space distributions from synthetic CTS and FIDA measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh;

    2012-01-01

    We compute tomographies of 2D fast-ion velocity distribution functions from synthetic collective Thomson scattering (CTS) and fast-ion D (FIDA) 1D measurements using a new reconstruction prescription. Contradicting conventional wisdom we demonstrate that one single 1D CTS or FIDA view suffices to...

  20. Moisture Distribution in Broccoli: Measurements by MRI Hot Air Drying Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The internal moisture distribution that arise in food products during drying, is a key factor for the retention of quality attributes. To reveal the course of moisture content in a product, internal moisture profiles in broccoli florets are measured by MRI imaging during drying experiments

  1. Moisture distribution in broccoli: measurements by MRI hot air drying experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    The internal moisture distribution that arise in food products during drying, is a key factor for the retention of quality attributes. To reveal the course of moisture content in a product, internal moisture profiles in broccoli florets are measured by MRI imaging during drying experiments with cont

  2. Methods to determine fast-ion distribution functions from multi-diagnostic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko

    Understanding the behaviour of fast ions in a fusion plasma is very important, since the fusion-born alpha particles are expected to be the main source of heating in a fusion power plant. Preferably, the entire fast-ion velocity-space distribution function would be measured. However, no fast...

  3. Measuring Particle Size Distribution using Laser Diffraction: Implications for Predicting Soil Hydraulic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to predict soil hydraulic properties frequently require information on the particle size distribution (PSD). The objectives of this study were to investigate various protocols for rapidly measuring PSD using the laser diffraction technique, compare the obtained PSDs with those determined usi...

  4. H-Distributions: An Extension of H-Measures to an Lp-Lq Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Antonić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the continuity of Fourier multiplier operators on Lp to introduce the H-distributions—an extension of H-measures in the Lp framework. We apply the H-distributions to obtain an Lp version of the localisation principle and reprove the Murat Lp-Lp′ variant of div-curl lemma.

  5. Hydrometeor Size Distribution Measurements by Imaging the Attenuation of a Laser Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2013-01-01

    The optical extinction of a laser due to scattering of particles is a well-known phenomenon. In a laboratory environment, this physical principle is known as the Beer-Lambert law, and is often used to measure the concentration of scattering particles in a fluid or gas. This method has been experimentally shown to be a usable means to measure the dust density from a rocket plume interaction with the lunar surface. Using the same principles and experimental arrangement, this technique can be applied to hydrometeor size distributions, and for launch-pad operations, specifically as a passive hail detection and measurement system. Calibration of a hail monitoring system is a difficult process. In the past, it has required comparison to another means of measuring hydrometeor size and density. Using a technique recently developed for estimating the density of surface dust dispersed during a rocket landing, measuring the extinction of a laser passing through hail (or dust in the rocket case) yields an estimate of the second moment of the particle cloud, and hydrometeor size distribution in the terrestrial meteorological case. With the exception of disdrometers, instruments that measure rain and hail fall make indirect measurements of the drop-size distribution. Instruments that scatter microwaves off of hydrometeors, such as the WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar 88 Doppler), vertical wind profilers, and microwave disdrometers, measure the sixth moment of the drop size distribution (DSD). By projecting a laser onto a target, changes in brightness of the laser spot against the target background during rain and hail yield a measurement of the DSD's second moment by way of the Beer-Lambert law. In order to detect the laser attenuation within the 8-bit resolution of most camera image arrays, a minimum path length is required. Depending on the intensity of the hail fall rate for moderate to heavy rainfall, a laser path length of 100 m is sufficient to measure variations in

  6. Current Density Distribution Mapping in PEM Fuel Cells as An Instrument for Operational Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Geske

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed measurement system for current density distribution mapping has enabled a new approach for operational measurements in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC. Taking into account previously constructed measurement systems, a method based on a multi layer printed circuit board was chosen for the development of the new system. This type of system consists of a sensor, a special electronic device and the control and visualization PC. For the acquisition of the current density distribution values, a sensor device was designed and installed within a multilayer printed circuit board with integrated shunt resistors. Varying shunt values can be taken into consideration with a newly developed and evaluated calibration method. The sensor device was integrated in a PEM fuel cell stack to prove the functionality of the whole measurement system. A software application was implemented to visualize and save the measurement values. Its functionality was verified by operational measurements within a PEMFC system. Measurement accuracy and possible negative reactions of the sensor device during PEMFC operation are discussed in detail in this paper. The developed system enables operational measurements for different operating phases of PEM fuel cells. Additionally, this can be seen as a basis for new opportunities of optimization for fuel cell design and operation modes.

  7. Protocol for measurement of transmission and distribution line workplace magnetic fields by waveform capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, G.B. [Electric Research and Management, Inc., Felton, CA (United States); Chang, G.; Keller, M. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Bracken, T.D. [T. Dan Bracken, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Magnetic field measurement protocols were developed to support an assessment of lineworker exposure to ac and dc magnetic field characteristics during the performance of transmission and distribution (T and D) live-line maintenance tasks. Measurement parameters included field intensity, frequency content, polarization, orientation, temporal variability, and the vector relationships between the earth`s static field and the ac power system field. Two types of measurements were performed at work sites: personal exposure (PE) and site measurements. PE measurements were performed using three axis rms recording instruments worn by the line crews. This paper describes protocols for performing measurements with a waveform capture system and an array of triaxial ac and dc sensors placed at fixed locations within the work area.

  8. Protocol for measurement of transmission and distribution line workplace magnetic fields by waveform capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic field measurement protocols were developed to support an assessment of lineworker exposure to ac and dc magnetic field characteristics during the performance of transmission and distribution (T and D) live-line maintenance tasks. Measurement parameters included field intensity, frequency content, polarization, orientation, temporal variability, and the vector relationships between the earth's static field and the ac power system field. Two types of measurements were performed at work sites: personal exposure (PE) and site measurements. PE measurements were performed using three axis rms recording instruments worn by the line crews. This paper describes protocols for performing measurements with a waveform capture system and an array of triaxial ac and dc sensors placed at fixed locations within the work area

  9. Results of an exercise to incorporate measured data into subjective parameter distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Department of the Environment (DoE) will require a sound methodology for assessing potential sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes. At the preliminary stages of a site assessment there will be little measured data available. At this stage the uncertainty associated with the parameter values are represented by pdfs elicited from subjective expert judgement. At the later stages of a site investigation measured data would become available. Bayesian methods can then be used to incorporate measured data into subjective pdfs. This report describes the results of three case studies which illustrate the feasibility of using Bayesian methods to update subjective prior distributions. The first case concerns the hydraulic conductivity of the vault backfill material and used a simple model of measurement errors. Following this, two cases were conducted on the conductivity of the Corallian aquifer underlying the Harwell site. These cases used a more complex model comprising multiple rock layers and a relationship with depth. All three cases show that Bayesian methods can be successfully used to update subjective pdfs and that the updated distributions incorporate the information contained in both the measured data and the prior distribution. (author)

  10. Residual stress distribution in carbon steel pipe welded joint measured by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to estimate crack growth behavior of fatigue and stress corrosion cracking in pipes, the residual stress distribution near the pipe weld region has to be measured through the wall thickness. Since the penetration depth of neutron is deep enough to pass through the thick pipe wall, the neutron diffraction technique for the residual stress measurement is effective for this purpose. At the first step the residual stress distribution near the weld region in a butt-welded carbon steel pipe was measured by the neutron diffraction. Significant stresses extended only to a distance of 30 mm from the center of the weld. The major tensile stresses occurred in the hoop direction in the fusion and heat affected zones of the weldment, and they attained a level greater than 200 MPa through the thickness. While the axial residual stress at the inside surface was 50 MPa, the stress at the outside surface was -100 MPa. The comparison of residual stress distributions measured by the neutron diffraction, the X-ray diffraction and the strain gauge method reveals that the neutron diffraction is the most effective for measuring the residual stress inside the structural components. (author)

  11. Suprathermal plasma analyzer for the measurement of low-energy electron distribution in the ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, M; Oyama, K-I; Abe, T; Yau, A W

    2011-07-01

    It is commonly believed that an energy transfer from thermal to suprathermal electrons (ionosphere. However, observation of electron energy spectrum in this energy range is quite limited because of technical difficulties of measurement. We have developed an instrument to measure electron energy distribution from thermal to suprathermal energy continuously with high-energy resolution of about 0.15 eV. The measurement principle is based on the combination of a retarding potential analyzer with a channel electron multiplier (CEM) and the Druyvesteyn method, which derives energy distribution from the current-voltage characteristics. The capability of detecting plasma space potential enables absolute calibration of electron energy. The instrument with a small vacuum pump, which is required for the CEM to work in low-vacuum region, was first successfully tested by a sounding rocket S-310-37 in the ionospheric E region. The instrument is expected to provide new opportunities to measure energy distribution of thermal and non-thermal electrons in low-density plasma, where a Langmuir probe cannot measure electron temperature because of low plasma density. PMID:21806205

  12. Neutron spectrum and radial power distribution measurements in a TRIGA reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron spectrum in the Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor was measured by a crystal spectrometer utilizing an LiF(1, 1, 1) crystal monochromator whose reflectivity was determined experimentally. The fission heat source distribution in a fuel element was also determined as a function of the fuel element temperature. These two measurements were used to investigate the effects of fuel element temperature and the local core loading on the thermal diffusion length in a fuel element. Changes in the thermal diffusion lengths during a reactor pulse underlie the proposed temperature feedback mechanism for the ZrH fuel material. The results of the measurements confirm, in part, this proposed temperature feedback mechanism

  13. MEASUREMENT ERROR EFFECT ON THE POWER OF CONTROL CHART FOR ZERO-TRUNCATED POISSON DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashit Chakraborty

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement error is the difference between the true value and the measured value of a quantity that exists in practice and may considerably affect the performance of control charts in some cases. Measurement error variability has uncertainty which can be from several sources. In this paper, we have studied the effect of these sources of variability on the power characteristics of control chart and obtained the values of average run length (ARL for zero-truncated Poisson distribution (ZTPD. Expression of the power of control chart for variable sample size under standardized normal variate for ZTPD is also derived.

  14. Analysis of formulas used in coupling impedance coaxial-wire measurements for distributed impedances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors study the validity of coupling impedance bench measurements for distributed impedances, comparing the commonly used log formula to the result obtained applying a modified version of Bethe's theory of diffraction to a long slot in a coaxial beam pipe. The equations found provide a quantitative expression for the influence of the wire thickness used in the measurement of the real and imaginary part of the longitudinal impedance. The precision achievable in an actual measurement is therefore discussed. The method presented has also been applied in the presence of lumped impedances

  15. In situ exhaust cloud measurements. [particle size distribution and cloud physics of rocket exhaust clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wornom, D.

    1980-01-01

    Airborne in situ exhaust cloud measurements were conducted to obtain definitions of cloud particle size range, Cl2 content, and HCl partitioning. Particle size distribution data and Cl2 measurements were made during the May, August, and September 1977 Titan launches. The measurements of three basic effluents - HCl, NO sub X, and particles - against minutes after launch are plotted. The maximum observed HCl concentration to the maximum Cl2 concentration are compared and the ratios of the Cl2 to the HCl is calculated.

  16. Precision measurement of transverse velocity distribution of a Strontium atomic beam

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, F; Xu, P; Tian, X; Wang, Y; Ren, J; Wu, Haibin; Chang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We measure precisely the transverse velocity distribution in a thermal Sr atomic beam with a velocity selective saturated fluorescence spectroscopy. By using the ultrastable laser system and narrow intercombination transition line of Sr atoms, the resolution of the velocity measured can be reached 0.13m/s, corresponding to 90$\\mu K$ in energy unit. The experimental results are agreement very well with a theoretical calculation. With the spectroscopic techniques, the absolute frequency of the intercombination transition of $^{88}$Sr is measured by an optical-frequency comb generator referenced to the SI second through an H maser, which is given by 434 829 121 318(10)kHz.

  17. THE ASYMPTOTIC DISTRIBUTIONS OF EMPIRICAL LIKELIHOOD RATIO STATISTICS IN THE PRESENCE OF MEASUREMENT ERROR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Suppose that several different imperfect instruments and one perfect instrument are independently used to measure some characteristics of a population. Thus, measurements of two or more sets of samples with varying accuracies are obtained. Statistical inference should be based on the pooled samples. In this article, the authors also assumes that all the imperfect instruments are unbiased. They consider the problem of combining this information to make statistical tests for parameters more relevant. They define the empirical likelihood ratio functions and obtain their asymptotic distributions in the presence of measurement error.

  18. Precise measurement of temperature Distribution for LCD TV using IR camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Seok; Ko, Han Seo [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Du Hwan [Samsung Electronics Co.,Ltd, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-11-15

    An Infra-Red camera has been used to reduce errors and to save time, cost and efforts for measurement of temperature distribution. Because allowable ranges of major factors that affect results of the measurement of the IR camera had not been established yet, this study has been performed to investigate the major factors and ranges for the effective measurement techniques. In this study, surface temperature, surrounding humidity, distance between the camera and the surface, incident angle, and emissivity of the surface have been considered as the major factors for the experimental setup. Especially, it has been observed that the results of the IR camera have been affected by the surface emissivity greatly.

  19. Measurements of Moments of the Hadronic Mass Distribution in Semileptonic B Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Le Clerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmücker, H; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; MacKay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Layter, J; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Erwin, R J; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le, F; Diberder; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljevic, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Monchenault; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Elsen, E E; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu Sau Lan; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-01-01

    We report a measurement of the first four moments of the hadronic mass distribution in B --> X_c lv decays. The measurements are based on 89 million Upsilon(4S) --> BBbar events where the hadronic decay of one of the B mesons is fully reconstructed and a charged lepton from the decay of the other B meson is identified. The moments are presented for minimum lepton momenta ranging from 0.9 to 1.6 GeV in the B rest frame. It is expected that such measurements will lead to improved determinations of |V_{cb}| and |V_{ub}|.

  20. Inferences from the Distributions of Fast Radio Burst Pulse Widths, Dispersion Measures and Fluences

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    2015-01-01

    The widths, dispersion measures, dispersion indices and fluences of Fast Radio Bursts (FRB) impose coupled constraints that all models must satisfy. Observation of dispersion indices close to their low density limit of $-2$ sets a model-independent upper bound on the electron density and a lower bound on the size of any dispersive plasma cloud. The non-monotonic dependence of burst widths (after deconvolution of instrumental effects) on dispersion measure excludes the intergalactic medium as the location of scattering that broadens the FRB in time. Temporal broadening far greater than that of pulsars at similar high Galactic latitudes implies that scattering occurs close to the sources, where high densities and strong turbulence are plausible. FRB energetics are consistent with supergiant pulses from young, fast, high-field pulsars at cosmological distances. The distribution of FRB dispersion measures is inconsistent with expanding clouds (such as SNR). It excludes space-limited distributions (such as the loc...

  1. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution for a fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor is established. It consists of a DT neutron source and a spherical shell of depleted uranium and hydrogen lithium. The tritium production rate (TPR) distribution in the conceptual reactor was measured by DT neutrons using two sets of lithium glass detectors with different thicknesses in the hole in the vertical direction with respect to the D+ beam of the Cockcroft-Walton neutron generator in direct current mode. The measured TPR distribution is compared with the calculated results obtained by the three-dimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and the ENDF/B-Ⅵ data file. The discrepancy between the measured and calculated values can be attributed to the neutron data library of the hydrogen lithium lack S(α, β) thermal scattering model, so we show that a special database of low-energy and thermal neutrons should be established in the physics design of fusion-fission hybrid reactors. (authors)

  2. Novel technique for distributed fibre sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering measurements of birefringence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Soto, Marcelo A.; Thévenaz, Luc

    2016-05-01

    A novel distributed fibre sensing technique is described and experimentally validated, based on birefringence measurements using coherent Rayleigh scattering. It natively provides distributed measurements of temperature and strain with more than an order of magnitude higher sensitivity than Brillouin sensing, and requiring access to a single fibre-end. Unlike the traditional Rayleigh-based coherent optical time-domain reflectometry, this new method provides absolute measurements of the measurand and may lead to a robust discrimination between temperature and strain in combination with another technique. Since birefringence is purposely induced in the fibre by design, large degrees of freedom are offered to optimize and scale the sensitivity to a given quantity. The technique has been validated in 2 radically different types of birefringent fibres - elliptical-core and Panda polarization-maintaining fibres - with a good repeatability.

  3. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution for a fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-Hua; GUO Hai-Ping; MOU Yun-Feng; ZHENG Pu; LIU Rong; YANG Xiao-Fei; YANG Jian

    2013-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor is established.It consists of a DT neutron source and a spherical shell of depleted uranium and hydrogen lithium.The tritium production rate (TPR) distribution in the conceptual reactor was measured by DT neutrons using two sets of lithium glass detectors with different thicknesses in the hole in the vertical direction with respect to the D+ beam of the Cockcroft-Walton neutron generator in direct current mode.The measured TPR distribution is compared with the calculated results obtained by the threedimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and the ENDF/B-Ⅵ data file.The discrepancy between the measured and calculated values can be attributed to the neutron data library of the hydrogen lithium lack S(α,β) thermal scattering model,so we show that a special database of low-energy and thermal neutrons should be established in the physics design of fusion-fission hybrid reactors.

  4. An alternative way to characterize a q-gaussian distribution by a robust heavy tail measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Helena, E L de Santa; Gerhardt, G J L

    2014-01-01

    The identification of a q-Gaussian distribution from empirical data is done through a measure of heavy tail using robust statistic. Numerical methods are used to generate artificial data, to figure out the tail weight and the curve fitting between the tail weight measurement and $q$ value. It is shown that this measure of tail weight is not changed when applied to a distribution originated from long memory processes with any Hurst exponent. A routine is created to calculate the $q$ value and its standard deviation from empirical data. We found that the calculation of tail weight done through robust statistic provides a value of $q$ with the same accuracy as compared to values usually found in the literature, using only $10\\%$ of sample. We hope that this method will open new opportunities for identifying physical phenomena that belongs to nonextensive frameworks.

  5. Alfvénic oscillations of the electron distribution function: Linear theory and experimental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J. W. R., E-mail: james-schroeder@uiowa.edu; Skiff, F.; Howes, G. G.; Kletzing, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Carter, T. A.; Dorfman, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Wave propagation can be an accurate method for determining material properties. High frequency whistler mode waves (0.7 < ω/|Ω{sub ce}| < 1) in an overdense plasma (ω{sub pe} > |Ω{sub ce}|) are damped primarily by Doppler-shifted electron cyclotron resonance. A kinetic description of whistler mode propagation parallel to the background magnetic field shows that damping is proportional to the parallel electron distribution function. This property enables an experimental determination of the parallel electron distribution function using a measurement of whistler mode wave absorption. The whistler mode wave absorption diagnostic uses this technique on UCLA’s Large Plasma Device (LaPD) to measure the distribution of high energy electrons (5 − 10v{sub te}) with 0.1% precision. The accuracy is limited by systematic effects that need to be considered carefully. Ongoing research uses this diagnostic to investigate the effect of inertial Alfvén waves on the electron distribution function. Results presented here verify experimentally the linear effects of inertial Alfvén waves on the reduced electron distribution function, a necessary step before nonlinear physics can be tested. Ongoing experiments with the whistler mode wave absorption diagnostic are making progress toward the first direct detection of electrons nonlinearly accelerated by inertial Alfvén waves, a process believed to play an important role in auroral generation.

  6. Development of Dynamic Coupling Measurement of Distributed Object Oriented Software Based on Trace Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Babu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software metrics are increasingly playing a central role in the planning and control of softwaredevelopment projects. Coupling measures have important applications in software development andmaintenance. Existing literature on software metrics is mainly focused on centralized systems, while workin the area of distributed systems, particularly in service-oriented systems, is scarce. Distributed systemswith service oriented components are even more heterogeneous networking and execution environment.Traditional coupling measures take into account only “static” couplings. They do not account for“dynamic” couplings due to polymorphism and may significantly underestimate the complexity of softwareand misjudge the need for code inspection, testing and debugging. This is expected to result in poorpredictive accuracy of the quality models in distributed Object Oriented systems that utilize static couplingmeasurements. In order to overcome these issues, we propose a hybrid model in Distributed ObjectOriented Software for measure the coupling dynamically. In the proposed method, there are three stepssuch as Instrumentation process, Post processing and Coupling measurement. Initially the instrumentationprocess is done. In this process the instrumented JVM that has been modified to trace method calls. Duringthis process, three trace files are created namely .prf, .clp, .svp. In the second step, the information in thesefile are merged. At the end of this step, the merged detailed trace of each JVM contains pointers to themerged trace files of the other JVM such that the path of every remote call from the client to the server canbe uniquely identified. Finally, the coupling metrics are measured dynamically. The implementation resultsshow that the proposed system will effectively measure the coupling metrics dynamically.

  7. Particle concentrations and number size distributions in the planetary boundary layer derived from airship based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Ralf; Zhao, Defeng; Ehn, Mikael; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Rohrer, Franz; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particles play a key role for regional and global climate due to their direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The concentration and size of the particles are important variables to these effects. Within the continental planetary boundary layer (PBL) the particle number size distribution is influenced by meteorological parameters, local sinks and sources resulting in variable spatial distributions. However, measurements of particle number size distributions over a broad vertical range of the PBL are rare. The airship ZEPPELIN NT is an ideal platform to measure atmospheric aerosols on a regional scale within an altitude range up to 1000 m. For campaigns in the Netherlands, Northern Italy and South Finland in 2012 and 2013 the airship was deployed with a wide range of instruments, including measurements of different trace gases, short lived radicals, solar radiation, aerosols and meteorological parameters. Flights were carried out at different times of the day to investigate the influence of the diurnal evolution of the PBL on atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During night and early morning hours the concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particles were found to be strongly influenced by the layered structure of the PBL, i.e. the nocturnal boundary layer and the residual layer. Within the residual layer particle concentrations stay relatively constant as this layer is decoupled from ground sources. The particles persist in the accumulation mode as expected for an aged aerosol. In the nocturnal boundary layer particle concentrations and size are more dynamic with higher concentrations than in the residual layer. A few hours after sunrise, the layered structure of the PBL intermixes. During daytime the PBL is well mixed and a negative concentration gradient with increasing height is observed. Several height profiles at different times of the day and at different locations in Europe were measured. The aerosol measurements will be

  8. Measurements of neutral and ion velocity distribution functions in a Hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarnas, Panagiotis; Romadanov, Iavn; Diallo, Ahmed; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2015-11-01

    Hall thruster is a plasma device for space propulsion. It utilizes a cross-field discharge to generate a partially ionized weakly collisional plasma with magnetized electrons and non-magnetized ions. The ions are accelerated by the electric field to produce the thrust. There is a relatively large number of studies devoted to characterization of accelerated ions, including measurements of ion velocity distribution function using laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic. Interactions of these accelerated ions with neutral atoms in the thruster and the thruster plume is a subject of on-going studies, which require combined monitoring of ion and neutral velocity distributions. Herein, laser-induced fluorescence technique has been employed to study neutral and single-charged ion velocity distribution functions in a 200 W cylindrical Hall thruster operating with xenon propellant. An optical system is installed in the vacuum chamber enabling spatially resolved axial velocity measurements. The fluorescence signals are well separated from the plasma background emission by modulating the laser beam and using lock-in detectors. Measured velocity distribution functions of neutral atoms and ions at different operating parameters of the thruster are reported and analyzed. This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  9. Measurements of gas hydrate formation probability distributions on a quasi-free water droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Nobuo

    2014-06-01

    A High Pressure Automated Lag Time Apparatus (HP-ALTA) can measure gas hydrate formation probability distributions from water in a glass sample cell. In an HP-ALTA gas hydrate formation originates near the edges of the sample cell and gas hydrate films subsequently grow across the water-guest gas interface. It would ideally be desirable to be able to measure gas hydrate formation probability distributions of a single water droplet or mist that is freely levitating in a guest gas, but this is technically challenging. The next best option is to let a water droplet sit on top of a denser, immiscible, inert, and wall-wetting hydrophobic liquid to avoid contact of a water droplet with the solid walls. Here we report the development of a second generation HP-ALTA which can measure gas hydrate formation probability distributions of a water droplet which sits on a perfluorocarbon oil in a container that is coated with 1H,1H,2H,2H-Perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane. It was found that the gas hydrate formation probability distributions of such a quasi-free water droplet were significantly lower than those of water in a glass sample cell.

  10. Accuracy and Validation of Measured and Modeled Data for Distributed PV Interconnection and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Emma; Kiliccote, Sila; Arnold, Daniel; von Meier, Alexandra; Arghandeh, R.

    2015-07-27

    The distribution grid is changing to become an active resource with complex modeling needs. The new active distribution grid will, within the next ten years, contain a complex mix of load, generation, storage and automated resources all operating with different objectives on different time scales from each other and requiring detailed analysis. Electrical analysis tools that are used to perform capacity and stability studies have been used for transmission system planning for many years. In these tools, the distribution grid was considered a load and its details and physical components were not modeled. The increase in measured data sources can be utilized for better modeling, but also control of distributed energy resources (DER). The utilization of these sources and advanced modeling tools will require data management, and knowledgeable users. Each of these measurement and modeling devices have accuracy constraints, which will ultimately define their future ability to be planned and controlled. This paper discusses the importance of measured data accuracy for inverter control, interconnection and planning tools and proposes ranges of control accuracy needed to satisfy all concerns based on the present grid infrastructure.

  11. Measurement of lung volume and ventilation distribution with an ultrasonic flow meter in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibler, A; Hall, G L; Businger, F; Reinmann, B; Wildhaber, J H; Cernelc, M; Frey, U

    2002-10-01

    Small airway disease in infants is characterised by abnormal lung volume and uneven ventilation distribution. An inert tracer gas washin/washout technique using a pulsed ultrasonic flow meter is presented to measure functional residual capacity (FRC) and ventilation distribution in spontaneously breathing and unsedated infants. With a pulsed ultrasound sent through the main stream of the flow meter, flow, volume and MM of the breathing gas can be calculated. Sulphur hexafluoride was used as a tracer gas. In a mechanical lung model (volume range 53-188 mL) and in 12 healthy infants (aged 38.3+/-9.2 days; mean+/-SD) accuracy and reproducibility of the technique was assessed. Indices of ventilation distribution such as alveolar-based mean dilution number (AMDN) and pulmonary clearance delay (PCD) were calculated. Mean error of volume measurement in the lung model was 0.58% (coefficient of variance (CV) 1.3%). FRC was in the low predicted range for normal infants (18.0+/-2.0 mL x kg(-1)) and highly reproducible (5.5+/-1.7% intra-subject CV). AMDN was 1.63+/-0.15 and PCD was 52.9+/-11.1%. Measurement of functional residual capacity and ventilation distribution using a sulphur hexafluoride washin/washout and an ultrasonic flow meter proved to be highly accurate and reproducible in a lung model and in healthy, spontaneously breathing and unsedated infants. PMID:12412683

  12. Application of imaging plate to measurement of radiation contamination and neutron spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we applied an imaging plate (IP) which is a high-sensitive, -resolution and two-dimensional digital radiation sensor to 1) detecting of low-level contamination that was difficult to detect by a conventional way, and 2) to measurement of spatial distributions of thermal and fast neutrons and 3) profile measurement of proton beam intensity in 107 ∼108 cm-2 ·s-1 which is difficult to measure by current and particle measurement. For contamination detection, a large-size IP (20 cm x 40 cm) was disposed to the sample, and the position and intensity of the contamination was identified unambiguously by scanning IP. For neutron measurement, activation foils were combined with IP to avoid γ -rays from neutron sources and radioactive accelerator components. We placed small gold and aluminum activation foils at many points of interest accelerator room, and after irradiation, disposed them on IP as they were irradiated. This method enables to measure neutron spatial distribution in a single scanning. We extended this method to profiling of proton beams with intensity too low to measure by beam current but too strong to pulse counting, by using a thin copper foil

  13. High Fidelity Symmetric Telecloning and Entanglement Distribution of Spin Quantum States by Weak Measurement and Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; He, Zhi; Yao, Chun-Mei; Li, Wen-Juan

    2016-08-01

    We propose a physical realization of robust symmetric telecloning scheme for spin quantum states by employing the weak measurement and reversal (WMR) operation. Using proper WMR, the ultrahigh telecloning fidelity and long distance of quantum state transfer with certain success probability can be achieved. More interestingly, the lowest average telecloning fidelity can attain 80 %, which is almost independent of the spin chain length. We also study the properties of entanglement distribution via the spin chain for arbitrary two-qubit entangled pure states as inputs and find that the WMR operation indeed helps for protecting distributed entanglement.

  14. Design of a molecular beam surface scattering apparatus for velocity and angular distribution measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceyer, S.T.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1981-09-01

    A molecular beam surface scattering apparatus designed for the study of corrosion and catalytic surface reactions is described. The apparatus incorporates two molecular or atomic beams aimed at a surface characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), a rotatable, differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer, and a versatile manipulator. Angular distributions and energy distributions as a function of angle and independent of the surface residence time can be measured. Typical data for the oxidation of deuterium to D/sub 2/O on a Pt(111) crystal surface are presented.

  15. DESIGN OF A MOLECULAR BEAM SURFACE SCATTERING APPARATUS FOR VELOCITY AND ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceyer, S. T.; Siekhaus, W. J.; Somorjai, G. A.

    1980-11-01

    A molecular beam surface scattering apparatus designed for the study of corrosion and catalyticsurfacereactions is described. The apparatus incorporates two molecular or atomic beams aimed at a surface characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), a rotatable, differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer, and a versatile manipulator. Angular distributions and energy distributions as a funcion of angle and independent of the surface residence time can be measured. Typical data for the oxidation of deuterium to D{sub 2}O on a Pt(lll) crystal surface are presented.

  16. Measuring Distributional Inequality: Relative Body Mass Index Distributions by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Education, United States (1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Houle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2. Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.

  17. Measuring Temperature in Pipe Flow with Non-Homogeneous Temperature Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klason, P.; Kok, G. J.; Pelevic, N.; Holmsten, M.; Ljungblad, S.; Lau, P.

    2014-04-01

    Accurate temperature measurements in flow lines are critical for many industrial processes. It is normally more a rule than an exception in such applications to obtain water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. In this paper, a number of comparisons were performed between different 100 ohm platinum resistance thermometer (Pt-100) configurations and a new speed-of-sound-based temperature sensor used to measure the average temperature of water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. The aim was to achieve measurement deviations lower than 1 K for the temperature measurement of water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. By using a custom-built flow injector, a water flow with a hot-water layer on top of a cold-water layer was created. The temperature difference between the two layers was up to 32 K. This study shows that the deviations to the temperature reference for the average temperature of four Pt-100s, the multisensor consisting of nine Pt-100s, and the new speed-of-sound sensors are remarkably lower than the deviation for a single Pt-100 under the same conditions. The aim of reaching a deviation lower than 1 K was achieved with the speed-of-sound sensors, the configuration with four Pt-100s, and the multisensor. The promising results from the speed-of sound temperature sensors open the possibility for an integrated flow and temperature sensor. In addition, the immersion depth of a single Pt-100 was also investigated at three different water temperatures.

  18. Noninvasive Measurement of the Pressure Distribution in a Deformable Micro-Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Ozsun, O; Ekinci, K L

    2013-01-01

    Direct and noninvasive measurement of the pressure distribution in test sections of a micro-channel is a challenging, if not an impossible, task. Here, we present an analytical method for extracting the pressure distribution in a deformable micro-channel under flow. Our method is based on a measurement of the channel deflection profile as a function of applied \\emph{hydrostatic} pressure; this initial measurement generates "constitutive curves" for the deformable channel. The deflection profile under flow is then matched to the constitutive curves, providing the \\emph{hydrodynamic} pressure distribution. The method is validated by measurements on planar micro-fluidic channels against analytic and numerical models. The accuracy here is independent of the nature of the wall deformations and is not degraded even in the limit of large deflections, $\\zeta_{\\rm{max}}/2h_{0}= {\\cal{O}}(1)$, with $\\zeta_{\\rm{max}}$ and $2h_0$ being the maximum deflection and the unperturbed height of the channel, respectively. We dis...

  19. Development of a system for measuring fluoride distribution in teeth using a nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluoride (F) distributions in a synthesized hydroxyl apatite (HAp) block of uniform structure and in teeth were measured using in-air micro-PIGE (particle induced gamma-ray emission) and micro-PIXE system, which was developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in Takasaki. We used a nuclear reaction 19F(p,αγ)16O to measure F density. The characteristic important feature of this technique is that it can measure F quantitatively in a microscopic area of the specimen placed in air. A surface of the HAp, the enamel buccal surface of a human molar, and a class V cavity wall in dentin were applied a sodium fluoride solution (NaF) four times and immersed in a normal saline solution. After one month, specimens were cut longitudinally. The F distributions were measured from the surface toward the inner part of the cut surface. The F penetration into specimens following NaF application was quantitatively configured in a two-dimensional mapping form. This method is quite useful for characterizing F distribution in a microscopic area of a tooth. (author)

  20. Measuring Distributional Inequality: Relative Body Mass Index Distributions by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Education, United States (1999–2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Houle, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of ov...

  1. Fluids and their Effect on Measurements on Lunar Soil Particle size Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. L.; McKay, D. S.; Wallace, W. T.; Gonzalex, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    From the late 1960s until now, lunar soil particle size distributions have typically been determined by sieving sometimes dry, and at other times with fluids such as water or Freon. Laser diffraction instruments allow rapid assessment of particle size distribution, and eventually may replace sieve measurements. However, when measuring lunar soils with laser diffraction instruments, care must be taken in choosing a carrier fluid that is compatible with lunar material. Distilled water is the fluid of choice for laser diffraction measurements of substances when there is no concern about adverse effects of water on the material being measured. When we began our analyses of lunar soils using laser diffraction, our first measurements were made with distilled water. Although the medians that we measured were comparable to earlier sieve data, the means tended to be significantly larger than expected. The effect of water vapor on lunar soil has been studied extensively. The particles interact strongly with water vapor, and subsequent adsorptions of nitrogen showed that the specific surface area increased as much as threefold after exposure to moisture. It was observed that significant porosity had been generated by this exposure to water vapor. The possibility of other physical changes in the surfaces of the grains was not studied.

  2. Measurements of Dose Distribution outside the Treatment Area in case of Radiotherapy Treatment using Polystyrene Phantom

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Md Farid; Ahmed, G U; Miah, F K

    2012-01-01

    Dose distribution (depthwise and laterally) to organs outside the radiotherapy treatment field can be significant and therefore is of clinical interest from the radiation protection point of view. In the present work, measurements were performed in a locally fabricated polystyrene phantom using TLD chips (LiF-100) for different teletherapy units (Cobalt-60 gamma ray, 120 kVp X-ray and 250 kVp X-ray) to estimate the dose distribution at distances up to 40 cm from the field edge along the central axes of the field size. Finally, the dose distribution for Cobalt-60 beam energy is parameterized as a function of depth, distance from field edge, and field size and shape.

  3. QQ-plots for assessing distributions of biomarker measurements and generating defensible summary statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    One of the main uses of biomarker measurements is to compare different populations to each other and to assess risk in comparison to established parameters. This is most often done using summary statistics such as central tendency, variance components, confidence intervals, exceedance levels and percentiles. Such comparisons are only valid if the underlying assumptions of distribution are correct. This article discusses methodology for interpreting and evaluating data distributions using quartile-quartile plots (QQ-plots) and making decisions as to how to treat outliers, interpreting effects of mixed distributions, and identifying left-censored data. The QQ-plot graph is shown to be a simple and elegant tool for visual inspection of complex data and deciding if summary statistics should be performed after log-transformation. PMID:27491525

  4. Measurement of electrical current density distribution in a simple head phantom with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the influence of the human skull on the electrical current (d.c.) distribution within the brain tissue could prove useful in measuring impedance changes inside the human head. These changes can be related to physiological functions. The studies presented in this paper examine the current density distribution in a simple phantom consisting of a saline filled tank (to simulate scalp and brain) and a ring made of dental grade plaster of Paris (to simulate the human skull). Images of the distribution of the d.c. density of the phantom with and without the plaster of Paris ring were produced using a magnetic resonance imaging technique. These images indicate that the skull is likely to produce a more uniform d.c. density within the brain. (author)

  5. Combined local current distribution measurements and high resolution neutron radiography of operating direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alexander; Wippermann, Klaus [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. of Energy Research, IEF-3: Fuel Cells; Sanders, Tilman [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA); Arlt, Tobias [Helmholtz Centre Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials

    2010-07-01

    Neutron radiography allows the investigation of the local fluid distribution in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) under operating conditions. Spatial resolutions in the order of some tens of micrometers at the full test cell area are achieved. This offers the possibility to study practice-oriented, large stack cells with an active area of several hundred cm{sup 2} as well as specially designed, small test cells with an area of some cm{sup 2}. Combined studies of high resolution neutron radiography and segmented cell measurements are especially valuable, because they enable a correlation of local fluid distribution and local performance [1, 2]. The knowledge of this interdependency is essential to optimise the water management and performance respecting a homogeneous fluid, current and temperature distribution and to achieve high performance and durability of DMFCs. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of the dijet angular distributions and search for quark compositeness with the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN) allows to study the interactions of quarks and gluons in a yet unexplored energy regime. In 2010, the LHC delivered an integrated luminosity of more than 36 pb-1 of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=7 TeV. In these proton-proton collisions, the interactions of the constituent quarks and gluons produced a considerable amount of jets of particles with transverse momenta above 1 TeV. Well suited for the study of these jet processes is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment situated at the LHC point 5 as it can measure jets with the necessary energy and angular resolutions over a large range of transverse momentum (∝30 GeVTdijet = e verticalstrokey1-y2verticalstroke, where y1 and y2 are the rapidities of the two jets, y ≡ (1)/(2)ln [(E+pz)/(E-pz)], and pz is the projection of the jet momentum along the beam axis. The choice of the variable χdijet is motivated by the fact that the normalized differential cross section (1)/(σ) (dσ)/(dχdijet) (the dijet angular distribution) is flat in this variable for Rutherford scattering, characteristic for spin-1 particle exchange. In contrast to QCD which predicts a dijet angular distribution similar to Rutherford scattering, new physics, such as quark compositeness, that might have a more isotropic dijet angular distribution would produce an excess at low values of χdijet. Since the shapes of the dijet angular distributions for the qg →qg, qq' →qq' and gg →gg scattering processes are similar, the QCD prediction does not strongly depend on the parton distribution functions (PDFs) which describe the momentum distribution of the partons inside the protons. Due to the normalization, the dijet angular distribution has a reduced sensitivity to several predominant experimental uncertainties (e.g. the jet energy scale and luminosity uncertainties). The dijet angular distribution is therefore well suited

  7. Measuring real-time performance in distributed-object-oriented systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widell, Niklas; Kihl, Maria; Nyberg, Christian

    1999-08-01

    The principles of distributed object oriented programming offer great possibilities for flexible architectures in multiple fields. In telecommunications, an architecture called Telecommunication Information Networking Architecture has been developed using these very principles. It allows telecommunication services to be implemented using software objects that in turn can be executed in a location transparent way in a network. The location transparency offers great flexibility for service creation, but as the software must be executed somewhere in the network on nodes of finite capacity, performance problems can arise due to inefficient placement of objects causing either overloaded nodes or excessive and unnecessary inter-node communication. To ensure good performance, various measures of load control and load balancing must be taken. We discuss how to measure the performance of a distributed object oriented system and examine two load balancing algorithms that can be used in such systems.

  8. Direct measurement of the charge distribution along a biased carbon nanotube bundle using electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.;

    2011-01-01

    Nanowires and nanotubes can be examined in the transmission electron microscope under an applied bias. Here we introduce a model-independent method, which allows the charge distribution along a nanowire or nanotube to be measured directly from the Laplacian of an electron holographic phase image........ We present results from a biased bundle of carbon nanotubes, in which we show that the charge density increases linearly with distance from its base, reaching a value of ~0.8 electrons/nm near its tip.......Nanowires and nanotubes can be examined in the transmission electron microscope under an applied bias. Here we introduce a model-independent method, which allows the charge distribution along a nanowire or nanotube to be measured directly from the Laplacian of an electron holographic phase image...

  9. Sensitivity bias in the mass-radius distribution from Transit Timing Variations and Radial Velocity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by recent discussions, both in private and in the literature, we use a Monte Carlo simulation of planetary systems to investigate sources of bias in determining the mass-radius distribution of exoplanets for the two primary techniques used to measure planetary masses---Radial Velocities (RVs) and Transit Timing Variations (TTVs). We assert that mass measurements derived from these two methods are comparably reliable---as the physics underlying their respective signals is well understood. Nevertheless, their sensitivity to planet mass varies with the properties of the planets themselves. We find that for a given planet size, the RV method tends to find planets with higher mass while the sensitivity of TTVs is more uniform. This ``sensitivity bias'' implies that a complete census of TTV systems is likely to yield a more robust estimate of the mass-radius distribution provided there are not important physical differences between planets near and far from mean-motion resonance. We discuss differences in...

  10. Measurement and calculation of the neutron flux distribution in the RP-10 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work implementing experimental methods are implemented for easy reproduction for measuring the spatial distribution or thermal neutron flux in the RP-10 reactor core. Using two measuring methods: the passive and the active ones. In the passive method was used the activation technique using foils such as gold, manganese, and indium. These were irradiated in the reactor core and treated through the Westcott's formalism. In the active method was used the Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNs) for which was necessary to condition the detectors response for the data acquisition. The knowledge of the spatial distribution of RP-10 reactor neutrons flux will contribute in the understanding of other interesting parameters of reactor physics such as power density, reactivity, buckling, etc.. Wish knowledge is important for reactor operation. Fuel burnup calculations as well as others related to safety. (author)

  11. Particle size distribution of the stratospheric aerosol from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Alexei; Malinina, Elizaveta; Rozanov, Vladimir; Hommel, Rene; Burrows, John

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric aerosols are of a great scientific interest because of their crucial role in the Earth's radiative budget as well as their contribution to chemical processes resulting in ozone depletion. While the permanent aerosol background in the stratosphere is determined by the tropical injection of SO2, COS and sulphate particles from the troposphere, major perturbations of the stratospheric aerosol layer result form an uplift of SO2 after strong volcanic eruptions. Satellite measurements in the visible spectral range represent one of the most important sources of information about the vertical distribution of the stratospheric aerosol on the global scale. This study employs measurements of the scattered solar light performed in the limb viewing geometry from the space borne spectrometer SCIAMACHY, which operated onboard the ENVISAT satellite, from August 2002 to April 2012. A retrieval approach to obtain parameters of the stratospheric aerosol particle size distribution will be reported along with the sensitivity studies and first results.

  12. Reaction rate distribution measurement and the core performance evaluation in the prototype FBR Monju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, S.; Suzuoki, Z.; Deshimaru, T. [Monju Construction Office, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Fukui-ken (Japan); Nakashima, F. [Tsuruga head Office, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Fukui-ken (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Monju is a prototype fast breeder reactor designed to have an output of 280 MW (714 MWt), fueled with mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium and cooled by liquid sodium. The principal data on plant design and performance are shown in Table 1. Monju attained initial criticality in April 1994 and the reactor physics tests were carried out from May through November 1994. The reaction rate distribution measurement by the foil activation method was one of these tests and was carried out in order to verify the core performance and to contribute to the development of the core design methods. On the basis of the reaction rate measurement data, the Monju initial core breeding ratio and the power distribution were evaluated. (author)

  13. Spectrally-resolved measurement of concentrated light distributions for Fresnel lens concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, P; White, P McVey; Dominguez, C; Voarino, P; Garcia-Linares, P; Lemiti, M; Schriemer, H; Hinzer, K; Baudrit, M

    2016-01-25

    A test method that measures spectrally resolved irradiance distribution for a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) optical system is presented. In conjunction with electrical I-V curves, it is a means to visualize and characterize the effects of chromatic aberration and nonuniform flux profiles under controllable testing conditions. The indoor characterization test bench, METHOD (Measurement of Electrical, Thermal and Optical Devices), decouples the temperatures of the primary optical element (POE) and the cell allowing their respective effects on optical and electrical performance to be analysed. In varying the temperature of the POE, the effects on electrical efficiency, focal distance, spectral sensitivity, acceptance angle and multi-junction current matching profiles can be quantified. This work presents the calibration procedures to accurately image the spectral irradiance distribution of a CPV system and a study of system behavior over lens temperature. PMID:26832591

  14. Dynamical measurement of refractive index distribution using digital holographic interferometry based on total internal reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwei; Di, Jianglei; Li, Ying; Xi, Teli; Zhao, Jianlin

    2015-10-19

    We present a method for dynamically measuring the refractive index distribution in a large range based on the combination of digital holographic interferometry and total internal reflection. A series of holograms, carrying the index information of mixed liquids adhered on a total reflection prism surface, are recorded with CCD during the diffusion process. Phase shift differences of the reflected light are reconstructed exploiting the principle of double-exposure holographic interferometry. According to the relationship between the reflection phase shift difference and the liquid index, two dimensional index distributions can be directly figured out, assuming that the index of air near the prism surface is constant. The proposed method can also be applied to measure the index of solid media and monitor the index variation during some chemical reaction processes. PMID:26480394

  15. Does the innermost occurrence distribution measure tidal dissipation, reveal a flow of giant planets, or both?

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, S F

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence distribution of the shortest period giant exoplanets as found by Kepler show a drop-off that is a remarkable match to the drop-off expected by taking migration due to tides in the star. We present a comparison that can show the level of tidal dissipation (friction) as a function of the distribution of the ages of the star and planet system, with known dependencies on basic star and planet parameters. Use of this relation enables constraints to be put on the value of the tidal dissipation, constraints that will be improved as the distribution of the ages are determined. For the giant planets, this leads to an unexpectedly low value of tidal dissipation. This over-abundance of short period giant planets may be due to a continuing resupply of longer period giant planets migrating into a shorter period pileup, disrupting the presence of smaller planets along the way. Perhaps the occurrence distribution of close Neptune sized planets will better measure the tidal friction, while the distribution of ...

  16. Distributed Measurement of Birefringence by P-OTDR Assisted with Piezoelectric Polarization Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shuang-Shou; WU Chong-Qing; LI Zheng-Yong; ZHANG Ren-Yuan; MENG Qing-Wen

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new polarization sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (P-OTDR) setup assisted with a piezoelectric polarization controller (PPC). The input state of polarization can be changed by varying the voltage of PPC without any rotatable instrument, and only one optical receiver is used to detect the backward beam.We measure a single mode fibre and get the distribution of birefringence along the SMF.

  17. Quantum nondemolition measurement of photon-number distribution for a weak cavity field with resonant atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑仕标

    2003-01-01

    We propose a quantum nondemolition measurement of the photon-number distribution for a weak cavity field with no more than two photons. The scheme is based on the resonant interaction of atoms with the cavity field, and thus the required interaction time is much shorter than that using dispersive interaction. This is important in view of decoherence. Our scheme can also be used to generate even and odd coherent states for a weak cavity field with resonant atoms.

  18. PEA System Modeling and Signal Processing for Measurements of Volume Charge Distributions in Thin Dielectric Films

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Lee H.; Dennison, JR; Griffiths, Erick W.; Pearson, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses an effort to develop advanced pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) measurement system capabilities that incorporate state-of-the-art hardware and improved signal processing and modeling to characterize embedded charge distributions in thin dielectric films. Objectives in developing this system include: (1) improved spatial resolution, while maintaining reasonable temporal resolution; (2) improved signal processing tools for increased signal/noise ratios; (3) integrated PEA modeli...

  19. An innovative methodology for measurement of stress distribution of inflatable membrane structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inflatable membrane structure has been widely used in the fields of civil building, industrial building, airship, super pressure balloon and spacecraft. It is important to measure the stress distribution of the inflatable membrane structure because it influences the safety of the structural design. This paper presents an innovative methodology for the measurement and determination of the stress distribution of the inflatable membrane structure under different internal pressures, combining photogrammetry and the force-finding method. The shape of the inflatable membrane structure is maintained by the use of pressurized air, and the internal pressure is controlled and measured by means of an automatic pressure control system. The 3D coordinates of the marking points pasted on the membrane surface are acquired by three photographs captured from three cameras based on photogrammetry. After digitizing the markings on the photographs, the 3D curved surfaces are rebuilt. The continuous membrane surfaces are discretized into quadrilateral mesh and simulated by membrane links to calculate the stress distributions using the force-finding method. The internal pressure is simplified to the external node forces in the normal direction according to the contributory area of the node. Once the geometry x, the external force r and the topology C are obtained, the unknown force densities q in each link can be determined. Therefore, the stress distributions of the inflatable membrane structure can be calculated, combining the linear adjustment theory and the force density method based on the force equilibrium of inflated internal pressure and membrane internal force without considering the mechanical properties of the constitutive material. As the use of the inflatable membrane structure is attractive in the field of civil building, an ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) cushion is used with the measurement model to validate the proposed methodology. The comparisons between the

  20. High-Resolution UV Holography Lens for Particle Size Distribution Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Morris Kaufman; Capelle, Gene; Grover, Mike; Sorenson, Dan; Pazuchanics, Pete

    2010-01-01

    A high-resolution UV holography relay lens, shown in Figure 1, has been developed for measuring particle size distributions down to 0.5 μm in a 12-mm-diameter by 5-mm-thick volume. This work has been selected by an independent judging panel and editors of R&D Magazine as a recipient of a 2009 R&D 100 Award. This award recognizes the 100 most technologically significant products introduced during the past year.