WorldWideScience

Sample records for 1990s measurement distribution

  1. Amoeba: a distributed operating system for the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, Sape J.; Rossum, van Guido; Tanenbaum, Andrew S.; Renesse, van Robbert; Staveren, van Hans

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the Amoeba distributed operating system, which appears to users as a centralized system but has the speed, fault tolerance, security safeguards, and flexibility required for the 1990s. The Amoeba software is based on objects. Objects are managed by server processes and name

  2. Measurement of health status in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, D L; Bergner, M

    1990-01-01

    The use of health-related quality of life measures, especially those based on function, are likely to increase during the next decade. This increase, however, is most likely to occur in clinical research and clinical practice. Unless the necessary political will, resources, data, and policy researchers coexist, there will be relatively little advance in the use of health status measures for decision-making and policy. This prediction is based on the observation that policy research tends to rely on available national data, that currently these data provide limited information about health status, and that there appears to be insufficient interest and resources to broaden data collection or to develop methods that incorporate a broad spectrum of health outcomes (e.g. death, impairment, functional status, and perceptions) into a single instrument or measure of health on large populations and communities. This state of affairs is particularly unfortunate as we face a decade in which available health and medical care may become more limited and social inequity in access and health status may become more marked. The effect of social inequities and restrictions to health care on the health of the nation cannot continue to be determined with reference only to the structure and process of the health care system. Health and quality of life outcomes are what count. And, these outcomes cannot be determined without appropriate and inclusive measures of health-related quality of life. Of course, we hope our prediction is wrong and that the motivation and resources will be found to help resolve methodologic issues in the measurement of population health status and quality of life and to provide the necessary data. We hope that government agencies, employers, and private providers will begin to collect health-related quality of life data on the constituents and populations they serve. Even if these data are imperfect or primitive, the effects of improving accessibility and

  3. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  4. Large Permafrost Warming in Northern Alaska During the 1990's Determined from GTN-P Borehole Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior currently maintains 9 automated active-layer monitoring stations and an array of 21 deep boreholes in northern Alaska as part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P). The GTN-P network is used both for climate change detection and for documenting the sensitivity of permafrost to climate change; GTN-P is one component of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS), which in turn is part of the long-term Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). During August 2002, temperatures were re-measured in the majority of the DOI/GTN-P boreholes to determine the present thermal state of deep permafrost in northern Alaska. A preliminary comparison with earlier temperature logs from the borehole array shows that permafrost on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain and Alaskan Arctic Foothills has warmed ~ 3 K since the late 1980's. This warming of the Arctic cryosphere coincides with the shift in atmospheric dynamics described by the Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode (NAM) that also began in the late 1980's.

  5. Open market operations in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl L. Edwards

    1997-01-01

    Open market operations--the purchase and sale of Treasury and federal agency securities--are the Federal Reserve's principal tool for implementing monetary policy. The objectives and conduct of open market operations have continued to evolve in the 1990s, partly in response to the way the Federal Open Market Committee implements monetary policy and explains it to the public. Also shaping operations have been changes in financial markets, including developments in the market for repurchase agr...

  6. Open market operations in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl L. Edwards

    1997-01-01

    Open market operations--the purchase and sale of Treasury and federal agency securities--are the Federal Reserve's principal tool for implementing monetary policy. The objectives and conduct of open market operations have continued to evolve in the 1990s, partly in response to the way the Federal Open Market Committee implements monetary policy and explains it to the public. Also shaping operations have been changes in financial markets, including developments in the market for repurchase agr...

  7. Marketing ambulatory services in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S

    1992-07-01

    The ability to predict, to adapt to change, and to develop strategic low cost marketing plans are the components essential to remaining financially solvent in today's health care environment. The marketing process is analogous to the nursing process and should support the institution's mission statement, philosophy, and goals. Managers who are able to empower their personnel to become the sales force and implement the marketing plan will be the survivors in the 1990s.

  8. Nordic activation in the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    The Nordic activation strategy demonstrates that activation should not be related solely to ''economic'' factors such as increasing ordinary employment per se. It should also be linked to the broader goal of providing people with a meaning to their life through participation in daily activities....... The 1990s have shown that the third way of the Nordic countries is still viable and ''social''. As such it provides an alternative to the dominant thinking on social security and economic incentives from elsewhere in the world....

  9. Explosive Welding in the 1990's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwaney, N. S.; Linse, V. D.

    1985-01-01

    Explosive bonding is a unique joining process with the serious potential to produce composite materials capable of fulfilling many of the high performance materials capable of fulfilling many of the high performance materials needs of the 1990's. The process has the technological versatility to provide a true high quality metallurgical compatible and incompatible systems. Metals routinely explosively bonded include a wide variety of combinations of reactive and refractory metals, low and high density metals and their alloys, corrosion resistant and high strength alloys, and common steels. The major advantage of the process is its ability to custom design and engineer composites with physical and/or mechanical properties that meet a specific or unusual performance requirement. Explosive bonding offers the designer unique opportunities in materials selection with unique combinations of properties and high integrity bonds that cannot be achieved by any other metal joining process. The process and some applications are discussed.

  10. Computing possibilities in the mid 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, T.

    1988-09-01

    This paper describes the kind of computing resources it may be possible to make available for experiments in high energy physics in the mid and late 1990s. We outline some of the work going on today, particularly at Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program, that projects to the future. We attempt to define areas in which coordinated R and D efforts should prove fruitful to provide for on and off-line computing in the SSC era. Because of extraordinary components anticipated from industry, we can be optimistic even to the level of predicting million VAX equivalent on-line multiprocessor/data acquisition systems for SSC detectors. Managing this scale of computing will require a new approach to large hardware and software systems. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Intra-ASEAN Economic Cooperation in the1990's

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIZU, Kazushi

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the phase of Intra-ASEAN Economic Cooperation in the 1990's, in particular the pre-Asian-Economic Crisis in 1997. The "ASEAN's strategy for Collective FDI-dependent and Export-oriented Industrialization (ASEAN's strategy for CFEI)" was evaluated. Next we examined whether ASEAN could be used as an integration model for developing countries. Finally, this paper pointed out that ASEAN stood at a crossroads in the 1990's. This was because the political and economic, and histor...

  12. Fertility trends in Serbia during the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1990s represent an exceptionally complex period for the population of Serbia. In addition to the impact of long-term factors, various tumultuous events affected its demographic development, such as breaking apart of former Yugoslavia, armed conflicts in the neighboring countries, sanctions imposed by the international community, social changes (transition transformation or regression, deep economic crisis, collapse of social stratification political problems, institutional crisis, and NATO military intervention. Maladjustment to the changed system of values and norms, lower level of personal attainment, feeling of insecurity, and living under permanent stress are the main features of life at an individual psychological level. Deprivation or living at the subsistence level are the main elements of the economic cost sustained by the majority of the population. How have these changes affected an individual's decision to have children? The analysis of futility indicators points to an obvious decline in the number of births across low fertility regions of Serbia. Also, the analysis has raised the question why the decline in population fertility in the low fertility regions was not even higher, bearing in mind the experiences undergone by the countries with economy in transition as well as the depth of the crisis in society. In that sense several factors come to mind. The most important are the universality of marriage socio-psychological investigations confirmed domination of the traditional character or mentality in Serbia during the 1990s, and the government’s approach to the issue of fertility improved during this time. Besides demographic needs were carefully taken into account in all amendments to the old and formulation of the new measures in the area of social policy. Mention should be made of measures ensuring employment rights of women and their entitlement to maternity leave, maternity pay, and provision of institutionalized care for

  13. Mass balance inverse modelling of methane in the 1990s using a Chemistry Transport Model

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Butler; Simmonds, I.; Rayner, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    International audience; A mass balance inverse modelling procedure is applied with a time-dependent methane concentration boundary condition and a chemical transport model to relate observed changes in the surface distribution of methane mixing ratios during the 1990s to changes in its surface sources. The model reproduces essential features of the global methane cycle, such as the latitudinal distribution and seasonal cycle of fluxes, without using a priori knowledge of methane fluxes. A det...

  14. Problems and Prospects of Turkey in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    sianificant pillar of the European economic. deience. and social structure. VI - 2 NOTES 1. Karabulut, Orhan . "The Turkish Navy in the 1990s." NATO’s...Kamran. "The South-East Anatolia Project." Turkish Review (Spring 1989) Ankara-Turkey Karabulut, Orhan . Adm. "The Turkish Navy in the 1990s.0 NATO’s...SCALE 1 :25SO0000 PROJECTION UNIVERSAL TRANSVERSE MERCATOR ULTM) 2𔃼*24, 25- 6 27* 2. I.to Im,wiaa Weua (AWin 871 %)I B U L G A R IA 6*4 wwa j*am.Ap

  15. Rural Earnings Holding Steady in the Early 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate an overall decline in the rural-urban pay gap during the early 1990s (due to declining urban wages, not rising rural wages). In 1993, the earnings of 30 percent of rural full-time workers were below the poverty level. Compares low-income workers by gender, age group, education, and race/ethnicity. (LP)

  16. Rural Earnings Holding Steady in the Early 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate an overall decline in the rural-urban pay gap during the early 1990s (due to declining urban wages, not rising rural wages). In 1993, the earnings of 30 percent of rural full-time workers were below the poverty level. Compares low-income workers by gender, age group, education, and race/ethnicity. (LP)

  17. Child Poverty Was Lower at End of 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carolyn C.

    2001-01-01

    Poverty rates increased in the early 1990s, but between 1994 and 1999 the metro child poverty rate declined 6 percentage points and the nonmetro rate declined 4 percent. In 1999, the poverty rate for nonmetro Black children was about double that of nonmetro White children, but the Black-White gap in poverty narrowed between 1985 and 1999. (TD)

  18. Completing School in Australia: Trends in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    After a period of dramatic growth in secondary school completion in Australia, school retention rates are declining. Analysis of state, system, geographic, social, and gender patterns suggests that during the 1990s the downturn in completion rate has been uneven; some groups who had come to rely on schooling during the 1980s for future economic…

  19. A Strategic Planning Process for NATO for the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    This thesis deals with the possible shifts in NATO’s strategy for the rest of the 1990s. It uses a strategic planning model to explore these possible...shift’s in strategy. Strategic planning is a systematic process of defining the mission and the objectives and creating action plans, policies and...resource allocations to achieve them. Every organization should initiate strategic planning in order to address the evolving needs of its stakeholders

  20. Characteristics of Induced Abortion in China in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-chun QIAO

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand the characteristics of induced abortion in China in the 1990s,and to find out the influential factors.Methods The overall number of induced abortions, calculate cohort induced abortion frequency, explore the impact of a child's sex and the number of previous children on induced abortions were estimated by using the data from the "National Population and Reproductive Health Survey" conducted by the National Family Planning Commission in November 1997.Results Induced abortions in China had their own characteristics, which were far different from other countries. The main difference was led by the fact that the country was driven by an implemented family planning program and nationwide population policies. The key cause of induced abortions was due to an inconsistency with the requirements of the family planning policy. However, as a result of effective and prevalent contraception, the rates of induced abortions were not quite high in the 1990s,when compared with other countries. Even though, in the early 1990s, the government had reinforced the family planning program through administration and legislation,unlike during the early 1980s when the one-child policy was implemented, the induced abortion rate and the number of induce abortions did not increase as the fertility rate substantially decreased.Concltsion This finding implies that the fertility declines in the 1990s were not caused by the number of induced abortions. The transition of the fertility ideology of the people has played an important role in the fertility decline, as institutional reform and socioeconomic development are implemented.

  1. Youth film in Russia and Serbia since the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the youth film genre in Russia and Serbia since the 1990s. Youth film is not only an essential means of tracing changes in cultural perceptions about young people and their lives in the post-communist period, but I argue that the genre serves as a means of representing society as a whole. The youth film genre, as an overarching framework dictated by the age of a film’s protagonists, encompasses and adopts a wide variety of sub-genres. This flexibility in youth film allows...

  2. Helioseismology in the 1980s and 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Philip R.

    2014-02-01

    Over more than twenty years, Wojtek Dziembowski and I collaborated on nearly fifty papers, which were concentrated in helioseismology through the 1980s and 1990s, but extended early into the new century. In this review, I discuss the most significant results of this collaboration and some of the underlying sociology that contributed to the intensity and longevity of our collaboration. Our work began with placing limits on the Sun's buried magnetic field and ended with extracting from the solar-cycle dependent oscillation frequency changes the roles (and net result) of competing dynamical drivers of changes in the solar diameter.

  3. Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, P R

    2001-09-01

    The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.

  4. European Telecommunications Conference. Strategic Planning for the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. F.

    1990-06-01

    The European Telecommunications Conference Strategic Planning for the 1990s provided information to delegates and their companies on strategic planning for the European market, particularly after the advent of the European Single Market at the end of 1992. The conference objective was to examine the impact of the initiatives of the European Commission (EC) and the changing attitudes to service provision by public and private sector organizations on industry and marketing. Organized by Blenheim Online and Logica, 40 delegates attended this conference, mainly from Europe, but with a few from the U.S. The papers were designed to illuminate such questions as emerging market sectors, impact of U.S telecommunications organizations in Europe, mergers and acquisition, standards, and value-added services.

  5. Secondary Education in Argentina during the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Gorostiaga

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The reform of secondary education has been a fundamental part of national educational policy in Argentina since the beginning of the 1990s. Along with the decentralization of responsibilities to provinces and a new structure of primary and secondary education, changes have affected the areas of curriculum design, teaching methods, teacher training, school management, and information and evaluation systems. This study describes the main policies on secondary education implemented during the last decade, including their objectives and rationales. Focusing on how the reform can be seen to relate to issues of access, quality and equity, the study presents an analysis of its implementation, and discusses some of its effects. We argue that political, economic and technical factors as well as the strategies chosen by the national government resulted in a limited implementation, and we highlight the need for considering more focused reform strategies, alternative models of teacher training, and a more active involvement of teachers.

  6. ACTS multibeam communications package - Technology for the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graebner, John C.; Cashman, William F.

    To maintain its competitive position in the 1990s, satellite communications must evolve to provide new services and to reduce the costs of supplying existing services. NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program is directed toward developing the technology base that will support this evolution. The ACTS communications payload is optimized for digital communications using a time-division multiple access format. Scanning spot-beam antennas provide high-performance on-demand service to the earth communication stations. On-board processing and switching allow full connectivity in a single-hop network architecture. ACTS employs Ka-band (30/20 GHz) links for communications traffic and includes techniques for mitigating rain fades. Scheduled to be launched by a Space Shuttle in 1992, ACTS will provide in-orbit technology verification and support experimental communications networks for up to four years.

  7. Television, Rituals, Struggle for Public Memory in Serbia during 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Erdei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to point to the the role of television (mainly state owned and controlled and ritual actions, in creating and distributing messages concerning important social and political events during the 1990s. The main argument is that the urban street political protest actions that were performed by the political and social opponents of the ruling regime, mainly in Belgrade streets and squares, were a logical outcome of the regime’s media policy, and closely dependent on it. The aim of that policy was to silence the opposing voices and make them invisible, but also to avoid speaking about events that might threaten the image of the ruling regime as tolerant, peaceful and patriotic, the examples of which were information on war crimes, and devastations of Vukovar, Dubrovnik and Sarajevo. Political protests and ritual actions have created a place where these issues could safely be spoken out, thus creating an emerging public counter sphere. Instead of considering media and rituals as separated ways of communication, it will be showed how in particular social and political context in Serbia during 1990s, television and rituals have reached a point of mutual constitution and articulation.

  8. The Public Secondary School and Teacher in American Films of the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Arleen B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how public secondary schools and educators were portrayed in American films of the 1990s. Thirty films were selected for study that were produced and released in the decade of the 1990s. Content analysis and a "Film Analysis Form" produced answers to eight questions regarding the learning environments, portrayal of…

  9. Cowboys and kings: The coming of age film in 1990s Irish cinema

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menendez-Otero, Carlos

    ... on the conventions of the Hollywood coming of age film to meet investor demands and engage global audiences with Irish concerns. Keywords: Coming of age film, Irish cinema, Hollywood, teen, Celtic Tiger, 1990s Introduction Early in the 1990s, the critical and commercial success of the Irish-themed UK films My Left Foot (Jim Sheridan, 1989) and The Crying Game (Neil J...

  10. THE SPATIAL DIVISION OF INDUSTRIES OF THE PEARL RIVER DELTA IN THE 1990s: CHARACTERISTICS AND TRENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The article analyzed the spatial division of industries of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in the 1990s, a period that witnessed the deepening of the reform and opening policies and continued rapid development of the region. By adopting the index of specialization, the extent of specialization, its change and its spatial distribution in the region are measured and demonstrated.The research revealed that, despite the trend of more balanced development of the secondary sector between the PRD and the rest of the province, in the PRD, it is the unbalanced development that dominated and the spatial division of the secondary sector has been shaped. The tertiary industry has also been experiencing unbalance development and the spatial division of the tertiary sector has been emerging, its extent of concentration appearing even more evident than that of the secondary sector. The author also discussed the linkage between the spatial division of the two sectors. In the end of the paper, the trends of the spatial division of the industries in the PRD are forecasted.

  11. LUCC and Accompanied Soil Degradation in China from 1960's to 1990's

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Qigang; Shintaro GOTO; Hiroki TAKAMURA

    2002-01-01

    This paper tries to qualitatively analyze land use and cover changes (LUCC) and accompanied soil degradation in China, the data of World Atlas of Agriculture in 1969, Land Cover Data of Asia in 1992 and Global Assessment of Human Induced Soil Degradation in 1992, etc. have been used. From 1960' s to 1990's, the area of forestland had increased, arable land and paddy as well as grassland had significantly decreased in China. The major type of soil degradation is due to water erosion, which is widely distributed especially in Loess Plateau and in Southeast and Southwest China, this happened in forestland, grassland and arable land and mainly resulted from deforestation. The secondary type is wind erosion, which is mainly distributed in Northwest China, it happened in arable land and grassland and was caused by overgrazing. Chemical deterioration is distributed in North and Northwest China, which happened in paddy, arable land and grassland. Physical deterioration only concentrated in local area in North China, it happened in arable and paddy. Chemical and physical deteriora-tion mainly resulted from unreasonable activity. Because of different human activities, different LUCC and different natural conditions, the types and strength of soil degradation can be different.

  12. Epidemiological Study of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Vientiane, Lao PDR, in 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mika; Soukaloun, Douangdao; Phongsavath, Khampe; Phommasack, Bounlay; Makino, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was conducted using core-premembrane and envelope gene sequence data of two strains from Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic, in 1993 and five from Okinawa, Japan, in 2002 and 2003, and previously published strains. The two Vientiane strains designated as LaVS56 and LaVS145 belonged to genotype 1 (G1) and the same subcluster of G1 as Australian strain in 2000, Thai strains in 1982–1985 and 2004-2005, and Vietnamese strain in 2005, but were distinct from the subcluster of recently distributing G1 strains widely in Asia including Okinawan strains and recent Lao strain in 2009. These clusters with own distinct distributions indicated involvements of different mechanisms and routes of spreading viruses and clarified that Australian G1 strain is from Southeast Asia, not from East Asia. Both Vientiane strains were antigenically close to P19-Br (G1, isolate, Thailand), but distinct from Nakayama (G3, prototype strain, Japan), Beijing-1 (G3, laboratory strain, China), and JaGAr#01 (G3, laboratory strain, Japan), demonstrated by cross-neutralization tests using polyclonal antisera. These results together with seroepidemiologic study conducted in Vientiane strongly suggest that diversified JEV cocirculated there in early 1990s. PMID:25695095

  13. Changes in Land Surface Water Dynamics since the 1990s and Relation to Population Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, C.; Papa, F.; Aires, F.; Jimenez, C.; Rossow, W. B.; Matthews, E.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a remote sensing approach based on multi-satellite observations, which provides an unprecedented estimate of monthly distribution and area of land-surface open water over the whole globe. Results for 1993 to 2007 exhibit a large seasonal and inter-annual variability of the inundation extent with an overall decline in global average maximum inundated area of 6% during the fifteen-year period, primarily in tropical and subtropical South America and South Asia. The largest declines of open water are found where large increases in population have occurred over the last two decades, suggesting a global scale effect of human activities on continental surface freshwater: denser population can impact local hydrology by reducing freshwater extent, by draining marshes and wetlands, and by increasing water withdrawals. Citation: Prigent, C., F. Papa, F. Aires, C. Jimenez, W. B. Rossow, and E. Matthews (2012), Changes in land surface water dynamics since the 1990s and relation to population pressure, in section 4, insisting on the potential applications of the wetland dataset.

  14. Northward expansion of the western Pacific Warm Pool in late 1990s and early 2000s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuxing; WANG Faming

    2012-01-01

    Based on 48-year (1958-2006) ocean reanalysis data of Simple Ocean Data Assimilation and 23-year (1984-2006) global ocean-surface heat flux products developed by the Objectively Analyzed AirSea Heat Flux Project,meridional variation of the western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) is addressed.The results show that there is a significant expansion of the northern edge of the WPWP in the late 1990s and early 2000s.This variation is mainly within 120°E-160°E by 8°N-20°N,we define this region (120°E-160°E by 8°N-20°N) as the core region.Furthermore,analyses on upper ocean heat budget show that the short wave radiation plays a key role in the northward expansion of the northern edge of the WPWP in the core region.It is proved that the northward expansion may be caused by the change of the mixed layer which became shallower in 1994-2006 compared with 1984-1993 in the study region.The short wave radiation flux distribution within the shallower mixed layer leads to a positive anomaly in seawater temperature,promoting the northward expansion of the WPWP.

  15. Operational Alternatives for Air Assault Forces in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    in emergency. Attack helicopters will go after hostile ADA to strip it out as soon as a flight is fired upon. Smoke and deception measures are also... Assesment , Incl. 2, p. 9. Paraphraae, not verbatim. 43. 101st Assesnent, Incl. 2, pp. 9-10. 44. Richard S. otite, BG, US Deptment of the Army, Forces...Reforg9r 76, p. Ill-I. Ihdes is a classified docment. Only unclassified portions are cited or excerpted.) (here- after cited ’ l Assesment .) 45. R==(i

  16. Assessment of pre-fabricated bathrooms from the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Brandt, Erik

    2015-01-01

    -weight assembly kit with fibre reinforced concrete bottoms - Light-weight assembly kit of fibre reinforced concrete elements The use of an inspection scheme implied that a consistent visual assessment of the bathrooms included constructions, installations and measurable conditions, e.g. moisture content and crack...... was to evaluate the performance and durability of the developed prefabricated bathrooms after 15-20 years of use. A systematic condition assessment was developed for the bathrooms inspections. Three bathrooms were investigated for each bathrooms solution: - Heavy-weight whole concrete cabins - Heavy...... sizes, was obtained. Each parameter in the inspection scheme was judged on a 5 step ranking scale of conditions and interrelated degree of consequences. The investigation of the 9 bathrooms indicated a generally high quality of the bathrooms. Many of the registered failures may be eliminated...

  17. Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular and optical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents a program of research initiatives in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The current state of atomic, molecular, and optical physics in the US is examined with respect to demographics, education patterns, applications, and the US economy. Recommendations are made for each field, with discussions of their histories and the relevance of the research to government agencies. The section on atomic physics includes atomic theory, structure, and dynamics; accelerator-based atomic physics; and large facilities. The section on molecular physics includes spectroscopy, scattering theory and experiment, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The section on optical physics discusses lasers, laser spectroscopy, and quantum optics and coherence. A section elucidates interfaces between the three fields and astrophysics, condensed matter physics, surface science, plasma physics, atmospheric physics, and nuclear physics. Another section shows applications of the three fields in ultra-precise measurements, fusion, national security, materials, medicine, and other topics.

  18. Optimal distribution of measurement time in single channel measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspar, J

    2008-01-01

    Single channel measurements play a minor role in today physics, but they are sometimes unavoidable. Comparing to multichannel measurements, there is distribution of measurement time to be chosen in an experiment design. A method to optimize distribution of measurement time is given, where optimal distribution minimizes standard deviation of a selected fit parameter. As an example, the method is applied to electron spectroscopy experiments.

  19. An unexpected rise in strontium-90 in US deciduous teeth in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Joseph J; Gould, Jay M; Sternglass, Ernest J; Sherman, Janette D; McDonnell, William

    2003-12-30

    For several decades, the United States has been without an ongoing program measuring levels of fission products in the body. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) concentrations in 2089 deciduous (baby) teeth, mostly from persons living near nuclear power reactors, reveal that average levels rose 48.5% for persons born in the late 1990s compared to those born in the late 1980s. This trend represents the first sustained increase since the early 1960s, before atmospheric weapons tests were banned. The trend was consistent for each of the five states for which at least 130 teeth are available. The highest averages were found in southeastern Pennsylvania, and the lowest in California (San Francisco and Sacramento), neither of which is near an operating nuclear reactor. In each state studied, the average Sr-90 concentration is highest in counties situated closest to nuclear reactors. It is likely that, 40 years after large-scale atmospheric atomic bomb tests ended, much of the current in-body radioactivity represents nuclear reactor emissions.

  20. Change in Beaufort Sea Ice in the 1990s: A Perspective Based on Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melling, H.; Riedel, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    A 12-year series of ice-draft measurements by sonar in the eastern Beaufort Sea provides opportunity to examine the impact of the warm 1990s in this area. The results are perhaps surprisingly. The average thickness of ice has changed little. The average ice coverage has changed little, although the coverage by old ice has increased slightly. The year 1998 stands out clearly as an anomaly. There is a large variation in average ice draft throughout the year which is driven by seasonally varying ice drift as well as by the annual cycle of freezing and melting. Inter-annual variation in average ice draft is also large, forced primarily by the impact of changes in average wind on ice circulation. However, year-to-year variation in storminess also appears important, through its impact on the flaw lead and on ridging along the coastal margin. The negligible trend in the average draft of the predominately first-year pack of this area is consistent with data for coastal sea ice over a wide area across northern Eurasia and North America, which span a half century. The trend may also be consistent with recent change in the thickness of pack ice in the central Arctic Ocean, when first-year and multi-year ice are examined separately.

  1. Broadening not strengthening of the Agulhas Current since the early 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Lisa M.; Elipot, Shane

    2016-12-01

    Western boundary currents—such as the Agulhas Current in the Indian Ocean—carry heat poleward, moderating Earth’s climate and fuelling the mid-latitude storm tracks. They could exacerbate or mitigate warming and extreme weather events in the future, depending on their response to anthropogenic climate change. Climate models show an ongoing poleward expansion and intensification of the global wind systems, most robustly in the Southern Hemisphere, and linear dynamical theory suggests that western boundary currents will intensify and shift poleward as a result. Observational evidence of such changes comes from accelerated warming and air-sea heat flux rates within all western boundary currents, which are two or three times faster than global mean rates. Here we show that, despite these expectations, the Agulhas Current has not intensified since the early 1990s. Instead, we find that it has broadened as a result of more eddy activity. Recent analyses of other western boundary currents—the Kuroshio and East Australia currents—hint at similar trends. These results indicate that intensifying winds may be increasing the eddy kinetic energy of boundary currents, rather than their mean flow. This could act to decrease poleward heat transport and increase cross-frontal exchange of nutrients and pollutants between the coastal ocean and the deep ocean. Sustained in situ measurements are needed to properly understand the role of these current systems in a changing climate.

  2. Assessment of pre-fabricated bathrooms from the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Brandt, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark many older dwellings have or had no proper bathroom. Therefore, a lot of dwellings have been refurbished with bathrooms over the past 40+ years. There is great focus on establishment of bathrooms for several reasons. One is that bathrooms are expensive; one of the most cost-intensive t...... e.g. the above mentioned cracks. Therefore definitive conclusions are difficult to make based on the visual inspection, hence the methodology might be questioned if adequate for a durability assessment....... was to evaluate the performance and durability of the developed prefabricated bathrooms after 15-20 years of use. A systematic condition assessment was developed for the bathrooms inspections. Three bathrooms were investigated for each bathrooms solution: - Heavy-weight whole concrete cabins - Heavy......-weight assembly kit with fibre reinforced concrete bottoms - Light-weight assembly kit of fibre reinforced concrete elements The use of an inspection scheme implied that a consistent visual assessment of the bathrooms included constructions, installations and measurable conditions, e.g. moisture content and crack...

  3. Aerosol effects on summer monsoon over Asia during 1980s and 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, I.-Chun; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Lee, Wei-Liang

    2016-10-01

    The Community Earth System Model is used to study the aerosol climate effects during the 1980s and 1990s in which the anthropogenic SO2 emissions decreased in North America and Western Europe and increased in East and South Asia. From the 100 year simulations, aerosol forcing results in cooler (-0.13 K) and drier (-0.01 mm/day) atmosphere with less shortwave radiation flux at the surface (-0.37 W/m2). The clear-sky shortwave radiation flux decreased over East Asia (-0.81 W/m2) and South Asia (-1.09 W/m2), but increased over Western Europe (+1.16 W/m2) and North America (+0.39 W/m2), consistent with aerosol loading changes. While changes in spatial distributions of all-sky shortwave radiation and surface temperature are closely related to cloud changes, the changes in wind and precipitation do not correspond to aerosol loading changes, indicating the complexity of aerosol-cloud circulation interactions. The East and South Asia monsoons were generally weakened due mainly to southward shift of the 200 hPa East Asia Jet (EAJ) and decrease in 850 hPa winds; annual precipitation decreased by 2% in South Asia but increased by 2% in Yangtze-Huai River Valley over East Asia. The uncertainties associated with aerosol climate effects are addressed within the context of model variability and the global warming effect. For the latter, while the aerosol effects decrease the greenhouse warming on the global mean, the regional responses are different. Nevertheless, the characteristics of aerosol climate effects, including the southward 200 hPa EAJ and weakened South Asia monsoon, still persist when the climate becomes warmer, although the strength and the geographical distribution are slightly modulated.

  4. Changes in the northern Benguela ecosystem over three decades: 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heymans, J.J.; Shannon, L.J.; Jarre, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    high catches, and had large populations of a few planktivorous fish. In the 1980s, the planktivorous fish species were expanded (horse mackerel, mesopelagic fish, and other small pelagics), although anchovy and sardine biomass was reduced. Catches remained high in the 1980s and the system was well...... connected. In the 1990s, the system was severely stressed, catches were much lower and omnivory was reduced. Most of the energy flowed through few pathways in the 1990s, and the energy was not transferred as efficiently up the trophic chain as in the 1980s. The fishery operated at the highest trophic level...... during the 1980s and there are some indications of "fishing down the foodweb" in this ecosystem between the 1980s and the 1990s. The high catches of sardine and hake in the 1970s are reflected in the high primary production required (PPR) by those compartments; the high catches of horse mackerel...

  5. Dynamic-analogue correction of the decadal change of East Asian summer precipitation in the late 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiqiang; Li, Shangfeng; Hu, Po; Shen, Baizhu; Feng, Guolin

    2016-06-01

    This paper systematically evaluates the deviations that appear in the hindcasts of the East Asian summer precipitation (EASP) decadal change in the late 1990s in two global coupled models (BCC_CGCM and BCC_CSM). The possible causes for the deviations between the model hindcasts and observations are analyzed. The results show that the hindcasts of EASP by BCC_CGCM and BCC_CSM deviate from observations, with the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) being -0.01 and -0.09 for the two models, respectively. The SST anomalies in North and West Pacific and the SST index values predicted by the two models also deviate from the observations, indicating that inconsistent SST fields may be the key factor leading to the deviation in the prediction of the EASP decadal shift. Thus, a dynamic-analogue scheme is proposed to correct the precipitation hindcasts by using SSTs, where SST and EASP are highly correlated, to select historical analogue cases. Cross validations show that the average ACC of the temporal-latitude distribution of the EASP between the corrected hindcasts and observations is 0.18 for BCC_CGCM and 0.02 for BCC_CSM; both are much higher than the uncorrected hindcasts. Applying the dynamic-analogue correction scheme in both models successfully improves prediction of the EASP decadal change in the late 1990s.

  6. Flooding 1990s along the Yangtze River, has it concern of global warming?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There were a series of severe floods along the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River (Changjiang River) in China during the 1990s. The extensive summer (June, July and August) precipitation is mostly responsible for the flooding. The summer rainfall in the 1980s and the 1990s is much higher than that in the previous 3 decades. The means for 1990-1999 is +87.62 mm above normal, marked the 1990s the wettest decade since the 1950s. Six stations with a time span of 1880-1999 are selected to establish century-long rainfall series. This series also shows that the 1990s is the wettest decade during the last 120 years. In the wettest 12 years, four occurred in the 1990s (1991,1996,1998 and 1999). Both global and China's temperature show there is a relative lower air temperature during the 1960-1970s, and a rapid warming in the 1980-1990s. Comparisons of rainfall between 1960-1979 and 1980-1999 show there are dramatic changes. In the cold period 1960-1979, the summer rainfall along the Yangtze River is 3.8 % to 4.7 % below the normal, during the warm period 1980-1999, over 8.4 % to 18.2 % of summer rainfall occurs. Over the whole eastern China, the summer rainfall shows opposite spatial patterns from the 1960-1970s to 1980-1990s. The consistent trend toward more rainfall with global warming is also presented by the greenhouse scenario modeling. A millennial Drought/flood Index for the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River showed that although the surplus summer rainfall in the 1990s is the severest during the past 150 years, it is not outstanding in the context of past millennium. Power spectra of the Drought/flood Index show significant interdecadal periods at 33.3 and 11.8 years. Thus, both the natural inter-decadal variations and the global warming may play important roles in the frequent floods witnessed during the last two decades.

  7. Food industry structure in Norway and Denmark since the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimek, Bjørn; Hansen, Henning Otte

    2017-01-01

    Structural changes in Norwegian and Danish food industry since the 1990s is analysed as a path dependent response to the neo-liberal turn. Norway entered the 1990s as a protected market and Denmark as case of an export oriented industry. These developmental strategies are rooted in early 20th...... ‘varieties of capitalism’ framework with corporate strategy theories on food industry M&As. We identify two different types of path dependent development, a self-reinforcing in Denmark and a transformative ‘breaking point’ in Norway....

  8. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  9. The Role of Communication Satellites in Education and Training: The 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Kenneth A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of satellite technology and trends in its use, reviews the evolution of education and training applications of communication satellites, and prognosticates about the possible national and international uses during the 1990s. A bibliography of 26 items is included. (CHC)

  10. Danish Architecture Sales to Germany in the 1990s. Ph.d.-serie 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    Danish Architecture Sales to Germany in the 1990s - An IMP/INPM Approach to Examining the Professional Service and Project-related Internationalization of Danish Architectural Service Firms 40 Summary in English or Danish can be obtained from the author (e-mail: mask@asb.dk). The dissertation won...

  11. The Perpetuation of Subtle Prejudice: Race and Gender Imagery in 1990s Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltrane, Scott; Messineo, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed television commercials aired on programs with high ratings for specific target audiences from 1992-94 to investigate how advertising imagery simultaneously constructed racial and gender stereotypes. Results indicated that 1990s television commercials portrayed white men as powerful, white women as sex objects, African American men as…

  12. Human Resources in the South: Rural Sociology in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Peggy J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the condition of human resources in the rural South, particularly educational attainment, outmigration, illiteracy, and quality of rural schools. Discusses strategies for the development of human resources in the 1990s involving local, state, and federal governments and the role of rural sociologists. Contains 40 references. (Author/SV)

  13. Danish Architecture Sales to Germany in the 1990s. Ph.d.-serie 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    Danish Architecture Sales to Germany in the 1990s - An IMP/INPM Approach to Examining the Professional Service and Project-related Internationalization of Danish Architectural Service Firms 40 Summary in English or Danish can be obtained from the author (e-mail: mask@asb.dk). The dissertation won...... the American Marketing Association's "Liam Glynn Services Research Award" in the year 2001....

  14. Equality, Diversity and Opportunity: Civil Rights and Affirmative Action in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    Challenges to civil rights and affirmative action in the 1990s are identified. Five cases of racial, sex, ethnic, and reverse discrimination behind the Civil Rights bills of 1990 and 1991 are discussed. The ultimate challenge is to demonstrate that if civil rights litigants win, others need not lose. (SLD)

  15. Mexican American Women's Activism at Indiana University in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…

  16. Factors affecting Yukon teen pregnancy decline in the mid and late 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, Jeff

    2002-11-01

    Teen pregnancy has declined throughout North America in the 1990s. In Yukon Territory, Canada, teen pregnancy in the late 1990s was almost 40% lower than in the early 1990s. This rate of decline is significantly greater than most recently reported national rates of teen pregnancy decline in Canada and United States. Identifying possible causes of the Yukon decline may help policy makers and program managers plan and implement teen pregnancy prevention strategies. Data on Yukon teen pregnancy prevention initiatives were collected through numerous discussions and interviews with Yukon service providers, teens, and the general public between 1994 and 2001. Analysis of data demonstrates that multiple new initiatives spanning many sectors were implemented in the mid and late 1990s that could have contributed to the decline in Yukon teen pregnancy. A multi-dimensional approach to teen pregnancy prevention that included researching and evaluating family planning programs and policies before, during, and after implementation, increasing access to longer-acting hormonal contraceptives, providing continuing family planning medical education to health care providers and other youth service providers, subsidization of contraceptives, delivery of innovative family planning mass media campaigns, and delivery of ongoing sexual health education programs may have significantly contributed to the decline in Yukon teen pregnancy. Collaboration among service providers across many service sectors (clinical, public health, education, First Nations, government communication and policy, grassroots) facilitated coordination of the multi-dimensional approach.

  17. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  18. "Goodbye Radicalism!" : conceptions of conservatism among Chinese intellectuals during the early 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Els van

    2009-01-01

    This research has analyzed the topic of “conservatism” (baoshou zhuyi) in early 1990s China from a twofold perspective. Firstly, in the tradition of conceptual history (Begriffsgeschichte), the concrete use of the concept of “conservatism” in Chinese intellectual discourse has been studied in relati

  19. The Role of Communication Satellites in Education and Training: The 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Kenneth A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of satellite technology and trends in its use, reviews the evolution of education and training applications of communication satellites, and prognosticates about the possible national and international uses during the 1990s. A bibliography of 26 items is included. (CHC)

  20. Patterns in Payout Policy and Payout Channel Choice of UK Firms in the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Trojanowski, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines the payout policy of UK firms listed on the London Stock Exchange during the 1990s.We complement the existing payout literature studies by analyzing jointly the trends in dividends and share repurchases.Unlike in the US, we find that, in the UK, firms do not demonstrate a

  1. Rethinking School Finance: An Agenda for the 1990s. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan R., Ed.

    This book lays the groundwork for rethinking school finance in the context of new educational policy directions for the 1990s. Proposed educational reforms have created several school finance issues: (1) the linkage between the basic school finance structure, educational goals, and the cost of effective schoolwide strategies; (2) site-based…

  2. Patterns in Payout Policy and Payout Channel Choice of UK Firms in the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Trojanowski, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines the payout policy of UK firms listed on the London Stock Exchange during the 1990s.We complement the existing payout literature studies by analyzing jointly the trends in dividends and share repurchases.Unlike in the US, we find that, in the UK, firms do not demonstrate a decreasi

  3. Growth management and decentralisation An assessment of urban containment policies in Beijing in the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Pengjun; Lue, Bin; Woltjer, Johan

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an empirical analysis of the performance of urban containment policies in Beijing in the 1990s. The results show that the objectives of the municipal urban containment policies hove been partly achieved through actual local developments. Overall urban compactness was enhanced.

  4. Britishness, Identity, and the Three-Dimensional: British Sculpture Abroad in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney J. Martin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines how sculptural discourse was absent from British art shown outside of Britain in the 1990s, despite the international prominence of two distinct groups of British artists: the so-called Young British Artists (YBAs and other British artists folded into a postcolonial or identity-based construction.

  5. El Nino During the 1990's: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990's has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein; however, appear to mitigate this belief.

  6. El Nino During the 1990s: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990's has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein; however, appear to mitigate this belief.

  7. Transport Policy Implementation And Outcomes:The Case of Yaounde in the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eddia, S.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the implementation and outcomes of market friendly reforms in urban public transport in the city of Yaonde in Cameroon in the 1990s under auspices and pressure from Bretton Woods Institutions in favour of the new development doctrine that preached minimal state. It seeks to expa

  8. Mexican American Women's Activism at Indiana University in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…

  9. Measuring the distribution of spitefulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik O Kimbrough

    Full Text Available Spiteful, antisocial behavior may undermine the moral and institutional fabric of society, producing disorder, fear, and mistrust. Previous research demonstrates the willingness of individuals to harm others, but little is understood about how far people are willing to go in being spiteful (relative to how far they could have gone or their consistency in spitefulness across repeated trials. Our experiment is the first to provide individuals with repeated opportunities to spitefully harm anonymous others when the decision entails zero cost to the spiter and cannot be observed as such by the object of spite. This method reveals that the majority of individuals exhibit consistent (non-spitefulness over time and that the distribution of spitefulness is bipolar: when choosing whether to be spiteful, most individuals either avoid spite altogether or impose the maximum possible harm on their unwitting victims.

  10. Cowboys and kings: The coming of age film in 1990s Irish cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Menendez-Otero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores why in the 1990s many Irish filmmakers chose precisely a coming of age narrative to attempt to take the international box office by storm, and assesses some of the films that resulted from the attempt. First, it discusses the cultural roots and generic conventions of the Hollywood teen film, especially the rites of passage it has reified and its idealization of small-town, mid-century America. Second, it studies the economic and cultural reasons behind the (overproduction of coming of age films in Ireland over the 1990s. Finally, we tackle how these films alternatively deviate from and rely on the conventions of the Hollywood coming of age film to meet investor demands and engage global audiences with Irish concerns.

  11. The Advanced Placement Expansion of the 1990s:How Did Traditionally Underserved Students Fare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Klopfenstein

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The College Board’s Advanced Placement (AP Program, which allows students to take college-level courses while in high school, enjoyed tremendous growth in the 1990s. Despite overall growth, small rural schools and high poverty schools continue to offer relatively few AP courses, and black, Hispanic, and low income students remain grossly underrepresented in AP classes. During the 1990s, AP incentive programs primarily subsidized test fees for low income students, but this provided no incentive for low income and rural schools to expand their AP course offerings and did nothing to strengthen the weak academic preparation of low income, black and Hispanic students. Recent federal funding changes provide a step in the right direction by supporting a comprehensive approach to increasing the AP access and participation of traditionally underserved students.

  12. The Residency and Lives of Migrants in Japan Since the Mid-1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISHII, Yuka

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, Japan has been facing various issues related to the foreign residents who have settled in Japan and who have been slowly gaining recognition in Japanese society. The number of migrants and foreign residents has been increasing, and the perception of Japanese society vis-a-vis this new community has been changing gradually. However, Japanese society still faces the challenge of how to develop an awareness of diversity. This paper examines several problems in relation to the working environment, the residential and living environment, children's education, and the ethnic networks of these residents. Through analysing policy papers and statistics and reviewing the results of fieldwork by Japanese scholars in the 1990s and the 2000s, the author tries to reach a better understanding of the present situation of the multicultural Japanese society.

  13. The Global Financial Crisis: Lessons from Japan’s Lost Decade of the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    Japan’s lost decade of the 1990s, policy analysts advocated expansionary monetary and fiscal policies but also added a microeconomic aspect. They...underlying forces of financial crises. In fiscal policy , the Japanese experience has been used both as an example of stimulus packages that did not work...households had been rehabilitated. Japan also shifted its policy focus toward reducing its fiscal deficit “too early” after authorities thought the

  14. Exports, sunk costs and financial restrictions in Argentina during the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Español, Paula

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines firms' export decisions in Argentina during the 1990s. Using a sample of 1600 Argentine industrial firms with information for the years 1992, 1996, 1998 and 2001, we test which factors affect the probability of entering foreign markets. We focus on the role of sunk costs and the access to financial markets as key determinants of firms' export decisions. The estimation of a non-linear binary variable model using export prior experience and explicit sunk costs variables conf...

  15. Customs Administration Reform and Modernization in anglophone Africa; Early 1990's to Mid-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Justin O Zake

    2011-01-01

    Anglophone African countries have been implementing reform and modernization initiatives in their Customs administrations. This paper outlines the progression of key reform and modernization initiatives in these countries since the early 1990s, and assesses the gap between these reforms and those of more modern Customs agencies. The review suggests that Customs administration reform and modernization initiatives in Anglophone African countries generally lag behind international good practice ...

  16. A Global Survey of International Business Education in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Chuck C Y Kwok; Jeffrey Arpan; William R Folks

    1994-01-01

    This article presents the major findings of the fifth global curriculum survey of the Academy of International Business (AIB)—an examination of the status and trends in international business education around the world as of the early 1990s. The survey's findings, based on responses from more than 500 business schools, encompass different goals and methods of internationalization, international linkages and experiential activities, organizational issues, amounts of internationalization progre...

  17. Transformational leaders. Ten practices to help executives meet the challenges of the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, D A

    1992-11-01

    Today, healthcare chief executive officers (CEOs) face many pressing issues. To survive the 1990s, CEOs must master "transformational practices" such as continuous quality improvement. CEOs can adopt the following 10 practices to help them become transformational leaders: Establish and act on key commitments. Form teams. Establish a job shadow program. Brainstorm more. Befriend the opposition. Communicate more. Wipe out gossip. Look for breakdowns. Revise the appraisal system.

  18. Revenue Administration Reforms in anglophone Africa Since the Early 1990's

    OpenAIRE

    David Kloeden

    2011-01-01

    Despite positive but mixed progress over two decades, most lower income African countries need to enhance their low tax-to-GDP ratios by mobilizing domestic resources to complement debt relief, donor aid and to achieve the MDG and poverty reduction objectives. With these goals in mind, most African countries have undertaken revenue administration reforms and from the early 1990s, 16 of 19 Anglophone Africa countries established some form of revenue authority (RA) for greater governance, finan...

  19. Services Discovery for Distributed Network Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    More and more distributed applications are deployed around interconnected network, which makes it necessary for network measurement services to address the scalability and robustness requirements. This paper discusses a service discovery for integrated network measurement architecture (INMA), including finding the location of measurement agent, the path of the measurement and the network attributes of the end-to-end path or host. It also describes the functions of the major building blocks used to construct the measurement architecture.

  20. Problems, policies and politics: A comparative case study of contraband tobacco from the 1990s to the present in the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert; Johnson, Teela

    2010-09-01

    Contraband tobacco has been and continues to be a global public health policy concern, with special manifestations in Canada. Over the past 20 years, in two noteworthy instances the Canadian government has battled contraband - in the early 1990s, and for much of the past decade. In the 1990s, when contraband cigarettes flooded the Canadian market, the government rapidly responded, using policy measures such as implementing a tobacco export tax and cutting domestic sales tax. Unfortunately, contraband made a strong comeback in recent years, but this time the government has hesitated to act, owing to a change in the source of the contraband. Using John Kingdon's streams theory to frame our arguments, we suggest that lack of congruence between different policy stakeholder groups' perceptions of the problem, policy solutions, and political feasibility has road-blocked the implementation of anti-contraband policy in the 2000s.

  1. Resurgence of malaria in Bombay (Mumbai) in the 1990s: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, V

    2000-06-01

    Bombay has achieved extraordinary success in controlling its malaria problem for nearly six decades by relying primarily on legislative measures and non-insecticidal methods of mosquito abatement. In 1992, however, malaria reemerged in Bombay with a vengeance. During 1992-1997, the city witnessed a manifold increase in the number of malaria cases diagnosed and treated by the public health system. The large number of malaria patients treated by private practitioners was not recorded by the municipal malaria surveillance system during this period. In 1995, at the peak of the resurgence, public health officials of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay (MCGB) confirmed that 170 persons in the city had died due to malaria. The crisis was unprecedented in Bombay's modern public health history. In response to intense criticism from the media, the city's public health officials attributed the resurgence to the global phenomenon of mosquito-vector resistance to insecticides, and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Local scientists who investigated the problem offered no support to this explanation. So what might explain the resurgence? What factors led the problem to reach an epidemic level in a matter of two or three years? In addressing the above principal questions, this paper adopts a historical perspective and argues that in the resurgence of malaria in Bombay in the 1990s, there is an element of the 'presence of the past'. In many ways the present public health crisis in Bombay resembles the health scenario that characterized the city at the turn of the 19th century. It is possible to draw parallels between the early public health history of malaria control in Bombay, which was punctuated by events that followed the bubonic plague epidemic of 1896, and the present-day malaria epidemic punctuated by the threat of a plague epidemic in 1994. As such, the paper covers a long period, of almost 100 years. This time-depth is used to

  2. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  3. Acoustic CT system for temperature distribution measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinji Ohyama; Toyofumi Oga; Kazuo Oshima; Junya Takayama

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,a measurement method for crosssectional temperature distribution is addressed. A novel method based on an acoustic CT technique is proposed. Specifically,the temperature distributions are estimated using the time of flight data of several ultrasonic propagation paths. The times of the flight data contain both temperature and wind effect,and the method to select only temperature component is introduced. A filtered back projection method is applied to reconstruct the temperature distributions from the time of flight data. An experimental system was designed and fabricated to realize simultaneous temperature and wind velocity distribution measurements. Through this system,the effectiveness of the proposed measurement method is confirmed.

  4. THE WOMEN’S STATE POLICY IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE 1990S (using the materials of the Krasnoyarsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Urjevna Nikolaeva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of studying women’s state policy problems in the 1990s in Russia is determined by political, socio-economic and cultural reforms because political organization and social structure of the society have changed. This caused the changing of women role in policy, economics and family.The aim of work is to find out the state policy impact to women’s position in the 1990s.In the article the following methods were used: historical approach and objectivism. Theoretical and methodological basis is stratification methodology, theoretical positions of gender approach.The results of work are analyses of the women’s state policy impact to socio-demographic situation in the Krasnoyarsk region. In the scientific usage new materials and materials of local archives were introduced.The study of women’s position in the 1990s enables to make a conclusion that it is necessary to work out state measures to overcome the demographic crises caused by socio-economic reforms during the “Perestroyka” Period.

  5. How have hospitals faced the pricing issues of the 1990's?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleimenhagen, A; Naidu, G M; Pillari, G D

    1994-01-01

    National health care expenditures are rising rapidly, bringing on a health care financing crisis. For this reason, it is useful to see how hospitals are facing the price issues of the 1990's. This study examines the price strategies hospitals follow and analyzes their observations on price sensitivity and payer mix. The results clearly show that hospitals have not given much attention to the pricing variable. The study suggests that marketing and finance will have to work closely together in developing future pricing strategies.

  6. Social representations of premature birth from the perspective of individuals born preterm in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Pía; Violeta Prina, Martina; Martínez Cáceres, María José; Bauer, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity is a public health problem that calls to focus on its causes and consequences through a trans disciplinary approach. There are no studies analyzing premature birth from the perspective of individuals born preterm. To identify social representations associated with premature birth of individuals born preterm in the 1990s in Argentina. Twelve focus groups were conducted with individuals born preterm with a birth weightPrematurity is a significant element, especially in those who suffered major sequelae. Adolescents and youth give a warning on the negative effects caused by overprotective parents and reveal the possibility of redefining the challenges associated with their history of premature birth.

  7. Latin American social medicine: roots, development during the 1990s, and current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajer, Débora

    2003-12-01

    Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time.

  8. Lunar and interplanetary explorations by electric propulsions in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Kyoichiro; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro

    Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science has undertaken an evaluation of electric (rather than chemically-fueled) propulsion systems for lunar and planetary missions in the 1990s. A lunar-penetrator and a Venus orbiter mission are taken as baselines against which to determine the characteristics and evaluate the implementation constraints of realistic electrically propelled vehicles. Attention is given to dc arcjet thrusters. It is suggested that solar cell output should be shared through the spacecraft power bus rather than dedicated to propulsion.

  9. The early 1990s change in ENSO-PSA-SAM relationships and its impact on Southern Hemisphere climate

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, JY; Paek, H; Saltzman, ES; T. Lee

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Meteorological Society. This study uncovers an early 1990s change in the relationships between El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and two leading modes of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) atmospheric variability: the southern annular mode (SAM) and the Pacific-South American (PSA) pattern. During austral spring, while the PSA maintained a strong correlation with ENSO throughout the period 1948-2014, the SAM-ENSO correlation changed from being weak before the early 1990s to being ...

  10. Distributed measurement-based quantum computation

    CERN Document Server

    Danos, V; Kashefi, E; Panangaden, P; Danos, Vincent; Hondt, Ellie D'; Kashefi, Elham; Panangaden, Prakash

    2005-01-01

    We develop a formal model for distributed measurement-based quantum computations, adopting an agent-based view, such that computations are described locally where possible. Because the network quantum state is in general entangled, we need to model it as a global structure, reminiscent of global memory in classical agent systems. Local quantum computations are described as measurement patterns. Since measurement-based quantum computation is inherently distributed, this allows us to extend naturally several concepts of the measurement calculus, a formal model for such computations. Our goal is to define an assembly language, i.e. we assume that computations are well-defined and we do not concern ourselves with verification techniques. The operational semantics for systems of agents is given by a probabilistic transition system, and we define operational equivalence in a way that it corresponds to the notion of bisimilarity. With this in place, we prove that teleportation is bisimilar to a direct quantum channe...

  11. Adequacy of dietary intakes and poverty in India: trends in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahal, Ajay; Karan, Anup K

    2008-03-01

    Linear programming methods, indicators of nutritional adequacy from the Indian Council of Medical Research and household expenditure survey data from the National Sample Survey Organization were used to construct poverty lines for India. Poverty ratios were calculated for 1993--1994 and 1999--2000 on the basis of nutritional adequacy poverty lines and compared to official estimates of poverty based on energy requirements. Nutritional adequacy poverty lines are higher than official poverty lines, particularly in rural areas. The application of nutritional adequacy poverty lines points to greater rural-urban poverty differences than in official estimates. Declines in rural poverty during the 1990s were also slower under the nutritional adequacy definition, especially in south India. There is a greater degree of rural-urban and regional bias in nutritional adequacy poverty reduction than suggested by official data. Inter-state variations in changes in nutritional poverty and official poverty in the 1990s are largely explained by differences in assumptions on overall price movements. However, relative price movements in food items also played a role, particularly the slow increase in prices of cereals and edible oils in comparison to the prices of pulses, and in some southern states, compared to milk and vegetable prices as well.

  12. Evaluating Women’s Labour in 1990s Japan: The Changing Labour Standards Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Rawstron

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the legislative changes regarding Japanese working women in the 1990s, specifically the changes to the Labour Standards Law. This Law was altered in 1997 (effective 1999 by the removal of a number of provisions known as the Women’s ‘Protection’ Provisions (josei hogo kitei. These gender-specific provisions restricted Japanese women from working particular jobs and hours, and limited overtime and holiday work. The role of these gender-specific provisions is examined through a collection of articles from four of Japan’s mainstream daily, widely-circulated newspapers: the Asahi Shinbun, the Mainichi Shinbun, the Nihon Keizai Shinbun, and the Yomiuri Shinbun. These newspapers were of the opinion that the provisions were simultaneously protective and restrictive towards women. The newspapers all supported the removal of the provisions in order to increase equality in Japan’s workforce and society. However, all presented strong concerns that Japanese society was unable to support these changes. This article situates the law reform within the wider context of 1990s Japan, by tracing the links between labour legislation and socio-cultural issues in Japan, particularly the low fertility rate. This article closes with an evaluation of changes within Japanese society and working habits since the removal of the provisions.

  13. Literature analysis and research progress of the landscape ecology in China in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper makes analysis of published articles and books on landscape ecology in the 1990s through literature collection. The analytical results showed that the study of landscape ecology had made a great advance during the past decade in China. By incomplete survey, Chinese researchers at home and abroad published 619 scientific articles and 13 monographs on landscape ecology in the 1990s, and most of them (more than 90%) were published in Chinese with English abstracts. The published articles on basic theory accounted for 39.6% (245 articles), and those concerning application and methods accounted for 36.8% (228) and 23.6% (146), respectively. According to the objects of research, the published articles on landscape ecology were classified into nine catalogues. The urban landscape ranks first in terms of number of published articles, accounting for 13.4% of the total, followed by regional and river basin landscape, cold and arid landscape, forest landscape, habitat and bio-diversity landscape, agricultural landscape, wetlands, suburban landscape, and vegetation landscape. Based on the analysis, some discussions were made on the existing problems and development trend of landscape ecology study in China

  14. Extreme Value distribution for singular measures

    CERN Document Server

    Faranda, Davide; Turchetti, Giorgio; Vaienti, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we perform an analytical and numerical study of Extreme Value distributions in discrete dynamical systems that have a singular measure. Using the block maxima approach described in Faranda et al. [2011] we show that, numerically, the Extreme Value distribution for these maps can be associated to the Generalised Extreme Value family where the parameters scale with the information dimension. The numerical analysis are performed on a few low dimensional maps. For the middle third Cantor set and the Sierpinskij triangle obtained using Iterated Function Systems, experimental parameters show a very good agreement with the theoretical values. For strange attractors like Lozi and H\\`enon maps a slower convergence to the Generalised Extreme Value distribution is observed. Even in presence of large statistics the observed convergence is slower if compared with the maps which have an absolute continuous invariant measure. Nevertheless and within the uncertainty computed range, the results are in good agree...

  15. An Educational Application of Distributed Measurement Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saliga

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an educational application of distributed measurement systems for the tutored and self-educational process that has been designed and applied at the Department of Electronics and Multimedial Telecommunications, Technical University of Kosice for students at the senior level of their study. The main goal of this activity has been to improve and spread our students' knowledge beyond the traditional university education in the area of measurement and communications. The students involved do not only play a passive role in the usage of a ready-made distributed measurement system by executing a remote measurement but they have the opportunity to participate in the process of design, carrying out and supervising an own simple distributed measurement system. To simplify their task, they may either use the graphical programming environment LabVIEW or the standard ANSI C language based on the programming environment Labwindows/CVI with ready-made instrument drivers (GPIB, serial and plug-in multifunction boards and basic software skeletons. The overview of the students' resources, task-solving steps and goals as well as the present results, experience and the expected future extensions are presented, too.

  16. Training and deployment of medical doctors in Tanzania post-1990s health sector reforms: assessing the achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirili, Nathanael; Kiwara, Angwara; Gasto, Frumence; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2017-04-04

    The shortage of a skilled health workforce is a global crisis. International efforts to combat the crisis have shown few benefits; therefore, more country-specific efforts are required. Tanzania adopted health sector reforms in the 1990s to ensure, among other things, availability of an adequate skilled health workforce. Little is documented on how the post-reform training and deployment of medical doctors (MDs) have contributed to resolving Tanzania's shortage of doctors. The study aims to assess achievements in training and deployment of MDs in Tanzania about 20 years since the 1990s health sector reforms. We developed a human resource for health (HRH) conceptual model to study achievements in the training and deployment of MDs by using the concepts of supply and demand. We analysed secondary data to document the number of MDs trained in Tanzania and abroad, and the number of MDs recommended for the health sector from 1992 to 2011. A cross-sectional survey conducted in all regions of the country established the number of MDs available by 2011. By 1992, Tanzania had 1265 MDs working in the country. From 1992 to 2010, 2622 MDs graduated both locally and abroad. This translates into 3887 MDs by 2011. Tanzania needs between 3326 and 5535 MDs. Our survey captured 1299 MDs working throughout the country. This number is less than 40% of all MDs trained in and needed for Tanzania by 2011. Maldistribution favouring big cities was evident; the eastern zone with less than 30% of the population hosts more than 50% of all MDs. No information was available on the more than 60% of MDs uncaptured by our survey. Two decades after the reforms, the number of MDs trained in Tanzania has increased sevenfold per year. Yet, the number and geographical distribution of MDs practicing in the country has remained the same as before the reforms. HRH planning should consider the three stages of health workforce development conceptualized under the demand and supply model. Auditing and

  17. Learning from Distributions via Support Measure Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Muandet, Krikamol; Fukumizu, Kenji; Dinuzzo, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a kernel-based discriminative learning framework on probability measures. Rather than relying on large collections of vectorial training examples, our framework learns using a collection of probability distributions that have been constructed to meaningfully represent training data. By representing these probability distributions as mean embeddings in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS), we are able to apply many standard kernel-based learning techniques in straightforward fashion. To accomplish this, we construct a generalization of the support vector machine (SVM) called a support measure machine (SMM). Our analyses of SMMs provides several insights into their relationship to traditional SVMs. Based on such insights, we propose a flexible SVM (Flex-SVM) that places different kernel functions on each training example. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework.

  18. Magnetic induction measurements in distribution transformer cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paraskevopoulos, A.A.P.; Bourkas, P.D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece). Computer Engineering, High Voltage, and Electrical Measurements Laboratory; Paparigas, D. [Schneider ELVIM Electric Transformer Factory, Athens (Greece)

    2005-07-01

    Transformers need high magnetic field rates in order to operate efficiently. In this study, magnetic induction measurements of distribution transformer cores with power levels of 630 kVA were used to assess the performance of transformers in a city in Greece. A 630 kVA transformer was used to investigate whether magnetic induction measurements of the iron core arcs of the transformer were similar to the rest of the transformer's magnetic rate. Potential load losses were also investigated. Eight cores of 4 different sizes were measured in the study. Voltage transmissions were varied in order to measure the different cores. The voltage transmitted into the coil was calculated in order to compare the transformer's magnetic field with the cores. Average values for the measured cores were then calculated. Leakages were measured using a Gauss meter. Results of the study indicated that the measured values were lower than established safety limits for transformers. It was concluded that the magnetic induction measurements of transformer cores can be used to measure the overall performance of transformers. 18 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. The practice of infectious diseases in the 1990s: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlech, W F

    1995-02-01

    A survey of the members of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society was carried out to determine the content of an infectious diseases consultative practice in the 1990s. Respondents were asked to identify all new inpatient, outpatient, and telephone consultations during a 1-week period in 1990. Consultations were categorized by the infectious disease syndrome of the patient and by the microorganism that was identified. Bacterial infections were the most common cause of inpatient consultations, while viral infections were more common in outpatients. Consultations for parasitic infections were primarily for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). "Newer" infectious disease syndromes such as chronic fatigue syndrome, toxic shock syndrome, and Lyme disease were all represented in the responses for the 1-week study period. The significant impact of HIV infection on the overall consultative load suggests that there will be a continuing need for newly trained infectious disease consultants into the 21st century.

  20. Impact of bankruptcy through asset portfolios. Network analytic solution unveils 1990s Japanese banking crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Vodenska, I.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the Japanese banking crisis in the late 1990s with a simple network based mathematical model, which allows us to simulate the crisis as well as to obtain new perspective through analytic solution of our network model. We effectively identify the actual bankrupted banks and the robustness of the banking system using a simulation model based on properties of a bi-partite bank-asset network. We show the mean time property and analytical solution of the model revealing aggregate time dynamics of bank asset prices throughout the banking crisis. The results disclose simple but fundamental property of asset growth, instrumental for understanding the bank crisis. We also estimate the selling pressure for each asset type, derived from a Cascading Failure Model (CFM), offering new perspective for investigating the phenomenon of banking crisis.

  1. Stable incidence of atopic dermatitis among children in Denmark during the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Bang, Karen; Juul, Svend

    2005-01-01

    incidence of AD in 1993 and 1998. Further, we studied the severity and management of AD among children. Two samples of children born in Denmark were drawn from the Danish Medical Birth Register. In the 1993 and 1998 studies a mailed questionnaire with identical questions concerning AD was sent out....... In the 1998 follow-up study the questionnaire included a severity score and questions concerning management of AD. In the 1993 study the cumulative incidence of AD at age 7 was 18.9% and in 1998 it was 19.6%. There was no difference in the age-adjusted AD incidence in the 5-year observation period......An increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been reported since the 1960s. The increase could be due to many factors including a genuine increase of incidence or duration of AD. We decided to study if the increasing trend persisted during the 1990s by comparing the cumulative...

  2. PRESERVATION PROBLEMS OF THE INDIGENOUS ETHNIC GROUPS INTELLECTUALS OF KHABAROVSK REGION IN THE 1990s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Evgeny M. Klimenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of intellectuals as social class, features of the national intellectuals, and the problems that national intellectuals of indigenous ethnic groups of Khabarovsk region came across with in the 1990s. These are the problems of preservation of national culture, national language, and difficulties, which have arisen in the sphere of getting national education by representatives of the autochthonic population. The article investigates the transformation process of national culture happening after the Soviet culture had changed into the global culture. When writing this paper the author used unpublished archival documentation. The research is made with assistance of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the contract No. 14.Z56.16.5304-MK, a project subject: "Regional model of transformation of indigenous small ethnos culture in the conditions of socialist modernization of the Russian Far East in the second half of 1930-1970s".

  3. Trend of heavy metal and sulphur deposition in Finland from the 1980`s to 1990`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubin, E.; Lippo, H. [Forest Research Inst., Muhos (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The moss technique to survey atmospheric heavy metal deposition was developed in Sweden in the late 1960`s. The surveys has extended from regional and national basis to cover all the Nordic countries in 1985, to northern Europe in 1990 and to a large part of Europe in 1990-92. National reports have also been published in many countries. The Forest Research Institute established a network of 3009 secret permanent monitoring sites all over the country in 1985 and 1986 for forest inventory and for monitoring the situation and changes in the forests. One essential part has been to study the effects of air pollution - including heavy metal and sulphur deposition on forests. Deposition has been monitored by collecting bioindicators and analysing the element concentrations. The purpose of this report is to show the trend of the heavy metal and sulphur deposition from the 1980`s to 1990`s and in addition to produce information about the emission sources. (author)

  4. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people’s needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities. PMID:25729333

  5. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2009-06-30

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people's needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities.

  6. National Program of Action for Child Development in China in the 1990s(Abstract)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    I. Introduction 1. The children of today will run the families of the 21st century. Their survival, protection and development decide, for the most part, the quality of a people and lay the foundation of human progress as a whole. The 1990 World Summit for Children endorsed the "World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children" and the "Plan of Action for Implementing the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children in the 1990s," (hereinafter referred to as "Declaration" and "Plan of Action" for short), In March 1991, Premier Li Peng signed the two documents on behalf of the Chinese Government, making a solemn commitment to this major undertaking. 2. The wholesome development of children has a bearing upon the future of China. The Communist Party of China and the Chinese Government have always paid close attention to the survival, protection

  7. Protest Leadership and Repertoire: A Comparative Analysis of Peasant Protest in Hunan in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on detailed ethnographic fieldwork, this paper compares two cases of peasant protest against heavy taxes and fees in a northern Hunan county in the 1990s. It argues that peasant protest did not arise spontaneously. Rather, it erupted when leaders emerged who used central policy documents on lowering peasant taxes and fees to mobilise peasants. Protest leaders were articulate and public-spirited peasants who had received political training from the local party-state. Furthermore, the number of leaders, their education level, and their relationship with the local party-state explain why the repertoire and the scope of the two protests varied. Protests led by less educated veteran Communist Party cadres tended to be milder and smaller than those led by better-educated peasants more distant from the local party-state. This paper helps us to understand the process of peasant mobilisation in contemporary China and explains why peasant protest varies across cases.

  8. Comparison of carbon chemistry data in the East China Sea between the 1990s and 2000s: implications for the impact of eutrophication from the Changjiang River (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, W.; Gong, G.; Tseng, C.; Hung, C.

    2010-12-01

    The nutrient loads exported from the Changjiang River into the East China Sea (ECS) has increased over 10-fold since the 1960s because of anthropogenic disturbance such as intensive use of chemical fertilizers and the discharge of industrial and municipal waste waters. Elevated nutrient discharge causes eutrophication of the coastal waters, and stimulates harmful algal blooms and hypoxia events, both of which have been observed with increased frequently on the inner shelf off Changjiang River. To the best of our knowledge, there is, however, no study to date addressing the potential impacts of this eutrophication on carbonate chemistry in the ECS. In this study, we investigated the spatial distributions of dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, total alkalinity, and pCO2 in the entire ECS shelf in winter 2008, and compared the present results with previously published datasets. Results showed that pCO2 was negatively correlated with temperature for surface waters lower than 20oC in 2008, in contrast to the positive correlation found in the 1990s. Moreover, the wintertime ΔpCO2 in the inner shelf near the Changjiang River estuary has appreciably decreased since the early 1990s, suggesting a decline of CO2 sequestration capacity in this region. These changes can be explained by the seasonal overturn of enhanced summer accumulation of respired CO2 in bottom waters between the 1990s and the 2000s, which may be associated with the increased eutrophication/hypoxia in the inner shelf near the Changjiang River estuary over recent decades. Considering the high intra-seasonal and inter-annual variations in the ECS, more long-term studies are, therefore, certainly needed to unveil the fundamental relationship between the changes in the CO2 sequestration capacity and the increased eutrophication/hypoxia in the ECS.

  9. Regime shift of the South China Sea SST in the late 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bijoy; Tkalich, Pavel; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2017-03-01

    Decadal variability of the South China Sea (SCS) sea surface temperature (SST) during 1982-2014 is investigated using observations and ocean reanalysis datasets. The SCS SST shows an abrupt transition from a cold-to-warm regime in the late 1990s. Based on the long-term SST variability two epochs are defined, 1982-1996 and 2000-2014 as cold and warm regimes respectively, spanning on either side of the 1997-1999 SCS warming. Despite the occurrence of strong El Nino induced warming events, the SST anomalies tend to be negative in the cold regime. Conversely during the warm regime, the positive SST anomalies have dominated over the La Nina driven cooling events. The cold (warm) SST regime is marked by net heat gain (loss) by the SCS. The long-term variations of net surface heat flux are mainly driven by the latent heat flux anomalies while the short wave flux plays a secondary role. Low-frequency variability of the South China Sea throughflow (SCSTF) appears to be closely related to the SCS SST regime shift. The SCSTF shows reversing trends during the cold and warm epochs. The weakened SCSTF in the warm regime has promoted the SCS warming by limiting the outward flow of warm water from the SCS. Meanwhile, enhanced SCSTF during the cold regime acts as a cooling mechanism and lead to persistent negative SST anomalies. The change in trend of the SCSTF and SST regime shift coincides with the switching of pacific decadal oscillation from a warm to cold phase in the late 1990s.

  10. [Prevalence of tobacco use in Switzerland in the 1990's--estimation of consumption trends based on 2 methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmel, G

    2000-01-01

    Smoking prevalence rates in Switzerland in the 1990s++ have been estimated from Perma data, which have been available quarterly since 1991, as well as from the data of the first and second Swiss Health Surveys, conducted in 1992/93 and 1997. Both sources--each providing data on more than 10,000 respondents--have been large-scale surveys that have used different but complementary survey designs. The probabilistic sampling design of the Health Surveys assures representative findings; the Perma data, although obtained through a non-probabilistic sampling design, permits trend analysis as Perma uses multiple measurement points and therefore time-series methodology can be applied. Both Perma and the Health Surveys yielded approximately the same prevalence of 37% male smokers in 1992/93 and 39% in 1997. For females Perma gave 4% higher prevalence rates than the Health Surveys (Surveys 1992/93: 24%; 1997: 31%). For both sexes the increase in total smoking prevalence was accounted for mainly by adolescents and young adults. Whereas the Surveys showed an increase from 29% to 41% (18% to 39%) in males (females) aged 15 to 19 years, the corresponding increase derived from Perma was 50% less. Except for this youngest age-group, differences between the methods remained within standard statistical norms. There is no doubt, however, that smoking in adolescents increased between 1992/93 and 1997.

  11. [Flame temperature distribution measurement of solid propellants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-hua; Zhu, Shu-guang; Li, Yan; Fang, Zhong-yan; Yang, Rong-jie; Li, Yu-ping; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yun-fei

    2004-09-01

    Many high temperature bodies such as flame, in which chemical reactions are very complex, emit their own spectra. These emission spectra usually consist of the spectral lines, spectral bands and the continuous spectra. In some cases, the spectral lines gather together. It is very difficult to find the right single spectral line when the spectral line intensity method is used. To deal with this problem, the idea that the single spectral line intensity is replaced by the total intensity of many spectral lines to measure the temperature is mentioned. And the relative intensity method is also changed to deal with this idea. The measurement of the temperature distribution based on this improved method is successful, and the measurement results are compared with the results of the thermocouple method.

  12. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 1: Measurement techniques, uncertainties and availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hassler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC and other ozone depleting substance (ODS concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP/World Meteorological Organization (WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument. Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  13. Measurement of nonvolatile particle number size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the nonvolatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a nonvolatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol (OA; 40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a nonvolatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type of OA

  14. Quantum key distribution without alternative measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A

    2000-01-01

    Entanglement swapping between Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs can be used to generate the same sequence of random bits in two remote places. A quantum key distribution protocol based on this idea is described. The scheme exhibits the following features. (a) It does not require that Alice and Bob choose between alternative measurements, therefore improving the rate of generated bits by transmitted qubit. (b) It allows Alice and Bob to generate a key of arbitrary length using a single quantum system (three EPR pairs), instead of a long sequence of them. (c) Detecting Eve requires the comparison of fewer bits. (d) Entanglement is an essential ingredient. The scheme assumes reliable measurements of the Bell operator. (20 refs).

  15. Analysis of residential, industrial and commercial sector responses to potential electricity supply constraints in the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Z.J.; Fang, J.M.; Lyke, A.J.; Krudener, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is considerable debate over the ability of electric generation capacity to meet the growing needs of the US economy in the 1990s. This study provides new perspective on that debate and examines the possibility of power outages resulting from electricity supply constraints. Previous studies have focused on electricity supply growth, demand growth, and on the linkages between electricity and economic growth. This study assumes the occurrence of electricity supply shortfalls in the 1990s and examines the steps that homeowners, businesses, manufacturers, and other electricity users might take in response to electricity outages.

  16. Competing Explanations of U.S. Defense Industry Consolidation in the 1990s and Their Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan R. Brady; Greenfield, Victoria A.

    2009-01-01

    Was the consolidation of defense industry in the 1990s driven by U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) directives, or was it driven instead by the same forces that drove consolidation in many other sectors of the U.S. economy in the 1990s? To better understand the roles of DOD policy and economy-wide forces in shaping the U.S. defense industry, we test for structural breaks in defense industry and spending data and compare our findings to those relating to other sectors and the general economy. We...

  17. Freshwater components and transports in the Fram Strait – recent observations and changes since the late 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rabe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the late summer distribution and transports of freshwater components in the upper western part of the Fram Strait during 1998, 2004 and 2005. Hydrographic data and and water δ18O values are analyzed to distinguish Atlantic Water, ice-melt (IMW and freshwater removal from ice formation (IFW, and Meteoric Water (precipitation and riverine sources; MW. Concentrations of these water masses are combined with volume transport estimates from an inverse model. The average liquid freshwater transport relative to a reference salinity of 34.92, was 2500 km3/yr or 80 mSv southward, which is at the upper end of values reported in the literature. Our results indicate that not only the region of the continental slope but also parts of the East Greenland Shelf are important for freshwater transports.

    The average transports of MW and IFW were 160 mSv (5000 km3/yr and 90 mSv (2800 km3/yr southward, respectively. The southward transport of MW was higher in 2005 than in 1998, but was compensated by a higher IFW transport. These differences in transports were associated with stronger southward velocities and the absence of northward velocities over the continental slope and the eastern East Greenland Shelf in 2005. A simulation using the North Atlantic-Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model (NAOSIM shows that the high transport of MW in the Fram Strait in 2005 is in agreement with the temporary storage of river water on the Siberian shelf in the mid-1990s, which reached the north of Greenland in 2003. Our results indicate that IFW follows the same pathways as MW before reaching the Fram Strait.

  18. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  19. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  20. Joining technologies for the 1990s: Welding, brazing, soldering, mechanical, explosive, solid-state, adhesive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, J.D.; Stein, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in joining technologies for the 1990s-welding, brazing, soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, solid-state bonding, and adhesive bonding. A major consideration in the fabrication of any commercial, military, or space product is attachment systems which are safe and reliable. The subject matter covered includes technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials, for fabricating structures and mechanical systems use in the aerospace, automotive, and related industries. Specific topics include equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering; mechanical fastening; explosive welding; use of unique selected joining techniques; adhesive bonding; and nondestructive evaluation. ''The Factory of the Future'' is presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding.

  1. Foul weather friends: big business and health care reform in the 1990s in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Peter; Greer, Scott

    2002-08-01

    Existing accounts of the Clinton health reform efforts of the early 1990s neglect to examine how the change in big business reform interests during the short period between the late 1980s and 1994 might have altered the trajectory of compulsory health insurance legislation in Congress. This article explores evidence that big employers lost their early interest in reform because they believed their private remedies for bringing down health cost inflation were finally beginning to work. This had a discouraging effect on reform efforts. Historical analysis shows how hard times during the Great Depression also aligned big business interests with those of reformers seeking compulsory social insurance. Unlike the present case, however, the economic climate did not quickly improve, and the social insurance reform of the New Deal succeeded. The article speculates, therefore, that had employer health expenditures not flattened out, continuing and even growing big business support might have neutralized small business and other opposition that contributed heavily to the failure of reform. Thus in light of the Clinton administration's demonstrated willingness to compromise with business on details of its plan, some kind of major reform might have succeeded.

  2. NOTES ON SPATIAL-STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN URBAN SOUTH AFRICA - THE 1990S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanus S. GEYER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal businesses used to be something that was only tolerated in the former black townships during the years of apartheid. Since then the informal business sector has become an integral part of the central business setup of cities in South Africa. It not only serves to widen the security net of the urban poor in cities, it also epresents the outcome of the democratization process in the country over the past fifteen years. Yet, there has been a tendency amongst local authorities to take steps to reduce the footprint of this sector in the urban environment in recent years. This trend ties in with the new approach of government to transform South African cities to become ’world class’ centres—a step that is aimed at making the cities more visually acceptable to visitors from abroad. In this paperan attempt is made to demonstrate the importance of the informal ector within the urban business makeup and to show what role it played in the spatial-structural evolution of the urban economies during the 1990s. The paper analyzes the structure of the urban business sector as a whole and structurally links the formal and informal sectors, demonstrating the importance of both sectors in the economic makeup of the cities. It analyses the structure of the informal sector and shows how different layers of the sector potentially relates to the formal urban sector.

  3. The Militarily Non-Allied States in the CFSP of the 1990's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Ferreira-Pereira

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to feature the adaptation of three EU's military non-allied states Austria, Finland and Sweden to the Common Foreign and Security Policy. This is done against the background of official positions adopted during the IGC 1996/97 leading up to the signing of the Amsterdam Treaty, and also within the context of the Cologne Summit of June 1999. This article argues that throughout the 1990s the Austrian, Finnish and Swedish endeavours towards endowing the EU with a security and military capability run in parallel with legally imposed as well as domestically motivated limitations. Chief among these were limitations as to the building up of a defence pillar within the EU and to an unconditional sending of national troops abroad on peace enforcement missions. Springing from the concerned states' continued adherence to the non-participation in military alliances and non-participation in wars, those restraints have precluded Austria, Finland and Sweden from adopting an all-inclusive approach towards the foreign and security policy of the EU. In the specific realm of the CFSP, this could be seen in the espousal of a 'limited solidarity'.

  4. Turbofolk reconsidered. Some thoughts on migration and the appropriation of music in early 1990s Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaden, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s aim is to shed a light on the emergence, meanings and contexts of early 1990s turbofolk. While this music-style has been exhaustively investigated with regard to Yugoslavia and Serbia, its appropriation by Yugoslav labour migrants has hitherto been no subject of particular interest. Departing from this research gap this paper focuses on “Ex-Yugoslav” evening entertainment and music venues in Berlin and the role turbofolk possessed. We hope to contribute to the ongoing research on this music relying on insights we gained from our fieldwork and the interviews conducted in early and mid-2013. After criticizing some suggestions that have been made regarding the construction of group belongings by applying a dichotomous logic with turbofolk representing the supposedly “inferior”, this approach could serve to investigate the interplay between music and the making of everyday social boundaries. Drawing on the gathered interview material we, beyond merely confirming ethnic and national segmentations, suggest the emergence of new actors and the increase of private initiatives and regional solidarity to be of major importance for negotiating belongings. In that regard, turbofolk events – far from being an unambiguous signifier of group loyalty – were indeed capable to serve as a context that bridged both national as well as social cleavages.

  5. Progress of gastric cancer etiology: N-nitrosamides in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da Jun Deng

    2000-01-01

    Stomach carcinoma is still the leading cause of cancer death in China and the second one in the world. Its possible causes include: A) chemical factors such as intragastric formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) and high salt intake; B ) biological factors such as infection of Helicobacter pylori and biotoxins intake; and C ) nutritional factors such as deficiency of vitamin C, selenium, and other antioxidants. Nitrogenous precursors of NOC, e.g., alkylamines, alkylureas, alkylguanidines, and alkylamides, occur widely in nature and potential nitrosating agents, e.g., nitrite (NO2-) and NOx (the gaseous oxides of nitrogen ) are similarly widespread. Relationship between exposure to NOC and causes of human cancer was investigated extensively ten years ago. Results indicated that the exposures of NOC might contribute to the occurrences of malignancy in the upper digestive tracts including stomachs. It was also observed that both high salt intake and deficiency of some micronutrients enhanced NOC-induced carcinogenicity. Recent studies show that infection of H. pylori can lead to atrophic gastritis and achlorhydria, and promote endogenous formation of NOC indirectly[1] . Much attention has been paid to stomach cancer and NOC regarding the characterization of natural N-nitrosamides in human environment in the 1990s.

  6. Side abutment pressure distribution by field measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lian-guo; SONG Yang; HE Xing-hua; ZHANG Jian

    2008-01-01

    Given the 7123 working face in the Qidong Coal Mine of the Wanbei Mining Group, nine dynamic roof monitors were installed in the crossheading to measure the amount and velocity of roof convergence in different positions and at different times and three steel bored stress sensors were installed in the return airway to measure rock stress at depth. On the basis of this arrangement, the rule of change of the distribution of the side abutment pressure with the advance of the working face and movement of overlying strata was studied. The rule of change and the stability of rock stress at depth were measured. Secondly, the affected area and stability time of the side abutment pressure were also studied. The results show that: 1) During working, the face advanced distance was from 157 m to 99 m, the process was not effected by mining induced pressure. When the distance was 82 m, the position of peak stress was 5 m away from the coal wall. When the distance was 37 m, the position of peak stress away from the coal wall was about 15 m to 20 m and finally reached a steady state; 2) the time and the range of the peak of side rock pressure obtained from stress sensors were consistent with the results from the dynamic roof monitors; 3) the position of the peak pressure was 25 m away from the coal wall.

  7. ABSORPTION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION IN Mrk 509

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, T. P.; Różańska, A.; Sobolewska, M. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, 00-716, Warsaw (Poland); Czerny, B., E-mail: tek@camk.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46 02-668, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-12-20

    In this paper we model the observed absorption measure distribution (AMD) in Mrk 509, which spans three orders of magnitude in ionization level with a single-zone absorber in pressure equilibrium. AMD is usually constructed from observations of narrow absorption lines in radio-quiet active galaxies with warm absorbers. We study the properties of the warm absorber in Mrk 509 using recently published broadband spectral energy distribution observed with different instruments. This spectrum is an input in radiative transfer computations with full photoionization treatment using the titan code. We show that the simplest way to fully reproduce the shape of AMD is to assume that the warm absorber is a single zone under constant total pressure. With this assumption, we found theoretical AMD that matches the observed AMD determined on the basis of the 600 ks reflection grating spectrometer XMM-Newton spectrum of Mrk 509. The softness of the source spectrum and the important role of the free–free emission breaks the usual degeneracy in the ionization state calculations, and the explicit dependence of the depths of AMD dips on density open a new path to the density diagnostic for the warm absorber. In Mrk 509, the implied density is of the order of 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3}.

  8. Online Distributed Fault Detection of Sensor Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jianliang; XU Yongjun; LI Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a faulty sensor may produce incorrect data and transmit them to the other sensors. This would consume the limited energy and bandwidth of WSNs. Furthermore, the base station may make inappropriate decisions when it receives the incorrect data sent by the faulty sensors. To solve these problems, this paper develops an online distributed algorithm to detect such faults by exploring the weighted majority vote scheme. Considering the spatial correlations in WSNs, a faulty sensor can diagnose itself through utilizing the spatial and time information provided by its neighbor sensors. Simulation results show that even when as many as 30% of the sensors are faulty, over 95% of faults can be correctly detected with our algorithm. These results indicate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance in detecting fault of sensor measurements in WSNs.

  9. Changing Returns to Education in Portugal during the 1980s and Early 1990s: OLS and Quantile Regression Estimators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hartog; J.A.C. Vieira

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of the returns to education in Portugal over the 1980s and early 1990s. The main findings indicate that the returns to education have increased, particularly after joining the European Union in 1986. Since this occurred along with an increase in the level of educati

  10. Changing returns to education in Portugal during the 1980s and early 1990s: OLS and quantile regression estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hartog; P.T. Pereira; J.A. Cabral Vieira

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of the returns to education in Portugal over the 1980s and early 1990s. The main ® ndings indicate that the returns to education have increased, particularly after joining the European Union in 1986. Since this occurred along with an increase in the level of educati

  11. Remembering the popular music of the 1990s: dance music and the cultural meanings of decade-based nostalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. van der Hoeven (Arno)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractFollowing the popularisation of dance music in the 1990s, and the consolidation of disc jockeys (DJs) as global stars, this article examines the attachment of music audiences to this decade by examining the popular flashback dance parties held in the Netherlands. By drawing on theories o

  12. Outsourcing of Services and the Productivity Recovery in U.S. Manufacturing in the 1980s and 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.; Wolff, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    Manufacturing productivity growth recovered during the 1980s and 1990s, while other sectors, particularly services, did not. In the same period U.S. manufacturing has engaged in the "outsourcing" or "contracting-out" of service functions. Has the recovery of manufacturing been accomplished by

  13. Remembering the popular music of the 1990s: dance music and the cultural meanings of decade-based nostalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. van der Hoeven (Arno)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractFollowing the popularisation of dance music in the 1990s, and the consolidation of disc jockeys (DJs) as global stars, this article examines the attachment of music audiences to this decade by examining the popular flashback dance parties held in the Netherlands. By drawing on theories

  14. Massification, Bureaucratization and Questing for "World-Class" Status: Higher Education in China since the Mid-1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngok, Kinglun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to review the latest developments of the higher education sector in China since the mid-1990s by focusing on the expansion of university education. Design/methodology/approach: It is argued that while massification of higher education is an important indication of the progress in China's higher education system, the…

  15. Private Colleges' Pricing Experience in the Early 1990s: The Impact of Rapidly Increasing College-Funded Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Donald L.

    1997-01-01

    During early 1990s, increases in private colleges' prices outpaced increases in inflation, input prices, and income growth, but after accounting for rapidly increasing college-funded student aid, positive differentials decreased relative to the 1980s. Substantial dispersion among private colleges in actual net prices received from full-time…

  16. Determinants of Police Strength in Large U.S. Cities during the 1990s: A Fixed-Effects Panel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, William P.; Ren, Ling; Zhao, Jihong

    2012-01-01

    The 1990s represented a unique decade in which to analyze the determinants of police strength in the United States. This decade was a time in which crime initially increased, then substantially decreased. Furthermore, this decade also was characterized by increases in the minority population throughout large American cities. Finally, the 1990s…

  17. A Decade of Christian Democratic Decline: The Dilemmas of the CDU, ÖVP and CDA in the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, Fraser

    2006-01-01

    This article explores Christian Democratic electoral decline in the 1990s through an examination of the key problems faced by the CDU, the ÖVP and the CDA. Although the problems of Christian Democracy in this period are identified as arising from exogenous changes, the article goes beyond a mechanis

  18. Market Forces in Higher Education--Chinese and British Experience between Mid-1980s and Mid-1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaonan

    2010-01-01

    This paper tries to examine how higher education in China and Britain has been affected by market forces between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, from three major issues. Comparing the experiences of both places, the paper argues that unlike the case of British counterpart, where marketisation of education has shifted to a corporate management…

  19. An interdecadal change in the intensity of interannual variability in summer rainfall over southern China around early 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiepeng; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Xin; He, Chao; Chen, Zesheng

    2016-03-01

    The intensity of interannual variability (IIV) in southern China (SC) summer rainfall experienced a remarkable increase in early 1990s, concurrent with the interdecadal increase in SC summer rainfall. Two factors are proposed for this interdecadal change. One is the interdecadal increase of IIV in tropical eastern Indian Ocean (TEIO) sea surface temperature (SST) after early 1990s. Anomalous warmer (cooler) TEIO SST triggers anomalous ascending (descending) motion and lower-level cyclonic (anticyclone) circulation in situ, which in turn induces anomalous descent (ascent) over SC through an anomalous meridional vertical circulation. This contributes to interannual summer rainfall variability over SC. The increase in the amplitude of TEIO SST anomalies in early 1990s led to an intensified interannual variability of summer rainfall over SC. The other is the strengthened influence of a coupled mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and North Atlantic triple SST anomaly on interannual variability in summer rainfall over SC after early 1990s. The leading EOF mode of the North Atlantic SST is characterized by a stripe pattern during 1979-1992, while during 1993-2008 the dominant mode of the North Atlantic SST is a triple pattern. The triple pattern of North Atlantic SST may exert positive effect on the NAO after early 1990s. Compared to the period 1979-1992, the relationship between the NAO and interannual summer rainfall over SC is enhanced during 1993-2008. The NAO coupled with North Atlantic SST triple exerts an important impact on SC summer rainfall variability through Eurasian wave-like train.

  20. An interdecadal change in the intensity of interannual variability in summer rainfall over southern China around early 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiepeng; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Xin; He, Chao; Chen, Zesheng

    2017-01-01

    The intensity of interannual variability (IIV) in southern China (SC) summer rainfall experienced a remarkable increase in early 1990s, concurrent with the interdecadal increase in SC summer rainfall. Two factors are proposed for this interdecadal change. One is the interdecadal increase of IIV in tropical eastern Indian Ocean (TEIO) sea surface temperature (SST) after early 1990s. Anomalous warmer (cooler) TEIO SST triggers anomalous ascending (descending) motion and lower-level cyclonic (anticyclone) circulation in situ, which in turn induces anomalous descent (ascent) over SC through an anomalous meridional vertical circulation. This contributes to interannual summer rainfall variability over SC. The increase in the amplitude of TEIO SST anomalies in early 1990s led to an intensified interannual variability of summer rainfall over SC. The other is the strengthened influence of a coupled mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and North Atlantic triple SST anomaly on interannual variability in summer rainfall over SC after early 1990s. The leading EOF mode of the North Atlantic SST is characterized by a stripe pattern during 1979-1992, while during 1993-2008 the dominant mode of the North Atlantic SST is a triple pattern. The triple pattern of North Atlantic SST may exert positive effect on the NAO after early 1990s. Compared to the period 1979-1992, the relationship between the NAO and interannual summer rainfall over SC is enhanced during 1993-2008. The NAO coupled with North Atlantic SST triple exerts an important impact on SC summer rainfall variability through Eurasian wave-like train.

  1. Particulate sulfate ion concentration and SO2 emission trends in the United States from the early 1990s through 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Malm

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined particulate sulfate ion concentrations across the United States from the early 1990s through 2010 using remote/rural data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE network and from early 2000 through 2010 using data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA urban Chemical Speciation Network (CSN. We also examined measured sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions from power plants from 1995 through 2010 from the EPA's Acid Rain Program. The 1992–2010 annual mean sulfate concentrations at long-term rural sites in the United States have decreased significantly and fairly consistently across the United States at a rate of −2.7% yr−1 (p −1 (p −1 (p 2 emissions from power plants across the United States have decreased at a similar rate as sulfate concentrations from 2001 to 2010 (−6.2% yr−1, p 2 emissions and average sulfate concentrations. This linearity was strongest in the eastern United States and weakest in the West where power plant SO2 emissions were lowest and sulfate concentrations were more influenced by non-power-plant and perhaps international SO2 emissions. In addition, annual mean, short-term sulfate concentrations decreased more rapidly in the East relative to the West due to differences in seasonal trends at certain regions in the West. Specifically, increased wintertime concentrations in the central and northern Great Plains and increased springtime concentrations in the western United States were observed. These seasonal and regional positive trends could not be explained by changes in known local and regional SO2 emissions, suggesting other contributing influences. This work implies that on an annual mean basis across the United States, air quality mitigation strategies have been successful in reducing the particulate loading of sulfate in the atmosphere; however, for certain seasons and regions, especially in the West, current mitigation strategies appear insufficient.

  2. The United States Supreme Court and psychiatry in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, J R

    1999-03-01

    In the 1990s, the Supreme Court has decided several cases that have had an impact on psychiatry and psychiatric patients in the criminal justice system, on psychiatric hospitalization, and on psychotherapist-patient privilege. Of the seven cases discussed in this article, Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justice Scalia voted similarly in all seven cases. Since joining the court, Justice Thomas has voted with them. Justice Scalia interprets the Constitution, using what has been termed "textualism": avoid reference to legislative history, and interpret the Constitution according to the plain language meaning of the relevant section. Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justices Scalia and Thomas are inclined to protect states' rights from court decisions that expand US Constitutional power in cases involving civil plaintiffs and criminal defendants. They seek to protect states from being sued in federal courts, and, if there is doubt, lean toward not interfering with state prerogatives. They tend to not find unenumerated rights and prefer clear-cut rules over amorphous standards. Justices Kennedy and O'Connor, at times joined by Justice Souter in the middle of the court, provide the deciding votes in many cases. They seem to prefer a case-by-case pragmatism over a global jurisprudential philosophy. Approaching cases one at a time, they usually avoid broad philosophic pronouncements when they join with Chief Justice Rehnquist. Justice Stevens, joined by Justices Breyer and Ginsburg since they have been appointed to the court, is more likely to favor a broader reading of the 14th Amendment's Due Process and Equal Protection clauses. Of the seven cases, Kennedy and O'Connor voted with the majority in five cases, the dissent in one case (Zinermon v Burch), and split their votes in one case (Foucha v Louisiana, with O'Connor siding with the Court and Kennedy with the dissent). Commager, a noted historian, believed that political issues can be explored, explained, and debated and that

  3. Brazilian trade policies: some observed and estimated effects of the 1990s liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Tyler

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine economic effects of Brazil's trade policy liberalization in the early-1990s. The effects in Brazil, along with those of many other countries pursuing similar reforms, have been contentious. The period in question was one of macroeconomic turmoil followed by successful stabilization, and various policies were pursued sometimes simultaneously, rendering it analytically difficult to separate out various policy effects. The paper examines the existing evidence on the country's productivity growth and employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE model to simulate the effects of trade policy changes. The analysis suggests that the trade policy reforms resulted in significant welfare gains for Brazil.Este trabalho intenciona examinar efeitos econômicos da liberalização brasileira de políticas comerciais introduzidas durante os anos iniciais da década de 1990. Os efeitos no Brasil, como em muitos outros países seguindo reformas parecidas, tem sido contenciosos. O período em questão foi de tumulto ma-croeconômico seguido por estabilização bem-sucedida, e diversas políticas foram implementadas às vezes simultaneamente, tornando-se analiticamente difícil separar e isolar os vários efeitos. O trabalho examina a evidência existente sobre o crescimento da produtividade do País e utiliza também um modelo computável de equilíbrio geral (CGE em simular os efeitos de mudanças em política comercial. A análise sugere que as reformas nas políticas comerciais resultaram em ganhos significativos de bem-estar para o País.

  4. Microwave measurement of intra bunch charge distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dehler, M

    2003-01-01

    A direct way of obtaining intra bunch charge distributions is to measure the amplitude roll off as well as the phase behavior of the spectrum of the single bunch self field. To that effect, a microwave pickup together with a microwave front end has been installed in the storage ring of the Swiss Light Source (SLS). As pickup, button type bpms are used, which have been designed for a broad band behavior in the excess of 30 GHz. Three bpms together with their individual front ends are used in order to sample the beam spectrum at frequencies of 6, 12 and 18 GHz, which compares to the standard spectrum of a 1 mA single bunch extending to approximately 12 GHz (13 ps rms bunch length). The signals are mixed to base band in loco using the multiplied RF frequency as a LO. By shifting the LO phase, simultaneously the amplitude roll off as well the complex phase of the beam spectrum can be obtained. Where using a resonator as a pickup would smear out the response over several bunches, allowing only the determination of...

  5. Recent trends of cancer in Europe: A combined approach of incidence, survival and mortality for 17 cancer sites since the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim-Kos, Henrike E.; Vries, de Esther; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Lemmens, Valery; Siesling, Sabine; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We present a comprehensive overview of most recent European trends in population-based incidence of, mortality from and relative survival for patients with cancer since the mid 1990s. Methods Data on incidence, mortality and 5-year relative survival from the mid 1990s to early 2000 for

  6. Recent trends of cancer in Europe: A combined approach of incidence, survival and mortality for 17 cancer sites since the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim-Kos, Henrike E.; de Vries, Esther; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Lemmens, Valery; Siesling, Sabine; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We present a comprehensive overview of most recent European trends in population-based incidence of, mortality from and relative survival for patients with cancer since the mid 1990s. Methods Data on incidence, mortality and 5-year relative survival from the mid 1990s to early 2000 for

  7. Analyzing Trends in the U.S. and Danish Gender Wage Gaps in the 1980s and 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    Trends in US and Danish gender wage gaps in the 1980s and 1990s are analysed within the framework of simple auto-regressive time-series models. Results show a saturation effect in the wage progress of women in Denmark at a level of 85% but no similar signs of stabilization in the USA. Also......, no evidence is found that business cycle variables can explain the development of the gender wage gap in either country during this time period....

  8. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Buwen; Rowan T Sutton; Shaffrey, Len; Buwen Dong

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August, JJA) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This ...

  9. Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a

  10. Contribution of the phase transition of Pacific Decadal Oscillation to the late 1990s' shift in East China summer rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    zhu, yali

    2016-04-01

    Based on our previous study, the interdecadal changes in summer rainfall over East China in the late 1990s are further explored here. The increased local rising motion is implicated as the dominant factor of increased rainfall in the lower Huang-Huai River valley (LHR). Both the observation and numerical experiments using Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 suggest that the negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) mode can result in rising anomalies and thus more rainfall in the LHR. The East Asian westerly jet stream (EAWJS) is suggested as a bridge to link the Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies and East Asian summer rainfall. Model results reveal that the negative PDO mode can lead to significant easterly anomalies over East Asia. As a result, the EAWJS is weakened and shifts poleward, which coincides with observed changes in EAWJS after the late 1990s. In addition, weakened and poleward shifted EAWJS can result in an anomalous ascending motion to its south (in the LHR) by modulating the jet-related secondary meridional-vertical circulation. Consequently, rainfall increased in the LHR after the late 1990s. Besides, the positive Atlantic Meridional Oscillation can only induce insignificant changes over East Asia and partly counteract the negative PDO effect there.

  11. Weakening of Interannual Variability in the Summer East Asian Upper-tropospheric Westerly Jet since the Mid-1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Riyu; YE Hong; Jong-Ghap JHUN

    2011-01-01

    In this study,we found that the intensity of interannual variability in the summer upper-tropospheric zonal wind has significantly weakened over Northeast Asia and the subtropical western North Pacific (WNP) since the mid-1990s,concurrent with the previously documented decrease of the westerly jet over North China and Northwest China. Corresponding to this weakening of zonal wind variability,the meridional displacement of the East Asian westerly jet (EAJ) manifested as the leading mode of zonal wind variability over the WNP and East Asia (WNP-EA) before the mid-1990s but not afterward.The energetics of the anomalous pattern associated with the meridional displacement of the EAJ suggests that barotropic energy conversion,from basic flow to anomalous patterns,has led to the weakening of the variability in the EAJ meridional displacement and to a change in the leading dominant mode since the mid-1990s.The barotropic energy conversion efficiently maintained the anomalies associated with the variability in the EAJ meridional displacement during 1979-1993 but acted to dampen the anomalies during 1994 2008.A further investigation of the energetics suggests that the difference in the patterns of the circulation anomaly associated with either the first leading mode or the meridional displacenent of the EAJ.i.e.,a southwest northeast tilted pattern during 1979-1993 and a zonally oriented pattern during 1994-2008,has contributed greatly to the change in barotropic energy conversion.

  12. Multifractal Measure of Post Distribution in Post System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; HUANG Deng-shi

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the true post distribution in the whole society, microelasticity (MIE) and macroelasticity (MAE) were defined by regarding all posts as a system. On this basis, the method for measuring post distribution was proposed. Using the Legendre dual transformation between MIE and MAE to highlight the probabilities of different levels, the post distribution were analyzed hierarchically. The two-scale Cantor model verified that the multifractal measure is applicable to the post distribution evolution process.

  13. Circum-Arctic Changes in the Flow of Glaciers and Ice Caps from Satellite SAR Data between the 1990s and 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazio Strozzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We computed circum-Arctic surface velocity maps of glaciers and ice caps over the Canadian Arctic, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic for at least two times between the 1990s and 2017 using satellite SAR data. Our analyses are mainly performed with offset-tracking of ALOS-1 PALSAR-1 (2007–2011 and Sentinel-1 (2015–2017 data. In certain cases JERS-1 SAR (1994–1998, TerraSAR-X (2008–2012, Radarsat-2 (2009–2016 and ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 (2015–2016 data were used to fill-in spatial or temporal gaps. Validation of the latest Sentinel-1 results was accomplished by means of SAR data at higher spatial resolution (Radarsat-2 Wide Ultra Fine and ground-based measurements. In general, we observe a deceleration of flow velocities for the major tidewater glaciers in the Canadian Arctic and an increase in frontal velocity along with a retreat of frontal positions over Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. However, all regions have strong accelerations for selected glaciers. The latter developments can be well traced based on the very high temporal sampling of Sentinel-1 acquisitions since 2015, revealing new insights in glacier dynamics. For example, surges on Spitsbergen (e.g., Negribreen, Nathorsbreen, Penckbreen and Strongbreen have a different characteristic and timing than those over Eastern Austfonna and Edgeoya (e.g., Basin 3, Basin 2 and Stonebreen. Events similar to those ongoing on Eastern Austofonna were also observed over the Vavilov Ice Cap on Severnaya Zemlya and possibly Simony Glacier on Franz-Josef Land. Collectively, there seems to be a recently increasing number of glaciers with frontal destabilization over Eastern Svalbard and the Russian Arctic compared to the 1990s.

  14. Evolution of surname distribution under gender-equality measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Lafuerza, L F

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model for the evolution of the surnames distribution under a gender-equality measurement presently discussed in the Spanish parliament (the children take the surname of the father or the mother according to alphabetical order). We quantify how this would bias the alphabetical distribution of surnames, and analyze its effect on the present distribution of the surnames in Spain.

  15. Could there have been substantial declines in sexual risk behavior across sub-Saharan Africa in the mid-1990s?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne F. Awad

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The hypothesis that HIV prevalence declines in SSA have been driven by declines in sexual risk behavior is self-consistent and provides a convincing narrative for an evolving HIV epidemiology in this region. The hypothesized declines must have been remarkable in their intensity, rapidity, and synchronicity to explain the temporal trends in HIV prevalence. These findings provide contextual support for the hypothesis that changes in sexual behavior that materialized in the 1990s are a dominant driver of the recent decreases in HIV prevalence.

  16. Marital decision-making and the timing of first birth in rural China before the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying

    2006-11-01

    Using a sample of couples drawn from the three provinces of Guangdong, Shandong, and Shaanxi, we investigated whether couples' increasing freedom to choose whom to marry influenced the timing of first birth in rural China during the four decades before the 1990s. The shortening of first-birth intervals in the period is found to be associated with the shift from arranged to free-choice marriages. The association is attributed largely to increased intimacy and coital frequency after marriage together with postponement of age at first marriage.

  17. Is globalization undermining the welfare state? The evolution of the welfare state in developed capitalist countries during the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John; Astudillo, Javier

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyze the evolution of macro-indicators of social and economic well-being during the 1990s in the majority of developed capitalist countries, grouped according to their dominant political traditions since the end of World War II. Their analysis shows that, despite the economic globalization of commerce and finance, "politics still matters" in explaining the evolution of the welfare states and labor markets in these countries; the impact of the globalization of financial capital in forcing reductions in the financial resources available for welfare state purposes has been exaggerated.

  18. Redistribution without structural change in Ecuador: Rising and falling income inequality in the 1990s and 2000s

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Juan; Vos, Rob

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the rise and fall in income inequality in Ecuador over the past two decades. Falling income equality during the 2000s partly coincides with the rise to power of a new leftist government, but the trend was already set early in the decade. The recent trend is mainly associated with a recovery from the country's deep crisis of the late 1990s. The new leftist regime's social transfer policies helped reduce inequality further, but the continuation of Ecuador's primary export-ba...

  19. Lesbi in the metropolis: fatal attraction\\ud in an Indonesian movie from the early 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Murtagh, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Indonesian cinema of the early 1990s has often been noted for its lowbrow and erotic content. One film from this era, Gadis metropolis, which earned something of a reputation for its exploitation of the female body, is also notable for its lesbi, and to a lesser extent, gay storylines. This representation of alternative sexualities constitutes the particular concern of this article. The film’s producer argued that in making Gadis metropolis he sought to ‘explain the lives of lesbi’ in Indones...

  20. Source of Underestimation of the Monetary Policy Effect: Re-examination of the Policy Effectiveness in Japan's 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiko Shibamoto

    2014-01-01

    This paper re-examines the empirical evidence on the potency of Japanese monetary policy in the 1990s by comparing the estimated impacts of various proxies of monetary policy shocks on the macro economy. My empirical results demonstrate that the surprise target changes as a proxy of monetary policy shocks had impacts on real output and financial variables over the period 1990–2001. I also show that the estimated effects of identified monetary policy shocks depend on whether the shocks are ant...

  1. Source of Underestimation of the Monetary Policy Effect: Re-examination of the Policy Effectiveness in Japan's 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiko Shibamoto

    2014-01-01

    This paper re-examines the empirical evidence on the potency of Japanese monetary policy in the 1990s by comparing the estimated impacts of various proxies of monetary policy shocks on the macro economy. My empirical results demonstrate that the surprise target changes as a proxy of monetary policy shocks had impacts on real output and financial variables over the period 1990–2001. I also show that the estimated effects of identified monetary policy shocks depend on whether the shocks are ant...

  2. THE MEASUREMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF WOOD DUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rosario Proto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the woodworking industry presents many issues in terms of occupational health and safety. This study on exposure to wood dust could contribute to the realization of a prevention model in order to limit exposure to carcinogenic agents to the worker. The sampling methodology illustrated the analysis of dust emissions from the woodworking machinery in operation throughout the various processing cycles. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of exposure was performed using two different methodologies. The levels of wood dust were determined according to EN indications and sampling was conducted using IOM and Cyclon personal samplers. The qualitative research of wood dust was performed using an advanced laser air particle counter. This allowed the number of particles present to be counted in real time. The results obtained allowed for an accurate assessment of the quality of the dust emitted inside the workplace during the various processing phases. The study highlighted the distribution of air particles within the different size classes, the exact number of both thin and ultra-thin dusts, and confirmed the high concentration of thin dust particles which can be very harmful to humans.

  3. Distribution Line Parameter Estimation Under Consideration of Measurement Tolerances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander; Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    State estimation and control approaches in electric distribution grids rely on precise electric models that may be inaccurate. This work presents a novel method of estimating distribution line parameters using only root mean square voltage and power measurements under consideration of measurement...

  4. A Program to Generate a Particle Distribution from Emittance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, DS; Lallement, JB

    2010-01-01

    We have written a program to generate a particle distribution based on emittance measurements in x-x’ and y-y’. The accuracy of this program has been tested using real and constructed emittance measurements. Based on these tests, the distribution generated by the program can be used to accurately simulate the beam in multi-particle tracking codes, as an alternative to a Gaussian or uniform distribution.

  5. A Measurement of Secondary Muon Angular Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Poirier, J

    2001-01-01

    Project GRAND is an array of proportional wire chambers composed of 64 stations with each station containing eight proportional wire planes and a 50 mm steel plate. The proportional wire planes together with the steel absorber allow a measurement of the angle and identity of single muon tracks. Of the two data-taking triggers, one is for single tracks. Since the rate of single muon tracks at sea level above the muon energy threshold of the experiment (0.1 GeV) is substantial, good statistics are available by accumulating several years of data. A map in sidereal right ascension and declination is obtained as well as one in a sun-centered coordinate system in order to study the sidereal and solar effects separately.

  6. Measuring SNM Isotopic Distributions using FRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-02

    The first group of slides provides background information on the isotopic composition of plutonium. It is shown that 240Pu is the critical isotope in neutron coincidence/multiplicity counting. Next, response function analysis to determine isotopic composition is discussed. The isotopic composition can be determined by measuring the net peak counts from each isotope and then taking the ratio of the counts for each isotope relative to the total counts for the element. Then FRAM (Fixed energy Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies) is explained. FRAM can control data acquisition, automatically analyze newly acquired data, analyze previously acquired data, provide information on the quality of the analysis, and facilitate analysis in unusual situations (non-standard energy calibrations, gamma rays from non-SNM isotopes, poor spectra (within limits)).

  7. Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteleto, Letícia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework-Effectively Maintained Inequality-and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context.

  8. Application of Digital Photogrammetry to Measure Distribution of Tree Postions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chao; Zhang Qing; Wang Xuefeng

    2004-01-01

    The application of digital photogrammetry to measure distribution of tree positions with stereo image couple is introduced in detail, and the procedure of stereo vision applied in forestry environment is explored. Nonlinear error in measure model is adopted in the camera calibration; the interactive correlation matching is used under constraint of epipolar line and edge of tree detected by Canny operator. Results prove that application of digital photogrammetry technology to measure distribution of tree positions can meet demand of precision in experimental conditions.

  9. Measuring for thickness distribution of recording layer of PLH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Guo, Lurong; Guo, Yongkang

    1991-07-01

    An interference microscope is employed to take a photo of the interfering fringes, and its density is analyzed by a computer image system to measure the thickness distribution of a photolithographic hologram (PLH). This method is much more simple than that of SEM. The theory of measuring is presented in the paper. The authors measured the distributions of photolithographic gratings before and after the etching process. Comparing both the thickness distributions of corresponding recording layers, some primary rules of pattern transfer process by etching were identified.

  10. NORMALLY DISTRIBUTED PROBABILITY MEASURE ON THE METRIC SPACE OF NORMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Á.G. HORVÁTH

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method to construct probability measures on the space of convex bodies. For this purpose, first, we introduce the notion of thinness of a body. Then we show the existence of a measure with the property that its pushforward by the thinness function is a probability measure of truncated normal distribution. Finally, we improve this method to find a measure satisfying some important properties in geometric measure theory.

  11. Mass Distribution Measurement of 252Cf Spontaneous Fission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Shi-long; YANG; Yi; ZHANG; Chun-li; HAN; Hong-yin

    2015-01-01

    The E-v method of measuring the kinetic energy(E)and velocity(v)of outgoing fission products has been utilized,with the goal of measuring the mass resolution better than 1atomic mass units(amu),and could identify every mass for light fission products of unsymmetrical fission.This work measured mass yield distribution

  12. Tractable Counterparts of Distributionally Robust Constraints on Risk Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postek, K.S.; den Hertog, D.; Melenberg, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study distributionally robust constraints on risk measures (such as standard deviation less the mean, Conditional Value-at-Risk, Entropic Value-at-Risk) of decision-dependent random variables. The uncertainty sets for the discrete probability distributions are defined using statisti

  13. High-resolution kinetic energy distributions via doppler shift measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Koplitz, B.; Buelow, S.; Baugh, D.; Wittig, C.

    1986-07-01

    In photolysis/probe experiments using pulsed sources, time delay produces both spatial and directional bias in the fragment distributions, thus enabling well-resolved kinetic energy distributions to be obtained from Doppler shift measurements. Data are presented for H-atoms detected using two-photon ionization, and high S/N and laser-limited kinetic energy resolution are demonstrated.

  14. Error Variance of Rasch Measurement with Logistic Ability Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    Exact formulas for classical error variance are provided for Rasch measurement with logistic distributions. An approximation formula with the normal ability distribution is also provided. With the proposed formulas, the additive contribution of individual items to the population error variance can be determined without knowledge of the other test…

  15. Fault location by one-terminal measurement in distribution network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Presents the theory behind, the system design of the acquisitionof parameters for and the experiment on the fault location by one-terminal measurement in actual distribution network, and some of laws governing the on-site acquisition of parameters and fault location established through experimental research on actual power distribution lines.

  16. Tractable Counterparts of Distributionally Robust Constraints on Risk Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postek, K.S.; den Hertog, D.; Melenberg, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study distributionally robust constraints on risk measures (such as standard deviation less the mean, Conditional Value-at-Risk, Entropic Value-at-Risk) of decision-dependent random variables. The uncertainty sets for the discrete probability distributions are defined using

  17. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated temperature extreme changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day temperature and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these temperature extremes. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor

  18. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated temperature extreme changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day temperature and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these temperature extremes. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor

  19. Distributed collaborative team effectiveness: measurement and process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R.; Hihn, J.; Wilkinson, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement methodology developed for assessing the readiness, and identifying opportunities for improving the effectiveness, of distributed collaborative design teams preparing to conduct a coccurent design session.

  20. Luminous Flame Temperature Distribution Measurement Using the Emission Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Flame temperature distribution is one of the most important characteristic parameters in combustion research. The emission method is a good way to measure the luminous flame temperature field. The maximum entropy method is introduced to the temperature distribution measurement of a luminous flame using the emission method. A simplified mathematical model was derived by combining the thermal radiation theory, reconstruction algorithm and maximum entropy method. Suitable parameters were selected in the computing process. Good experimental results were obtained with pulverized coal flames.

  1. Political economy of China's trade policy:the evidence from industrial protection in 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Bin

    2006-01-01

    The theory of the political economy of trade policy,combining public choice and neoclassical trade theories,studies the level and pattern of trade intervention from the perspective of policy decision-making process,by stressing on income distribution instead of economic efficiency.The paper attempts to apply such an endogenous trade theory to an empirical study of China.On the basis of a formal revised model of political economy of trade protection,it tests theoretical hypotheses concerning the political and economic determinants of cross-sector trade protection in the Chinese industry at various periods.The results show that trade protection in China fits into China's national development strategy of fast catching-up with the developed world.

  2. Deleveraging and Monetary Policy: Japan Since the 1990s and the United States Since 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazuo Ueda

    2012-01-01

    .... I will discuss the use of both the conventional interest rate tool--the federal funds rate in the United States, and the "call rate" in Japan--and nonconventional measures of monetary policy and consider their effectiveness in the context of the rest of the financial system. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT

  3. Transformation of the structure professions in higher agricultural schools of Siberia at the end of 1950-s – beginning of 1990-s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrik Valeriy V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the transformations happened to the specialties structure in Higher agricultural education of Siberia at the end of the 1950s-the beginning of the 1990s. On the basis of archive documents there were analyzed the measures taken by central administrative structures, local authorities and the academic staff of the region for further development and perfection of major organization departments in eight agricultural institutes and their branches. It is stated that to the end of the period reviewed the number of faculties and specialties in Siberian agricultural higher educational institutions rose two times in comparison with the beginning of the period. Some of the agricultural institutes and their branches showed the rise in three or four times. In consequence of the measures they raised the number of specialists trained in Agronomics, Livestock engineering, Mechanics, Power engineering, Veterinary, Economics, for rapidly developing branches of regional agriculture. The article is intended to people interested in history of Higher education in Russia.

  4. CEO expectation: the Star Wars materiel manager of the 1990s, or C-3PO as role model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenty, T F; Olson, M R

    1993-05-01

    Materiel-intensive expenditures account for a significant portion of all hospital costs, second only to salaries and wages, yet materiel managers may often be overlooked as key members of the management team. This is alarming since the potential exists for materiel managers to impact annual savings of hundreds of thousands of dollars by operating efficient departments. Materiel managers have a tremendous opportunity to enhance their image and improve hospital productivity in the coming decade. The challenges of the 1990s will stretch materiel managers' skills toward enhancing their professionalism and achieving the expectations of themselves and top management. If materiel managers will effectively utilize (C3)PO they will increase their educational levels, continue to learn new skills, maintain a customer-oriented management style, exercise creativity, develop and adhere to standards, and be proactive in their responsibilities. The benefits of their success will be felt by patients, hospitals, the industry, and materiel managers everywhere.

  5. Stereotypes of the elderly in U.S. television commercials from the 1950s to the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Darryl W; Leyell, Teresita S; Mazachek, Juliann

    2004-01-01

    Critics have charged that American advertisers have often portrayed the elderly with negative stereotypes. These negative portrayals, they suggest, not only offend elderly consumers but also contribute to ageism. This study examined whether American advertisers have indeed used a great deal of negative stereotyping of the elderly, as the critics have suggested. Employing a concept of stereotypes found in cognitive psychology, the authors examined trends in the portrayal of the elderly in television commercials produced in the United States from the 1950s through the 1990s. Results of the study do not support the contentions of the critics. Very little negative stereotyping was discovered. Analysis indicated trends in the appearance of several positive stereotypes, and differences in the stereotyping of gender groups and age segments within the elderly group. Results are interpreted from both marketing and social science perspectives.

  6. State policy decisions in the 1990s with implications for the financial well-being of later-life families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gretchen J

    2006-01-01

    This study explores trends and patterns in states' policy decisions affecting the economic well-being of later-life individuals and families in the United States in recent decades, focusing on the 1990s. Rules were selected from the areas of inheritance, estate taxes, homestead exemptions, Medicaid eligibility, estate recovery, and filial responsibility. Results indicate an increasing use of a broad definition of family, one implying that spouses, the nuclear family, extended kin, step-relations, and sometimes in-laws constitute an ongoing collective whose members share economic resources and risks over their lives and beyond. Despite this global trend, states varied in their rules addressing intrafamilial financial obligations and families' accountability to states. While some seemed interested in facilitating the conservation of familial resources, others seemed willing to minimize public assistance while coercing kin into accepting financial responsibility for one another. Research was suggested to answer questions raised by this study.

  7. Expectations and beliefs in science communication: Learning from three European gene therapy discussions of the early 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-04-01

    There is widespread agreement that the potential of gene therapy was oversold in the early 1990s. This study, however, comparing written material from the British, Danish and German gene therapy discourses of the period finds significant differences: Over-optimism was not equally strong everywhere; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical-ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention to internalised beliefs.

  8. DEVELOPMENT SUB-NATIONAL AND POLITICAL CONDUCT OF INDUSTRIAL BOURGEOISIE IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL DURING THE 1990S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Andre Cadoná

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990s, before the States nation crisis, economic openness and integration into the globalization of capital in the country, subnational governments in Brazil have increasingly pressured by the bourgeoisie of their respective territories for the definition of "competitive strategies", to create more favorable conditions of competitiveness for the capital already located locally and to international capital invested in the country during that decade. Thus, the "subnational spaces" gained importance as sites of struggle, especially for the forces representing the capital. In Rio Grande do Sul, the interest in making the country competitive in attracting gaucho capital boosted the industrial bourgeoisie to a broad political mobilization in defense of an adaptation project subject to the logic of the sub-space of globalization of capital.

  9. Changing health inequalities in a changing society? Sweden in the mid-1980s and mid-1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, O; Diderichsen, F; Yngwe, M A

    2001-01-01

    Whereas the end of the 1980s was characterized by an economic boom, the early 1990s saw the worst recession since the 1930s. In Sweden, the crisis that started in the fall of 1991 and culminated in 1995 meant dramatically increased unemployment rates followed by cutbacks in welfare state programs....... In addition, other major changes in economic and political conditions have taken place during this period, including tax reforms and EU membership. Although public health as well as health inequalities are likely to be linked with these kinds of macro changes, it is unclear what types of changes in health...... and health inequalities one would expect. In this paper analyses of Swedish data on health inequalities in the periods 1986-87 and 1994-95 are undertaken on the basis of the Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions. The main finding is that overall health levels as well as differences in health between men...

  10. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  11. On the asymptotic distribution of an alternative measure of kurtosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagba Suaray

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pearson defined the fourth standardized moment of a symmetric distribution as its kurtosis. There has been much discussion in the literature concerning both the meaning of kurtosis, as well as the effectiveness of the classical sample kurtosis as a reliable measure of peakedness and tail weight. In this paper, we consider an alternative measure, developed by Crow and Siddiqui, used to describe kurtosis. Its value is calculated for a number of common distributions, and a derivation of its asymptotic distribution is given. Simulations follow, which reveal an interesting connection to the literature on the ratio of normal random variables.

  12. Study on utilizing ultrasonic for measurement of sediment concentration distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaChunjuan; TangMaoguan

    1998-01-01

    In the course of sedimentation research, the measurement of sediment concentration and its distribution is very important. At present, most traditional methods are arduous and cannot measure the sediment timely and successively. In order to seek the new measurement method,the paper reports utilizing ultrasonic measurement. When ultrasonic wave spreads along the depth in aqueous suspensions, the scatter intensity of sediment particles changes the depth and sediment concentration. Based on this principle,

  13. Disparities in child health in the Arab region during the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyerson-Knox Sonya

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Arab countries showed an impressive decline in child mortality rates during the past few decades, gaps in mortality by gender and socioeconomic status persisted. However, large socioeconomic disparities in child health were evident in almost every country in the region. Methods Using available tabulations and reliable micro data from national household surveys, data for 18 Arab countries were available for analysis. In addition to infant and child mortality, child health was measured by nutritional status, vaccination, and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI. Within-country disparities in child health by gender, residence (urban/rural and maternal educational level were described. Child health was also analyzed by macro measures of development, including per capita GDP (PPP, female literacy rates, urban population and doctors per 100,000 people. Results Gender disparities in child health using the above indicators were less evident, with most showing clear female advantage. With the exception of infant and child survival, gender disparities demonstrated a female advantage, as well as a large urban advantage and an overall advantage for mothers with secondary education. Surprisingly, the countries' rankings with respect to disparities were not associated with various macro measures of development. Conclusion The tenacity of pervasive intra-country socioeconomic disparities in child health calls for attention by policy makers and health practitioners.

  14. Sensitizing events as trigger for discursive renewal and institutional change in Flanders’ environmental health approach, 1970s-1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitizing events may trigger and stimulate discursive renewal. From a discursive institutional perspective, changing discourses are the driving force behind the institutional dynamics of policy domains. Theoretically informed by discursive institutionalism, this article assesses the impact of a series of four sensitizing events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders between the 1970s till the 1990s, and led onto the gradual institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. Methods The Policy Arrangement Approach is used as the analytical framework to structure the empirical results of the historical analysis based on document analysis and in-depth interviews. Results Until the 1990s, environmental health was characterized as an ad hoc policy field in Flanders, where agenda setting was based on sensitizing events – also referred to as incident-driven. Each of these events contributed to a gradual rethinking of the epistemological discourses about environmental health risks and uncertainties. These new discourses were the driving forces behind institutional dynamics as they gradually resulted in an increased need for: 1) long-term, policy-oriented, interdisciplinary environmental health research; 2) policy coordination and integration between the environmental and public health policy fields; and 3) new forms of science-policy interactions based on mutual learning. These changes are desirable in order to detect environmental health problems as fast as possible, to react immediately and communicate appropriately. Conclusions The series of four events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders provided the opportunity to rethink and re-organize the current affairs concerning environmental health and gradually resulted into the institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. PMID:23758822

  15. Europe-wide fertility trends since the 1990s: Turning the corner from declining first birth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Burkimsher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the period 1995-2002 there was a change in trajectory from decline to rise in first birth fertility rates across Europe. Objective: A number of previous studies have looked at the demographic causes of the transition. This study evaluates their conclusions by analysing a comprehensive set of indicators for fifteen countries with data in the Human Fertility Database. Methods: Comparisons are made between the four years before and after the fertility trough, to discover what changed between these two periods. Results: In the period before the trough, peak age-specific fertility rates were falling; these tended to stabilise after the year of minimum fertility. The width of the fertility curve, however, was already widening in the 1990s, and this trend continued. The transition from fall to rise in TFR1 occurred when the increase in the width of the curve more than compensated for any further falls in peak rates; this explanation is valid for countries in both Eastern and Western Europe. The increasing width of the fertility curve was caused by two factors: the decline in young (pre-modal fertility slowed, whilst the rise in older (post-modal fertility accelerated. For some countries, a rise in underlying cohort rates also contributed to the rise in period rates. The likelihood of childless women entering motherhood also rose in some but not all countries. Conclusions: During the 1990s, women were postponing first births across Europe. A rebound took place for several reasons, with the overarching driver being the strong rise in late fertility. Comments: In some countries the steep rise in late fertility had an unexpected and paradoxical effect on postponement rates (defined as the year-on-year increase in mean age at first birth. Recuperation at post-modal ages of postponed first births caused an acceleration in 'postponement' rates, as defined by this metric.

  16. The matilda effect in science: awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Anne E; Pincus, Stephanie; Koster, Janet Bandows; Leboy, Phoebe S

    2012-04-01

    Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the 'Matthew Effect'. Contrary to the Mertonian norm of universalism--the expectation that the personal attributes of scientists do not affect evaluations of their scientific claims and contributions--in practice, a great deal of evidence suggests that the scientific efforts and achievements of women do not receive the same recognition as do those of men: the 'Matilda Effect'. Awards in science, technology, engineering and medical (STEM) fields are not immune to these biases. We outline the research on gender bias in evaluations of research and analyze data from 13 STEM disciplinary societies. While women's receipt of professional awards and prizes has increased in the past two decades, men continue to win a higher proportion of awards for scholarly research than expected based on their representation in the nomination pool. The results support the powerful twin influences of implicit bias and committee chairs as contributing factors. The analysis sheds light on the relationship of external social factors to women's science careers and helps to explain why women are severely underrepresented as winners of science awards. The ghettoization of women's accomplishments into a category of 'women-only' awards also is discussed.

  17. Surface ozone scenario at Pune and Delhi during the decade of 1990s

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaushar Ali; S R Inamdar; G Beig; S Ghude; Sunil Peshin

    2012-04-01

    Data on surface ozone concentration compiled for a 10-year period from 1990 to 1999 for Pune and Delhi are analyzed in terms of its frequency distribution, annual trend, diurnal variation and its relation with various meteorological and chemical parameters. It is found that the surface ozone concentration range showing highest frequency of occurrence at Pune is 0–5 ppb during winter and post-monsoon seasons and 15–20 ppb and 5–10 ppb during summer and monsoon seasons, respectively. It is 0–5 ppb at Delhi during all the seasons. The surface ozone concentration has shown a decreasing trend at Pune during the observational period with an average rate of decrease of 1.54 ppb/year. On the other hand, there is no trend whatsoever in the variation of surface ozone concentration at Delhi. Minimum value of surface ozone occurs before sunrise and maximum in the afternoon hours. Regression analyses of surface ozone with maximum temperature ( = 0.46 for Pune and 0.51 for Delhi, significant at more than 0.1%) and NO2 at respective locations indicate that surface ozone at these locations is mainly produced by photochemistry. Transport mechanism is also understood to have contributed significantly to the total concentration of ozone. Inverse relationship obtained between surface ozone concentration and relative humidity indicates that major photochemical paths for removal of ozone become effective when humidity increases at these locations.

  18. Long-term changes in UT/LS ozone between the late 1970s and the 1990s deduced from the GASP and MOZAIC aircraft programs and from ozonesondes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stübi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We present ozone measurements of the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP performed from four commercial and one research aircraft in the late 1970s to compare them with respective measurements of the ongoing MOZAIC project. Multi-annual averages of UT/LS ozone were built using the aircraft data sets (1975–1979 and 1994–2001, and long-term changes between the 1970s and 1990s were derived by comparison. The data were binned relative to the dynamical tropopause to separate between UT and LS air masses. LS data were analysed using equivalent latitudes. In the UT, pronounced increases of 20–40% are found over the Middle East and South Asia in the spring and summer seasons. Increases are also found over Japan, Europe, and the eastern parts of the United States depending on season. LS ozone over northern mid- and high latitudes was found to be lower in the 1990s compared to the 1970s in all seasons of the year. In addition, a comparison with long-term changes deduced from ozonesondes is presented. The early 1970s European Brewer-Mast (BM sonde data agree with GASP within the range of uncertainty (UT or measured slightly less ozone (LS. In contrast, the 1990s BM sensors show consistently and significantly higher UT/LS ozone values than MOZAIC. This unequal behaviour of aircraft/sonde comparisons in the 1970s and 1990s leads to differences in the estimated long-term changes over Europe: while the comparison between GASP and MOZAIC indicates ozone changes of −5% to 10% over Europe, the sondes suggest a much larger increase of 10%–35% depending on station and season, although statistical significance is not conclusive due to data sample limitations. In contrast to the BM sondes, the Electrochemical Cell (ECC sonde at Wallops Island, USA, measured higher UT ozone than both GASP and MOZAIC. Hence, long-term changes from GASP/MOZAIC agree within the range of uncertainty with the changes deduced from Wallops Island.

  19. Long-term changes in UT/LS ozone between the late 1970s and the 1990s deduced from the GASP and MOZAIC aircraft programs and from ozonesondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnadt Poberaj, C.; Staehelin, J.; Brunner, D.; Thouret, V.; de Backer, H.; Stübi, R.

    2009-07-01

    We present ozone measurements of the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) performed from four commercial and one research aircraft in the late 1970s to compare them with respective measurements of the ongoing MOZAIC project. Multi-annual averages of UT/LS ozone were built using the aircraft data sets (1975-1979 and 1994-2001), and long-term changes between the 1970s and 1990s were derived by comparison. The data were binned relative to the dynamical tropopause to separate between UT and LS air masses. LS data were analysed using equivalent latitudes. In the UT, pronounced increases of 20-40% are found over the Middle East and South Asia in the spring and summer seasons. Increases are also found over Japan, Europe, and the eastern parts of the United States depending on season. LS ozone over northern mid- and high latitudes was found to be lower in the 1990s compared to the 1970s in all seasons of the year. In addition, a comparison with long-term changes deduced from ozonesondes is presented. The early 1970s European Brewer-Mast (BM) sonde data agree with GASP within the range of uncertainty (UT) or measured slightly less ozone (LS). In contrast, the 1990s BM sensors show consistently and significantly higher UT/LS ozone values than MOZAIC. This unequal behaviour of aircraft/sonde comparisons in the 1970s and 1990s leads to differences in the estimated long-term changes over Europe: while the comparison between GASP and MOZAIC indicates ozone changes of -5% to 10% over Europe, the sondes suggest a much larger increase of 10%-35% depending on station and season, although statistical significance is not conclusive due to data sample limitations. In contrast to the BM sondes, the Electrochemical Cell (ECC) sonde at Wallops Island, USA, measured higher UT ozone than both GASP and MOZAIC. Hence, long-term changes from GASP/MOZAIC agree within the range of uncertainty with the changes deduced from Wallops Island.

  20. Gravimetric Measurement of Magnetic Field Gradient Spatial Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Arutunian, S G; Egiazarian, S L; Mailian, M R; Sinenko, I G; Sinjavski, A V; Vasiniuk, I E

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic interaction between a weighing sample and an external magnetic field allows to measure characteristics of magnetic field (a sample with known magnetic characteristics), as well as the magnetic properties of a sample (a known magnetic field). Measurement of materials magnetic permeability is a well known application of this method. In this paper we restrict ourselves to the measurement of magnetic field spatial distribution, which was achieved by scanning of samples from known materials along the vertical axis. Field measurements by Hall detector were done to calibrate obtained data. Such measurements are of great interest in some branches of physics, in particular, in accelerator physics, where the quality of magnetic system parts eventually determine the quality of accelerated bunches. Development of a simple and cheep device for measurement of magnetic field spatial distribution is an urgent problem. The developed system for gravimetric measurement of magnetic field gradients partially solves this ...

  1. A strategy for space biology and medical science for the 1980s and 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A guideline is provided for developing NASA's long-term mission plans and a rational, coherent research program. Ten topical areas for research are addressed: developmental biology, gravitropism in plants, sensorimotor integration, bone and mineral metabolism, cardiovascular/pulmonary function, muscle remodeling, nutrition, human reproduction, space anemia, and human behavior. Scientific goals, objectives, and required measurements and facilities for each of the major areas of space biology and medicine are identified and described along with primary goals and objectives for each of these disciplines. Proposals are made concerning the use of scientific panels to oversee the implementation of the strategy, life sciences' need for continuous access to spaceflight opportunities, the advantages of a focused mission strategy, certain design features that will enhance spaceflight experimentation, and general facilities. Other topics that are considered include mission planning, crew selection and training, and interagency and international cooperation.

  2. Expanded Ion Energy Distribution Measurements on MST RFP Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jerry; Titus, J. B.; Mezonlin, E. D.; Anderson, J. K.; Almagri, A. F.

    2016-10-01

    The Compact Neutral Particle Analyzer (CNPA) is a low energy (0.34 - 5.2 keV), high energy resolution (25 channels) neutral particle analyzer for ion energy distribution and temperature measurements on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). In MST plasmas during neutral beam injection, deuterium ions are known to have energies out to 40 keV. A retarding potential was built, installed, and calibrated to allow CNPA measurements to explore this region with high energy resolution, expanding ion energy distribution measurements, allowing us to better understand the dynamics of the bulk and fast ion populations during global magnetic reconnection events. Work supported by US DOE and NSF.

  3. Temperature Distribution Measurement of The Wing Surface under Icing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isokawa, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Kimura, Shigeo; Sakaue, Hirotaka; Morita, Katsuaki; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Collaboration; Univ of Notre Dame Collaboration; Kanagawa Institute of Technology Collaboration; Univ of Electro-(UEC) Team, Comm

    2016-11-01

    De- or anti-icing system of an aircraft is necessary for a safe flight operation. Icing is a phenomenon which is caused by a collision of supercooled water frozen to an object. For the in-flight icing, it may cause a change in the wing cross section that causes stall, and in the worst case, the aircraft would fall. Therefore it is important to know the surface temperature of the wing for de- or anti-icing system. In aerospace field, temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) has been widely used for obtaining the surface temperature distribution on a testing article. The luminescent image from the TSP can be related to the temperature distribution. (TSP measurement system) In icing wind tunnel, we measured the surface temperature distribution of the wing model using the TSP measurement system. The effect of icing conditions on the TSP measurement system is discussed.

  4. Imaging and Measuring Electron Beam Dose Distributions Using Holographic Interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Holographic interferometry was used to image and measure ionizing radiation depth-dose and isodose distributions in transparent liquids. Both broad and narrowly collimated electron beams from accelerators (2–10 MeV) provided short irradiation times of 30 ns to 0.6 s. Holographic images and measur......Holographic interferometry was used to image and measure ionizing radiation depth-dose and isodose distributions in transparent liquids. Both broad and narrowly collimated electron beams from accelerators (2–10 MeV) provided short irradiation times of 30 ns to 0.6 s. Holographic images...... and measurements of absorbed dose distributions were achieved in liquids of various densities and thermal properties and in water layers thinner than the electron range and with backings of materials of various densities and atomic numbers. The lowest detectable dose in some liquids was of the order of a few k...

  5. ESP after thirty years: an overview of the position of ESP in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Khuwaileh

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In the view of many ESP practitioners and thinkers, the year 1962 has increasingly been considered the year which marks the birth of ESP, the son of ELT (see.for example, Swales 1985: 1-3. The year 1992 could mark the thirtieth birthday of ESP which is a good opportunity to reconsider the sttus of ESP, which is arquably now. The article of Barber (1962 'Some measurable characteristics of modern scientific prose?  indicated clearly the  birth of ESP. On the basis of these considerations, the principal aim of this paper is to take a fresh look at ESP and its status in terms of its current issues and recent drawbacks. Although there has been a common agreement among ESP practitioners, applied linguists, etc. that ESP should not be separated from ELT (Mackay and Mountford 1978 and Widdonwson 1983: 83, for instance, the real and actual conditions of ESP demonstrate that it has started to distant itself from ELT. In fact, the recent circum­ stances of ESP show celarly that there have been some general trends which are ESP bound and perhaps have nothing to do with ELT.

  6. Challenging the Future - Journey to Excellence. Aeropropulsion strategic plan for the 1990's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past several months, the Lewis Aeropropulsion Management Council (AMC) has conducted a critical assessment of its strategic plan. This assessment clearly indicated a need for change, both in the aeropropulsion program emphasis and in the approach to carrying out that program. Customers sent a strong message that the program must improve the timeliness of research and technology products and services and must work more closely with them to develop and transfer new technology. The strategic plan defines AMC's vision for the future and underlying organizational values. It contains a set of broad strategies and actions that point the way toward achieving the goals of customer satisfaction, organizational effectiveness, and programmatic excellence. Those strategies are expected to form the basis for the development of specific tactical plans by Lewis aeropropulsion thrust teams, divisions, and branches. To guide tactical planning of the aeropropulsion program, this strategic plan outlines the agency's strategic directions and long-range aeronautics goals, the aeropropulsion goals and key objectives for achieving them, projections of Lewis aeropropulsion budgets, planned allocations of resources, and the processes that will be used to measure success in carrying out the strategic plan.

  7. Integrating Usage Stage Risk Measurement Tools in Distributed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Alexandru TANASIE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed application features are presented along with associated risks occurring during the development and production stages. Issues raised by incidents catalogued as risks are described. The MERICS software application is presented, being built for user-distributed system interaction analysis and component reliability measurement. The steps taken to accurately describe risks from an end-user scope, based on a comparative system, are shown. The model is implemented using previously-described elements as parameters. The operational impact of analysis is detailed within successive versions of modules composing distributed applications. Risk management decisions are to be based on the analytic database built by applying the above.

  8. Statistical analysis of solar measurements in Algeria using beta distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettoumi, F. Youcef; Adane, A. [Univ. of Sciences and Technology of Algiers (U.S.T.H.B.), Dept. of Telecommunications, Algiers (Algeria); Mefti, A.; Bouroubi, M.Y. [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables (CDER), Algiers (Algeria)

    2002-05-01

    A method of smoothing solar data by beta probability distributions is implemented in this paper. In the first step, this method has been used to process daily sunshine duration data recorded at thirty- three meteorological stations in Algeria for eleven year periods or more. In the second step, it has been applied to hourly global solar irradiation flux measured in Algiers during the 1987/89 period. For each location and each month of the year, beta probability density functions fitting the monthly frequency distributions of the daily sunshine duration measurements are obtained. Both the parameters characterising the resulting beta distributions are then mapped, enabling us to build the frequency distributions of sunshine duration for every site in Algeria. In the case of solar radiation for Algiers, the recorded data have been processed following two different ways. The first one consists in sorting the hourly global solar irradiation data into eight typical classes of the daily clearness index. The second one is based on the repartition of these data per month. The results of the first classification show that for each class of daily clearness index, the hourly data under consideration are modelled by only one beta distribution. When using the second classification, linear combinations of two beta distributions are found to fit the monthly frequency distributions of the hourly solar radiation data. (Author)

  9. Size distribution measurements and chemical analysis of aerosol components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The principal aims of this work were to improve the existing methods for size distribution measurements and to draw conclusions about atmospheric and in-stack aerosol chemistry and physics by utilizing size distributions of various aerosol components measured. A sample dissolution with dilute nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath and subsequent graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric analysis was found to result in low blank values and good recoveries for several elements in atmospheric fine particle size fractions below 2 {mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic particle diameter (EAD). Furthermore, it turned out that a substantial amount of analyses associated with insoluble material could be recovered since suspensions were formed. The size distribution measurements of in-stack combustion aerosols indicated two modal size distributions for most components measured. The existence of the fine particle mode suggests that a substantial fraction of such elements with two modal size distributions may vaporize and nucleate during the combustion process. In southern Norway, size distributions of atmospheric aerosol components usually exhibited one or two fine particle modes and one or two coarse particle modes. Atmospheric relative humidity values higher than 80% resulted in significant increase of the mass median diameters of the droplet mode. Important local and/or regional sources of As, Br, I, K, Mn, Pb, Sb, Si and Zn were found to exist in southern Norway. The existence of these sources was reflected in the corresponding size distributions determined, and was utilized in the development of a source identification method based on size distribution data. On the Finnish south coast, atmospheric coarse particle nitrate was found to be formed mostly through an atmospheric reaction of nitric acid with existing coarse particle sea salt but reactions and/or adsorption of nitric acid with soil derived particles also occurred. Chloride was depleted when acidic species reacted

  10. Probability distributions of continuous measurement results for conditioned quantum evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquet, A.; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2017-02-01

    We address the statistics of continuous weak linear measurement on a few-state quantum system that is subject to a conditioned quantum evolution. For a conditioned evolution, both the initial and final states of the system are fixed: the latter is achieved by the postselection in the end of the evolution. The statistics may drastically differ from the nonconditioned case, and the interference between initial and final states can be observed in the probability distributions of measurement outcomes as well as in the average values exceeding the conventional range of nonconditioned averages. We develop a proper formalism to compute the distributions of measurement outcomes, and evaluate and discuss the distributions in experimentally relevant setups. We demonstrate the manifestations of the interference between initial and final states in various regimes. We consider analytically simple examples of nontrivial probability distributions. We reveal peaks (or dips) at half-quantized values of the measurement outputs. We discuss in detail the case of zero overlap between initial and final states demonstrating anomalously big average outputs and sudden jump in time-integrated output. We present and discuss the numerical evaluation of the probability distribution aiming at extending the analytical results and describing a realistic experimental situation of a qubit in the regime of resonant fluorescence.

  11. Measurement of bidirectional reflection distribution function on material surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Hongyuan Wang; Zhile Wang

    2009-01-01

    Two automatic measurement methods of bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) are pre sented based on absolute and relative definition. Measurement principle and scheme of the methods are analyzed. A real-time measurement device is developed, the measurement spectral range of which is from ultraviolet to near infrared with 2.4-nm wavelength resolution, and the angular range is 0掳鈥? 360掳 in az imuth angle and 0掳 - 85掳 in zenith angle with 0.01掳 angle resolution. Absolute measurements of BRDF on tinfoil and ceramic tile are performed and the test materials present apparent specular reflection char acteristics. The theoretical error in the experiment is about 6.05%. The BRDF measurement results are closely related to the precision of measurement platform, the sensitivity of measurement instrument, and the stability of illuminating light source.

  12. Study of indoor radon distribution using measurements and CFD modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Neetika; Chauhan, R P; Joshi, M; Agarwal, T K; Aggarwal, Praveen; Sahoo, B K

    2014-10-01

    Measurement and/or prediction of indoor radon ((222)Rn) concentration are important due to the impact of radon on indoor air quality and consequent inhalation hazard. In recent times, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling has become the cost effective replacement of experimental methods for the prediction and visualization of indoor pollutant distribution. The aim of this study is to implement CFD based modeling for studying indoor radon gas distribution. This study focuses on comparison of experimentally measured and CFD modeling predicted spatial distribution of radon concentration for a model test room. The key inputs for simulation viz. radon exhalation rate and ventilation rate were measured as a part of this study. Validation experiments were performed by measuring radon concentration at different locations of test room using active (continuous radon monitor) and passive (pin-hole dosimeters) techniques. Modeling predictions have been found to be reasonably matching with the measurement results. The validated model can be used to understand and study factors affecting indoor radon distribution for more realistic indoor environment.

  13. Measurement of stopping beam distributions in the PIBETA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Frlez, E; Li, W; Pocanic, D

    2006-01-01

    Precise calculation of the geometrical acceptance of a large solid angle detector with an integrated stopping target relies on precise knowledge of the beam geometry. We describe four alternative methods that we used to measure the beam stopping distributions in the PIBETA detector active target: (i) light response of segmented target elements to incident beam particles, (ii) back-tracking of charged particles from pi+ and mu+ decays using multi-wire proportional chambers, (iii) volume distribution of the Dalitz decay (pi0->gamma e+e-) event vertices, and (iv) the opening angle distribution of two pi0 photons originating from the beta decay of pi+ at rest. We demonstrate consistent results obtained by these four independent approaches and show how particular beam stopping distributions affect the detector's geometrical acceptance.

  14. Non-Gaussian error distribution of 7Li abundance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Sara; Houston, Stephen; Ratra, Bharat

    2015-07-01

    We construct the error distribution of 7Li abundance measurements for 66 observations (with error bars) used by Spite et al. (2012) that give A(Li) = 2.21 ± 0.065 (median and 1σ symmetrized error). This error distribution is somewhat non-Gaussian, with larger probability in the tails than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution. The 95.4% confidence limits are 3.0σ in terms of the quoted errors. We fit the data to four commonly used distributions: Gaussian, Cauchy, Student’s t and double exponential with the center of the distribution found with both weighted mean and median statistics. It is reasonably well described by a widened n = 8 Student’s t distribution. Assuming Gaussianity, the observed A(Li) is 6.5σ away from that expected from standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) given the Planck observations. Accounting for the non-Gaussianity of the observed A(Li) error distribution reduces the discrepancy to 4.9σ, which is still significant.

  15. On the measurement of the (multidimensional) inequality of health distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    Health outcomes are often described according to two dimensions: quality of life and quantity of life. We analyze the measurement of inequality of health distributions referring to these two dimensions. Our analysis relies on a novel treatment of the quality-of-life dimension, which might not hav...

  16. Measurement of Dijet Angular Distributions and Search for Quark Compositeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Grim, G.; Grinstein, S.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krane, J.; Kirshnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Lan, H.; Lander, R.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Q.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Nicola, M.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1998-01-01

    We have measured the dijet angular distribution in s = 1.8 TeV pp¯ collisions using the D0 detector. Order α3s QCD predictions are in good agreement with the data. At 95% confidence limit the data exclude models of quark compositeness in which the contact interaction scale is below 2 TeV.

  17. Rapid channel incision of the lower Pearl River (China since the 1990s as a consequence of sediment depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. X. Lu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported a dramatic channel incision (>10 m in the deepest cut during the past 10 y or so in the lower Pearl River, the second largest river in terms of water discharge in China. The channel incision had caused changes both in the channel geometry as well as in the river hydraulics. Also, the water exchange between the two major tributaries of the Pearl River, the Xijiang and Beijiang, had been significantly changed due to the channel incision. The rapid channel incision was principally the result of extensive sand mining in the lower Pearl River and the delta region due to the booming economy in the Pearl Delta region. Slight increase of water discharge and significant decrease of sediment load since the early 1990s in both the Xijiang and Beijiang also likely contributed to the observed dramatic river bed downcutting to some extent. This has important implications for river management, as the large Chinese rivers have seen a dramatic depletion of sediment fluxes due to the combined effects of declining rainfall, dam constructions, water diversion, reforestation and afforestation, and sediment mining over the recent decades.

  18. Can National History Be De-Provincialized? U.S. History Textbook Controversies in the 1940s and 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bender

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Bender’s 2009 essay “Can National History Be De-Provincialized? U.S. History Textbook Controversies in the 1940s and 1990s,” originally published in Contexts: The Journal of Educational Media, Memory, and Society, asks the important question of how a nation-specific curriculum in history—that is, how “American” history itself—can be taught with the least influence of political factions and the least interference of commercial factors, in light of the fact that both elements, the political and the commercial, have played a role in the construction of the US history textbook. Bender’s essay demonstrates the complexity of the problem as multiple stakeholders seek to control, limit, or promote particular elements of the narratives of US history. Professional historians, Bender argues, like history itself, have “no responsibility to supply comfort”—that is, no role in promoting nationalism or American exceptionalism—yet he also warns that, due to changes in the textbook industry, they also may have little role in determining what is finally published. Bender’s essay, which specifically discusses the impact of political conditions—World War II, for example—on the daily practice of teaching and writing about history, serves as an insightful reminder of the complexity and vulnerability of a nation’s memory.

  19. Urban land expansion and arable land loss of the major cities in China in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Minghong; LI Xiubin; LU Changhe

    2005-01-01

    Based on the land-use data in 1990 and 2000, determined by interpreting Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery, this paper defines the extent of urban construction land, and extracts patches of urban construction land of 145 cities with the largest areas in 1990 and arable land patches around these cities. With these data, this paper analyzes the characteristics of urban construction land expansion and the consequent arable land loss in East, Middle and West China, and further identifies the social, economic and spatial factors of the urban land use changes, using GIS (Geographical Information System) and multivariate regression approaches. The results show that total urban land of the 145 cities expanded by 39.8%, with about 70% of the new urban land converted from arable land in the 1990s. The urban land expansion varied among the three regions, with a value of 43.0% in the East, 33.1% in the West (33.1%) and 17.8% in the Middle. Moreover, mean urban construction land per capita increased by10.7% in the East, but it decreased by 7.7% in the Middle, 1.4% in the West. Statistical analysis indicated that total wages of staff and workers could best explain the differences of urban land expansion.

  20. Increase in the potential predictability of the Arctic Oscillation via intensified teleconnection with ENSO after the mid-1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daehyun; Lee, Myong-In

    2017-09-01

    This study examines why the seasonal prediction skill of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) has increased significantly since the mid-1990s in state-of-the-art seasonal forecasting systems in operation. This skill increase is primarily attributed to variability over the North Atlantic with an enhanced connection between the AO and the El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The relationship between ENSO and AO depends primarily on low-frequency variability in the North Pacific driven by the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, as represented by the Hawaiian sea level pressure (SLPHI) index. When the sign of the SLPHI index and that of the NINO3.4 index are out-of-phase (in-phase) with the variability center of ENSO shifted to the central Pacific (eastern Pacific), more intense (weaker) ENSO-AO teleconnection results. Linear barotropic model experiments with prescribed ENSO forcing and differing phase and intensity of SLPHI support the observed relationship in La Niña years, highlighting the important and independent role of the SLPHI variability as a modulator of the ENSO teleconnection to higher latitudes.

  1. 16 Years of Ulysses Interstellar Dust Measurements in the Solar System: I. Mass Distribution and Gas-to-Dust Mass Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, Harald; Gruen, Eberhard; Sterken, Veerle J

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, contemporary interstellar dust (ISD) penetrating deep into the heliosphere was identified with the in-situ dust detector on board the Ulysses spacecraft. Between 1992 and the end of 2007 Ulysses monitored the ISD stream. The interstellar grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar medium surrounding our solar system. Earlier analyses of the Ulysses ISD data measured between 1992 and 1998 implied the existence of 'big' ISD grains [up to 10^-13kg]. The derived gas-to-dust-mass ratio was smaller than the one derived from astronomical observations, implying a concentration of ISD in the very local interstellar medium. We analyse the entire data set from 16 yr of Ulysses ISD measurements in interplanetary space. This paper concentrates on the overall mass distribution of ISD. An accompanying paper investigates time-variable phenomena in the Ulysses ISD data, and in a third paper we present the results from dynamical modelling of the ISD flow applied to Ulysses. We...

  2. What Have Peace Education Commission Papers Dealt with in the 1990s? Comments on a Guide to Five Conference Reports. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 857.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    Five international conferences were held during the 1990s by the Peace Education Commission, a semi-independent subgroup of the International Peace Research Association. The conferences were held in Groningen (The Netherlands), Firenze (Italy), Kyoto (Japan), Budapest (Hungary), and Valletta (Malta). This document is a brief commentary on the…

  3. Influence of climate regime shift on the interdecadal change in tropical cyclone activity over the Pacific Basin during the middle to late 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chi-Cherng; Wu, Yi-Kai; Li, Tim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a new interpretation is proposed for the abrupt decrease in tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the western North Pacific (WNP) after the late 1990s. We hypothesize that this abrupt change constitutes a part of the phenomenon of interdecadal change in TC activity in the Pacific Basin, including the WNP, western South Pacific (WSP), and eastern North Pacific. Our analysis revealed that the climate-regime shift (CRS) in the Pacific during the middle to late 1990s resulted in a La Niña-like mean state, which was responsible for the interdecadal change in TC activity in the late 1990s. Analyses of the TC genesis potential index and numerical experiments revealed that the decline in TC activity in both the WNP and WSP was primarily attributable to the increase of vertical wind shear in the central Pacific due to the La Niña-like associated cold sea surface temperature (SST). Conversely, the La Niña-like associated warm SST in the western Pacific produced anomalous vertical transport of water vapor, increasing moisture levels in the mid-troposphere and TC activity in the western WNP. Furthermore, the CRS modified the mean TC genesis position and shifted the steering flow to the west, resulting in the increased frequency of TC landfalls in Taiwan, southeastern China, and northern Australia after the late 1990s.

  4. The Rhetoric of a Reform: The Construction of "Public", "Management" and the "New" in Norwegian Education Reforms of the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippestad, Tom Are

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a critical rhetorical analysis of the governing and reform ideology of the Norwegian school system of the 1990s. It uses Karl Popper's "The Open Society and its Enemies" as a critical resource in the reading of the reforms, and discusses some of the consequences of the regime's models of leadership and public…

  5. The managers’ moment in Dutch politics: A case study of management as politics in the 1980s and 1990s in Western-Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, S.; Kroeze, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the us of management as form of political leadership in the In the 1980s and 1990s via the casestudy of The Netherlands. In those years a successful political leader was a ‘manager’, who communicated a managerial ideology and introduced businesslike methods in government and

  6. Children and Development in the 1990s: A UNICEF Sourcebook on the Occasion of the World Summit for Children (New York, New York, September 20-30, 1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This eight-part sourcebook provides background information, data, and references relating to child welfare issues throughout the world. The book is organized around a set of goals for children in the 1990s. An introductory section provides an overview of these goals and strategies for achieving them, and discusses infant and child mortality,…

  7. The Capacity for Life-Long Learning of College Seniors in the Mid-1980s to the Mid-1990s. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, John C.; Kuh, George D.

    This study compared college seniors' self-evaluation of skills considered important for lifelong learning from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. The study used data from the College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEQ), a national database begun in 1983 which includes over 200,000 student records from over 600 colleges and universities. An index…

  8. Children and Development in the 1990s: A UNICEF Sourcebook on the Occasion of the World Summit for Children (New York, New York, September 20-30, 1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This eight-part sourcebook provides background information, data, and references relating to child welfare issues throughout the world. The book is organized around a set of goals for children in the 1990s. An introductory section provides an overview of these goals and strategies for achieving them, and discusses infant and child mortality,…

  9. Method of measuring charge distribution of nanosized aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S H; Woo, K S; Liu, B Y H; Zachariah, M R

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we present the development of a method to accurately measure the positive and negative charge distribution of nanosized aerosols using a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) system. From the series of TDMA measurements, the charge fraction of nanosized aerosol particles was obtained as a function of equivalent mobility particle diameter ranging from 50 to 200 nm. The capability of this new approach was implemented by sampling from a laminar diffusion flame which provides a source of highly charged particles due to naturally occurring flame ionization process. The results from the TDMA measurement provide the charge distribution of nanosized aerosols which we found to be in reasonable agreement with Boltzmann equilibrium charge distribution theory and a theory based upon charge population balance equation (PBE) combined with Fuchs theory (N.A. Fuchs, Geofis. Pura Appl. 56 (1963) 185). The theoretically estimated charge distribution of aerosol particles based on the PBE provides insight into the charging processes of nanosized aerosols surrounded by bipolar ions and electrons, and agree well with the TDMA results.

  10. Insights into nuclear reactions through fusion barrier distribution measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hinde, D J; Morton, C R; Berriman, A C; Butt, R D; Newton, J O

    1999-01-01

    The study of nuclear fusion has been greatly enhanced following the realisation that an experimental fusion barrier distribution can be determined from precisely measured fusion cross-sections. Experimental fusion barrier distributions for different reactions have shown clear signatures of a range of nuclear structure effects, for example those of static quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations, and of coupling to single- and double-phonon states. Applications of this improved quantitative understanding of fusion in the fields of fission, and fusion of weakly bound nuclei are discussed.

  11. A FRAMEWORK FOR MEASURING AND IMPROVING EFFICIENCY IN DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Andrejić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of products is largely conditioned by the efficiency of logistics processes. The efficient logistics processes provide loyal and satisfied customers, dominant position on the market and revenue. In this paper new approach for measuring and improving efficiency of logistics processes in distribution channel is proposed. Model based on the Principal Component Analysis – Data Envelopment Analysis approach evaluates efficiency of ordering, warehousing, packaging, inventory management and transport processes as well as distribution channel efficiency. Proposed approach also gives information about corrective actions for efficiency improvement. According results efficiency should be improved in several ways: information system improvement, failures decreasing, utilization increasing and output increasing. The results of proposed approach testing show great applicability of developed approach.

  12. Measuring Robustness of Timetables at Stations using a Probability Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex

    Stations are often the limiting capacity factor in a railway network. This induces interdependencies, especially at at-grade junctions, causing network effects. This paper presents three traditional methods that can be used to measure the complexity of a station, indicating the robustness...... infrastructure layouts given a timetable. These two methods provide different precision at the expense of a more complex calculation process. The advanced and more precise method is based on a probability distribution that can describe the expected delay between two trains as a function of the buffer time....... This paper proposes to use the exponential distribution, only taking non-negative delays into account, but any probability distribution can be used. Furthermore, the paper proposes that the calculation parameters are estimated from existing delay data, at a station, to achieve a higher precision. As delay...

  13. Development of TDR distributed sensors for land subsidence measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chih-Chung; Lin, Chih-Ping

    2016-04-01

    The influences subjected by land subsidence and notably inundation are raising in Taiwan recently. To efficiently access the problems, historical trends and the instant field measurement data (at least by days), including multi-depth subsidence leveling and water leveling, are essential and urgent. However, current multi-depth subsidence leveling with magnetic rings conducted by manual operating, for example, lacks high temporal and spatial resolution data, which cannot evaluate the consistency between the subsidence leveling and the limited underground water levels in the same aquifer layer appropriately. To improve the field measurements, this study is carried out based on the core technology of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). In the preliminary idea, TDR distributed sensors, as magnetic rings for land subsidence measurements in a borehole, are developed with the underground water level sensors embedded. The prototypes of TDR distributed sensors indicates the feasibility of measuring, but the influence of signal dissipating due to the long transmission line (>100 m) need to be brought attention to, as well as the corresponding measurement accuracy. Therefore, a laboratorial physical modeling is suggested for further evaluation, and this modeling is constructed now. All the measurement data are expected to be employed and fed back as the calibrators and indicators to propose the defense strategy for land subsidence and inundation.

  14. Secular trends and geographical variations in the dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using archived samples from the early 1980s and mid 1990s in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Akio; Yoshinaga, Takeo; Harada, Kouji; Inoue, Kayoko; Morikawa, Akiko; Muroi, Junko; Inoue, Sumiko; Eslami, Bita; Hirosawa, Iwao; Hirosawa, Akitsu; Fujii, Shigeo; Fujimine, Yoshinori; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Koda, Shigeki; Kusaka, Yukinori; Murata, Katsuyuki; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Omae, Kazuyuki; Saito, Norimitsu; Shimbo, Shinichiro; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Todoriki, Hidemi; Watanabe, Takao; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2005-05-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment among the general population for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was conducted using dietary surveys. We analyzed samples of food duplicate portions collected in the early 1980s (1980 survey: N=40) and the mid 1990s (1995 survey: N=39) from female subjects (5 participants from each of 8 sites per survey except for one site) living throughout Japan, from the north (Hokkaido) to the south (Okinawa). The study populations in the 1980 and 1995 surveys were different, but lived in the same communities. We measured four PBDE congeners [2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (tetraBDE): #47; 2,2',4,4',5-pentaBDE: #99; 2,2',4,4',6-pentaBDE: #100; and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE: #153] in the diet. #99 was the most abundant congener in the diet (49% of the total PBDEs), followed by #47 (33%), #100 (12%) and #153 (6%). Regional variations found in the 1980 survey decreased in the 1995 survey. The total daily intake of PBDEs (ng/d) [GM (GSD)] in the 1980 survey [91.4 (4.1)] was not significantly different from that in the 1995 survey [93.8 (3.4)] for the total population, nor did it differ among the sites including Shimane, in which a 20-fold increase in serum concentrations was observed in the same population1). In consideration of the significant increases in the serum concentration, inhalation may be more important than food ingestion as the route of human exposure to PBDEs.

  15. Active region emission measure distributions and implications for nanoflare heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cargill, P. J., E-mail: p.cargill@imperial.ac.uk [Space and Atmospheric Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW, UKAND (United Kingdom); School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-20

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ∼ T{sup a} below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (T{sub N} ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If T{sub N} is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, T{sub N} must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  16. The Detection and Measurement of the Activity Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthi, Mukund

    The infiltration of radon into the indoor environment may cause the exposure of the public to excessive amounts of radioactivity and has spurred renewed research interest over the past several years into the occurrence and properties of radon and its decay products in indoor air. The public health risks posed by the inhalation and subsequent lung deposition of the decay products of Rn-222 have particularly warranted the study of their diffusivity and attachment to molecular cluster aerosols in the ultrafine particle size range (0.5-5 nm) and to accumulation mode aerosols. In this research, a system for the detection and measurement of the activity size distributions and concentration levels of radon decay products in indoor environments has been developed. The system is microcomputer-controlled and involves a combination of multiple wire screen sampler -detector units operated in parallel. The detection of the radioactivity attached to the aerosol sampled in these units permits the determination of the radon daughter activity -weighted size distributions and concentration levels in indoor air on a semi-continuous basis. The development of the system involved the design of the detection and measurement system, its experimental characterization and testing in a radon-aerosol chamber, and numerical studies for the optimization of the design and operating parameters of the system. Several concepts of utility to aerosol size distribution measurement methods sampling the ultrafine cluster size range evolved from this study, and are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The optimized multiple wire screen (Graded Screen Array) system described in this dissertation is based on these concepts. The principal facet of the system is its ability to make unattended measurements of activity size distributions and concentration levels of radon decay products on a semi-continuous basis. Thus, the capability of monitoring changes in the activity concentrations and size

  17. Recurring OH Flares towards o Ceti - I. Location and structure of the 1990s' and 2010s' events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoka, S.; Gérard, E.; Richards, A. M. S.; Engels, D.; Brand, J.; Le Bertre, T.

    2017-06-01

    We present the analysis of the onset of the new 2010s OH flaring event detected in the OH ground-state main line at 1665 MHz towards o Ceti and compare its characteristics with those of the 1990s' flaring event. This is based on a series of complementary single-dish and interferometric observations both in OH and H2O obtained with the Nançay Radio telescope, the Medicina and Effelsberg Telescopes, the European VLBI Network and (e)Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network. We compare the overall characteristics of o Ceti's flaring events with those that have been observed towards other thin-shell Miras, and explore the implication of these events with respect to the standard OH circumstellar-envelope model. The role of binarity in the specific characteristics of o Ceti's flaring events is also investigated. The flaring regions are found to be less than ˜400 ± 40 mas (i.e. ≤40 ± 4 au) either side of o Ceti, with seemingly no preferential location with respect to the direction to the companion Mira B. Contrary to the usual expectation that the OH maser zone is located outside the H2O maser zone, the coincidence of the H2O and OH maser velocities suggests that both emissions arise at similar distances from the star. The OH flaring characteristics of Mira are similar to those observed in various Mira variables before, supporting the earlier results that the regions where the transient OH maser emission occurs are different from the standard OH maser zone.

  18. Interdecadal change of the controlling mechanisms for East Asian early summer rainfall variation around the mid-1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Kwon, MinHo

    2014-03-01

    East Asian (EA) summer monsoon shows considerable differences in the mean state and principal modes of interannual variation between early summer (May-June, MJ) and late summer (July-August, JA). The present study focuses on the early summer (MJ) precipitation variability. We find that the interannual variation of the MJ precipitation and the processes controlling the variation have been changed abruptly around the mid-1990s. The rainfall anomaly represented by the leading empirical orthogonal function has changed from a dipole-like pattern in pre-95 epoch (1979-1994) to a tripole-like pattern in post-95 epoch (1995-2010); the prevailing period of the corresponding principal component has also changed from 3-5 to 2-3 years. These changes are concurrent with the changes of the corresponding El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolutions. During the pre-95 epoch, the MJ EA rainfall anomaly is coupled to a slow decay of canonical ENSO events signified by an eastern Pacific warming, which induces a dipole rainfall feature over EA. On the other hand, during the post-95 epoch the anomalous MJ EA rainfall is significantly linked to a rapid decay of a central Pacific warming and a distinct tripolar sea surface temperature (SST) in North Atlantic. The central Pacific warming-induced Philippine Sea anticyclone induces an increased rainfall in southern China and decreased rainfall in central eastern China. The North Atlantic Oscillation-related tripolar North Atlantic SST anomaly induces a wave train that is responsible for the increase northern EA rainfall. Those two impacts form the tripole-like rainfall pattern over EA. Understanding such changes is important for improving seasonal to decadal predictions and long-term climate change in EA.

  19. Can we reconcile differences in estimates of carbon fluxes from land-use change and forestry for the 1990s?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Land Use Change and Forestry (LUCF on terrestrial carbon fluxes can be regarded as a carbon credit or debit under the UNFCCC, but scientific uncertainty in the estimates for LUCF remains large. Here, we assess the LUCF estimates by examining a variety of models of different types with different land cover change maps in the 1990s. Annual carbon pools and their changes are separated into different components for separate geographical regions, while annual land cover change areas and carbon fluxes are disaggregated into different LUCF activities and the biospheric response due to CO2 fertilization and climate change. We developed a consolidated estimate of the terrestrial carbon fluxes that combines book-keeping models with process-based biogeochemical models and inventory estimates and yields an estimate of the global terrestrial carbon flux that is within the uncertainty range developed in the IPCC 4th Assessment Report. We examined the USA and Brazil as case studies in order to assess the cause of differences from the UNFCCC reported carbon fluxes. Major differences in the litter and soil organic matter components are found for the USA. Differences in Brazil result from assumptions about the LUC for agricultural purposes. The effects of CO2 fertilization and climate change also vary significantly in Brazil. Our consolidated estimate shows that the small sink in Latin America is within the uncertainty range from inverse models, but that the sink in the USA is significantly smaller than the inverse models estimates. Because there are different sources of errors at the country level, there is no easy reconciliation of different estimates of carbon fluxes at the global level. Clearly, further work is required to develop data sets for historical land cover change areas and models of biogeochemical changes for an accurate representation of carbon uptake or emissions due to LUC.

  20. Remote measurement of microwave distribution based on optical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Zhong; Ding, Wenzheng; Yang, Sihua; Chen, Qun, E-mail: redrocks-chenqun@hotmail.com, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn; Xing, Da, E-mail: redrocks-chenqun@hotmail.com, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2016-01-04

    In this letter, we present the development of a remote microwave measurement system. This method employs an arc discharge lamp that serves as an energy converter from microwave to visible light, which can propagate without transmission medium. Observed with a charge coupled device, quantitative microwave power distribution can be achieved when the operators and electronic instruments are in a distance from the high power region in order to reduce the potential risk. We perform the experiments using pulsed microwaves, and the results show that the system response is dependent on the microwave intensity over a certain range. Most importantly, the microwave distribution can be monitored in real time by optical observation of the response of a one-dimensional lamp array. The characteristics of low cost, a wide detection bandwidth, remote measurement, and room temperature operation make the system a preferred detector for microwave applications.

  1. Measurements of Plasma Potential Distribution in Segmented Electrode Hall Thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Raitses; D. Staack; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-16

    Use of a segmented electrode placed at the Hall thruster exit can substantially reduce the voltage potential drop in the fringing magnetic field outside the thruster channel. In this paper, we investigate the dependence of this effect on thruster operating conditions and segmented electrode configuration. A fast movable emissive probe is used to measure plasma potential in a 1 kW laboratory Hall thruster with semented electrodes made of a graphite material. Relatively small probe-induced perturbations of the thruster discharge in the vicinity of the thruster exit allow a reasonable comparison of the measured results for different thruster configurations. It is shown that the plasma potential distribution is almost not sensitive to changes of the electrode potential, but depends on the magnetic field distribution and the electrode placement.

  2. Measures of dependence for multivariate Lévy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, J.; Hurd, T. R.; Pivato, M.; Seco, L.

    2001-02-01

    Recent statistical analysis of a number of financial databases is summarized. Increasing agreement is found that logarithmic equity returns show a certain type of asymptotic behavior of the largest events, namely that the probability density functions have power law tails with an exponent α≈3.0. This behavior does not vary much over different stock exchanges or over time, despite large variations in trading environments. The present paper proposes a class of multivariate distributions which generalizes the observed qualities of univariate time series. A new consequence of the proposed class is the "spectral measure" which completely characterizes the multivariate dependences of the extreme tails of the distribution. This measure on the unit sphere in M-dimensions, in principle completely general, can be determined empirically by looking at extreme events. If it can be observed and determined, it will prove to be of importance for scenario generation in portfolio risk management.

  3. Measurements of parallel electron velocity distributions using whistler wave absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuecks, D J; Skiff, F; Kletzing, C A

    2012-08-01

    We describe a diagnostic to measure the parallel electron velocity distribution in a magnetized plasma that is overdense (ω(pe) > ω(ce)). This technique utilizes resonant absorption of whistler waves by electrons with velocities parallel to a background magnetic field. The whistler waves were launched and received by a pair of dipole antennas immersed in a cylindrical discharge plasma at two positions along an axial background magnetic field. The whistler wave frequency was swept from somewhat below and up to the electron cyclotron frequency ω(ce). As the frequency was swept, the wave was resonantly absorbed by the part of the electron phase space density which was Doppler shifted into resonance according to the relation ω - k([parallel])v([parallel]) = ω(ce). The measured absorption is directly related to the reduced parallel electron distribution function integrated along the wave trajectory. The background theory and initial results from this diagnostic are presented here. Though this diagnostic is best suited to detect tail populations of the parallel electron distribution function, these first results show that this diagnostic is also rather successful in measuring the bulk plasma density and temperature both during the plasma discharge and into the afterglow.

  4. Scaling precipitation input to distributed hydrological models by measured snow distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegeli, Christian; Lehning, Michael; Wever, Nander; Bavay, Mathias; Bühler, Yves; Marty, Mauro; Molnar, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Precise knowledge about the snow distribution in alpine terrain is crucial for various applications such as flood risk assessment, avalanche warning or water supply and hydropower. To simulate the seasonal snow cover development in alpine terrain, the spatially distributed, physics-based model Alpine3D is suitable. The model is often driven by spatial interpolations from automatic weather stations (AWS). As AWS are sparsely spread, the data needs to be interpolated, leading to errors in the spatial distribution of the snow cover - especially on subcatchment scale. With the recent advances in remote sensing techniques, maps of snow depth can be acquired with high spatial resolution and vertical accuracy. Here we use maps of the snow depth distribution, calculated from summer and winter digital surface models acquired with the airborne opto-electronic scanner ADS to preprocess and redistribute precipitation input data for Alpine3D to improve the accuracy of spatial distribution of snow depth simulations. A differentiation between liquid and solid precipitation is made, to account for different precipitation patterns that can be expected from rain and snowfall. For liquid precipitation, only large scale distribution patterns are applied to distribute precipitation in the simulation domain. For solid precipitation, an additional small scale distribution, based on the ADS data, is applied. The large scale patterns are generated using AWS measurements interpolated over the domain. The small scale patterns are generated by redistributing the large scale precipitation according to the relative snow depth in the ADS dataset. The determination of the precipitation phase is done using an air temperature threshold. Using this simple approach to redistribute precipitation, the accuracy of spatial snow distribution could be improved significantly. The standard deviation of absolute snow depth error could be reduced by a factor of 2 to less than 20 cm for the season 2011/12. The

  5. Measuring the atmospheric organic aerosol volatility distribution: a theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Karnezi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic compounds represent a significant fraction of submicrometer atmospheric aerosol mass. Even if most of these compounds are semi-volatile in atmospheric concentrations, the ambient organic aerosol volatility is quite uncertain. The most common volatility measurement method relies on the use of a thermodenuder (TD. The aerosol passes through a heated tube where its more volatile components evaporate leaving the less volatile behind in the particulate phase. The typical result of a~thermodenuder measurement is the mass fraction remaining (MFR, which depends among other factors on the organic aerosol (OA vaporization enthalpy and the accommodation coefficient. We use a new method combining forward modeling, introduction of "experimental" error and inverse modeling with error minimization for the interpretation of TD measurements. The OA volatility distribution, its effective vaporization enthalpy, the mass accommodation coefficient and the corresponding uncertainty ranges are calculated. Our results indicate that existing TD-based approaches quite often cannot estimate reliably the OA volatility distribution, leading to large uncertainties, since there are many different combinations of the three properties that can lead to similar thermograms. We propose an improved experimental approach combining TD and isothermal dilution measurements. We evaluate this experimental approach using the same model and show that it is suitable for studies of OA volatility in the lab and the field.

  6. An overview of aerosol particle sensors for size distribution measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panich Intra

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Fine aerosols are generally referred to airborne particles of diameter in submicron or nanometer size range. Measurement capabilities are required to gain understanding of these particle dynamics. One of the most important physical and chemical parameters is the particle size distribution. The aim of this article is to give an overview of recent development of already existing sensors for particle size distribution measurement based on electrical mobility determination. Available instruments for particle size measurement include a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, an electrical aerosol spectrometer (EAS, an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS, a bipolar charge aerosol classifier (BCAC, a fast aerosol spectrometer (FAS a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS, and a CMU electrical mobility spectrometer (EMS. The operating principles, as well as detailed physical characteristics of these instruments and their main components consisting of a particle charger, a mobility classifier, and a signal detector, are described. Typical measurements of aerosol from various sources by these instruments compared with an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI are also presented.

  7. [Measuring pressure distribution on the human tibia in ski boots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, P; Hauser, W

    1987-09-01

    Pressure distribution inside shoes is of great importance for orthopaedic and biomechanical inquiries. Especially in sports, safety and comfort depend essentially on this quantity, which also determines whether a shoe is well suited for a certain discipline. Therefore, the measurement of pressure distribution allows detailed and objective statements about these factors. Using a set of newly developed thin and highly flexible measuring mats and the corresponding electronic equipment, such statements have become possible. First results with this method were obtained in alpine skiing. 8 different types of ski boots (sizes 5 and 8) worn by 14 subjects were tested on different foreward leans and temperatures using 7-point measuring mats (2 cm2/point) fixed between the boot shaft and the front of the lower leg of each leg. Additional measurements on three different types of boots using a 3 x 24-point mat (1 cm2/point) for the lower leg, as well as measurements underneath the foot with a 14-point (2 cm2/point) and a 80-point (1 cm2/point) mat were performed. A complementary determination of the force at the heel element of a ski binding and a registration of muscular activity (EMG) helped in the interpretation of the results. Some field research using telemetry completed our study. Considerable variations between different boots were found in value and location of pressure maxima. Traditional boots show high pressure values over the instep at foreward leans of 35 degrees and a rise of pressure underneath the forefoot while fixing the buckles, whereas minimal pressure over the instep, no compression of the forefoot and a pressure maximum near the upper end of the shaft are observed in rear entry boots. The force at the heel-important for binding release-varies widely between different boots at the same foreward lean. There was no asymmetry between the pressure distributions of right and left. The pressure distributions for different subjects measured in the same boot were

  8. Measurement and application of bidirectional reflectance distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fei; Li, Lin; Lu, Chengwen

    2016-10-01

    When a beam of light with certain intensity and distribution reaches the surface of a material, the distribution of the diffused light is related to the incident angle, the receiving angle, the wavelength of the light and the types of the material. Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is a method to describe this distribution. For an optical system, the optical and mechanical materials' BRDF are unique, and if we want to calculate stray light of the system we should know the correct BRDF data of the whole materials. There are fundamental significances in the area of space remote sensor where BRDF is needed in the precise radiation calibration. It is also important in the military field where BRDF can be used in the object identification and target tracking, etc. In this paper, 11 kinds of aerospace materials' BRDF are measured and more than 310,000 groups of BRDF data are achieved , and also a BRDF database is established in China for the first time. With the BRDF data of the database, we can create the detector model, build the stray light radiation surface model in the stray light analysis software. In this way, the stray radiation on the detector can be calculated correctly.

  9. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C H

    2016-03-03

    Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence.

  10. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  11. Measurement-device-independent entanglement-based quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Zhenqiang; Li, Zuohan; Lian, Shibin; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan

    2016-05-01

    We present a quantum key distribution protocol in a model in which the legitimate users gather statistics as in the measurement-device-independent entanglement witness to certify the sources and the measurement devices. We show that the task of measurement-device-independent quantum communication can be accomplished based on monogamy of entanglement, and it is fairly loss tolerate including source and detector flaws. We derive a tight bound for collective attacks on the Holevo information between the authorized parties and the eavesdropper. Then with this bound, the final secret key rate with the source flaws can be obtained. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over 144 km can be made secure using only standard threshold detectors.

  12. Ethnic differences in anthropometric measures and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Pernille F.; Andersen, Gregers S.; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ethnic variation in abdominal fat distribution may explain differences in cardiometabolic risk between populations. However, the ability of anthropometric measures to quantify abdominal fat is not clearly understood across ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate...... the associations between anthropometric measures and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) in Inuit, Africans and Europeans. METHODS: We combined cross-sectional data from 3 studies conducted in Greenland, Kenya and Denmark using similar methodology. A total of 5275 individuals (3083 Inuit......, 1397 Africans and 795 Europeans) aged 17-95 years with measures of anthropometry and ultrasonography of abdominal fat were included in the study. Multiple regression models with fractional polynomials were used to analyse VAT and SAT as functions of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist...

  13. Distributed measurement of flow rate in conduits using heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Raúl; Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis

    2016-04-01

    In some cases flow varies along conduits, such as in irrigated land drainage pipes and channels, irrigation laterals and others. Detailed knowledge of flow rate along the conduit makes possible analytical evaluation of water distribution and collection systems performance. Flow rate can change continuously in some systems, like in drainage pipes and channels, or abruptly, like in conduits bifurcations or emitter insertions. A heat pulse along the conduit makes possible to get flow rate from continuity and heat balance equations. Due to the great value of specific heat of water, temperature changes along conduit are smaller than the noise that involves the measurement process. This work presents a methodology that, dealing with the noise of distributed temperature measurements, leads to flow rate determination along pressurized pipes or open channel flows.

  14. Pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements of embedded charge distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, J. R.; Pearson, Lee H.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and evolution of embedded charge in thin dielectric materials has important applications in semiconductor, high-power electronic device, high-voltage DC power cable insulation, high-energy and plasma physics apparatus, and spacecraft industries. Knowing how, where, and how much charge accumulates and how it redistributes and dissipates can predict destructive charging effects. Pulsed Electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements— and two closely related methods, Pressure Wave Propagation (PWP) and Laser Intensity Modulation (LIMM)— nondestructively probe such internal charge distributions. We review the instrumentation, methods, theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments, as well as the related PPW and LIMM methods. We emphasize system improvements required to achieve high spatial resolution for in vacuo measurements of thin dielectrics charged using electron beam injection.

  15. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  16. Measurement of probability distributions for internal stresses in dislocated crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, Angus J.; Tarleton, Edmund; Vilalta-Clemente, Arantxa; Collins, David M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Jiang, Jun; Britton, T. Benjamin [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-03

    Here, we analyse residual stress distributions obtained from various crystal systems using high resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Histograms showing stress probability distributions exhibit tails extending to very high stress levels. We demonstrate that these extreme stress values are consistent with the functional form that should be expected for dislocated crystals. Analysis initially developed by Groma and co-workers for X-ray line profile analysis and based on the so-called “restricted second moment of the probability distribution” can be used to estimate the total dislocation density. The generality of the results are illustrated by application to three quite different systems, namely, face centred cubic Cu deformed in uniaxial tension, a body centred cubic steel deformed to larger strain by cold rolling, and hexagonal InAlN layers grown on misfitting sapphire and silicon carbide substrates.

  17. Measurement of non-volatile particle number size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the non-volatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a non-volatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol, OA (40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a non-volatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon (BC) with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type

  18. Quantum key distribution based on phase encoding and polarization measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, H Q; Zhao, J L; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Wu, Ling-An; Zhao, Jian-Ling

    2007-01-01

    A one-way quantum key distribution scheme based on intrinsically stable Faraday-mirror type Michelson interferometers with four-port polarizing beampslitters has been demonstrated which can compensate for birefringence effects automatically. The encoding is performed with phase modulators, but decoding is accomplished through measurement of the polarization state of Bob's photons. An extinction ratio of about 30dB was maintained for several hours over 50km of fiber at 1310nm without any adjustment to the setup, which shows its good potential for practical systems

  19. Alternative schemes for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Xiongfeng

    2012-01-01

    A practical scheme for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution using phase and path/time encoding is presented. In addition to immunity to existing loopholes in detection systems, our setup employs simple encoding and decoding modules without relying on polarization maintenance or optical switches. Moreover, by handling, with a modified sifting technique, the dead time limitations in single-photon detectors, our scheme can be run with only two single-photon detectors. With a phase-post-selection technique, a decoy-state variant of our scheme is also proposed, whose secret key generation rate scales linearly with the channel transmittance.

  20. Measurement of Three-jet Distributions in Photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Abramowicz, H; Acosta, D; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Ahn, S H; Amelung, C; An Shiz Hong; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Arneodo, M; Bacon, Trevor C; Badgett, W F; Bailey, D C; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barbagli, G; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Barret, O; Bashindzhagian, G L; Bashkirov, V; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Bednarek, B; Behrens, U; Beier, H; Bellagamba, L; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bienlein, J K; Blaikley, H E; Bohnet, I; Bokel, C; Bornheim, A; Borzemski, P; Boscherini, D; Botje, M; Breitweg, J; Briskin, G; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Burgard, C; Burow, B D; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlin, R; Cartiglia, N; Cashmore, R J; Castellini, G; Catterall, C D; Chapin, D; Chekanov, S; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cirio, R; Cloth, P; Coboken, K; Coldewey, C; Cole, J E; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Cottingham, W N; Crittenden, J; Cross, R; D'Agostini, G; Dagan, S; Dal Corso, F; Dardo, M; De Pasquale, S; Deffner, R; Deppe, O; Derrick, M; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desler, K; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Dosselli, U; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Dulinski, Z; Durkin, L S; Eckert, M; Edmonds, J K; Eisenberg, Y; Eisenhardt, S; Engelen, J; Epperson, D E; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Fagerstroem, C P; Fernández, J P; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fricke, U; Frisken, W R; Fusayasu, T; Gadaj, T; Galea, R; Gallo, E; García, G; Garfagnini, A; Gendner, N; Gialas, I; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Glasman, C; Göbel, F; Golubkov, Yu A; Göttlicher, P; Grabosch, H J; Graciani, R; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grothe, M; Grzelak, G; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hanna, D S; Harnew, N; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartmann, J; Hartner, G F; Hasell, D; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Hebbel, K; Heinloth, K; Heinz, L; Hernández, J M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Homma, K; Hong, S J; Howell, G; Hughes, V W; Iacobucci, G; Iannotti, L; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Ishii, T; Jakob, H P; Jelen, K; Jeoung, H Y; Jing, Z; Johnson, K F; Jones, T W; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karshon, U; Kasemann, M; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Kerger, R; Khakzad, M; Khein, L A; Kim, C L; Kim, J Y; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klanner, Robert; Klimek, K; Koch, W; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Lamberti, L; Lane, J B; Laurenti, G; Lee, J H; Lee, S B; Lee, S W; Levi, G; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Lindemann, L; Ling, T Y; Liu, W; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Long, K R; Lopez-Duran Viani, A; Lukina, O Yu; Ma, K J; Maccarrone, G; MacDonald, N; Magill, S; Mallik, U; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Markun, P; Martin, J F; Martínez, M; Maselli, S; Massam, Thomas; Mastroberardino, A; Matsushita, T; Mattingly, M C K; Mattingly, S E K; McCance, G J; McCubbin, N A; McFall, J D; Mellado, B; Menary, S; Meyer, A; Meyer-Larsen, A; Milewski, J; Milite, M; Miller, D B; Monaco, V; Mönig, K; Monteiro, T; Morandin, M; Murray, W N; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nam, S W; Nania, R; Nigro, A; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Noyes, V A; Nylander, P; Ochs, A; Oh, B Y; Okrasinski, J R; Orr, R S; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Palmonari, F; Park, I H; Park, S K; Parsons, J A; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pawlak, R; Pelfer, Pier Giovanni; Pellegrino, A; Pelucchi, F; Peroni, C; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Pfeiffer, M; Piccioni, D; Pin, C; Piotrzkowski, K; Poelz, G; Polenz, S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Prinias, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Puga, J; Quadt, A; Raach, H; Raso, M; Redondo, I; Reeder, D D; Repond, J; Ritz, S; Riveline, M; Rohde, M; Roldán, J; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Ruske, O; Ruspa, M; Ryan, J J; Sabetfakhri, A; Sacchi, R; Sadrozinski, H F W; Salehi, H; Sampson, S; Sartorelli, G; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schnurbusch, H; Schwarzer, O; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Seiden, A; Selonke, F; Shah, T P; Shcheglova, L M; Sideris, D; Sievers, M; Simmons, D; Sinclair, L E; Skillicorn, I O; Smalska, B; Smith, W H; Solano, A; Solomin, A N; Son, D; Saint-Laurent, M G; Staiano, A; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Stanek, R; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Straub, P B; Strickland, E; Stroili, R; Surrow, B; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, I; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Toothacker, W S; Tsurugai, T; Tuning, N; Tymie-, T; Umemori, K; Vaiciulis, A W; Verkerke, W; Voci, C; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Votano, L; Walczak, R; Walker, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D S; Waugh, R; Weber, A; Westphal, D; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, R; Wick, K; Wieber, H; Wiggers, L; Wildschek, T; Williams, D C; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wodarczyk, M; Wolf, G; Wölfle, S; Wollmer, U; Wróblewski, A K; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Za, L; Zajac, J; Zakrzewski, J A; Zamora Garcia, Y; Zetsche, F; Zeuner, W; Zhu, Q; Zichichi, Antonino; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J; Van Sighem, A

    1998-01-01

    The cross section for the photoproduction of events containing three jets with a three-jet invariant mass of M_3J > 50 GeV has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The three-jet angular distributions are inconsistent with a uniform population of the available phase space but are well described by parton shower models and O(alpha alpha_s^2) pQCD calculations. Comparisons with the parton shower model indicate a strong contribution from initial state radiation as well as a sensitivity to the effects of colour coherence.

  1. Tuberculose na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil: o perfil na década de 1990 Tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Mota Xavier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico da tuberculose (incidência e mortalidade no Município de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, na década de 1990, foram analisadas as características demográficas, clínicas e laboratoriais dos casos e óbitos por esta doença ocorridos no período. Foram calculadas as taxas médias anuais de mortalidade e da incidência por sexo, faixa etária e formas clínicas da doença com base nas informações dos bancos de dados do Sistema de Informações de Tuberculose da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado da Bahia e do Sistema de Informações de Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde. Analisou-se a distribuição espacial da tuberculose segundo distritos sanitários. Ficou evidente o predomínio dos casos e óbitos no sexo masculino e na faixa etária de 15 a 39 anos. A forma pulmonar apresentou uma maior taxa de incidência e de mortalidade. Sobre a hipótese de que, a co-infecção AIDS/tuberculose possa contribuir para manter elevadas taxas de mortalidade, os dados existentes não corroboram para esta associação. A maior ocorrência de tuberculose em determinados distritos sanitários pode estar associada à densidade populacional e às condições desfavoráveis de vida.The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB cases and deaths were analyzed in order to characterize the epidemiological profile of TB (incidence and mortality in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in the 1990s. Annual incidence and mortality rates were calculated by gender, age bracket, and clinical forms of the disease using databases from the Tuberculosis Information System of the Bahia State Health Secretariat and the Mortality Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. TB spatial distribution was analyzed according to health district. Cases and deaths were predominantly in males in the 15 to 39 year group. The pulmonary form showed the highest incidence and mortality. The existing data did not corroborate the hypothesis that AIDS

  2. Measuring coral size-frequency distribution using stereo video technology, a comparison with in situ measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joseph A; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Field, Stuart N; Wilson, Shaun K

    2015-05-01

    Coral colony size-frequency distribution data offer valuable information about the ecological status of coral reefs. Such data are usually collected by divers in situ, but stereo video is being increasingly used for monitoring benthic marine communities and may be used to collect size information for coral colonies. This study compared the size-frequency distributions of coral colonies obtained by divers measuring colonies 'in situ' with digital video imagery collected using stereo video and later processed using computer software. The size-frequency distributions of the two methods were similar for corymbose colonies, although distributions were different for massive, branching and all colonies combined. The differences are mainly driven by greater abundance of colonies >50 cm and fewer colonies 5 cm and was able to record measurements on 87% of the colonies detected. However, stereo video only detected 57% of marked colonies coral recruits. Estimates of colony size made with the stereo video were smaller than the in situ technique for all growth forms, particularly for massive morphologies. Despite differences in size distributions, community assessments, which incorporated genera, growth forms and size, were similar between the two techniques. Stereo video is suitable for monitoring coral community demographics and provided data similar to in situ measure for corymbose corals, but the ability to accurately measure massive and branching coral morphologies appeared to decline with increasing colony size.

  3. Is the crime drop of the 1990s in Canada and the USA associated with a general decline in risky and health-related behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandeep; Lalumière, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Crime rates dropped unexpectedly and dramatically in the 1990s in Canada and the USA. The decline was not restricted to particular types of crime, the particular methodologies of crime reports, demographic characteristics, or geographical areas. Psychological studies of individuals have suggested a link between crime and different types of risky behavior (e.g., dangerous driving, unsafe sex, substance use). Based on this link, we examined whether national rates of various risky behaviors declined in the 1990s, and whether rates of crime and risky behavior covary over time. Several American and Canadian databases reporting annual or biennial data on risky behavior indicators were examined. Results indicate that most of the risky behavior indicators in the domains of violent behavior, accidents, sexual behavior, and school dropout declined in the 1990s. Furthermore, time series analyses suggest that rates of various risky behaviors tend to covary with homicide over long periods of time. An important exception to these results is substance use in various contexts. We discuss some theoretical implications of the results.

  4. Getting a piece of the pie? The economic boom of the 1990s and declining teen birth rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colen, Cynthia G; Geronimus, Arline T; Phipps, Maureen G

    2006-09-01

    In the United States, the 1990s was a decade of dramatic economic growth as well as a period characterized by substantial declines in teenage childbearing. This study examines whether falling teen fertility rates during the 1990s were responsive to expanding employment opportunities and whether the implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Act (PRWORA), increasing rates of incarceration, or restrictive abortion policies may have affected this association. Fixed-effects Poisson regression models were estimated to assess the relationship between age-specific birth rates and state-specific unemployment rates from 1990 to 1999 for Black and White females aged 10-29. Falling unemployment rates in the 1990s were associated with decreased childbearing among African-American women aged 15-24, but were largely unrelated to declines in fertility for Whites. For 18-19 year-old African-Americans, the group for whom teen childbearing is most normative, our model accounted for 85% of the decrease in rates of first births. Young Black women, especially older teens, may have adjusted their reproductive behavior to take advantage of expanded labor market opportunities.

  5. Airborne measurements of spatial NO2 distributions during AROMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Andreas Carlos; Seyler, André; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides, NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. In addition to their directly harmful effects on the respiratory system of living organisms, they influence the levels of tropospheric ozone and contribute to acid rain and eutrophication of ecosystems. As they are produced in combustion processes, they can serve as an indicator for anthropogenic air pollution. In September 2014 several European research groups conducted the ESA funded Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign to test and intercompare newly developed airborne observation sytsems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies. The IUP Bremen contributed to this campaign with its Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) on board a Cessna 207 turbo, operated by the FU Berlin. AirMAP allows the retrieval of integrated NO2 column densities in a stripe below the aircraft at a fine spatial resolution of up to 30 x 80 m2, at a typical flight altitude. Measurements have been performed over the city of Bucharest, creating for the first time high spatial resolution maps of Bucharest's NO2 distribution in a time window of approx. 2 hours. The observations were synchronised with ground-based car MAX-DOAS measurements for comparison. In addition, measurements were taken over the city of Berlin, Germany and at the Rovinari power plant, Romania. In this work the results of the research flights will be presented and conclusions will be drawn on the quality of the measurements, their applicability for satellite data validation and possible improvements for future measurements.

  6. Probing of incomplete fusion dynamics by spin-distribution measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pushpendra P. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)], E-mail: pushpendrapsingh@gmail.com; Singh, B.P. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India)], E-mail: bpsinghamu@gmail.com; Sharma, M.K.; Gupta, Unnati [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Kumar, Rakesh [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Singh, D. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Singh, R.P.; Murlithar, S. [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Ansari, M.A.; Prasad, R. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Bhowmik, R.K. [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)], E-mail: ranjan@iuac.ernet.in

    2009-01-12

    Aiming to probe incomplete fusion dynamics in {sup 16}O + {sup 169}Tm system, spin-distributions of various reaction products populated via xn-, {alpha}/2{alpha}xn-channels have been measured at E{approx}5.6MeV/nucleon. Prompt {gamma}-rays in coincidence with fast charged particles (Z=1,2) have been recorded to achieve the information about involved reaction processes on the basis of their experimentally observed spin-populations during de-excitation. The experimentally observed spin-distributions for direct-{alpha}-emitting channels (associated with incomplete fusion) have been found to be distinctly different than that observed for fusion-evaporation (complete fusion) channels. The mean value of driving input angular momenta associated with various direct-{alpha}/2{alpha}xn-channels have been found to be higher than that observed for fusion-evaporation xn/{alpha}xn-channels, and increases with direct-{alpha}-multiplicity in forward cone. Experimentally measured, normalized production yields of fusion-evaporation xn/{alpha}xn-channels have been found to be in good agreement with the predictions of theoretical model code PACE4. Further, in order to understand the feeding probability in both complete and incomplete fusion reaction products, an attempt has been made to generate feeding intensity profiles from spin-distribution data. It has been observed that the complete fusion products are strongly fed over a broad spin range, while incomplete fusion products are found to be less fed and/or the population of lower spin states are strongly hindered.

  7. Preliminary analysis of distributed in situ soil moisture measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brocca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface soil moisture content is highly variable in both space and time. Remote sensing can provide an effective methodology for mapping surface moisture content over large areas but ground based measurements are required to test its reliability and to calibrate retrieval algorithms. Recently, we had the opportunity to design and perform an experiment aimed at jointly acquiring measurements of surface soil water content at various locations and remotely sensed hyperspectral data. The area selected for the experiment is located in central Umbria and it extends for 90km2. For the area, detailed lithological and multi-temporal landslide inventory maps were available. We identified eight plots where measurements of soil water content were made using a Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR. The plots range in size from 100m2 to 600m2, and cover a variety of topographic and morphological settings. The TDR measurements were conducted during four days, on 5 April, 15 April, 2 May and 3 May 2004. On 3 May the NERC airborne CASI 2 acquired the hyperspectral data. Preliminary analysis concerning the matching between the landslides and the soil moisture were reported. Statistical and geostatistical analysis investigating the spatial-temporal soil moisture distribution were performed. These results will be compared with the data of surface temperature obtained from the remotely sensed hyperspectral sensor.

  8. Interdecadal changes on the seasonal prediction of the western North Pacific summer climate around the late 1970s and early 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaofan; Lu, Riyu; Dong, Buwen

    2016-04-01

    Identifying predictability and the corresponding sources for the western North Pacific (WNP) summer climate in the case of non-stationary teleconnections during recent decades benefits for further improvements of long-range prediction on the WNP and East Asian summers. In the past few decades, pronounced increases on the summer sea surface temperature (SST) and associated interannual variability are observed over the tropical Indian Ocean and eastern Pacific around the late 1970s and over the Maritime Continent and western-central Pacific around the early 1990s. These increases are associated with significant enhancements of the interannual variability for the lower-tropospheric wind over the WNP. In this study, we further assess interdecadal changes on the seasonal prediction of the WNP summer anomalies, using May-start retrospective forecasts from the ENSEMBLES multi-model project in the period 1960-2005. It is found that prediction of the WNP summer anomalies exhibits an interdecadal shift with higher prediction skills since the late 1970s, particularly after the early 1990s. Improvements of the prediction skills for SSTs after the late 1970s are mainly found around tropical Indian Ocean and the WNP. The better prediction of the WNP after the late 1970s may arise mainly from the improvement of the SST prediction around the tropical eastern Indian Ocean. The close teleconnections between the tropical eastern Indian Ocean and WNP summer variability work both in the model predictions and observations. After the early 1990s, on the other hand, the improvements are detected mainly around the South China Sea and Philippines for the lower-tropospheric zonal wind and precipitation anomalies, associating with a better description of the SST anomalies around the Maritime Continent. A dipole SST pattern over the Maritime Continent and the central equatorial Pacific Ocean is closely related to the WNP summer anomalies after the early 1990s. This teleconnection mode is quite

  9. Theoretical foundation for measuring the groundwater age distribution.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, William Payton; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we use PFLOTRAN, a highly scalable, parallel, flow and reactive transport code to simulate the concentrations of 3H, 3He, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 39Ar, 81Kr, 4He and themean groundwater age in heterogeneous fields on grids with an excess of 10 million nodes. We utilize this computational platform to simulate the concentration of multiple tracers in high-resolution, heterogeneous 2-D and 3-D domains, and calculate tracer-derived ages. Tracer-derived ages show systematic biases toward younger ages when the groundwater age distribution contains water older than the maximum tracer age. The deviation of the tracer-derived age distribution from the true groundwater age distribution increases with increasing heterogeneity of the system. However, the effect of heterogeneity is diminished as the mean travel time gets closer the tracer age limit. Age distributions in 3-D domains differ significantly from 2-D domains. 3D simulations show decreased mean age, and less variance in age distribution for identical heterogeneity statistics. High-performance computing allows for investigation of tracer and groundwater age systematics in high-resolution domains, providing a platform for understanding and utilizing environmental tracer and groundwater age information in heterogeneous 3-D systems. Groundwater environmental tracers can provide important constraints for the calibration of groundwater flow models. Direct simulation of environmental tracer concentrations in models has the additional advantage of avoiding assumptions associated with using calculated groundwater age values. This study quantifies model uncertainty reduction resulting from the addition of environmental tracer concentration data. The analysis uses a synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and the calibration of a flow and transport model using the pilot point method. Results indicate a significant reduction in the uncertainty in permeability with the addition of environmental tracer data, relative

  10. Assessment of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Japan using archived samples from the early 1980s and mid-1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Akio; Yoshinaga, Takeo; Harada, Kouji; Inoue, Kayoko; Morikawa, Akiko; Muroi, Junko; Inoue, Sumiko; Eslami, Bita; Fujii, Shigeo; Fujimine, Yoshinori; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Koda, Shigeki; Kusaka, Yukinori; Murata, Katsuyuki; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Omae, Kazuyuki; Saito, Norimitsu; Shimbo, Shinichiro; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Todoriki, Hidemi; Wada, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Takao; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2005-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have been linked to various adverse effects on human health. We conducted a retrospective exposure assessment for 11polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 4 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. We analyzed paired samples of blood and food duplicate portions collected in the 1980s (1980 survey, N=40) and the mid-1990s (1995 survey, N=40) from females (five participants from each of eight sites per survey) living throughout Japan, from Hokkaido to Okinawa. The study populations in the 1980 and 1995 surveys were different but had lived in the same community. We measured PCBs and PBDEs in serum and PCBs in diet. Total serum PCBs (ng/g lipid) [geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)] were similar in the 1980 [163.0 (1.7)] and the 1995 [142.6 (2.0)] surveys. In contrast, dietary intake (ng/day) between 1980 and 1995 decreased significantly, from 522.8 (2.5) to 165.9 (3.3), respectively, (P<0.05). We classified the participants by birth year-before 1941 (older generation) and equal to or after 1941 (younger generation). Serum PCB levels decreased significantly in the younger generation, from 179.1 (1.8) in the 1980 survey to 115.4 (2.0) in the 1995 survey (P<0.05). However, in the older generation, serum levels (ng/g lipid) did not change: 150.4 (1.6) in the 1980 survey and 180 (1.8) in the 1995 survey. Total PBDE serum levels (ng/g lipid) increased significantly during the 15 years, from 0.5 (3.5) to 1.8 (3.7) (P<0.05). At the Shimane site, PBDE serum levels (ng/g lipid) increased 20-fold, from 1.3 (4.8) to 26.0 (5.0). The serum levels of PCBs decreased in the younger generation but not in the older, although levels in daily intakes decreased significantly. Exposure levels of PBDEs appear to be increasing in an area-specific manner.

  11. Spatiotemporal measurement of surfactant distribution on gravity-capillary waves

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Stephen L; Daniels, Karen E

    2015-01-01

    Materials adsorbed to the surface of a fluid -- for instance, crude oil, biogenic slicks, or industrial/medical surfactants -- will move in response to surface waves. Due to the difficulty of non-invasive measurement of the spatial distribution of a molecular monolayer, little is known about the dynamics that couple the surface waves and the evolving density field. Here, we report measurements of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the density field of an insoluble surfactant driven by gravity-capillary waves in a shallow cylindrical container. Standing Faraday waves and traveling waves generated by the meniscus are superimposed to create a non-trivial surfactant density field. We measure both the height field of the surface using moir\\'e-imaging, and the density field of the surfactant via the fluorescence of NBD-tagged phosphatidylcholine, a lipid. Through phase-averaging stroboscopically-acquired images of the density field, we determine that the surfactant accumulates on the leading edge of the traveling menis...

  12. A reference standard for bidirectional reflection distribution function and bidirectional transmission distribution function measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A Lambertian reference standard for uniformly scattering a beam of light is constructed of a plate having a planar surface with a layer of glue disposed on the surface. An evenly packed layer of monodisperse spheres is set in the layer, and when the standard is used for bi-directional (BRDF) measurements, the spheres are coated with a layer of highly relective substance, such as gold or silver. When the standard is used for bi-directional transmittance distribution function (BTDF) measurements, the spheres are of a transparent material and are provided with a roughened surface, as by acid etching. In this case, the layer of glue is an optical cement, and the plate is of glass, with the spheres, the layer, and the plate all possessing a similar refractive index.

  13. Multipartite distribution property of one way discord beyond measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the distribution property of one way discord in the multipartite system by introducing the concept of polygamy deficit for one way discord. The difference between one way discord and quantum discord is analogue to the one between entanglement of assistance and entanglement of formation. For tripartite pure states, two kinds of polygamy deficits are presented with the equivalent expressions and physical interpretations regardless of measurement. For four-partite pure states, we provide a condition which makes one way discord polygamy satisfied. In addition, we generalize these results to the case for N-partite pure states. Those results can be applicable to multipartite quantum systems and are complementary to our understanding of the shareability of quantum correlations.

  14. Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayi, Christiana; Razavi, Mohsen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    A protocol with the potential of beating the existing distance records for conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) systems is proposed. It borrows ideas from quantum repeaters by using memories in the middle of the link, and that of measurement-device-independent QKD, which only requires optical source equipment at the user's end. For certain memories with short access times, our scheme allows a higher repetition rate than that of quantum repeaters with single-mode memories, thereby requiring lower coherence times. By accounting for various sources of nonideality, such as memory decoherence, dark counts, misalignment errors, and background noise, as well as timing issues with memories, we develop a mathematical framework within which we can compare QKD systems with and without memories. In particular, we show that with the state-of-the-art technology for quantum memories, it is potentially possible to devise memory-assisted QKD systems that, at certain distances of practical interest, outperform current QKD implementations.

  15. Distributed fibre optic strain measurements on a driven pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woschitz, Helmut; Monsberger, Christoph; Hayden, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In civil engineering pile systems are used in unstable areas as a foundation of buildings or other structures. Among other parameters, the load capacity of the piles depends on their length. A better understanding of the mechanism of load-transfer to the soil would allow selective optimisation of the system. Thereby, the strain variations along the loaded pile are of major interest. In this paper, we report about a field trial using an optical backscatter reflectometer for distributed fibre-optic strain measurements along a driven pile. The most significant results gathered in a field trial with artificial pile loadings are presented. Calibration results show the performance of the fibre-optic system with variations in the strain-optic coefficient.

  16. Inequality of living standards in Russia: internal and international context (the early 1990s and the 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the relationship of social groups about income distribution and goods consumption. It is dedicated to the internal and international aspects of inequality of living standards in Russia during the period of capitalist transformations of 1990-2000’s. Problems of the dynamics of inequality in living standards are analyzed. Methods of comparative analysis and comparison of performance indicators with normative social standards are used. On this basis, the population is classified into social groups and then follows the analysis of their social position. Such indicators are used: income inequality by consumption; inequality by housing, by education and health care availability. Russia is compared with countries of G20. Social inequality reasons in Russia are revealed. The obtained results can be applied within national economic and social policy. The findings indicated that the high social inequality in Russia undermines the ability of a large part of the population to be «included» in economic growth, for it limits access to its results. In such situation, an attempt to solve both the problem of speeding up economic growth and the eradication of poverty cannot lead to success if appropriate measures to reduce social inequality are not developed and implemented.

  17. Global distribution of pauses observed with satellite measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Venkat Ratnam; P Kishore; Isabella Velicogna

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have been carried out on the tropopause, stratopause, and mesopause (collectively termed as ‘pauses’) independently; however, all the pauses have not been studied together. We present global distribution of altitudes and temperatures of these pauses observed with long-term space borne high resolution measurements of Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) aboard Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. Here we study the commonality and differences observed in the variability of all the pauses. We also examined how good other datasets will represent these features among (and in between) different satellite measurements, re-analysis, and model data. Hemispheric differences observed in all the pauses are also reported. In addition, we show that asymmetries between northern and southern hemispheres continue up to the mesopause. We analyze inter and intra-seasonal variations and long-term trends of these pauses at different latitudes. Finally, a new reference temperature profile is shown from the ground to 110 km for tropical, mid-latitudes, and polar latitudes for both northern and southern hemispheres.

  18. Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Size Distributions During PACDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D. C.; Gandrud, B.; Campos, T.; Kok, G.; Stith, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Pacific Dust Experiment (PACDEX) is an airborne project that attempts to characterize the indirect aerosol effect by tracing plumes of dust and pollution across the Pacific Ocean. This project occurred during April-May 2007 and used the NSF/NCAR HIAPER research aircraft. When a period of strong generation of dust particles and pollution was detected by ground-based and satellite sensors, then the aircraft was launched from Colorado to Alaska, Hawaii, and Japan. Its mission was to intercept and track these plumes from Asia, across the Pacific Ocean, and ultimately to the edges of North America. For more description, see the abstract by Stith and Ramanathan (this conference) and other companion papers on PACDEX. The HIAPER aircraft carried a wide variety of sensors for measuring aerosols, cloud particles, trace gases, and radiation. Sampling was made in several weather regimes, including clean "background" air, dust and pollution plumes, and regions with cloud systems. Altitude ranges extended from 100 m above the ocean to 13.4 km. This paper reports on aerosol measurements made with a new Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS), a Radial Differential Mobility Analyzer (RDMA), a water-based CN counter, and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP). These cover the size range 10 nm to 10 um diameter. In clear air, dust was detected with the UHSAS and CDP. Polluted air was identified with high concentrations of carbon monoxide, ozone, and CN. Aerosol size distributions will be presented, along with data to define the context of weather regimes.

  19. Upscaling of lysimeter measurements to regional groundwater nitrate distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann; Kupfersberger, Hans; Rock, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    For many European countries nitrate leaching from the soil zone into the aquifer due to surplus application of mineral fertilizer and animal manure by farmers constitutes the most important threat to groundwater quality. This is a diffuse pollution situation and measures to change agricultural production have to be investigated at the aquifer scale to safeguard drinking water supply from shallow groundwater resources Lysimeters are state-of-the-art measurements for water and solute fluxes through the unsaturated zone towards groundwater at the point scale, but due to regional heterogeneities (especially concerning soil conditions) lysimeters cannot provide aquifer-wide groundwater recharge and solute leaching. Thus, in this work the numerical simulation model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM (Stenitzer, 1988; Feichtinger, 1998) for quantifying groundwater recharge and nitrate leaching at aquifer scale is applied. Nevertheless, according to Groenendijk et al. (2014) a model calibration by means of lysimeter measurements is essential, since uncalibrated models are generally far from acceptable. Thus, a lysimeter provides the basis for the parameterization of numerical simulation models. To quantify also the impact on regional nitrate distribution in the groundwater, we couple the unsaturated zone model SIMWASER/STOTRASIM with the saturated groundwater flow and solute transport model FELOW (Diersch, 2009) sequentially. In principal, the problem could be solved by the 3 dimensional equation describing variable saturated groundwater flow and solute transport. However, this is computationally prohibitive due to the temporal and spatial scope of the task, particularly in the framework of running numerous simulations to compromise between conflicting interests (i.e. good groundwater status and high agricultural yield). To account for the unknown regional distribution of crops grown and amount, timing and kind of fertilizers used a stochastic tool (Klammler et al, 2011) is developed that

  20. Species distributions, quantum theory, and the enhancement of biodiversity measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Real, Raimundo; Barbosa, A. Márcia; Bull, Joseph William

    2016-01-01

    differently to similar environmental conditions at different places or moments, so their distribution is, in principle, not completely predictable. We argue that this uncertainty exists, and warrants considering species distributions as analogous to coherent quantum objects, whose distributions are better...... biodiversity”. We show how conceptualizing species’ distributions in this way could help overcome important weaknesses in current biodiversity metrics, both in theory and by using a worked case study of mammal distributions in Spain over the last decade. We propose that considerable theoretical advances could...... eventually be gained through interdisciplinary collaboration between biogeographers and quantum physicists. [Biogeography; favorability; physics; predictability; probability; species occurrence; uncertainty; wavefunction....

  1. Graphical technologies, innovation and aesthetics in the video game industry: a case study of the shift from 2d to 3d graphics in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Arsenault

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of a research project currently in progress at the Université de Montréal (Québec, Canada. Funded by the FQRSC (Fonds de recherche Québec – Société et Culture / Quebec Fund for Research – Society and Culture for a three-year period (from May 2012 to May 2015, the project studies the transition from 2D to 3D graphics in gaming during the 1990s

  2. The Descendants of Time and the Lodgers of Space: The Life Stories of Teacher Trainees who Immigrated to Israel During the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Kainan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to characterize teacher trainees who immigrated to Israel during the 1990s. The life stories of six students who emi­grated from the Ukraine, Russia, the Georgian Re­pub­lic, Argentina, Chile, and Ethiopia are ana­lyzed. The central finding suggests that their stories are devoid of the human, geographic, and cultural aspects of Israeli society. This finding is surprising because it differs from other studies. We used the Foucauldian concepts of the descendants of time and the lodgers of space for understanding the phenomenon. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503103

  3. Study on the Characteristics and Driving Forces of Changes of the Urban Land-Use Structure in Wuhan in 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYaobin; 5ongXuefeng

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the information entropy and equilibrium degree of urban land-use spatial structure, the paper analyzes the characteristics and rules of urban land-use spatial structure changes in Wuhan in 1990s, in which the types of land-use are shrinking and urban land-use changes are disequilibria. With PCA and GRA employed, the driving forces have also been analyzed. The driving force of city welfare and social structure, the towing force of city industrial structure transition, and the pressing force of city construction and reconstruction are main momentum factors. Moreover, the latter forces are more significant.

  4. Soil Temperature Variability in Complex Terrain measured using Distributed a Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Link, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    Soil temperature (Ts) exerts critical environmental controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. Rates of carbon cycling, mineral weathering, infiltration and snow melt are all influenced by Ts. Although broadly reflective of the climate, Ts is sensitive to local variations in cover (vegetative, litter, snow), topography (slope, aspect, position), and soil properties (texture, water content), resulting in a spatially and temporally complex distribution of Ts across the landscape. Understanding and quantifying the processes controlled by Ts requires an understanding of that distribution. Relatively few spatially distributed field Ts data exist, partly because traditional Ts data are point measurements. A relatively new technology, fiber optic distributed temperature system (FO-DTS), has the potential to provide such data but has not been rigorously evaluated in the context of remote, long term field research. We installed FO-DTS in a small experimental watershed in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in the Owyhee Mountains of SW Idaho. The watershed is characterized by complex terrain and a seasonal snow cover. Our objectives are to: (i) evaluate the applicability of fiber optic DTS to remote field environments and (ii) to describe the spatial and temporal variability of soil temperature in complex terrain influenced by a variable snow cover. We installed fiber optic cable at a depth of 10 cm in contrasting snow accumulation and topographic environments and monitored temperature along 750 m with DTS. We found that the DTS can provide accurate Ts data (+/- .4°C) that resolves Ts changes of about 0.03°C at a spatial scale of 1 m with occasional calibration under conditions with an ambient temperature range of 50°C. We note that there are site-specific limitations related cable installation and destruction by local fauna. The FO-DTS provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variability of Ts in a landscape. We found strong seasonal

  5. Inter-decadal Shift of East Asian Summer Monsoon in the Early 1990s%20世纪90年代初东亚夏季风的年代际转型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐佳; 武炳义

    2012-01-01

    Using JRA-25 and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data from 1979 to 2009, dominant modes of summer season (June-August) 850 hPa wind field variability over East Asia is revealed by means of the complex vector empirical orthogonal function method. The two reanalysis data are consistent with the description of the first East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) mode, whereas the first mode had been studied, showing that the first mode could not reflect the inter-decadal shift of Chinese summer precipitation in the early 1990s. Consequently, the inter-decadal shift feature of the second EASM mode is deeply analyzed, as well as its effect on summer precipitation in China. Moreover, the possible external forcing factors exerting effects on the inter-decadal shift of EASM are discussed. Results show that, EASM which is revealed,by two sets of reanalysis data to have undergone one inter-decadal shift in the early 1990s. The inter-decadal shift time of EASM is consistent with the inter-decadal shift time of summer precipitation in China. EASM is closely related to the mid-high latitude atmospheric circulation anomalies. Corresponding anomalous 500 hPa geopotential height fields show an anomalous quasi-zonal teleconnection pattern in northern Eurasia, whereas the distribution of summer precipitation anomalies show a meridional dipole pattern. Accompanied by the inter-decadal shift of EASM, after the early 1990s, summer precipitation decreases in the majority of northern China, especially in north of the northeast and the area between the Yangtze River and the Yellow River in the vicinity of 105° E. While summer precipitation increases significantly in South China and the Huaihe River Basin. From the perspective of dynamic, the characteristics of inter-decadal shift of summer precipitation in China are described. The difference distribution of summer 500 hPa geopotential height fields between two periods (1993-2009 and 1979-1992) show northern Eurasian quasi-zonal teleconnection pattern, then

  6. Aerosol size distribution seasonal characteristics measured in Tiksi, Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Asmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four years of continuous aerosol number size distribution measurements from an Arctic Climate Observatory in Tiksi Russia are analyzed. Source region effects on particle modal features, and number and mass concentrations are presented for different seasons. The monthly median total aerosol number concentration in Tiksi ranges from 184 cm-3 in November to 724 cm-3 in July with a local maximum in March of 481 cm-3. The total mass concentration has a distinct maximum in February–March of 1.72–2.38 μg m-3 and two minimums in June of 0.42 μg m-3 and in September–October of 0.36–0.57 μg m-3. These seasonal cycles in number and mass concentrations are related to isolated aerosol sources such as Arctic haze in early spring which increases accumulation and coarse mode numbers, and biogenic emissions in summer which affects the smaller, nucleation and Aitken mode particles. The impact of temperature dependent natural emissions on aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei numbers was significant. Therefore, in addition to the precursor emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, the frequent Siberian forest fires, although far are suggested to play a role in Arctic aerosol composition during the warmest months. During calm and cold months aerosol concentrations were occasionally increased by nearby aerosol sources in trapping inversions. These results provide valuable information on inter-annual cycles and sources of Arctic aerosols.

  7. Device-independent quantum key distribution based on measurement inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Ramij; Parker, Matthew G.; Mironowicz, Piotr; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2015-12-01

    We provide an analysis of a family of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that has the following features. (a) The bits used for the secret key do not come from the results of the measurements on an entangled state but from the choices of settings. (b) Instead of a single security parameter (a violation of some Bell inequality) a set of them is used to estimate the level of trust in the secrecy of the key. The main advantage of these protocols is a smaller vulnerability to imperfect random number generators made possible by feature (a). We prove the security and the robustness of such protocols. We show that using our method it is possible to construct a QKD protocol which retains its security even if the source of randomness used by communicating parties is strongly biased. As a proof of principle, an explicit example of a protocol based on the Hardy's paradox is presented. Moreover, in the noiseless case, the protocol is secure in a natural way against any type of memory attack, and thus allows one to reuse the device in subsequent rounds. We also analyze the robustness of the protocol using semidefinite programming methods. Finally, we present a postprocessing method, and observe a paradoxical property that rejecting some random part of the private data can increase the key rate of the protocol.

  8. Measurement of Concentration Distribution of Hydrogen Gas Flow by Measuring the Intensity of Raman Scattering Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Ippei; Ninomiya, Hideki

    An experimental study to visualize and measure the concentration distribution of hydrogen gas flow using the Raman scattering was performed. A Nd:YAG laser of wavelength at 355 nm was used, and the beam pattern was transformed into a rectangle and a sheet beam was formed. The Raman scattered light was observed at a right angle with respect to the laser beam axis using a gated ICCD camera and an interference filter. Shadowgraph images were obtained at the same condition. The Raman scattering light image from atmospheric nitrogen was first acquired and the function of Raman scattering light acquisition and the background light suppression was confirmed. Next, images of the Raman scattering light image and shadowgraph of hydrogen gas discharged from a nozzle into the atmosphere were acquired. The two obtained Raman images were compared and the spatial concentration distribution of the flow of the hydrogen gas at different flow rates was calculated. This method is effective for visualizing the gas flow and measuring the concentration distribution of the Raman active molecules, such as hydrogen gas.

  9. Changes in Dietary Patterns and Certain Nutrition-related Diseases in Urban and Rural Residents of Jiangsu Province, China, During the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate into the changes of dietary patterns and their impacts on health of urban and rural residents in Jiangsu Province, China during the 1990s. Methods On the basis of the results of food consumption survey, the calorie intake was calculated according to the balanced diet method and the quality of diet was assessed by scores of desirable dietary pattern (DDP).Results It was found that food consumption and dietary patterns changed remarkably during the 1990s. Grain consumption was decreasing year by year, but the consumption of animal food was markedly increasing. Although the score of desirable dietary pattern (DDP) in urban residents was more than 90, the deducted score due to over-consumption of animal food increased. The mortality from infectious diseases evidently decreased in the whole province, while the death rates of some chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, colorectal cancer and breast cancer, were increasing rapidly in urban areas. Conclusions Sufficient attention should be paid to the negative effects of change in dietary patterns on people's health, especially in the urban residents.

  10. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  11. 20世纪90年代核测井进展%Advances of Nuclear Well Logging in 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭琥

    2001-01-01

    Having surveyed 240 articles presented in 1990~1999, this review summarizes the main advances in nuclear well logging (NWL) in 1990s. It stresses on domestic and overseas“hot points” of research and development, such as nuclear porosity logging series, pulsed neutron time spectrum logging, pulsed neutron gamma energy spectrum logging, radioactive tracer logging, as well as the computerized numerical simulation technique applied in NWL. Methodologies and tools,which synthetically acquire and process the space-time-energy data of radioactive field, are presently at the front of research and development. Mainly attacking the logging in complex conditions and production logging while aiming at accuracy and precision of measurement as the key target, the main growing points of NWL in the near future keep on being as follows: methodological creation of raw data acquiring and processing and log analyzing, as well as development and application of computerized numerical simulation technique. In addition, attention to the metrological property of NWL tools should be emphasized greatly, while the quality of hardware of domestic NWL tools should be enhanced continuously. 40 pieces of references are enclosed.%通过对国内外1990~1999年间发表的240多篇有关放射性测井方面论文的分析,综述了20世纪90年代核测井的发展概况,重点介绍了核孔隙度测井系列、脉冲中子时间谱测井、脉冲中子伽马能谱测井、放射性同位素示踪测井以及核测井计算机数值模拟技术等国内外研究发展热点的主要进展。认为,对核辐射场信息作空间-时间-能量综合采集和分析的方法和仪器处在当前研究前沿;以测量精确度为核心,主攻复杂条件测井和生产测井、原始测量数据采集处理方法和解释方法创新以及计算机数值模拟技术开发和应用等仍将是今后一段时期中核测井的发展重点。此外,国内还应继续狠抓

  12. Income Distribution Dependence of Poverty Measure: A Theoretical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, A K; Chattopadhyay, Amit K; Mallick, Sushanta K

    2005-01-01

    With a new deprivation (or poverty) function, in this paper, we theoretically study the changes in poverty with respect to the `global' mean and variance of the income distribution using Indian survey data. We show that when the income obeys a log-normal distribution, a rising mean income generally indicates a reduction in poverty while an increase in the variance of the income distribution increases poverty. This altruistic view for a developing economy, however, is not tenable anymore once the poverty index is found to follow a pareto distribution. Here although a rising mean income indicates a reduction in poverty, due to the presence of an inflexion point in the poverty function, there is a critical value of the variance below which poverty decreases with increasing variance while beyond this value, poverty undergoes a steep increase followed by a decrease with respect to higher variance. Following these results, we make quantitative predictions to correlate a developing with a developed economy.

  13. Evaluation of the FBR MONJU core breeding ratio and the power distribution from the reaction rate distribution measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Shin; Suzuki, Takayuki; Sasaki, Kenji; Deshimaru, Takehide [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan). Monju Construction Office; Nakashima, Fumiaki

    1996-09-01

    In MONJU, reaction rate distribution measurements were made by foil activation methods from May through September 1994. On the basis of the reaction rate measurement data, the MONJU initial core breeding ratio and the power distribution, etc. were evaluated. As a result, the evaluated values and the calculated values showed good agreement, and we confirmed that the core performance of MONJU and the method of core calculations were satisfactory. (author)

  14. The Public-Private Sector Wage Gap in Zambia in the 1990s: A Quantile Regression Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    2001-01-01

    of economic transition, because items as privatization and deregulation were on the political agenda. The focus is placed on the public-private sector wage gap, and the results show that this gap was relatively favorable for the low-skilled and less favorable for the high-skilled. This picture was further......We investigate the determinants of wages in Zambia and based on the quantile regression approach, we analyze how their effects differ at different points in the wage distribution and over time. We use three cross-sections of Zambian household data from the early nineties, which was a period...

  15. The Public-Private Sector Wage Gap in Zambia in the 1990s: A Quantile Regression Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of wages in Zambia and based on the quantile regression approach, we analyze how their effects differ at different points in the wage distribution and over time. We use three cross-sections of Zambian household data from the early nineties, which was a period...... of economic transition, because items as privatization and deregulation were on the political agenda. The focus is placed on the public-private sector wage gap, and the results show that this gap was relatively favorable for the low-skilled and less favorable for the high-skilled. This picture was further...

  16. Income distribution dependence of poverty measure: A theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Mallick, Sushanta K.

    2007-04-01

    Using a modified deprivation (or poverty) function, in this paper, we theoretically study the changes in poverty with respect to the ‘global’ mean and variance of the income distribution using Indian survey data. We show that when the income obeys a log-normal distribution, a rising mean income generally indicates a reduction in poverty while an increase in the variance of the income distribution increases poverty. This altruistic view for a developing economy, however, is not tenable anymore once the poverty index is found to follow a pareto distribution. Here although a rising mean income indicates a reduction in poverty, due to the presence of an inflexion point in the poverty function, there is a critical value of the variance below which poverty decreases with increasing variance while beyond this value, poverty undergoes a steep increase followed by a decrease with respect to higher variance. Identifying this inflexion point as the poverty line, we show that the pareto poverty function satisfies all three standard axioms of a poverty index [N.C. Kakwani, Econometrica 43 (1980) 437; A.K. Sen, Econometrica 44 (1976) 219] whereas the log-normal distribution falls short of this requisite. Following these results, we make quantitative predictions to correlate a developing with a developed economy.

  17. Distributed Optical Fiber Sensor for Multi-point Temperature Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-tian; LIU Zhan-wei; HOU Pei-guo; SHAN Wei

    2004-01-01

    The distributed optical fiber sensing technology is overviewed, which is based on Raman scattering light theory. Basic operation principle, structure, system characteristics and signal processing are discussed. This structure and method of the signal processing possess of certain spatial resolution, hence will ensure the practicability of system.

  18. Modelling psychiatric measures using Skew-Normal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, N.; Cortina-Borja, M.; Lehtonen, A.; Stein, A.

    2011-01-01

    Data from psychiatric research frequently exhibit departures from Normality. Methods which utilise the data optimally to model the distribution directly are available. We highlight the issue of modelling skewness, resulting from screening instruments where the majority of respondents are healthy individuals and few participants have a value reflecting particular disorders. PMID:21036551

  19. Probability Measure of Navigation pattern predition using Poisson Distribution Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.V.Valli Mayil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web has become one of the most important media to store, share and distribute information. The rapid expansion of the web has provided a great opportunity to study user and system behavior by exploring web access logs. Web Usage Mining is the application of data mining techniques to large web data repositories in order to extract usage patterns. Every web server keeps a log of all transactions between the server and the clients. The log data which are collected by web servers contains information about every click of user to the web documents of the site. The useful log information needs to be analyzed and interpreted in order to obtainknowledge about actual user preferences in accessing web pages. In recent years several methods have been proposed for mining web log data. This paper addresses the statistical method of Poisson distribution analysis to find out the higher probability session sequences which is then used to test the web application performance.The analysis of large volumes of click stream data demands the employment of data mining methods. Conducting data mining on logs of web servers involves the determination of frequently occurring access sequences. A statistical poisson distribution shows the frequency probability of specific events when the average probability of a single occurrence is known. The Poisson distribution is a discrete function wich is used in this paper to find out the probability frequency of particular page is visited by the user.

  20. Comment on "Quantum key distribution without alternative measurements"

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Yu Shun; Guo Guang Can; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2001-01-01

    In a recent paper [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. A 61, 052312 (2000)], a quantum key distribution protocol based on entanglement swapping was proposed. However, in this comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure if Eve use a special strategy to attack.

  1. Abstraction’s Ecologies: Post-Industrialization, Waste and the Commodity Form in Prunella Clough’s Paintings of the 1980s and 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Spencer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article’s aims are twofold: firstly, it argues that Prunella Clough’s engagement with consumer items in her paintings of the 1980s and 1990s constitute a sustained engagement with the fluctuating nature of the commodity form, moving beyond the established critical narrative whereby these works are understood as simply redeeming “everyday” materials. Secondly, in order to do this, it proposes new artistic frameworks for Clough’s work, moving away from her early association with Neo-Romanticism to foreground her relationship with Pop and Minimalism, and with Post-Conceptual painting. Clough’s late works, it finds, powerfully condense histories of industrial production and painting in Britain.

  2. A reasonable model or a liberal failure? The economic model in Latin America from the 1990s to the great crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sánchez Ancochea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically evaluates the results in terms of economic growth and structural transformation of the new economic model implemented by most Latin American countries since the early 1990s. The new model, which had macroeconomic stability and export orientation as its core components, has been unable to develop more dynamic comparative advantages in the current global era and, as a result, has resulted in lower rates of economic growth than in Asia. The paper closes with an analysis of the impact of the current financial crisis in the region. It highlights the short-term costs, but also acknowledges the opportunities that the crisis is creating to promote a greater number of new progressive development alternatives that place more emphasis on the role of learning and innovation.

  3. Scaling precipitation input to spatially distributed hydrological models by measured snow distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Vögeli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate knowledge on snow distribution in alpine terrain is crucial for various applicationssuch as flood risk assessment, avalanche warning or managing water supply and hydro-power.To simulate the seasonal snow cover development in alpine terrain, the spatially distributed,physics-based model Alpine3D is suitable. The model is typically driven by spatial interpolationsof observations from automatic weather stations (AWS, leading to errors in the spatial distributionof atmospheric forcing. With recent advances in remote sensing techniques, maps of snowdepth can be acquired with high spatial resolution and accuracy. In this work, maps of the snowdepth distribution, calculated from summer and winter digital surface models based on AirborneDigital Sensors (ADS, are used to scale precipitation input data, with the aim to improve theaccuracy of simulation of the spatial distribution of snow with Alpine3D. A simple method toscale and redistribute precipitation is presented and the performance is analysed. The scalingmethod is only applied if it is snowing. For rainfall the precipitation is distributed by interpolation,with a simple air temperature threshold used for the determination of the precipitation phase.It was found that the accuracy of spatial snow distribution could be improved significantly forthe simulated domain. The standard deviation of absolute snow depth error is reduced up toa factor 3.4 to less than 20 cm. The mean absolute error in snow distribution was reducedwhen using representative input sources for the simulation domain. For inter-annual scaling, themodel performance could also be improved, even when using a remote sensing dataset from adifferent winter. In conclusion, using remote sensing data to process precipitation input, complexprocesses such as preferential snow deposition and snow relocation due to wind or avalanches,can be substituted and modelling performance of spatial snow distribution is improved.

  4. Scaling precipitation input to spatially distributed hydrological models by measured snow distribution

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Accurate knowledge on snow distribution in alpine terrain is crucial for various applicationssuch as flood risk assessment, avalanche warning or managing water supply and hydro-power.To simulate the seasonal snow cover development in alpine terrain, the spatially distributed,physics-based model Alpine3D is suitable. The model is typically driven by spatial interpolationsof observations from automatic weather stations (AWS), leading to errors in the spatial distributionof atmospheric forcing. ...

  5. Impact of summer heat on urban population mortality in Europe during the 1990s: an evaluation of years of life lost adjusted for harvesting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Baccini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Efforts to prevent and respond to heat-related illness would benefit by quantifying the impact of summer heat on acute population mortality. We estimated years of life lost due to heat in 14 European cities during the 1990s accounting for harvesting. METHODS: We combined the number of deaths attributable to heat estimated by the PHEWE project with life expectancy derived from population life tables. The degree of harvesting was quantified by comparing the cumulative effect of heat up to lagged day 30 with the immediate effect of heat, by geographical region and age. Next, an evaluation of years of life lost adjusted for harvesting was obtained. RESULTS: Without accounting for harvesting, we estimated more than 23,000 years of life lost per year, 55% of which was among individuals younger than 75. When 30 day mortality displacement was taken into account, the overall impact reduced on average by 75%. Harvesting was more pronounced in North-continental cities than in Mediterranean cities and was stronger among young people than among elderly. CONCLUSIONS: High ambient temperatures during summer were responsible for many deaths in European cities during the 1990s, but a large percentage of these deaths likely involved frail persons whose demise was only briefly hastened by heat exposure. Differences in harvesting across regions and classes of age could reflect different proportions of frail individuals in the population or could be indicative of heterogeneous dynamics underlying the entry and exit of individuals from the high-risk pool which is subject to mortality displacement.

  6. Impacts of extensive driftnet fishery and late 1990s climate regime shift on dominant epipelagic nekton in the Transition Region and Subtropical Frontal Zone: Implications for fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, T.; Nishikawa, H.; Igarashi, H.; Okamura, H.; Mahapatra, K.; Sakai, M.; Wakabayashi, T.; Inagake, D.; Okada, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impacts of extensive anthropogenic (high seas driftnet squid fishery) and natural (late 1990s major climate regime shift) events on dominant epipelagic fish, squid, and shark in the central North Pacific Transition Region based on a driftnet survey covering the years 1979-2006. Fishing was conducted by Japan, Korea and Taiwan to target neon flying squid in the period 1979-1992, resulting in a decline in stocks of the target species and non-target species (Pacific pomfret and juvenile blue shark), which were by-catch of this fishery. The catch was found to be at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) level for neon flying squid, the underfished level for juvenile blue shark, but the overfished level for Pacific pomfret. The MSY of Pacific pomfret indicated that this species is more susceptible to exploitation than previously considered. In response to the late 1990s regime shift, neon flying squid and Pacific saury showed low stock levels in 1999-2002 and 1998-2002, respectively, as a result of reduced productivity in their nursery grounds (the Subtropical Frontal Zone and Kuroshio Extension Bifurcation Region, respectively). On the other hand, Pacific pomfret showed no decreasing trend in stock during the low- and intermediate-productivity regimes because of the high productivity of their main spawning/nursery ground (Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front), which was independent of the regime shifts. Thus, squid and saury appear to be more susceptible to the regime shift than pomfret. We discuss the implications for stock management of the species-specific responses to the fishery and the regime shift.

  7. Restoring urbanization process in China in the 1990s by using non-radiance-calibrated DMSP/OLS nighttime light imagery and statistical data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Chunyang; SHI Peijun; LI Jinggang; CHEN Jin; PAN Yaozhong; LI Jing; ZHUO Li; Ichinose Toshiaki

    2006-01-01

    Since current administrative unit-based urban land area statistical data in China lack enough spatial information, the urbanization process research at large scale cannot be effectively supported.Based on the current administrative unit-based urban land area statistical data in China, a new approach to quickly and cheaply derive urban land information from the non-radiance-calibrated Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light imagery is presented in this paper. With the new approach, the urban pattern information in China in 1992, 1996 and 1998 was derived with the urbanization processes in China in the 1990s restored by using the non-radiance-calibrated DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery. The accuracy assessment based on the statistical data showed that the relative error between the derived total urban land area and the statistical data at national scale was less than 2% in 1992, and less than 1% in 1996 and 1998, and the maximum relative error at province scale do not exceed 10% with most of the provinces less than 3%. In addition, the urban patterns derived from the high-resolution Landsat TM imagery were compared with those from the DMSP/OLS data. The results showed that the urban pattern characteristics derived from DMSP/OLS were basically coincident with those from TM imagery with the total accuracy of about 80%. Thus it can be seen that our restored urbanization process in China in the 1990s by using the non-radiance DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery can be accepted and can represent the actual urban development in China at that time on the whole.

  8. Measuring the photon distribution by ON/OFF photodectors

    CERN Document Server

    Genovèse, M; Bondani, M; Brida, G; Gramegna, M; Paris, M G A; Rossi, A R; Zambra, G

    2006-01-01

    Reconstruction of photon statistics of optical states provide fundamental information on the nature of any optical field and find various relevant applications. Nevertheless, no detector that can reliably discriminate the number of incident photons is available. On the other hand the alternative of reconstructing density matrix by quantum tomography leads to various technical difficulties that are particular severe in the pulsed regime (where mode matching between signal an local oscillator is very challenging). Even if on/off detectors, as usual avalanche PhotoDiodes operating in Geiger mode, seem useless as photocounters, recently it was shown how reconstruction of photon statistics is possible by considering a variable quantum efficiency. Here we present experimental reconstructions of photon number distributions of both continuous-wave and pulsed light beams in a scheme based on on/off avalanche photodetection assisted by maximum-likelihood estimation. Reconstructions of the distribution for both semiclas...

  9. The Geographic Distribution of Human Capital: Measurement of Contributing Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how the geographic distribution of human capital evolves over time. With U.S. data, I decompose generation-to-generation changes in local human capital into three factors: the previous generation’s human capital, intergenerational transmission of skills from parents to their children, and migration of the children. I find evidence of regression to the mean of local skills at the state level and divergence at the commuting zone level. Labor market size, climate, local c...

  10. Inequality measures in kinetic exchange models of wealth distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Asim; Chatterjee, Arnab; Inoue, Jun-ichi; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the inequality indices for some models of wealth exchange. We calculated Gini index and newly introduced k-index and compare the results with reported empirical data available for different countries. We have found lower and upper bounds for the indices and discuss the efficiencies of the models. Some exact analytical calculations are given for a few cases. We also exactly compute the quantities for Gamma and double Gamma distributions.

  11. Inequality measures in kinetic exchange models of wealth distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Asim; Inoue, Jun-ichi; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the inequality indices for some models of wealth exchange. We calculated Gini index and newly introduced k-index and compare the results with reported empirical data available for different countries. We have found lower and upper bounds for the indices and discuss the efficiencies of the models. Some exact analytical calculations are given for a few cases. We also exactly compute the quantities for Gamma and double Gamma distributions.

  12. Uncertainties Associated with Flux Measurements Due to Heterogeneous Contaminant Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass flux and mass discharge measurements at contaminated sites have been applied to assist with remedial management, and can be divided into two broad categories: point-scale measurement techniques and pumping methods. Extrapolation across un-sampled space is necessary when usi...

  13. [The myth of control: the eastern frontier of the Federal Republic of Germany at the beginning of the 1990s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, A

    1997-01-01

    Some aspects of the sovereignty of the modern state, and particularly of its ability to control international migration, are examined in the context of recent German experience. The author first considers the frontier that existed between the two German states prior to 1989, which attempted to rigorously control migration. Next, he discusses the agreements that the German authorities have attempted to make with governments to the east in an effort to establish a measure of border control following the fall of the Berlin Wall. Finally, the author examines the German government's efforts to develop an international system of common frontiers with countries to the east and south.

  14. Research on Collaboration Theory of Distributed Measurement System and Real-Time of Communication Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yan

    2005-01-01

    @@ With developments of technology of computer and network, researching on distributed measurement system becomes one of the hot problems in the field of automatic test. However, existing resolutions to distributed measurement system still have great limit,e.g. intelligence, self-adaptivity, collaboration, system load balance and integer view, and their capabilities need to be enhanced. Based on two key projects, this paper studies on collaboration mechanism and real-time of communication platform in distributed measurement system comprehensively and systematically.

  15. Economic stability and health status: evidence from East Asia before and after the 1990s economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Sandra

    2006-02-01

    The East Asian economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand suffered declines in their economic growth rates in 1997. The Indonesian and Thai government followed the World Bank prescription for adjustment, which included a cut-back in government spending at a time when there were significant job losses. Malaysia chose its own path to adjustment. Evidence presented in this paper shows that although the declines were short-lived that there was an impact on the health status measured by mortality rates for the populations of Indonesia and Thailand. There was little apparent impact on the health status of Malaysians. The lessons for other developing economies include the importance of social safety nets and the maintenance of government expenditure in minimising the impact of economic shocks on health.

  16. Measuring Technique of Bubble Size Distributions in Dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsurou; Do, Gab-Soo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Oguchi, Kosei; Tsuta, Mizuki

    A novel technique to recognize bubbles in bread dough and analyze their size distribution was developed by using a Micro-Slicer Image Processing System (MSIPS). Samples were taken from the final stage of the mixing process of bread dough which generally consists of four distinctive stages. Also, to investigate the effect of freeze preservation on the size distribution of bubbles, comparisons were made between fresh dough and the dough that had been freeze preserved at .30°C for three months. Bubbles in the dough samples were identified in the images of MSIPS as defocusing spots due to the difference in focal distance created by vacant spaces. In case of the fresh dough, a total of 910 bubbles were recognized and their maximum diameter ranged from 0.4 to 70.5μm with an average of 11.1μm. On the other hand, a total of 1,195 bubbles were recognized from the freeze-preserved sample, and the maximum diameter ranged from 0.9 to 32.7μm with an average of 6.7μm. Small bubbles with maximum diameters less than 10μm comprised approximately 59% and 78% of total bubbles for fresh and freeze-preserved dough samples, respectively. The results indicated that the bubble size of frozen dough is smaller than that of unfrozen one. The proposed method can provide a novel tool to investigate the effects of mixing and preservation treatments on the size, morphology and distribution of bubbles in bread dough.

  17. Mercado de trabalho: revendo conceitos e aproximando o campo da saúde. A década de 90 em destaque Labor market: reviewing concepts and bringing the health field together. A view on the 1990's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza Christina Varella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o mercado de trabalho em saúde, em comparação com o mercado de trabalho brasileiro em geral. Apresenta inicialmente uma aproximação teórica sobre o tema, para sustentar o debate. Discute as características do mercado de trabalho em geral, buscando evidenciar se o quadro de desestruturação e desregulamentação verificado pode, em parte, ser reflexivo na configuração do setor saúde. Evidencia um movimento migratório de empregos públicos da esfera federal para a municipal, e também que, na década de 90, sobretudo o setor público se valeu de modalidades mais flexíveis para a contratação de profissionais de saúde.This paper analyzes health labor market in comparison with Brazilian labor market in general. It first presents a theoretical study on the subject, to support debate. The characteristics of the labor market in general are discussed, in an effort to evince if the current stage of lack of structuring measures and of regulation can, in part, be reflected on the configuration of the health sector. It evinces a migratory movement of public jobs from the federal sphere to the municipal one, and shows that, in the 1990's, the health public sector made use of more flexible modalities to recruit health professionals.

  18. Measurement of dead time by time interval distribution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkani, Mohammad; Raisali, Gholamreza

    2015-02-01

    Non-random event losses due to dead time effect in nuclear radiation detection systems distort the original Poisson process into a new type of distribution. As the characteristics of the distribution depend on physical properties of the detection system, it is possible to estimate the dead time parameters based on time interval analysis, this is the problem investigated in this work. A BF3 ionization chamber is taken as a case study to check the validity of the method in experiment. The results are compared with the data estimated by power rising experiment performed in Esfahan Heavy Water Zero Power Reactor (EHWZPR). Using Monte Carlo simulation, the problem is elaborately studied and useful range for counting rates of the detector is determined. The proposed method is accurate and applicable for all kinds of radiation detectors with no potential difficulty and no need for any especial nuclear facility. This is not a time consuming method and advanced capability of online examination during normal operation of the detection system is possible.

  19. Race and space in the 1990s: changes in the geographic scale of racial residential segregation, 1990-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F; Farrell, Chad R; Matthews, Stephen A; O'Sullivan, David; Bischoff, Kendra; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2009-03-01

    We use newly developed methods of measuring spatial segregation across a range of spatial scales to assess changes in racial residential segregation patterns in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas from 1990 to 2000. Our results point to three notable trends in segregation from 1990 to 2000: (1) Hispanic-white and Asian-white segregation levels increased at both micro- and macro-scales; (2) black-white segregation declined at a micro-scale, but was unchanged at a macro-scale; and (3) for all three racial groups and for almost all metropolitan areas, macro-scale segregation accounted for more of the total metropolitan area segregation in 2000 than in 1990. Our examination of the variation in these trends among the metropolitan areas suggests that Hispanic-white and Asian-white segregation changes have been driven largely by increases in macro-scale segregation resulting from the rapid growth of the Hispanic and Asian populations in central cities. The changes in black-white segregation, in contrast, appear to be driven by the continuation of a 30-year trend in declining micro-segregation, coupled with persistent and largely stable patterns of macro-segregation.

  20. Measurements of charged-particle distributions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cairo, Valentina Maria Martina

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive charged-particle measurements probe the low-energy region of the non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The ATLAS collaboration has recently measured the charged-particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at centre-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements at 8 TeV cover a wide spectrum using charged-particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged-particle multiplicities, some of which are studied for the first time by ATLAS. The measurements at 13 TeV also present detailed studies with a minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV. The measurements are compared with predictions of various tuned Monte Carlo generators and are found to provide strong constraints on these. None of the Monte Carlo generators with their respective tunes are able to reproduce all the features of the data.

  1. Risk Measure and Premium Distribution on Catastrophe Reinsurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUN LI; WANG DE-HUI

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a new risk measure which is based on the Orlicz premium principle to characterize catastrophe risk premium.The intention is to develop a formulation strategy for Catastrophe Fund.The logarithm equivalent form of reinsurance premium is regarded as the retention of reinsurer,and the differential earnings between the reinsurance premium and the reinsurer's retention is accumulated as a part of Catastrophe Fund.We demonstrate that the aforementioned risk measure has some good properties,which are further confirmed by numerical simulations in R environment.

  2. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  3. Aerosol mobility imaging for rapid size distribution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Hering, Susanne Vera; Spielman, Steven Russel; Kuang, Chongai

    2016-07-19

    A parallel plate dimensional electrical mobility separator and laminar flow water condensation provide rapid, mobility-based particle sizing at concentrations typical of the remote atmosphere. Particles are separated spatially within the electrical mobility separator, enlarged through water condensation, and imaged onto a CCD array. The mobility separation distributes particles in accordance with their size. The condensation enlarges size-separated particles by water condensation while they are still within the gap of the mobility drift tube. Once enlarged the particles are illuminated by a laser. At a pre-selected frequency, typically 10 Hz, the position of all of the individual particles illuminated by the laser are captured by CCD camera. This instantly records the particle number concentration at each position. Because the position is directly related to the particle size (or mobility), the particle size spectra is derived from the images recorded by the CCD.

  4. LASER ULTRASONIC FOR MEASUREMENTS OF VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION IN PIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navarrete

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the development of a photoacoustic flowmeter with probe-beam deflection. A pulsedlaser beam produces an acoustic pulse, whose propagation is registered by its deflection effects on two cw probebeams. The acoustic pulse in a flowing fluid is produced by absorption of a laser pulse (30 ns, 1.1 mJ focused overa path flow line. The acoustic propagations, along and against the flow, are monitored by two cw probe beams. Inthe interaction, the probe beam undergoes a transient deflection that is detected by a fast response photodiode.The velocity distribution data profile of a square pipe is obtained by means of the acoustic pulse arrival timemeasured through its cross section applying the cylindrical shockwave model developed by Vlasses. The profilesdetermined with this experimental technique are compared with two turbulent pipe flow models.

  5. MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS: A MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of hydrologists to perform field measurements of aquifer hydraulic properties must be enhanced in order to significantly improve the capacity to solve groundwater contamination problems at Superfund and other sites. The primary purpose of this manual is to provide ne...

  6. A measure of mutual divergence among a number of probability distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kapur

    1987-01-01

    major inequalities due to Shannon, Renyi and Holder. The inequalities are then used to obtain some useful results in information theory. In particular measures are obtained to measure the mutual divergence among two or more probability distributions.

  7. A novel approach to kinetic energy release distribution and charge state distribution measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kaidee [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30077, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: lee@nsrrc.org.tw

    2005-06-15

    When a swarm of ions are accelerated by a pulsed electric field for a common duration before entering an electrostatically dispersive energy analyzer, they will be sorted according to their charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In other words, the apparent kinetic energy upon which an ion will be registered in an apparent 'energy' spectrum thus obtained is proportional to its q/m ratio. For ions of a fixed mass m, the apparent energy spectrum becomes a charge state distribution spectrum. For ions of a fixed charge q, the apparent energy spectrum becomes a mass spectrum. In essence, an energy analyzer becomes both a charge sorter and a mass spectrometer when operated in this mode. In addition, when applied to the detection of photofragment ions, this technique will be able to yield information on the kinetic energy release distribution of the underlying dissociation events.

  8. Software Quality Measurement for Distributed Systems. Volume 3. Distributed Computing Systems: Impact on Software Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    methodology precludes two computers from being casually linked together (as with SEAC and DYSEAC), but also lessens the likelihood of major innovations ...provide a more natural computer achitecture for applications such as artificial intelligence, real time command and control, and data base management. 3-7...state-of-the- art in how we can separate C31 nodes. A truly distributed C31 system may not be achievable for another 5 to 10 years. However, unless we

  9. Time-of-arrival distributions from position-momentum and energy-time joint measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Baute, A D; Muga, J G; Sala-Mayato, R

    2000-01-01

    The position-momentum quasi-distribution obtained from an Arthurs and Kelly joint measurement model is used to obtain indirectly an ``operational'' time-of-arrival (TOA) distribution following a quantization procedure proposed by Kocha\\'nski and Wódkiewicz [Phys. Rev. A 60, 2689 (1999)]. This TOA distribution is not time covariant. The procedure is generalized by using other phase-space quasi-distributions, and sufficient conditions are provided for time covariance that limit the possible phase-space quasi-distributions essentially to the Wigner function, which, however, provides a non-positive TOA quasi-distribution. These problems are remedied with a different quantization procedure which, on the other hand, does not guarantee normalization. Finally an Arthurs and Kelly measurement model for TOA and energy (valid also for arbitrary conjugate variables when one of the variables is bounded from below) is worked out. The marginal TOA distribution so obtained, a distorted version of Kijowski's distribution, is...

  10. Measuring the Galactic Distribution of Transiting Planets with WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Yee, Jennifer C.; Penny, Matthew T.

    2017-04-01

    The WFIRST microlensing mission will measure precise light curves and relative parallaxes for millions of stars, giving it the potential to characterize short-period transiting planets all along the line of sight and into the galactic bulge. These light curves will enable the detection of more than 100,000 transiting planets whose host stars have measured distances. Although most of these planets cannot be followed up, several thousand hot Jupiters can be confirmed directly by detection of their secondary eclipses in the WFIRST data. Additionally, some systems of small planets may be confirmed by detecting transit timing variations over the duration of the WFIRST microlensing survey. Finally, many more planets may be validated by ruling out potential false positives. The combination of WFIRST transits and microlensing will provide a complete picture of planetary system architectures, from the very shortest periods to unbound planets, as a function of galactocentric distance.

  11. Measuring the Galactic Distribution of Transiting Planets with WFIRST

    CERN Document Server

    Montet, Benjamin T; Penny, Matthew T

    2016-01-01

    The WFIRST microlensing mission will measure precise light curves and relative parallaxes for millions of stars, giving it the potential to characterize short-period transiting planets all along the line of sight and into the galactic bulge. These light curves will enable the detection of more than 100,000 transiting planets whose host stars have measured distances. Although most of these planets cannot be followed up, several thousand hot Jupiters can be confirmed directly by detection of their secondary eclipses in the WFIRST data. Additionally, some systems of small planets may be confirmed by detecting transit timing variations over the duration of the WFIRST microlensing survey. Finally, many more planets may be validated by ruling out potential false positives. The combination of WFIRST transits and microlensing will provide a complete picture of planetary system architectures, from the very shortest periods to unbound planets, as a function of galactocentric distance.

  12. Determination of soil moisture distribution from impedance and gravimetric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Stephen G.; Layman, Robert; Campbell, Jeffrey E.; Walsh, John; Mckim, Harlan J.

    1992-01-01

    Daily measurements of the soil dielectric properties at 5 and 10 cm were obtained at five locations throughout the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) test site during the 1987 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). An automated vector voltmeter was used to monitor the complex electrical impedance, at 10 MHz, of cylindrical volumes of soil delineated by specially designed soil moisture probes buried at these locations. The objective of this exercise was to test the hypothesis that the soil impedance is sensitive to the moisture content of the soil and that the imaginary part (that is, capacitive reactance) can be used to calculate the volumetric water content of the soil. These measurements were compared with gravimetric samples collected at these locations by the FIFE staff science team.

  13. Microwave Measurements of Moisture Distributions in the Upper Soil Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, A. M.; Hancock, G. D.; Waite, W. P.; Scott, H. D.; Rand, J. A.

    1984-07-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of microwave remote sensing systems to detect the moisture status of a silt loam soil exhibiting abrupt changes in moisture content near the surface. Laboratory soil profiles were prepared with a discontinuous moisture boundary in the subsurface. Reflectivity measurements of these profiles were made with a bistatic reflectometer operating over the frequency ranges of 1-2 and 4-8 GHz (wavelength ranges of 30-15 and 7.5-3.75 cm, respectively). These measurements exhibited a well-developed coherent interference pattern in good agreement with a simple two-layer reflectivity model. Field measurements of bare soil surfaces were conducted for initially saturated profiles and continued for extended periods of drying. During drying, coherent interference patterns similar to those observed in the laboratory were detected. These appear to be due to steep moisture gradients occurring between drying layers near the surface. The field results were modeled by a five-segment linear moisture profile with one or two steep segments and a multilayer reflectivity program. Agreement between model and field response over the frequency range was used to estimate the depth of drying layers within the soil. These depths were monitored over the second and third drying cycles. Formation of the drying layers under field conditions appears to be influenced by drying time, tillage, and evaporative demand. In any case, it appears that the coherent effects caused by nonuniform moisture profiles may substantially affect the reflectivity of even rough soil surfaces.

  14. State estimation of medium voltage distribution networks using smart meter measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wakeel, Ali; Wu, Jianzhong; Jenkins, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Distributed generation and low carbon loads are already leading to some restrictions in the operation of distribution networks and higher penetrations of e.g. PV generation, heat pumps and electric vehicles will exacerbate such problems. In order to manage the distribution network effectively in this new situation, increased real-time monitoring and control will become necessary. In the future, distribution network operators will have smart meter measurements available to them to facilitate s...

  15. The development of MOPED - a mobile tool for performance measurement and evaluation during distributed team training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, A.M.F.; Berlo, M.P.W. van; Hoekstra, W.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed team training, often in joint settings, is becoming more and more important in military training today. Performance measurement and feedback are crucial for effective team training. To support observers during distributed team training the Mobile tool for Performance measurement and Eval

  16. In situ potential distribution measurement in an all-vanadium flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinghua; Turhan, Ahmet; Zawodzinski, Thomas A; Mench, Matthew M

    2013-07-18

    An experimental method for measurement of local redox potential within multilayer electrodes was developed and applied to all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). Through-plane measurement at the positive side reveals several important phenomena including potential distribution, concentration distribution of active species and the predominant reaction location within the porous carbon electrodes.

  17. Two-Dimensional Automatic Measurement for Nozzle Flow Distribution Using Improved Ultrasonic Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Changyuan Zhai; Chunjiang Zhao; Xiu Wang; Ning Wang; Wei Zou; Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Spray deposition and distribution are affected by many factors, one of which is nozzle flow distribution. A two-dimensional automatic measurement system, which consisted of a conveying unit, a system control unit, an ultrasonic sensor, and a deposition collecting dish, was designed and developed. The system could precisely move an ultrasonic sensor above a pesticide deposition collecting dish to measure the nozzle flow distribution. A sensor sleeve with a PVC tube was designed for the ultras...

  18. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    OpenAIRE

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma def...

  19. 1990年代以来日本大都市圈的结构变化%Changes in Spatial Structure of Japanese Metropolitan Areas Since 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    日野正辉; 刘云刚

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present a general view of changes in spatial structures of Japanese metropolitan areas after the 1990s based on previous studies. Discontinuation of suburban expansion and recovery of inner area population have been observed in the Tokyo metropolitan area since the 1990s. Both the collapse of land myth and the continuous decrease in land price during the 1990s were pointed out as major factors directly contributing to these phenomena. The land myth which kept the land value increasing had induced vigorous investments in land since the post-war rapid economic growth period. This movement had been busted in the collapse of bubble economy of the late 1980s. As a result, the amount of land supplies in the inner part of Japanese metropolitan areas became increased, and the construction of affordable condominiums became active significantly. On the other hand, the trend of low birthrate weakened the inner-to-suburb residential migration in metropolitan areas according to life cycle. Increasing number of aged residents prefer condominiums in the inner areas to detached houses in suburbs because of convenience in living without depending on automobiles. In fact, there were many senior citizens who migrated from suburbs to inner areas. On the contrary, the residential areas without adjacency to the convenient public transportation system in outer suburbs tend to become less popular among all generation, thus the population in such areas began to decrease. Furthermore, the similar phenomena are also seen in provincial metropolitan areas. Population in such areas is predicted to decrease in the near future. Therefore, some of major provincial cities have already proposed "compact city planning" policies to regulate new suburban development and improve public transportation systems by providing both train and bus services in the inner areas.%基于既有研究综述了1990年代以来日本大都市圈的发展动态.1990年代初期,东京都市圈郊区

  20. Trust Measurements Yeld Distributed Decision Support in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Dias Canedo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the creation of a trust model to ensure the reliable files exchange between the users of a private cloud. To validate the proposed model, a simulation environment with the tool CloudSim was used. Its use to run the simulations of the adopted scenarios allowed us to calculate the nodes (virtual machines trust table and select those considered more reliable; identify that the metrics adopted by us directly influenced the measurement of trust in a node and verify that the trust model proposed effectively allows the selection of the most suitable machine to perform the exchange of files.

  1. Space charge distribution measurement methods and particle loaded insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, S [Laboratoire des Instruments et Systemes d' Ile de France, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Sylvestre, A [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et des Materiaux Dielectriques, CNRS UMR5517, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Lavallee, O Gallot [Laboratoire d' Etude Aerodynamiques, CNRS UMR6609, boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, Teleport 2, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope, Chasseneuil (France); Guillermin, C [Schneider Electric Industries SAS, 22 rue Henry Tarze, 38000 Grenoble (France); Rain, P [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et des Materiaux Dielectriques, CNRS UMR5517, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Rowe, S [Schneider Electric Industries SAS, 22 rue Henry Tarze, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2006-03-07

    In this paper the authors discuss the effects of particles (fillers) mixed in a composite polymer on the space charge measurement techniques. The origin of particle-induced spurious signals is determined and silica filled epoxy resin is analysed using the laser-induced-pressure-pulse (LIPP) method, the pulsed-electro-acoustic (PEA) method and the laser-induced-thermal-pulse (LITP) method. A spurious signal identified as the consequence of a piezoelectric effect of some silica particles is visible for all the method. Moreover, space charges are clearly detected at the epoxy/silica interface after a 10 kV mm{sup -1} poling at room temperature for 2 h.

  2. Measuring Robustness of Timetables in Stations using a Probability Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex

    of a station based on the plan of operation and the minimum headway times However, none of the above methods take a given timetable into account when the complexity of the station is calculated. E.g. two timetable candidates are given following the same plan of operation in a station; one will be more...... vulnerable to delays (less robust) while the other will be less vulnerable (more robust), but this cannot be measured by the above methods. In the light of this, the article will describe a new method where the complexity of a given station with a given timetable can be calculated based on a probability...... delays caused by interdependencies, and result in a more robust operation. Currently three methods to calculate the complexity of station exists: 1. Complexity of a station based on the track layout 2. Complexity of a station based on the probability of a conflict using a plan of operation 3. Complexity...

  3. Measurement of bubble and pellet size distributions: past and current image analysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Beth

    2006-08-01

    Measurements of bubble and pellet size distributions are useful for biochemical process optimizations. The accuracy, representation, and simplicity of these measurements improve when the measurement is performed on-line and in situ rather than off-line using a sample. Historical and currently available measurement systems for photographic methods are summarized for bubble and pellet (morphology) measurement applications. Applications to cells, mycelia, and pellets measurements have driven key technological developments that have been applied for bubble measurements. Measurement trade-offs exist to maximize accuracy, extend range, and attain reasonable cycle times. Mathematical characterization of distributions using standard statistical techniques is straightforward, facilitating data presentation and analysis. For the specific application of bubble size distributions, selected bioreactor operating parameters and physicochemical conditions alter distributions. Empirical relationships have been established in some cases where sufficient data have been collected. In addition, parameters and conditions with substantial effects on bubble size distributions were identified and their relative effects quantified. This information was used to guide required accuracy and precision targets for bubble size distribution measurements from newly developed novel on-line and in situ bubble measurement devices.

  4. HOW TO ATTAIN THE GOLDEN AGE – THE ROLE OF THE BALCEROWICZ PLAN IN THE SUCCESSFUL TRANSFORMATION OF POLAND IN THE 1990S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Fąfara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s Poland went through a major political transformation that completely reshaped the country. One of the key pillars of these changes was the so-called ‘Balcerowicz Plan’ - an ambitious process that enabled a significant shift in the economic and social landscape through the introduction of fundamental changes in the Polish legal system. The thesis advanced in this paper is that the successful transformation of the state’s system of government in post-Soviet countries depended not only on democratization and political changes but also required an effective program of economic reforms. This will be demonstrated by reference to the ‘Balcerowicz Plan.’ The first part discusses the transition from the former economic order in Poland to the free market order by means of the new legal norms, describing briefly the eleven legislative acts which brought wide-ranging and fundamental changes to the Polish legal system. The second part explains the impact that these reforms had on Polish society both in the short and long-term. Despite the initial problems associated with the change of the economic system, they eventually brought significant improvements to the quality of individuals’ lives. The conclusion reiterates the thesis that the successful transformation of the state’s regime in post-Soviet countries depended not only on political changes, but also on effective economic reforms.

  5. The co-production of a "relevant" expertise – administrative and scientific cooperation in the French water policies elaboration and implementation since the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Deroubaix

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at understanding the social and political uses of the principle of integrated management and its possible impacts on the elaboration and implementation processes of public policies in the French water management sector. The academic and political innovations developed by scientists and agents of the administration these last 25 years are analysed, using some of the theoretical tools developed by the science studies and public policy analysis. We first focus on the construction of intellectual public policy communities such as the GIP Hydro systems, at the origin of large interdisciplinary research programs in the 1990s. A common cognitive framework is clearly built during this period on the good governance of the aquatic ecosystems and on the corresponding needs and practices of research. The second part of the paper focuses on the possibilities to build political communities and more or less integrated expertises in the decision making processes concerning various issues related to water management. Eutrophication and its inscription on the French political agenda is a very significant case for analysing the difficulty to build such a political community. On the contrary, when there is an opportunity for policy evaluation, which was the case concerning the management of wetlands in France or the implementation of compulsory flows on the French rivers, these communities can emerge. However, the type of integrated expertise and management proposed in these cases of policy evaluations much depends on their methodological choices.

  6. The co-production of a "relevant" expertise administrative and scientific cooperation in the French water policies elaboration and implementation since the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroubaix, J. F.

    2008-08-01

    This paper aims at understanding the social and political uses of the principle of integrated management and its possible impacts on the elaboration and implementation processes of public policies in the French water management sector. The academic and political innovations developed by scientists and agents of the administration these last 25 years are analysed, using some of the theoretical tools developed by the science studies and public policy analysis. We first focus on the construction of intellectual public policy communities such as the GIP Hydro systems, at the origin of large interdisciplinary research programs in the 1990s. A common cognitive framework is clearly built during this period on the good governance of the aquatic ecosystems and on the corresponding needs and practices of research. The second part of the paper focuses on the possibilities to build political communities and more or less integrated expertises in the decision making processes concerning various issues related to water management. Eutrophication and its inscription on the French political agenda is a very significant case for analysing the difficulty to build such a political community. On the contrary, when there is an opportunity for policy evaluation, which was the case concerning the management of wetlands in France or the implementation of compulsory flows on the French rivers, these communities can emerge. However, the type of integrated expertise and management proposed in these cases of policy evaluations much depends on their methodological choices.

  7. Information Measures of Degree Distributions with an Application to Labeled Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Purvine, Emilie AH

    2016-01-11

    The problem of describing the distribution of labels over a set of objects is relevant to many domains. For example: cyber security, social media, and protein interactions all care about the manner in which labels are distributed among different objects. In this paper we present three interacting statistical measures on label distributions, inspired by entropy and information theory. Labeled graphs are discussed as a specific case of labels distributed over a set of edges. We describe a use case in cyber security using a labeled directed multi-graph of IPFLOW. Finally we show how these measures respond when labels are updated in certain ways.

  8. Measuring inequalities in the distribution of health workers: the case of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munga Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall human resource shortages and the distributional inequalities in the health workforce in many developing countries are well acknowledged. However, little has been done to measure the degree of inequality systematically. Moreover, few attempts have been made to analyse the implications of using alternative measures of health care needs in the measurement of health workforce distributional inequalities. Most studies have implicitly relied on population levels as the only criterion for measuring health care needs. This paper attempts to achieve two objectives. First, it describes and measures health worker distributional inequalities in Tanzania on a per capita basis; second, it suggests and applies additional health care needs indicators in the measurement of distributional inequalities. Methods We plotted Lorenz and concentration curves to illustrate graphically the distribution of the total health workforce and the cadre-specific (skill mix distributions. Alternative indicators of health care needs were illustrated by concentration curves. Inequalities were measured by calculating Gini and concentration indices. Results There are significant inequalities in the distribution of health workers per capita. Overall, the population quintile with the fewest health workers per capita accounts for only 8% of all health workers, while the quintile with the most health workers accounts for 46%. Inequality is perceptible across both urban and rural districts. Skill mix inequalities are also large. Districts with a small share of the health workforce (relative to their population levels have an even smaller share of highly trained medical personnel. A small share of highly trained personnel is compensated by a larger share of clinical officers (a middle-level cadre but not by a larger share of untrained health workers. Clinical officers are relatively equally distributed. Distributional inequalities tend to be more pronounced

  9. Vertical profile and aerosol size distribution measurements in Iceland (LOAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Vignelles, Damien; Verdier, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Cold climate and high latitudes regions contain important dust sources where dust is frequently emitted, foremost from glacially-derived sediments of riverbeds or ice-proximal areas (Arnalds, 2010; Bullard, 2013). Iceland is probably the most active dust source in the arctic/sub-arctic region (Dagsson-Waldhauserova, 2013). The frequency of days with suspended dust exceeds 34 dust days annually. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin; it is very dark in colour and contains sharp-tipped shards with bubbles. Such properties allow even large particles to be easily transported long distances. Thus, there is a need to better understand the spatial and temporal variability of these dusts. Two launch campaigns of the Light Optical Aerosols Counter (LOAC) were conducted in Iceland with meteorological balloons. LOAC use a new optical design that allows to retrieve the size concentrations in 19 size classes between 0.2 and 100 microm, and to provide an estimate of the main nature of aerosols. Vertical stratification and aerosol composition of the subarctic atmosphere was studied in detail. The July 2011 launch represented clean non-dusty season with low winds while the November 2013 launch was conducted during the high winds after dusty period. For the winter flight (performed from Reykjavik), the nature of aerosols strongly changed with altitude. In particular, a thin layer of volcanic dust was observed at an altitude of 1 km. Further LOAC measurements are needed to understand the implication of Icelandic dust to the Arctic warming and climate change. A new campaign of LAOC launches is planned for May 2014. Reference: Arnalds, O., 2010. Dust sources and deposition of aeolian materials in Iceland. Icelandic Agricultural Sciences 23, 3-21. Bullard, J.E., 2013. Contemporary glacigenic inputs to the dust cycle. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38, 71-89. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P., Arnalds O., Olafsson H. 2013. Long-term frequency and characteristics of dust storm events in

  10. Measuring-basis-encrypted six-state quantum key distribution scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Pan; DENG Fuguo; WANG Pingxiao; LONG Guilu

    2006-01-01

    A six-state quantum key distribution scheme with measuring-basis encryption technique, which is based on the six-state protocol and the MBE protocol, is proposed. In this modified six-state quantum key distribution protocol, Alice and Bob use a control key to synchronize the use of their measuring-basis so that they always use the same measuring-basis. This modified six-state quantum key distribution protocol retains the advantage of higher security and at the same time has a higher efficiency.

  11. New algorithm and system for measuring size distribution of blood cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiping Yao(姚翠萍); Zheng Li(李政); Zhenxi Zhang(张镇西)

    2004-01-01

    In optical scattering particle sizing, a numerical transform is sought so that a particle size distribution can be determined from angular measurements of near forward scattering, which has been adopted in the measurement of blood cells. In this paper a new method of counting and classification of blood cell, laser light scattering method from stationary suspensions, is presented. The genetic algorithm combined with nonnegative least squared algorithm is employed to inverse the size distribution of blood cells. Numerical tests show that these techniques can be successfully applied to measuring size distribution of blood cell with high stability.

  12. Fission prompt gamma-ray multiplicity distribution measurements and simulations at DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Ullmann, J; Jandel, M; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Norman, E

    2010-08-24

    The nearly energy independence of the DANCE efficiency and multiplicity response to {gamma} rays makes it possible to measure the prompt {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution in fission. We demonstrate this unique capability of DANCE through the comparison of {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution between the measurement and numerical simulation for three radioactive sources {sup 22}Na, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 88}Y. The prospect for measuring the {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution for both spontaneous and neutron-induced fission is discussed.

  13. Doing language: Narratives from an activist world in the Austrian art-world of the 1990s: the Art Activism of WochenKlausur, Martin Krenn, Oliver Ressler and maiz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fotiadi, E.

    2012-01-01

    The article refers to the political art scene in Austria during the 1990s and early 2000s. Participatory art-activism projects by the group WochenKlausur and by Martin Krenn and Oliver Ressler are juxtaposed to artistic work used for political activism by the women migrants' organization maiz. All c

  14. Varieties of Universalism: Post-1990s Developments in the Initial School-Based Model of VET in Finland and Sweden and Implications for Transitions to the World of Work and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virolainen, M.; Persson Thunqvist, D.

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic countries are often referred to as a group even though their education systems and training models are very different. The aim of this study is to advance understanding of those differences and compare the developments and organisation of initial vocational education and training (IVET) in Finland and Sweden since the 1990s as examples…

  15. Doing language: Narratives from an activist world in the Austrian art-world of the 1990s: the Art Activism of WochenKlausur, Martin Krenn, Oliver Ressler and maiz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fotiadi, E.

    2012-01-01

    The article refers to the political art scene in Austria during the 1990s and early 2000s. Participatory art-activism projects by the group WochenKlausur and by Martin Krenn and Oliver Ressler are juxtaposed to artistic work used for political activism by the women migrants' organization maiz. All

  16. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Implementation of Measures for Reducing Energy Losses in Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Alexander; Wilson, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess a group of measures of electrical improvements in distribution systems, starting from the complementation of technical and economic criteria. In order to solve the problem of energy losses in distribution systems, technical and economic analysis was performed based on a mathematical model to establish a direct relationship between the energy saved by way of minimized losses and the costs of implementing the proposed measures. This paper aims at analysing the feasibility of reducing energy losses in distribution systems, by changing existing network conductors by larger crosssection conductors and distribution voltage change at higher levels. The impact of this methodology provides a highly efficient mathematical tool for analysing the feasibility of implementing improvement projects based on their costs which is a very useful tool for the distribution companies that will serve as a starting point to the analysis for this type of projects in distribution systems.

  17. A non-Gaussian distribution quantifies distances measured with fluorescence localization techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Churchman, L.S.; Flyvbjerg, H.; Spudich, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    When single-molecule fluorescence localization techniques are pushed to their lower limits in attempts to measure ever-shorter distances, measurement errors become important to understand. Here we describe the non-Gaussian distribution of measured distances that is the key to proper interpretation...

  18. A simple derivation and classification of common probability distributions based on information symmetry and measurement scale

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Steven A

    2010-01-01

    Commonly observed patterns typically follow a few distinct families of probability distributions. Over one hundred years ago, Karl Pearson provided a systematic derivation and classification of the common continuous distributions. His approach was phenomenological: a differential equation that generated common distributions without any underlying conceptual basis for why common distributions have particular forms and what explains the familial relations. Pearson's system and its descendants remain the most popular systematic classification of probability distributions. Here, we unify the disparate forms of common distributions into a single system based on two meaningful and justifiable propositions. First, distributions follow maximum entropy subject to constraints, where maximum entropy is equivalent to minimum information. Second, different problems associate magnitude to information in different ways, an association we describe in terms of the relation between information invariance and measurement scale....

  19. Importance measures for imprecise probability distributions and their sparse grid solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Pan; LU; ZhenZhou; CHENG; Lei

    2013-01-01

    For the imprecise probability distribution of structural system, the variance based importance measures (IMs) of the inputs are investigated, and three IMs are defined on the conditions of random distribution parameters, interval distribution parameters and the mixture of those two types of distribution parameters. The defined IMs can reflect the influence of the inputs on the output of the structural system with imprecise distribution parameters, respectively. Due to the large computational cost of the variance based IMs, sparse grid method is employed in this work to compute the variance based IMs at each reference point of distribution parameters. For the three imprecise distribution parameter cases, the sparse grid method and the combination of sparse grid method with genetic algorithm are used to compute the defined IMs. Numerical and engineering examples are em-ployed to demonstrate the rationality of the defined IMs and the efficiency of the applied methods.

  20. Complete velocity distribution in river cross-sections measured by acoustic instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.; ,

    2003-01-01

    To fully understand the hydraulic properties of natural rivers, velocity distribution in the river cross-section should be studied in detail. The measurement task is not straightforward because there is not an instrument that can measure the velocity distribution covering the entire cross-section. Particularly, the velocities in regions near the free surface and in the bottom boundary layer are difficult to measure, and yet the velocity properties in these regions play the most significant role in characterizing the hydraulic properties. To further characterize river hydraulics, two acoustic instruments, namely, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and a "BoogieDopp" (BD) were used on fixed platforms to measure the detailed velocity profiles across the river. Typically, 20 to 25 stations were used to represent a river cross-section. At each station, water velocity profiles were measured independently and/or concurrently by an ADCP and a BD. The measured velocity properties were compared and used in computation of river discharge. In a tow-tank evaluation of a BD, it has been confirmed that BD is capable of measuring water velocity at about 11 cm below the free-surface. Therefore, the surface velocity distribution across the river was extracted from the BD velocity measurements and used to compute the river discharge. These detailed velocity profiles and the composite velocity distribution were used to assess the validity of the classic theories of velocity distributions, conventional river discharge measurement methods, and for estimates of channel bottom roughness.

  1. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V D [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  2. Zenith distribution and flux of atmospheric muons measured with the 5-line ANTARES detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANTARES Collaboration; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; de Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Lefèvre, D.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyons, K.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Maurin, G.; Mazure, A.; Melissas, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Ostasch, R.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Pillet, R.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    The ANTARES high-energy neutrino telescope is a three-dimensional array of about 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 mooring lines installed in the Mediterranean Sea. Between February and November 2007 it acquired data in a 5-line configuration. The zenith angular distribution of the atmospheric muon flux and the associated depth-intensity relation are measured and compared with previous measurements and Monte Carlo expectations. An evaluation of the systematic effects due to uncertainties on environmental and detector parameters is presented.

  3. Velocity distribution measurements in atomic beams generated using laser induced back-ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Denning, A; Lee, S; Ammonson, M; Bergeson, S D

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of the velocity distribution of calcium atoms in an atomic beam generated using a dual-stage laser back-ablation apparatus. Distributions are measured using a velocity selective Doppler time-of-flight technique. They are Boltzmann-like with rms velocities corresponding to temperatures above the melting point for calcium. Contrary to a recent report in the literature, this method does not generate a sub-thermal atomic beam.

  4. Quantitative Impacts of Climate Change and Human Activities on Water-Surface Area Variations from the 1990s to 2013 in Honghu Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianrong Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The water-surface areas of the lakes in the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, have undergone significant changes under the combined impacts of global climate change and local anthropogenic stress. As a typical lake in this region, the Honghu Lake features water-surface area variations that are documented in this study based on high–resolution remote sensing images from the 1990s to 2013. The impact of human activities is analyzed by a novel method based on land use data. The relative impacts of each driving force are further distinguished by the statistical analysis method. Results show that the water-surface area has significant inter-annual and seasonal variabilities, and the minimum of which generally occurs in spring. The degree to which climate factors and land use structure affect the water-surface area varies between different stages. In the April-May period, the sum of the water demands of paddies and aquaculture has a negative effect that is greater than the positive effect of the difference between the monthly precipitation and monthly evaporation. In the June–October period, the precipitation features a positive impact that is greater than the negative effect of the water demand of agriculture. Meanwhile, climate factors and human activities have no influence on the lake area in the November–March period. With the land use being altered when annual precipitations are close in value, paddy field areas decrease, ponds areas increase, and the water demand of agriculture rises in both flood and drought years. These findings provide scientific foundation for understanding the causes of water-surface area variations and for effectively maintaining the stability of the Honghu Lake area through adjustments in land use structure.

  5. Investigation of the limits of a fibre optic sensor system for measurement of temperature distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Johnson, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop an innovative temperature sensor system which is able to measure the temperature distribution along a fibre optical cable. This technique for temperature measurement is based on Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR). ©2006 IEEE.......The aim of this project is to develop an innovative temperature sensor system which is able to measure the temperature distribution along a fibre optical cable. This technique for temperature measurement is based on Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR). ©2006 IEEE....

  6. Two-Dimensional Automatic Measurement for Nozzle Flow Distribution Using Improved Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyuan Zhai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Spray deposition and distribution are affected by many factors, one of which is nozzle flow distribution. A two-dimensional automatic measurement system, which consisted of a conveying unit, a system control unit, an ultrasonic sensor, and a deposition collecting dish, was designed and developed. The system could precisely move an ultrasonic sensor above a pesticide deposition collecting dish to measure the nozzle flow distribution. A sensor sleeve with a PVC tube was designed for the ultrasonic sensor to limit its beam angle in order to measure the liquid level in the small troughs. System performance tests were conducted to verify the designed functions and measurement accuracy. A commercial spray nozzle was also used to measure its flow distribution. The test results showed that the relative error on volume measurement was less than 7.27% when the liquid volume was 2 mL in trough, while the error was less than 4.52% when the liquid volume was 4 mL or more. The developed system was also used to evaluate the flow distribution of a commercial nozzle. It was able to provide the shape and the spraying width of the flow distribution accurately.

  7. Two-dimensional automatic measurement for nozzle flow distribution using improved ultrasonic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Changyuan; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Xiu; Wang, Ning; Zou, Wei; Li, Wei

    2015-10-16

    Spray deposition and distribution are affected by many factors, one of which is nozzle flow distribution. A two-dimensional automatic measurement system, which consisted of a conveying unit, a system control unit, an ultrasonic sensor, and a deposition collecting dish, was designed and developed. The system could precisely move an ultrasonic sensor above a pesticide deposition collecting dish to measure the nozzle flow distribution. A sensor sleeve with a PVC tube was designed for the ultrasonic sensor to limit its beam angle in order to measure the liquid level in the small troughs. System performance tests were conducted to verify the designed functions and measurement accuracy. A commercial spray nozzle was also used to measure its flow distribution. The test results showed that the relative error on volume measurement was less than 7.27% when the liquid volume was 2 mL in trough, while the error was less than 4.52% when the liquid volume was 4 mL or more. The developed system was also used to evaluate the flow distribution of a commercial nozzle. It was able to provide the shape and the spraying width of the flow distribution accurately.

  8. Energy distribution of precipitating electrons estimated from optical and cosmic noise absorption measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mori

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is a statistical analysis on energy distribution of precipitating electrons, based on CNA (cosmic noise absorption data obtained from the 256-element imaging riometer in Poker Flat, Alaska (65.11° N, 147.42° W, and optical data measured with an MSP (Meridian Scanning Photometer over 79 days during the winter periods from 1996 to 1998. On the assumption that energy distributions of precipitating electrons represent Maxwellian distributions, CNA is estimated based on the observation data of auroral 427.8-nm and 630.0-nm emissions, as well as the average atmospheric model, and compared with the actual observation data. Although the observation data have a broad distribution, they show systematically larger CNA than the model estimate. CNA determination using kappa or double Maxwellian distributions, instead of Maxwellian distributions, better explains the distribution of observed CNA data. Kappa distributions represent a typical energy distribution of electrons in the plasma sheet of the magnetosphere, the source region of precipitating electrons. Pure kappas are more likely during quiet times – and quiet times are more likely than active times. This result suggests that the energy distribution of precipitating electrons reflects the energy distribution of electrons in the plasma sheet.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation; polar ionosphere

  9. Measurement based scenario analysis of short-range distribution system planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on short-range distribution system planning using a probabilistic approach. Empirical probabilistic distributions of load demand and distributed generations are derived from the historical measurement data and incorporated into the system planning. Simulations with various...... feasible scenarios are performed based on a local distribution system at Støvring in Denmark. Simulation results provide more accurate and insightful information for the decision-maker when using the probabilistic analysis than using the worst-case analysis, so that a better planning can be achieved....

  10. Measuring maximal eigenvalue distribution of Wishart random matrices with coupled lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Moti; Nixon, Micha; Friesem, Asher A; Davidson, Nir

    2010-01-01

    We determined the probability distribution of the combined output power from twenty five coupled fiber lasers and show that it agrees well with the Tracy-Widom and Majumdar-Vergassola distributions of the largest eigenvalue of Wishart random matrices with no fitting parameters. This was achieved with $500,000$ measurements of the combined output power from the fiber lasers, that continuously changes with variations of the fiber lasers lengths. We show experimentally that for small deviations of the combined output power over its mean value the Tracy-Widom distribution is correct, while for large deviations the Majumdar-Vergassola distribution is correct.

  11. Measuring maximal eigenvalue distribution of Wishart random matrices with coupled lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Moti; Pugatch, Rami; Nixon, Micha; Friesem, Asher A; Davidson, Nir

    2012-02-01

    We determined the probability distribution of the combined output power from 25 coupled fiber lasers and show that it agrees well with the Tracy-Widom and Majumdar-Vergassola distributions of the largest eigenvalue of Wishart random matrices with no fitting parameters. This was achieved with 500,000 measurements of the combined output power from the fiber lasers, that continuously changes with variations of the fiber lasers lengths. We show experimentally that for small deviations of the combined output power over its mean value the Tracy-Widom distribution is correct, while for large deviations the Majumdar-Vergassola distribution is correct.

  12. Spin distribution measurement for 64Ni + 100Mo at near and above barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Varinderjit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin distribution measurements were performed for the reaction 64Ni + 100Mo at three beam energies ranging from 230 to 260 MeV. Compound nucleus (CN spin distributions were obtained channel selective for each evaporation residue populated by the de-excitation cascade. A comparison of the spin distribution at different beam energies indicates that its slope becomes steeper and steeper with increasing beam energy. This change in slope of the spin distribution is mainly due to the onset of fission competition with particle evaporation at higher beam energies.

  13. Measurements of the charged particle multiplicity distribution in restricted rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Meinhard, H; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stierlin, U; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Duarte, H; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Si Mohand, D; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1995-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicity distributions have been measured with the ALEPH detector in restricted rapidity intervals |Y| \\leq 0.5,1.0, 1.5,2.0\\/ along the thrust axis and also without restriction on rapidity. The distribution for the full range can be parametrized by a log-normal distribution. For smaller windows one finds a more complicated structure, which is understood to arise from perturbative effects. The negative-binomial distribution fails to describe the data both with and without the restriction on rapidity. The JETSET model is found to describe all aspects of the data while the width predicted by HERWIG is in significant disagreement.

  14. Simultaneous measurement of dynamic strain and temperature distribution using high birefringence PANDA fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengshi; Murayama, Hideaki

    2017-04-01

    New approach in simultaneous measurement of dynamic strain and temperature has been done by using a high birefringence PANDA fiber Bragg grating sensor. By this technique, we have succeeded in discriminating dynamic strain and temperature distribution at the sampling rate of 800 Hz and the spatial resolution of 1 mm. The dynamic distribution of strain and temperature were measured with the deviation of 5mm spatially. In addition, we have designed an experimental setup by which we can apply quantitative dynamic strain and temperature distribution to the fiber under testing without bounding it to a specimen.

  15. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of refractive index distribution and topography by integrated transmission and reflection digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaojie; Di, Jianglei; Zhang, Jiwei; Li, Ying; Xi, Teli; Li, Enpu; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-11-20

    We propose a method for simultaneously measuring dynamic changes of the refractive index distribution and surface topography, which integrates the transmission and reflection digital holographic microscopy based on polarization and angular multiplexing techniques. The complex amplitudes of the transmitted and reflected object waves can be simultaneously retrieved. The phase information of the reflected object wave is directly used to determine the topography of the specimen which corresponds to its physical thickness. Assuming that the refractive index distribution is uniform in the direction of the specimen thickness, the refractive index distribution can be deduced from the phase distributions of the transmitted and reflected object waves without any approximation. The refractive index distribution and dynamic changes of the topography of a tiny deionized water droplet have been measured for the availability of the proposed method.

  17. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in Stokes polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie; Hu, Haofeng

    2015-10-19

    We consider the typical Stokes polarimetry system, which performs four intensity measurements to estimate a Stokes vector. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator depends on the distribution of the integration time at four intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time by employing Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analysis and real-world experiment, it is shown that the total variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be significantly decreased about 40% in the case discussed in this paper. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improves the measurement accuracy of the polarimetric system.

  18. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in degree of linear polarization polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Hu, Haofeng; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie

    2016-04-04

    We consider the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) polarimetry system, which performs two intensity measurements at orthogonal polarization states to estimate DOLP. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the DOLP estimator depends on the distribution of integration time for two intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time in an approximate way by employing Delta method and Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analyses and real-world experiments, it is shown that the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased for any value of DOLP. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improve the measurement accuracy of the polarimetry system.

  19. Distributed tracking for networked Euler-Lagrange systems without velocity measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingkai Yang; Hao Fang; Yutian Mao; Jie Huang

    2014-01-01

    The problem of distributed coordinated tracking control for networked Euler-Lagrange systems without velocity measure-ments is investigated. Under the condition that only a portion of the fol owers have access to the leader, sliding mode estimators are developed to estimate the states of the dynamic leader in fi-nite time. To cope with the absence of velocity measurements, the distributed observers which only use position information are designed. Based on the outputs of the estimators and observers, distributed tracking control laws are proposed such that al the fol-lowers with parameter uncertainties can track the dynamic leader under a directed graph containing a spanning tree. It is shown that the distributed observer-control er guarantees asymptotical stabil-ity of the closed-loop system. Numerical simulations are worked out to il ustrate the effectiveness of the control laws.

  20. Digital particle image velocimetry measurements of the downwash distribution of a desert locust Schistocerca gregaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Taylor, Graham K; Lawson, Nicholas J; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2006-04-22

    Actuator disc models of insect flight are concerned solely with the rate of momentum transfer to the air that passes through the disc. These simple models assume that an even pressure is applied across the disc, resulting in a uniform downwash distribution. However, a correction factor, k, is often included to correct for the difference in efficiency between the assumed even downwash distribution, and the real downwash distribution. In the absence of any empirical measurements of the downwash distribution behind a real insect, the values of k used in the literature have been necessarily speculative. Direct measurement of this efficiency factor is now possible, and could be used to compare the relative efficiencies of insect flight across the Class. Here, we use Digital Particle Image Velocimetry to measure the instantaneous downwash distribution, mid-downstroke, of a tethered desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria). By integrating the downwash distribution, we are thereby able to provide the first direct empirical measurement of k for an insect. The measured value of k = 1.12 corresponds reasonably well with that predicted by previous theoretical studies.

  1. Stability Analysis of Distributed Parameter Systems on Temperature Measurement of Large-scale Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenliang DING; Li ZHONG; Feng YUAN

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanical construction, thermal regulator design and temperature measurement system of a local area were set up for large-scale linear measurement. Numerical analysis based on temperature correlated characteristic is discussed to obtain optimal observation points for the measurements. The horizontal temperature distribution of the measured area is compared with the measurement of the variation of temperature at 15℃ and 20℃ over time, and characteristic of dynamic response is also discussed. In addition, the long-time stability of measured temperature is analyzed by means of using the standard deviation. It characterizes the temperature distribution performance of a large area and how it may impact the measurement of a large-scale object.

  2. Investigating and improving student understanding of the probability distributions for measuring physical observables in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-03-01

    A solid grasp of the probability distributions for measuring physical observables is central to connecting the quantum formalism to measurements. However, students often struggle with the probability distributions of measurement outcomes for an observable and have difficulty expressing this concept in different representations. Here we first describe the difficulties that upper-level undergraduate and PhD students have with the probability distributions for measuring physical observables in quantum mechanics. We then discuss how student difficulties found in written surveys and individual interviews were used as a guide in the development of a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) to help students develop a good grasp of the probability distributions of measurement outcomes for physical observables. The QuILT strives to help students become proficient in expressing the probability distributions for the measurement of physical observables in Dirac notation and in the position representation and be able to convert from Dirac notation to position representation and vice versa. We describe the development and evaluation of the QuILT and findings about the effectiveness of the QuILT from in-class evaluations.

  3. A practical divergence measure for survival distributions that can be estimated from Kaplan-Meier curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Trevor F; Czanner, Gabriela

    2016-06-30

    This paper introduces a new simple divergence measure between two survival distributions. For two groups of patients, the divergence measure between their associated survival distributions is based on the integral of the absolute difference in probabilities that a patient from one group dies at time t and a patient from the other group survives beyond time t and vice versa. In the case of non-crossing hazard functions, the divergence measure is closely linked to the Harrell concordance index, C, the Mann-Whitney test statistic and the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve. The measure can be used in a dynamic way where the divergence between two survival distributions from time zero up to time t is calculated enabling real-time monitoring of treatment differences. The divergence can be found for theoretical survival distributions or can be estimated non-parametrically from survival data using Kaplan-Meier estimates of the survivor functions. The estimator of the divergence is shown to be generally unbiased and approximately normally distributed. For the case of proportional hazards, the constituent parts of the divergence measure can be used to assess the proportional hazards assumption. The use of the divergence measure is illustrated on the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Air method measurements of apple vessel length distributions with improved apparatus and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtal Cohen; John Bennink; Mel Tyree

    2003-01-01

    Studies showing that rootstock dwarfing potential is related to plant hydraulic conductance led to the hypothesis that xylem properties are also related. Vessel length distribution and other properties of apple wood from a series of varieties were measured using the 'air method' in order to test this hypothesis. Apparatus was built to measure and monitor...

  5. Measuring-Basis Encrypted Quantum Key Distribution with Four-State Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Pan; LI Yan-Song; DENG Fu-Guo; LONG Gui-Lu

    2007-01-01

    A measuring-basis encrypted quantum key distribution scheme is proposed by using twelve nonorthogonal states in a four-state system and the measuring-basis encryption technique. In this scheme, two bits of classical information can be encoded on one four-state particle and the transmitted particles can be fully used.

  6. A simple algorithm for measuring particle size distributions on an uneven background from TEM images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontard, Lionel Cervera; Ozkaya, Dogan; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in science and technology. Their sizes are often measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or X-ray diffraction. Here, we describe a simple computer algorithm for measuring particle size distributions from TEM images in the presence of a...

  7. Measuring the Length Distribution of a Fibril System: a Flow Birefringence Technique applied to Amyloid Fibrils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, S.S.; Venema, P.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.; Donald, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Relaxation of flow birefringence can give a direct measure of the rotational diffusion of rodlike objects in solution. With a suitable model of the rotational diffusivity, a length distribution can be sought by fitting the decay curve. We have measured the flow birefringence decay from solutions of

  8. Temporal evolution of confined fast-ion velocity distributions measured by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik; Porte, L.

    2008-01-01

    of scattering locations and different resolved velocity components can be measured. The temporal resolution is 4 ms while the spatial resolution is similar to 10 cm depending on the scattering geometry. Fast-ion velocity distributions in a variety of scenarios are measured, including the evolution...

  9. Residence Time Distribution Measurement and Analysis of Pilot-Scale Pretreatment Reactors for Biofuels Production: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, D.; Kuhn, E.; Tucker, M.; Stickel, J.; Wolfrum, E.

    2013-06-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data is the focus of this study where data collection methods were developed specifically for the pretreatment reactor environment. Augmented physical sampling and automated online detection methods were developed and applied. Both the measurement techniques themselves and the produced RTD data are presented and discussed.

  10. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Deyang, E-mail: d.yu@impcas.ac.cn; Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Xin [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-11-15

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O{sup 3+} ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  11. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Deyang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking the advantages of high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two 128-channel Faraday cup arrays are built, and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O3+ ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  12. Particle Size Distributions Measured in the Stratospheric Plumes of Three Rockets During the ACCENT Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Brock, C. A.; Reeves, J. M.; Ross, M. N.; Schmid, O.; Toohey, D.; Wilson, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    The global impact of particles emitted by rocket engines on stratospheric ozone is not well understood, mainly due to the lack of comprehensive in situ measurements of the size distributions of these emitted particles. During the Atmospheric Chemistry of Combustion Emissions Near the Tropopause (ACCENT) missions in 1999, the NASA WB-57F aircraft carried the University of Denver N-MASS and FCAS instruments into the stratospheric plumes from three rockets. Size distributions of particles with diameters from 4 to approximately 2000 nm were calculated from the instrument measurements using numerical inversion techniques. The data have been averaged over 30-second intervals. The particle size distributions observed in all of the rocket plumes included a dominant mode near 60 nm diameter, probably composed of alumina particles. A smaller mode at approximately 25 nm, possibly composed of soot particles, was seen in only the plumes of rockets that used liquid oxygen and kerosene as a propellant. Aircraft exhaust emitted by the WB-57F was also sampled; the size distributions within these plumes are consistent with prior measurements in aircraft plumes. The size distributions for all rocket intercepts have been fitted to bimodal, lognormal distributions to provide input for global models of the stratosphere. Our data suggest that previous estimates of the solid rocket motor alumina size distributions may underestimate the alumina surface area emission index, and so underestimate the particle surface area available for heterogeneous chlorine activation reactions in the global stratosphere.

  13. Normalized entropy of rank distribution: a novel measure of heterogeneity of complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jun; Tan Yue-Jin; Deng Hong-Zhong; Zhu Da-Zhi

    2007-01-01

    Many unique properties of complex networks result from heterogeneity. The measure and analysis of heterogeneity are important and desirable to the research of the properties and functions of complex networks. In this paper, the rank distribution is proposed as a new statistic feature of complex networks. Based on the rank distribution, a novel measure of the heterogeneity called a normalized entropy of rank distribution (NERD) is proposed. The NERD accords with the normal meaning of heterogeneity within the context of complex networks compared with conventional measures. The heterogeneity of scale-free networks is studied using the NERD. It is shown that scale-free networks become more heterogeneous as the scaling exponent decreases and the NERD of scale-free networks is independent of the number of vertices, which indicates that the NERD is a suitable and effective measure of heterogeneity for networks with different sizes.

  14. Estimation of spatially distributed processes using mobile sensor networks with missing measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江正仙; 崔宝同

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the estimation problem for a spatially distributed process described by a partial differential equation with missing measurements. The randomly missing measurements are introduced in order to better reflect the reality in the sensor network. To improve the estimation performance for the spatially distributed process, the network of sensors which are allowed to move within the spatial domain is used. We aim to design the estimator which is used to approximate the distributed process and the mobile trajectories for sensors such that, for all possible missing measure-ments, the estimation error system is globally asymptotically stable in the mean square sense. By constructing Lyapunov functionals and using inequality analysis, the guidance scheme of every sensor and the convergence of the estimation error system are obtained. Finally, a numerical example is given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimator utilizing both the proposed guidance scheme for sensors.

  15. Comparison of aerosol volume size distributions between column and surface measurements downwind of Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. S.; Choi, Y.; Ghim, Y. S.

    2015-12-01

    The aerosol volume size distribution is one of the most important parameters in retrieving aerosol optical properties and studying radiative forcing. The column-integrated aerosol volume size distribution for AERONET was obtained from inversion product level 1.5 (22 bins between 0.1 and 30 μm in diameter) from the measurements of CIMEL sunphotometer (CE-318); that for SKYNET was obtained using skyrad.pack V5 (20 bins, 0.02-33 μm) from the measurements of PREDE skyradiometer (POM-02). The aerosol volume size distribution at the surface was measured using a wide range aerosol spectrometer system consisting of a scanning mobility particle scanner (Grimm, Model 5.419; 89 bins, 0.005-0.35 μm) and an optical particle counter (Grimm, Model 1.109; 31 bins, 0.27-34 μm). The measurement was conducted in Yongin, downwind of Seoul, Korea, from April 30 to June 27, 2015. The measurement site is located on the rooftop of a five-story building on the hill (37.34°N, 127.27°E, 167 m above sea level) in the global campus of Hankuk University of Foreign Studies. To investigate the discrepancy in effective diameter and fine mode volume fraction, we compared the volume size distributions when the measurement time coincided within 5 minutes because the measurement intervals were different between instruments.

  16. Reestruturação produtiva no setor bancário: a realidade dos anos 90 Productive Restructuring in bankins sector: the reality of the 1990's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M.G. Larangeira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é levantar questões relativas à reestruturação produtiva nos bancos e suas implicações sociais (emprego, qualificação, formação e treinamento, salário e ação sindical, no contexto dos anos 90. As observações e conclusões apresentadas resultam da análise de um estudo de caso que teve como objeto um banco estatal em vias de privatização, bem como da utilização de estatísticas gerais sobre o setor. Dentre as conclusões, caberia destacar que os ganhos para a força de trabalho, resultantes do processo em estudo, poderiam ser relativizados, já que os mesmos são acompanhados de efeitos negativos, como maior desgaste físico e mental da força de trabalho, além da ocorrência de altas taxas de desemprego. Nesse sentido, conclui-se que, a uma possível elevação da qualificação dos que permanecem no emprego, corresponderia uma degradação das condições de vida em termos mais gerais.The article aims to raise some issues related to the restructuring process in the banking sector and its social implications (employment, skills, training, wage and union's action, in the context of the 1990's. The observations and conclusions presented result from the analysis of a case-study in a Brazilian state bank preparing for privatization, as well as from the use of statistics concerning the sector as a whole. Among the conclusions, it is worth to mention that the gains obtained by the work-force in the process under study should be assessed vis-à-vis the negative effects as physical and mental stress for those who remain employed, as well as the occurrence of high rates of unemployment. The main conclusion, therefore, would be that the skills raising in employment would correspond to a degradation of living conditions in general.

  17. In-Situ Measurement of Internal Temperature Distribution of Sintered Materials Using Ultrasonic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, I.; Tomomatsu, T.

    2011-03-01

    It is often required to measure internal temperature distribution of a heated material because it is closely related to the materials properties and behavior. In this work, an effective ultrasonic method has been applied to the monitoring of internal temperature distributions of an alumina being heated. The principle of the method is based on the temperature dependence of the velocity of ultrasound propagating through a heated material. In the method, a combined technique of ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements and a finite difference calculation is employed to determine the one-dimensional temperature distribution in a heated material. Shear wave is used for the ultrasonic measurements to improve the accuracy in determining temperature. To verify the feasibility of the method, pulse-echo measurements with a shear wave transducer have been performed for an alumina rod of 14 mm diameter and 25 mm length whose single-end is being heated. The internal temperature distribution and its variation of the alumina are then measured during the heating. The temperature distributions determined by the ultrasonic method almost agree with those obtained by an infrared method. Thus, it is demonstrated that the ultrasonic method has the potential for in-process monitoring of the transient temperature variation of ceramics being processed at high temperatures.

  18. Measurement of Velocity Distribution in Atomic Beam by Diode Laser with Narrow Line width

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jingbiao; WANG Fengzhi; YANG Donghai; WANG YiQiu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, by using the detecting laser beam interacts with the atomic beam at a sharp angle and the Doppler frequency shift effect, the velocity distribution in cesium atomic beam is measured with a diode laser of narrow linewidth of 1 MHz. The effects of the atomic natural line width and cycling transition detecting factor on the measured results have been analyzed. Finally, the measured results have been compared with the theoretical calculation.

  19. Reconstruction of an effective magnon mean free path distribution from spin Seebeck measurements in thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Angel, E.; Zarate, R. A.; Fuentes, S.; Guo, E. J.; Kläui, M.; Jakob, G.

    2017-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the mean-free-path (MFP) distribution of the energy carriers is crucial to engineer and tune the transport properties of materials. In this context, a significant body of work has investigated the phonon and electron MFP distribution, however, similar studies of the magnon MFP distribution have not been carried out so far. In this work, we used thickness-dependence measurements of the longitudinal spin Seebeck (LSSE) effect of yttrium iron garnet films to reconstruct the cumulative distribution of a SSE related effective magnon MFP. By using the experimental data reported by (Guo et al 2016 Phys. Rev. X 6 031012), we adapted the phonon MFP reconstruction algorithm proposed by (Minnich 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 205901) and apply it to magnons. The reconstruction showed that magnons with different MFP contribute in different manner to the total LSSE and the effective magnon MFP distribution spreads far beyond their typical averaged values.

  20. [Measurement on gas temperature distribution by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Yan, Jian-hua; Wang, Fei; Chi, Yong; Cen, Ke-fa

    2008-08-01

    The technique of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) can be used for gas temperature distribution measurement by scanning multiple gas absorption lines with a tunable diode laser. The fundamental of gas temperature distribution measurement by TDLAS is introduced in the present paper, and the discretization strategy of equation for gas absorption is also given here. Using constrained linear least-square fitting method, the gas temperature distribution can be calculated with the help of physical constraints under the condition of uniform gas concentration and pressure. Based on the spectral parameters of four CO absorption lines near 6330 cm(-1) from HITRAN database, the model of two-temperature distribution at 300 and 600 K with each path length of 55 cm was set up. The effects of relative measurement error and different path length constraints of temperature bins on the gas temperature distribution measurement results were simulated by constrained linear least-square fitting. The results show that the temperature distribution calculation error increases as the relative measurement error rises. A measurement error of 5% could lead to a maximum relative error of 11%, and an average relative error of 2.2% for calculation result. And the weak physical constraints of path length for temperature bins could increase the calculation result error during the process of constrained linear least-square fitting. By setting up the model of two-temperature distribution with gas cells at room temperature as the cold section and in tube furnace as the hot section, the experiment of gas temperature distribution measurement in lab was carried out. Using four absorption lines of CO near 6330 cm(-1) scanned by VCSEL diode laser, and fitting the background laser intensity without absorption by the cubic polynomial to get the baseline signal, the integrals of spectral absorbance for gas temperature distribution measurement can be calculated. The relative calculation

  1. Measurements of charged-particle inclusive distributions in hadronic decays of the Z boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, G.S.; Adolphsen, C.E.; Averill, D.; Ballam, J.; Barish, B.C.; Barklow, T.; Barnett, B.A.; Bartelt, J.; Bethke, S.; Blockus, D.; Bonvicini, G.; Boyarski, A.; Brabson, B.; Breakstone, A.; Bulos, F.; Burchat, P.R.; Burke, D.L.; Cence, R.J.; Chapman, J.; Chmeissani, M.; Cords, D.; Coupal, D.P.; Dauncey, P.; DeStaebler, H.C.; Dorfan, D.E.; Dorfan, J.M.; Drewer, D.C.; Elia, R.; Feldman, G.J.; Fernandes, D.; Field, R.C.; Ford, W.T.; Fordham, C.; Frey, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Gero, E.; Gidal, G.; Glanzman, T.; Goldhaber, G.; Gomez Cadenas, J.J.; Gratta, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Hanson, G.; Harr, R.; Harral, B.; Harris, F.A.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hayes, K.; Hearty, C.; Heusch, C.A.; Hildreth, M.D.; Himel, T.; Hinshaw, D.A.; Hong, S.J.; Hutchinson, D.; Hylen, J.; Innes, W.R.; Jacobsen, R.G.; Jaros, J.A.; Jung, C.K.; Kadyk, J.A.; Kent, J.; King, M.; Klein, S.R.; Koetke, D.S.; Komamiya, S.; Koska, W.; Kowalski, L.A.; Kozanecki, W.; Kral, J.F.; Kuhlen, M.; Labarga, L.; Lankford

    1990-03-19

    We have measured inclusive distributions for charged particles in hadronic decays of the {ital Z} boson. The variables chosen for study were charged-particle multiplicity, scaled momentum, and momenta transverse to the sphericity axes. The distributions have been corrected for detector effects and are compared with data from {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} annihilation at lower energies and with the predictions of several QCD-based models. The data are in reasonable agreement with expectations.

  2. Non-invasively measured cardiac magnetic field maps improve the estimation of the current distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Kosch, Olaf; Steinhoff, Uwe; Trahms, Lutz; Trontelj, Zvonko; Jazbinšek, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive body surface potential mapping (BSPM) and magnetic field mapping (MFM) measurements have been carried out in order to improve the estimation of the current distribution generated by the human heart. Electric and magnetic fields and also the planar gradient of the magnetic field during the QRS complex were imaged as a time series of field maps. A model of the current distribution should explain the features of both BSPM and MFM. Simulated maps generated by a single dipole or a st...

  3. Scoping Study on Research and Development Priorities for Distribution-System Phasor Measurement Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stewart, Emma M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Travis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Buckner, Mark [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schoenwald, David A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report addresses the potential use of phasor measurement units (PMUs) within electricity distribution systems, and was written to assess whether or not PMUs could provide significant benefit, at the national level. We analyze examples of present and emerging distribution-system issues related to reliability, integration of distributed energy resources, and the changing electrical characteristics of load. We find that PMUs offer important and irreplaceable advantages over present approaches. However, we also find that additional research and development for standards, testing and calibration, demonstration projects, and information sharing is needed to help industry capture these benefits.

  4. Dynamic measurement of fluorescent proteins spectral distribution on virus infected cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja-Yun; Wu, Ming-Xiu; Kao, Chia-Yun; Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Hsu, I.-Jen

    2006-09-01

    We constructed a dynamic spectroscopy system that can simultaneously measure the intensity and spectral distributions of samples with multi-fluorophores in a single scan. The system was used to monitor the fluorescence distribution of cells infected by the virus, which is constructed by a recombinant baculoviruses, vAcD-Rhir-E, containing the red and green fluorescent protein gene that can simultaneously produce dual fluorescence in recombinant virus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda 21 cells (Sf21) under the control of a polyhedrin promoter. The system was composed of an excitation light source, a scanning system and a spectrometer. We also developed an algorithm and fitting process to analyze the pattern of fluorescence distribution of the dual fluorescence produced in the recombinant virus-infected cells. All the algorithm and calculation are automatically processed in a visualized scanning program and can monitor the specific region of sample by calculating its intensity distribution. The spectral measurement of each pixel was performed at millisecond range and the two dimensional distribution of full spectrum was recorded within several seconds. We have constructed a dynamic spectroscopy system to monitor the process of virus-infection of cells. The distributions of the dual fluorescence were simultaneously measured at micrometer resolution.

  5. Application of fiber optic distributed sensor for strain measurement in civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Toshio; Usu, Tomonori; Tanaka, Kuniaki; Nobiki, Atsushi; Sato, Masashi; Nakai, Kenji

    1997-11-01

    We report on civil engineering applications of a fiber optic distributed strain sensor. It consists of a sensing fiber and a high performance optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR), for measuring both strain and optical loss distribution along optical fibers by accessing only one end of the fiber. The OTDR can measure distributed strain with an accuracy of better than +/- 60 X 10-6 and a high spatial resolution of up to 1 m over a 10 km long fiber. In model experiments using the OTDR, we measured the strain changes in fibers attached to the surface of a concrete test beam. The performance of the fiber strain sensor was tested by measuring the strain distribution in optical fibers and comparing the results with resistance strain gage measurements for several loads. We found that the two sets of results were similar, and in addition, we demonstrated experimentally that the sensor was able to measure an induced strain change of less than 100 by 10-6, which is nearly the elastic limit of the concrete material. These results show the potential of the OTDR to extend the application of monitoring systems to such areas as large building diagnostics for civil engineering.

  6. Kinetic assessment of measured mass flow rates and streamwise pressure distributions in microchannel gas flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Fan; Chong Xie; Jianzheng Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Measured mass flow rates and streamwise pressure distributions of gas flowing through microchannels were reported by many researchers. Assessment of these data is crucial before they are used in the examination of slip models and numerical schemes, and in the design of microchannel elements in various MEMS devices. On the basis of kinetic solutions of the mass flow rates and pressure distributions in microchannel gas flows, the measured data available are properly normalized and then are compared with each other. The 69 normalized data of measured pressure distributions are in excellent agreement, and 67 of them are within 1 ± 0.05. The normalized data of mass flow-rates ranging between 0.95 and 1 agree well with each other as the inlet Knudsen number Kni > 0.02, but they scat ter between 0.85 and 1.15 as Kni < 0.02 with, to some extent, a very interesting bifurcation trend.

  7. Distributed sampling measurement method of network traffic in high-speed IPv6 networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Qiao; Pei Changxing

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of large-scale and high-speed IPv6 network technology, an effective multi-point traffic sampling is becoming a necessity. A distributed multi-point traffic sampling method that provides an accurate and efficient solution to measure IPv6 traffic is proposed. The proposed method is to sample IPv6 traffic based on the analysis of bit randomness of each byte in the packet header. It offers a way to consistently select the same subset of packets at each measurement point, which satisfies the requirement of the distributed multi-point measurement. Finally, using real IPv6 traffic traces, the conclusion that the sampled traffic data have a good uniformity that satisfies the requirement of sampling randomness and can correctly reflect the packet size distribution of full packet trace is proved.

  8. A uniform measurement expression for cross method comparison of nanoparticle aggregate size distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudkiewicz, Agnieszka; Wagner, Stephan; Lehner, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Available measurement methods for nanomaterials are based on very different measurement principles and hence produce different values when used on aggregated nanoparticle dispersions. This paper provides a solution for relating measurements of nanomaterials comprised of nanoparticle aggregates...... by increased retention of smaller nanomaterials (SEM). This study thereby presents a successful and conclusive cross-method comparison of size distribution measurements of aggregated nanomaterials. The authors recommend the uniform MED size expression for application in nanomaterial risk assessment studies...... determined by different techniques using a uniform expression of a mass equivalent diameter (MED). The obtained solution is used to transform into MED the size distributions of the same sample of synthetic amorphous silica (nanomaterial comprising aggregated nanoparticles) measured by six different...

  9. Measuring experimental cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients for the SAMPL5 challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustenburg, Ariën S.; Dancer, Justin; Lin, Baiwei; Feng, Jianwen A.; Ortwine, Daniel F.; Mobley, David L.; Chodera, John D.

    2016-11-01

    Small molecule distribution coefficients between immiscible nonaqueuous and aqueous phases—such as cyclohexane and water—measure the degree to which small molecules prefer one phase over another at a given pH. As distribution coefficients capture both thermodynamic effects (the free energy of transfer between phases) and chemical effects (protonation state and tautomer effects in aqueous solution), they provide an exacting test of the thermodynamic and chemical accuracy of physical models without the long correlation times inherent to the prediction of more complex properties of relevance to drug discovery, such as protein-ligand binding affinities. For the SAMPL5 challenge, we carried out a blind prediction exercise in which participants were tasked with the prediction of distribution coefficients to assess its potential as a new route for the evaluation and systematic improvement of predictive physical models. These measurements are typically performed for octanol-water, but we opted to utilize cyclohexane for the nonpolar phase. Cyclohexane was suggested to avoid issues with the high water content and persistent heterogeneous structure of water-saturated octanol phases, since it has greatly reduced water content and a homogeneous liquid structure. Using a modified shake-flask LC-MS/MS protocol, we collected cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients for a set of 53 druglike compounds at pH 7.4. These measurements were used as the basis for the SAMPL5 Distribution Coefficient Challenge, where 18 research groups predicted these measurements before the experimental values reported here were released. In this work, we describe the experimental protocol we utilized for measurement of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients, report the measured data, propose a new bootstrap-based data analysis procedure to incorporate multiple sources of experimental error, and provide insights to help guide future iterations of this valuable exercise in predictive modeling.

  10. Measurements and predictions of the air distribution systems in high compute density (Internet) data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jinkyun [HIMEC (Hanil Mechanical Electrical Consultants) Ltd., Seoul 150-103 (Korea); Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); Lim, Taesub; Kim, Byungseon Sean [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)

    2009-10-15

    When equipment power density increases, a critical goal of a data center cooling system is to separate the equipment exhaust air from the equipment intake air in order to prevent the IT server from overheating. Cooling systems for data centers are primarily differentiated according to the way they distribute air. The six combinations of flooded and locally ducted air distribution make up the vast majority of all installations, except fully ducted air distribution methods. Once the air distribution system (ADS) is selected, there are other elements that must be integrated into the system design. In this research, the design parameters and IT environmental aspects of the cooling system were studied with a high heat density data center. CFD simulation analysis was carried out in order to compare the heat removal efficiencies of various air distribution systems. The IT environment of an actual operating data center is measured to validate a model for predicting the effect of different air distribution systems. A method for planning and design of the appropriate air distribution system is described. IT professionals versed in precision air distribution mechanisms, components, and configurations can work more effectively with mechanical engineers to ensure the specification and design of optimized cooling solutions. (author)

  11. A Study of Transmission Control Method for Distributed Parameters Measurement in Large Factories and Storehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the characteristics of parameters dispersion in large factories, storehouses, and other applications, a distributed parameter measurement system is designed that is based on the ring network. The structure of the system and the circuit design of the master-slave node are described briefly. The basic protocol architecture about transmission communication is introduced, and then this paper comes up with two kinds of distributed transmission control methods. Finally, the reliability, extendibility, and control characteristic of these two methods are tested through a series of experiments. Moreover, the measurement results are compared and discussed.

  12. Two-Nucleon Momentum Distributions Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    CERN Document Server

    Niyazov, R A; Weinstein, L B; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Barrow, S; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, Barry L; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cetina, C; Chen, S; Ciciani, L; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D C; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Eckhause, M; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girard, P; Gordon, C I O; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M R; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kelley, J H; Khandaker, M; Kim, D H; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, M S; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuang, Y; Kuhn, S E; Kühn, J; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Ji Li; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Muccifora, V; Müller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Nelson, S O; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Park, K; Pasyuk, E A; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O I; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatie, F; Sabourov, K; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Sargsyan, M; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabyan, Yu G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A V; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zhang, B

    2004-01-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2 GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for `fast' nucleons (p > 250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less, and the third nucleon has most of the transferred energy. These fast pp and pn pairs are back-to-back with little momentum along the three-momentum transfer, indicating that they are spectators. Experimental and theoretical evidence indicates that we have measured distorted two-nucleon momentum distributions by striking the third nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair.

  13. Density distribution of {sup 14}Be from reaction cross-section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriguchi, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Ozawa, A., E-mail: ozawa@tac.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Ishimoto, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Abe, Y. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Fukuda, M. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Hachiuma, I. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Ishibashi, Y.; Ito, Y. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Kuboki, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Lantz, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nagae, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Namihira, K. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Nishimura, D. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ohtsubo, T. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ooishi, H. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Suda, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Suzuki, H. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Takechi, M.; Tanaka, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2014-09-15

    We measured the reaction cross sections of the two-neutron halo nucleus {sup 14}Be with proton and carbon targets at about 41 and 76 MeV/nucleon. Based on a Glauber model calculation, we deduced the matter density distribution of {sup 14}Be in which previously measured interaction cross sections at relativistic energies were also included. An s-wave dominance in {sup 14}Be has been confirmed, although the halo tail of {sup 14}Be is not distributed as much as that of {sup 11}Li. Significant mixing of the p-wave in addition to the s- and d-wave is also suggested.

  14. Estimation for Stochastic Nonlinear Systems with Randomly Distributed Time-Varying Delays and Missing Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Che

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation problem is investigated for a class of stochastic nonlinear systems with distributed time-varying delays and missing measurements. The considered distributed time-varying delays, stochastic nonlinearities, and missing measurements are modeled in random ways governed by Bernoulli stochastic variables. The discussed nonlinearities are expressed by the statistical means. By using the linear matrix inequality method, a sufficient condition is established to guarantee the mean-square stability of the estimation error, and then the estimator parameters are characterized by the solution to a set of LMIs. Finally, a simulation example is exploited to show the effectiveness of the proposed design procedures.

  15. Two-Nucleon Momentum Distributions Measured in 3He(e,e'pp)n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyazov, R. A.; Weinstein, L. B.; Adams, G.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Ball, J. P.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bellis, M.; Benmouna, N.; Berman, B. L.; Bertozzi, W.; Bianchi, N.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonner, B. E.; Bouchigny, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Butuceanu, C.; Calarco, J. R.; Carman, D. S.; Carnahan, B.; Cetina, C.; Chen, S.; Ciciani, L.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cummings, J. P.; de Sanctis, E.; Dashyan, N.; Devita, R.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dhuga, K. S.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Dzyubak, O. P.; Eckhause, M.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Empl, A.; Eugenio, P.; Fatemi, R.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Ficenec, J.; Forest, T. A.; Funsten, H.; Gavalian, G.; Gilad, S.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girard, P.; Gordon, C. I.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hakobyan, R. S.; Hardie, J.; Heddle, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hu, J.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ingram, W.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Juengst, H. G.; Kelley, J. H.; Kellie, J.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, M. S.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klimenko, A. V.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kuang, Y.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuhn, J.; Lachniet, J.; Laget, J. M.; Langheinrich, J.; Lawrence, D.; Li, Ji; Livingston, K.; Lukashin, K.; Manak, J. J.; Marchand, C.; McAleer, S.; McLauchlan, S.; McNabb, J. W.; Mecking, B. A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Melone, J. J.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mikhailov, K.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Morand, L.; Morrow, S. A.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Mutchler, G. S.; Napolitano, J.; Nasseripour, R.; Nelson, S. O.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Nozar, M.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Osipenko, M.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peterson, G.; Philips, S. A.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Polli, E.; Pozdniakov, S.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Rowntree, D.; Rubin, P. D.; Sabatié, F.; Sabourov, K.; Salgado, C.; Santoro, J. P.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Shafi, A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Shaw, J.; Simionatto, S.; Skabelin, A. V.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, L. C.; Sober, D. I.; Spraker, M.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Todor, L.; Tur, C.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Wang, K.; Weller, H.; Weygand, D. P.; Whisnant, C. S.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yun, J.; Zhang, B.

    2004-02-01

    We have measured the 3He(e,e'pp)n reaction at 2.2GeV over a wide kinematic range. The kinetic energy distribution for “fast” nucleons (p>250 MeV/c) peaks where two nucleons each have 20% or less, and the third nucleon has most of the transferred energy. These fast pp and pn pairs are back to back with little momentum along the three-momentum transfer, indicating that they are spectators. Calculations by Sargsian and by Laget also indicate that we have measured distorted two-nucleon momentum distributions by striking one nucleon and detecting the spectator correlated pair.

  16. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netrakanti, P. K.; Luo, X. F.; Mishra, D. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.; Xu, N.

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5% central Au + Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to an assumption that the proton and anti-proton distributions follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data for the center of mass energies (√{sNN}) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from most of the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies point to the need of either more detailed baseline models for the experimental measurements or a description via QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

  17. Measurement of angular distribution of cosmic-ray muon fluence rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jeng-Wei [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, Natioanl Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Fu [Department of Engineering and System Science, Natioanl Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Rong-Jiun [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Shiang-Huei, E-mail: Shjiang@mx.nthu.edu.t [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, Natioanl Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering and System Science, Natioanl Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-21

    In this work a Berkeley Lab cosmic ray detector was used to measure the angular distribution of the cosmic-ray muon fluence rate. Angular response functions of the detector at each measurement orientation were calculated by using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code, where no energy attenuation was taken into account. Coincidence counting rates were measured at ten orientations with equiangular intervals. The muon angular fluence rate spectrum was unfolded from the measured counting rates associated with the angular response functions using both the MAXED code and the parameter adjusting method.

  18. Bayesian joint modeling of longitudinal measurements and time-to-event data using robust distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghfalaki, T; Ganjali, M; Hashemi, R

    2014-01-01

    Distributional assumptions of most of the existing methods for joint modeling of longitudinal measurements and time-to-event data cannot allow incorporation of outlier robustness. In this article, we develop and implement a joint modeling of longitudinal and time-to-event data using some powerful distributions for robust analyzing that are known as normal/independent distributions. These distributions include univariate and multivariate versions of the Student's t, the slash, and the contaminated normal distributions. The proposed model implements a linear mixed effects model under a normal/independent distribution assumption for both random effects and residuals of the longitudinal process. For the time-to-event process a parametric proportional hazard model with a Weibull baseline hazard is used. Also, a Bayesian approach using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method is adopted for parameter estimation. Some simulation studies are performed to investigate the performance of the proposed method under presence and absence of outliers. Also, the proposed methods are applied for analyzing a real AIDS clinical trial, with the aim of comparing the efficiency and safety of two antiretroviral drugs, where CD4 count measurements are gathered as longitudinal outcomes. In these data, time to death or dropout is considered as the interesting time-to-event outcome variable. Different model structures are developed for analyzing these data sets, where model selection is performed by the deviance information criterion (DIC), expected Akaike information criterion (EAIC), and expected Bayesian information criterion (EBIC).

  19. Distributed measurement of mode coupling in birefringent fibers with random polarization modes

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Jing, Wencai; Zhang, Hongxia; Jia, Dagong; Zhang, Xuemin; Zhou, Ge; Zhang, Yimo

    2016-01-01

    A scanning white light interferometer is developed to measure the distributed polarization coupling (DPC) in high birefringence polarization maintaining fibers (PMFs). Traditionally, this technique requests only one polarization mode to be excited or both polarization modes to be excited with equal intensity in the PMF. Thus, an accurate alignment of the polarization direction with the principal axis in PMF is strictly required, which is not facilely realized in practical measurement. This paper develops a method to measure the spatial distribution of polarization mode coupling with random modes excited using a white light Michelson interferometer. The influence of incident polarization extinction ratio (PER) on polarization coupling detection is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. It is also analyzed and validated in corresponding measurement that the sensitivity of the polarization coupling detection system can be improved more than 100 times with the rotation of the analyzer.

  20. Carrier Mediated Distribution System (CAMDIS): a new approach for the measurement of octanol/water distribution coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bjoern; Fischer, Holger; Kansy, Manfred; Seelig, Anna; Assmus, Frauke

    2015-02-20

    Here we present a miniaturized assay, referred to as Carrier-Mediated Distribution System (CAMDIS) for fast and reliable measurement of octanol/water distribution coefficients, log D(oct). By introducing a filter support for octanol, phase separation from water is facilitated and the tendency of emulsion formation (emulsification) at the interface is reduced. A guideline for the best practice of CAMDIS is given, describing a strategy to manage drug adsorption at the filter-supported octanol/buffer interface. We validated the assay on a set of 52 structurally diverse drugs with known shake flask log D(oct) values. Excellent agreement with literature data (r(2) = 0.996, standard error of estimate, SEE = 0.111), high reproducibility (standard deviation, SD stock solution) and a broad analytical range (log D(oct) range = -0.5 to 4.2) make CAMDIS a valuable tool for the high-throughput assessment of log D(oc)t. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigating the reliability of coronal emission measure distribution diagnostics using 3D radiative MHD simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Paola; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph onboard Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using 3D radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models, and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the "true" distributions from the model we assess the limitations of the diagnostics, as a function of the plasma parameters and of the signal-to-noise of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with signif...

  2. Automated Anomaly Detection in Distribution Grids Using $\\mu$PMU Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Jamei, Mahdi; Roberts, Ciaran; Stewart, Emma; Peisert, Sean; McParland, Chuck; McEachern, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The impact of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) for providing situational awareness to transmission system operators has been widely documented. Micro-PMUs ($\\mu$PMUs) are an emerging sensing technology that can provide similar benefits to Distribution System Operators (DSOs), enabling a level of visibility into the distribution grid that was previously unattainable. In order to support the deployment of these high resolution sensors, the automation of data analysis and prioritizing communication to the DSO becomes crucial. In this paper, we explore the use of $\\mu$PMUs to detect anomalies on the distribution grid. Our methodology is motivated by growing concern about failures and attacks to distribution automation equipment. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated through both real and simulated data.

  3. Precision measurement of transverse velocity distribution of a strontium atomic beam

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, F.; H. Liu; Xu, P.; X. Tian; Y. Wang; Ren, J; Haibin Wu; Hong Chang

    2014-01-01

    We measure the transverse velocity distribution in a thermal Sr atomic beam precisely by velocity-selective saturated fluorescence spectroscopy. The use of an ultrastable laser system and the narrow intercombination transition line of Sr atoms mean that the resolution of the measured velocity can reach 0.13 m/s, corresponding to 90$\\mu K$ in energy units. The experimental results are in very good agreement with the results of theoretical calculations. Based on the spectroscopic techniques use...

  4. Researches on the measurement of distribution image of radiated noise using focused beamforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI Juan; HU Dan; HUI Junying; YIN Jingwei

    2008-01-01

    A method using focused beamforming to measure the distribution image (under-water image) of submarine and surface ship's noise sources is presented. Level linear array can measure the target image on water level, but the multi-path interference of underwater acoustic channel may affect the quality of it. Virtual time reversal mirror and virtual array can both solve the problem very well; they make the image with high resolution.

  5. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R; Cappelli, Mark A; Rieker, Gregory B

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  6. Velocity Distribution Measurement Using Pixel-Pixel Cross Correlation of Electrical Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGXiang; PENGLihui; YAODanya; ZHANGBaofen

    2004-01-01

    Electrical tomography (ET) provides a novel means of visualizing the internal behavior of twophase flow in industrial process. Using a dual-sensingplane Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) or Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system, the raw data of two different section images can be acquired synchronously and the two images reflecting the inner medium distribution respectively can also be reconstructed by using imaging algorithm. Further, the analysis of pixel-pixel cross correlation is able to be setup and the measurement of velocity distribution of two-phase flow could be achieved. The principle is described in the paper. The FFT algorithm for gray value computation and cross correlation function calculation is also introduced. Some experimental results of velocity distribution measurement using pixelpixel cross correlation in vertical slug flow are presented.

  7. Distributed tracking control of leader-follower multi-agent systems under noisy measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Jiangping; 10.1016/j.automatica.2010.05.020

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a distributed tracking control scheme with distributed estimators has been developed for a leader-follower multi-agent system with measurement noises and directed interconnection topology. It is supposed that each follower can only measure relative positions of its neighbors in a noisy environment, including the relative position of the second-order active leader. A neighbor-based tracking protocol together with distributed estimators is designed based on a novel velocity decomposition technique. It is shown that the closed loop tracking control system is stochastically stable in mean square and the estimation errors converge to zero in mean square as well. A simulation example is finally given to illustrate the performance of the proposed control scheme.

  8. Mixture distribution measurement using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in hydrogen direct injection stratified charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shudo, Toshio [Applied Energy System Group, Division of Energy and Environmental Systems, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ward, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Oba, Shuji [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima 730-8670 (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    Reduction in cooling loss due to the heat transfer from burning gas to the combustion chamber wall is very important for improving the thermal efficiency in hydrogen engines. The previous research has shown that the direct injection stratified charge can be a technique to reduce the cooling loss and improve thermal efficiency in hydrogen combustion. For effective reductions in cooling loss by the stratified charge, it is very important to know the relation between the fuel injection conditions and mixture distribution. The current research employs the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy as a method to measure the hydrogen concentration distribution in the direct injection stratified charge. Measurement of instantaneous local equivalence ratio by the method clears the characteristics of mixture formation in hydrogen direct injection stratified charge. This research also tries to actively control the mixture distribution using a split fuel injection. (author)

  9. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  10. Nonideal Quantum Measurement Effects on the Switching Currents Distribution of Josephson Junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Pierro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The quantum character of Josephson junctions is ordinarily revealed through the analysis of the switching currents, i.e. the current at which a finite voltage appears: A sharp rise of the voltage signals the passage (tunnel) from a trapped state (the zero voltage solution) to a running state (the finite voltage solution). In this context, we investigate the probability distribution of the Josephson junctions switching current taking into account the effect of the bias sweeping rate and introducing a simple nonideal quantum measurements scheme. The measurements are modelled as repeated voltage samplings at discrete time intervals, that is with repeated projections of the time dependent quantum solutions on the static or the running states, to retrieve the probability distribution of the switching currents. The distribution appears to be immune of the quantum Zeno effect, and it is close to, but distinguishable from, the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. For energy barriers comparable to the quantum fund...

  11. Measurements of solar flux density distribution on a plane receiver due to a flat heliostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.M.; Fathalah, K.A.; Al-Rabghi, O.M. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-06-01

    An experimental facility is designed and manufactured to measure the solar flux density distribution on a central flat receiver due to a single flat heliostat. The tracking mechanism of the heliostat is controlled by two stepping motors, one for tilt angle control and the other for azimuth angle control. A x-y traversing mechanism is also designed and mounted on a vertical central receiver plane, where the solar flux density is to be measured. A miniature solar sensor is mounted on the platform of the traversing mechanism, where it is used to measure the solar flux density distribution on the receiver surface. The sensor is connected to a data acquisition card in a host computer. The two stepping motors of the heliostat tracking mechanism and the two stepping motors of the traversing mechanism are all connected to a controller card in the same host computer. A software `TOWER` is prepared to let the heliostat track the sun, move the platform of the traversing mechanism to the points of a preselected grid, and to measure the solar flux density distribution on the receiver plane. Measurements are carried out using rectangular flat mirrors of different dimensions at several distances from the central receiver. Two types of images were identified on the receiver plane - namely, apparent (or visible) and mirror-reflected radiation images. Comparison between measurements and a mathematical model validates the mathematical model. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Measurements of the electron dose distribution near inhomogeneities using a plastic scintillation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C.M.M.; Mackie, T.R.; Podgorsak, M.B.; Holmes, M.A.; Papanikolaou, N.; Reckwerdt, P.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cygler, J. [Ottawa Regional Cancer Center, Ontario (Canada); Rogers, D.W.O.; Bielajew, A.F. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Schmidt, D.G. [Radiation Measurements, Inc., Middleton, WI (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-30

    Accurate measurement of the electron dose distribution near an inhomogeneity is difficult with traditional dosimeters which themselves perturb the electron field. The authors tested the performance of a new high resolution, water-equivalent plastic scintillation detector which has ideal properties for this application. A plastic scintillation detector with a 1 mm diameter, 3 mm long cylindrical sensitive volume was used to measure the dose distributions behind standard benchmark inhomogeneities in water phantoms. The plastic scintillator material is more water equivalent than polystyrene in terms of its mass collision stopping power and mass scattering power. Measurements were performed for beams of electrons having initial energies of 6 and 18 MeV at depths from 0.2-4.2 cm behind the inhomogeneities. The detector reveals hot and cold spots behind heterogeneities at resolutions equivalent to typical film digitizer spot sizes. Plots of the dose distributions behind air, aluminum, lead, and formulations for cortical and inner bone-equivalent materials are presented. The plastic scintillation detector is suited for measuring the electron dose distribution near an inhomogeneity. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Calibration of a distributed hydrology and land surface model using energy flux measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Jensen, Karsten H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we develop and test a calibration approach on a spatially distributed groundwater-surface water catchment model (MIKE SHE) coupled to a land surface model component with particular focus on the water and energy fluxes. The model is calibrated against time series of eddy flux measure...

  14. Measurement of J/psi helicity distributions in inelastic photoproduction at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H. -P.; Juengst, M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Samson, U.; Schoenberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Kamaluddin, B.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Olkiewicz, K.; Pawlik, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Lukasik, J.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Geiser, A.; Goettlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Huettmann, A.; Januschek, F.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I. I.; Klein, U.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loehr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Montanari, A.; Namsoo, T.; Notz, D.; Parenti, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Tomaszewska, J.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Yaguees-Molina, A. G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Drugakov, V.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Forrest, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Papageorgiu, K.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Perrey, H.; Schleper, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Stadie, H.; Turcato, M.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Aushev, V.; Bachynska, O.; Borodin, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kuprash, O.; Libov, V.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Sorokin, Iu.; Verbytskyi, A.; Volynets, O.; Zolko, M.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Terron, J.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Corriveau, F.; Schwartz, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W. B.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Kooijman, P.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vazquez, M.; Bruemmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Ferrando, J.; Foster, B.; Gwenlan, C.; Horton, K.; Oliver, K.; Robertson, A.; Walczak, R.; Bertolin, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Stern, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Kanno, T.; Kuze, M.; Maeda, J.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Stewart, T. P.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; Luzniak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Perlanski, W.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Brownson, E.; Reeder, D. D.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Hartner, G.; Noor, U.; Whyte, J.

    2009-01-01

    The J/psi decay angular distributions have been measured in inelastic photoproduction in ep collisions with the ZEUS detector at HERA, using an integrated luminosity of 468 pb(-1). The range in photon-proton centre-of-mass energy, W, was 50

  15. H-Distributions: An Extension of H-Measures to an Lp-Lq Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Antonić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the continuity of Fourier multiplier operators on Lp to introduce the H-distributions—an extension of H-measures in the Lp framework. We apply the H-distributions to obtain an Lp version of the localisation principle and reprove the Murat Lp-Lp′ variant of div-curl lemma.

  16. Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volten, H.; De Haan, J.; Hovenier, J.W.; Schreurs, R.; Vassen, W.; Dekker, A.G.; Hoogenboom, H.J.; Charlton, F.; Wouts, R.

    1998-01-01

    We present laboratory measurements of scattering properties of 15 different types of coastal and inland water phytoplankton species and two types of estuarine sediments. These properties are the scattering function as well as the angular distribution of a ratio of scattering matrix elements, which

  17. Tomography of fast-ion velocity-space distributions from synthetic CTS and FIDA measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh;

    2012-01-01

    We compute tomographies of 2D fast-ion velocity distribution functions from synthetic collective Thomson scattering (CTS) and fast-ion D (FIDA) 1D measurements using a new reconstruction prescription. Contradicting conventional wisdom we demonstrate that one single 1D CTS or FIDA view suffices to...

  18. Ion energy distribution measurements in rf and pulsed dc plasma discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahan, D.; Hayden, C.; Scullin, P.; O'Sullivan, D.; Pei, Y. T.; Hopkins, M. B.; O’Sullivan, D.; Daniels, S.

    2012-01-01

    A commercial retarding field analyzer is used to measure the time-averaged ion energy distributions of impacting ions at the powered electrode in a 13.56 MHz driven, capacitively coupled, parallel plate discharge operated at low pressure. The study is carried out in argon discharges at 10 mTorr wher

  19. Methods to determine fast-ion distribution functions from multi-diagnostic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko

    Understanding the behaviour of fast ions in a fusion plasma is very important, since the fusion-born alpha particles are expected to be the main source of heating in a fusion power plant. Preferably, the entire fast-ion velocity-space distribution function would be measured. However, no fast...

  20. Holographic Measurements of Electron-Beam Dose Distributions Around Inhomogeneities in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Dose distribution measurements made in a small quartz cell filled with water, and with an Al rod placed in the water are reported. The cell was irradiated vertically from above with monoenergetic 3 MeV electrons from a Van de Graaff accelerator. The holographic interferometric method previously...

  1. Empirical Bayes Test for the Parameter of Rayleigh Distribution with Error of Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG JUAN

    2011-01-01

    For the data with error of measurement in historical samples,the empirical Bayes test rule for the parameter of Rayleigh distribution is constructed,and the asymptotically optimal property is obtained.It is shown that the convergence rate of the proposed EB test rule can be arbitrarily close to O(n-1/2) under suitable conditions.

  2. Field measurements give biased estimates of functional response parameters, but help explain foraging distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Knot, I.E.; Piersma, T.; van Gils, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    1.Mechanistic insights and predictive understanding of the spatial distributions of foragers are typically derived by fitting either field measurements on intake rates and food abundance, or observations from controlled experiments, to functional response models. It has remained unclear, however, wh

  3. Soil temperature variability in complex terrain measured using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil temperature (Ts) exerts critical controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes but magnitude and nature of Ts variability in a landscape setting are rarely documented. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing systems (FO-DTS) potentially measure Ts at high density over a large extent. ...

  4. Measurement of the ambient organic aerosol volatility distribution: application during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment (FAME-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Lee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A variable residence time thermodenuder (TD was combined with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS to measure the volatility distribution of aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May of 2008 (FAME-2008. A new method for the quantification of the organic aerosol volatility distribution was developed combining measurements of all three instruments together with an aerosol dynamics model.

    Challenges in the interpretation of ambient thermodenuder-AMS measurements include the potential resistances to mass transfer during particle evaporation, the effects of particle size on the evaporated mass fraction, the changes in the AMS collection efficiency and particle density as the particles evaporate partially in the TD, and finally potential losses inside the TD. Our proposed measurement and data analysis method accounts for all of these problems combining the AMS and SMPS measurements.

    The AMS collection efficiency of the aerosol that passed through the TD was found to be approximately 10% lower than the collection efficiency of the aerosol that passed through the bypass. The organic aerosol measured at Finokalia is approximately 2 or more orders of magnitude less volatile than fresh laboratory-generated monoterpene (α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene under low NOx conditions secondary organic aerosol. This low volatility is consistent with its highly oxygenated AMS mass spectrum. The results are found to be highly sensitive to the mass accommodation coefficient of the evaporating species. This analysis is based on the assumption that there were no significant reactions taking place inside the thermodenuder.

  5. Current density distribution mapping in PEM fuel cells as an instrument for operational measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geske, M.; Heuer, M.; Heideck, G.; Styczynski, Z. A. [Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Chair Electric Power Networks and Renewable Energy Sources, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A newly developed measurement system for current density distribution mapping has enabled a new approach for operational measurements in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Taking into account previously constructed measurement systems, a method based on a multi layer printed circuit board was chosen for the development of the new system. This type of system consists of a sensor, a special electronic device and the control and visualization PC. For the acquisition of the current density distribution values, a sensor device was designed and installed within a multilayer printed circuit board with integrated shunt resistors. Varying shunt values can be taken into consideration with a newly developed and evaluated calibration method. The sensor device was integrated in a PEM fuel cell stack to prove the functionality of the whole measurement system. A software application was implemented to visualize and save the measurement values. Its functionality was verified by operational measurements within a PEMFC system. Measurement accuracy and possible negative reactions of the sensor device during PEMFC operation are discussed in detail in this paper. The developed system enables operational measurements for different operating phases of PEM fuel cells. Additionally, this can be seen as a basis for new opportunities of optimization for fuel cell design and operation modes. (author)

  6. Micro/Nano-scale Strain Distribution Measurement from Sampling Moiré Fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Ri, Shien; Tsuda, Hiroshi

    2017-05-23

    This work describes the measurement procedure and principles of a sampling moiré technique for full-field micro/nano-scale deformation measurements. The developed technique can be performed in two ways: using the reconstructed multiplication moiré method or the spatial phase-shifting sampling moiré method. When the specimen grid pitch is around 2 pixels, 2-pixel sampling moiré fringes are generated to reconstruct a multiplication moiré pattern for a deformation measurement. Both the displacement and strain sensitivities are twice as high as in the traditional scanning moiré method in the same wide field of view. When the specimen grid pitch is around or greater than 3 pixels, multi-pixel sampling moiré fringes are generated, and a spatial phase-shifting technique is combined for a full-field deformation measurement. The strain measurement accuracy is significantly improved, and automatic batch measurement is easily achievable. Both methods can measure the two-dimensional (2D) strain distributions from a single-shot grid image without rotating the specimen or scanning lines, as in traditional moiré techniques. As examples, the 2D displacement and strain distributions, including the shear strains of two carbon fiber-reinforced plastic specimens, were measured in three-point bending tests. The proposed technique is expected to play an important role in the non-destructive quantitative evaluations of mechanical properties, crack occurrences, and residual stresses of a variety of materials.

  7. Current Density Distribution Mapping in PEM Fuel Cells as An Instrument for Operational Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Geske

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed measurement system for current density distribution mapping has enabled a new approach for operational measurements in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC. Taking into account previously constructed measurement systems, a method based on a multi layer printed circuit board was chosen for the development of the new system. This type of system consists of a sensor, a special electronic device and the control and visualization PC. For the acquisition of the current density distribution values, a sensor device was designed and installed within a multilayer printed circuit board with integrated shunt resistors. Varying shunt values can be taken into consideration with a newly developed and evaluated calibration method. The sensor device was integrated in a PEM fuel cell stack to prove the functionality of the whole measurement system. A software application was implemented to visualize and save the measurement values. Its functionality was verified by operational measurements within a PEMFC system. Measurement accuracy and possible negative reactions of the sensor device during PEMFC operation are discussed in detail in this paper. The developed system enables operational measurements for different operating phases of PEM fuel cells. Additionally, this can be seen as a basis for new opportunities of optimization for fuel cell design and operation modes.

  8. Alfvénic oscillations of the electron distribution function: Linear theory and experimental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J. W. R., E-mail: james-schroeder@uiowa.edu; Skiff, F.; Howes, G. G.; Kletzing, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Carter, T. A.; Dorfman, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Wave propagation can be an accurate method for determining material properties. High frequency whistler mode waves (0.7 < ω/|Ω{sub ce}| < 1) in an overdense plasma (ω{sub pe} > |Ω{sub ce}|) are damped primarily by Doppler-shifted electron cyclotron resonance. A kinetic description of whistler mode propagation parallel to the background magnetic field shows that damping is proportional to the parallel electron distribution function. This property enables an experimental determination of the parallel electron distribution function using a measurement of whistler mode wave absorption. The whistler mode wave absorption diagnostic uses this technique on UCLA’s Large Plasma Device (LaPD) to measure the distribution of high energy electrons (5 − 10v{sub te}) with 0.1% precision. The accuracy is limited by systematic effects that need to be considered carefully. Ongoing research uses this diagnostic to investigate the effect of inertial Alfvén waves on the electron distribution function. Results presented here verify experimentally the linear effects of inertial Alfvén waves on the reduced electron distribution function, a necessary step before nonlinear physics can be tested. Ongoing experiments with the whistler mode wave absorption diagnostic are making progress toward the first direct detection of electrons nonlinearly accelerated by inertial Alfvén waves, a process believed to play an important role in auroral generation.

  9. Measurements of charge distributions of the fragments in the low energy fission reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taofeng; Han, Hongyin; Meng, Qinghua; Wang, Liming; Zhu, Liping; Xia, Haihong

    2013-01-01

    The measurement for charge distributions of fragments in spontaneous fission 252Cf has been performed by using a unique style of detector setup consisting of a typical grid ionization chamber and a ΔΕ-Ε particle telescope, in which a thin grid ionization chamber served as the ΔΕ-section and the E-section was an Au-Si surface barrier detector. The typical physical quantities of fragments, such as mass number and kinetic energies as well as the deposition in the gas ΔΕ detector and E detector were derived from the coincident measurement data. The charge distributions of the light fragments for the fixed mass number A2* and total kinetic energy (TKE) were obtained by the least-squares fits for the response functions of the ΔΕ detector with multi-Gaussian functions representing the different elements. The results of the charge distributions for some typical fragments are shown in this article which indicates that this detection setup has the charge distribution capability of Ζ:ΔΖ>40:1. The experimental method developed in this work for determining the charge distributions of fragments is expected to be employed in the neutron induced fissions of 232Th and 238U or other low energy fission reactions.

  10. On the feasibility of measuring urban air pollution by wireless distributed sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltchanov, Sharon; Levy, Ilan; Etzion, Yael; Lerner, Uri; Broday, David M; Fishbain, Barak

    2015-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of air pollution on human-wellbeing requires high-resolution measurements. Standard air quality monitoring stations provide accurate pollution levels but due to their sparse distribution they cannot capture the highly resolved spatial variations within cities. Similarly, dedicated field campaigns can use tens of measurement devices and obtain highly dense spatial coverage but normally deployment has been limited to short periods of no more than few weeks. Nowadays, advances in communication and sensory technologies enable the deployment of dense grids of wireless distributed air monitoring nodes, yet their sensor ability to capture the spatiotemporal pollutant variability at the sub-neighborhood scale has never been thoroughly tested. This study reports ambient measurements of gaseous air pollutants by a network of six wireless multi-sensor miniature nodes that have been deployed in three urban sites, about 150 m apart. We demonstrate the network's capability to capture spatiotemporal concentration variations at an exceptional fine resolution but highlight the need for a frequent in-situ calibration to maintain the consistency of some sensors. Accordingly, a procedure for a field calibration is proposed and shown to improve the system's performance. Overall, our results support the compatibility of wireless distributed sensor networks for measuring urban air pollution at a sub-neighborhood spatial resolution, which suits the requirement for highly spatiotemporal resolved measurements at the breathing-height when assessing exposure to urban air pollution.

  11. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution for a fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-Hua; GUO Hai-Ping; MOU Yun-Feng; ZHENG Pu; LIU Rong; YANG Xiao-Fei; YANG Jian

    2013-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor is established.It consists of a DT neutron source and a spherical shell of depleted uranium and hydrogen lithium.The tritium production rate (TPR) distribution in the conceptual reactor was measured by DT neutrons using two sets of lithium glass detectors with different thicknesses in the hole in the vertical direction with respect to the D+ beam of the Cockcroft-Walton neutron generator in direct current mode.The measured TPR distribution is compared with the calculated results obtained by the threedimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and the ENDF/B-Ⅵ data file.The discrepancy between the measured and calculated values can be attributed to the neutron data library of the hydrogen lithium lack S(α,β) thermal scattering model,so we show that a special database of low-energy and thermal neutrons should be established in the physics design of fusion-fission hybrid reactors.

  12. Real-time retrieval of submicron aerosol size distributions from multi-wavelength spectral extinction measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Jiawei; YANG; Mu; FENG; Haibao; NI; Qijun

    2016-01-01

    The real-time retrieval of submicron aerosol size distributions is of major interest for applications. Based on the Mie theory,the spectral extinction method offers a simple measurement principle and a convenient optical arrangement. In contrast to the relative simplicity of the experimental measurement the retrieval of the particles size distribution and particle concentration from the spectral extinction method is difficult. Mie scattering Equation is a Fredholm Integral Equation of the First Kind. This paper develops a hybrid iterative model-dependent algorithm for on-line particle sizing from extinction spectra which is both computationally efficient and accurate. Applying the refined Mie diagnostic iterative procedures within some candidate solutions can identify the unique result accurately and rapidly enough for real time measurement. With the addition of added Gaussian noise,an average tolerance up to 5% of noise level is kept for particle size from submicron to micrometer under moderate polydispersity.

  13. A laser speckle sensor to measure the distribution of static torsion angles of twisted targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, B.; Imam, H.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1998-01-01

    A novel method for measuring the distribution of static torsion angles of twisted targets is presented. The method is based on Fourier transforming the scattered field in the direction perpendicular to the twist axis, while performing an imaging operation in the direction parallel to the axis....... The Fourier transform serves to map the angular distribution of the scattered light field at the target into a linear displacement on a two-dimensional array image sensor placed in the Fourier plane. Measuring this displacement facilitates the determination of the angular displacement of the target....... A cylindrical lens serves to image the closely spaced lateral positions of the target along the twist axis onto corresponding lines of the two dimensional image sensor. Thus, every single line of the image sensor measures the torsion angle of the corresponding surface position along the twist axis of the target...

  14. Novel technique for distributed fibre sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering measurements of birefringence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Soto, Marcelo A.; Thévenaz, Luc

    2016-05-01

    A novel distributed fibre sensing technique is described and experimentally validated, based on birefringence measurements using coherent Rayleigh scattering. It natively provides distributed measurements of temperature and strain with more than an order of magnitude higher sensitivity than Brillouin sensing, and requiring access to a single fibre-end. Unlike the traditional Rayleigh-based coherent optical time-domain reflectometry, this new method provides absolute measurements of the measurand and may lead to a robust discrimination between temperature and strain in combination with another technique. Since birefringence is purposely induced in the fibre by design, large degrees of freedom are offered to optimize and scale the sensitivity to a given quantity. The technique has been validated in 2 radically different types of birefringent fibres - elliptical-core and Panda polarization-maintaining fibres - with a good repeatability.

  15. Measurement of the Angular Distribution of Electrons from $W \\to e\

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Abramov, V; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Alves, G A; Amos, N; Anderson, E W; Baarmand, M M; Babintsev, V V; Babukhadia, L R; Baden, A; Baldin, B Yu; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Bantly, J; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bean, A; Begel, M; Belyaev, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bertram, I; Besson, A; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Bhattacharjee, M; Blazey, G C; Blessing, S; Böhnlein, A; Bozhko, N; Borcherding, F; Brandt, A; Breedon, R; Briskin, G M; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burtovoi, V S; Butler, J M; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W S; Casey, D; Casilum, Z; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chekulaev, S V; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Chung, M; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Cochran, J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Dahl, O I; Davis, G A; Davis, K; De, K; Del Signore, K; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D S; Denisov, S P; Desai, S V; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; DiLoreto, G; Doulas, S; Draper, P; Ducros, Y; Dudko, L V; Duensing, S; Dugad, S R; Dyshkant, A; Edmunds, D L; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Engelmann, R; Eno, S; Eppley, G; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J K; Evans, H; Evdokimov, V N; Fahland, T; Fehér, S; Fein, D; Ferbel, T; Fisk, H E; Fisyak, Yu; Flattum, E M; Fleuret, F; Fortner, M R; Frame, K C; Fuess, S; Gallas, E J; Galjaev, A N; Gartung, P E; Gavrilov, V; Genik, R J; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gibbard, B; Gilmartin, R; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Goncharov, P I; González-Solis, J L; Gordon, H; Goss, L T; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graf, N; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Grinstein, S; Groer, L S; Grudberg, P M; Grünendahl, S; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Hadley, N J; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S L; Hagopian, V; Hahn, K S; Hall, R E; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Heuring, T C; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoftun, J S; Hou, S; Huang, Y; Ito, A S; Jerger, S A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A M; Jones, M; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D E; Karmgard, D J; Kehoe, R; Kim, S K; Klima, B; Klopfenstein, C; Knuteson, B; Ko, W; Kohli, J M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kotwal, A V; Kozelov, A V; Kozlovskii, E A; Krane, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M A; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kuznetsov, V E; Landsberg, G L; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J T; Lipton, R; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L H; Lundstedt, C; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Manankov, V; Mao, H S; Marshall, T; Martin, M I; Martin, R D; Mauritz, K M; May, B; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McDonald, J; McMahon, T; Melanson, H L; Meng, X C; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W B; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mincer, A; Mishra, C S; Mokhov, N V; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Mostafa, M A; Da Motta, H; Nagy, E; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimham, V S; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Negroni, S; Norman, D; Oesch, L H; Oguri, V; Olivier, B; Oshima, N; Padley, P; Pan, L J; Para, A; Parashar, N; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Paterno, M; Patwa, A; Pawlik, B; Perkins, J; Peters, M; Peters, O; Piegaia, R; Piekarz, H; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quintas, P Z; Raja, R; Rajagopalan, S; Ramberg, E; Rapidis, P A; Reay, N W; Reucroft, S; Rha, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Rockwell, T; Roco, M T; Rubinov, P M; Ruchti, R C; Rutherfoord, John P; Santoro, A F S; Sawyer, L; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schwartzman, A; Scully, J R; Sen, N; Shabalina, E; Shankar, H C; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Shupe, M A; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Singh, H; Singh, J B; Sirotenko, V I; Slattery, P F; Smith, E; Smith, R P; Snihur, R; Snow, G A; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Solomon, J; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Sotnikova, N; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Stanton, N R; Steinbruck, G; Stephens, R W; Stevenson, M L; Stichelbaut, F; Stoker, D; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Streets, K; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sznajder, A; Taylor, W; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thompson, J; Toback, D; Tripathi, S M; Trippe, T G; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Van Gemmeren, P; Vaniev, V; Van Kooten, R; Varelas, N; Volkov, A A; Vorobev, A P; Wahl, H D; Wang, H; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weerts, H; White, A; White, J T; Whiteson, D; Wightman, J A; Wijngaarden, D A; Willis, S; Wimpenny, S J; Wirjawan, J V D; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Yamada, R; Yamin, P; Yasuda, T; Yip, K; Youssef, S; Yu, J; Yu, Z; Zanabria, M E; Zheng, H; Zhou, Z; Zhu, Z H; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

    2001-01-01

    We present the first measurement of the electron angular distribution parameter alpha_2 in W to e nu events produced in proton-antiproton collisions as a function of the W boson transverse momentum. Our analysis is based on data collected using the D0 detector during the 1994--1995 Fermilab Tevatron run. We compare our results with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD, which predicts an angular distribution of (1 +/- alpha_1 cos theta* + alpha_2 cos^2 theta*), where theta* is the polar angle of the electron in the Collins-Soper frame. In the presence of QCD corrections, the parameters alpha_1 and alpha_2 become functions of p_T^W, the W boson transverse momentum. This measurement provides a test of next-to-leading order QCD corrections which are a non-negligible contribution to the W boson mass measurement.

  16. Suprathermal plasma analyzer for the measurement of low-energy electron distribution in the ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, M; Oyama, K-I; Abe, T; Yau, A W

    2011-07-01

    It is commonly believed that an energy transfer from thermal to suprathermal electrons (thermal to suprathermal energy continuously with high-energy resolution of about 0.15 eV. The measurement principle is based on the combination of a retarding potential analyzer with a channel electron multiplier (CEM) and the Druyvesteyn method, which derives energy distribution from the current-voltage characteristics. The capability of detecting plasma space potential enables absolute calibration of electron energy. The instrument with a small vacuum pump, which is required for the CEM to work in low-vacuum region, was first successfully tested by a sounding rocket S-310-37 in the ionospheric E region. The instrument is expected to provide new opportunities to measure energy distribution of thermal and non-thermal electrons in low-density plasma, where a Langmuir probe cannot measure electron temperature because of low plasma density.

  17. A simple algorithm for measuring particle size distributions on an uneven background from TEM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervera Gontard, Lionel, E-mail: lionelcg@gmail.com [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Ozkaya, Dogan [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Blount' s Court, Sonning Common, Reading RG4 9NH (United Kingdom); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-01-15

    Nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in science and technology. Their sizes are often measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or X-ray diffraction. Here, we describe a simple computer algorithm for measuring particle size distributions from TEM images in the presence of an uneven background. The approach is based on adaptive thresholding, making use of local threshold values that change with spatial coordinate. The algorithm allows particles to be detected and characterized with greater accuracy than using more conventional methods, in which a global threshold is used. Its application to images of heterogeneous catalysts is presented. -- Research Highlights: {yields}The paper describes a novel algorithm for segmenting TEM images of nanoparticles which is simple but robust. {yields}A Graphical User Interface allows interactivity during the processing of images. This allows maximise the success of local thresholding. {yields}The method described can be used to provide more accurate measurements of particle size distributions.

  18. Noninvasive Measurement of the Pressure Distribution in a Deformable Micro-Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsun, Ozgur; Yakhot, Victor; Ekinci, Kamil L.

    2013-11-01

    Direct and noninvasive measurement of the pressure drop in test sections of a rigid micro-channel is a challenging task. In a micro-channel with compliant walls, however, it is possible to determine the pressure field under flow from the local deflection of the channel walls. Here, we present a robust analytical approach for determining the pressure distribution in a deformable micro-channel under flow. In this method, we first measure the channel deflection profile as a function of applied hydrostatic pressure; this initial measurement provides the constitutive curves for the deformable channel. We then match the deflection profile under flow to the constitutive curves, obtaining the hydrodynamic pressure distribution. We have tested and validated the developed mapping on planar micro-fluidic channels. This method remains accurate in a broad parameter space, and can find possible applications in microfluidics and for characterizing biological flows. We acknowledge generous support from the US NSF through Grant No. CMMI-0970071.

  19. Inferences from the Distributions of Fast Radio Burst Pulse Widths, Dispersion Measures and Fluences

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    2015-01-01

    The widths, dispersion measures, dispersion indices and fluences of Fast Radio Bursts (FRB) impose coupled constraints that all models must satisfy. Observation of dispersion indices close to their low density limit of $-2$ sets a model-independent upper bound on the electron density and a lower bound on the size of any dispersive plasma cloud. The non-monotonic dependence of burst widths (after deconvolution of instrumental effects) on dispersion measure excludes the intergalactic medium as the location of scattering that broadens the FRB in time. Temporal broadening far greater than that of pulsars at similar high Galactic latitudes implies that scattering occurs close to the sources, where high densities and strong turbulence are plausible. FRB energetics are consistent with supergiant pulses from young, fast, high-field pulsars at cosmological distances. The distribution of FRB dispersion measures is inconsistent with expanding clouds (such as SNR). It excludes space-limited distributions (such as the loc...

  20. Measurements of Moments of the Hadronic Mass Distribution in Semileptonic B Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Le Clerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmücker, H; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; MacKay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Layter, J; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Erwin, R J; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le, F; Diberder; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljevic, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Monchenault; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Elsen, E E; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu Sau Lan; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-01-01

    We report a measurement of the first four moments of the hadronic mass distribution in B --> X_c lv decays. The measurements are based on 89 million Upsilon(4S) --> BBbar events where the hadronic decay of one of the B mesons is fully reconstructed and a charged lepton from the decay of the other B meson is identified. The moments are presented for minimum lepton momenta ranging from 0.9 to 1.6 GeV in the B rest frame. It is expected that such measurements will lead to improved determinations of |V_{cb}| and |V_{ub}|.

  1. MEASUREMENT ERROR EFFECT ON THE POWER OF CONTROL CHART FOR ZERO-TRUNCATED POISSON DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashit Chakraborty

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement error is the difference between the true value and the measured value of a quantity that exists in practice and may considerably affect the performance of control charts in some cases. Measurement error variability has uncertainty which can be from several sources. In this paper, we have studied the effect of these sources of variability on the power characteristics of control chart and obtained the values of average run length (ARL for zero-truncated Poisson distribution (ZTPD. Expression of the power of control chart for variable sample size under standardized normal variate for ZTPD is also derived.

  2. Drag and distribution measurements of single-element fuel injectors for supersonic combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    The drag caused by several vortex generating fuel injectors for scramjet combustors was measured in a Mach 2 to 3.5 airstream. Injector drag was found to be strongly dependent on injector thickness ratio. The distribution of helium injected into the stream was measured both in the near field and the far field of the injectors for a variety of pressure ratios. The far field results differed appreciably from measurements in the near field. Injection pressure ratio was found to profoundly influence the penetration. One of the aerowing configurations tested yielded low drag consistent with desirable penetration and spreading characteristics.

  3. In situ exhaust cloud measurements. [particle size distribution and cloud physics of rocket exhaust clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wornom, D.

    1980-01-01

    Airborne in situ exhaust cloud measurements were conducted to obtain definitions of cloud particle size range, Cl2 content, and HCl partitioning. Particle size distribution data and Cl2 measurements were made during the May, August, and September 1977 Titan launches. The measurements of three basic effluents - HCl, NO sub X, and particles - against minutes after launch are plotted. The maximum observed HCl concentration to the maximum Cl2 concentration are compared and the ratios of the Cl2 to the HCl is calculated.

  4. Precision measurement of transverse velocity distribution of a Strontium atomic beam

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, F; Xu, P; Tian, X; Wang, Y; Ren, J; Wu, Haibin; Chang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We measure precisely the transverse velocity distribution in a thermal Sr atomic beam with a velocity selective saturated fluorescence spectroscopy. By using the ultrastable laser system and narrow intercombination transition line of Sr atoms, the resolution of the velocity measured can be reached 0.13m/s, corresponding to 90$\\mu K$ in energy unit. The experimental results are agreement very well with a theoretical calculation. With the spectroscopic techniques, the absolute frequency of the intercombination transition of $^{88}$Sr is measured by an optical-frequency comb generator referenced to the SI second through an H maser, which is given by 434 829 121 318(10)kHz.

  5. Trustworthiness of measurement devices in round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhu; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-02-01

    Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution (RRDPS QKD) has been proposed to raise the noise tolerability of the channel. However, in practice, the measurement device in RRDPS QKD may be imperfect. Here, we show that, with these imperfections, the security of RRDPS may be damaged by proposing two attacks for RRDPS systems with uncharacterized measurement devices. One is valid even for a system with unit total efficiency, while the other is valid even when a single-photon state is sent. To prevent these attacks, either security arguments need to be fundamentally revised or further practical assumptions on the measurement device should be put.

  6. THE ASYMPTOTIC DISTRIBUTIONS OF EMPIRICAL LIKELIHOOD RATIO STATISTICS IN THE PRESENCE OF MEASUREMENT ERROR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Suppose that several different imperfect instruments and one perfect instrument are independently used to measure some characteristics of a population. Thus, measurements of two or more sets of samples with varying accuracies are obtained. Statistical inference should be based on the pooled samples. In this article, the authors also assumes that all the imperfect instruments are unbiased. They consider the problem of combining this information to make statistical tests for parameters more relevant. They define the empirical likelihood ratio functions and obtain their asymptotic distributions in the presence of measurement error.

  7. Photoelectron track length distributions measured in a negative ion time projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Prieskorn, Z R; Kaaret, P E; Black, J K

    2014-01-01

    We report photoelectron track length distributions between 3 and 8 keV in gas mixtures of Ne+CO2+CH3NO2 (260:80:10 Torr) and CO2+CH3NO2 (197.5: 15 Torr). The measurements were made using a negative ion time projection chamber (NITPC) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). We report the first quantitative analysis of photoelectron track length distributions in a gas. The distribution of track lengths at a given energy is best fit by a lognormal distribution. A powerlaw distribution of the form, f(E)=a(E/Eo)n, is found to fit the relationship between mean track length and energy. We find n=1.29 +/- 0.07 for Ne+CO2+CH3NO2 and n=1.20 +/- 0.09 for CO2+CH3NO2. Understanding the distribution of photoelectron track lengths in proportional counter gases is important for optimizing the pixel size and the dimensions of the active region in electron-drift time projection chambers (TPCs) and NITPC X-ray polarimeters.

  8. Particle concentrations and number size distributions in the planetary boundary layer derived from airship based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Ralf; Zhao, Defeng; Ehn, Mikael; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Rohrer, Franz; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particles play a key role for regional and global climate due to their direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The concentration and size of the particles are important variables to these effects. Within the continental planetary boundary layer (PBL) the particle number size distribution is influenced by meteorological parameters, local sinks and sources resulting in variable spatial distributions. However, measurements of particle number size distributions over a broad vertical range of the PBL are rare. The airship ZEPPELIN NT is an ideal platform to measure atmospheric aerosols on a regional scale within an altitude range up to 1000 m. For campaigns in the Netherlands, Northern Italy and South Finland in 2012 and 2013 the airship was deployed with a wide range of instruments, including measurements of different trace gases, short lived radicals, solar radiation, aerosols and meteorological parameters. Flights were carried out at different times of the day to investigate the influence of the diurnal evolution of the PBL on atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During night and early morning hours the concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particles were found to be strongly influenced by the layered structure of the PBL, i.e. the nocturnal boundary layer and the residual layer. Within the residual layer particle concentrations stay relatively constant as this layer is decoupled from ground sources. The particles persist in the accumulation mode as expected for an aged aerosol. In the nocturnal boundary layer particle concentrations and size are more dynamic with higher concentrations than in the residual layer. A few hours after sunrise, the layered structure of the PBL intermixes. During daytime the PBL is well mixed and a negative concentration gradient with increasing height is observed. Several height profiles at different times of the day and at different locations in Europe were measured. The aerosol measurements will be

  9. Development of Dynamic Coupling Measurement of Distributed Object Oriented Software Based on Trace Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Babu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software metrics are increasingly playing a central role in the planning and control of softwaredevelopment projects. Coupling measures have important applications in software development andmaintenance. Existing literature on software metrics is mainly focused on centralized systems, while workin the area of distributed systems, particularly in service-oriented systems, is scarce. Distributed systemswith service oriented components are even more heterogeneous networking and execution environment.Traditional coupling measures take into account only “static” couplings. They do not account for“dynamic” couplings due to polymorphism and may significantly underestimate the complexity of softwareand misjudge the need for code inspection, testing and debugging. This is expected to result in poorpredictive accuracy of the quality models in distributed Object Oriented systems that utilize static couplingmeasurements. In order to overcome these issues, we propose a hybrid model in Distributed ObjectOriented Software for measure the coupling dynamically. In the proposed method, there are three stepssuch as Instrumentation process, Post processing and Coupling measurement. Initially the instrumentationprocess is done. In this process the instrumented JVM that has been modified to trace method calls. Duringthis process, three trace files are created namely .prf, .clp, .svp. In the second step, the information in thesefile are merged. At the end of this step, the merged detailed trace of each JVM contains pointers to themerged trace files of the other JVM such that the path of every remote call from the client to the server canbe uniquely identified. Finally, the coupling metrics are measured dynamically. The implementation resultsshow that the proposed system will effectively measure the coupling metrics dynamically.

  10. Measurement and evaluation of Corrosion Products deposition distribution in the Experimental Fast Reactor JOYO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Takafumi; Sumino, Kozo [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Masui, Tomohiko; Saikawa, Takuya

    1997-12-01

    The Corrosion Product (CP) is the major radiation source in the primary cooling system of an LMFBR plant. It is important to characterize and predict the CP behavior to reduce the personnel exposure dose due to CP deposition. The CP measurement was carried out in the Experimental Fast Reactor JOYO during the 11th annual inspection period when the accumulated reactor thermal power reached about 143 GWd. The CP deposition density was measured using a pure germanium detector. The plastic scintillation fiber (PSF) was applied for the gamma-ray dose rate distribution measurement and compared with the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD). The major results obtained by the CP measurements in JOYO are the follows: (1) The major CP nuclides deposited in the primary cooling system are {sup 54}Mn and {sup 60}Co. {sup 54}Mn is the dominant isotope and it tends to deposit in the cold leg region. On the other hand, {sup 60}Co deposits mainly in the hot leg region. The deposition density of {sup 54}Mn is about seven times as much as that of {sup 60}Co in the cold leg region and twice in the hot leg region. (2) The deposition densities of {sup 54}Mn and {sup 60}Co, and the gamma-dose rate were decreased from the last data in the previous annual inspection period mainly due to the short operation time and the longer cooling time. (3) The continuous gamma-ray dose rate distribution up to 10m can be measured by using the PSF in a few minutes. The PSF is suitable to measure the gamma-ray dose rate distribution in the maintenance work area where it is narrow and the mixture of gamma-ray sources from primary pipings and components. The data base of detailed gamma-ray dose rate distribution was greatly extended by the PSF. (author)

  11. Accuracy and Validation of Measured and Modeled Data for Distributed PV Interconnection and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Emma; Kiliccote, Sila; Arnold, Daniel; von Meier, Alexandra; Arghandeh, R.

    2015-07-27

    The distribution grid is changing to become an active resource with complex modeling needs. The new active distribution grid will, within the next ten years, contain a complex mix of load, generation, storage and automated resources all operating with different objectives on different time scales from each other and requiring detailed analysis. Electrical analysis tools that are used to perform capacity and stability studies have been used for transmission system planning for many years. In these tools, the distribution grid was considered a load and its details and physical components were not modeled. The increase in measured data sources can be utilized for better modeling, but also control of distributed energy resources (DER). The utilization of these sources and advanced modeling tools will require data management, and knowledgeable users. Each of these measurement and modeling devices have accuracy constraints, which will ultimately define their future ability to be planned and controlled. This paper discusses the importance of measured data accuracy for inverter control, interconnection and planning tools and proposes ranges of control accuracy needed to satisfy all concerns based on the present grid infrastructure.

  12. Spatial concentration distribution analysis of cells in electrode-multilayered microchannel by dielectric property measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiafeng; Kodera, Tatsuya; Obara, Hiromichi; Sugawara, Michiko; Takei, Masahiro

    2015-07-01

    The spatial concentration distribution of cells in a microchannel is measured by combining the dielectric properties of cells with the specific structure of the electrode-multilayered microchannel. The dielectric properties of cells obtained with the impedance spectroscopy method includes the cell permittivity and dielectric relaxation, which corresponds to the cell concentration and structure. The electrode-multilayered microchannel is constructed by 5 cross-sections, and each cross-section contains 5 electrode-layers embedded with 16 micro electrodes. In the experiment, the dielectric properties of cell suspensions with different volume concentrations are measured with different electrode-combinations corresponding to different electric field distributions. The dielectric relaxations of different cell concentrations are compared and discussed with the Maxwell-Wagner dispersion theory, and the relaxation frequencies are analysed by a cell polarization model established based on the Hanai cell model. Moreover, a significant linear relationship with AC frequency dependency between relative permittivity and cell concentration was found, which provides a promising way to on-line estimate cell concentration in microchannel. Finally, cell distribution in 1 cross-section of the microchannel (X and Y directions) was measured with different electrode-combinations using the dielectric properties of cell suspensions, and cell concentration distribution along the microchannel (Z direction) was visualized at flowing state. The present cell spatial sensing study provides a new approach for 3 dimensional non-invasive online cell sensing for biological industry.

  13. Measurements of neutral and ion velocity distribution functions in a Hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarnas, Panagiotis; Romadanov, Iavn; Diallo, Ahmed; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2015-11-01

    Hall thruster is a plasma device for space propulsion. It utilizes a cross-field discharge to generate a partially ionized weakly collisional plasma with magnetized electrons and non-magnetized ions. The ions are accelerated by the electric field to produce the thrust. There is a relatively large number of studies devoted to characterization of accelerated ions, including measurements of ion velocity distribution function using laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic. Interactions of these accelerated ions with neutral atoms in the thruster and the thruster plume is a subject of on-going studies, which require combined monitoring of ion and neutral velocity distributions. Herein, laser-induced fluorescence technique has been employed to study neutral and single-charged ion velocity distribution functions in a 200 W cylindrical Hall thruster operating with xenon propellant. An optical system is installed in the vacuum chamber enabling spatially resolved axial velocity measurements. The fluorescence signals are well separated from the plasma background emission by modulating the laser beam and using lock-in detectors. Measured velocity distribution functions of neutral atoms and ions at different operating parameters of the thruster are reported and analyzed. This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  14. Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Fuller, W. H.; Yue, G. K.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    A method for inferring stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from the water vapor concentration and aerosol extinction measurements obtained in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II and the associated temperature from the NMC. The aerosols are assumed to be sulfuric acid-water droplets. A modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to determine model size distribution parameters based on the SAGE II multiwavelength aerosol extinctions. It is found that the best aerosol size information is contained in the aerosol radius range between about 0.25 and 0.80 micron.

  15. Size distribution of a metallic polydispersion through capacitive measurements in a sedimentation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Neumann, E.; Nahmad-Molinari, Y.; Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.; Ardisson, P.-L.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C. A.; Rechtman, R.

    2001-07-01

    We present a simple experimental technique to determine size distributions of metallic polydispersions. The particles are first suspended in a viscous fluid-like glycerol and then their sedimentation is followed by measuring the effective dielectric constant in a cylindrical cell at a fixed frequency. Thereafter, an inversion procedure of the data, based on the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory and Stokes law, is used to directly obtain the size distribution. The technique is applied to three different stainless steel dispersions and compares very well with a traditional sizing method based in microphotography.

  16. A Template Measurement of the Top Quark Angular Distribution Using Boosted Lepton + Jets Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminizer, Nick; CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present a template-based technique for measuring the angular distribution of top quark pairs decaying semileptonically using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analysis is optimized for high-momentum ``boosted'' decays wherein the hadronically decaying top quark's jets become either partially or fully merged, and the final state lepton is not necessarily isolated from nearby jets. The technique can be used to examine multiple physics processes affecting the angular distribution of top pairs, including the parton-level top quark forward-backward asymmetry AFB and anomalous chromoelectric/chromomagnetic moments. CMS is the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider.

  17. Measuring Distributional Inequality: Relative Body Mass Index Distributions by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Education, United States (1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Houle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2. Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.

  18. Projectile Two-dimensional Coordinate Measurement Method Based on Optical Fiber Coding Fire and its Coordinate Distribution Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanshan; Lei, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    To improve projectile coordinate measurement precision in fire measurement system, this paper introduces the optical fiber coding fire measurement method and principle, sets up their measurement model, and analyzes coordinate errors by using the differential method. To study the projectile coordinate position distribution, using the mathematical statistics hypothesis method to analyze their distributing law, firing dispersion and probability of projectile shooting the object center were put under study. The results show that exponential distribution testing is relatively reasonable to ensure projectile position distribution on the given significance level. Through experimentation and calculation, the optical fiber coding fire measurement method is scientific and feasible, which can gain accurate projectile coordinate position.

  19. Tariffing of energy measured consumers in the distribution network; Tariffering av energimaalte kunder i distribusjonsnettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-20

    Criteria for socio-economic effective tariffing of energy-measured clients in the distribution network are discussed (i.e. households, leisure homes and smaller business clients), this means consumers that do not have hourly measurements or effect measurements. The tariffs should be based on variable segments that reflect short-term marginal costs in the network (in practice loss of transfer) and fixed segments that to the least extent possible influence the consumers' decisions in the choice of energy solutions, both in short term and long term. High-priced energy segments and effect based fixed segments may give unfortunate socio-economic price signals compared to the marginal long-term network costs. A fixed segment per measurement unit is in principle completely neutral, but it is to some extent vulnerable to strategic adjustments if the consumers choose collective measurement. This is not necessarily a big problem in practice (author)

  20. A detection system with broad angular acceptance for particle identification and angular distribution measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnelli, P.F.F., E-mail: carnelli@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Campus Miguelete, B1650BWA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernández Niello, J.O. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Campus Miguelete, B1650BWA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Capurro, O.A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2013-10-21

    A new detection system for time-optimized heavy-ion angular distribution measurements has been designed and constructed. This device is composed by an ionization chamber with a segmented-grid anode and three position-sensitive silicon detectors. This particular arrangement allows identifying reaction products emitted within a 30° wide angular range with better than 1° angular resolution. As a demonstration of its capabilities, angular distributions of the elastic scattering cross-section and the production of alpha particles in the {sup 7}Li+{sup 27}Al system, at an energy above the Coulomb barrier, are presented. -- Highlights: • We constructed a detection system for time-optimized heavy-ion angular distribution measurements. • We characterized this device and obtained an energy resolution of 3% and an angular resolution of 1°. • We measured elastic scattering cross-sections in {sup 7}Li+{sup 27}Al finding good agreement with previous data. • The performed tests included the measurement of alpha particle production cross-sections in {sup 7}Li+{sup 27}Al.

  1. Noninvasive Measurement of the Pressure Distribution in a Deformable Micro-Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Ozsun, O; Ekinci, K L

    2013-01-01

    Direct and noninvasive measurement of the pressure distribution in test sections of a micro-channel is a challenging, if not an impossible, task. Here, we present an analytical method for extracting the pressure distribution in a deformable micro-channel under flow. Our method is based on a measurement of the channel deflection profile as a function of applied \\emph{hydrostatic} pressure; this initial measurement generates "constitutive curves" for the deformable channel. The deflection profile under flow is then matched to the constitutive curves, providing the \\emph{hydrodynamic} pressure distribution. The method is validated by measurements on planar micro-fluidic channels against analytic and numerical models. The accuracy here is independent of the nature of the wall deformations and is not degraded even in the limit of large deflections, $\\zeta_{\\rm{max}}/2h_{0}= {\\cal{O}}(1)$, with $\\zeta_{\\rm{max}}$ and $2h_0$ being the maximum deflection and the unperturbed height of the channel, respectively. We dis...

  2. Distributed Fusion Filtering in Networked Systems with Random Measurement Matrices and Correlated Noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Caballero-Águila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributed fusion state estimation problem is addressed for sensor network systems with random state transition matrix and random measurement matrices, which provide a unified framework to consider some network-induced random phenomena. The process noise and all the sensor measurement noises are assumed to be one-step autocorrelated and different sensor noises are one-step cross-correlated; also, the process noise and each sensor measurement noise are two-step cross-correlated. These correlation assumptions cover many practical situations, where the classical independence hypothesis is not realistic. Using an innovation methodology, local least-squares linear filtering estimators are recursively obtained at each sensor. The distributed fusion method is then used to form the optimal matrix-weighted sum of these local filters according to the mean squared error criterion. A numerical simulation example shows the accuracy of the proposed distributed fusion filtering algorithm and illustrates some of the network-induced stochastic uncertainties that can be dealt with in the current system model, such as sensor gain degradation, missing measurements, and multiplicative noise.

  3. Measuring Temperature in Pipe Flow with Non-Homogeneous Temperature Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klason, P.; Kok, G. J.; Pelevic, N.; Holmsten, M.; Ljungblad, S.; Lau, P.

    2014-04-01

    Accurate temperature measurements in flow lines are critical for many industrial processes. It is normally more a rule than an exception in such applications to obtain water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. In this paper, a number of comparisons were performed between different 100 ohm platinum resistance thermometer (Pt-100) configurations and a new speed-of-sound-based temperature sensor used to measure the average temperature of water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. The aim was to achieve measurement deviations lower than 1 K for the temperature measurement of water flows with inhomogeneous temperature distributions. By using a custom-built flow injector, a water flow with a hot-water layer on top of a cold-water layer was created. The temperature difference between the two layers was up to 32 K. This study shows that the deviations to the temperature reference for the average temperature of four Pt-100s, the multisensor consisting of nine Pt-100s, and the new speed-of-sound sensors are remarkably lower than the deviation for a single Pt-100 under the same conditions. The aim of reaching a deviation lower than 1 K was achieved with the speed-of-sound sensors, the configuration with four Pt-100s, and the multisensor. The promising results from the speed-of sound temperature sensors open the possibility for an integrated flow and temperature sensor. In addition, the immersion depth of a single Pt-100 was also investigated at three different water temperatures.

  4. Peano on derivative of measures, strict derivative of distributive set functions

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Gabriele H; Pagani, Enrico M

    2010-01-01

    By retracing research on coexistent magnitudes (grandeurs coexistantes) by Cauchy (1841), Peano in "Applicazioni geometriche del calcolo infinitesimale" (1887) defines the "density" (strict derivative) of a "mass" (a distributive set function) with respect to a "volume" (a positive distributive set function), proves its continuity (whenever the strict derivative exists) and shows the validity of the mass-density paradigm: "mass" is recovered from "density" by integration with respect to "volume". It is remarkable that Peano's strict derivative provides a consistent mathematical ground to the concept of "infinitesimal ratio" between two magnitudes, successfully used since Kepler. In this way the classical (i.e., pre-Lebesgue) measure theory reaches a complete and definitive form in Peano's Applicazioni geometriche. A primary aim of the present paper is a detailed exposition of Peano's work of 1887 leading to the concept of strict derivative of distributive set functions and their use. Moreover, we compare Pean...

  5. The study of aeroball system for measuring 3D neutron flux distribution in reactor core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoZheng-Pei; LiFu; 等

    1997-01-01

    Aeroball system is attractive in several aspects because it can easily transport the map of neutron flux distribution to be measured from incore to outside of a reactor vessel.However,before the aeroball system is put to practical use in the heating reactor.there are four topics that have to be further studied.They are the stability of the activated positions,enhancement of signal/noise(S/N)ratio,distributed control and data-acquisition system and on-lin nbeutron flux distribution reconstruction.Besides describing the rasons for them,this paper gives out the theory,concept and solution about the first two topics and it is helptul to give the possibility to enhance the reactor-power.

  6. Measurements of Dose Distribution outside the Treatment Area in case of Radiotherapy Treatment using Polystyrene Phantom

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Md Farid; Ahmed, G U; Miah, F K

    2012-01-01

    Dose distribution (depthwise and laterally) to organs outside the radiotherapy treatment field can be significant and therefore is of clinical interest from the radiation protection point of view. In the present work, measurements were performed in a locally fabricated polystyrene phantom using TLD chips (LiF-100) for different teletherapy units (Cobalt-60 gamma ray, 120 kVp X-ray and 250 kVp X-ray) to estimate the dose distribution at distances up to 40 cm from the field edge along the central axes of the field size. Finally, the dose distribution for Cobalt-60 beam energy is parameterized as a function of depth, distance from field edge, and field size and shape.

  7. Distribution and composition of suspended particulate matter in the Atlantic Ocean: Direct measurements and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisitzin, A. P.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Burenkov, V. I.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Politova, N. V.; Novigatsky, A. N.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Klyuvitkina, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study the real distribution and spatial-temporal variations of suspended particulate matter and its main components in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean on the basis of direct and satellite measurements for development of new and perfection of available algorithms for converting satellite data. The distribution fields of suspended particulate matter were calculated and plotted for the entire Atlantic Ocean. It is established that its distribution in the open ocean is subordinate to the latitudinal climatic zonality. The areas with maximum concentrations form latitudinal belts corresponding to high-productivity eutrophic and mesotrophic waters of the northern and southern temperate humid belts and with the equatorial humid zone. Phytoplankton, the productivity of which depends primarily on the climatic zonality, is the main producer of suspended particulate matter in the surface water layer.

  8. Five-years of atmospheric aerosol number size distribution measurements in Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    The first long term measurements of atmospheric particle size distributions from the Eastern Mediterranean region are reported. Atmospheric aerosol number size distributions have been measured at the environmental research station of University of Crete at Finokalia, Crete, Greece (35° 20' N, 25° 40' E, 250m a.s.l) on a continuous base since 2008. A custom built (TROPOS type) scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) is used covering size ranges from 8 to 900 nm. The system is humidity controlled so that relative humidity is kept below 40% most of the time. Throughout the measuring period the average number concentration of the particles in the studied size range was found to be 2354 ± 1332 cm-3 (median of 2098 cm-3). Maximum concentrations are observed during summer while minimum during winter, reflecting the effectiveness of the removal processes in the region. Clear annual circles are found for the number concentrations of nucleation, Aitken and accumulation mode particles. Nucleation mode is presenting different pattern from the other two modes, with the highest concentrations during winter (and March) and the lowest during summer. New particle formation events are more frequently observed during March and October. The number size distributions present different seasonal patterns. During summer, unimodal distributions centering on the lower end of the accumulation mode size range are dominant in our observations. The prevailing meteorology characterized by the Etesian winds (Meltemi) and the lack of precipitation along the trajectory results to the arrival of well mixed air masses at Finokalia, carrying aged aerosol mainly from central and Eastern Europe. Regarding the other seasons, the shape of the distributions is more variable and strongly dependent on the air mass history: When the air masses are of marine origin or precipitation has affected them, the size distributions are mainly bimodal (peaking both in Aitken and in Accumulation mode). These

  9. Fluids and their Effect on Measurements on Lunar Soil Particle size Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. L.; McKay, D. S.; Wallace, W. T.; Gonzalex, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    From the late 1960s until now, lunar soil particle size distributions have typically been determined by sieving sometimes dry, and at other times with fluids such as water or Freon. Laser diffraction instruments allow rapid assessment of particle size distribution, and eventually may replace sieve measurements. However, when measuring lunar soils with laser diffraction instruments, care must be taken in choosing a carrier fluid that is compatible with lunar material. Distilled water is the fluid of choice for laser diffraction measurements of substances when there is no concern about adverse effects of water on the material being measured. When we began our analyses of lunar soils using laser diffraction, our first measurements were made with distilled water. Although the medians that we measured were comparable to earlier sieve data, the means tended to be significantly larger than expected. The effect of water vapor on lunar soil has been studied extensively. The particles interact strongly with water vapor, and subsequent adsorptions of nitrogen showed that the specific surface area increased as much as threefold after exposure to moisture. It was observed that significant porosity had been generated by this exposure to water vapor. The possibility of other physical changes in the surfaces of the grains was not studied.

  10. Defining and measuring health inequality: an approach based on the distribution of health expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakidou, E. E.; Murray, C. J.; Frenk, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to conceptualizing and operationalizing the measurement of health inequality, defined as differences in health across individuals in the population. We propose that health is an intrinsic component of well-being and thus we should be concerned with inequality in health, whether or not it is correlated with inequality in other dimensions of well-being. In the measurement of health inequality, the complete range of fatal and non-fatal health outcomes should be incorporated. This notion is operationalized through the concept of healthy lifespan. Individual health expectancy is preferable, as a measurement, to individual healthy lifespan, since health expectancy excludes those differences in healthy lifespan that are simply due to chance. In other words, the quantity of interest for studying health inequality is the distribution of health expectancy across individuals in the population. The inequality of the distribution of health expectancy can be summarized by measures of individual/mean differences (differences between the individual and the mean of the population) or inter-individual differences. The exact form of the measure to summarize inequality depends on three normative choices. A firmer understanding of people's views on these normative choices will provide a basis for deliberating on a standard WHO measure of health inequality. PMID:10686732

  11. Distribution of carbon nanotube sizes from adsorption measurements and computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Hołyst, Robert; Tanaka, Hideki; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2005-08-04

    The method for the evaluation of the distribution of carbon nanotube sizes from the static adsorption measurements and computer simulation of nitrogen at 77 K is developed. We obtain the condensation/evaporation pressure as a function of pore size of a cylindrical carbon tube using Gauge Cell Monte Carlo Simulation (Gauge Cell MC). To obtain the analytical form of the relationships mentioned above we use Derjaguin-Broekhoff-deBoer theory. Finally, the pore size distribution (PSD) of the single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) is determined from a single nitrogen adsorption isotherm measured at 77 K. We neglect the conical part of an isolated SWNH tube and assume a structureless wall of a carbon nanotube. We find that the distribution of SWNH sizes is broad (internal pore radii varied in the range 1.0-3.6 nm with the maximum at 1.3 nm). Our method can be used for the determination of the pore size distribution of the other tubular carbon materials, like, for example, multiwalled or double-walled carbon nanotubes. Besides the applicable aspect of the current work the deep insight into the problem of capillary condensation/evaporation in confined carbon cylindrical geometry is presented. As a result, the critical pore radius in structureless single-walled carbon tubes is determined as being equal to three nitrogen collision diameters. Below that size the adsorption-desorption isotherm is reversible (i.e., supercritical in nature). We show that the classical static adsorption measurements combined with the proper modeling of the capillary condensation/evaporation phenomena is a powerful method that can be applied for the determination of the distribution of nanotube sizes.

  12. Reaction rate distribution measurement and the core performance evaluation in the prototype FBR Monju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, S.; Suzuoki, Z.; Deshimaru, T. [Monju Construction Office, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Fukui-ken (Japan); Nakashima, F. [Tsuruga head Office, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Fukui-ken (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Monju is a prototype fast breeder reactor designed to have an output of 280 MW (714 MWt), fueled with mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium and cooled by liquid sodium. The principal data on plant design and performance are shown in Table 1. Monju attained initial criticality in April 1994 and the reactor physics tests were carried out from May through November 1994. The reaction rate distribution measurement by the foil activation method was one of these tests and was carried out in order to verify the core performance and to contribute to the development of the core design methods. On the basis of the reaction rate measurement data, the Monju initial core breeding ratio and the power distribution were evaluated. (author)

  13. Direct measurement of the charge distribution along a biased carbon nanotube bundle using electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    Nanowires and nanotubes can be examined in the transmission electron microscope under an applied bias. Here we introduce a model-independent method, which allows the charge distribution along a nanowire or nanotube to be measured directly from the Laplacian of an electron holographic phase image........ We present results from a biased bundle of carbon nanotubes, in which we show that the charge density increases linearly with distance from its base, reaching a value of ~0.8 electrons/nm near its tip.......Nanowires and nanotubes can be examined in the transmission electron microscope under an applied bias. Here we introduce a model-independent method, which allows the charge distribution along a nanowire or nanotube to be measured directly from the Laplacian of an electron holographic phase image...

  14. Particle size distribution of the stratospheric aerosol from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Alexei; Malinina, Elizaveta; Rozanov, Vladimir; Hommel, Rene; Burrows, John

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric aerosols are of a great scientific interest because of their crucial role in the Earth's radiative budget as well as their contribution to chemical processes resulting in ozone depletion. While the permanent aerosol background in the stratosphere is determined by the tropical injection of SO2, COS and sulphate particles from the troposphere, major perturbations of the stratospheric aerosol layer result form an uplift of SO2 after strong volcanic eruptions. Satellite measurements in the visible spectral range represent one of the most important sources of information about the vertical distribution of the stratospheric aerosol on the global scale. This study employs measurements of the scattered solar light performed in the limb viewing geometry from the space borne spectrometer SCIAMACHY, which operated onboard the ENVISAT satellite, from August 2002 to April 2012. A retrieval approach to obtain parameters of the stratospheric aerosol particle size distribution will be reported along with the sensitivity studies and first results.

  15. Sensitivity bias in the mass-radius distribution from Transit Timing Variations and Radial Velocity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by recent discussions, both in private and in the literature, we use a Monte Carlo simulation of planetary systems to investigate sources of bias in determining the mass-radius distribution of exoplanets for the two primary techniques used to measure planetary masses---Radial Velocities (RVs) and Transit Timing Variations (TTVs). We assert that mass measurements derived from these two methods are comparably reliable---as the physics underlying their respective signals is well understood. Nevertheless, their sensitivity to planet mass varies with the properties of the planets themselves. We find that for a given planet size, the RV method tends to find planets with higher mass while the sensitivity of TTVs is more uniform. This ``sensitivity bias'' implies that a complete census of TTV systems is likely to yield a more robust estimate of the mass-radius distribution provided there are not important physical differences between planets near and far from mean-motion resonance. We discuss differences in...

  16. Measurement of the angular distribution in anti-p p ---> psi(2S) ---> e+ e-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrogiani, M.; Andreotti, M.; Argiro, S.; Bagnasco, S.; Baldini, W.; Bettoni, D.; Borreani, G.; Buzzo, A.; Calabrese, R.; Cester, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fan,; Garzoglio, G.; Gollwitzer, K.E.; Graham, M.; Hahn, A.; Hu, M.; Jin, S.; Joffe, D.; Kasper, J.; /Fermilab /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Turin /Turin

    2004-12-01

    The authors present the first measurement of the angular distribution for the exclusive process {bar p}p {yields} {psi}(2S) {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} based on a sample of 6844 events collected by the Fermilab E835 experiment. They find that the angular distribution is well described by the expected functional form dN/d cos {theta}* {proportional_to} 1 + {lambda} cos{sup 2} {theta}*, where {theta}* is the angle between the antiproton and the electron in the center of mass frame, with {lambda} = 0.67 {+-} 0.15(stat.) {+-} 0.04(sys.). The measured value for {lambda} implies a small but non zero {psi}(2S) helicity 0 formation amplitude in {bar p}p, comparable to what is observed in J/{psi} decays to baryon pairs.

  17. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with source state errors and statistical fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cong; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2017-03-01

    We show how to calculate the secure final key rate in the four-intensity decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution protocol with both source errors and statistical fluctuations with a certain failure probability. Our results rely only on the range of only a few parameters in the source state. All imperfections in this protocol have been taken into consideration without assuming any specific error patterns of the source.

  18. Ozone and aerosol distributions measured by airborne lidar during the 1988 Arctic Boundary Layer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to O3 and aerosol distributions measured from an aircraft using a DIAL system in order to study the sources and sinks of gases and aerosols over the tundra regions of Alaska during summer 1988. The tropospheric O3 budget over the Arctic was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions. Regions of low aerosol scattering and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were usually correlated with descending air from the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere.

  19. MEASUREMENTS OF PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS ON A ROTOR BLADE USING PSP TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidong Kim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface pressure distributions on a rotating blade were measured by using pressure sensitive paint (PSP to understand aerodynamic characteristics of a rotor blade. The present study was conducted to investigate the PSP techniques for measuring the pressure distributions on a rotor blade. In order to perform the experiment, the PSP was required to response very fast due to rapid pressure fluctuations on a rotor blade. High energy excitation light source was also needed to acquire proper intensity images in a short excitation time. The techniques were based on a lifetime method. Qualitative pressure distributions on an upper surface of small scale rotor in hovering condition were measured as a preliminary experiment prior to forward flight conditions in the KARI low speed wind tunnel laboratory. From measured pressure distributions, striking pressure gradient was observed on an upper surface of rotor blade and the resulting pressure showed expected gradient depending on different collective pitch angles. ABSTRAK : Pengagihan tekanan permukaan ke atas berbilah putar disukat menggunakan cat sensitive tekanan (pressure sensitive paint (PSP untuk memahami sifat-sifat aerodinamik suatu berbilah putar. Kajian telah dijalankan untuk menyelidik teknik-teknik PSP dengan mengukur agihan tekanan ke atas suatu berbilah putar. Agar eksperimen dapat dijalankan dengan baik, PSP harus bertindak cepat kerana tekanan naik turun dengan pantas ke atas berbilah putar. Sumber cahaya ujaan tenaga tinggi diperlukan untuk mendapatkan imej keamatan wajar dalam jangka masa ujaan yang pendek. Teknik-teknik tersebut terhasil daripada kajian semasa hayat. Agihan tekanan kualitatif ke permukaan atas berskala kecil pemutar dalam keadaan mengapung diukur sebagai permulaan eksperimen, sebelum penerbangan kehadapan dalam makmal terowong angin laju rendah KARI. Daripada agihan tekanan yang disukat, kecerunan tekanan yang ketara diperolehi daripada permerhatian terhadap permukaan

  20. Magnetisation distribution measurements from powders using a {sup 3}He spin filter: a test experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, A.S. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom) and Davy Faraday Research Laboratory, Royal Institution of Great Britain, 21 Albemarle Street, London W1S 4BS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.s.wills@ucl.ac.uk; Lelievre-Berna, E. [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Tasset, F. [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Schweizer, J. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SPSMS, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble (France); Ballou, R. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme Louis Neel - CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2005-02-15

    Magnetisation distribution maps deduced from the measurement of polarization dependent cross-sections have provided information that has been key to our understanding of the detailed electronic configurations and mechanisms of superconductors, colossal magnetoresistance and molecular magnets. Presently, the absence of any installation on a powder instrument limits its application largely to single crystals. This article details a test experiment carried out using polarized {sup 3}He spin filters on a powder diffractometer together with the technical background and data analysis considerations.