WorldWideScience

Sample records for 1986-2006 controlled interrupted

  1. An asynchronous controller for a daisychainable vme bus interrupter

    OpenAIRE

    Wollowski, Ralf; Beister, Jochen; Kuhn, Matthias

    1999-01-01

    An interrupter for use in a daisy-chained VME bus interrupt system has beendesigned and implemented as an asynchronous sequential circuit. The concur-rency of the processes posed a design problem that was solved by means of asystematic design procedure that uses Petri nets for specifying system and in-terrupter behaviour, and for deriving a primitive flow table. Classical designand additional measures to cope with non-fundamental mode operation yieldeda coded state-machine representation. Thi...

  2. Bank capitalization and market share in the Nigeria deposit banks(1986-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikpefan Ochei Ailemen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of shareholders’ fund on bank performance (market share in the Nigerian deposit banks (1986-2006. The study captured performance (market share and employed cross sectional and time series of bank data obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN.The formulated models were estimated using ordinary least square regression method. The study found a strong relationship between bank capital funds and bank deposits, loans and advances (proxies for market concentration. The result shows that shareholders’ fund and total assets of the banks have positive and significant impact in influencing the level of total deposits. The implication of this study, among others, is that adequate shareholders fund can serve as a veritable stimulant in strengthening the performance of Nigeria commercial banks and also heighten the confidence of customers especially in this era of global economic melt-down that has taken its toll in the Nigerian financial system

  3. Reduction of Hospital Physicians' Workflow Interruptions: A Controlled Unit-Based Intervention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weigl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly interruptive clinical environments may cause work stress and suboptimal clinical care. This study features an intervention to reduce workflow interruptions by re-designing work and organizational practices in hospital physicians providing ward coverage. A prospective, controlled intervention was conducted in two surgical and two internal wards. The intervention was based on physician quality circles - a participative technique to involve employees in the development of solutions to overcome work-related stressors. Outcome measures were the frequency of observed workflow interruptions. Workflow interruptions by fellow physicians and nursing staff were significantly lower after the intervention. However, a similar decrease was also observed in control units. Additional interviews to explore process-related factors suggested that there might have been spill-over effects in the sense that solutions were not strictly confined to the intervention group. Recommendations for further research on the effectiveness and consequences of such interventions for professional communication and patient safety are discussed.

  4. Direct Load Control (DLC) Considering Nodal Interrupted Energy Assessment Rate (NIEAR) in Restructured Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2010-01-01

    A direct load control (DLC) scheme of air conditioning loads (ACL) considering direct monetary compensation to ACL customers for the service interruption caused by the DLC program is proposed in this paper for restructured power systems. The nodal interrupted energy assessment rate (NIEAR), which...... of the system energy cost, the system spinning reserve cost and the compensation cost to the ACL customers. Dynamic programming (DP) was used to obtain the optimal DLC scheme. The IEEE reliability test system (RTS) was studied to illustrate the proposed DLC scheme.......A direct load control (DLC) scheme of air conditioning loads (ACL) considering direct monetary compensation to ACL customers for the service interruption caused by the DLC program is proposed in this paper for restructured power systems. The nodal interrupted energy assessment rate (NIEAR), which...

  5. Operation Method for AC Motor Control during Power Interruption in Direct AC/AC Converter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizu, Keiichiro; Azuma, Satoshi

    Direct AC/AC converters have been studied due to their potential use in power converters with no DC-link capacitor, which can contribute to the miniaturization of power converters. However, the absence of a DC-link capacitor makes it difficult to control the AC motor during power interruption. First, this paper proposes a system that realizes AC motor control during power interruption by utilizing a clamp capacitor. In general, direct AC/AC converters have a clamp circuit consisting of a rectifier diode(s) and a clamp capacitor in order to avoid over-voltages. In the proposed system, there is an additional semiconductor switch reverse-parallel to the rectifier diode(s), and the clamp capacitor voltage can be utilized for AC motor control by turning on the additional switch. Second, this paper discusses an operation method for AC motor control and clamp capacitor voltage control during power interruption. In the proposed method “DC-link voltage control”, the kinetic energy in the AC motor is transformed into electrical energy and stored in the clamp capacitor; the clamp capacitor is therefore charged and the capacitor voltage is controlled to remain constant at an instruction value. Third, this paper discusses a switching operation during power interruption. A dead-time is introduced between the operation of turning off all switches on the rectifier side and the operation of turning on the additional switch, which prevents the occurrence of a short circuit between the interrupted power source and the clamp capacitor. Finally, experimental results are presented. During power interruptions, an output current was continuously obtained and the clamp capacitor voltage was maintained to be equal to the instruction value of the capacitor voltage. These results indicate that both AC motor control and capacitor voltage control were successfully achieved by using the proposed system.

  6. Multiple MIPS 4Kc cores based interrupt controller design and its implementation on HDTV SoC platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A multiple MIPS 4Kc processor cores based interrupt processing system is introduced. The interrupt controller plays a key role in the high definition television (HDTV) system-on-a-chip (SoC) platform,especially when it is a multiple processor system. Based on a general introduction to the whole HDTV SoC platform, a layered interrupt controller and its implementation are discussed in detail. The proposed scheme was implemented in our FPGA verification board. The results indicate that our scheme is reliable and efficient. Meanwhile, as a functional intellectual property (IP), the interrupt controller has reusability and expandability with the layered structure.

  7. Interrupt Handlers in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan; Schoeberl, Martin; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    An important part of implementing device drivers is to control the interrupt facilities of the hardware platform and to program interrupt handlers. Current methods for handling interrupts in Java use a server thread waiting for the VM to signal an interrupt occurrence. It means that the interrupt...... is handled at a later time, which has some disadvantages. We present constructs that allow interrupts to be handled directly and not at a later point decided by a scheduler. A desirable feature of our approach is that we do not require a native middleware layer but can handle interrupts entirely with Java...... code. We have implemented our approach using an interpreter and a Java processor, and give an example demonstrating its use....

  8. A randomized control trial on interruption of HBV transmission in uterus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱启镕; 于广军; 俞蕙; 吕晴; 顾新焕; 董左权; 张秀珍

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the interruptive effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) specific immunolobulin (HBIG) before delivery in attempt to prevent intrauterine transmission of HBV.Methods Nine hundred and eighty HBsAg carrier pregnant women were randomly divided into HBIG group and control group. Each subject in the HBIG group received 200 IU or 400 IU of HBIG intramuscularly at 3, 2 and 1 month before delivery. The subjects in the control group did not receive any specific treatment. All newborn infants received 100 IU of HBIG intramascularty after venous blood samples were taken at birth and 2 weeks after birth, followed by 30 μg plasma-derived HB vaccine or 5 μg recombinant yeast-derived hepatitis B vaccine at 1, 2 and 7 months of age. Blood tests were performed for all the lying-in women and their neonates. Blood specimens were tested for HBsAg and HBeAg by enzyme immunoassay. All infants were followed up for 1 year.Results In the HBIG group, 491 neonates were born to 487 HBV carrier mothers; and in the control group, 496 neonates were born to 493 HBV carrier mothers. The rates of intrauterine transmission in the two groups were 14.3% and 5.7% respectively (χ2=20.280, P<0.001), and the rates of chronic hepatitis B in the two groups were 2.2% and 7.3% respectively (χ2=13.696, P<0.001). The high risk factors of intrauterine HBV infection included HBsAg HBeAg double positive and HBV DNA positive in the peripheral blood of pregnant women.Conclusion HBV infection in the uterus may be interrupted by injecting multiple intramuscular HBIG injections before delivery without causing any side-effects.

  9. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  10. Network interruptions

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Sunday 12 June 2005, a site-wide security software upgrade will be performed on all CERN network equipment. This maintenance operation will cause at least 2 short network interruptions of 2 minutes on each equipment item. There are hundreds of such items across the CERN site (Meyrin, Prévessin and all SPS and LHC pits), and it will thus take the whole day to treat them all. All network users and services will be affected. Central batch computing services will be interrupted during this period, expected to last from 8 a.m. until late evening. Job submission will still be possible but no jobs will actually be run. It is hoped to complete the computer centre upgrades in the morning so that stable access can be restored to lxplus, afs and nice services as soon as possible; this cannot be guaranteed, however. The opportunity will be used to interrupt and perform upgrades on the CERN Document Servers.

  11. Can malaria vector control accelerate the interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Africa; capturing a window of opportunity?

    OpenAIRE

    Louise A Kelly-Hope; Molyneux, David H; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched in 2000, and nearly all endemic countries in the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean and Asia-Pacific regions have now initiated the WHO recommended mass drug administration (MDA) campaign to interrupt transmission of the parasite. However, nearly 50% of the LF endemic countries in Africa are yet to implement the GPELF MDA strategy, which does not include vector control. Nevertheless, the recent scale up in ins...

  12. Randomized, controlled trial of therapy interruption in chronic HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Papasavvas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approaches to limiting exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART drugs are an active area of HIV therapy research. Here we present longitudinal follow-up of a randomized, open-label, single-center study of the immune, viral, and safety outcomes of structured therapy interruptions (TIs in patients with chronically suppressed HIV-1 infection as compared to equal follow-up of patients on continuous therapy and including a final therapy interruption in both arms. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Forty-two chronically HIV-infected patients on suppressive ART with CD4 counts higher than 400 were randomized 1:1 to either (1 three successive fixed TIs of 2, 4, and 6 wk, with intervening resumption of therapy with resuppression for 4 wk before subsequent interruption, or (2 40 wk of continuous therapy, with a final open-ended TI in both treatment groups. Main outcome was analysis of the time to viral rebound (>5,000 copies/ml during the open-ended TI. Secondary outcomes included study-defined safety criteria, viral resistance, therapy failure, and retention of immune reconstitution. There was no difference between the groups in time to viral rebound during the open-ended TI (continuous therapy/single TI, median [interquartile range] = 4 [1-8] wk, n = 21; repeated TI, median [interquartile range] = 5 [4-8] wk, n = 21; p = 0.36. No differences in study-related adverse events, viral set point at 12 or 20 wk of open-ended interruption, viral resistance or therapy failure, retention of CD4 T cell numbers on ART, or retention of lymphoproliferative recall antigen responses were noted between groups. Importantly, resistance detected shortly after initial viremia following the open-ended TI did not result in a lack of resuppression to less than 50 copies/ml after reinitiation of the same drug regimen. CONCLUSION: Cycles of 2- to 6-wk time-fixed TIs in patients with suppressed HIV infection failed to confer a clinically significant benefit with regard to viral

  13. Immune control of HIV-1 infection after therapy interruption: immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernaschi Massimo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal stage for initiating antiretroviral therapies in HIV-1 bearing patients is still a matter of debate. Methods We present computer simulations of HIV-1 infection aimed at identifying the pro et contra of immediate as compared to deferred Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART. Results Our simulations highlight that a prompt specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes response is detected when therapy is delayed. Compared to very early initiation of HAART, in deferred treated patients CD8+ T cells manage to mediate the decline of viremia in a shorter time and, at interruption of therapy, the virus experiences a stronger immune pressure. We also observe, however, that the immunological effects of the therapy fade with time in both therapeutic regimens. Thus, within one year from discontinuation, viral burden recovers to the value at which it would level off in the absence of therapy. In summary, simulations show that immediate therapy does not prolong the disease-free period and does not confer a survival benefit when compared to treatment started during the chronic infection phase. Conclusion Our conclusion is that, since there is no therapy to date that guarantees life-long protection, deferral of therapy should be preferred in order to minimize the risk of adverse effects, the occurrence of drug resistances and the costs of treatment.

  14. Microstructural changes after control rolling and interrupted accelerated cooling simulations in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Mourino, Nuria; Petrov, Roumen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Bae, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kisoo [Sheet Products and Process Research Group, POSCO, Jeonnam, 545-090 (Korea, Republic of); Kestens, Leo A.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    The {gamma}-{alpha} transformation and final microstructure in pipeline steel was studied by carrying out a number of physical simulations of industrial hot rolling schedules. Particularly, the effect of the reheating temperature, deformation and cooling parameters on the transformation temperatures and final grain size were considered with a goal to obtain an appropriate thermo-mechanical processing route which will generate appropriate microstructures for pipeline applications. The CCT diagram of the steel was derived experimentally by means of dilatometric tests. Hot torsion experiments were applied in a multi-deformation cycle at various temperatures in the austenite region to simulate industrial rolling schedules. By variation of the reheating temperature, equivalent strain, and accelerated cooling, different types of microstructures were obtained. It was found that the deformation increases the transformation temperatures whereas the higher cooling rates after deformation decrease them. Post-deformation microstructure consists of fine bainitic-ferrite grains with dispersed carbides and small amount of dispersed martensite/austenite islands which can be controlled by varying the reheating temperature, deformation and post-deformation cooling. The detailed microstructure characteristics obtained from the present work could be used to optimize the mechanical properties, strength and toughness of pipeline steel grades by an appropriate control of the thermo-mechanical processing. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  16. Global interrupt and barrier networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.

    2008-10-28

    A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

  17. Effects of beam interruption time on tumor control probability in single-fractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment plans are designed on the assumption that the beams are delivered instantaneously, irrespective of actual dose-delivery time structure in a treatment session. As the beam lines are fixed in the vertical and horizontal directions at our facility, beam delivery is interrupted in multi-field treatment due to the necessity of patient repositioning within the fields. Single-fractionated treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is such a case, in which four treatment fields in multiple directions are delivered in one session with patient repositioning during the session. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the period of dose delivery, including interruptions due to patient repositioning, on tumor control probability (TCP) of NSCLC. All clinical doses were weighted by relative biological effectiveness (RBE) evaluated for instantaneous irradiation. The rate equations defined in the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) for primary lesions induced in DNA were applied to the single-fractionated treatment of NSCLC. Treatment plans were made for an NSCLC case for various prescribed doses ranging from 25 to 50 Gy (RBE), on the assumption of instantaneous beam delivery. These plans were recalculated by varying the interruption time τ ranging from 0 to 120 min between the second and third fields for continuous irradiations of 3 min per field based on the MKM. The curative doses that would result in a TCP of 90% were deduced for the respective interruption times. The curative dose was 34.5 Gy (RBE) for instantaneous irradiation and 36.6 Gy (RBE), 39.2 Gy (RBE), 41.2 Gy (RBE), 43.3 Gy (RBE) and 44.4 Gy (RBE) for τ = 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min, respectively. The realistic biological effectiveness of therapeutic carbon-ion beam decreased with increasing interruption time. These data suggest that the curative dose can increase by 20% or more compared to the planned dose if

  18. Effects of beam interruption time on tumor control probability in single-fractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Suzuki, M.; Hawkins, R. B.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment plans are designed on the assumption that the beams are delivered instantaneously, irrespective of actual dose-delivery time structure in a treatment session. As the beam lines are fixed in the vertical and horizontal directions at our facility, beam delivery is interrupted in multi-field treatment due to the necessity of patient repositioning within the fields. Single-fractionated treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is such a case, in which four treatment fields in multiple directions are delivered in one session with patient repositioning during the session. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the period of dose delivery, including interruptions due to patient repositioning, on tumor control probability (TCP) of NSCLC. All clinical doses were weighted by relative biological effectiveness (RBE) evaluated for instantaneous irradiation. The rate equations defined in the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) for primary lesions induced in DNA were applied to the single-fractionated treatment of NSCLC. Treatment plans were made for an NSCLC case for various prescribed doses ranging from 25 to 50 Gy (RBE), on the assumption of instantaneous beam delivery. These plans were recalculated by varying the interruption time τ ranging from 0 to 120 min between the second and third fields for continuous irradiations of 3 min per field based on the MKM. The curative doses that would result in a TCP of 90% were deduced for the respective interruption times. The curative dose was 34.5 Gy (RBE) for instantaneous irradiation and 36.6 Gy (RBE), 39.2 Gy (RBE), 41.2 Gy (RBE), 43.3 Gy (RBE) and 44.4 Gy (RBE) for τ = 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min, respectively. The realistic biological effectiveness of therapeutic carbon-ion beam decreased with increasing interruption time. These data suggest that the curative dose can increase by 20% or more compared to the planned dose if the

  19. Interruptions: Derrida and Hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Mark W. Westmoreland

    2008-01-01

    Come in. Welcome. Be my guest and I will be yours. Shall we ask, in accordance with the Derridean question, "Is not hospitality an interruption of the self?" What is the relationship between the interruption and the moment one enters the host's home? Derrida calls us toward a new understanding of hospitality - as an interruption. This paper will illuminate the history of hospitality in the West as well as trace Derrida's discussions of hospitality throughout many of works. The overall goal of...

  20. A randomised control trial of structured interrupted generic antiretroviral therapy versus continuous therapy in HIV-infected individuals in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasamy, N; Flanigan, T P; Vallabhaneni, S; Cecelia, A J; Christybai, P; Balakrishnan, P; Yepthomi, T; Solomon, S; Carpenter, C C J; Mayer, K H

    2007-04-01

    This randomised control trial, conducted in Chennai, India, compared structured interrupted therapy (SIT) and continuous therapy (CT) in relation to immunologic and virologic outcomes, adverse events (AEs) and cost of therapy. ART-naïve adult HIV1-infected participants with CD4 counts 50-350 cells/mm(3), and plasma viral load (PVL)>5000 copies/mL were enrolled and placed on Indian-manufactured generic ART: zidovudine(AZT)/stavudine(d4T)+lamivudine(3TC)+efavirenz(EFV). After at least six months of continuous therapy, subjects were randomised to SIT (one-week-on/one-week-off cycles) or CT. The primary end-point was the proportion of subjects maintaining CD4>200 cells/mm(3) at six and 12 months after randomisation. Secondary end-points were effective viral suppression (PVL200 cells/mm(3). One participant on CT and two on SIT had sustained PVL>400 copies/mL. There were no serious AEs or deaths. Structured interrupted therapy cost was half of CT. Structured interrupted therapy was effective at maintaining CD4 above 200 cells/mm(3). Adverse events were comparable in both groups, with 50% reduction in cost for SIT. Further research on such strategies may benefit resource-constrained settings.

  1. Servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinella, John E.; Davis, Kristan D.; Musselman, Roy G.; Satterfield, David L.

    2015-12-29

    Methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer comprising a plurality of processor threads. Embodiments include an interrupt controller indicating in a plurality of local interrupt status locations that a globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include a thread determining that a local interrupt status location corresponding to the thread indicates that the globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include the thread processing one or more entries in a global interrupt status bit queue based on whether global interrupt status bits associated with the globally broadcast interrupt signal are locked. Each entry in the global interrupt status bit queue corresponds to a queued global interrupt.

  2. Interruptions: Derrida and Hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Westmoreland

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Come in. Welcome. Be my guest and I will be yours. Shall we ask, in accordance with the Derridean question, "Is not hospitality an interruption of the self?" What is the relationship between the interruption and the moment one enters the host's home? Derrida calls us toward a new understanding of hospitality - as an interruption. This paper will illuminate the history of hospitality in the West as well as trace Derrida's discussions of hospitality throughout many of works. The overall goal of this project is to provide readers of Derrida with a sort of reference guide for his discussions on and deconstructive approach to hospitality.

  3. Post-treatment HIV-1 controllers with a long-term virological remission after the interruption of early initiated antiretroviral therapy ANRS VISCONTI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Sáez-Cirión

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART reduces HIV-associated morbidities and mortalities but cannot cure the infection. Given the difficulty of eradicating HIV-1, a functional cure for HIV-infected patients appears to be a more reachable short-term goal. We identified 14 HIV patients (post-treatment controllers [PTCs] whose viremia remained controlled for several years after the interruption of prolonged cART initiated during the primary infection. Most PTCs lacked the protective HLA B alleles that are overrepresented in spontaneous HIV controllers (HICs; instead, they carried risk-associated HLA alleles that were largely absent among the HICs. Accordingly, the PTCs had poorer CD8+ T cell responses and more severe primary infections than the HICs did. Moreover, the incidence of viral control after the interruption of early antiretroviral therapy was higher among the PTCs than has been reported for spontaneous control. Off therapy, the PTCs were able to maintain and, in some cases, further reduce an extremely low viral reservoir. We found that long-lived HIV-infected CD4+ T cells contributed poorly to the total resting HIV reservoir in the PTCs because of a low rate of infection of naïve T cells and a skewed distribution of resting memory CD4+ T cell subsets. Our results show that early and prolonged cART may allow some individuals with a rather unfavorable background to achieve long-term infection control and may have important implications in the search for a functional HIV cure.

  4. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. PMID:25867225

  5. Closed-loop optogenetic control of thalamus as a new tool to interrupt seizures after cortical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Jeanne T.; Davidson, Thomas J.; Frechette, Eric S.; Delord, Bruno; Parada, Isabel; Peng, Kathy; Deisseroth, Karl; Huguenard, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrocortical injuries, such as stroke, are a major source of disability. Maladaptive consequences can result from post-injury local reorganization of cortical circuits. For example, epilepsy is a common sequela of cortical stroke, yet mechanisms responsible for seizures following cortical injuries remain unknown. In addition to local reorganization, long-range, extra-cortical connections might be critical for seizure maintenance. Here we report in rats the first evidence that the thalamus – a structure remote from but connected to the injured cortex – is required to maintain cortical seizures. Thalamocortical neurons connected to the injured epileptic cortex undergo changes in HCN channel expression and become hyperexcitable. Targeting these neurons with a closed-loop optogenetic strategy demonstrates that reducing their activity in real-time is sufficient to immediately interrupt electrographic and behavioral seizures. This approach is of therapeutic interest for intractable epilepsy, since it spares cortical function between seizures, in contrast to existing treatments such as surgical lesioning or drugs. PMID:23143518

  6. Void Shapes Controlled by Using Interruption-Free Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of GaN Films on Patterned SiO2 AlN/Sapphire Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-An Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available GaN epitaxial layers with embedded air voids grown on patterned SiO2 AlN/sapphire templates were proposed. Using interruption-free epitaxial lateral overgrowth technology, we realized uninterrupted growth and controlled the shape of embedded air voids. These layers showed improved crystal quality using X-ray diffraction and measurement of etching pits density. Compared with conventional undoped-GaN film, the full width at half-maximum of the GaN (0 0 2 and (1 0 2 peaks decreased from 485 arcsec to 376 arcsec and from 600 arcsec to 322 arcsec, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the coalesced GaN growth led to bending threading dislocation. We also proposed a growth model based on results of scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Miscarriage: A Dream Interrupted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepal, Heather C.; Semivan, Suzanne Gibson; Caley-Bruce, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy is a developmental task that requires women to become accustomed to inherent and sometimes profound biological, somatic, and psychological changes. When pregnancy is interrupted by miscarriage, it may become a pivotal crisis point in the development of a woman's maternal identity as well as an issue in family development. This manuscript…

  8. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways...... of supporting such behavior, we implemented a gesture controlled multiuser game with four pausing techniques. We evaluated them in a field study analyzing 704 users and found that our pausing techniques were eagerly explored, but rarely used with the intention to pause the game. Our study shows...... that interactions with public displays are considerably intermissive, and that users mostly interrupt interaction to socialize and mainly approach public displays in groups. We conclude that, as a typical characteristic of public display interaction, interruptions deserve consideration. However, manual pause modes...

  9. La producción científica sobre comportamientos demográficos diferenciales de la población extranjera en España (1986-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno García, Xiana

    2007-01-01

    L'objectiu d'aquest treball és l'anàlisi de la producció científica sobre els comportaments demogràfics diferencials de la població estrangera a Espanya durant el període 1986-2006. Per aquest motiu, s'ha realitzat una exploració bibliogràfica sobre migracions internacionals en general amb més de 1.800 referències; analitzant de forma exhaustiva la producció dedicada a l'estudi de les dinàmiques demogràfiques dels estrangers (natalitat i fecunditat, nupcialitat, mortalitat i migracions intern...

  10. Design and current status of CONTINT: continuous versus interrupted abdominal wall closure after emergency midline laparotomy - a randomized controlled multicenter trial [NCT00544583

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahbari Nuh N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal strategy for abdominal wall closure has been an issue of ongoing debate. Available studies do not specifically enroll patients who undergo emergency laparotomy and thus do not consider the distinct biological characteristics of these patients. The present randomized controlled trial evaluates the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Methods/design The CONTINT trial is a multicenter, open label, randomized controlled trial with a two-group parallel design. Patients undergoing a primary emergency midline laparotomy are enrolled in the trial. The two most commonly applied strategies of abdominal wall closure after midline laparotomy are compared: the continuous, all-layer suture technique using slowly absorbable monofilament material (two Monoplus® loops and the interrupted suture technique using rapidly absorbable braided material (Vicryl® sutures. The primary endpoint within the CONTINT trial is an incisional hernia within 12 months or a burst abdomen within 30 days after surgery. As reliable data on this primary endpoint is not available for patients undergoing emergency surgery, an adaptive interim analysis will be conducted after the inclusion of 80 patients, allowing early termination of the trial if necessary or modification of design characteristics such as recalculation of sample size. Discussion This is a randomized controlled multicenter trial with a two-group parallel design to assess the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Trial registration NCT00544583

  11. Customer interruption cost and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eua-Arporn, B.; Bisarnbutra, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-12-31

    Results of a comprehensive study on short-term direct impacts and consumer interruption costs, incurred as a result of power supply interruption, were discussed. The emphasis was on questionnaire development, general responses and the average customer damage function of some selected sectors. The customer damage function was established for each category of customers (agriculture, industry, mining, wholesale, retail merchandising, residential, etc) as well as for different locations. Results showed that the average customer damage function depended mostly on customer category. Size and location were not significant factors. 5 refs., 7 tabs.

  12. Method of interrupting asphalt solidifying operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To shorten the time required for interrupting operation, by specifying methods of supplying and interrupting liquid wastes, water and asphalts. Method: Electrical power supply for a heat medium heater is disconnected simultaneously with the start for the stopping operation. The temperature for the heat medium is detected by a heat medium thermometer, the flow rate of a waste liquid supply pump is reduced by way of a rotation controller for the liquid waste supply pump and the amount of liquid wastes supplied is gradually decreased along with the reduction in the temperature for the heat medium. Then, when the temperature for the heat medium lowered to about 190 - 2100C, supply of the liquid wastes is interrupted and cleaning water is supplied to a liquid wastes supply tank while closing the liquid wastes supply tank main valve and opening a cleaning water valve to thereby clean the radioactive substances. Then, after stopping the supply of the cleaning water, asphalt is continued to be supplied for several minutes, the radioactive substances deposited in an evaporator and an agitation blade are sufficiently washed out. Then, after stopping the asphalt tank, operations for the driving device and the heat medium pump are stopped. This enables cooling for the heat medium in a short time using no exclusive heat medium cooler, as well as clean the radioactive substances. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1998-08-11

    A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

  14. Interruptions during hospital nurses’ medication administration rounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Smeulers

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Medication administration errors are common, costly and the cause of adverse events in clinical practice. Interruptions during medication administration rounds are thought to be a prominent causative factor of these medication errors. In this observational study, data were collected on the number and duration of several different sources of verbal and non-verbal interruptions using unobtrusive structured observations on 32 medication administration rounds. Interruptions occurred very often (6.9 times per nurse each hour, differed in frequency among the medication administration rounds and were from a variety of sources. The most frequent interruptions were caused by nursing colleagues (43% and non-verbal interruptions from the ward environment (25%, such as noises from pagers, conversations in the vicinity of the nurse, the work of cleaners, or stock management by pharmacy staff. The longest durations of interruptions were from nursing colleagues’ verbal interrup- interruptions. When comparing the medication rounds, more and longer interruptions were observed during the morning rounds than those at noon. A comparison between surgical and non-surgical units showed that interruptions occurred more often and lasted longer in non-surgical units than those in surgical units. But the observed differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, interruptions during medication administration rounds are frequent and originated from different human and environmental sources. Interventions should target not only interruptions by colleagues, but should also consider ways to reduce self-initiated interruptions and those arising from the immediate ward environment.

  15. Children and Career Interruptions: The Family Gap in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Smith, Nina

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: The effect of children and career interruptions on the family gap is analysed based on longitudinal data covering the years 1980-1995. The estimated model controls for unobserved time-constant heterogeneity. The results show that when controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, the negative...

  16. Thinking aloud in the presence of interruptions and time constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    and time constraints, two frequent elements of real-world activities. We find that the presence of auditory, visual, audiovisual, or no interruptions interacts with thinking aloud for task solution rate, task completion time, and participants’ fixation rate. Thinking-aloud participants also spend longer...... responding to interruptions than control participants. Conversely, the absence or presence of time constraints does not interact with thinking aloud, suggesting that time pressure is less likely to make thinking aloud reactive than previously assumed. Our results inform practitioners faced with the decision...

  17. Impact of antibiotic restriction on resistance levels of Escherichia coli: a controlled interrupted time series study of a hospital-wide antibiotic stewardship programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Jonas Bredtoft; Andreasen, Viggo; Jarløv, Jens Otto;

    2016-01-01

    of E. coli. Results were directly compared with data from the control hospital utilizing a subtracted time series (STS). RESULTS: Direct comparison with the control hospital showed that the ASP was associated with a significant change in the level of use of cephalosporins [-151 DDDs/1000 bed-days (95......% CI -177, -126)] and fluoroquinolones [-44.5 DDDs/1000 bed-days (95% CI -58.9, -30.1)]. Resistance of E. coli showed a significant change in slope for cefuroxime [-0.13 percentage points/month (95% CI -0.21, -0.057)] and ciprofloxacin [-0.15 percentage points/month (95% CI -0.26, -0.038)]. CONCLUSIONS...

  18. Similar decreases in local tumor control are calculated for treatment protraction and for interruptions in the radiotherapy of carcinoma of the larynx in four centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Data on patients with cancer of the larynx are analyzed using statistical models to estimate the effect of gaps in the treatment time on the local control of the tumor. Methods and Materials: Patients from four centers, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Manchester, and Toronto, with carcinoma of the larynx and treated by radiotherapy were followed up and the disease-free period recorded. In all centers the end point was control of the primary tumor after irradiation alone. The local control rates at ≥2 years, Pc, were analyzed by log linear models, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to model the disease-free period. Results: T stage, nodal involvement, and site of the tumor were important determinants of the disease-free interval, as was the radiation schedule used. Elongation of the treatment time by 1 day, or a gap of 1 day, was associated with a decrease in Pc of 0.68% per day for Pc = 0.80, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.28, 1.08)%. An increase of 5 days was associated with a 3.5% reduction in Pc from 0.80 to 0.77. At Pc = 0.60 an increase of 5 days was associated with an 7.9% decrease in Pc. The time factor in the Linear Quadratic model, γ/α, was estimated as 0.89 Gy/day, 95% confidence interval (0.35, 1.43) Gy/day. Conclusions: Any gaps (public holidays are the majority) in the treatment schedule have the same deleterious effect on the disease free period as an increase in the prescribed treatment time. For a schedule, where dose and fraction number are specified, any gap in treatment is potentially damaging

  19. Optical Cutting Interruption Sensor for Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Adelmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on an optical sensor system attached to a 4 kW fiber laser cutting machine to detect cutting interruptions. The sensor records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a modified ring mirror and optical filter arrangement, which is placed between the cutting head and the collimator. The process radiation is sensed by a Si and InGaAs diode combination with the detected signals being digitalized with 20 kHz. To demonstrate the function of the sensor, signals arising during fusion cutting of 1 mm stainless steel and mild steel with and without cutting interruptions are evaluated and typical signatures derived. In the recorded signals the piercing process, the laser switch on and switch off point and waiting period are clearly resolved. To identify the cutting interruption, the signals of both Si and InGaAs diodes are high pass filtered and the signal fluctuation ranges being subsequently calculated. Introducing a correction factor, we identify that only in case of a cutting interruption the fluctuation range of the Si diode exceeds the InGaAs diode. This characteristic signature was successfully used to detect 80 cutting interruptions of 83 incomplete cuts (alpha error 3.6% and system recorded no cutting interruption from 110 faultless cuts (beta error of 0. This particularly high detection rate in combination with the easy integration of the sensor, highlight its potential for cutting interruption detection in industrial applications.

  20. The long-term costs of career interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available. PMID:12592867

  1. Basic interrupt and command structures and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrupt and command structures of a real-time system are described through specific examples. References to applications of a real-time system and programing development references are supplied. (auth)

  2. 三种短路故障电流相控分断零点预测算法的对比%Comparisons of Three Zero-Point Prediction Algorithms for Controlled Fault Interruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红蕾; 袁召; 冯英; 喻新林; 李辉; 何俊佳; 潘垣

    2015-01-01

    To implement the controlled fault interruption, it is necessary to restore the waveform of fault current and perform zero-point prediction rapidly and accurately. For this purpose, researchers home and abroad proposed various algorithms such as safe-point algorithm, adaptive self-checking algorithm, improved half-wave Fourier algorithm and so on, however, up to now the detailed research result related to concrete comparison of the three common algorithms is not reported. On the basis of presenting respective mathematical models of the three algorithms, according to the features of short-circuit current the Matlab based verification of the three algorithms is performed by calculation examples, and considering the affects of harmonics and DC component in fault current on calculation results the simulation contrast verification of computational results by the three algorithms is conducted. Results of both waveform fitting and parameter calculation indicate that the affects of harmonics on the three algorithms are not same. Based on simulation results and theoretical analysis on the three mathematical models, finally the applicable scopes of the three algorithms are obtained.%为实现短路故障的选相分断,首先需要还原故障电流波形,快速、准确地完成零点预测。为此,国内外学者提出了安全点算法、自适应算法、改进半波傅氏算法等,但是这3种常见算法的具体对比效果、应用范围等并没有相关深入研究。在介绍各算法数学模型的基础上,根据短路电流特点,在 Matlab 中进行了算例验证,考虑谐波及直流参数对计算结果的影响,仿真对比了3种算法的计算效果。波形拟合及参数计算结果表明这3种算法受到谐波因素的影响不同。在仿真结果及各模型理论分析的基础上,最后得到3种算法的适用范围。

  3. Infra hepatic interruption of inferior vena cava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Young Goo; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    Congenital anomaly of IVC is rare, but understanding of this anomaly is important in radiological diagnosis angiographic procedures and major retroperitoneal and thoracic surgery. We analysed 23 cases of IVC interruption diagnosed by cardiac angiography at Seoul National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The incidence of intrahepatic interruption of IVC was 0.45% of the patients having cardiac angiography and most patients showed cyanosis (91%). 2. The most common associated cardiac anomaly was right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (60%). Other associated cardiac defects were VSD, ASD, valvular anomalies in 9 cases (39%) respectively; double outlet right ventricle, bilateral superior vena cava, single ventricle in 6 cases (26%) respectively; single atrium, PDA in 5 cases (22%) respectively. 6 cases of situs inverses, 3 cases if sutus ambiguous, 2 cases of visceral heterotaxia and one case of asplenia were observed also. 7 cases of left-sided IVC were associated with IVC interruption in normal situs.

  4. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  5. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

  6. Coordinating the interruption of assembly workers in manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbeinsson, Ari; Thorvald, Peter; Lindblom, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how interruptions from information and communications technology systems affect errors and the time to complete tasks for assembly workers. Interruptions have previously been examined in laboratory experiments and office environments, but not much work has been performed in other authentic environments. This paper contains the results of an experiment that was performed in a simulated manufacturing assembly environment, which tested the effects of interruptions on a manual assembly task. The experiment used existing interruption coordination methods as a basis, and the results showed a difference in the effect of interruptions and interruption coordination between cognitively complex laboratory tasks and manual assembly tasks in an authentic environment. Most notably, the negative effects of interruptions delivered without consideration were smaller in this experiment. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems for minimizing the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

  7. Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens

    2001-01-01

    in a few seconds on a standard PC. Our tool is one of the first to give an efficient and useful static analysis of assembly code. It enables increased confidence in correctness, significantly reduced testing requirements, and support for maintenance throughout the system life-cycle....... require extensive brute-force testing, making development and maintenance costly. This is particularly true for system components that are written in assembly language. Static checking has the potential of alleviating these problems, but until now there has been little tool support for programming...... at the assembly level. In this paper we present the design and implementation of a static checker for interrupt-driven Z86-based software with hard real-time requirements. For six commercial microcontrollers, our checker has produced upper bounds on interrupt latencies and stack sizes, as well as verified...

  8. Anaphylactoid Reactions to Tolmetin After Interrupted Dosage

    OpenAIRE

    Bretza, Joseph A.; Novey, Harold S.

    1985-01-01

    Seven patients had anaphylactoid reactions after ingesting tolmetin sodium. In each case the reaction followed readministration of the drug after an interrupted period of at least three days and within 90 minutes of taking a single 400-mg capsule. None of the patients had had prior anaphylaxis and none were judged atopic. Skin tests to an extract of the drug (0.02 mg) were uniformly negative, whereas a higher concentration produced a nonspecific irritant reaction. In vitro tests in one patien...

  9. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuit-interrupting devices. 18.48 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine....

  10. Assembly interruptability robustness model with applications to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, James William

    1991-02-01

    Interruptability robustness of a construction project together with its assembly sequence may be measured by calculating the probability of its survival and successful completion in the face of unplanned interruptions of the assembly process. Such an interruption may jeopardize the survival of the structure being assembled, the survival of the support equipment, and/or the safety of the members of the construction crew, depending upon the stage in the assembly sequence when the interruption occurs. The interruption may be due to a number of actors such as: machinery break-downs, environmental damage, worker emergency illness or injury, etc. Each source of interruption has a probability of occurring, and adds an associated probability of loss, schedule delay, and cost to the project. Several options may exist for reducing the consequences of an interruption at a given point in the assembly sequence, including altering the assembly sequence, adding extra components or equipment as interruptability 'insurance', increasing the capability of support facilities, etc. Each option may provide a different overall performance of the project as it relates to success, assembly time, and project cost. The Interruptability Robustness Model was devised and provides a method which allows the overall interruptability robustness of construction of a project design and its assembly sequence to be quantified. In addition, it identifies the susceptibility to interruptions for the assembly sequence at all points within the assembly sequence. The model is applied to the present problem of quantifying and improving interruptability robustness during the construction of Space Station Freedom. This application was used as a touchstone for devising the Interruptability Robustness Model. However, the model may be utilized to assist in the analysis of interruptability robustness for other space-related construction projects such as the lunar base and orbital assembly of the manned Mars

  11. 全国血吸虫病疫情资料回顾性调查Ⅲ传播控制和传播阻断后疫情回升地区疫情变化分析%Retrospective investigation on national endemic situation of schistosomiasis Ⅲ Changes of endemic situation in endemic rebounded counties after transmission of schistosomiasis under control or interruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许静; 张奕; 陈文; 熊孟涛; 林春; 张利娟; 徐俊芳; 张世清; 汪天平; 闻礼永; 周晓农; 林丹丹; 吴晓华; 朱蓉; 汪奇志; 吕尚标; 杨国静; 韩阳清; 肖瑛

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析我国血吸虫病流行区达到传播控制(传控)和传播阻断(传阻)后疫情回升地区的疫情变化情况,为修订血吸虫病控制和消灭标准、巩固达标地区防治成果提供参考.方法 选择全国7个血吸虫病流行省中的12个疫情回升县(市、区),采用回顾性调查法,收集各县达传控前10年和以后各年(至2008年或2009)的疫情数据及相关资料,分析其疫情变化情况及达标后疫情回升因素.结果 达传控后疫情回升县的疫情巩固时间平均为5±3年.山丘型和湖沼型流行区钉螺面积分别在达标后第7年和第12年回升至历史累计有螺面积的10%以上,水网型流行区钉螺面积相对稳定在较低水平;感染性钉螺密度的回升时间与活螺密度的回升高峰基本一致;湖沼型流行区在达传控后2年居民感染率即回升至>10%.达传阻后疫情回升县的疫情巩固时间平均为7±4年.达传阻后湖沼型、水网型和山丘型流行区的人群感染率均稳定在较低水平,但钉螺面积在达传阻后的3~6年先后回升至历史累计有螺面积的2%以上,而活螺密度和感染性钉螺密度则在钉螺面积回升的当年或随后2~3年相继出现回升.结论 受生物、自然、社会等诸多因素的影响,传控和传阻达标地区疫情回升主要表现为螺情回升.建议修订我国血吸虫病控制和消灭标准时,应综合考虑不同类型流行区的螺情变化规律、钉螺面积或感染性钉螺密度等因素对疫情的影响.传控和传阻地区应建立敏感而有效的监测预警体系,加强达标后的疫情监测和巩固工作.%Objective To analyze the changes of schistosomiasis endemic situation before and after reaching the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission control or transmission interruption in endemic rebounded areas, so as to offer the information for modifying the criteria of schistosomiasis control and elimination, and consolidating

  12. The intelligibility of interrupted speech depends upon its uninterrupted intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoint, Marine; Green, Tim; Rosen, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    Recognition of sentences containing periodic, 5-Hz, silent interruptions of differing duty cycles was assessed for three types of processed speech. Processing conditions employed different combinations of spectral resolution and the availability of fundamental frequency (F0) information, chosen to yield similar, below-ceiling performance for uninterrupted speech. Performance declined with decreasing duty cycle similarly for each processing condition, suggesting that, at least for certain forms of speech processing and interruption rates, performance with interrupted speech may reflect that obtained with uninterrupted speech. This highlights the difficulty in interpreting differences in interrupted speech performance across conditions for which uninterrupted performance is at ceiling. PMID:25324110

  13. A gunner model for an AAA tracking task with interrupted observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. F.; Wei, K. C.; Vikmanis, M.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of modeling a trained human operator's tracking performance in an anti-aircraft system under various display blanking conditions is discussed. The input to the gunner is the observable tracking error subjected to repeated interruptions (blanking). A simple and effective gunner model was developed. The effect of blanking on the gunner's tracking performance is approached via modeling the observer and controller gains.

  14. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135.417 Section 135.417 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report....

  15. Career Interruptions and Subsequent Earnings: A Reexamination Using Swedish Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, James W.; Edin, Per-Anders; Sundstrom, Marianne; Vroman, Susan B.

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional and panel estimations of Swedish data reveal that different types of career interruptions have different effects on wages, varying by gender. Therefore, human capital depreciation does not entirely account for the negative effect of career interruptions on subsequent wages. (SK)

  16. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  17. Interrupted Stellar Encounters in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Geller, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Strong encounters between single stars and binaries play a pivotal role in the evolution of star clusters. Such encounters can also dramatically modify the orbital parameters of binaries, exchange partners in and out of binaries, and are a primary contributor to the rate of physical stellar collisions in star clusters. Often, these encounters are studied under the approximation that they happen quickly enough and within a small enough volume to be considered isolated from the rest of the cluster. In this paper, we study the validity of this assumption through the analysis of a large grid of single - binary and binary - binary scattering experiments. For each encounter we evaluate the encounter duration, and compare this with the expected time until another single or binary star will join the encounter. We find that for lower-mass clusters, similar to typical open clusters in our Galaxy, the percent of encounters that will be "interrupted" by an interloping star or binary may be 20-40% (or higher) in the core,...

  18. INTERRUPTED STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Aaron M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Leigh, Nathan W. C., E-mail: a-geller@northwestern.edu, E-mail: nleigh@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West and 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Strong encounters between single stars and binaries play a pivotal role in the evolution of star clusters. Such encounters can also dramatically modify the orbital parameters of binaries, exchange partners in and out of binaries, and are a primary contributor to the rate of physical stellar collisions in star clusters. Often, these encounters are studied under the approximation that they happen quickly enough and within a small enough volume to be considered isolated from the rest of the cluster. In this paper, we study the validity of this assumption through the analysis of a large grid of single–binary and binary–binary scattering experiments. For each encounter we evaluate the encounter duration, and compare this with the expected time until another single or binary star will join the encounter. We find that for lower-mass clusters, similar to typical open clusters in our Galaxy, the percent of encounters that will be “interrupted” by an interloping star or binary may be 20%–40% (or higher) in the core, though for typical globular clusters we expect ≲1% of encounters to be interrupted. Thus, the assumption that strong encounters occur in relative isolation breaks down for certain clusters. Instead, many strong encounters develop into more complex “mini-clusters,” which must be accounted for in studying, for example, the internal dynamics of star clusters, and the physical stellar collision rate.

  19. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Nathan W C; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Binary mass transfer is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including Type Ia supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this time-scale to the mean time for stable mass transfer to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing mass transfer that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster pro...

  20. 3C236 Radio Source, Interrupted?

    CERN Document Server

    O'Dea, C P; Baum, S A; Sparks, W B; Martel, A R; Allen, M G; Macchetto, F D; Miley, G K; Dea, Christopher P. O'; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Baum, Stefi A.; Sparks, William B.; Martel, Andre R.; Allen, Mark G.; Macchetto, Ferdinando D.; Miley, George K.

    2001-01-01

    We present new HST STIS/MAMA near-UV images and archival WFPC2 V and R band images which reveal the presence of four star forming regions in an arc along the edge of the dust lane in the giant (4 Mpc) radio galaxy 3C236. Two of the star forming regions are relatively young with ages of order 1E7 yr, while the other two are older with ages of order 1E8 - 1E9 yr which is comparable to the estimated age of the giant radio source. Based on dynamical and spectral aging arguments, we suggest that the fuel supply to the AGN was interrupted for 1E7 yr and has now been restored, resulting in the formation of the inner 2 kpc scale radio source. This time scale is similar to that of the age of the youngest of the star forming regions. We suggest that the transport of gas in the disk is non-steady and that this produces both the multiple episodes of star formation in the disk as well as the multiple epochs of radio source activity. If the inner radio source and the youngest star forming region are related by the same eve...

  1. Pardon the Interruption: Goal Proximity, Perceived Spare Time, and Impatience

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Hoon Jhang; John G. Lynch Jr.

    2015-01-01

    There is no worse time to be interrupted than right now. Being close to attaining a goal to complete a focal task increases the attractiveness of that task compared to an interrupting task (study 1), makes people less willing to take on some otherwise attractive interruption than if they were farther away from completion (studies 2, 3, and 4), and causes them to perceive that in that moment they have little spare time (studies 3 and 4). Consumers immersed in goal pursuit are affected by local...

  2. Deformation of contact surfaces in a vacuum interrupter after high-current interruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhou, Zhipeng; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Jianhua; Geng, Yingsan; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2016-08-01

    In a high-current interruption, the contact surface in a vacuum interrupter might be severely damaged by constricted vacuum arcs causing a molten area on it. As a result, a protrusion will be initiated by a transient recovery voltage after current zero, enhancing the local electric field and making breakdowns occur easier. The objective of this paper is to simulate the deformation process on the molten area under a high electric field by adopting the finite element method. A time-dependent Electrohydrodynamic model was established, and the liquid-gas interface was tracked by the level-set method. From the results, the liquid metal can be deformed to a Taylor cone if the applied electric field is above a critical value. This value is correlated to the initial geometry of the liquid metal, which increases as the size of the liquid metal decreases. Moreover, the buildup time of a Taylor cone obeys the power law t = k × E-3, where E is the initial electric field and k is a coefficient related to the material property, indicating a temporal self-similar characteristic. In addition, the influence of temperature has little impact on the deformation but has great impact on electron emission. Finally, the possible reason to initiate a delayed breakdown is associated with the deformation. The breakdown does not occur immediately when the voltage is just applied upon the gap but is postponed to several milliseconds later when the tip is formed on the liquid metal.

  3. Anticipating Interruptions. Security and risk in a liberalized electricity infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvast, A.

    2013-11-01

    During the past ten years, a number of social scientists have emphasized the importance of material infrastructures like electricity supply as a research topic for the social sciences. The developing of such new perspectives concerning infrastructures also includes uncertainties and risks. This research analyzes the management of uncertainties in the Finnish electricity infrastructure by posing the following research question: how are electricity interruptions, or blackouts, anticipated in Finland and how are these interruptions managed as risks? The main research methodology of the work is multi-sited field work. The empirical materials include interviews with experts and lay people (33 interviews); participant observation in two electricity control rooms; an electricity consumer survey (115 respondents); and also a number of infrastructure and security policy documents and observations from electricity security seminars. The materials were primarily gathered between 2004 and 2008. Social science research often links risks with major current social changes or socio-cultural risk perceptions. In recent international social science discussions, however, a new research topic has emerged - those styles of reasoning and techniques of governance that are deployed to manage risk as a practical matter. My study explores these themes empirically by focusing on the specific habitual practices of risk management in the Finnish electricity infrastructure. The work develops various also semi-ethnographic inquiries into infrastructure risk techniques like monitor screening of real-time risks in electricity control rooms; the management of risks in a liberalized electricity market; the emergence of Finnish reasoning about blackouts from a specific historical background; and the ways in which electricity consumers respond to blackouts in their homes. In addition, the work reflects upon the position of a risk researcher in those situations when the research subjects do not define

  4. Instant Messaging Usage and Interruptions in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui‐Jung Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to explore IM interruption by relating it to media choices and purposes of IM use in the workplace. Two major media choice concepts were: media richness and social influence; while four purposes of IM use were: organization work, knowledge work, socializing, and boundary spanning activities. Data (N = 283 were collected via a combination of convenience and snowball sampling of “computer‐using workers” in Taiwan, based on the Standard Occupational Classification system published by the Taiwan government. Results indicated that media choice works better than purpose of IM use to explain IM interruption. Among them, social influence was the best predictor to IM interruption in the workplace. In addition, instant feedback and personalization provided by IM, and IM usage for the purposes of knowledge work and socializing, also relate to IM interruption in the workplace.

  5. Proximal Interruption of the Pulmonary Artery: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S H; Jasper, Anitha; Mani, Sunithi Elizabeth; Joseph, Elizabeth; Mathai, John

    2015-12-01

    We present a few cases of Proximal Interruption of the Pulmonary Artery, an uncommon developmental anomaly associated with congenital heart disease. The cases had varied clinical presentations. Chest radiograph showed a hypoplastic lung with an ipsilateral small hilum on the side of the interruption and hyperinflation of the contralateral lung. Contrast CT confirmed the diagnosis, demonstrating non-visualization of the left or right pulmonary artery, and other related findings. PMID:26816968

  6. Frequent interruptions of sedentary time modulates contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake pathways in muscle: Ancillary analysis from randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Latouche, Celine; Heywood, Sarah; Grace, Megan S; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini; Natoli, Alaina K; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed associations between frequent interruptions of sitting time with physical activity bouts and beneficial metabolic outcomes, even in individuals who regularly exercise. Frequent interruptions to prolonged sitting reduce postprandial plasma glucose. Here we studied potential skeletal muscle mechanisms accounting for this improved control of glycemia in overweight adults under conditions of one day uninterrupted sitting and sitting interrupted with light-intensity or moderate-intensity walking every 20-min (n = 8); and, after three days of either uninterrupted sitting or light-intensity walking interruptions (n = 5). Contraction- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake signaling pathways as well as changes in oxidative phosphorylation proteins were examined. We showed that 1) both interventions reduce postprandial glucose concentration, 2) acute interruptions to sitting over one day stimulate the contraction-mediated glucose uptake pathway, 3) both acute interruptions to sitting with moderate-intensity activity over one day and light-intensity activity over three days induce a transition to modulation of the insulin-signaling pathway, in association with increased capacity for glucose transport. Only the moderate-intensity interruptions resulted in greater capacity for glycogen synthesis and likely for ATP production. These observations contribute to a mechanistic explanation of improved postprandial glucose metabolism with regular interruptions to sitting time, a promising preventive strategy for metabolic diseases. PMID:27554943

  7. Mechanism of interrupted saccades in patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lance M Optican; Rucker, Janet C.; Keller, Edward L.; Leigh, R. John

    2008-01-01

    In late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS), saccades are interrupted by one or more transient decelerations. Some saccades reaccelerate and continue on before eye velocity reaches zero, even in darkness. Intervals between successive decelerations are not regularly spaced. Peak decelerations of horizontal and vertical components of oblique saccades in LOTS is more synchronous than those in control subjects. We hypothesize that these decelerations are caused by dysregulation of the fastigial nuclei...

  8. Arc Behaviours in Vacuum Interrupters with Axial Magnetic Field Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongyi; ZHENG Yuesheng; LIU Zhiyuan; CHENG Shaoyong

    2008-01-01

    To improve the limiting current interruption capability and minimizing vacuum interrupter with axial magnetic field (AMF) electrodes,it is significant to investigate the vacuum arc behaviours between the contacts.AMF distributions of the slot type electrodes were studied by both numerical analysis and experiments. Furthermore,the behaviours of vacuum arcs for different parameters of the slot type AMF electrodes were investigated by using high-speed CCD camera.The influences of gap distance,contact diameter and phase shift time between AMF and arc current on the vacuum arc were investigated.The results provide a reference for research and development of vacuum interrupters with slot type or other types of AMF electrode.

  9. The Effects of Interruptions on Oncologists' Patient Assessment and Medication Ordering Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Trbovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interruptions are causal factors in medication errors. Although researchers have assessed the nature and frequency of interruptions during medication administration, there has been little focus on understanding their effects during medication ordering. The goal of this research was to examine the nature, frequency, and impact of interruptions on oncologists' ordering practices. Direct observations were conducted at a Canadian cancer treatment facility to (1 document the nature, frequency, and timing of interruptions during medication ordering, and (2 quantify the use of coping mechanisms by oncologists. On average, oncologists were interrupted 17 % of their time, and were frequently interrupted during safety-critical stages of medication ordering. When confronted with interruptions, oncologists engaged/multitasked more often than resorting to deferring/blocking. While some interruptions are necessary forms of communication, efforts must be made to reduce unnecessary interruptions during safety-critical tasks, and to develop interventions that increase oncologists' resiliency to inevitable interruptions.

  10. "Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension": Correction to Foroughi et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension" by Cyrus K. Foroughi, Nicole E. Werner, Daniela Barragán and Deborah A. Boehm-Davis (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2015[Jun], Vol 144[3], 704-709). In the article the effect sizes (Cohen's d) were reported using the incorrect formula. The correct formula and effect sizes are provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-15250-001.) Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension

  11. RNA polymerase II collision interrupts convergent transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobson, David J; Wei, Wu; Steinmetz, Lars M;

    2012-01-01

    Antisense noncoding transcripts, genes-within-genes, and convergent gene pairs are prevalent among eukaryotes. The existence of such transcription units raises the question of what happens when RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) molecules collide head-to-head. Here we use a combination of biochemical...... genes. These results provide insight into fundamental mechanisms of gene traffic control and point to an unexplored effect of antisense transcription on gene regulation via polymerase collision....

  12. Identifying biological pathway interrupting toxins using multi-tree ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergo Barta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry constantly seeks new ways to improve current methods that scientists use to evaluate environmental chemicals and develop new medicines. Various automated steps are involved in the process as testing hundreds of thousands of chemicals manually would be infeasible. Our research effort and the Toxicology in the 21st Century Data Challenge focused on cost-effective automation of toxicological testing, a chemical substance screening process looking for possible toxic effects caused by interrupting biological pathways. The computational models we propose in this paper successfully combine various publicly available substance fingerprinting tools with advanced machine learning techniques. In our paper, we explore the significance and utility of assorted feature selection methods as the structural analyzers generate a plethora of features for each substance. Machine learning models were carefully selected and evaluated based on their capability to cope with the high-dimensional high-variety data with multi-tree ensemble methods coming out on top. Techniques like Random forests and Extra trees combine numerous simple tree models and proved to produce reliable predictions on toxic activity while being nearly non-parametric and insensitive to dimensionality extremes. The Tox21 Data Challenge contest offered a great platform to compare a wide range of solutions in a controlled and orderly manner. The results clearly demonstrate that the generic approach presented in this paper is comparable to advanced deep learning and domain-specific solutions. Even surpassing the competition in some nuclear receptor signaling and stress pathway assays and achieving an accuracy of up to 94 percent.

  13. Report of the procedure of voluntary interruption of pregnancy at a university hospital in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bentancor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the constitution and operation of a voluntary interruption of pregnancy team of a university hospital, from the outlook of the mental health team. METHODS In this case study, the following aspects were analyzed: 1 historical background; 2 implementation of Law 18,897 of October 22, 2012; and 3 functioning of the program at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Facultad de Medicina (Universidad de la República, Uruguay, taking into account three dimensions: structure, process, and results. RESULTS Between December 2012 and November 2013, a total of 6,676 voluntary interruptions of pregnancy were reported in Uruguay; out of these, 80 were conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas. The patients’ demographic data agreed with those reported at the national level: Of the total patients, 81.0% were aged over 19 years; 6.2% decided to continue with the pregnancy; and only 70.0% attended the subsequent control and received advice on contraception. CONCLUSIONS In its implementation year in Uruguay, we can assess the experience as positive from the point of view of women’s health. Our experience as a mental health team at the Hospital de Clínicas, inserted into the multidisciplinary voluntary interruption of pregnancy team, is in the process of assessment and reformulation of practices.

  14. Interrupted or continuous-intradermal suturing? Statistical analysis of postoperative scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Sarı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Postoperative scar development is an important problem for patients treated in plastic surgery clinics. Most patients think that continuous intradermal suturing is superior to interrupted suturing because they assume that it creates less scarring. We evaluated scars that form following intradermal and interrupted suturing. This article presents our controlled study that objectively compared the scars on patients' faces using a wound evaluation scale. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients, who had undergone operations on the bilateral cheeks, were included in this study. Thirty patients were female; five patients were male. Their mean age was 40.05 years. The average scar evaluation time after surgery was 9.05 months. Elliptical excisions were made on the lesions under local anesthesia. The incisions on the right cheeks were sutured with 6/0 monofilament nonabsorbable sutures using the continuous intradermal suturing technique. The left cheek incisions were sutured with same sutures using the interrupted suturing method. Results: The patients were evaluated 7–11 months after operation (mean: 9.05 months using the Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale. A Related Samples T-test was used for statistical evaluation of the differences between the suturing techniques. No significant differences were noted in scar formation between the two suturing methods (p>0.05. Conclusion: We found no differences in scar formation between the two frequently used suturing techniques studied here. We believe that the suturing technique is a less important determinant of scar formation than are other factors.

  15. Bisimilarity is not finitely based over BPA with interrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Fokkink, Wan; Ingolfsdottir, Anna;

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows that bisimulation equivalence does not afford a finite equational axiomatization over the language obtained by enriching Bergstra and Klop's Basic Process Algebra with the interrupt operator. Moreover, it is shown that the collection of closed equations over this language is also...

  16. A Wrist-Worn Thermohaptic Device for Graceful Interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, Frank; Jalaliniya, Shahram; Pederson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Thermal haptics is a potential system output modality for wearable devices that promises to function at the periphery of human attention. When adequately combined with existing attention-governing mechanisms of the human mind, it could be used for interrupting the human agent at a time when...

  17. A Wrist-Worn Thermohaptic Device for Graceful Interruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Jalaliniya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal haptics is a potential system output modality for wearable devices that promises to function at the periphery of human attention. When adequately combined with existing attention-governing mechanisms of the human mind, it could be used for interrupting the human agent at a time when the negative influence on the ongoing activity is minimal. In this article we present our self-mitigated interruption concept (essentially a symbiosis of artificial external stimuli tuned to existing human attention management mechanisms and perform a pilot study laying the ground for using a wrist-worn thermohaptic actuator for self-mitigating interruption. We then develope a prototype and perform an insightful pilot study. We frame our empirical thermohaptic experimental work in terms of Peripheral Interaction concepts and show how this new approach to Human-Computer Interaction relates to the Context-Aware-systems-inspired approach “Egocentric Interaction” aimed at supporting the design of envisioned Wearable Personal Assistants intended to, among other things, help human perception and cognition with the management of interruptions.

  18. User assistance for multitasking with interruptions on a mobile device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagata, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    Issues users have with use of the web on a mobile device can be attributed to difficulties with the mobile interface. A major challenge that we address is improving the user experience for handling of interruptions and multitasking when using the web in a mobile context. The usability issues with a

  19. Approximator: Predicting Interruptibility in Software Development with Commodity Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Jalaliniya, Shahram; Andersen, Kristian S. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the presence and availability of a remote colleague is key in coordination in global software development but is not easily done using existing computer-mediated channels. Previous research has shown that automated estimation of interruptibility is feasible and can achieve a precision...

  20. Realistically Rendering SoC Traffic Patterns with Interrupt Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angiolini, Frederico; Mahadevan, Sharkar; Madsen, Jan;

    2005-01-01

    generate realistic test traffic. This paper presents a selection of applications using interrupt-based synchronization; a reference methodology to split such applications in execution subflows and to adjust the overall execution stream based upon hardware events; a reactive simulation device capable of...

  1. Interrupted Work Careers: Depreciation and Restoration of Human Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincer, Jacob; Ofek, Haim

    1982-01-01

    Using National Longitudinal Survey panel data on wages of married women, the authors found that real wages at reentry are lower than at the point of labor force withdrawal, and the decline in wages is greater, the longer the interruption. Discusses how this data affects immigrants to the United States. (CT)

  2. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putora Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. Methods We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. Results The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. Conclusions The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations.

  3. Antenatal evaluation of fetal interrupted aortic arch type B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Babacan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interruption of the aortic arch (IAA is a rare, severe form of congenital heart defect characterized by complete anatomical discontinuity between two adjacent segments of the aortic arch. The data on the features and outcomes of fetal IAA are limited. Three anatomical types have been described according to the site of interruption. The current recommendations for screening on the obstetric fetal anomaly scan include identification of a 4-chamber view, all 4 valves, and the outflow tracts, all of which can appear to be normal to the ultrasonographer in fetuses with conotruncal anomalies. Although the identification of IAA on a prenatal echocardiogram can be challenging, a number of anatomic features can facilitate the diagnosis. We aim to present the features and outcome of a case of IAA type B referred to our centre in the light of literatures.

  4. Mathematic principles of interrupted-sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XueSong; LIU JianCheng; ZHANG WenMing; FU QiXiang; LIU Zhong; XIE XiaoXia

    2007-01-01

    Coherent jamming is one of the important trends in modern radar electronic warfare. High-speed sampling of wideband radio frequency (RF) signals and high isolation of two receive-transmit antennas are key technologies for the realization of coherent jamming. However, these technologies present significant challenges to engineering application. In this paper, a novel repeater jamming based on interrupted sampling technique is presented. For a jammer with a receive-transmit time-sharing antenna, a radar signal is sampled with a low rate by the jammer. Then, a train of false targets will be achieved after the jamming signal feed the matched filter of a pulse compression radar. For the case of the linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulse compression radars, mathematic principles of the interrupted-sam- pling repeater jamming is developed, and then the efficiency of the jamming is described and stated as expressions of key parameters which are also beneficial to the jamming design for other coherent radars.

  5. A Multiple-Reception Access Protocol with Interruptions with Mixed Priorities in CDMA Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaowen; Zhu Jinkang

    2003-01-01

    A novel access protocol called Multiple-Reception Access Protocol (MRAP) and its modification MRAP/WI are proposed. In this protocol, all colliding users with a common code can be identified by the base station due to the offset of arrival time Thus they can retransmit access requests under the base station's control. Furthermore new arrivals with higher priority level can interrupt the lower retransmission in order to reduce its access delay although it increases the lower priority's delay. Simulation results of MRAP and MRAP/WI are given in order to highlight the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  6. Stress Analysis and Calculation of Flow Interruption Capability Test Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; Bo; QI; Xiao-guang; CHENG; Dao-xi

    2012-01-01

    <正>A stress-analysis and calculation has been done for the flow interruption capability test loop (Fig. 1). In the design condition, the test loop is operated on 350 ℃ and 20MPa. By reasonably simplifying and modeling, a stress-analysis program named Triflex was used to analyze the piping stress and optimize the piping supports, which meet the compliance. The work will provide the necessary basis for the construction of the loop and operation security.

  7. The Interrupted Power Law and The Size of Shadow Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Fiaschi; Imre Kondor; Matteo Marsili; Valerio Volpati

    2013-01-01

    Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is ``interrupted'' by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechani...

  8. ICDS database: interrupted CoDing sequences in prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodou, Emmanuel; Deshayes, Caroline; Muller, Jean; Schaeffer, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Ripp, Raymond; Poch, Olivier; Reyrat, Jean-Marc; Lecompte, Odile

    2006-01-01

    Unrecognized frameshifts, in-frame stop codons and sequencing errors lead to Interrupted CoDing Sequence (ICDS) that can seriously affect all subsequent steps of functional characterization, from in silico analysis to high-throughput proteomic projects. Here, we describe the Interrupted CoDing Sequence database containing ICDS detected by a similarity-based approach in 80 complete prokaryotic genomes. ICDS can be retrieved by species browsing or similarity searches via a web interface (http://www-bio3d-igbmc.u-strasbg.fr/ICDS/). The definition of each interrupted gene is provided as well as the ICDS genomic localization with the surrounding sequence. Furthermore, to facilitate the experimental characterization of ICDS, we propose optimized primers for re-sequencing purposes. The database will be regularly updated with additional data from ongoing sequenced genomes. Our strategy has been validated by three independent tests: (i) ICDS prediction on a benchmark of artificially created frameshifts, (ii) comparison of predicted ICDS and results obtained from the comparison of the two genomic sequences of Bacillus licheniformis strain ATCC 14580 and (iii) re-sequencing of 25 predicted ICDS of the recently sequenced genome of Mycobacterium smegmatis. This allows us to estimate the specificity and sensitivity (95 and 82%, respectively) of our program and the efficiency of primer determination.

  9. Factors associated with treatment interruption for hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oliveira de Rezende Melo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate risk factors related to Hepatitis C treatment interruption. Methods Retrospective cohort of patients seen at the Hepatology outpatient service at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, from 2001 to 2009. The factors investigated were: age, gender, genotype, degree of liver fibrosis, type of treatment, treatment time in weeks, diabetes mellitus, and systemic hypertension. Survival curves and bivariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used in the analyses. Results The risk of treatment interruption is six times greater in patients with more advanced degrees of liver fibrosis (F4 compared to those with less advanced degree (F2 in the period from 0 to 24 weeks of treatment. Genotype was found to be an important factor to explain therapy cessation after 24 weeks of treatment – the risk of stopping treatment was 2.5 times higher in patients with genotype 3 than in those with genotype 1. Conclusion Degree of liver fibrosis and genotype proved to be the main risk factors associated to treatment interruption.

  10. Interruption Phenomenon in Intermediate-Frequency Vacuum Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wu, Jianwen

    2016-03-01

    In the condition of the 3 mm gap, experiments for 360 Hz intermediate-frequency vacuum arc are carried out in interrupters with the diameters being 41 mm and with the contact materials being CuCr50 and Cu-W-WC alloy respectively. The results indicate that the contacts material is closely related to the breaking capacity of the vacuum interrupters and characteristics of an intermediate-frequency vacuum arc. For contacts with the same diameter, the breaking capacity of CuCr50 is better than that of Cu-W-WC. When the current fails to be interrupted, the arcs overflow the gap and present irregular performances in the first half wave. Consequently a voltage spike appears. More macroscopic metal droplets can be seen in the arc column between CuCr50 contacts because of the lower melting point. It is observed that the droplet emission is much more severe during arc reignition than that in the first half wave. It is much more conspicuous that the high frequency arc voltage noises appear in Cu-W-WC contacts when the vacuum arcs reignite, for higher temperature and stronger electronic emission ability of Cu-W-WC contacts. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51377007), Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20131102130006), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China

  11. Interrupting malaria transmission: quantifying the impact of interventions in regions of low to moderate transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Gatton

    Full Text Available Malaria has been eliminated from over 40 countries with an additional 39 currently planning for, or committed to, elimination. Information on the likely impact of available interventions, and the required time, is urgently needed to help plan resource allocation. Mathematical modelling has been used to investigate the impact of various interventions; the strength of the conclusions is boosted when several models with differing formulation produce similar data. Here we predict by using an individual-based stochastic simulation model of seasonal Plasmodium falciparum transmission that transmission can be interrupted and parasite reintroductions controlled in villages of 1,000 individuals where the entomological inoculation rate is <7 infectious bites per person per year using chemotherapy and bed net strategies. Above this transmission intensity bed nets and symptomatic treatment alone were not sufficient to interrupt transmission and control the importation of malaria for at least 150 days. Our model results suggest that 1 stochastic events impact the likelihood of successfully interrupting transmission with large variability in the times required, 2 the relative reduction in morbidity caused by the interventions were age-group specific, changing over time, and 3 the post-intervention changes in morbidity were larger than the corresponding impact on transmission. These results generally agree with the conclusions from previously published models. However the model also predicted changes in parasite population structure as a result of improved treatment of symptomatic individuals; the survival probability of introduced parasites reduced leading to an increase in the prevalence of sub-patent infections in semi-immune individuals. This novel finding requires further investigation in the field because, if confirmed, such a change would have a negative impact on attempts to eliminate the disease from areas of moderate transmission.

  12. Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripassorn Krittaecho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP. We compared the virological outcomes of (1 HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV; and (2 HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls. Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161; (b Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82; and (c Control, in which the subjects were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (n=316. The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4 and Control (6.6. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first

  13. High-capacity single-pressure SF/sub 6/ interrupters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostron, J R; Berkebile, L E; Spindle, H E

    1983-05-01

    The object of this project was to design and develop a high-voltage, single-pressure, SF/sub 6/ interrupter with an interrupting capability of 120 kA at 145 kV with a continuous current rating of 5000 A and an interrupting time of 1.5 cycles or less. A second objective of 100 kA at 242 kV was added during the project. Mathematical models were used to extrapolate design requirements from existing data for 63 and 80 kA. Two model puffers, one liquid and the other gas, were designed and tested to obtain data at 100 kA. An interrupter, optimized on the basis of total prospective breaker cost, was designed using the mathematical models. A study was made of the construction materials to operate under the high-stress conditions in this interrupter. Existing high-speed movies of high-current arcs under double-flow conditions were analyzed to obtain more information for modeling the interrupter. The optimized interrupter design was built and tested. The interrupting capability confirmed calculations of predicted performance near current zero; however, the dielectric strength after interrupting these high-current arcs was not adequate for the 145-kV or the 242-kV ratings. The dielectric strength was reduced by hot gases flowing out of the interrupter. Valuable data have been obtained for modeling the SF/sub 6/ puffer interrupter for high currents.

  14. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  15. Managing voluntary interruption of pregnancy using data mining

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão, Andreia; Pereira, Eliana; Portela, Filipe; Santos, Manuel Filipe; Abelha, António; Machado, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    When a woman aims to terminate an unplanned pregnancy, she must go to a specialized healthcare unit, such as Júlio Dinis Maternity Hospital. In this unit, the procedures of voluntary interruption of pregnancy are done by two kinds of drug administration: the first one is always done by a nursing team, the second one can be performed at home or by a nursing team, depending on patient features. It is important to give the best option to the pregnant. In this paper, it is proposed to...

  16. Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob; Meares, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    While the 2011 National Electrical Codeª (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

  17. The interrupted power law and the size of shadow banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is "interrupted" by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an "interrupted" Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimate-which we propose as a shadow banking index-compares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity.

  18. Generalized Negative Reciprocity in the Dictator Game--How to Interrupt the Chain of Unfairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Sabrina; Grote, Xenia; Kuss, Katarina; Park, Soyoung Q; Weber, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Humans are tremendously sensitive to unfairness. Unfairness provokes strong negative emotional reactions and influences our subsequent decision making. These decisions might not only have consequences for ourselves and the person who treated us unfairly but can even transmit to innocent third persons--a phenomenon that has been referred to as generalized negative reciprocity. In this study we aimed to investigate whether regulation of emotions can interrupt this chain of unfairness. Real allocations in a dictator game were used to create unfair situations. Three different regulation strategies, namely writing a message to the dictator who made an unfair offer, either forwarded or not forwarded, describing a neutral picture and a control condition in which subjects just had to wait for three minutes, were then tested on their ability to influence the elicited emotions. Subsequently participants were asked to allocate money between themselves and a third person. We show that writing a message which is forwarded to the unfair actor is an effective emotion regulation strategy and that those participants who regulated their emotions successfully by writing a message made higher allocations to a third person. Thus, using message writing as an emotion regulation strategy can interrupt the chain of unfairness.

  19. Generalized Negative Reciprocity in the Dictator Game--How to Interrupt the Chain of Unfairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Sabrina; Grote, Xenia; Kuss, Katarina; Park, Soyoung Q; Weber, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Humans are tremendously sensitive to unfairness. Unfairness provokes strong negative emotional reactions and influences our subsequent decision making. These decisions might not only have consequences for ourselves and the person who treated us unfairly but can even transmit to innocent third persons--a phenomenon that has been referred to as generalized negative reciprocity. In this study we aimed to investigate whether regulation of emotions can interrupt this chain of unfairness. Real allocations in a dictator game were used to create unfair situations. Three different regulation strategies, namely writing a message to the dictator who made an unfair offer, either forwarded or not forwarded, describing a neutral picture and a control condition in which subjects just had to wait for three minutes, were then tested on their ability to influence the elicited emotions. Subsequently participants were asked to allocate money between themselves and a third person. We show that writing a message which is forwarded to the unfair actor is an effective emotion regulation strategy and that those participants who regulated their emotions successfully by writing a message made higher allocations to a third person. Thus, using message writing as an emotion regulation strategy can interrupt the chain of unfairness. PMID:26924557

  20. Phasic and tonic pain differentially impact the interruptive function of pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sinke

    Full Text Available The interruptive effect of painful experimental stimulation on cognitive processes is a well-known phenomenon. This study investigated the influence of pain duration on the negative effects of pain on cognition. Thirty-four healthy volunteers performed a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP in which subjects had to detect (visual detection task and count the occurrence of a target letter (working memory task in two separate sessions while being stimulated on the left volar forearm with either short (2 sec or long (18 sec painful heat stimuli of equal subjective intensity. The results show that subjects performed significantly worse in the long pain session as indexed by decreased detection and counting performance. Interestingly, this effect on performance was also observed during control trials of the long pain session in which participants did not receive any painful stimulation. Moreover, subjects expected long painful stimulation to have a greater impact on their performance and individual expectation correlated with working memory performance. These findings suggest that not only the length of painful stimulation but also its expected ability to impair cognitive functioning might influence the interruptive function of pain. The exact relevance of expectation for the detrimental effects of pain on cognitive processes needs to be explored in more detail in future studies.

  1. Transmission of Onchocerciasis in Wadelai Focus of Northwestern Uganda Has Been Interrupted and the Disease Eliminated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses N. Katabarwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wadelai, an isolated focus for onchocerciasis in northwest Uganda, was selected for piloting an onchocerciasis elimination strategy that was ultimately the precursor for countrywide onchocerciasis elimination policy. The Wadelai focus strategy was to increase ivermectin treatments from annual to semiannual frequency and expand geographic area in order to include communities with nodule rate of less than 20%. These communities had not been covered by the previous policy that sought to control onchocerciasis only as a public health problem. From 2006 to 2010, Wadelai program successfully attained ultimate treatment goal (UTG, treatment coverage of ≥90%, despite expanding from 19 to 34 communities and from 5,600 annual treatments to over 29,000 semiannual treatments. Evaluations in 2009 showed no microfilaria in skin snips of over 500 persons examined, and only 1 of 3011 children was IgG4 antibody positive to the OV16 recombinant antigen. No Simulium vectors were found, and their disappearance could have sped up interruption of transmission. Although twice-per-year treatment had an unclear role in interruption of transmission, the experience demonstrated that twice-per-year treatment is feasible in the Ugandan setting. The monitoring data support the conclusion that onchocerciasis has been eliminated from the Wadelai focus of Uganda.

  2. ANTI IMPLANTATION AND PREGNANCY INTERRUPTION ACTIVITY OF JAPAKUSUMA (HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashinath Hadimur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

  3. Interruption of vector transmission by native vectors and the art of the possible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salvatella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article in the Reader’s Opinion, advantages and disadvantages of the certification processes of interrupted Chagas disease transmission (American trypanosomiasis by native vector were discussed. Such concept, accepted by those authors for the case of endemic situations with introduced vectors, has been built on a long and laborious process by endemic countries and Subregional Initiatives for Prevention, Control and Treatment of Chagas, with Technical Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, to create a horizon target and goal to concentrate priorities and resource allocation and actions. With varying degrees of sucess, which are not replaceable for a certificate of good practice, has allowed during 23 years to safeguard the effective control of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi not to hundreds of thousands, but millions of people at risk conditions, truly “the art of the possible.”

  4. Interruption of vector transmission by native vectors and "the art of the possible".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatella, Roberto; Irabedra, Pilar; Castellanos, Luis G

    2014-02-01

    In a recent article in the Reader's Opinion, advantages and disadvantages of the certification processes of interrupted Chagas disease transmission (American trypanosomiasis) by native vector were discussed. Such concept, accepted by those authors for the case of endemic situations with introduced vectors, has been built on a long and laborious process by endemic countries and Subregional Initiatives for Prevention, Control and Treatment of Chagas, with Technical Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, to create a horizon target and goal to concentrate priorities and resource allocation and actions. With varying degrees of sucess, which are not replaceable for a certificate of good practice, has allowed during 23 years to safeguard the effective control of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi not to hundreds of thousands, but millions of people at risk conditions, truly "the art of the possible."

  5. HIV Reactivation from Latency after Treatment Interruption Occurs on Average Every 5-8 Days--Implications for HIV Remission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Pinkevych

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection can be effectively controlled by anti-retroviral therapy (ART in most patients. However therapy must be continued for life, because interruption of ART leads to rapid recrudescence of infection from long-lived latently infected cells. A number of approaches are currently being developed to 'purge' the reservoir of latently infected cells in order to either eliminate infection completely, or significantly delay the time to viral recrudescence after therapy interruption. A fundamental question in HIV research is how frequently the virus reactivates from latency, and thus how much the reservoir might need to be reduced to produce a prolonged antiretroviral-free HIV remission. Here we provide the first direct estimates of the frequency of viral recrudescence after ART interruption, combining data from four independent cohorts of patients undergoing treatment interruption, comprising 100 patients in total. We estimate that viral replication is initiated on average once every ≈6 days (range 5.1- 7.6 days. This rate is around 24 times lower than previous thought, and is very similar across the cohorts. In addition, we analyse data on the ratios of different 'reactivation founder' viruses in a separate cohort of patients undergoing ART-interruption, and estimate the frequency of successful reactivation to be once every 3.6 days. This suggests that a reduction in the reservoir size of around 50-70-fold would be required to increase the average time-to-recrudescence to about one year, and thus achieve at least a short period of anti-retroviral free HIV remission. Our analyses suggests that time-to-recrudescence studies will need to be large in order to detect modest changes in the reservoir, and that macaque models of SIV latency may have much higher frequencies of viral recrudescence after ART interruption than seen in human HIV infection. Understanding the mean frequency of recrudescence from latency is an important first step in

  6. Influence of bile flow interruption on acute experimental pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, L; Gafà, M; Lupi, M; Peracchia, A

    1984-01-01

    The influence of bile flow interruption on the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has been evaluated in the rat. The pancreatitis was induced by Pfeffer's technique and the severity of the disease was assessed by a macroscopic examination of the pancreatic damage and the calculation of amylase-to-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) as well. The results showed that the bile reflux into the pancreas made the pancreatic lesions caused by stasis in the gland associated with hyperstimulation of exocrine secretion more severe. On the other hand the bile reflux had no influence when the pancreatitis was due to flowing back of duodenal contents into the pancreas (closed duodenal loop). It was concluded that the bile effect is probably consistent with a pressure mechanism. In addition the reliability of ACCR in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed, and the test was effective in detecting even milder pancreatic damages. PMID:6206023

  7. Interruptions in the collagen repeating tripeptide pattern can promote supramolecular association

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Eileen S; Thiagarajan, Geetha; Parmar, Avanish S.; Brodsky, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The standard collagen triple-helix requires a perfect (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n sequence, yet all nonfibrillar collagens contain interruptions in this tripeptide repeating pattern. Defining the structural consequences of disruptions in the sequence pattern may shed light on the biological role of sequence interruptions, which have been suggested to play a role in molecular flexibility, collagen degradation, and ligand binding. Previous studies on model peptides with 1- and 4-residue interruptions showed...

  8. Critical Causes and Consequences of Construction Project Interruption: Client, Contractor, Consultant and External Factors Standpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbasirah Mohamed Alias; Md Azree Othuman Mydin

    2013-01-01

    It should be pointed out that the dilemma of interruption and stoppage in the construction industry is a large-scale trend. Construction interruption and stoppage is considered one of the most recurring problems in the construction industry. Construction Interruption and stoppage is always measured as costly to all parties concerned in the projects and very often it will result in clash, claims, total desertion and much difficult for the feasibility and it slows the growth o...

  9. Focusing on Desirability: The Effect of Decision Interruption and Suspension on Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the phenomenon of interruptions and suspensions in decision making. It is proposed that information processing may change from a bottom-up, data-driven to a top-down, goal-directed mode after an interruption, thereby affecting preferences. In particular, in decisions involving desirability and feasibility conflicts, because desirability is a superordinate goal to feasibility, four studies found that when a decision is interrupted and later resumed, people become more li...

  10. ON THE COMPLETION TIME AND THE INTERRUPTION TIME OF A JOB PROCESSED ON AN UNRELIABLE MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Dequan; TU Fengsheng

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the completion time and the interruption time of a job processed on an unreliable machine.By using the general theory of stochastic orderings,we obtain the closure properties of the distribution of the completion time and the interruption time on L+ and PH life distribution classes.We get an exponential bound for the tail probability of the interruption time.

  11. Protection of spermatogenisis during X-irradiation and chemotherapy by temporary blood flow interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an animal model the possibility was tested to interrupt the blood flow to the testis temporarily and repeatedly. Subsequently, it was investigated whether blood flow interuption during irradiation or during cytostatic drug administration could limit the damage induced to the spermatogonial stem cells. The effect of repeatedly blood flow interruptions on spermatogenesis was evaluated. (author). 192 refs.; 15 figs.; 11 tabs

  12. Unemployment and Work Interruption among African American Single Mothers: Effects on Parenting and Adolescent Socioemotional Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoyd, Vonnie C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using interview data from 241 single African American mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, this study tested a model of how 2 economic stressors, maternal unemployment and work interruption, influenced adolescent socioemotional functioning. Found that current unemployment, but not past work interruption, contributed to depressive…

  13. Prospective Memory in Children: The Effects of Age and Task Interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Messer, David J.; Ebdon, Pippa

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments examined effects of age and task interruption on children's prospective memory (PM), remembering to carry out a future task. Age explained a small portion of variance in performance. Children who did not have to interrupt their ongoing activity to complete the PM tasks performed significantly better than children who had to…

  14. Interruptions and Failure in Higher Education: Evidence from ISEG-UTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Margarida; Fernandaes, Graca Leao

    2011-01-01

    Failure in higher education (HE) is the outcome of multiple time-dependent determinants. Interruptions in students' individual school trajectories are one of them, and that is why research on this topic has been attracting much attention these days. From an individual point of view, it is expected that interruptions in school trajectory, whatever…

  15. Changes in lipids and lipoprotein particle concentrations after interruption of antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Fiona C; Duprez, Daniel A; Kuller, Lewis H;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on lipoprotein particle subclasses has not been studied. We examined short-term changes in lipids and lipoprotein particles among 332 HIV-infected individuals randomized to interrupt or continue ART in the "Strategies for Management of An...

  16. Recognition of temporally interrupted and spectrally degraded sentences with additional unprocessed low-frequency speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskent, Deniz; Chatterjeec, Monita

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of periodically interrupted sentences (with an interruption rate of 1.5 Hz, 50% duty cycle) was investigated under conditions of spectral degradation, implemented with a noiseband vocoder, with and without additional unprocessed low-pass filtered speech (cutoff frequency 500 Hz). Intelli

  17. Towards a Politics of Interruption: High School Design as Politically Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, David

    2007-01-01

    The following essay seeks to highlight the use of engaged qualitative community-based research in education to respond to conditions of structural inequality. As "the politics of interruption", the process of creating neighborhood public high schools is centred in community accountability. Responsibility in this mode "interrupts" the resurgence of…

  18. 话语中的权势建构--女性领导的打断%Establishment of Power in Conversation and Female Leaders’ Interruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭郁

    2013-01-01

    Research tells us that interruption has different effects because of its different intent, and that interruption can also reflect the relationship and power contrast between the two persons in conversation. Generally, non-cooperative interrup-tion is related to power and control in the conversation. Interruption reflects power and authority, and on the other hand, it also can be a tool for protecting the interrupter’s power. By analyzing some Chinese female leaders’ non-cooperative interrup-tions in natural conversation, we want to look at how they use interruption as a conversational strategy to show their leadership and maintain their authority.%通过对前人研究的回顾,我们发现打断因目的不同而产生不同效果,同时也能反应出对话人之间的关系和力量对比。非合作性打断通常与权势、控制相关。打断体现权威,反过来打断也可以是一种建立权威和保持说话人特殊地位的方式或手段。本文对自然对话中中国女性领导的非合作性打断行为进行分析,了解她们打断的特点,以及她们如何通过打断这一话语策略建构自己的领导身份,维护和建立权威。

  19. Changes in main causes of death in Macao residents from 1986-2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN Man-si; CHEN Qing; LAM Christopher Wai-kei

    2013-01-01

    Background Since Macao's return of sovereignty to China in December 1999,the life style of Macao residents has changed.The aim of this study was to investigate changes of death patterns in Macao residents from 1986 to 2006 in order to identify the trends and patterns of major public health problems,which could provide the guidance for developing public health policies.Methods A retrospective study was conducted for this investigation.Research data were collected from official websites and statistical yearbooks and classified by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9.Results It was observed that mortality from the three major causes of (1) infectious,maternal and childhood diseases,(2) chronic non-communicable diseases,and (3) injury and poisoning were 17.7,298.2 and 26.0 per 100 000,respectively.The largest decrease in death rate over the 21-year study-period was from infectious,maternal and childhood diseases (62.5%).The highest mortality rate was ischemic heart diseases (37.0%).The largest increase in mortality rate was lung cancer (46.9%).Conclusions Mortality rate of Macao residents progressively decreased,but the constituent ratio of death from chronic non-communicable diseases was increasing.The mortality rate of lung cancer was clearly ascending,so emphasis should be put on tertiary prevention in future.

  20. Ethnoarchaeological research in Tierra del Fuego (1986-2006): thoughts for european prehistoric archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Vila, Assumpció; Mameli, Laura; Terradas, Xavier; Estevez, Jordi; Moreno, Federica; Verdún, Ester; Zurro, Debora; Clemente, Ignacio; Piqué, Raquel; Briz, Ivan; Barcelo, Joan Antón

    2007-01-01

    For 20 years there has been research in Tierra del Fuego in order to contrast ethnographically the archaeological record of hunter-gatherer societies. The objective was to build a specific methodology for an archaeological approach to these societies, that could be applied to various contexts. In this paper we present the projects and the main conclusions emphasizing two fundamental aspects: the technical- methodological one of information recovering and treatment, and the reconstruction of t...

  1. The Political Economy of Fiscal Reform: The Case of Colombia, 1986-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Olivera, Mauricio; Pachon, Monica; Perry, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristics of the political economy process that conditioned the scope and success of the combination of fiscal reforms before and after Colombia’s 1991 constitutional reforms. Using formal analysis of reforms and interviews with actors, reforms in taxation, decentralization, the budgetary process and pensions are examined in times of political crisis, economic crisis, and economic boom. The results generally confirm the hypothesis that increased political fragmen...

  2. Derechos políticos de la mujer en Costa Rica: 1986-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia María Zamora Chavarría

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo reseña las propuestas de reformas legislativas que se han conocido en la Asamblea Legislativa de Costa Rica, sobre participación política de la mujer, desde marzo de 1988 hasta noviembre de 2008, con énfasis en la cuota o la paridad, para facilitar su acceso a cargos de elección popular y a los órganos internos partidarios, incluyendo la actual reforma de paridad propuesta por el TSE en enero de 2001. También hace referencia a los pronunciamientos del TSE en esta materia, en especial a su jurisprudencia, destacando cómo ésta ha posibilitado que Costa Rica ocupe el tercer lugar mundial de mujeres parlamentarias, ya que fue precisando que debía entenderse por puestos elegibles, los criterios para determinar esa elegibilidad (históricos o emergentes, la obligatoriedad del Registro Civil de no inscribir partidos ni candidaturas que no respeten la legislación, etc. También se incluyen gráficas que dan cuenta de lo reseñado. Cierra con un resumen de la propuesta de paridad y alternabilidad de género que, dentro del proyecto de reforma integral del Código Electoral, acaba de ser dictaminada, con voto afirmativo de mayoría, por la Comisión Especial de Partidos Políticos y Reformas Electorales de la Asamblea Legislativa, resaltando que retoma el espíritu de la propuesta desechada en 1998 y su necesidad su ek país desea una democracia real para las mujeres costarricenses

  3. Two sides to every story: The Dual Perspectives Method for examining interruptions in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdie, Tara; Sanderson, Penelope; Aitken, Leanne M; Liu, David

    2017-01-01

    Interruptions are widely considered a problem in healthcare. Results from observation and experimental studies have guided extensive mitigation efforts, but the effectiveness of interventions remains mixed. We have built on current theories and methods for studying interruptions to develop a novel observational approach - the Dual Perspectives Method - for examining interruptions from the perspectives of the different work functions in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We detail the method and provide representative examples of the insights it offers, such as why interruptions happen, the role they play, and the consequences of preserving them or eliminating them. We anticipate that the Dual Perspectives Method will help us to arrive at a better basis on which to draw conclusions about interruptions, and will lead to the development of appropriate and sustainable interventions to ensure the effective and safe functioning of the work system under examination.

  4. Power spectra for both interrupted and perennial aging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovic, Mirko; Grigolini, Paolo

    2008-11-01

    We study the power spectrum of a random telegraphic noise with the distribution density of waiting times τ given by ψ(τ )∝1/τμ, with μ ≈2. The condition μ power spectrum obeys the prescription S(f )=K/fη, with η =3-μ, namely, the 1/f noise lives at border between the ergodic μ >2 and nonergodic μ legitimate by two different kinds of truncation effects: the physical and observation-induced effect. In the former case ψ(τ ) is truncated at τ ≈Tmax and L ≫Tmax ensures the condition of interrupted aging. In this case, we find that K is a number independent of L. The latter case, L ≪Tmax, is more challenging. It was already solved by Margolin and Barkai, who used time asymptotic arguments based on the ergodicity breakdown and obtained K ∝1/L2-μ, proving that the out-of-equilibrium nature of the condition μ 2. We do not limit our treatment to the time asymptotic case, thereby producing a prediction that accounts for the transition from the 1/fη to the 1/f2 regime, recently observed in an experiment on blinking quantum dots. Our theoretical approach allows us to discuss some other recent experiments on molecular intermittent fluorescence and affords indications that should help to assess whether the spectrum is determined by the L ≪Tmax or by the L ≫Tmax condition.

  5. [Ethical dilemmas in medicine. The interruption of pregnancy in woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual-Castro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy interruption or abortion may be spontaneous or induced for medical, legal, demographic, and personal reasons. Different events that are present during the woman´s gravid period were described, paying attention to the differences in between fertilization and conception. These issues are very important because people or institutions mix these concepts and posit that pregnancy or conception starts at fertilization in opposition to the actual medical and scientific knowledge. In Mexico there are several millions of spontaneous and induced abortions without medical care, responsible for the high maternal-infant mortality rates. To avoid this undesirable situation, it has been proposed to follow the established WHO guidelines and adopt national health policies to re-orientate population goals on life quality, gender equity, universal public health services, and to promote the new holistic concepts of reproductive and sexual health such as: family planning, use of anti-fertility methods, adolescent reproductive health, sexually transmitted diseases, maternal and newborn health, peri- and post-menopausal women's health, and prevention, diagnosis, and opportune treatment of mammary, cervical-uterine, and ovarian cancers. Finally, it is recommended to revise our national health policies and existing laws on abortion de-penalization. PMID:27595258

  6. Power spectra for both interrupted and perennial aging processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovic, Mirko; Grigolini, Paolo

    2008-11-14

    We study the power spectrum of a random telegraphic noise with the distribution density of waiting times tau given by psi(tau) proportional to 1tau(mu), with mu approximately 2. The condition muproblem theoretically and numerically and we prove that the power spectrum obeys the prescription S(f)=Kf(eta), with eta=3-mu, namely, the 1f noise lives at border between the ergodic mu>2 and nonergodic muT(max) ensures the condition of interrupted aging. In this case, we find that K is a number independent of L. The latter case, Lus to the same conclusion from a somewhat more extended view valid also for the transient out-of-equilibrium case of mu>2. We do not limit our treatment to the time asymptotic case, thereby producing a prediction that accounts for the transition from the 1f(eta) to the 1f(2) regime, recently observed in an experiment on blinking quantum dots. Our theoretical approach allows us to discuss some other recent experiments on molecular intermittent fluorescence and affords indications that should help to assess whether the spectrum is determined by the LT(max) condition. PMID:19045381

  7. Progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission - worldwide, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    In 1988, an estimated 350,000 cases of poliomyelitis were occurring annually worldwide. By 2005, because of global vaccination efforts, indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 1 and 3 (WPV1 and WPV3) had been eliminated from all but four countries (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan). No cases of WPV type 2 have been reported since 1999. This report describes progress toward global WPV eradication during 2009 and updates previous reports. During 2009 a total of 1,606 cases of WPV infection were reported, compared with 1,651 in 2008. WPV3 incidence increased 67%, to 1,124 cases, compared with 675 in 2008. However, WPV1 incidence decreased 51%, to 482 cases in 2009, compared with 976 cases in 2008. In India, nearly all polio cases in 2009 were reported in high-risk districts in western Uttar Pradesh and central Bihar. In Afghanistan and Pakistan, WPV circulation in high-risk districts continued because of difficulties vaccinating children in conflict-affected areas and operational limitations in parts of Pakistan. In Nigeria, cases decreased by 51%, to 388 cases in 2009, compared with 798 in 2008. During 2009, outbreaks from importation of WPV affected 19 previously polio-free African countries. Two key steps are needed to make further progress in polio eradication: 1) addressing local barriers to interrupting transmission, and 2) using bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) broadly for WPV 1 and 3 in supplemental immunization activities (SIAs).

  8. INTERRUPTER RESISTANCE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: CLINICAL UTILITY IN ASTHMA MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Boddi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is the most common chronic disease affecting children in industrialized countries but it is greatly underdiagnosed in preschool children. In these patients, who are not able to collaborate in the execution of spirometry tests, it is possible to use interrupter resistance (Rint technique. The aim of our study is to assess Rint utility in asthma management when integrated with clinical evaluation in preschool children. Data from 35 preschool children with recurrent wheezing and/or cough were collected. Case history, physical examination, in vitro and in vivo allergy testing were investigated. According to the presence or absence of symptoms in intercritical period they were divided into two groups, asymptomatic (A and symptomatic (B. To assess respiratory function we used baseline and post-bronchodilator Rint. In group A (asymptomatic baseline Rint was normal in 78,9% of children and increased in 21,1%. After bronchodilator (BD administration there was a significant response in 52,6% of patients. In group B (symptomatic baseline Rint was normal in 81,3% of children and increased in 18,7%. After bronchodilator administration there was a significant response in 56,3% of patients. Our results confirm that baseline Rint cannot be used to discriminate between healthy and sick children, therefore it is necessary to perform this test after administration of BD. In our patients, a significant response to BD permitted to objectify the discomfort of symptomatic children and to report a state of subclinical bronchial obstruction and/or bad perceptions of the severity of bronchospasm in asymptomatic ones, allowing to confirm previous therapeutic choices in some cases and to suggest different therapeutic strategies in others. Therefore, bronchodilator response measured by Rint should be systematically studied and further assessed in conjunction with clinical outcomes, in order to implement asthma management in children unable to produce reliable

  9. Progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission--worldwide, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Since 1988, when the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was established, the incidence of polio has decreased from an estimated 350,000 cases annually to 1,655 reported in 2008. Cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) type 2 were last reported in October 1999, and indigenous WPV types 1 and 3 (WPV1 and WPV3) have been eliminated from all but four countries worldwide (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan). This report updates previous reports and describes overall progress toward global eradication in 2008. Despite accelerated efforts, polio cases increased 26%, from 1,315 cases in 2007 to 1,655 in 2008. This increase primarily resulted from an increase in Nigeria from 285 cases in 2007 to 801 cases in 2008. Resurgent WPV1 transmission in northern states of Nigeria spread to polio-free southern states and eight neighboring countries in 2008. In India, repeated use of monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) type 1 (mOPV1) during 2005--2008 interrupted WPV1 transmission in the western districts of the northern state of Uttar Pradesh for >12 months during 2007--2008; however, in mid-2008, WPV1 imported from the neighboring state of Bihar caused renewed transmission. In Afghanistan and Pakistan, problems in accessing children in conflict-affected areas increased, and an upsurge in WPV1 and WPV3 cases occurred, including an outbreak of WPV1 in Punjab Province, Pakistan. In Africa, during 2008, sustained WPV transmission for >12 months after importation continued in Angola, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Niger, and southern Sudan. Increased political oversight and accountability and improved vaccination outreach to insecure areas are needed to achieve the eradication goal.

  10. Teenage smoking behaviour following a high-school smoking ban in Chile: interrupted time-series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea B. Feigl; Salomon, Joshua A.; Danaei, Goodarz; Ding, Eric L.; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effect of a smoking ban in high schools on smoking behaviour among Chilean students. Methods: We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis, using repeated cross-sectional data from Chile’s school population survey (2000–2011) for high-school students aged 12–18 years and a control group of persons aged 19–24 years. Poisson regression models were used to assess trends in smoking behaviour before and after the policy changes. The outcome measures were sel...

  11. Teenage smoking behaviour following a high-school smoking ban in Chile: interrupted time-series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea B. Feigl; Salomon, Joshua A.; Danaei, Goodarz; Ding, Eric L.; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of a smoking ban in high schools on smoking behaviour among Chilean students. Methods We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis, using repeated cross-sectional data from Chile’s school population survey (2000–2011) for high-school students aged 12–18 years and a control group of persons aged 19–24 years. Poisson regression models were used to assess trends in smoking behaviour before and after the policy changes. The outcome measures were self-...

  12. Mouth-to-mouth ventilation reduces interruptions in chest compressions during lifeguard CPR: A randomized manikin study,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgren, Bo; Adelborg, Kasper; Dalgas, Christian;

    Mouth-to-mouth ventilation reduces interruptions in chest compressions during lifeguard CPR: A randomized manikin study.......Mouth-to-mouth ventilation reduces interruptions in chest compressions during lifeguard CPR: A randomized manikin study....

  13. Semi-polling based interrupt mitigation for high performance packet processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Interrupt-driven systems can be collapsed due to frequent NIC interrupts under heavy network traffic. To mitigate this problem, a high-performance communication mechanism SBIM based on real-time OS RTLinux is designed and implemented. A new concept of semi-polling is presented. With state-based semi-polling mechanism and lightweight buffering algorithm, interrupt frequency is reduced and the performance for short packet is significantly ameliorated. The experimental results indicate that the throughputs of SBIM for 64byte and 1500byte packets are 394Mbps and 895Mbps in Gigabit Ethernet environments, which show that the performance of SBIM surpasses that of other mechanisms.

  14. Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin ≥12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin ≥12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p 1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results

  15. Effect of hepatitis B immunoglobulin on interruption of HBV intrauterine infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Mao Li; Min-Feng Shi; Yue-Bo Yang; Zhong-Jie Shi; Hong-Ying Hou; Hui-Min Shen; Ben-Qi Teng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) in interrupting hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine infection during late pregnancy.METHODS: We allocated 112 HBsAg positive pregnant women into 2 groups randomly. Fifty seven cases in the HBIG group received 200 IU (unit) HBIG intramuscularly every 4 wk from the 28 wk of gestation to the time of delivery, while 55 cases in the control group received no special treatment.HBsAg, HBeAg, HBcAb, HBeAb, HBsAb and HBV DNA levels were tested in the peripheral blood specimens from all of the mothers at 28 wk of gestation, just before delivery, and in blood from their newborns within 24 h before administration of immune prophylaxis.RESULTS: The intrauterine infection rate in HBIG group and control group were 10.5% and 27.3%, respectively, with significant difference (P<0.05). It showed ascendant trend as HBV DNA levels in the peripheral blood increased before delivery.CONCLUSION: HBIG is potent to cut down HBV intrauterine infection rate significantly when administered to pregnant women regularly during late pregnancy. The possibility of HBV intrauterine infection increases if maternal blood HBV DNA ≥ 108 copies/mL.

  16. Measurements of interrupter resistance: reference values for children 3-13 yrs of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F.M. Merkus (Peter); H.G. Arets (Hubertus); T. Joosten; A. Siero; M. Brouha; J.Y. Mijnsbergen; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); C.K. van der Ent (Cornelis)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe interrupter technique is a convenient and sensitive technique for studying airway function in subjects who cannot actively participate in (forced) ventilatory function tests. Reference values for preschool children exist but are lacking for children >7 yrs. Referenc

  17. Critical care 24 × 7: But, why is critical nutrition interrupted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Adequate nutritional support is crucial in prevention and treatment of malnutrition in critically ill-patients. Despite the intention to provide appropriate enteral nutrition (EN, meeting the full nutritional requirements can be a challenge due to interruptions. This study was undertaken to determine the cause and duration of interruptions in EN. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a multidisciplinary critical care unit (CCU of a tertiary care hospital from September 2010 to January 2011 and who received EN for a period >24 h were included in this observational, prospective study. A total of 327 patients were included, for a total of 857 patient-days. Reasons and duration of EN interruptions were recorded and categorized under four groups-procedures inside CCU, procedures outside CCU, gastrointestinal (GI symptoms and others. Results: Procedure inside CCU accounted for 55.9% of the interruptions while GI symptoms for 24.2%. Although it is commonly perceived that procedures outside CCU are the most common reason for interruption, this contributed only to 18.4% individually; ventilation-related procedures were the most frequent cause (40.25%, followed by nasogastric tube aspirations (15.28%. Although GI bleed is often considered a reason to hold enteral feed, it was one of the least common reasons (1% in our study. Interruption of 2-6 h was more frequent (43% and most of this (67.1% was related to "procedures inside CCU". Conclusion: Awareness of reasons for EN interruptions will aid to modify protocol and minimize interruptions during procedures in CCU to reach nutrition goals.

  18. [Interruption of the aortic arch with no patent ductus arteriosus: is survival possible?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, M; Hakim, K; Ouarda, F; M'saad, H; Boussaada, R

    2014-03-01

    Interruption of the aortic arch is a rare congenital disease. It is defined by the complete interruption between the ascending and descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus is necessary to maintain flow from the pulmonary to the descending aorta. Its closure leads to a cardiovascular collapse and this malformation is therefore duct-dependent. However, in rare cases, survival remains possible even after ductus arteriosus closure. We report such a case. PMID:24457106

  19. Interruptions and failure in higher education: evidence from ISEG-UTL

    OpenAIRE

    Chagas Lopes, Margarida; LEAO FERNANDES, GRAÇA

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Failure in Higher Education (HE) is the outcome of multiple time-dependent determinants. Interruptions in student’s individual school trajectories are one of them and that’s why research on this topic has been attracting much attention these days. From an individual point of view, it is expected that interruptions in school trajectory, whatever the reason, influence success in undergraduate programs either this success is measured by time required to obtain a degree, the score...

  20. Modeling and Simulation of a Traffic Flow Model Considering the Influence of Traffic Interruption

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shu-hong; Li, Chui-Gui; Xia, Dong-Xue; Wang, Meng; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new lattice model of traffic flow by considering the effects of traffic interruption probability. The stability condition of the proposed model is obtained by employing the linear stability theory. The results show that the stability of traffic flow is improved by considering the influence of traffic interruption. Applying the method of nonlinear analysis, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation is derived to describe the traffic behavior near the critical p...

  1. Measuring the relationship between interruptions, multitasking and prescribing errors in an emergency department: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Raban, Magdalena Z; Scott R Walter; Douglas, Heather E.; Strumpman, Dana; Mackenzie, John; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interruptions and multitasking are frequent in clinical settings, and have been shown in the cognitive psychology literature to affect performance, increasing the risk of error. However, comparatively less is known about their impact on errors in clinical work. This study will assess the relationship between prescribing errors, interruptions and multitasking in an emergency department (ED) using direct observations and chart review. Methods and analysis The study will be conducte...

  2. Interruption Management in ubiquitous collaborative environments : developing suitable interaction mechanisms for ASTRA

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, Tara Nath

    2009-01-01

    ASTRA is a project that aims at studying awareness systems that help people to feel in touch with family and friends even when they are away from their computers and the existing widespread tools of today (IM, skype, twitter,...) are not enough. In this context, this thesis aims at addressing the problem of Interruption management. The focus will be on the design and development of different interaction mechanisms to support the definition of interruption rules as needed in ASTRA. This will ...

  3. Interruption or congenital stenosis of the inferior vena cava: Prevalence, imaging, and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Zafer [Baskent University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey)]. E-mail: koczafer@gmail.com; Oguzkurt, Levent [Baskent University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey)

    2007-05-15

    Objective: To present the prevalence, clinical, and imaging findings of interruption or congenital stenotic lesions of the inferior vena cava (IVC), associated malformations, and their clinical relevance. Materials and methods: Between March 2004 and March 2006, 7972 patients who had undergone consecutive routine abdominal multidetector row computed tomography were analyzed for interruption or stenotic lesion of the IVC. Results: Prevalence of interruption (n = 8) or congenital stenosis (n = 4) of the IVC occurred in 12 (0.15%) of 7972 patients. Four patients with interruption and four patients with congenital stenosis of the IVC were symptomatic with DVT (n = 4), leg swelling (n = 4), leg pain (n = 2), lower extremity varices (n = 2), hepatic vein thrombosis (n = 1), and hematochezia (n = 1). All four of the asymptomatic patients were from the interruption group, and these patients had interrupted IVC with well-developed azygos/hemiazygos continuation. Eight symptomatic patients did not have a well-developed azygos/hemiazygos continuation, and drainage of lower extremity was mainly from collateral veins. Additional findings in eight symptomatic patients were abdominal venous collaterals (n = 8), venous aneurysm (n = 2), lower extremity varices (n = 2), varicocele (n = 2), and pelvic varices (n = 1). Conclusion: Interruption or stenosis of the IVC are rare on routine abdominal CT examinations and may cause different clinical findings depending on the variant drainage patterns or collaterals. Interrupted IVC is commonly asymptomatic if associated with well-developed azygos/hemiazygos continuation, whereas commonly symptomatic if well-developed azygos/hemiazygos continuation is not present.

  4. Differential effects of traffic sign stimuli upon speeding in school zones following a traffic light interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Bree; Irwin, Julia D; Faulks, Ian J; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Motorists whose journey has been interrupted by signalized traffic intersections in school zones resume their journey at a faster vehicle speed than motorists who have not been required to stop. Introducing a flashing "check speed" sign 70m after the traffic intersections counteracts this interruptive effect. The present study examined which aspects of a reminder sign are responsible for reducing the speeding behavior of interrupted motorists. When a sign that combines both written text and flashing lights was introduced, interrupted motorists did not speed, traveling on average 0.82km/h below the 40km/h speed limit when measured 100m from traffic intersections. Alternatively, when only the flashing lights were visible the interrupted motorists sped 3.36km/h over the 40km/h speed limit. Similar vehicular speeds were observed when only the written text was visible and when no sign was present (7.67 and 7.49km/h over the 40km/h speed limit, respectively). This indicates that static reminder signs add little value over the absence of a school zone reminder sign; the presence of both cues is necessary to fully offset the interruptive effect. This study also highlights the benefit of using exogenous visual cues in traffic signs to capture drivers' attention. These findings have practical implications for the design and use of traffic signs to increase compliance with posted speed limits. PMID:26545011

  5. Assessment of customer outage costs due to electric service interruptions - residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of the benefit or the worth of reliability is perceived as being a major contribution in providing the additional detail in the justification of new system facilities and operating reliability levels provided the required information can be obtained in a consistent and coherent manner. The costs incurred by consumers, customer interruption costs (CIC), as a result of interruptions in their electricity supply are considered key indicators of customer expectations and therefore of reliability worth. The assessment of CIC through surveys is considered to yield the most definitive results. The paper is based on extensive surveys conducted at UMIST. It reports on the customer characteristics of the residential respondents and their experience of interruptions, the undesirability of some effects of interruptions and the variation of undesirability of effects with frequency of interruption, season, time of day and weekday/weekend. The customers' ratings of these aspects are also tested for statistical correlation with the customer and experience of interruption variables. Remarkable agreement on the opinions is displayed across the RECs leading to the expectation that the corresponding CIC derived from the studies will be comparable as well. (author)

  6. Speed-Flow Analysis for Interrupted Oversaturated Traffic Flow with Heterogeneous Structure for Urban Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Speed–flow functions have been developed by several transportation experts to predict accurately the speed of urban road network. HCM Speed-Flow Curve, BPR Curve, MTC Speed-Flow Curve, Akçelik Speed-Flow Curve are some extraordinary efforts to define the shape of speed-flow curve. However, the complexity of driver’s behaviour, interactions among different type of vehicles, lateral clearance, co-relation of driver’s psychology with vehicular characteristics and interdependence of various variables of traffic has led to continuous development and refinement of speed-flow curves. The problem gets more tedious in case of urban roads with heterogeneous traffic, oversaturated flow and signalized network (which includes some unsignalized intersections as well. This paper presents speed-flow analysis for urban roads with interrupted flow comprising of heterogeneous traffic. Model has been developed for heterogeneous traffic under constraints of roadway geometry, vehicle characteristics, driving behaviour and traffic controls. The model developed in this paper shall predict speed, delay, average queue and maximum queue estimates for urban roads and quantify congestion for oversaturated condition. The investigation details oversaturated portion of flow in particular.

  7. Interruption of Electrical Conductivity of Titanium Dental Implants Suggests a Path Towards Elimination Of Corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhitkov, Alex E; Daubert, Diane; Brochwicz Donimirski, Ashley; Goodgion, Douglas; Vagin, Mikhail Y; Leroux, Brian G; Hunter, Colby M; Flemmig, Thomas F; Noble, Peter A; Bryers, James D

    2015-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of soft tissue and bone around the implant. Titanium implant corrosion has been attributed to the implant failure and cytotoxic effects to the alveolar bone. We have documented the extent of titanium release into surrounding plaque in patients with and without peri-implantitis. An in vitro model was designed to represent the actual environment of an implant in a patient's mouth. The model uses actual oral microbiota from a volunteer, allows monitoring electrochemical processes generated by biofilms growing on implants and permits control of biocorrosion electrical current. As determined by next generation DNA sequencing, microbial compositions in experiments with the in vitro model were comparable with the compositions found in patients with implants. It was determined that the electrical conductivity of titanium implants was the key factor responsible for the biocorrosion process. The interruption of the biocorrosion current resulted in a 4-5 fold reduction of corrosion. We propose a new design of dental implant that combines titanium in zero oxidation state for osseointegration and strength, interlaid with a nonconductive ceramic. In addition, we propose electrotherapy for manipulation of microbial biofilms and to induce bone healing in peri-implantitis patients.

  8. Interruption of Electrical Conductivity of Titanium Dental Implants Suggests a Path Towards Elimination Of Corrosion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex E Pozhitkov

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of soft tissue and bone around the implant. Titanium implant corrosion has been attributed to the implant failure and cytotoxic effects to the alveolar bone. We have documented the extent of titanium release into surrounding plaque in patients with and without peri-implantitis. An in vitro model was designed to represent the actual environment of an implant in a patient's mouth. The model uses actual oral microbiota from a volunteer, allows monitoring electrochemical processes generated by biofilms growing on implants and permits control of biocorrosion electrical current. As determined by next generation DNA sequencing, microbial compositions in experiments with the in vitro model were comparable with the compositions found in patients with implants. It was determined that the electrical conductivity of titanium implants was the key factor responsible for the biocorrosion process. The interruption of the biocorrosion current resulted in a 4-5 fold reduction of corrosion. We propose a new design of dental implant that combines titanium in zero oxidation state for osseointegration and strength, interlaid with a nonconductive ceramic. In addition, we propose electrotherapy for manipulation of microbial biofilms and to induce bone healing in peri-implantitis patients.

  9. Treatment interruptions: Statistics, causes and management in service radiotherapy; Interrupciones de tratamiento: estadistica, causa y manejo en un servicio de radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrando Sanchez, A.; Milanes Gaillet, A. I.; Eugui Martinez, R.; Crespo Diaz, M. P.

    2013-07-01

    Despite the clinical maximum administer the prescribed dose at a given time, treatment interruptions are unavoidable in practice. In tumors quickly reproduce no evidence that the prolongation thereof entails loss of tumor control. It has tracked two of these conditions: squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN) and lung cancer (NSCLC) over 2011 and 2012 to evaluate both the number of stops treatment as the reason for them and its management. (Author)

  10. Evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic HIV vaccines through analytical treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina M Graziani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The development of an effective therapeutic HIV vaccine that induces immunologic control of viral replication, thereby eliminating or reducing the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART, would be of great value. Besides the obvious challenges of developing a therapeutic vaccine that would generate effective, sustained anti-HIV immunity in infected individuals is the issue of how to best assess the efficacy of vaccine candidates. Discussion: This review discusses the various outcome measures assessed in therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials involving individuals receiving suppressive ART, with a particular focus on the role of analytical treatment interruption (ATI as a way to assess the virologic control induced by an immunotherapy. This strategy is critical given that there are otherwise no readily available measures to determine the ability of a vaccine-induced immune response to effectively control HIV replication. The various outcome measures that have been used to assess vaccine efficacy in published therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials will also be discussed. Outcome measures have included the kinetics of viral rebound, the new viral set point and changes in the size of the viral reservoir. Clinically relevant outcomes such as the CD4 decline, the time to resume therapy or the time to meet the criterion to resume therapy, the proportion of participants who resume therapy and/or the development of clinical symptoms such as acute retroviral syndrome are also measures of vaccine efficacy. Conclusions: Given the lack of consistency between therapeutic HIV vaccine trials in how efficacy is assessed, comparing vaccines has been difficult. It would, therefore, be beneficial to determine the most clinically relevant measure for use in future studies. Other recommendations for future clinical trials also include studying compartments in addition to blood and replacing ATIs with single-copy assays in situations in which the use of

  11. A meta-analysis of lamivudine for interruption of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Han; Hong-Wei Zhang; Jia-Xin Xie; Qi Zhang; Hong-Yang Wang; Guang-Wen Cao

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To determine the therapeutic effect of lamivudine in late pregnancy for the interruption of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV).METHODS:Studies were identified by searching available databases up to January 2011.Inclusive criteria were HBV-carrier mothers who had been involved in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) with lamivudine treatment in late pregnancy,and newborns or infants whose serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg),hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) or HBV DNA had been documented.The relative risks (RRs) for interruption of MTCT as indicated by HBsAg,HBV DNA or HBeAg of newborns or infants were calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI) to estimate the efficacy of lamivudine treatment.RESULTS:Fifteen RCTs including 1693 HBV-carriermothers were included in this meta-analysis.The overall RR was 0.43 (95% CI,0.25-0.76;8 RCTs;Pheterogeneity = 0.04) and 0.33 (95% CI,0.23-0.47;6 RCTs;Pheterogeneity= 0.93) indicated by newborn HBsAg or HBV DNA.The RR was 0.33 (95% CI,0.21-0.50;6 RCTs;Pheterogeneity= 0.46) and 0.32 (95% CI,0.20-0.50;4 RCTs;Pheterogeneity= 0.33) indicated by serum HBsAg or HBV DNA of infants 6-12 mo after birth.The RR (lamivudine vs hepatitis B immunoglobulin) was 0.27 (95% CI,0.16-0.46;5 RCTs;Pheterogeneity= 0.94) and 0.24 (95% CI,0.07-0.79;3 RCTs;Pheterogeneity = 0.60) indicated by newborn HBsAg or HBV DNA,respectively.In the mothers with viral load 106 copies/mL after lamivudine treatment (P= 0.45,2 RCTs),as indicated by newborn serum HBsAg.The RR (lamivudine initiated from 28 wk of gestation vs control) was 0.34 (95% CI,0.22-0.52;7 RCTs;Pheterogeneity= 0.92) and 0.33 (95% CI,0.22-0.50;5 RCTs;Pheterogeneity= 0.86) indicated by newborn HBsAg or HBV DNA.The incidence of adverse effects of lamivudine was not higher in the mothers than in controls (P = 0.97).Only one study reported side effects of lamivudine in newborns.CONCLUSION:Lamivudine treatment in HBV carrier-mothers from 28 wk of gestation may

  12. Photodiode-based cutting interruption sensor for near-infrared lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelmann, B; Schleier, M; Neumeier, B; Hellmann, R

    2016-03-01

    We report on a photodiode-based sensor system to detect cutting interruptions during laser cutting with a fiber laser. An InGaAs diode records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a ring mirror and optical filter arrangement mounted between a collimation unit and a cutting head. The photodiode current is digitalized with a sample rate of 20 kHz and filtered with a Chebyshev Type I filter. From the measured signal during the piercing, a threshold value is calculated. When the diode signal exceeds this threshold during cutting, a cutting interruption is indicated. This method is applied to sensor signals from cutting mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum, as well as different material thicknesses and also laser flame cutting, showing the possibility to detect cutting interruptions in a broad variety of applications. In a series of 83 incomplete cuts, every cutting interruption is successfully detected (alpha error of 0%), while no cutting interruption is reported in 266 complete cuts (beta error of 0%). With this remarkable high detection rate and low error rate, the possibility to work with different materials and thicknesses in combination with the easy mounting of the sensor unit also to existing cutting machines highlight the enormous potential for this sensor system in industrial applications.

  13. Power Supply Interruption Costs: Models and Methods Incorporating Time Dependent Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This doctoral thesis develops models and methods for estimation of annual interruption costs for delivery points, emphasizing the handling of time dependent patterns and uncertainties in the variables determining the annual costs. It presents an analytical method for calculation of annual expected interruption costs for delivery points in radial systems, based on a radial reliability model, with time dependent variables. And a similar method for meshed systems, based on a list of outage events, assuming that these events are found in advance from load flow and contingency analyses. A Monte Carlo simulation model is given which handles both time variations and stochastic variations in the input variables and is based on the same list of outage events. This general procedure for radial and meshed systems provides expectation values and probability distributions for interruption costs from delivery points. There is also a procedure for handling uncertainties in input variables by a fuzzy description, giving annual interruption costs as a fuzzy membership function. The methods are developed for practical applications in radial and meshed systems, based on available data from failure statistics, load registrations and customer surveys. Traditional reliability indices such as annual interruption time, power- and energy not supplied, are calculated as by-products. The methods are presented as algorithms and/or procedures which are available as prototypes. 97 refs., 114 figs., 62 tabs

  14. Prediction of SFL Interruption Performance from the Results of Arc Simulation during High-Current Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chul; Lee, Won-Ho; Kim, Woun-Jea

    2015-09-01

    The design and development procedures of SF6 gas circuit breakers are still largely based on trial and error through testing although the development costs go higher every year. The computation cannot cover the testing satisfactorily because all the real processes arc not taken into account. But the knowledge of the arc behavior and the prediction of the thermal-flow inside the interrupters by numerical simulations are more useful than those by experiments due to the difficulties to obtain physical quantities experimentally and the reduction of computational costs in recent years. In this paper, in order to get further information into the interruption process of a SF6 self-blast interrupter, which is based on a combination of thermal expansion and the arc rotation principle, gas flow simulations with a CFD-arc modeling are performed during the whole switching process such as high-current period, pre-current zero period, and current-zero period. Through the complete work, the pressure-rise and the ramp of the pressure inside the chamber before current zero as well as the post-arc current after current zero should be a good criterion to predict the short-line fault interruption performance of interrupters.

  15. HIV reservoirs and immune surveillance evasion cause the failure of structured treatment interruptions: a computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Mancini

    Full Text Available Continuous antiretroviral therapy is currently the most effective way to treat HIV infection. Unstructured interruptions are quite common due to side effects and toxicity, among others, and cannot be prevented. Several attempts to structure these interruptions failed due to an increased morbidity compared to continuous treatment. The cause of this failure is poorly understood and often attributed to drug resistance. Here we show that structured treatment interruptions would fail regardless of the emergence of drug resistance. Our computational model of the HIV infection dynamics in lymphoid tissue inside lymph nodes, demonstrates that HIV reservoirs and evasion from immune surveillance themselves are sufficient to cause the failure of structured interruptions. We validate our model with data from a clinical trial and show that it is possible to optimize the schedule of interruptions to perform as well as the continuous treatment in the absence of drug resistance. Our methodology enables studying the problem of treatment optimization without having impact on human beings. We anticipate that it is feasible to steer new clinical trials using computational models.

  16. Temporal responses of spectral line intensities emitted by d.c. arc plasma with aerosol supply studied by power interruption technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmanovic, Miroslav M. E-mail: miroslav@ffh.bg.ac.yu; Pavlovic, Mirjana S.; Savovic, Jelena J.; Marinkovic, Momir

    2003-02-03

    The responses to the fast interruption of the arc current have been studied for the spectral line intensities of several elements emitted by U-shaped direct current (d.c.) arc plasma with aerosol supply. The arc was burned at atmospheric pressure. Solutions containing the investigated elements were introduced with a concentric glass nebulizer into the argon stream of 2.7 l min{sup -1}. The arc current of 6 A was interrupted in periods that lasted up to 200 {mu}s. At the moment of power interruption, the spectral line intensities are either suddenly increased indicating Saha balance or suddenly decreased indicating Boltzmann balance. Plots of intensity vs. time are used to evaluate the mechanisms that maintain the populations of excited states in the stationary state and processes occurring in the plasma during the power-off period. Excited levels of the elements with high ionization energies, like Ar, H and O, are predominantly populated by three-body recombination process i.e. they are controlled by the Saha balance. Excited levels of elements with medium ionization energies are predominantly populated by collisions with electrons i.e. controlled by the Boltzmann balance. Some of the spectral lines of C, P and Hg with high-excited levels missed the sudden intensity change, a cooling jump, which could be interpreted by the presence of two opposite mechanisms, Saha and Boltzmann balances, that cancel out the effect. Spectral line responses of easily ionized elements were found to depend on the plasma region. In a 2-mm axis region, the intensities do not show a cooling jump, but increase slowly during the power-off period. At medium distances from the arc axis, the spectral lines show typical Boltzmann type response. Farther to the arc periphery, where the electron concentration is very low but emission is still high, the power interruption does not influence the intensities and this indicates that the excitation is not prevailed by electron collisions.

  17. Activation and Inhibition of Posterior Parietal Cortex Have Bi-Directional Effects on Spatial Errors Following Interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus Khan Foroughi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interruptions to ongoing mental activities are omnipresent in our modern digital world, but the brain networks involved in interrupted performance are not known, nor have the activation of those networks been modulated. Errors following interruptions reflect failures in spatial memory, whose maintenance is supported by a brain network including the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC. The present study therefore used bi-directional transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS of right PPC to examine the neuromodulation of spatial errors following interruptions, as well as performance on another PPC-dependent task, mental rotation. Anodal stimulation significantly reduced the number of interruption-based errors and increased mental rotation accuracy whereas cathodal stimulation significantly increased errors and reduced mental rotation accuracy. The results provide evidence for a causal role of the PPC in the maintenance of spatial representations during interrupted task performance.

  18. Prospective memory in children: the effects of age and task interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavilashvili, L; Messer, D J; Ebdon, P

    2001-05-01

    Prospective memory (PM), remembering to carry out a task in the future, is highly relevant to children's everyday functioning, yet relatively little is known about it. For these reasons the effects of age and task interruption on PM were studied in 3 experiments. Children aged 4, 5, and 7 years were asked to name pictures in stacks of cards (the ongoing task) and to remember to do something when they saw a target picture (the PM task). Significant age differences were identified, but age explained only a small amount of variance. As predicted, children in the no-interruption condition performed significantly better than those who had to interrupt the ongoing activity in order to carry out the PM task. An additional finding was that no relation was detected between performance on prospective and retrospective memory tasks. Taken together, these findings provide support for current models of PM and identify ways to assist children's PM. PMID:11370916

  19. The role of AGG interruptions in fragile X repeat expansions: A twenty year perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. Latham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 it was suggested that AGG interruptions affect the stability of the fragile X triplet repeat. Until recently, however, this hypothesis was not explored on a large scale due primarily to the technical difficulty of determining AGG interruption patterns of the two alleles in females. The recent development of a PCR technology that overcomes this difficulty and accurately identifies the number and position of AGGs has led to several studies that examine their influence on repeat stability. Here we present a historical perspective of relevant studies published during the last twenty years on AGG interruptions and examine those recent publications that have refined risk estimates for repeat instability and full mutation expansions.

  20. A new car-following model with consideration of the traffic interruption probability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Tie-Qiao; Huang Hai-Jun; Wong S. C.; Jiang Rui

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new car-following model by taking into account the effects of the traffic interruption probability on the car-following behaviour of the following vehicle. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is constructed and solved, and three types of traffic flows in the headway sensitivity space-stable, metastable, and unstable-are classified. Both the analytical and simulation results show that the traffic interruption probability indeed has an influence on driving behaviour, and the consideration of traffic interruption probability in the car-following model could stabilize traffic flow.

  1. Mediated interruptions of anaesthesia providers using predictions of workload from anaesthesia information management system data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R H; Dexter, F

    2012-09-01

    Perioperative interruptions generated electronically from anaesthesia information management systems (AIMS) can provide useful feedback, but may adversely affect task performance if distractions occur at inopportune moments. Ideally such interruptions would occur only at times when their impact would be minimal. In this study of AIMS data, we evaluated the times of comments, drugs, fluids and periodic assessments (e.g. electrocardiogram diagnosis and train-of-four) to develop recommendations for the timing of interruptions during the intraoperative period. The 39,707 cases studied were divided into intervals between: 1) enter operating room; 2) induction; 3) intubation; 4) surgical incision; and 5) end surgery. Five-minute intervals of no documentation were determined for each case. The offsets from the start of each interval when >50% of ongoing cases had completed initial documentation were calculated (MIN50). The primary endpoint for each interval was the percentage of all cases still ongoing at MIN50. Results were that the intervals from entering the operating room to induction and from induction to intubation were unsuitable for interruptions confirming prior observational studies of anaesthesia workload. At least 13 minutes after surgical incision was the most suitable time for interruptions with 92% of cases still ongoing. Timing was minimally affected by the type of anaesthesia, surgical facility, surgical service, prone positioning or scheduled case duration. The implication of our results is that for mediated interruptions, waiting at least 13 minutes after the start of surgery is appropriate. Although we used AIMS data, operating room information system data is also suitable. PMID:22934862

  2. Investigation on X-Radiation for 126 kV Vacuum Interrupters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jing; LIU Zhiyuan; GENG Yingsan; ZHANG Sheng; ZHANG Yingyao

    2016-01-01

    When subjected to high voltages between opened contacts,vacuum interrupters may emit X-rays.In order to ensure that these are of an acceptable level,vacuum interrupters should comply with the limits for X-ray emission and the test procedures to be carried out to verify this based on relevant standards and specifications.In this paper,a comprehensive experimental study has been performed for 126 kV vacuum interrupters used in a transmission system to understand the X-radiation level and its influence by three main parameters,namely applied power-frequency voltage,contact gap and power-frequency voltage conditioning.The radiation instrument is an FJ347 radiometer and the X-radiation dose was measured at the power-frequency test voltage.These tests demonstrated that the X-radiation emission level for a 126 kV vacuum interrupter did not exceed the following:5μSv per hour at a rated voltage of 126 kV and 150 μSv per hour at a power-frequency voltage of 230 kV at 1 m distance.The X-radiation dose increased with the applied power-frequency voltage increasing and decreased with the contact gap increasing.The X-radiation dose for 126 kV vacuum interrupters decreased by 57% after the conditioning procedure with a certain power-frequency voltage.During the conditioning procedure,the average value of the X-radiation dose was 4.49 mSv,which means if a professional conditions 180 interrupters per year,it will be safe at the 6.4 m distance.

  3. Investigation on X-Radiation for 126 kV Vacuum Interrupters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Liu, Zhiyuan; Geng, Yingsan; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Yingyao

    2016-05-01

    When subjected to high voltages between opened contacts, vacuum interrupters may emit X-rays. In order to ensure that these are of an acceptable level, vacuum interrupters should comply with the limits for X-ray emission and the test procedures to be carried out to verify this based on relevant standards and specifications. In this paper, a comprehensive experimental study has been performed for 126 kV vacuum interrupters used in a transmission system to understand the X-radiation level and its influence by three main parameters, namely applied power-frequency voltage, contact gap and power-frequency voltage conditioning. The radiation instrument is an FJ347 radiometer and the X-radiation dose was measured at the power-frequency test voltage. These tests demonstrated that the X-radiation emission level for a 126 kV vacuum interrupter did not exceed the following: 5 μSv per hour at a rated voltage of 126 kV and 150 μSv per hour at a power-frequency voltage of 230 kV at 1 m distance. The X-radiation dose increased with the applied power-frequency voltage increasing and decreased with the contact gap increasing. The X-radiation dose for 126 kV vacuum interrupters decreased by 57% after the conditioning procedure with a certain power-frequency voltage. During the conditioning procedure, the average value of the X-radiation dose was 4.49 mSv, which means if a professional conditions 180 interrupters per year, it will be safe at the 6.4 m distance. supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2015CB251002)

  4. Mediated interruptions of anaesthesia providers using predictions of workload from anaesthesia information management system data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R H; Dexter, F

    2012-09-01

    Perioperative interruptions generated electronically from anaesthesia information management systems (AIMS) can provide useful feedback, but may adversely affect task performance if distractions occur at inopportune moments. Ideally such interruptions would occur only at times when their impact would be minimal. In this study of AIMS data, we evaluated the times of comments, drugs, fluids and periodic assessments (e.g. electrocardiogram diagnosis and train-of-four) to develop recommendations for the timing of interruptions during the intraoperative period. The 39,707 cases studied were divided into intervals between: 1) enter operating room; 2) induction; 3) intubation; 4) surgical incision; and 5) end surgery. Five-minute intervals of no documentation were determined for each case. The offsets from the start of each interval when >50% of ongoing cases had completed initial documentation were calculated (MIN50). The primary endpoint for each interval was the percentage of all cases still ongoing at MIN50. Results were that the intervals from entering the operating room to induction and from induction to intubation were unsuitable for interruptions confirming prior observational studies of anaesthesia workload. At least 13 minutes after surgical incision was the most suitable time for interruptions with 92% of cases still ongoing. Timing was minimally affected by the type of anaesthesia, surgical facility, surgical service, prone positioning or scheduled case duration. The implication of our results is that for mediated interruptions, waiting at least 13 minutes after the start of surgery is appropriate. Although we used AIMS data, operating room information system data is also suitable.

  5. PRODUCTION INVENTORY SYSTEM WITH RANDOM SUPPLY INTERRUPTIONS STATUE AND RANDOM LEAD TIMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Yumei; Liu Wenyuan; Zhang Qiang; Wu Fengqing

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes a continuous-review inventory system with random supply interruptions and random lead time which may be interrupted by a random number of supplier's OFF periods. The inventory with constant demand rate is managed by a (r; q1, q2,..., qm) policy and supplies from an unreliable sole supplier. By renewal theory and matrix Geometric method, the long-run average cost function is obtained and some important properties of the function are proved. Furthermore, performance of the inventory is derived.

  6. MEASUREMENT OF ANODIC OVERVOLTAGE BY A MODIFIED CURRENT INTERRUPTION METHOD IN CRYOLITE-ALUMINA MELTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Generally, there are reasons to believe that the experimental technique has been inadequate in some works on anodic overvoltage measurements in aluminium electrolysis, therefore, the overvoltage data are not quite correct. Several causes affecting the precision of measurements were analyzed, a cell configuration ( vertical carbon anodes, insulated bottom and inner wall of graphite crucible as cathode) was used for overvoltage studies. An improved current interruption technique was used with current interrupted in less than 2μs and a simulation was applied to the oscillating potential decay curve.

  7. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Convit, Jacinto; Schuler, Harland; Borges, Rafael; Olivero, Vimerca; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Frontado, Hortencia; Grillet, María E

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empiri...

  8. Effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Galarce, Ezequiel M.; Holland, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Food consumption is controlled by both internal and external factors. Environmental signals associated with food may prepare an animal to forage, consume and digest more effectively. Furthermore, environmental cues that provide information about food availability enable animals to make predictions about future food resources and act upon that knowledge in appropriate fashion. For example, when exposed to a cue that signals the presence of food, animals can eat beyond their present needs to co...

  9. MAXIMIZING NETWORK INTERRUPTION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK: AN INTRUDER’S PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahfuzul Islam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the colossal growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs in different applications starting from home automation to military affairs, the pressure on ensuring security in such a network is paramount. Considering the security challenges, it is really a hard-hitting effort to develop a secured WSN system. Moreover, as the information technology is getting popular, the intruders are also planning new ideas to break the system security, to harm the network and to make the system quality down with the target of taking the control of the network to corrupt it or to get benefits from it anyway. The intruders corrupt the system only when the security breaking cost (SBC is lower compared with the benefits they attained or the harm it can make to others. In this paper, the authors define the term “maximizing network interruption problem” and propose a technique, called the grid point approximation algorithm, to estimate the SBC of a multi-hop WSN so that it can be made tougher for an intruder to break the system security. It is assumed that the intruder has the complete picture of the entire network. The technique is designed from the intruder’s point of view for completely jamming all the sensor nodes in the network through placing jammers or malicious nodes strategically and at the same time keeping the number of jammer nodes to minimum or near minimum. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no work proposed so far of the same kind. Experimental results with the changes of the different network parameters show that the proposed algorithm is able to provide excellent performances to achieve the targets.

  10. Chronical sleep interruption-induced cognitive decline assessed by a metabolomics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Wu, Hong-wei; Song, Guang-qing; Lu, Cong; Li, Ying-hui; Qu, Li-na; Chen, Shan-guang; Liu, Xin-min; Chang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Good sleep is necessary for optimal health, especially for mental health. Insomnia, sleep deprivation will make your ability to learn and memory impaired. Nevertheless, the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of sleep disorders-induced cognitive decline is still largely unknown. In this study, the sleep deprivation of animal model was induced by chronical sleep interruption (CSI), the behavioral tests, biochemical index determinations, and a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based serum metabolic profiling analysis were performed to explore the effects of CSI on cognitive function and the underlying mechanisms. After 14-days CSI, the cognitive function of the mice was evaluated by new objects preference (NOP) task and temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. Serum corticosterone (CORT), and brain Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and Catalase (CAT) levels were determined by ELISA kits. Data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Squares project to latent structures-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), and Student's t-test. We found that the cognitive function of the mice was significantly affected by CSI. Besides, levels of CORT and MDA were higher, and SOD and CAT were lower in CSI mice than those of control. Obvious body weight loss of CSI mice was also observed. Thirteen potential serum biomarkers including choline, valine, uric acid, allantoic acid, carnitines, and retinoids were identified. Affected metabolic pathways involve metabolism of purine, retinoid, lipids, and amino acid. These results showed that CSI can damage the cognitive performance notably. The cognitive decline may ascribe to excessive oxidative stress and a series of disturbed metabolic pathways. PMID:26747207

  11. Relationship between regulatory T cells and immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients interrupting antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Weiss

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Persistent immune activation plays a central role in driving Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV disease progression. Whether CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs are harmful by suppressing HIV-specific immune responses and/or beneficial through a decrease in immune activation remains debatable. We analysed the relationship between proportion and number of regulatory T cells (Tregs and immune activation in HIV-infected patients interrupting an effective antiretroviral therapy (ART. Twenty-five patients were included in a substudy of a prospective multicenter trial of treatment interruption (TI (ANRS 116. Proportions and numbers of Tregs and the proportion of activated CD4 and CD8 T cells were assessed at baseline and month 12 (M12 of TI. Specific anti-HIV CD4 and CD8 responses were investigated at baseline and M12. Non parametric univariate analyses and multivariate linear regression models were conducted. At baseline, the proportion of Tregs negatively correlated with the proportion of HLA-DR+CD8+T cells (r=-0.519. Following TI, the proportion of Tregs increased from 6.3% to 7.2% (p=0.029; absolute numbers of Tregs decreased. The increase in the proportion of HLA-DR+CD38+CD8+T cells was significantly related to the increase in proportion of Tregs (p=0.031. At M12, the proportion of Tregs did not negatively correlate with CD8 T-cell activation. Nevertheless, Tregs retain a suppressive function since depletion of Treg-containing CD4+CD25+ cells led to an increase in lymphoproliferative responses in most patients studied. Our data suggest that Tregs are efficient in controlling residual immune activation in patients with ART-mediated viral suppression. However, the insufficient increase in the proportion and/or the decrease in the absolute number of Tregs result in a failure to control immune activation following TI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00118677.

  12. Women’s work interruptions and career prospects in Germany and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Evertsson; D. Grunow

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to focus on two welfare state regimes with differing degrees of de-familialisation strategies, Germany and Sweden, to study whether and how women's career interruptions influence their labour market prospects. By comparing women with continuous careers to those

  13. Airway resistance measurements in pre-school children with asthmatic symptoms : The interrupter technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, EMW; Schokker, S; van der Molen, T; Duiverman, EJ

    2006-01-01

    Measuring airway resistance in pre-school children with the interrupter technique has proven to be feasible and reliable in daily clinical practice and research settings. Whether it contributes to diagnosing asthma in pre-schoot children still remains uncertain. From the results of previous studies

  14. RTtxGap: An android radiobiological tool for compensation of radiotherapy treatment interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, A. L.; Mohamad, M.; Abdullah, R.; Bhavaraju, V. M. K.; Nik Idris, N. R.

    2016-03-01

    Treatment interruption is not uncommon in radiotherapy. Common reasons for treatment interruption include machine breakdown, holidays and patient severe radiation reactions. Here RTtxGap, an Android application to assist calculations of compensation for treatment gap, is reported. It uses linear quadratic (LQ) model to calculate the biological effective dose (BED) that is used to solve for treatment gap compensations. Solutions are calculated using BED equation, with consideration for tissue proliferation. The accuracy of results has been verified using LQL Equiv software to be accurate within 1%. Five treatment interruption examples were used to illustrate the capability of the software to calculate the treatment compensation schedules. Solving these examples also illustrates the general consensus regarding compensating for unscheduled treatment interruptions, which ultimately involves balancing the BEDs of tumour and organ at risk. In addition to compensation for treatment gap, RTtxGap can also be used to calculate equivalent total dose in 2-Gy fraction (EQD2), to modify treatment schedule and to calculate alternative dose prescriptions having the same isoeffect.

  15. Proximal interruption of a main pulmonary artery with transpleural collateral vessels: CT and MR appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, P W; Foley, D W; Erickson, S J

    1991-01-01

    The plain chest radiographic, CT, and MR findings in a 31-year-old woman with proximal interruption of the right main pulmonary artery and transpleural collaterals are presented. The diagnosis can be established by both dynamic CT and MR. Intercostal collaterals and their transpleural connections are best demonstrated with dynamic CT.

  16. Analysis of Data Interruption in an LTE Highway Scenario with Dual Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Michaelsen, Per-Henrik; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates whether last versions of Long Term Evolution with dual connectivity are able to support the latency and reliability requirements for the upcoming vehicular use-cases and time-critical applications. Data interruption times during handovers and cell management operations are ev...

  17. Children with smoking parents have a higher airway resistance measured by the interruption technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, EMW; Vrijlandt, EJLE; Boezen, HM; Duiverman, EJ

    2004-01-01

    Children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, during or after pregnancy, are known to have decreased lung function. So far this has been measured using spirometry in schoolchildren and invasive techniques in newborns. The interruption technique (Rint) is a noninvasive technique to measure airway

  18. Preparing School Leaders to Interrupt Racism at Various Levels in Educational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boske, Christa

    2015-01-01

    This narrative inquiry seeks to advance the field of educational leadership preparation by exploring ways to interrupt personal, interpersonal, and institutional racism through the senses--ways in which people perceive their experiences and relation to others. Findings suggest that participants engage in actions aligned with revelations from their…

  19. The Reasons for the Interruption of Vocational Training in Estonian Vocational Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilmann, Mai; Espenberg, Kerly

    2016-01-01

    Dropping out of school before achieving any qualification is a serious problem both at an individual and societal level. This study provides an insight into the lives of young people who have dropped out or are at a risk of dropping out of vocational schools in Estonia and gives an overview of the reasons behind the interruption of their studies.…

  20. The Discharge Development and Arc Modes in Vacuum at A Long Gap Distance in Vacuum Interrupters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shaoyong; XIU Shixin; WANG Jimei; SHEN Zhengchao

    2007-01-01

    The influence of an arc current on the discharge development and the arc modes of a single coil type axial magnetic field (AMF) electrode were investigated by a high-speed charge couple device (CCD) video camera in a long gap distance of 40 mm. The distribution of the axial magnetic field of the single coil type AMF electrode was computed. By computational results, the single coil type AMF electrode could generate higher axial magnetic flux density than the slot type AMF electrode. It was found that the single coil type AMF electrode could perform better than the slot type AMF electrode with the same designing parameters. And the development of the arc modes experienced diffuse mode, constricted but unstable mode, and constricted and stable mode with the amplitude of the arc current increasing. The correlation between the vacuum arc and the noise components of arc voltage was investigated too. The interruption capability could be known in a practical commercial vacuum interrupter by the test results in a demountable vacuum interrupter (DVC) with a electrode diameter of 50 mm and a gap distance of 40mm.The test results could provide reference to design the high voltage vacuum interrupter adopting the single coil type AMF electrode.

  1. Immunological Analysis of Treatment Interruption After Early Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M.M. Schellens; K. Pogany; G.H.A. Westerlaken; J.A.M. Borghans; F. Miedema; I.G.M. van Valkengoed; F.P. Kroon; J.M.A. Lange; K. Brinkman; J.M. Prins; D. van Baarle

    2010-01-01

    We longitudinally evaluated HIV-specific T-cell immunity after discontinuation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). After treatment interruption (TI), some individuals could maintain a low plasma viral load (<15,000 copies/mL), whereas others could not (>50,000 copies/mL). Before HAART w

  2. Crude oil contamination interrupts settlement of coral larvae after direct exposure ends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Hartmann; S.A. Sandin; V.F. Chamberland; K.L. Marhaver; J.M. de Goeij; M.J.A. Vermeij

    2015-01-01

    il spills cause damage to marine wildlife that lasts well past their immediate aftermath. Marine offspring that must settle and metamorphose to reach adulthood may be particularly prone to harm if the legacy of oil exposure interrupts later transitions across life stages. Following an oil spill on C

  3. The Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection and Sertraline on Vocal Stereotypy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Caio F.; Clark, Kathy; Tereshko, Lisa; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Although response interruption and redirection (RIRD) has been shown to be successful in reducing vocal stereotypy, recent reports have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may also reduce these behaviors. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effects of RIRD with and without sertraline on…

  4. The Impact of the Hotel Room Tax: An Interrupted Time Series Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bonham, Carl; Fujii, Edwin; Im, Eric; Mak, James

    1992-01-01

    Employs interrupted time series analysis to estimate ex post the impact of a hotel room tax on real net hotel revenues by analyzing that time series before and after the imposition of the tax. Finds that the tax had a negligible effect on real hotel revenues.

  5. Integrating Knowledge of Multitasking and Interruptions Across Different Perspectives and Research Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Chris; Gould, Sandy J. J.; Li, Simon Y.W.; Cox, Anna L.; Brumby, Duncan P.

    2015-01-01

    Multitasking and interruptions have been studied using a variety of methods in multiple fields (e.g., HCI, cognitive science, computer science, and social sciences). This diversity brings many complementary insights. However, it also challenges researchers to understand how seemingly disparate ideas

  6. The Effects of Verbal Operant Training and Response Interruption and Redirection on Appropriate and Inappropriate Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Candice L.; Ahearn, William H.; Clark, Kathleen M.; Masalsky, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Past research has shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can effectively decrease automatically reinforced motor behavior (Hagopian & Adelinis, 2001). Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, and Chung (2007) found that a procedural adaptation of RIRD reduced vocal stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for some children, although…

  7. The costs of electricity interruptions in Spain. Are we sending the right signals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the objectives of energy security is the uninterrupted physical availability of energy. However, there is limited information about how much is the cost of energy supply interruptions. This information is essential to optimize investment and operating decisions to prevent energy shortages, or, alternatively, to determine the strength of the signals to be sent to the agents so that they may invest accordingly. In this paper, we estimate the economic impact of an electricity interruption in different sectors and regions of Spain. Although there are several caveats in our analysis, we find that in 2008 the cost for the Spanish economy of one kWh of electricity not supplied was above €4 even in a conservative scenario, which is higher than the signals currently being sent as incentives to avoid these interruptions. This might result in an underinvestment in short-term energy security, particularly when we add the usual risk aversion of most consumers. - Highlights: • We calculate the costs of electricity interruptions in Spain. • We find that in 2008 the cost for the Spanish economy of one kWh of electricity not supplied was around €6. • The results imply that Spain is underinvesting in short-term energy security

  8. Bronchial histamine challenge. A combined interrupter-dosimeter method compared with a standard method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Madsen, F;

    1985-01-01

    We compared the provocative concentration (PC) values obtained by two different methods of performing bronchial histamine challenge. One test was done on an APTA, an apparatus which allows simultaneous provocation with histamine and measurement of airway resistance (Rtot) by the interrupter metho...

  9. Differential reactions of virtual actors and observers to the triggering and interruption of psychological momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briki, Walid; Doron, Julie; Markman, Keith D.; Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Gernigon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The present study compared virtual actors’ and observers’ perceptions of positive and negative psychological momentum (PM) and their responses to sudden interruptions of momentum. Participants with experience playing competitive table tennis imagined that they were playing a table tennis game (virtu

  10. Truncus arteriosus with aortic arch interruption: cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in the unrepaired adult

    OpenAIRE

    Cook Stephen C; Thavendiranathan Paaladinesh; Arruda Janine; Verhaert David; Raman Subha V

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Truncus arteriosus (TA) is a rare congenital condition defined as a single arterial vessel arising from the heart that gives origin to the systemic, pulmonary and coronary circulations. We discuss the unique case of a 28 year-old female patient with unrepaired TA and interruption of the aortic arch who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).

  11. AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR DISCUSSING FARM BUSINESS INTERRUPTION INSURANCE FOR CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER

    OpenAIRE

    M.P.M. Meuwissen; Skees, J.R.; Black, J R; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies farm business interruption insurance for Classical Swine Fever epidemics. Insight into the size of risk is obtained by a very detailed Monte-Carlo simulation model that includes both epidemiological and economic factors. The paper also considers issues such as farmers' and governments' influence on the size of risk.

  12. Planning of continuity of service: The nuisance index, a measurement of the impact of interruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved approach has been developed by Hydro-Quebec to integrate its customers' needs into the planning for service continuity. A nuisance index has been developed to measure the impact of service interruptions and is currently being tested with a pilot project in the Richelieu service area. The analytic framework used differentiates three categories of customers for which a normative cost of interrptions is calculated. The classification of networks according to load density and use characteristics allows the utility to define appropriate service continuity objectives. Service continuity is measured using an indicator which is directly deduced from the cost of interruptions. The index takes into account the circumstances surrounding each interruption and an individual nuisance index is calculated for each customer. Then an average individual nuisance index is computed for customers within each category. Finally, an aggregated nuisance index is calculated for all categories as a whole. The cost of interruptions may then be derived through multiplying the nuisance indexes by the energy consumption of the corresponding set of customers and by a constant. It is possible to check whether a customer is receiving acceptable service continuity. An indicator determines the share of energy consumption for which a tolerance threshold has been exceeded. Once integrated into the planning process, these concepts enable optimal distribution network design and operation. Adjustments of network classes that match both the evolution of customers and load contribute to the permanent improvement of networks and their operation. 4 figs

  13. The role of interruptions in polyQ in the pathology of SCA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh P Menon

    Full Text Available At least nine dominant neurodegenerative diseases are caused by expansion of CAG repeats in coding regions of specific genes that result in abnormal elongation of polyglutamine (polyQ tracts in the corresponding gene products. When above a threshold that is specific for each disease the expanded polyQ repeats promote protein aggregation, misfolding and neuronal cell death. The length of the polyQ tract inversely correlates with the age at disease onset. It has been observed that interruption of the CAG tract by silent (CAA or missense (CAT mutations may strongly modulate the effect of the expansion and delay the onset age. We have carried out an extensive study in which we have complemented DNA sequence determination with cellular and biophysical models. By sequencing cloned normal and expanded SCA1 alleles taken from our cohort of ataxia patients we have determined sequence variations not detected by allele sizing and observed for the first time that repeat instability can occur even in the presence of CAG interruptions. We show that histidine interrupted pathogenic alleles occur with relatively high frequency (11% and that the age at onset inversely correlates linearly with the longer uninterrupted CAG stretch. This could be reproduced in a cellular model to support the hypothesis of a linear behaviour of polyQ. We clarified by in vitro studies the mechanism by which polyQ interruption slows down aggregation. Our study contributes to the understanding of the role of polyQ interruption in the SCA1 phenotype with regards to age at disease onset, prognosis and transmission.

  14. Oscillatory pressure transients after flow interruption during bronchial challenge test in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, U; Kraemer, R

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of the conventional interrupter resistance (Rint) is dependent on pressure equilibration between alveolar and airway opening pressure, which is often not achieved in the presence of severe airways obstruction or in small children. The damping properties (d) of postocclusional oscillatory pressure transients after rapid flow interrruption can be assessed independent of complete pressure equilibration, and we have previously shown them to be correlated to resistive properties of the respiratory system. We wanted to determine whether these transients were an expression of acoustic properties of the air in the airways, or whether they were caused by an interaction of gas and lung tissue, and whether d was more sensitive than Rint to changes in airway mechanics. Bronchial challenge tests were carried out with cumulative doses of inhaled carbachol in 10 healthy children (aged 7-14 yrs) and 50 asthmatic children (aged 5-15 yrs). The airflow interruptions were performed with a combined nebulizer-shutter head, allowing resistance measurements with each breath. The frequency, and the damping factor of the postocclusional pressure transients changed significantly during carbachol challenge in both groups of children. The provocation dose (PD) at which the damping factor (d) of the oscillatory pressure transients increased more than 2 SD above the baseline mean ("variance-based", PDvb) was lower than the PDvb of the end-interruption resistance (Rint, EI). These changes in frequency and damping factor were reversible after inhaling salbutamol. These findings suggest that the damping properties of the postocclusional pressure transients after flow interruption can be used as a sensitive parameter to assess changes in airway mechanics during bronchial challenge test in children in whom pressure equilibration is frequently not achieved during airflow interruption due to airways obstruction. PMID:9032496

  15. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGrunwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these explorative stops (ES during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: a between mean exploration time and duration of ES, b between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and c the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different experiments were used. The first two experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A and of common objects (B. In experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D and real (E sunken reliefs. Results: In each experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For experiment A: 329.50 ms, experiment B: 67.47 ms, experiment C: 189.92 ms, experiment D: 186.17 ms and experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.

  16. Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Alvaro

    2003-07-01

    Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Bras lia in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering Committee on Chagas Disease

  17. Effects of Light Interruption on Sleep and Viability of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenxing Liu; Zhangwu Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Light is a very important regulator of the daily sleep rhythm. Here, we investigate the influence of nocturnal light stimulation on Drosophila sleep. Results showed that total daytime sleep was reduced due to a decrease in daytime sleep episode duration caused by discontinuous light stimulation, but sleep was not strongly impacted at nighttime although the discontinuous light stimulation occurred during the scotophase. During a subsequent recovery period without light interruption, the sleep ...

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of isolated interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation to superior vena cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Thi Cam Giang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Absence of inferior vena cava is an uncommon congenital abnormality. It is usually associated with other structural anomalies, typically left isomerism. We report a case of interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation diagnosed as an isolated finding during routine prenatal ultrasound scan, confirmed by post-natal echocardiography. Detailed ultrasound examination of the fetal anatomy failed to demonstrate other anomalies. The neonatal course of this fetus was uneventful.

  19. Simulating Bistable Perception with Interrupted Ambiguous Stimulus using Self-Oscillator Dynamics with Percept Choice Bifurcation

    OpenAIRE

    Fürstenau, N.

    2015-01-01

    A behavioral stochastic self-oscillator model with perception-attention coupling and re-entrant cognitive processing is used for simulating interrupted ambiguous stimulus induced percept reversals. The results provide further support for a dynamical systems foundation of cognitive and psychological problems as discussed in detail within the context of Gestalt psychology [1], and for coordination dynamics of the brain [2]. Periodic stimulus–off switching (toff < 1 s, ton = 300 ms) was introduc...

  20. Assessment of economic impact of electricity supply interruptions in the Sri Lanka industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country's economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from standby generation used to supplement the power requirements of the industrial sector. The study found that the main economic impact of the power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, is the loss of output in the industrial sector. In a typical year of power shortages, such as 2001, arising from a deficit in generation capacity, these losses can be as high as approximately US$ 81 million a year, which is approximately 0.65% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Also, the economic impact due to unplanned outages can be around US$ 45 million (0.3% of GDP) in a typical year. On average, these values for planned and unplanned outages are US$ 0.66 and US$ 1.08 per kW h of energy loss, respectively. It is also observed that 92% of the sampled industries have standby generation facilities to satisfy either, in full or partially, their own power requirements, which produced approximately 146 GW h of energy in 2001. The serious economic and environmental impacts of power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, underlines the importance of timely implementation of the long term least cost generation expansion plan and proper maintenance of transmission and distribution networks to ensure their high reliability. Therefore, it is clear that the utility needs to take immediate steps to improve its supply reliability in order to retain consumers and justify the existence of a centralised generation facility

  1. Assessment of economic impact of electricity supply interruptions in the Sri Lanka industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies, Department of Electrical Engineering; Jayalath, M.S. [NEXANT SARI/Energy, A Bectel Affiliated Company, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country's economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from standby generation used to supplement the power requirements of the industrial sector. The study found that the main economic impact of the power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, is the loss of output in the industrial sector. In a typical year of power shortages, such as 2001, arising from a deficit in generation capacity, these losses can be as high as approximately US$ 81 million a year, which is approximately 0.65% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Also, the economic impact due to unplanned outages can be around US$ 45 million (0.3% of GDP) in a typical year. On average, these values for planned and unplanned outages are US$ 0.66 and US$ 1.08 per kW h of energy loss, respectively. It is also observed that 92% of the sampled industries have standby generation facilities to satisfy either, in full or partially, their own power requirements, which produced approximately 146 GW h of energy in 2001. The serious economic and environmental impacts of power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, underlines the importance of timely implementation of the long term least cost generation expansion plan and proper maintenance of transmission and distribution networks to ensure their high reliability. Therefore, it is clear that the utility needs to take immediate steps to improve its supply reliability in order to retain consumers and justify the existence of a centralised generation facility. (author)

  2. Landing a Permanent Contract: Do Job Interruptions and Employer Diversification Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Rebollo Sanz

    2009-01-01

    A discrete-time multivariate hazard model is applied to investigate whether an individual’s employment history conditions her chances of eventually obtaining a permanent contract in the Spanish labour market. This study differentiates the incidence of lagged duration dependence from occurrence dependence and individual employment history conditions are not exclusively defined in terms of the number of temporary contracts and job interruptions experienced by the worker, but also by the diversi...

  3. A re-entry tachycardia triggered by the spontaneous interruption of an atrial tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttà, Carmelo; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Giarrusso, Lucia; Miceli, Giuseppe; Cuttitta, Francesco; La Rosa, Donata; Licata, Giuseppe; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The common atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia is the most common form of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. It starts frequently with a supraventricular ectopic beat that, on finding the fast pathway in refractory period, travels in the slow pathway as to appear as a prolongation of the PR interval on the ECG. In this study, we show a singular case of a common atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia triggered by the spontaneous interruption of an atrial tachycardia.

  4. Stuck in the Adoption Funnel: The Effect of Interruptions in the Adoption Process on Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Anja Lambrecht; Katja Seim; Catherine Tucker

    2010-01-01

    Many firms have introduced Internet-based customer self-service applications such as online payments or brokerage services. Despite high initial sign-up rates, not all customers actually shift their dealings online. We investigate whether the multistage nature of the adoption process (an "adoption funnel") for such technologies can explain this low take-up. We use exogenous variation in events that possibly interrupt adoption, in the form of vacations and public holidays in different German s...

  5. The basolateral amygdala mediates the effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Galarce, Ezequiel M.; McDannald, Michael A; Holland, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable evidence shows that environmental cues that signal food delivery when rats are food-deprived can substantially potentiate feeding later when rats are food-sated. Similarly, cues associated with meal interruption, food removal or impending food scarcity may also induce increased eating. For example, after learning the association between a discrete “interruption” stimulus and the unexpected termination of food trials, sated rats show enhanced food consumption when exposed to that ...

  6. Understanding the cost of power interruptions to U.S. electricity consumers

    OpenAIRE

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Eto, Joseph H.

    2004-01-01

    The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern United States and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 resulted in the U.S. electricity system being g called "antiquated" and catalyzed discussions about modernizing the grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of $50 to $100 billion would be needed. This report seeks to quantify an important piece of information that has been missing from these discussions: how much do power interruptions and fluctuations in power quality (power...

  7. 1,4-Diketones from Cross-Conjugated Dienones: Potassium Permanganate-Interrupted Nazarov Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yonghoon; Schatz, Devon J; West, Frederick G

    2015-08-17

    A domino potassium permanganate-interrupted Nazarov reaction to yield syn-2,3-disubstituted 1,4-diketones via a decarbonylative cleavage of the Nazarov oxyallyl intermediate, believed to be without precedent, is presented. This process allows syn substituents to be established stereospecifically on the 2-carbon bridge connecting the ketone carbonyl carbons, and the formation of one carbon-carbon and two carbon-oxygen bonds. Two carbon-carbon bonds are cleaved in this process. PMID:26138361

  8. Effects of light interruption on sleep and viability of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing Liu

    Full Text Available Light is a very important regulator of the daily sleep rhythm. Here, we investigate the influence of nocturnal light stimulation on Drosophila sleep. Results showed that total daytime sleep was reduced due to a decrease in daytime sleep episode duration caused by discontinuous light stimulation, but sleep was not strongly impacted at nighttime although the discontinuous light stimulation occurred during the scotophase. During a subsequent recovery period without light interruption, the sleep quality of nighttime sleep was improved and of daytime sleep reduced, indicating flies have a persistent response to nocturnal light stimulation. Further studies showed that the discontinuous light stimulation damped the daily rhythm of a circadian light-sensitive protein cryptochrome both at the mRNA and protein levels, which subsequently caused disappearance of circadian rhythm of the core oscillator timeless and decrease of TIMLESS protein at nighttime. These data indicate that the nocturnal light interruption plays an important role in sleep through core proteins CRYTOCHROME and TIMLESS, Moreover, interruption of sleep further impacted reproduction and viability.

  9. Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in interrupted inferior caval vein through femoral vein approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous closure of the patent arterial duct in patients with interrupted inferior caval vein poses a technical challenge. A 12-year-old girl with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and interrupted inferior caval vein is described in this report. The diagnosis of interrupted inferior caval vein and azygos continuation was made in the catheterization laboratory. A catheter was advanced and snared in the descending aorta. An exchange wire was advanced through the catheter and snared in the descending aorta. Then, an Amplatzer TorqVue 2 delivery sheath was advanced over the wire from the venous side and again snared in the descending aorta. An Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO) size 8/6 was advanced through the sheath while still holding the sheath with a snare. The device was opened. The sheath was then unsnared once the aortic disc was completely out. The sheath and the device were pulled back into the duct and the device was successfully implanted. The device was then released and it attained a stable position. An aortic angiogram was performed which showed complete occlusion

  10. Interrupt-Based Step-Counting to Extend Battery Life in an Activity Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Young Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most activity monitors use an accelerometer and gyroscope sensors to characterize the wearer’s physical activity. The monitor measures the motion by polling an accelerometer or gyroscope sensor or both every 20–30 ms and frequent polling affects the battery life of a wearable device. One of the key features of a commercial daily-activity monitoring device is longer battery life so that the user can keep track of his or her activity for a week or so without recharging the battery of the monitoring device. Many low-power approaches for a step-counting system use either a polling-based algorithm or an interrupt-based algorithm. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that uses the tap interrupt of an accelerometer to count steps while consuming low power. We compared the accuracy of step counting and measured system-level power consumption to a periodic sensor-reading algorithm. Our tap interrupt approach shows a battery lifetime that is 175% longer than that of a 30 ms polling method without gyroscope. The battery lifetime can be extended up to 863% with a gyroscope by putting both the processor and the gyroscope into sleep state during the majority of operation time.

  11. Joint imaging and change detection for robust exploitation in interrupted SAR environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Joshua N.

    2013-05-01

    Modern radar systems equipped with agile-beam technology support multiple modes of operation, including, for example, tracking, automated target recognition (ATR), and synthetic aperture radar imaging (SAR). In a multimode operating environment, the services compete for radar resources and leave gaps in the coherent collection aperture devoted to SAR imaging. Such gapped collections, referred to as interrupted SAR, typically result in significant image distortion and can substantially degrade subsequent exploitation tasks, such as change detection. In this work we present a new form of exploitation that jointly performs imaging and coherent change detection in interrupted environments. We adopt a Bayesian approach that inherently accommodates different interrupt patterns and compensates for missing data via exploitation of 1) a partially coherent model for reference-pass to mission-pass pixel transitions, and 2) the a priori notion that changes between passes are generally sparse and spatially clustered. We employ approximate message passing for computationally efficient Bayesian inference and demonstrate performance on measured and synthetic SAR data. The results demonstrate near optimal (ungapped) performance with pulse loss rates up to ˜ 50% and highlight orders of magnitude reduction in false alarm rates compared to traditional methods.

  12. Interruption of pulmonary arterial flow with inadequate ventilation leads to pulmonary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano; Shibayama, Y; Fukunshi, K; Nariyama, K; Ohsawa, N

    1996-03-01

    We examined the effect of interruption of pulmonary arterial flow and inadequate ventilation on the development of pulmonary infarction in rats. Pulmonary arterial flow was blocked by the injection of agar into the inferior vena cava and inadequate ventilation was produced by obstructing the left main bronchus with a polypropylene tip. Histological and angiographic examination of the lung demonstrated that: pulmonary artery embolism alone does not induce pulmonary infarction; obstruction of a bronchus does not induce significant changes, but that pulmonary infarction develops when pulmonary artery embolism and obstruction of a bronchus occur simultaneously. It has been thought that pulmonary infarction is caused by acute obstruction of a pulmonary artery, however, the alveolar walls are supplied with oxygen by both the pulmonary circulation and by ventilation. Interruption of pulmonary arterial flow alone is probably not sufficient to induce pulmonary infarction, which is probably caused by deficiency of oxygen supply to the alveolar walls by a synergy between interruption of pulmonary arterial flow and inadequate ventilation. PMID:8605572

  13. Fully kinetic model of breakdown during sheath expansion after interruption of vacuum arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Haoran; Zhou, Zhipeng; Tian, Yunbo; Geng, Yingsan; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2016-08-01

    Research on sheath expansion is critical to the understanding of the dielectric recovery process in a vacuum interrupter after interruption of vacuum arcs. In this paper, we investigated how residual plasma affects breakdown in the sheath expansion period after the current zero. To simulate sheath expansion and breakdown, we developed a fully kinetic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision model with one spatial dimension and three velocity dimensions. The model accounted for various collisions, including ionization, excitation, elastic collisions, charge exchange, and momentum exchange, and we added an external circuit to the model to make the calculations self-consistent. The existence of metal vapor slowed the sheath expansion in the gap and caused high electric field formation in front of the cathode surface. The initial residual plasma, which was at sufficiently low density, seemed to have a limited impact on breakdown, and the metal vapor dominated the breakdown in this case. Additionally, the breakdown probability was sensitive to the initial plasma density if the value exceeded a specific threshold, and plasma at sufficiently high density could mean that breakdown would occur more easily. We found that if the simulation does not take the residual plasma into account, it could overestimate the critical value of the metal vapor density, which is always used to describe the boundary of breakdown after interruption of vacuum arcs. We discussed the breakdown mechanism in sheath expansion, and the breakdown is determined by a combination of metal vapor, residual plasma, and the electric field in front of the cathode surface.

  14. Effects of Continuous and Interrupted Forces on Gene Transcription in Periodontal Ligament Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Nasser Ostad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The biological mechanisms of tooth movement are based on the response of periodontal tissues to mechanical forces. The final result of these responses is remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Tissue reactions may vary depending upon the type, magnitude and duration of the applied forces. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of centrifugal force on the transcription of collagen type-I (Col-I, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase- 1 (TIMP-1 genes in human periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts. Human fibroblasts obtained from the PDL were cultured and subjected to centrifugal forces (36.3 g/cm2 for 30, 60 and 90 min continuously. This was also carried out interruptedly, three times for 30 min and six times for 15 min. The mRNAs encoding for Col-I, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 were quantified using RT-PCR. The mRNA levels of Col-I and MMP-1 were increased when continuous force was applied for 30 min and 60 min respectively. The interrupted force had almost no effect on Col-I, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 genes. These results indicate that continuous forces may have a greater effect in inducing gene expression during the remodeling process of PDL compared to interrupted forces with short rest periods.

  15. Role of contextual cues on the perception of spectrally reduced interrupted speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Chhayakanta; Mendel, Lisa Lucks

    2016-08-01

    Understanding speech within an auditory scene is constantly challenged by interfering noise in suboptimal listening environments when noise hinders the continuity of the speech stream. In such instances, a typical auditory-cognitive system perceptually integrates available speech information and "fills in" missing information in the light of semantic context. However, individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) find it difficult and effortful to understand interrupted speech compared to their normal hearing counterparts. This inefficiency in perceptual integration of speech could be attributed to further degradations in the spectral-temporal domain imposed by CIs making it difficult to utilize the contextual evidence effectively. To address these issues, 20 normal hearing adults listened to speech that was spectrally reduced and spectrally reduced interrupted in a manner similar to CI processing. The Revised Speech Perception in Noise test, which includes contextually rich and contextually poor sentences, was used to evaluate the influence of semantic context on speech perception. Results indicated that listeners benefited more from semantic context when they listened to spectrally reduced speech alone. For the spectrally reduced interrupted speech, contextual information was not as helpful under significant spectral reductions, but became beneficial as the spectral resolution improved. These results suggest top-down processing facilitates speech perception up to a point, and it fails to facilitate speech understanding when the speech signals are significantly degraded. PMID:27586760

  16. Critical Causes and Consequences of Construction Project Interruption: Client, Contractor, Consultant and External Factors Standpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbasirah Mohamed Alias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It should be pointed out that the dilemma of interruption and stoppage in the construction industry is a large-scale trend. Construction interruption and stoppage is considered one of the most recurring problems in the construction industry. Construction Interruption and stoppage is always measured as costly to all parties concerned in the projects and very often it will result in clash, claims, total desertion and much difficult for the feasibility and it slows the growth of construction sector. The objective of the research work that underpins this paper was to investigate the Factors and Consequences of construction projects on local contractors. A construction project is commonly acknowledged as successful when the aim of the project is achieved in terms of predetermined objectives that are mainly completed the project on time, within budget and specified quality in accordance with the specifications and to stakeholders’ satisfaction. One of the most important problems that may arise in the construction project is delays and the magnitude of these delays varies considerably from project to project. According to delay categories that were contractor related, client related, consultant related, labour related and external related, the study revealed the six major effects of delay that were time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, arbitration, total abandonment, and litigation.

  17. Interruption of a dry-type transformer in no-load by a vacuum circuit-breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenheuvel, W. M. C.; Daalder, J. E.; Boone, M. J. M.; Wilmes, L. A. H.

    1983-08-01

    Overvoltages generated during interruption of a dry type delta-star connected transformer in no load by a vacuum breaker were studied. During interruption of inrush current 37% of the phase-to-ground overvoltages were 5 pu, and 6% 7 pu. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results using Boyle's model shows no discrepancy for inrush currents and clean overvoltages from the steady-state interruption. Overvoltages due to repetitive reignitions (not covered by Boyle's model) are higher than the calculated values during steady-state switching.

  18. The effects of pay for performance on disparities in stroke, hypertension, and coronary heart disease management: interrupted time series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tayu Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF, a major pay-for-performance programme, was introduced into United Kingdom primary care in April 2004. The impact of this programme on disparities in health care remains unclear. This study examines the following questions: has this pay for performance programme improved the quality of care for coronary heart disease, stroke and hypertension in white, black and south Asian patients? Has this programme reduced disparities in the quality of care between these ethnic groups? Did general practices with different baseline performance respond differently to this programme? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Retrospective cohort study of patients registered with family practices in Wandsworth, London during 2007. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was used to take into account the previous time trend. Primary outcome measures were mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and cholesterol levels. Our findings suggest that the implementation of QOF resulted in significant short term improvements in blood pressure control. The magnitude of benefit varied between ethnic groups with a statistically significant short term reduction in systolic BP in white and black but not in south Asian patients with hypertension. Disparities in risk factor control were attenuated only on few measures and largely remained intact at the end of the study period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pay for performance programmes such as the QOF in the UK should set challenging but achievable targets. Specific targets aimed at reducing ethnic disparities in health care may also be needed.

  19. Impact of STROBE statement publication on quality of observational study reporting: interrupted time series versus before-after analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Bastuji-Garin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In uncontrolled before-after studies, CONSORT was shown to improve the reporting of randomised trials. Before-after studies ignore underlying secular trends and may overestimate the impact of interventions. Our aim was to assess the impact of the 2007 STROBE statement publication on the quality of observational study reporting, using both uncontrolled before-after analyses and interrupted time series. METHODS: For this quasi-experimental study, original articles reporting cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies published between 2004 and 2010 in the four dermatological journals having the highest 5-year impact factors (≥ 4 were selected. We compared the proportions of STROBE items (STROBE score adequately reported in each article during three periods, two pre STROBE period (2004-2005 and 2006-2007 and one post STROBE period (2008-2010. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was also performed. RESULTS: Of the 456 included articles, 187 (41% reported cohort studies, 166 (36.4% cross-sectional studies, and 103 (22.6% case-control studies. The median STROBE score was 57% (range, 18%-98%. Before-after analysis evidenced significant STROBE score increases between the two pre-STROBE periods and between the earliest pre-STROBE period and the post-STROBE period (median score2004-05 48% versus median score2008-10 58%, p<0.001 but not between the immediate pre-STROBE period and the post-STROBE period (median score2006-07 58% versus median score2008-10 58%, p = 0.42. In the pre STROBE period, the six-monthly mean STROBE score increased significantly, by 1.19% per six-month period (absolute increase 95%CI, 0.26% to 2.11%, p = 0.016. By segmented analysis, no significant changes in STROBE score trends occurred (-0.40%; 95%CI, -2.20 to 1.41; p = 0.64 in the post STROBE statement publication. INTERPRETATION: The quality of reports increased over time but was not affected by STROBE. Our findings raise

  20. Interrupted aortic arch diagnosed by ECG-gated multi-slice computed tomography angiography: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yang-yang; HAN Ping; FENG Gan-sheng; LIANG Bo

    2005-01-01

    @@ Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare congenital cardiovascular disease with major intracardiac defects and always with multisystem non-cardiac malformations. It occurs in 1: 10,000 births, and about 1% of the patients with congenital heart defects.

  1. Investigaciones etnoarqueológicas en Tierra del Fuego (1986-2006) : reflexiones para la arqueologia prehistorica Europea

    OpenAIRE

    Vila i Mitjà, Assumpció; Mameli, Laura; Terradas Batlle, Xavier; Estévez Escalera, Jordi; Moreno, Federica; Verdún i Castelló, Ester; Zurro Hernández, Débora; Clemente Conte, Ignacio; Piqué i Huerta, Raquel; Briz, Ivan; Juan A. Barceló

    2007-01-01

    Durante 20 años se han llevado a cabo en Tierra del Fuego investigaciones dirigidas a contrastar etnográficamente el registro arqueológico de sociedades cazadoras recolectoras. Se trataba de elaborar una metodología específica de bordaje arqueológico para estas sociedades que pudiera aplicarse a otros contextos arqueológicos. Aquí se exponen los diferentes proyectos y sus conclusiones más importantes haciendo especial hincapié en dos aspectos fundamentales, por un lado el técnico-metodológico...

  2. Bank consolidation/capitalization in the Nigerian Commercial Bank(1986-2006:causes,consequences and implication for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Ikpefan Ochei Ailemen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital can include the skills and knowledge that a company has developed about how to make its goods or services; individual employees or groups of employees whose knowledge is deemed critical to a company’s continued success; and its aggregation of documents about processes, customers, research results, and other information that might have value for a competitor that is not common knowledge. Business organizations employ knowledge. To cope with new era of management complexity; the necessity of being Learning Organization, LO is essential for any organizations and enterprises. This paper is aims to review the Intellectual Capital, IC concept among organizations and employees and also the Knowledge sharing barriers in the organization. Generally, this paper looks the IC concept in Management sphere.

  3. Differences between tree species seedling and adult altitudinal distribution in mountain foests during the recent warm period (1986-2006)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Pierrat, Jean-Claude;

    2009-01-01

    distribution across the overall temperature gradient remains poorly explored. Within French mountain forests, we investigated altitudinal distribution differences between seedling (≤50 cm tall and >1 yr old) and adult (>8 m tall) life stages for 17 European tree taxa, encompassing the entire forest elevation......Spatial fingerprints of climate change on tree species distribution are usually detected at latitudinal or altitudinal extremes (arctic or alpine tree line), where temperatures play a key role in tree species distribution. However, early detection of recent climate change effects on tree species...... range from lowlands to the subalpine vegetation belt (50-2250 m a.s.l.) and spanning the latitudinal gradient from northern temperate to southern Mediterranean forests. We simultaneously identified seedlings and adults within the same vegetation plots. These twin observations gave us the equivalent...

  4. Viral resuppression and detection of drug resistance following interruption of a suppressive non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Zoe; Phillips, Andrew; Cohen, Cal;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interruption of a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-regimen is often necessary, but must be performed with caution because NNRTIs have a low genetic barrier to resistance. Limited data exist to guide clinical practice on the best interruption strategy to use....... METHODS: Patients in the drug-conservation arm of the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial who interrupted a fully suppressive NNRTI-regimen were evaluated. From 2003, SMART recommended interruption of an NNRTI by a staggered interruption, in which the NNRTI was stopped before...... mutations (i.e. 69.2%) achieved HIV-RNA of 400 copies/ml or less compared with those in whom no mutations were detected (i.e. 86.7%; P = 0.05). CONCLUSION: In patients who interrupt a suppressive NNRTI-regimen, the choice of interruption strategy may influence resuppression rates when restarting a similar...

  5. Successful interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus, Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo J Gonzalez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness through mass administration of ivermectin in the six countries in Latin America where it is endemic is considered feasible due to the relatively small size and geographic isolation of endemic foci. We evaluated whether transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted in the endemic focus of Escuintla-Guatemala in Guatemala, based on World Health Organization criteria for the certification of elimination of onchocerciasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted evaluations of ocular morbidity and past exposure to Onchocerca volvulus in the human population, while potential vectors (Simulium ochraceum were captured and tested for O. volvulus DNA; all of the evaluations were carried out in potentially endemic communities (PEC; those with a history of actual or suspected transmission or those currently under semiannual mass treatment with ivermectin within the focus. The prevalence of microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 329 individuals (> or =7 years old, resident in the PEC for at least 5 years was 0% (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI] 0-0.9%. The prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen (Ov-16 in 6,432 school children (aged 6 to 12 years old was 0% (one-sided 95% IC 0-0.05%. Out of a total of 14,099 S. ochraceum tested for O. volvulus DNA, none was positive (95% CI 0-0.01%. The seasonal transmission potential was, therefore, 0 infective stage larvae per person per season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these evaluations, transmission of onchocerciasis in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus has been successfully interrupted. Although this is the second onchocerciasis focus in Latin America to have demonstrated interruption of transmission, it is the first focus with a well-documented history of intense transmission to have eliminated O. volvulus.

  6. Decreasing Beam Auto Tuning Interruption Events with In-Situ Chemical Cleaning on Axcelis GSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam auto tuning time and success rate are often major factors in the utilization and productivity of ion implanters. Tuning software frequently fails to meet specified setup times or recipe parameters, causing production stoppages and requiring manual intervention. Build-up of conductive deposits in the arc chamber and extraction gap can be one of the main causes of auto tuning problems. The deposits cause glitching and ion beam instabilities, which lead to errors in the software optimization routines. Infineon Regensburg has been testing use of XeF2, an in-situ chemical cleaning reagent, with positive results in reducing auto tuning interruption events.

  7. Creating a Fontan fenestration in a child with dextrocardia and interrupted inferior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlagorla, Pradeepkumar; Breinholt, John P

    2016-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare life-threatening complication of the Fontan operation. Transcatheter Fontan fenestration can ameliorate symptoms by decompressing elevated venous pressures. Transcatheter creation of a fenestration can be technically challenging in cases with complex venous anatomy. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with heterotaxy, dextrocardia with unbalanced atrioventricular canal (AVC), atrial and visceral situs inversus, left-sided superior vena cava (SVC), and left-sided interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC) with azygos continuation. With few modifications to the equipment, a successful Fontan fenestration with stent implantation was performed via transjugular approach. At 2-year follow-up, his symptoms of plastic bronchitis improved significantly.

  8. Advances in high voltage insulation and arc interruption in SF6 and vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Maller, V N

    1982-01-01

    Advances in High Voltage Insulation and Arc Interruption in SF6 and Vacuum deals with high voltage breakdown and arc extinction in sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and high vacuum, with special emphasis on the application of these insulating media in high voltage power apparatus and devices. The design and developmental aspects of various high voltage power apparatus using SF6 and high vacuum are highlighted. This book is comprised of eight chapters and opens with a discussion on electrical discharges in SF6 and high vacuum, along with the properties and handling of SF6 gas. The following chapters fo

  9. The Effect of Interrupts on Software Pipeline Execution on Message-Passing Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Mehra, Pankaj; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Pipelining is a common strategy for extracting parallelism from a collection of independent computational tasks, each of which is spread among a number of processors and has an implied data dependence. When implemented on MIMD parallel computers with finite process interrupt times, pipeline algorithms suffer from slowdown--in addition to the expected pipeline fill time--due to a wave-like propagation of delays. This phenomenon, which has been observed experimentally using the performance monitoring system AIMS, is investigated analytically, and an optimal correction is derived to eliminate the wave. Efficiency increase through the correction is verified experimentally.

  10. Response to planned treatment interruptions in HIV infection varies across childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Valerius, Niels Henrik

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical, immunological and virological consequences of CD4-guided antiretroviral therapy (ART) planned treatment interruptions (PTIs) compared with continuous therapy in children with chronic HIV infection in the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS 11 trial....... DESIGN: This was a multicentre, 72-week, open, randomized, phase II trial. METHODS: One hundred and nine children with HIV-RNA below 50 copies/ml and CD4% of at least 30% (2-6 years) or at least 25% and CD4 cell count of at least 500 cells/microl (7-15 years) were randomized to continuous therapy (53...

  11. On migration of primary/peritectic interface during interrupted directional solidification of Sn-Ni peritectic alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi

    2016-04-01

    The migration of the primary/peritectic interface in local isothermal condition is observed in dendritic structure of Sn–Ni peritectic alloy after experiencing interrupted directional solidification. It was observed that this migration of primary Ni3Sn2/peritectic Ni3Sn4 interface towards the primary Ni3Sn2 phase was accompanied by migration of liquid film located at this interface. The migration velocity of this interface was confirmed to be much faster than that of peritectic transformation, so this migration was mostly caused by superheating of primary Ni3Sn2 phase below TP, leading to nucleation and migration of liquid film at this interface. This migration can be classified as a kind of liquid film migration (LFM), and the migration velocity at the horizontal direction has been confirmed to be much faster than that along the direction of temperature gradient. Analytical prediction has shown that the migration of liquid film could be divided into two stages depending on whether primary phase exists below TP. If the isothermal annealing time is not long enough, both the liquid film and the primary/peritectic interface migrate towards the primary phase until the superheated primary phase has all been dissolved. Then, this migration process towards higher temperature is controlled by temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM).

  12. Research Designs for Intervention Research with Small Samples II: Stepped Wedge and Interrupted Time-Series Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2015-10-01

    The stepped wedge design (SWD) and the interrupted time-series design (ITSD) are two alternative research designs that maximize efficiency and statistical power with small samples when contrasted to the operating characteristics of conventional randomized controlled trials (RCT). This paper provides an overview and introduction to previous work with these designs and compares and contrasts them with the dynamic wait-list design (DWLD) and the regression point displacement design (RPDD), which were presented in a previous article (Wyman, Henry, Knoblauch, and Brown, Prevention Science. 2015) in this special section. The SWD and the DWLD are similar in that both are intervention implementation roll-out designs. We discuss similarities and differences between the SWD and DWLD in their historical origin and application, along with differences in the statistical modeling of each design. Next, we describe the main design characteristics of the ITSD, along with some of its strengths and limitations. We provide a critical comparative review of strengths and weaknesses in application of the ITSD, SWD, DWLD, and RPDD as small sample alternatives to application of the RCT, concluding with a discussion of the types of contextual factors that influence selection of an optimal research design by prevention researchers working with small samples.

  13. Measurements and Modeling of Stress in Precipitation-Hardened Aluminum Alloy AA2618 during Gleeble Interrupted Quenching and Constrained Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobaut, Nicolas; Carron, Denis; Saelzle, Peter; Drezet, Jean-Marie

    2016-08-01

    Solutionizing and quenching are the key steps in the fabrication of heat-treatable aluminum parts such as AA2618 compressor impellers for turbochargers as they highly impact the mechanical characteristics of the product. In particular, quenching induces residual stresses that can cause unacceptable distortions during machining and unfavorable stresses in service. Predicting and controlling stress generation during quenching of large AA2618 forgings are therefore of particular interest. Since possible precipitation during quenching may affect the local yield strength of the material and thus impact the level of macroscale residual stresses, consideration of this phenomenon is required. A material model accounting for precipitation in a simple but realistic way is presented. Instead of modeling precipitation that occurs during quenching, the model parameters are identified using a limited number of tensile tests achieved after representative interrupted cooling paths in a Gleeble machine. This material model is presented, calibrated, and validated against constrained coolings in a Gleeble blocked-jaws configuration. Applications of this model are FE computations of stress generation during quenching of large AA2618 forgings for compressor impellers.

  14. X-ray diffraction stress analysis of interrupted titanium nitride films: Combining the sin2ψ and crystallite group methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interruptions during film growth have been discussed by researchers to assist in understanding the evolution of stress in physical vapour deposition films. A change in intrinsic stress is directly related to microstructure, hence careful analysis of stress in films can provide valuable structure–stress correlated information. In this study we discuss the use of combining two X-ray diffraction (XRD) stress analysis methods to elucidate the effect of interruptions during growth on the residual stress of TiN films. The sin2ψ and crystallite group method (CGM), scanning the (220) peaks from all grains in the film and only (111) oriented crystallites respectively, were used to analyse residual stress in standard and interrupted cathodic arc TiN films 1.5, 3.5 and 6.5 μm thick, grown on high-speed steel substrates. The sin2ψ method does not reveal any changes in stress with interruptions, however, measurements using the CGM show increased compressive stress and increased a0 in the resultant TiN films. A comparison of results from both XRD methods indicates that an increased compressive stress from interruptions could be due to an increased number of defects in (111) oriented grains during the interruptions which would also affect a0 as evident. In both methods, compressive stresses are found to decrease with increased thickness of films. - Highlights: • Interrupting TiN film growth increases compressive stress in (111) grains. • Increased stress is believed to be caused by defects incorporated into or not annealed out of (111) grains. • A comparison of sin2ψ and CGM results reveals differences in stress. • Compressive stress decreases as TiN films increase in thickness from 1.5 μm to 6.5 μm

  15. A Multicenter Pragmatic Interrupted Time Series Analysis of Chlorhexidine Gluconate Bathing in Community Hospital Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Kristen V; Lofgren, Eric; Lewis, Sarah S; Moehring, Rebekah W; Sexton, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick J

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing of intensive care unit (ICU) patients leads to a decrease in hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), particularly infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). DESIGN Interrupted time series analysis. SETTING The study included 33 community hospitals participating in the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network from January 2008 through December 2013. PARTICIPANTS All ICU patients at study hospitals during the study period. METHODS Of the 33 hospitals, 17 hospitals implemented CHG bathing during the study period, and 16 hospitals that did not perform CHG bathing served as controls. Primary pre-specified outcomes included ICU central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), primary bloodstream infections (BSI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). MRSA and VRE HAIs were also evaluated. RESULTS Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing was associated with a significant downward trend in incidence rates of ICU CLABSI (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.99), ICU primary BSI (IRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), VRE CLABSIs (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.97-0.98), and all combined VRE infections (IRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00). No significant trend in MRSA infection incidence rates was identified prior to or following the implementation of CHG bathing. CONCLUSIONS In this multicenter, real-world analysis of the impact of CHG bathing, hospitals that implemented CHG bathing attained a decrease in ICU CLABSIs, ICU primary BSIs, and VRE CLABSIs. CHG bathing did not affect rates of specific or overall infections due to MRSA. Our findings support daily CHG bathing of ICU patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:791-797. PMID:26861417

  16. Effects of the interruption of the irradiation process on PMMA Harwell Industry Dosimetry Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo S.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, the use of dyed-polymethylmethacrylate dosimetry systems in measurements at industrial irradiations has been broadly, despite the use of alanine dosimeters. Accurate dosimetry measurements are essential for the sterilization applications of medical products as well as the preservation of food by ionizing radiation. Regulations in many countries require in-plant dosimetry to ensure that the specified radiation dose has been delivered to the product. Harwell commercial dosimeters commonly are built to work with measurements between 1 kGy to 50 kGy, this means that a same dosimeter could be used until reach these values. Radiation processing demands partial measurements of the absorbed dose to guarantee the final desired applied absorbed dose depending to the dose rate. In this sense, the total absorbed dose corresponds to the cumulative partial values. In this study, several dosimeters were irradiated at the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility at IPEN - CNEN/SP to evaluate the response to the interruption of the irradiation process in the total cumulative absorbed dose values considering statistical changes and some processing parameters. When studied the Harwell dyed-polymethylmethacrylate dosimeters Red 4034 and Amber 3042, applying processing interruptions, results shown a coefficient of variation under 7% for industrial irradiation conditions to the total cumulative absorbed dose. (author)

  17. Transgastric endoscopic gastrojejunostomy using holing followed by interrupted suture technique in a porcine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Yu; Chen; Hong; Shi; Sheng-Jun; Jiang; Yong-Guang; Wang; Kai; Lin; Zhao-Fei; Xie; Xiao-Jing; Liu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate the feasibility and reproducibility of a pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery(NOTES) gastrojejunostomy using holing followed by interrupted suture technique using a single endoloop matched with a pair of clips in a non-survival porcine model.METHODS: NOTES gastrojejunostomy was performed on three female domestic pigs as follows: Gastrostomy, selection and retrieval of a free-floating loop of the small bowel into the stomach pouch, hold and exposure of the loop in the gastric cavity using a submucosal inflation technique, execution of a gastro-jejunal mucosal-seromuscular layer approximation using holing followed by interrupted suture technique with endoloop/clips, and full-thickness incision of the loop with a Dual knife.RESULTS: Pure NOTES side-to-side gastrojejunostomy was successfully performed in all three animals. No leakage was identified via methylene blue evaluation following surgery.CONCLUSION: This novel technique for preforming a gastrointestinal anastomosis exclusively by NOTES is technically feasible and reproducible in an animal model but warrants further improvement.

  18. The fallacy of neutrality: the interruption of pregnancy of anencephalic fetus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana Carolina D A Costa E

    2011-10-01

    Those who favor and those who oppose the interruption of pregnancy with anencephalic fetuses answer the question 'what is the right to life?' differently. Those in favor argue that life exists only when it is 'viable'; that is to say, when cerebral activities occur or may occur. Those who oppose it argue that it is not possible to describe 'life' as residing in a particular quality, since life 'exists from conception'. In fact, in both cases, the noun 'life' is being defined by a particular quality, either as 'viable' or as 'existing from the time of conception'. Also, simply saying that 'there is life' cannot count as a neutral answer since those who utter such a sentence employ an unspecified criterion to establish if there is life or not. There are two possible ways to investigate this controversial matter: either we look for a definition of 'life' which is neutral and objective and does not reside in a particular quality or we try to establish whether or not the search for a neutral point of view can lead to a satisfactory answer. In this article we explore the argument against the interruption of pregnancy - as defined above - in order to show 1) the impossibility of establishing a neutral point of view regarding knowledge; 2) the existence of a psychological motivation which justifies the longing for an absolute criterion for the evaluation of human actions. This psychological motivation is analyzed from a Nietzschean perspective. PMID:21929705

  19. Vacuum interrupter, high reliability component of distribution switches, circuit breakers and contactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SLADE Paul G.; LI Wang-pei; MAYO Stephen; SMITH R.Kirkland; TAYLOR Erik D.

    2007-01-01

    The use of vacuum interrupters (VIs) as the current interruption component for switches, circuit breakers, reclosers and contactors operating at distribution voltages has escalated since their introduction in the mid-1950's. This electrical product has developed a dominating position for switching and protecting distribution circuits. VIs are even being introduced into switching products operating at transmission voltages. Among the reasons for the VI's popularity are its compactness, its range of application, its low cost, its superb electrical and mechanical life and its ease of application. Its major advantage is its well-established reliability. In this paper we show how this reliability has been achieved by design, by mechanical life testing and by electrical performance testing. We introduce the "sealed for life" concept for the VI's integrity. We discuss this in terms of what is meant by a practical leak rate for VIs with a life of over 30 years. We show that a simple high voltage withstand test is an easy and effective method for monitoring the long-term vacuum integrity. Finally we evaluate the need for routine inspection of this electrical product when it is used in adverse ambient environments.

  20. Interrupting violence: how the CeaseFire Program prevents imminent gun violence through conflict mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation. PMID:23440488

  1. Estimating kinetic mass transfer by resting-period measurements in flow-interruption tracer tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, R; Lu, C; Wu, W-M; Cheng, H; Gu, B; Watson, D B; Criddle, C S; Kitanidis, P K; Brooks, S C; Jardine, P M; Luo, J

    2010-09-20

    Flow-interruption tracer test is an effective approach to identify kinetic mass transfer processes for solute transport in subsurface media. By switching well pumping and resting, one may alter the dominant transport mechanism and generate special concentration patterns for identifying kinetic mass transfer processes. In the present research, we conducted three-phase (i.e., pumping, resting, and pumping) field-scale flow-interruption tracer tests using a conservative tracer bromide in a multiple-well system installed at the US Department of Energy Site, Oak Ridge, TN. A novel modeling approach based on the resting-period measurements was developed to estimate the mass transfer parameters. This approach completely relied on the measured breakthrough curves without requiring detailed aquifer characterization and solving transport equations in nonuniform, transient flow fields. Additional measurements, including hydraulic heads and tracer concentrations in large pumping wells, were taken to justify the assumption that mass transfer processes dominated concentration change during resting periods. The developed approach can be conveniently applied to any linear mass transfer model. Both first-order and multirate mass transfer models were applied to analyze the breakthrough curves at various monitoring wells. The multirate mass transfer model was capable of jointly fitting breakthrough curve behavior, showing the effectiveness and flexibility for incorporating aquifer heterogeneity and scale effects in upscaling effective mass transfer models.

  2. Determining the Interruptible Load with Strategic Behavior in a Competitive Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyun Yoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a deregulated market, independent system operators meet power balance based on supply and demand bids to maximize social welfare. Since electricity markets are typically oligopolies, players with market power may withhold capacity to maximize profit. Such exercise of market power can lead to various problems, including increased electricity prices, and hence lower social welfare. Here we propose an approach to maximize social welfare and prevent the exercising of market power by means of interruptible loads in a competitive market environment. Our approach enables management of the market power by analyzing the benefit to the companies of capacity withdrawal and scheduling resources with interruptible loads. Our formulation shows that we can prevent power companies and demand-resource owners from exercising market powers. The oligopolistic conditions are described using the Cournot model to reflect the capacity withdrawal in electricity markets. The numerical results confirm the effectiveness of proposed method, via a comparison of perfect competition and oligopoly scenarios. Our approach provides reductions in market-clearing prices, increases in social welfare, and more equal distribution of surpluses between players.

  3. THE M/M/1 QUEUE WITH WORKING VACATIONS AND VACATION INTERRUPTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jihong LI; Naishuo TIAN

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we study the M/M/1 queue with working vacations and vacation interruptions.The working vacation is introduced recently,during which the server can still provide service on the original ongoing work at a lower rate.Meanwhile,we introduce a new policy:the server can come back from the vacation to the normal working level once some indices of the system,such as the number of customers,achieve a certain value in the vacation period.The server may come back from the vacation without completing the vacation.Such policy is called vacation interruption.We connect the above mentioned two policies and assume that if there are customers in the system after a service completion during the vacation period,the server will come back to the normal working level.In terms of the quasi birth and death process and matrix-geometric solution method,we obtain the distributions and the stochastic decomposition structures for the number of customers and the waiting time and provide some indices of systems.

  4. A Cognitive Paradigm to Investigate Interference in Working Memory by Distractions and Interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowich, Jacki; Mishra, Jyoti; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-07-16

    Goal-directed behavior is often impaired by interference from the external environment, either in the form of distraction by irrelevant information that one attempts to ignore, or by interrupting information that demands attention as part of another (secondary) task goal. Both forms of external interference have been shown to detrimentally impact the ability to maintain information in working memory (WM). Emerging evidence suggests that these different types of external interference exert different effects on behavior and may be mediated by distinct neural mechanisms. Better characterizing the distinct neuro-behavioral impact of irrelevant distractions versus attended interruptions is essential for advancing an understanding of top-down attention, resolution of external interference, and how these abilities become degraded in healthy aging and in neuropsychiatric conditions. This manuscript describes a novel cognitive paradigm developed the Gazzaley lab that has now been modified into several distinct versions used to elucidate behavioral and neural correlates of interference, by to-be-ignored distractors versus to-be-attended interruptors. Details are provided on variants of this paradigm for investigating interference in visual and auditory modalities, at multiple levels of stimulus complexity, and with experimental timing optimized for electroencephalography (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. In addition, data from younger and older adult participants obtained using this paradigm is reviewed and discussed in the context of its relationship with the broader literatures on external interference and age-related neuro-behavioral changes in resolving interference in working memory.

  5. La interrupcion voluntaria e informada del embarazo Voluntary and informed interruption of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Mary Madden Arias

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo desde la perspectiva feminista, y con un enfoque legal, y parte del hecho que una de las formas de violencia contra las mujeres, y en particular, del ejercicio pleno de sus derechos reproductivos, es la imposibilidad legal, cultural, social o religiosa de decidir voluntaria e informada la interrupción del embarazo. Así, el artículo analiza la normativa recogida en el Código Penal sobre el aborto y cómo estos tipos penales son formas de violencia contra las mujeres.This article analyses the voluntary interruption of pregnancy from the feminist, along with a legal, point of view, parting from the fact that one of the forms of violence against women, and particularly, against their reproductive rights, is the legal, cultural, social, or religious impossibilities to decide informed and voluntarily the interruption of pregnancy. This way, the article studies the regulations imposed by the Penal Code regarding abortion and how they are forms of violence against women.

  6. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Abu Hamed focus, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higazi, Tarig B; Zarroug, Isam M A; Mohamed, Hanan A; Elmubark, Wigdan A; Deran, Tong Chor M; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Mackenzie, Charles D; Richards, Frank; Hashim, Kamal

    2013-07-01

    Abu Hamed, Sudan, the northernmost location of onchocerciasis in the world, began community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in 1998, with annual treatments enhanced to semiannual in 2007. We assessed the status of the parasite transmission in 2011 entomologically, parasitologically, and serologically. O-150 pool screening showed no parasite DNA in 17,537 black flies collected in 2011 (95% confidence interval upper limit [95% CI UL] = 0.023). Skin microfilariae, nodules, and signs of skin disease were absent in 536 individuals in seven local communities. Similarly, no evidence of Onchocerca volvulus Ov16 antibodies was found in 6,756 school children ≤ 10 years (95% CI UL = 0.03%). Because this assessment of the focus meets the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for interrupted transmission, treatment was halted in 2012, and a post-treatment surveillance period was initiated in anticipation of declaration of disease elimination in this area. We provide the first evidence in East Africa that long-term CDTI alone can interrupt transmission of onchocerciasis. PMID:23690554

  7. Influence of allowable interruption period on estimates of accelerometer wear time and sedentary time in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailey, Emily L.; Gothe, Neha P.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The criteria one uses to reduce accelerometer data can profoundly influence the interpretation of research outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three different interruption periods (i.e., 20, 30, and 60 minutes) on the amount of data retained for analyses and estimates of sedentary time among older adults. Older adults (N=311; Mage=71.1) wore an accelerometer for seven days and reported wear time on an accelerometer log. Accelerometer data were downloaded and scored using 20, 30, and 60-minute interruption periods. Estimates of wear time derived using each interruption period were compared to self-reported wear time, and descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates of sedentary time. Results showed a longer interruption period (i.e., 60 minutes) yields the largest sample size and the closest approximation of self-reported wear time. A short interruption period (i.e., 20 minutes) is likely to underestimate sedentary time among older adults. PMID:23752299

  8. Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncayo Alvaro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Brasília in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering

  9. Teenage smoking behaviour following a high-school smoking ban in Chile: interrupted time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Joshua A; Danaei, Goodarz; Ding, Eric L; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of a smoking ban in high schools on smoking behaviour among Chilean students. Methods We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis, using repeated cross-sectional data from Chile’s school population survey (2000–2011) for high-school students aged 12–18 years and a control group of persons aged 19–24 years. Poisson regression models were used to assess trends in smoking behaviour before and after the policy changes. The outcome measures were self-reported smoking prevalence (any smoking in the past month) and high frequency of smoking (smoking 15 days or more per month). Findings From 2005 to 2011, the prevalence of smoking declined among high-school students by 6.8% per year compared with 3.6% decline per year in the control group. The decline in the target group was 2.9% (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.18 to 5.00) greater. We estimated that 5–6 years after enforcing the law, smoking prevalence among high-school students was 13.7% lower as a result of the ban. The impact of the smoking ban was primarily driven by declines in smoking prevalence among students in grades 8 to 10. The smoking ban did not significantly alter the frequency of smoking. Conclusion The 2005 school smoking ban reduced smoking prevalence among younger high-school students in Chile. Further interventions targeting older individuals and frequent smokers may be needed. PMID:26170504

  10. Research Review on the Interruption of Sports Experiences%体育经历中断研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚任均; 李林

    2011-01-01

    To promote the development of mass sports and make more people benefit from long-term adherence to exercise,the author uses methods of documents to have a literature review of the interruption of domestic and international sports,understanding reasons and factors that interrupt people's sports experiences.The author also proposes advices and directions of the study on interruption of sports experiences.%为了促进群众体育的发展,使更多的人能从长期的坚持锻炼中受益,运用文献资料法,对国内外体育经历中断的研究予以综述,从而了解人们体育经历中断的原因及影响因素,提出我国开展体育经历中断研究的建议与方向。

  11. Note: A compact three-axis optical force/torque sensor using photo-interrupters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2013-12-01

    By integrating four photo-interrupters in a cross-shaped structure, we developed a compact three-axis optical force/torque (F/T) sensor. The developed sensor has a diameter of 28 mm and a thickness of 7 mm. Despite simplicity and compactness, the experiments with a prototype of the proposed sensor demonstrate notably high accuracy. The RMS errors are 0.5% ± 0.1% of the maximum vertical force in z-axis, 1.9% ± 0.2% of the maximum torque in x-axis, and 2.0% ± 0.3% of the maximum torque in y-axis. It is expected that the proposed sensor allows cost-effective integration of robot systems requiring compact and multi-axis F/T sensors such as a walking assist robot.

  12. Alveolar macrophage kinetics and function after interruption of canine marrow function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the kinetics and function of alveolar macrophages after interruption of marrow function, we performed serial bronchoalveolar lavages in dogs. The studies were performed before and after 9.0 to 9.5 Grey total body irradiation and marrow infusion. Monocytes had disappeared from the bloodstream by Day 7 after the irradiation. Alveolar macrophages were significantly decreased at Day 21. At Days 14 and 21 myeloperoxidase-positive alveolar macrophages were also significantly decreased. Beyond Day 30 the number of circulating monocytes, myeloperoxidase-positive and total alveolar macrophages had returned. Sex chromatin stains of alveolar macrophages obtained from a male dog that received female marrow indicated that the repopulating macrophages were of marrow origin. In vitro studies of alveolar macrophage migration and phagocytosis demonstrated increased activities beyond Day 30. These studies suggest that in this model the alveolar macrophage is dependent on the bone marrow for support and that the alveolar macrophage depletion may impair lung defense mechanisms

  13. Note: A compact three-axis optical force/torque sensor using photo-interrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2013-12-01

    By integrating four photo-interrupters in a cross-shaped structure, we developed a compact three-axis optical force/torque (F/T) sensor. The developed sensor has a diameter of 28 mm and a thickness of 7 mm. Despite simplicity and compactness, the experiments with a prototype of the proposed sensor demonstrate notably high accuracy. The RMS errors are 0.5% ± 0.1% of the maximum vertical force in z-axis, 1.9% ± 0.2% of the maximum torque in x-axis, and 2.0% ± 0.3% of the maximum torque in y-axis. It is expected that the proposed sensor allows cost-effective integration of robot systems requiring compact and multi-axis F/T sensors such as a walking assist robot. PMID:24387485

  14. ECCM scheme against interrupted sampling repeater jammer based on time-frequency analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixian Gong; Xizhang Wei; Xiang Li

    2014-01-01

    The interrupted sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ) is an effective deception jamming method for coherent radar, especial y for the wideband linear frequency modulation (LFM) radar. An electronic counter-countermeasure (ECCM) scheme is proposed to remove the ISRJ-based false targets from the pulse compres-sion result of the de-chirping radar. Through the time-frequency (TF) analysis of the radar echo signal, it can be found that the TF characteristics of the ISRJ signal are discontinuous in the pulse duration because the ISRJ jammer needs short durations to re-ceive the radar signal. Based on the discontinuous characteristics a particular band-pass filter can be generated by two alternative approaches to retain the true target signal and suppress the ISRJ signal. The simulation results prove the validity of the proposed ECCM scheme for the ISRJ.

  15. Creating a Fontan fenestration in a child with dextrocardia and interrupted inferior vena cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepkumar Charlagorla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis is a rare life-threatening complication of the Fontan operation. Transcatheter Fontan fenestration can ameliorate symptoms by decompressing elevated venous pressures. Transcatheter creation of a fenestration can be technically challenging in cases with complex venous anatomy. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with heterotaxy, dextrocardia with unbalanced atrioventricular canal (AVC, atrial and visceral situs inversus, left-sided superior vena cava (SVC, and left-sided interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC with azygos continuation. With few modifications to the equipment, a successful Fontan fenestration with stent implantation was performed via transjugular approach. At 2-year follow-up, his symptoms of plastic bronchitis improved significantly.

  16. Note: A compact three-axis optical force/torque sensor using photo-interrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2013-12-01

    By integrating four photo-interrupters in a cross-shaped structure, we developed a compact three-axis optical force/torque (F/T) sensor. The developed sensor has a diameter of 28 mm and a thickness of 7 mm. Despite simplicity and compactness, the experiments with a prototype of the proposed sensor demonstrate notably high accuracy. The RMS errors are 0.5% ± 0.1% of the maximum vertical force in z-axis, 1.9% ± 0.2% of the maximum torque in x-axis, and 2.0% ± 0.3% of the maximum torque in y-axis. It is expected that the proposed sensor allows cost-effective integration of robot systems requiring compact and multi-axis F/T sensors such as a walking assist robot.

  17. Effects of interruptible load program on equilibrium outcomes of electricity markets with wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Xuena; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Xue [Shanghai Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Power Station Automation Technology

    2013-07-01

    High wind power penetration presents a lot of challenges to the flexibility and reliability of power system operation. In this environment, various demand response (DR) programs have got much attention. As an effective measure of demand response programs, interruptible load (IL) programs have been widely used in electricity markets. This paper addresses the problem of impacts of the IL programs on the equilibrium outcomes of electricity wholesale markets with wind power. A Cournot equilibrium model of wholesale markets with wind power is presented, in which IL programs is included by a market demand model. The introduction of the IL programs leads to a non-smooth equilibrium problem. To solve this equilibrium problem, a novel solution method is proposed. Numerical examples show that IL programs can lower market price and its volatility significantly, facilitate the integration of wind power.

  18. The jointing stress analysis of one-shot seal-off high-voltage vacuum interrupters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhizhong; Zou Jiyan; Cong Jiyuan; Wen Huabin; Sun Hui

    2006-01-01

    The free shrinkage of ceramic or metal is restricted due to solidification of the solder. Hence the shrinkage stress arises and the jointing strength is reduced during the brazing of high-voltage vacuum interrupters ( HVVIs ) . The solder bound contour was gained by solved energy bound equation. The finite element model of weld beads was established with Surface Evolver software. Then the stress in two different cooling techniques ( natural cooling and force cooling) was calculated with ANSYS. Comparing the stress, a better cooling technique was selected for HVVIs. Its cooling time is shortened by 3 hours while the jointing stress doesn' t increase and the tensile strength of ceramic to metal seal is not decreased. The stress-rupture tests have validated the calculated results. More important, a method is found, by which the brazing technique could be improved in advance instead of blind experiments.

  19. The Use of Interrupted Case Studies to Enhance Critical Thinking Skills in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy K. White

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the availability of case studies for use in the biology classroom, and perceptions of the effectiveness of case-study-based learning are overwhelmingly positive. Here we report the results of a study in which we evaluated the ability of interrupted case studies to improve critical thinking in the context of experimental design and the conventions of data interpretation. Students were assessed using further case studies designed to evaluate their ability to recognize and articulate problematic approaches to these elements of experimentation. Our work reveals that case studies have broad utility in the classroom. In addition to demonstrating a small but statistically significant increase in the number of students capable of critically evaluating selected aspects of experimental design, we also observed increased student engagement and documented widespread misconceptions regarding the conventions of data acquisition and analysis.

  20. Natural gas power generation: interruptible gas distribution network regulation; Geracao termoeletrica a gas natural: regulacao do segmento interruptivel de distribuicao de gas canalizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio Paiva de; Kann, Zevi [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The paper relates studies regarding the natural gas distribution network interruptible branch. This new service can be appropriate for thermal power generation on flexible dispatch mode, as 'take or pay' contracts surplus jobs. The paper indicates no regulatory restraints in an interruptible network implantation. The final conclusion is that interruptible contracts can be an improvement on the distribution business and certainly can accommodate a suitable demand and supply volumes in the long-term gas market balance. (author)

  1. Causes of interruption of radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu P.; Tsang, Ngan M.; Tseng, Chen K.; Lin, Shinn Y. [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China)

    2000-05-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is now curable with early diagnosis and radiotherapy treatment. In the past several decades, few studies have investigated why some patients fail to complete the recommended full course of radiotherapy. A total of 3273 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were treated at the Radiation Oncology Department of Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in a span of 18 years from 1979 to 1996. Among these patients, 276 did not complete the full course of treatment of radiation therapy. The medical records of these patients were reviewed to determine the factors contributing to treatment interruption. Of the 276 patients whose treatment was interrupted, 120 (43.5%) were unable to endure the acute side effects of radiation therapy and were afraid of the possible complications resulting from the treatment; 57 (20.7%) had doubts about the diagnosis or had the subjective perception that the treatment offered would be ineffective in view of the severity of their disease; 50 (18.1%) resorted to folk prescriptions; 17 (6.2%) were faced with socioeconomic problems; 15 (5.4%) sought treatment at another hospital owing to transport considerations; 10 (3.6%) stopped radiation therapy and switched to chemotherapy for palliative management; seven (2.5%) resorted to praying, god worshipping and taking incense powder and magic elixirs because their families were against any established therapy. The acute side effects and complications caused by radiation therapy were the major factors influencing patients' decisions to discontinue treatment. This finding suggests that more attention should be paid to providing care with regard to the acute side effects of radiotherapy and to reinforcing pretreatment education. (author)

  2. Activation and interruption of the reproduction of Varroa destructor is triggered by host signals (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Eva; Odemer, Richard; Blum, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The reproductive cycle of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor is closely linked to the development of the honey bee host larvae. Using a within colony approach we introduced phoretic Varroa females into brood cells of different age in order to analyze the capacity of certain stages of the honey bee larva to either activate or interrupt the reproduction of Varroa females. Only larvae within 18 h (worker) and 36 h (drones), respectively, after cell capping were able to stimulate the mite's oogenesis. Therewith we could specify for the first time the short time window where honey bee larvae provide the signals for the activation of the Varroa reproduction. Stage specific volatiles of the larval cuticle are at least part of these activation signals. This is confirmed by the successful stimulation of presumably non-reproducing mites to oviposition by the application of a larval extract into the sealed brood cells. According to preliminary quantitative GC-MS analysis we suggest certain fatty acid ethyl esters as candidate compounds. If Varroa females that have just started with egg formation are transferred to brood cells containing host larvae of an elder stage two-thirds of these mites stopped their oogenesis. This confirms the presence of an additional signal in the host larvae allowing the reproducing mites to adjust their own reproductive cycle to the ontogenetic development of the host. From an adaptive point of view that sort of a stop signal enables the female mite to save resources for a next reproductive cycle if the own egg development is not sufficiently synchronized with the development of the host. The results presented here offer the opportunity to analyze exactly those host stages that have the capacity to activate or interrupt the Varroa reproduction in order to identify the crucial host signals.

  3. One-Stage Repair of an Interrupted Aortic Arch with an Aortopulmonary Window in a Premature Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobos, Dimitrios; Kanakis, Meletios A; Koulouri, Sofia; Giannopoulos, Nicholas M

    2015-12-01

    Interrupted aortic arch with an aortopulmonary window is a rare congenital entity that is associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in premature low-birth-weight infants, and the proper timing of surgical correction remains a matter of debate. We present the case of a premature infant weighing 1.6 kg who successfully underwent one stage surgical repair to treat interrupted aortic arch with an aortopulmonary window. The therapeutic management of this patient is described below, and a review of the literature is presented.

  4. Evolution of self-assembled InAs/Gas(001) quantum dots grown by growth-interrupted molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Balzarotti, A.

    2008-01-01

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on GaAs(001) surface by molecular beam epitaxy under continuous and growth-interruption modes exhibit two families of QDs, quasi-3D (Q3D) and 3D QDs, whose volume density evolution is quantitatively described by a rate-equation kinetic model. The volume density of small Q3D QDs decreases exponentially with time during the interruption, while the single-dot mean volume of the large QDs increases by Ostwald ripening. The kinetics of growth involves c...

  5. Long-lasting insecticidal nets are synergistic with mass drug administration for interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Eigege

    Full Text Available In central Nigeria Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF. The strategy used for interrupting LF transmission in this area is annual mass drug administration (MDA with albendazole and ivermectin, but after 8 years of MDA, entomological evaluations in sentinel villages showed continued low-grade mosquito infection rates of 0.32%. After long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN distribution by the national malaria program in late 2010, however, we were no longer able to detect infected vectors over a 24-month period. This is evidence that LLINs are synergistic with MDA in interrupting LF transmission.

  6. Analysis of ethylene plant steam treatment interruption%乙烯装置蒸汽中断处理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟东

    2015-01-01

    本文基于SW公司前脱丙烷前加氢工艺,介绍蒸汽中断条件下,为确保装置损失最小、装置平稳运行及安全环保前提下,乙烯装置如何进行操作处理。%This paper introduces the operation of ethylene plant under the condition of steam interruption,which is based on the technology of hydrogenation of SW before removing propane and the condition of steam interruption.

  7. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Are Synergistic with Mass Drug Administration for Interruption of Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigege, Abel; Miri, Emmanuel; Sallau, Adamu; Umaru, John; Mafuyai, Hayward; Chuwang, Yohanna S.; Danjuma, Goshit; Danboyi, Jacob; Adelamo, Solomon E.; Mancha, Bulus S.; Okoeguale, Bridget; Patterson, Amy E.; Rakers, Lindsay; Richards, Frank O.

    2013-01-01

    In central Nigeria Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF). The strategy used for interrupting LF transmission in this area is annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and ivermectin, but after 8 years of MDA, entomological evaluations in sentinel villages showed continued low-grade mosquito infection rates of 0.32%. After long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution by the national malaria program in late 2010, however, we were no longer able to detect infected vectors over a 24-month period. This is evidence that LLINs are synergistic with MDA in interrupting LF transmission. PMID:24205421

  8. The Electroluminescence Characterization of Poly(p-phenyleneethynylene)——The π-conjugated Backbone Interrupted by a Butylene Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    π-Conjugated poly(p-phenyleneethynylene) with the interruption of the conjugation by a butylene unit was synthesized. Its absorption, PL and EL spectra were investigated respectively. The spectral peaks shifted to the higher energy side with the interruption of the conjugation lengths. The model compound was synthesized, by which the results were proved. The thermal characteristics of the polymer was determined by DSC and TGA, indicating that the polymer has a good thermal stability. The electroluminescence(EL) in the green region of the spectrum with a maximum at 500 nm was observed from the polymer films sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide and an Al electrode.

  9. Interrupting transmission of soil-transmitted helminths: a study protocol for cluster randomised trials evaluating alternative treatment strategies and delivery systems in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Simon J; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Halliday, Katherine E; Njenga, Sammy M; Mcharo, Carlos; Gichuki, Paul M; Wasunna, Beatrice; Kihara, Jimmy H; Njomo, Doris; Alusala, Dorcas; Chiguzo, Athuman; Turner, Hugo C; Teti, Caroline; Gwayi-Chore, Claire; Nikolay, Birgit; Truscott, James E; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Balabanova, Dina; Griffiths, Ulla K; Freeman, Matthew C; Allen, Elizabeth; Pullan, Rachel L; Anderson, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, an unprecedented emphasis has been given to the control of neglected tropical diseases, including soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The mainstay of STH control is school-based deworming (SBD), but mathematical modelling has shown that in all but very low transmission settings, SBD is unlikely to interrupt transmission, and that new treatment strategies are required. This study seeks to answer the question: is it possible to interrupt the transmission of STH, and, if so, what is the most cost-effective treatment strategy and delivery system to achieve this goal? Methods and analysis Two cluster randomised trials are being implemented in contrasting settings in Kenya. The interventions are annual mass anthelmintic treatment delivered to preschool- and school-aged children, as part of a national SBD programme, or to entire communities, delivered by community health workers. Allocation to study group is by cluster, using predefined units used in public health provision—termed community units (CUs). CUs are randomised to one of three groups: receiving either (1) annual SBD; (2) annual community-based deworming (CBD); or (3) biannual CBD. The primary outcome measure is the prevalence of hookworm infection, assessed by four cross-sectional surveys. Secondary outcomes are prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, intensity of species infections and treatment coverage. Costs and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated. Among a random subsample of participants, worm burden and proportion of unfertilised eggs will be assessed longitudinally. A nested process evaluation, using semistructured interviews, focus group discussions and a stakeholder analysis, will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and scale-up of each delivery system. Ethics and dissemination Study protocols have been reviewed and approved by the ethics committees of the Kenya Medical Research Institute and National Ethics Review Committee, and

  10. The research and hardware design of interrupt manager based on FPGA%基于FPGA中断管理的研究及硬件化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 贾小梨; 迟欢欢

    2011-01-01

    为了满足嵌入式操作系统中实时性要求,提出了基于FPGA的中断管理方法.给出了中断管理模块的结构模型,并采用VHDL硬件描述语言将中断管理模块由硬件实现.针对中断请求和响应方式的不同特点,将其分为系统中断管理和用户中断管理,主要设计了中断源、中断嵌套和时钟节拍中断等管理的逻辑电路.通过仿真实验表明,该结构模型所采用的中断管理方法是正确的,提高了中断处理速度,可满足系统的实时性要求.%In order to fulfill the hard real-time operating system, interrupt management method be proposed based on FPGA, giving the interrupt management module structure model, and which used the VHDL hardware description language. The interrupt management method was realized based on PowerPC architecture. According to interrupt request and way of responding, interrupt management is divided into two types of system interrupt and user interrupt. In addition, interrupt source and interrupt nesting and time tick interrupt management were designed. The simulated data in the experiments had verified that the interrupt management module is designed correctly, both of which can improve system efficiency and meet the requirements of real-time operating system.

  11. Absence or interruption of the supra-acetabular line: a subtle plain film indicator of hip pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, N.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, Box 0628, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Helms, C.A. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, Box 0628, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Objective. To show that absence or interruption of the supraacetabular line is a subtle plain film indicator of pathology in the acetabulum. Design. Nineteen hips from 17 patients with known disease processes involving the acetabulum as demonstrated by subsequent magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan or plain film follow-up were evaluated with antero-posterior (AP) plain films of the pelvis. Three additional cases were diagnosed prospectively using interruption of the supra-acetabular line as the criterion for inclusion. Fifty AP plain films of the pelvis in patients without hip pain were examined prospectively to determine normal imaging criteria. Results and conclusions. The normal supra-acetabular line measures 2-3 mm in thickness superiorly and is a thin sclerotic line in the medial aspect. In all 22 hips (with pathology) in this series, the line was interrupted or absent. Loss or interruption of the supra-acetabular line may thus be a subtle pain film indicator of a disease process involving the acetabulum. This plain film sign has not previously been reported. (orig.). With 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Use of Transnational Services to Prevent Treatment Interruption in Tuberculosis-Infected Persons Who Leave the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnick, Deborah W.; Zuroweste, Edward; Razavi, Moaven; Shepard, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    A major problem resulting from interrupted tuberculosis (TB) treatment is the development of drug-resistant TB, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), a more deadly and costly-to-treat form of the disease. Global health systems are not equipped to diagnose and treat the current burden of MDR TB. TB-infected foreign visitors and temporary US residents who leave the country during treatment can experience treatment interruption and, thus, are at greater risk for drug-resistant TB. Using epidemiologic and demographic data, we estimated TB incidence among this group, as well as the proportion of patients referred to transnational care–continuity and management services during relocation; each year, ≈2,827 visitors and temporary residents are at risk for TB treatment interruption, 222 (8%) of whom are referred for transnational services. Scale up of transnational services for persons at high risk for treatment interruption is possible and encouraged because of potential health gains and reductions in healthcare costs for the United States and receiving countries. PMID:26886720

  13. Safe interruption of maintenance therapy against previous infection with four common HIV-associated opportunistic pathogens during potent antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina;

    2002-01-01

    with CMV, MAC, Toxoplasma gondii, or Cryptococcus neoformans in patients with HIV infection can be interrupted after sustained CD4 count increases to greater than 200 (or possibly 100 to 200) x 10(6) cells/L for at least 6 months after the start of potent antiretroviral therapy....

  14. The value of supply security The cost of power interruptions: Economic input for damage reduction and investment in networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Nooij; C.C. Koopmans; C. Bijvoet

    2007-01-01

    Most research into the reliability of electricity supply focuses on the suppliers. Reductions in the number of power interruptions will often be possible, but are often very costly. These costs will eventually be borne by electricity users. This paper studies the value of supply security in order to

  15. The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time-Series Design: Three Within-Study Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, Travis; Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the conditions under which short, comparative interrupted time-series (CITS) designs represent valid alternatives to randomized experiments in educational evaluations. To do so, we conduct three within-study comparisons, each of which uses a unique data set to test the validity of the CITS design by comparing its causal estimates to…

  16. Critical finger ischemia and myocardial fibrosis development after sudden interruption of sildenafil treatment in a systemic sclerosis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, C; Bellando-Randone, S; Gargani, L; Picano, E; Pingitore, A; Matucci-Cerinic, M; Guiducci, S

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease frequently associated with Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP). Among possible pharmacological treatments, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are considered in cases of severe non -responsive RP. We present the case of a male SSc patient wh presented with critical finger ischemia and concomitant appearance of myocardial fibrosis after sudden interruption of sildenafil treatment.

  17. Technical Note: The use of an interrupted-flow centrifugation method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Crane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an interrupted-flow centrifugation technique to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media. The method entails a minimum of three phases: centrifuge induced flow, no flow and centrifuge induced flow, which may be repeated several times in order to most effectively characterise multi-rate mass transfer behaviour. In addition, the method enables accurate simulation of relevant in situ total stress conditions during flow by selecting an appropriate centrifugal force level. We demonstrate the utility of the technique for characterising the hydraulic properties of smectite clay dominated core samples. All samples exhibited a non-Fickian tracer breakthrough (early tracer arrival, combined with a decrease in tracer concentration immediately after each period of interrupted-flow. This is indicative of dual (or multi porosity behaviour, with solute migration predominately via advection during induced flow, and via molecular diffusion (between the preferential flow network(s and the low hydraulic conductivity domain during interrupted-flow. Tracer breakthrough curves were simulated using a bespoke dual porosity model with excellent agreement between the data and model output (Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient was >0.97 for all samples. In combination interrupted-flow centrifuge experiments and dual porosity transport modelling are shown to be a powerful method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media.

  18. Paying the price works: increasing goal-state access cost improves problem solving and mitigates the effect of interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Phillip L; Patrick, John

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate whether it was possible to induce more internal planning in the four-disk Tower of Hanoi (ToH) in order not only to produce more efficient problem solving but also to make it more resistant to the negative effect of interruption. The theoretical frameworks of soft constraints and the memory for goals model underpinned Experiments 1 and 2. In both experiments, three goal-state access cost conditions were used: high (mouse movements and 2.5-s delay), medium (mouse movements) and low (goal state always available). In Experiment 1, more memory-based planning was induced by the high cost condition, which resulted in fewer moves to solution and the gradual development of an efficient subgoaling strategy, resulting in more perfect solutions. In Experiment 2, the same condition protected performance against a 10-s interruption irrespective of the interrupting task (blank screen, mental arithmetic, or three-disk ToH). The more memory-based planning strategy, induced by high access cost, presumably strengthened participants' goals during planning and problem solving, making them less susceptible to decay and interference from interruption. These novel results are discussed in the context of other recent studies. PMID:22928975

  19. Completion of Flow Interruption Capability Test Stand for Functional Qualification Test of Valves Used in Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Dao-xi; QI; Xiao-guang; ZHAI; Wei-ming; YANG; Bing; ZHOU; Ping

    2013-01-01

    The flow interruption capability test of valve is used for researching the capability of the valves used in nuclear power plants emergently shut off the flow,when the reactor loop is in emergency situations,especially in the design basis accident conditions.This test is one of the most difficult tests in the functional

  20. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by natural gas..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to...

  1. Exploring Relationships between Teachers' Philosophical Beliefs and Practices Relative to Unforeseen Interruptions in Elementary Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Faye Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge, goals, beliefs, and decision-making activities were explored individually and combined relative to their philosophical beliefs and practices in the elementary classroom setting in response to unforeseen interruptions. Schoenfeld's Theory of Teaching-in-Context and Brown's "The Experimental Mind in…

  2. Off-label biologic regimens in psoriasis: a systematic review of efficacy and safety of dose escalation, reduction, and interrupted biologic therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Brezinski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: While off-label dosing of biologic treatments may be necessary in selected psoriasis patients, no systematic review exists to date that synthesizes the efficacy and safety of these off-label dosing regimens. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate efficacy and safety of off-label dosing regimens (dose escalation, dose reduction, and interrupted treatment with etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, and alefacept for psoriasis treatment. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: We searched OVID Medline from January 1, 1990 through August 1, 2011 for prospective clinical trials that studied biologic therapy for psoriasis treatment in adults. Individual articles were screened for studies that examined escalated, reduced, or interrupted therapy with etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, or alefacept. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 23 articles with 12,617 patients matched the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the systematic review. Data were examined for primary and secondary efficacy outcomes and adverse events including infections, malignancies, cardiovascular events, and anti-drug antibodies. The preponderance of data suggests that continuous treatment with anti-TNF agents and anti-IL12/23 agent was necessary for maintenance of disease control. Among non-responders, dose escalation with etanercept, adalimumab, ustekinumab, and alefacept typically resulted in greater efficacy than standard dosing. Dose reduction with etanercept and alefacept resulted in reduced efficacy. Withdrawal of the examined biologics led to an increase in disease activity; efficacy from retreatment did not result in equivalent initial response rates for most biologics. Safety data on off-label dosing regimens are limited. CONCLUSION: Dose escalation in non-responders generally resulted in increased efficacy in the examined biologics used to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Continuous treatment with anti-TNF agents and anti-IL12/23 agent

  3. Interruption of CD40 Pathway Improves Efficacy of Transplanted Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Monocrotaline Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YanYun Pan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs plays a therapeutic role in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Meanwhile, recruitment of progenitors has potential inflammatory effects and exaggerates vascular injury. CD40 pathway is identified as a major player in vascular inflammatory events. In this study, we investigated the role of CD40 pathway in regulating early outgrowth EPC functions, and searched for improvements in PAH cell therapy. Methods: EPCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and cultured for 7 days. After treatment with soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L for 24 hours, EPC migration, adhesion, proliferation, paracrine and vasculogenesis functions were tested. Rat PAH model was founded by subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (MCT. Control EPCs or lentivirus vectors (Lv-shRNA-CD40 EPCs were infused via tail vein at day 7, 14, and 21 after MCT injection. Therapeutic effects were evaluated at day 28. Results: sCD40L dose-dependently impaired EPC migration, adhesion, proliferation, and vasculogenesis functions. However, paracrine effects of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 were dose-dependently improved by sCD40L. Control EPC-derived conditioned medium protected endothelial cell in vitro vasculogenesis, while sCD40L-pretreated ones showed detrimental effects. After MCT injection, sCD40L levels in rat serum increased gradually. Other than in vitro results, benefits of both two EPC treatments were obvious, even taken at day 21. Benefits of control EPCs wore off over time, but those of Lv-shRNA-CD40 EPCs were more effective and enduring, as characterized by both ameliorated rat hemodynamic and reversed vascular remodeling. Furthermore, Lv-shRNA-CD40 EPCs integrated into endothelium better, rather than into adventitia and media. Conclusion: sCD40L impaired protective effects of EPCs. Traditional EPC treatments were limited in PAH, while interruption of CD

  4. Interrupted Discourse and Ethical Judgement in Jonathan Littell's The Kindly Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan McFadden

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available No text exists within a moral vacuum, and the considerable success of Jonathan Littell’s The Kindly Ones comes with serious criticism of its perceived ethical messages. This is unsurprising, given the subject matter: Littell’s first literary work is the story of Maximilien Aue, a fictional Nazi SS officer who escapes prosecution for participating in the mass murder of Jews, as well as for raping his sister and murdering his lover, his best friend and – as the novel implies – his mother and stepfather. Having taken a false French identity after the war and become a successful industrialist, Max narrates his memoirs as an older man, seemingly unrepentant for his participation in the Holocaust, which he puts into writing with over 900 pages of precise, disturbing detail. Written in French, American-born Littell’s detailed descriptions of extreme violence and sex have been labelled by some critics as ‘death porn’, and have invited comparisons to Sade and Georges Bataille. Andrew Hussey has called these French authors ‘controversial influences – it is possible to read both Bataille and Sade simply as advocates of extreme cruelty’ (Hussey 2007. In this paper, it is my intention to analyse the ethical considerations in The Kindly Ones to show what I believe is an intentional resistance to the reduction of specific characters and stories, the latter resulting in generalising ethical messages. I will take Hannah Arendt’s analysis of Adolf Eichmann as an example in order to investigate how The Kindly Ones simultaneously entertains and resists Arendt’s concept of the banality of evil as a paradigm for perpetrators in general, which creates a type of ethical confusion, similar to Robert Eaglestone’s interpretation of Emmanuel Lévinas’s term “interrupted discourse”. I believe this constitutes Littell’s critique ofhuman moral systems and will argue that the interrupted discourse of The Kindly Ones, far from being an

  5. Retomando a Interrupção... Getting Back to Interruption...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Pérez de SOUZA E SILVA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é uma continuação de outros estudos sobre interrupção que vêm sendo desenvolvidos desde 1995 pelo grupo "Organização textual interativa" no âmbito do Projeto da Gramática do Português Falado. Nosso objetivo é explicitar o estatuto da interrupção: trata-se de um mecanismo de construção do texto falado ou, apenas, de um índice de ocorrência de alguns desses mecanismos (correção, paráfrase, repetição, parênteses? Para responder a essa questão, analisamos seis inquéritos de natureza diferente (elocuções formais - EFs - , entrevistas - DIDs - e diálogos entre dois informantes - D2s, extraídos do Projeto NURC/SP, NURC/RJ e NURC/Recife. Do ponto de vista teórico, recorremos às pesquisas desenvolvidas pelo grupo acima mencionado, cujos artigos foram publicados na coleção: Gramática do Português Falado ( volumes IV, V e VI .This work follows other studies on interruption that we have been developping since 1995 in a group engaged in the interactive textual organization within the Grammatical Project of the Spoken Portuguese. Our aim is to uncover the status of interruption: is it a mecanism of construction of the spoken text or only of a token of the occurrence of some of these mecanisms (correction, paraphrase, repetition, parentheses? To answer this question, we analysed six inquiries of different nature (formal elocutions - Efs; interviews - DIDs - and dialogues between two informants - D2s extracted from the NURC/SP, NURC/RJ and NURC/Recife Project. As to the theoretical point of view, we turned our attention to assumptions which supported the arguments put forward by the researchers belonging to the above mentioned group, whose articles were published in Grammatical Project of Spoken Portuguese (IV, V, VI

  6. Protective Factors Interrupting the Continuity from School Bullying to Later Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: A Systematic Review of Prospective Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ttofi, Maria M.; Bowes, Lucy; Farrington, David P.; Lösel, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review is presented, based on prospective longitudinal studies, on protective factors that interrupt the continuity from bullying perpetration at school to externalizing problem behaviors later in life; and from bullying victimization to later internalizing problems. Some common factors were established, which seem to interrupt the…

  7. Impact of imatinib interruption and duration of prior hydroxyurea on the treatment outcome in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: Single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Abdelgawad Edesa

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Duration of prior hydroxyurea had no impact on response or progression free survival, while patients regular on imatinib had statistically significant difference with respect to major molecular response, complete molecular response and progression free survival compared to those who had periods of drug interruption, thus we need more governmental support to supply the drug without interruption to improve the outcome of therapy.

  8. Caring Is Not Enough: Teachers' Enactment of Ethical Care for Adolescent Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education (SLIFE) in a Newcomer Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hos, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    The educational landscape for schools in the United States is continuing to shift with the arrival of refugee students with limited or interrupted formal education, especially at the secondary schools. As refugee students with limited or interrupted formal education (SLIFE) adjust to schools in the United States, they may experience acculturative…

  9. Time-dependent rheological behavior of natural polysaccharide xanthan gum solutions in interrupted shear and step-incremental/reductional shear flow fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Seok; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically elucidate the time-dependent rheological behavior of concentrated xanthan gum systems in complicated step-shear flow fields. Using a strain-controlled rheometer (ARES), step-shear flow behaviors of a concentrated xanthan gum model solution have been experimentally investigated in interrupted shear flow fields with a various combination of different shear rates, shearing times and rest times, and step-incremental and step-reductional shear flow fields with various shearing times. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows. (i) In interrupted shear flow fields, the shear stress is sharply increased until reaching the maximum stress at an initial stage of shearing times, and then a stress decay towards a steady state is observed as the shearing time is increased in both start-up shear flow fields. The shear stress is suddenly decreased immediately after the imposed shear rate is stopped, and then slowly decayed during the period of a rest time. (ii) As an increase in rest time, the difference in the maximum stress values between the two start-up shear flow fields is decreased whereas the shearing time exerts a slight influence on this behavior. (iii) In step-incremental shear flow fields, after passing through the maximum stress, structural destruction causes a stress decay behavior towards a steady state as an increase in shearing time in each step shear flow region. The time needed to reach the maximum stress value is shortened as an increase in step-increased shear rate. (iv) In step-reductional shear flow fields, after passing through the minimum stress, structural recovery induces a stress growth behavior towards an equilibrium state as an increase in shearing time in each step shear flow region. The time needed to reach the minimum stress value is lengthened as a decrease in step-decreased shear rate.

  10. A Novel Implementation of RISI Controller Employing Adaptive Clock Gating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kamaraju

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available With the scaling of technology and the need for higher performance and more functionality power dissipation is becoming a major issue for controller design. Interrupt based programming is widely used for interfacing a processor with peripherals. The proposed architecture implements a mechanism which combines interrupt controller and RIS (Reduced Instruction Set CPU (Central processing unit on a single die. RISI Controller takes only one cycle for both interrupt request generation and acknowledgement. The architecture have a dynamic control unit which consists of a program flow controller, interrupt controller and I/O controller. Adaptive clock gating technique is used to reduce power consumption in the dynamic control unit. The controller consumes a power of 174µw@1MHz and is implemented in verilog HDL using Xilinx platform

  11. Dolphins can maintain vigilant behavior through echolocation for 15 days without interruption or cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Branstetter

    Full Text Available In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation.

  12. Non-structured treatment interruptions (NTIs) among injection drug users in Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavasery, Ravi; Galai, Noya; Astemborski, Jacquie; Lucas, Gregory M; Celentano, David D; Kirk, Gregory D; Mehta, Shruti H.

    2009-01-01

    Background We characterized patterns of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use and predictors of non-structured treatment interruptions (NTIs) among injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore, MD. Methods 335 IDUs who initiated HAART from 1996-2006 were studied. NTIs were defined as any subsequent six-month interval where HAART was not reported. Predictors of the first NTI and subsequent restart of HAART were examined using Cox regression. Results 260 (78%) reported ≥1 NTI. Of 215 with ≥1 follow-up visit after the NTI, 44 (20%) never restarted HAART, 62 (29%) restarted and remained on HAART and 109 (51%) reported multiple NTIs. NTIs were less likely among those who initiated HAART in later calendar years and hada recent outpatient visit and more likely among women, persons with detectable HIV RNA at the prior visit and those who reported injecting daily. Among those with NTIs, interuptions occurred earlier in persons who were younger, did not have a prior AIDS diagnosis and were actively injecting; NTIs lasted longer in persons who had higher HIV RNA levels, were incarcerated and drinking alcohol. A recent outpatient visit and not actively injecting were associated with restarting HAART. Conclusions NTIs were common in this population and occurred most frequently in the setting of active drug use and disruption of health care. Effective linkages between primary care for HIV and substance abuse treatment may improve HAART outcomes in this population. PMID:19214124

  13. Contribution of Environmental Surveillance Toward Interruption of Poliovirus Transmission in Nigeria, 2012–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Muluh, Ticha; Hamisu, Abdullahi Walla; Craig, Kehinde; Mkanda, Pascal; Andrew, Etsano; Adeniji, Johnson; Akande, Adefunke; Musa, Audu; Ayodeji, Isiaka; Nicksy, Gumede; Banda, Richard; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Nsubuga, Peter; Oyetunji, Ajiboye; Diop, Ousmane; Vaz, Rui G.; Muhammad, Ado J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cases of paralysis caused by poliovirus have decreased by >99% since the 1988 World Health Assembly's resolution to eradicate polio. The World Health Organization identified environmental surveillance (ES) of poliovirus in the poliomyelitis eradication strategic plan as an activity that can complement acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. This article summarizes key public health interventions that followed the isolation of polioviruses from ES between 2012 and 2015. Methods. The grap method was used to collect 1.75 L of raw flowing sewage every 2–4 weeks. Once collected, samples were shipped at 4°C to a polio laboratory for concentration. ES data were then used to guide program implementation. Results. From 2012 to 2015, ES reported 97 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV2) and 14 wild polioviruses. In 2014 alone, 54 cVDPV type 2 cases and 1 WPV type 1 case were reported. In Sokoto State, 58 cases of AFP were found from a search of 9426 households. A total of 2 252 059 inactivated polio vaccine and 2 460 124 oral polio vaccine doses were administered to children aged <5 year in Borno and Yobe states. Conclusions. This article is among the first from Africa that relates ES findings to key public health interventions (mass immunization campaigns, inactivated polio vaccine introduction, and strengthening of AFP surveillance) that have contributed to the interruption of poliovirus transmission in Nigeria. PMID:26908747

  14. Flexible transfer limits in an open power market - Congestion versus risk of interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, power systems have been operated by deterministic criteria which tend to provide conservative security limits and will be inflexible and insensitive to changes in outage probabilities or market demands in a deregulated power system. This thesis introduces a new approach to power system operation in which the determination of operating limits for critical transmission lines or corridors is presented as a multiobjective decision problem, including risk assessment. Two objectives are included: (1) minimization of operating cost and (2) obtaining a secure operating level. The operating costs included are congestion costs, interruption costs and the costs of corrective or preventive actions to enhance security. In modelling uncertainties, a fuzzy model for the amount of load lost due to outages is presented. It includes the subjective uncertainty in the assessment of the amount of load lost, considering weather dependency of outage probabilities. There are four main conclusions: (1) The approach is flexible and sensitive to changes in outage probabilities and market demand, (2) A recommended solution will depend on system operator preference and expert opinion, (3) The approach includes the deterministic N-1 criterion as a special case, (4) The regret measure may in some difficult cases lead to indecision between solutions. 84 refs., 71 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Cessation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in Zanzibar in 2006: was transmission interrupted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P Rebollo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is targeted for elimination through annual mass drug administration (MDA for 4-6 years. In 2006, Zanzibar stopped MDA against LF after five rounds of MDA revealed no microfilaraemic individuals during surveys at selected sentinel sites. We asked the question if LF transmission was truly interrupted in 2006 when MDA was stopped.In line with ongoing efforts to shrink the LF map, we performed the WHO recommended transmission assessment surveys (TAS in January 2012 to verify the absence of LF transmission on the main Zanzibar islands of Unguja and Pemba. Altogether, 3275 children were tested on both islands and 89 were found to be CFA positive; 70 in Pemba and 19 in Unguja. The distribution of schools with positive children was heterogeneous with pronounced spatial variation on both islands. Based on the calculated TAS cut-offs of 18 and 20 CFA positive children for Pemba and Unguja respectively, we demonstrated that transmission was still ongoing in Pemba where the cut-off was exceeded.Our findings indicated ongoing transmission of LF on Pemba in 2012. Moreover, we presented evidence from previous studies that LF transmission was also active on Unguja shortly after stopping MDA in 2006. Based on these observations the government of Zanzibar decided to resume MDA against LF on both islands in 2013.

  16. Flexible transfer limits in an open power market - Congestion versus risk of interruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warland, Geir

    1999-07-01

    Traditionally, power systems have been operated by deterministic criteria which tend to provide conservative security limits and will be inflexible and insensitive to changes in outage probabilities or market demands in a deregulated power system. This thesis introduces a new approach to power system operation in which the determination of operating limits for critical transmission lines or corridors is presented as a multiobjective decision problem, including risk assessment. Two objectives are included: (1) minimization of operating cost and (2) obtaining a secure operating level. The operating costs included are congestion costs, interruption costs and the costs of corrective or preventive actions to enhance security. In modelling uncertainties, a fuzzy model for the amount of load lost due to outages is presented. It includes the subjective uncertainty in the assessment of the amount of load lost, considering weather dependency of outage probabilities. There are four main conclusions: (1) The approach is flexible and sensitive to changes in outage probabilities and market demand, (2) A recommended solution will depend on system operator preference and expert opinion, (3) The approach includes the deterministic N-1 criterion as a special case, (4) The regret measure may in some difficult cases lead to indecision between solutions. 84 refs., 71 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Numerical Prediction on the Thermal Interrupting Capability of HV SF6 Gas Circuit Breakers%Numerical Prediction on the Thermal Interrupting Capability of HV SF6Gas Circuit Breakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Jingwei; GUO Jin; DENG Xiang'e

    2013-01-01

    The design technology for HV SF6 gas circuit breakers is very demanding.A numerical method for prediction of the thermal interruption capability of SF6 gas circuit breakers is established based on the two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model and a commercial CFD(computational fluid dynamics) software,FLUENT.Nozzle ablation effect is considered by introducing an independent mass conservation equation for the ablated material to the overall conservation equations of mass,momentum,and energy.The ohmic heating and the radiation of the electric arc are considered in the model by adding relevant source terms.To predict the thermal interruption capability,the arc conductance 200 ns before current zero is used as an indicator.The CFD model is applied for the high current arcing phase,and Mayr arc model is used near the current zero period.The arc conductance at 200 ns before current zero(G200) for various arcing periods are computed by the present method.It shows that there exist a limit of the G200.For those whose arcing periods are within the arcing window,the related G200 are below the limit,therefore result a successful current interruption,and vice versa.The validation of the developed computer simulation tool is therefore verified.The numerical prediction by the simulation tool is verified by the direct interrupting test of 550 kV gas circuit breaker (GCB).The developed computer simulation tool was applied in the design of a 550 kV GCB.Significant benefits have been achieved in terms of both the cost saving and shorten of the development cycle.

  18. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome in Chinese people: clinical characteristic analysis of 55 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Guo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS is characterized by the absence of pituitary stalk, pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic posterior pituitary. Due to the rarity of PSIS, clinical data are limited, especially in Chinese people. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with PSIS from our center over 10 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical manifestations and laboratory and MRI findings in 55 patients with PSIS. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients with PSIS, 48 (87.3% were male. The average age was 19.7±6.7 years and there was no familial case. A history of breech delivery was documented in 40 of 45 patients (88.9% and 19 of 55 patients (34.5% had a history of dystocia. Short stature was found in 47 of 55 patients (85.5% and bone age delayed 7.26±5.37 years. Secondary sex characteristics were poor or undeveloped in most patients. The prevalence of deficiencies in growth hormone, gonadotropins, corticotropin, and thyrotropin were 100%, 95.8%, 81.8%, 76.3%, respectively. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 36.4% of patients. Three or more pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 92.7% of the patients. All patients had normal posterior pituitary function and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. The average height of anterior pituitary was 28 mm, documented anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Midline abnormalities were presented in 9.1% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of our Chinese PSIS patients seem to be different from other reported patients in regarding to the higher degree of hypopituitarism and lower prevalence of midline defects. In addition, our patients were older at the time of case detection and the bone age was markedly delayed. We also had no cases of familial PSIS.

  19. Life interrupted and life regained? Coping with stroke at a young age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Kuluski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of disability across the developed world, affecting an increasing number of younger people. In this article, we seek to understand the experience of stroke as a disabling life situation among young people and the strategies that they use to recover and cope. Directed content analysis was conducted from interviews with 17 community-dwelling stroke survivors aged 55 years and younger across the United Kingdom. The sample was drawn from a larger maximum variation sample of stroke survivors. Using the sociological concepts of biographical disruption and biographical repair as a guide, excerpts from the interviews pertaining to aspects of the patients’ life that were interrupted, in addition to how they coped with the changes, were selected and analysed. All individuals described an “altered sense of self,” a theme that included loss of identity, family disruption, and/or loss of valued activities. Individuals sought to adapt their sense of self by seeking external support, by restoring normality, and/or through positive reflection. Despite the adapted self that emerged, most individuals continued to experience impairments. While young stroke survivors adapt to their illness over time, they continue to experience impairments and disruptions in their personal and work lives. A holistic model of rehabilitation that helps individuals regain the capacity for everyday activities related to work, family life, and leisure can begin to address the emotional ramifications of diseases such as stroke, restore wellness, and work towards minimizing the burden felt by family caregivers and children.

  20. Reduction of maternal mortality due to preeclampsia in Colombia-an interrupted time-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Alberto Herrera

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.  Preeclampsia is the most important cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. A comprehensive prenatal care program including bio-psychosocial components was developed and introduced at a national level in Colombia. We report on the trends in maternal mortality rates and their related causes before and after implementation of this program. Methods: General and specific maternal mortality rates were monitored for nine years (1998-2006. An interrupted time-series analysis was performed with monthly data on cases of maternal mortality that compared trends and changes in national mortality rates and the impact of these changes attributable to the introduction of a bio-psychosocial model. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate correlations between the interventions. Results: Five years after (2002–2006 its introduction the general maternal mortality rate was significantly reduced to 23% (OR= 0.77, CI 95% 0.71-0.82.The implementation of BPSM also reduced the incidence of preeclampsia in 22%  (OR= 0.78, CI 95% 0.67-0.88, as also the labor complications by hemorrhage in 25%  (OR= 0.75, CI 95% 0.59-0.90 associated with the implementation of red code. The other causes of maternal mortality did not reveal significant changes. Biomedical, nutritional, psychosocial assessments, and other individual interventions in prenatal care were not correlated to maternal mortality (p= 0.112; however, together as a model we observed a significant association (p= 0.042. Conclusions: General maternal mortality was reduced after the implementation of a comprehensive national prenatal care program. Is important the evaluation of this program in others populations. 

  1. Reduction of maternal mortality due to preeclampsia in Colombia-an interrupted time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Herrera-Escobar, Juan Pablo; Nieto-Díaz, Aníbal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Preeclampsia is the most important cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. A comprehensive prenatal care program including bio-psychosocial components was developed and introduced at a national level in Colombia. We report on the trends in maternal mortality rates and their related causes before and after implementation of this program. Methods: General and specific maternal mortality rates were monitored for nine years (1998-2006). An interrupted time-series analysis was performed with monthly data on cases of maternal mortality that compared trends and changes in national mortality rates and the impact of these changes attributable to the introduction of a bio-psychosocial model. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate correlations between the interventions. Results: Five years after (2002 - 2006) its introduction the general maternal mortality rate was significantly reduced to 23% (OR=0.77, CI 95% 0.71-0.82).The implementation of BPSM also reduced the incidence of preeclampsia in 22% (OR= 0.78, CI 95% 0.67-0.88), as also the labor complications by hemorrhage in 25% (OR=0.75, CI 95% 0.59-0.90) associated with the implementation of red code. The other causes of maternal mortality did not reveal significant changes. Biomedical, nutritional, psychosocial assessments, and other individual interventions in prenatal care were not correlated to maternal mortality (p= 0.112); however, together as a model we observed a significant association (p= 0.042). Conclusions: General maternal mortality was reduced after the implementation of a comprehensive national prenatal care program. Is important the evaluation of this program in others populations. PMID:24970956

  2. Saramago’s Death with Interruptions: A Path to Reconsider Essential Dilemmas Linked to Health Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mabel Wierzba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available What would happen if somewhere people would stop dying? In Saramago’s Death with interruptions, after the initial joy associated to the possibility of eternal life, anxiety and conflict invade the community. The end of death not only shakes Philosophy and Religion foundations, but it impacts on various legal institutions as well. In this paper, we consider the notion of Justice from the Right to Health perspective. In particular, we analyse the concept of “euthanasia" and the current role of insurance from the private law viewpoint, taking into account its “constitutionalization" process. We remark the wisdom of the parable built by the author because of the simplicity, sharpness and versatility when addressing dilemmas that Law cannot fully solve. ¿Qué ocurriría si en algún lugar la gente dejara de morir? En Las intermitencias de la muerte de Saramago, tras la alegría inicial por la posibilidad de la vida eterna, la ansiedad y el conflicto predominan en la comunidad. El final de la muerte no sólo sacude los cimientos de la Filosofía y Religión, pero también afecta a diversas instituciones jurídicas. En este artículo se considera el concepto de Justicia desde la perspectiva de derecho a la salud. En particular, se analiza el concepto de “eutanasia” y el papel actual de los seguros desde el punto de vista del derecho privado, teniendo en cuenta su proceso de “constitucionalización”. Se destaca la sensatez de la parábola construida por el autor por su simplicidad, nitidez y versatilidad al abordar los dilemas que la Ley no puede resolver completamente. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2520437

  3. Post-procedural Dabigatran Versus Interrupted Warfarin Therapy Following Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Lin, MD; Sharon Shen, MD; Prashant Bhave, MD; Bradley Knight, MD; Martha Bohn, RN, BSN; Evaldas Giedrimas, MD; Taral K. Patel, MD; Alexandru Chicos, MD; Jeffrey Goldberger, MD; Leonard Ilkhanoff, MD, MS; Susan Kim, MD; Albert Lin, MD; Rod Passman, MD, MSCE.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients undergoing catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF are at a higher risk of thromboembolic events post-procedure and therefore require therapeutic anticoagulation after ablation. Anticoagulation strategies include performing the procedure on or off therapeutic warfarin, though the latter approach requires post-procedure bridging therapy with low molecular-weight heparin (LMWH until a therapeutic INR is achieved. The purpose of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of post-ablation dabigatran as compared to warfarin with LMWH bridging. Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent catheter ablation for AF between January 2010 and December 2012 and received either post-procedure warfarin with a LMWH bridge or dabigatran. Warfarin was started the night of ablation; LMWH was started the next morning and continued until the INR was ≥ 2.0. Dabigatran was started the morning post-ablation. Results: The analysis included 324 patients. Of these, mean age was 60 ± 9 years, 78% were male, 81% had CHADS2 scores of 0 or 1, and 181 (56% received dabigatran post-ablation. Patients who received dabigatran had lower CHADS2 scores and were more likely to be in NYHA Class I. At 30-days post-procedure, there were 0 thromboembolic or bleeding complications in the dabigatran group versus 4 (2.8% in the warfarin group (p=0.037. There were no deaths in either group at 30 days post-ablation. Conclusions: Post-ablation dabigatran appears safe and efficacious compared to an interrupted warfarin strategy with LMWH bridging.

  4. Evaluating the impact of flexible alcohol trading hours on violence: an interrupted time series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Humphreys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On November 24(th 2005, the Government of England and Wales removed regulatory restrictions on the times at which licensed premises could sell alcohol. This study tests availability theory by treating the implementation of Licensing Act (2003 as a natural experiment in alcohol policy. METHODS: An interrupted time series design was employed to estimate the Act's immediate and delayed impact on violence in the City of Manchester (Population 464,200. We collected police recorded rates of violence, robbery, and total crime between the 1st of February 2004 and the 31st of December 2007. Events were aggregated by week, yielding a total of 204 observations (95 pre-, and 109 post-intervention. Secondary analysis examined changes in daily patterns of violence. Pre- and post-intervention events were separated into four three-hour segments 18∶00-20∶59, 21∶00-23.59, 00∶00-02∶59, 03∶00-05∶59. RESULTS: Analysis found no evidence that the Licensing Act (2003 affected the overall volume of violence. However, analyses of night-time violence found a gradual and permanent shift of weekend violence into later parts of the night. The results estimated an initial increase of 27.5% between 03∶00 to 06∶00 (ω = 0.2433, 95% CI = 0.06, 0.42, which increased to 36% by the end of the study period (δ = -0.897, 95% CI = -1.02, -0.77. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence that a national policy increasing the physical availability of alcohol affected the overall volume of violence. There was, however, evidence suggesting that the policy may be associated with changes to patterns of violence in the early morning (3 a.m. to 6 a.m..

  5. Detecting the molecular scars of evolution in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by analyzing interrupted coding sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poch Olivier

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-assisted analyses have shown that all bacterial genomes contain a small percentage of open reading frames with a frameshift or in-frame stop codon We report here a comparative analysis of these interrupted coding sequences (ICDSs in six isolates of M. tuberculosis, two of M. bovis and one of M. africanum and question their phenotypic impact and evolutionary significance. Results ICDSs were classified as "common to all strains" or "strain-specific". Common ICDSs are believed to result from mutations acquired before the divergence of the species, whereas strain-specific ICDSs were acquired after this divergence. Comparative analyses of these ICDSs therefore define the molecular signature of a particular strain, phylogenetic lineage or species, which may be useful for inferring phenotypic traits such as virulence and molecular relationships. For instance, in silico analysis of the W-Beijing lineage of M. tuberculosis, an emergent family involved in several outbreaks, is readily distinguishable from other phyla by its smaller number of common ICDSs, including at least one known to be associated with virulence. Our observation was confirmed through the sequencing analysis of ICDSs in a panel of 21 clinical M. tuberculosis strains. This analysis further illustrates the divergence of the W-Beijing lineage from other phyla in terms of the number of full-length ORFs not containing a frameshift. We further show that ICDS formation is not associated with the presence of a mutated promoter, and suggest that promoter extinction is not the main cause of pseudogene formation. Conclusion The correlation between ICDSs, function and phenotypes could have important evolutionary implications. This study provides population geneticists with a list of targets, which could undergo selective pressure and thus alters relationships between the various lineages of M. tuberculosis strains and their host. This approach could be applied to any

  6. STAT3 interrupts ATR-Chk1 signaling to allow oncovirus-mediated cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koganti, Siva; Hui-Yuen, Joyce; McAllister, Shane; Gardner, Benjamin; Grasser, Friedrich; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Tangye, Stuart G; Freeman, Alexandra F; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita

    2014-04-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) is a signaling network that senses DNA damage and activates response pathways to coordinate cell-cycle progression and DNA repair. Thus, DDR is critical for maintenance of genome stability, and presents a powerful defense against tumorigenesis. Therefore, to drive cell-proliferation and transformation, viral and cellular oncogenes need to circumvent DDR-induced cell-cycle checkpoints. Unlike in hereditary cancers, mechanisms that attenuate DDR and disrupt cell-cycle checkpoints in sporadic cancers are not well understood. Using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a source of oncogenes, we have previously shown that EBV-driven cell proliferation requires the cellular transcription factor STAT3. EBV infection is rapidly followed by activation and increased expression of STAT3, which mediates relaxation of the intra-S phase cell-cycle checkpoint; this facilitates viral oncogene-driven cell proliferation. We now show that replication stress-associated DNA damage, which results from EBV infection, is detected by DDR. However, signaling downstream of ATR is impaired by STAT3, leading to relaxation of the intra-S phase checkpoint. We find that STAT3 interrupts ATR-to-Chk1 signaling by promoting loss of Claspin, a protein that assists ATR to phosphorylate Chk1. This loss of Claspin which ultimately facilitates cell proliferation is mediated by caspase 7, a protein that typically promotes cell death. Our findings demonstrate how STAT3, which is constitutively active in many human cancers, suppresses DDR, fundamental to tumorigenesis. This newly recognized role for STAT3 in attenuation of DDR, discovered in the context of EBV infection, is of broad interest as the biology of cell proliferation is central to both health and disease.

  7. Interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Southern Chiapas Focus, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Southern Chiapas focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Mexico represents one of the major onchocerciasis foci in Latin America. All 559 endemic communities of this focus have undergone semi-annual mass treatment with ivermectin since 1998. In 50 communities of this focus, ivermectin frequency shifted from twice to four times a year in 2003; an additional 113 communities were added to the quarterly treatment regimen in 2009 to achieve a rapid suppression of transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In-depth epidemiologic and entomologic assessments were performed in six sentinel communities (which had undergone 2 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year and three extra-sentinel communities (which had undergone 4 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year. None of the 67,924 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from this focus during the dry season of 2011 were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA, resulting in an upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.06/2,000 flies examined. Serological assays testing for Onchocerca volvulus exposure conducted on 4,230 children 5 years of age and under (of a total population of 10,280 in this age group revealed that 2/4,230 individuals were exposed to O. volvulus (0.05%; one sided 95% confidence interval = 0.08%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The in-depth epidemiological and entomological findings from the Southern Chiapas focus meet the criteria for interruption of transmission developed by the international community.

  8. Genomic analysis of Pseudomonas putida phage tf with localized single-strand DNA interruptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly S Glukhov

    Full Text Available The complete sequence of the 46,267 bp genome of the lytic bacteriophage tf specific to Pseudomonas putida PpG1 has been determined. The phage genome has two sets of convergently transcribed genes and 186 bp long direct terminal repeats. The overall genomic architecture of the tf phage is similar to that of the previously described Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages PaP3, LUZ24 and phiMR299-2, and 39 out of the 72 products of predicted tf open reading frames have orthologs in these phages. Accordingly, tf was classified as belonging to the LUZ24-like bacteriophage group. However, taking into account very low homology levels between tf DNA and that of the other phages, tf should be considered as an evolutionary divergent member of the group. Two distinguishing features not reported for other members of the group were found in the tf genome. Firstly, a unique end structure--a blunt right end and a 4-nucleotide 3'-protruding left end--was observed. Secondly, 14 single-chain interruptions (nicks were found in the top strand of the tf DNA. All nicks were mapped within a consensus sequence 5'-TACT/RTGMC-3'. Two nicks were analyzed in detail and were shown to be present in more than 90% of the phage population. Although localized nicks were previously found only in the DNA of T5-like and phiKMV-like phages, it seems increasingly likely that this enigmatic structural feature is common to various other bacteriophages.

  9. Frequent hepatitis B virus rebound among HIV-hepatitis B virus-coinfected patients following antiretroviral therapy interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dore, Gregory J; Soriano, Vicente; Rockstroh, Jürgen;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption in HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV)-coinfected patients was examined in the Strategic Management of AntiRetroviral Therapy (SMART) study. METHODS: Plasma HBV DNA was measured in all hepatitis B surface antigen-positive (HBV.......0002), nondetectable HBV DNA at baseline (P = 0.007), and black race (P = 0.03). Time to ART reinitiation was shorter (7.5, 15.6, and 17.8 months; P hepatitis C virus-positive and non-HBV/hepatitis...... C virus participants in the drug conservation arm. No hepatic decompensation events occurred among HBV-positive participants in either arm. CONCLUSION: HBV DNA rebound following ART interruption is common and may be associated with accelerated immune deficiency in HIV-HBV-coinfected patients....

  10. Performance of an M/M/1 Retrial Queue with Working Vacation Interruption and Classical Retrial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An M/M/1 retrial queue with working vacation interruption is considered. Upon the arrival of a customer, if the server is busy, it would join the orbit of infinite size. The customers in the orbit will try for service one by one when the server is idle under the classical retrial policy with retrial rate nα, where n is the size of the orbit. During a working vacation period, if there are customers in the system at a service completion instant, the vacation will be interrupted. Under the stable condition, the probability generating functions of the number of customers in the orbit are obtained. Various system performance measures are also developed. Finally, some numerical examples and cost optimization analysis are presented.

  11. Safe interruption of maintenance therapy against previous infection with four common HIV-associated opportunistic pathogens during potent antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina;

    2002-01-01

    maintenance therapy for cytomegalovirus (CMV) end-organ disease, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and extrapulmonary cryptococcosis in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Seven European HIV cohorts. PATIENTS: 358...... identified: 162 for CMV disease, 103 for MAC infection, 75 for toxoplasmosis, and 39 for cryptococcosis. During 781 person-years of follow-up, five patients had relapse. Two relapses (one of CMV disease and one of MAC infection) were diagnosed after maintenance therapy was interrupted when the CD4 lymphocyte....... One relapse (toxoplasmosis) was diagnosed after maintenance therapy interruption at a CD4 lymphocyte count greater than 200 x 10(6) cells/L for 15 months. The overall incidences of recurrent CMV disease, MAC infection, toxoplasmosis, and cryptococcosis were 0.54 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 0.07 to 1...

  12. Antibody Responses After Analytic Treatment Interruption in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Individuals on Early Initiated Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Bricault, Christine A.; Shields, Jennifer; Bayne, Madeleine; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Seaman, Michael S.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    The examination of antibody responses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected individuals in the setting of antiretroviral treatment (ART) interruption can provide insight into the evolution of antibody responses during viral rebound. In this study, we assessed antibody responses in 20 subjects in AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5187, wherein subjects were treated with antiretroviral therapy during acute/early HIV-1 infection, underwent analytic treatment interruption, and subsequently demonstrated viral rebound. Our data suggest that early initiation of ART arrests the maturation of HIV-1-specific antibody responses, preventing epitope diversification of antibody binding and the development of functional neutralizing capacity. Antibody responses do not appear permanently blunted, however, because viral rebound triggered the resumption of antibody maturation in our study. We also found that antibody responses measured by these assays did not predict imminent viral rebound. These data have important implications for the HIV-1 vaccine and eradication fields.

  13. The Touch Pad Body: A Generative Transcultural Digital Device Interrupting Received Ideas and Practices in Aboriginal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Christie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yolŋu Aboriginal understandings of the body, health, life and sickness, and roles their ancestral epistemologies and knowledge practices play in making agreement have seldom been taken seriously in the biomedical world. In this paper, we describe how insights developed in three different cross-cultural collaborative transdisciplinary research projects led to the design of a digital device aimed at intervening in communicative practices around body, health, life and sickness, interrupting the received practices and assumptions on both sides of the practitioner-client divide. The interrupting device slows down and opens up communication practices potentially leading to mutual understanding, collective agreement making, and bottom-up changes in remote Aboriginal health policy and practice.

  14. On Junior High School English Class Interruptions%初中英语课堂打断现象初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费敏

    2015-01-01

    本文以初中英语课堂录音转写材料为载体,试图探究初中英语课堂中的打断现象,并分析初中英语课堂打断现象的分类,以期从打断的视角呈现一个真实完整的初中英语课堂,并为初中英语教师优化课堂教学提供参考依据.%Based on the authentic materials from junior high school English class, this paper attempts to explore the inter-ruptions in the junior high school English class and analyze the classification of the interruptions to present a real class and to provide a reference for junior high school English teachers to optimize classroom teaching.

  15. Molecular dynamic simulation studies on the effect of one residue chain staggering on the structure and stability of heterotrimeric collagen-like peptides with interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singam, Ettayapuram Ramaprasad Azhagiya; Balamurugan, Kanagasabai; Gopalakrishnan, Ravimohan; Subramanian, Sundar Raman; Subramanian, Venkatesan; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2012-11-01

    A systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been carried out on collagen-like peptides with different combinations of interruptions in the Gly-X(AA) -Y(AA) repeats. Although experimental studies have been carried out to elucidate the structural consequences of homotrimeric collagen-like peptides, this is the first report on the structural effect on the heterotrimeric models with G4G and G1G breaks present simultaneously in the constituent chains with difference in one residue chain staggering. The results reveal that the axial registry of the interrupted region changes significantly from that of conventional triple helical peptide without interruption. Further, results from MD simulations show the formation of a kink in the interrupted region of the triple-helical peptides. The conformational analysis reveals that the interruption in the Gly-X(AA) -Y(AA) pattern in these peptides induces β-strand conformation in triple helical peptides. The conventional hydrogen bonds in the interrupted triad are affected and new nonconventional H-bonds are formed in the triple helical structure, and as a result interrupted region becomes locally fragile. MM-PBSA calculations on the different systems clearly suggest that the binding affinity varies marginally due to one residue staggering. However, it is found from the structural parameters that hydrogen-bonding pattern differs significantly due to the difference in the staggering of chains. PMID:22899360

  16. Researches on Nutritional Behaviour in Romanian Black and White Primiparous Cows. Interruptions Number and their Duration in the Ration Consumption Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White primiparous cows. The aim of this study was todetermine some aspect of nutritional behaviour of the cows. During the experiments, the following behaviour aspectswere determined: interruption number and their duration in the feed consumption time. Results showed that theadministration order of forages had an influence on the interruptions number, which was 0.74 less for hay in fibroussucculentorder (O1. For silage, the interruption number was 0.42 higher in fibrous-succulent order (O1. Betweenportion 1 (P1 and portion 3 (P3, the significant difference (p<0.05 was for interruptions duration, duringconsumption silage, in favour portion P1. Distinct significant differences (p<0.01 was observed for the interruptionnumber during consumption silage (0.95 sec. higher in P1 than in P3, for interruption duration (5.96 sec. higher inP1 than in P3. Between P2 and P3, significant difference (p<0.05 was observed for interruptions number duringconsumption silage and for average interruptions duration during consumption beet in favour to portion P2.Regarding the number of feedings per portion, always the differences were higher in the second feeding F1 than inthe first feeding F2.

  17. Transjugular Approach to Device Closure of Atrial Septal Defect in a Child with Heterotaxia and Interrupted Inferior Vena Cava

    OpenAIRE

    Ozbarlas, Nazan; Kiziltas, Alev; Kucukosmanoglu, Osman; Erdem, Sevcan

    2012-01-01

    In heterotaxia syndrome with left atrial isomerism, the distinguishing feature is interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation. We report using a transjugular approach to device closure of an atrial septal defect in an 8-year-old boy with heterotaxia syndrome. We found that device closure of the child's atrial septal defect through a jugular venous approach was safe when an inferior vena cava approach was not possible. To our knowledge, ours is the first report of the use of intern...

  18. Posterior Nutcracker Syndrome Associated with Interrupted Left Inferior Vena Cava with Azygos Continuation and Retroaortic Right Renal Vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various anatomic anomalies have been considered the causes of nutcracker syndrome (NCS). Posterior NCS refers to the condition, in which vascular narrowing was secondary to the compression of the retroaortic left renal vein while it is crossing between the aorta and the vertebral column. Here, we report an unusual case of posterior NCS associated with a complicated malformation of the interrupted left inferior vena cava with azygos continuation and retroaortic right renal vein, diagnosed by both color Doppler ultrasonography and CT angiography.

  19. Cross-linking to an interrupted polypurine sequence with a platinum-modified triplex-forming oligonucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Meghan A; Miller, Paul S

    2009-08-01

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) can bind specifically to polypurine sequences in double-stranded DNA. A single interruption of this polypurine tract can greatly destabilize triplex formation. The stability of triplexes can be significantly enhanced by covalently linking the TFO to its DNA target with reactive functional groups conjugated to the TFO. Covalently cross-linked TFOs are effective inhibitors of transcription of the target DNA sequence. We have designed a TFO with a platinum-modified base that can interact with and cross-link to a cytosine interruption in the polypurine tract of a target DNA duplex. The TFO contains an N(4)-(aminoalkyl)cytosine derivatized with cis-diamminediaquaplatinum(II) or trans-diamminediaquaplatinum(II). When bound to its target, the tethered platinum of the TFO can reach across the major groove and form an adduct with the guanine N7 of the interrupting C.G base pair. The optimal tether length is five methylene groups, and cross-linking is most efficient when the tether is modified with trans-diamminediaquaplatinum(II). Cross-linking requires that the TFO is bound to its designated DNA target. Addition of cyanide to the cross-linked TFO product reversed the cross-link, behavior that is consistent with the presence of a platinum-guanine adduct. The kinetics of the cross-linking reaction were studied and the half-life of the cross-linking reaction was approximately 3 h. Our results demonstrate that platinum-conjugated TFOs can be designed to cross-link with DNA targets that contain a single pyrimidine interruption. Modifications of this type may prove useful for expanding the DNA sequences that can be targeted by TFOs and increasing the stability of the resulting triplexes. PMID:19350290

  20. CROSS-LINKING TO AN INTERRUPTED POLYPURINE SEQUENCE WITH A PLATINUM-MODIFIED TRIPLEX-FORMING OLIGONUCLEOTIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Meghan A.; Miller, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) can bind specifically to polypurine sequences in double-stranded DNA. A single interruption of this polypurine tract can greatly destabilize triplex formation. The stability of triplexes can be significantly enhanced by covalently linking the TFO to its DNA target with reactive functional groups conjugated to the TFO. Covalently cross-linked TFOs are effective inhibitors of transcription of the target DNA sequence. We have designed a TFO with a platinum...

  1. Influence of allowable interruption period on estimates of accelerometer wear time and sedentary time in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mailey, Emily L; Gothe, Neha P.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The criteria one uses to reduce accelerometer data can profoundly influence the interpretation of research outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three different interruption periods (i.e., 20, 30, and 60 minutes) on the amount of data retained for analyses and estimates of sedentary time among older adults. Older adults (N=311; Mage=71.1) wore an accelerometer for seven days and reported wear time on an accelerometer log. Accelerometer data were downloaded and sc...

  2. An analysis of strategic treatment interruptions during imatinib treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia with imatinib-resistant mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, Dana; Sacco, David; Shamshoian, John

    2015-04-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the white blood cells that results from increased and uncontrolled growth of myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. The most common form of treatment for CML is imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Although imatinib is an effective treatment for CML and most patients treated with imatinib do attain some form of remission, imatinib does not completely eradicate all leukemia cells, and if treatment is stopped, all patients eventually relapse (Cortes, 2005). In Kim (2008), the authors developed a mathematical model for the dynamics of CML under imatinib treatment that incorporates the anti-leukemia immune response, and in Paquin (2011), the authors used this mathematical model to study strategic treatment interruptions as a potential therapeutic strategy for CML patients. Although the authors presented the results of several numerical simulations in Paquin (2011), the studies in that work did not include the possibility of imatinib-resistant mutations or an initial population of imatinib-resistant leukemia cells. As resistance is a significant consideration in any drug treatment, it is important to study the efficacy of the strategic treatment interruption plan in the presence of imatinib resistance. In this work, we modify the delay differential equations model of Kim (2008), Paquin (2011) to include the possibility of imatinib resistance, and we analyze strategic treatment interruptions as a potential therapeutic tool in the case of patients with imatinib-resistance leukemia cells.

  3. A pilot study on the vacuum degree online detection of vacuum interrupter using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. H.; Yuan, H.; Liu, D. X.; Yang, A. J.; Liu, P.; Gao, L.; Ding, H. B.; Wang, W. T.; Rong, M. Z.

    2016-11-01

    Vacuum degree online detection of vacuum interrupter has been a great challenge for decades. In this letter, a novel approach based on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was proposed to solve this tough problem, which is suitable for non-intrusive, electro-magnetic interference free and remote detection. The spectral lines of Cu, H, N and O elements from the interrupter shield were detected for a large gas pressure range from p  =  1  ×  10‑3 Pa to 1  ×  105 Pa. It was found that the spectral intensities of O and H increase monotonically with gas pressure, in contrast the spectral intensity of Cu first decreases slightly and then increases. Their intensity ratios, especially for that of Cu to O, change dramatically and monotonically with the gas pressure when p  ⩽  0.1 Pa, indicating that they can be used for determining the vacuum degree values. Spectral ratio method fundamentally reduces the influences of the possible variation in measuring distance and the laser power fluctuation, making LIBS a promising method for vacuum degree online detection of vacuum interrupters.

  4. The effects of brief visual interruption tasks on drivers' ability to resume their visual search for a pre-cued hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Avinoam; Horrey, William J; Liang, Yulan; Garabet, Angela; Simmons, Lucinda; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-08-01

    Driver visual distraction is known to increase the likelihood of being involved in a crash, especially for long glances inside the vehicle. The detrimental impact of these in-vehicle glances may carry over and disrupt the ongoing processing of information after the driver glances back up on the road. This study explored the effect of different types of visual tasks inside the vehicle on the top-down processes that guide the detection and monitoring of road hazards after the driver glances back towards the road. Using a driving simulator, 56 participants were monitored with an eye tracking system while they navigated various hazardous scenarios in one of four experimental conditions. In all conditions, a potential hazard was visible 4-5s before the driver could strike the potential hazard were it to materialize. All interruptions were exactly two seconds in length. After the interruption the potential hazard again became visible for about a half-second after which the driver passed by the hazard. The nature of the in-vehicle visual interruption presented to the participants was varied across conditions: (1) Visual interruptions comprised of spatial, driving unrelated, tasks; (2) visual interruptions comprised of non-spatial, driving unrelated, tasks; (3) visual interruptions with no tasks added; and (4) no visual interruptions. In the first three conditions drivers glancing on the forward roadway was momentarily interrupted (either with or without a task) just after the potential hazard first became visible by the occurrence of an in-vehicle task lasting two seconds. In the last condition (no interruptions) the driver could not see the potential hazard after it just became visible because of obstructions in the built or natural environment. The obstruction (like the interruption) lasted for two seconds. In other words, across all conditions the hazard was visible, then became invisible, and finally became visible again. Importantly, the results show that the

  5. Common interruptions in the repeating tripeptide sequence of non-fibrillar collagens: Sequence analysis and structural studies on triple-helix peptide models

    OpenAIRE

    Thiagarajan, Geetha; Li, Yingjie; Mohs, Angela; Strafaci, Christopher; Popiel, Magdalena; Baum, Jean; Brodsky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Interruptions in the repeating (Gly-X1-X2)n amino acid sequence pattern are found in the triple-helix domains of all non-fibrillar collagens, and perturbations to the triple-helix at such sites are likely to play a role in collagen higher order structure and function. This report defines the sequence features and structural consequences of the most common interruption, where one residue is missing in the tripeptide pattern, Gly-X1-X2-Gly-AA1-Gly-X1-X2, designated as G1G interruptions. Residue...

  6. Effects of chest compression interruption length on cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcomes%胸外按压中断时间长短对心肺复苏效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符兆亮; 韦谱新; 潘科; 麦泉云

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of chest compression interruption length on cardiopulmo-nary resuscitation (CPR)outcomes during CPR defibrillation and tracheal intubation. Methods According to the 2010 Guidelines on CPR,defibrillation and tracheal intubation process was refined during CPR.Chest com-pressions interruption time was shortened during CPR.All the 82 patients with cardiac arrest from January 201 1 to December 2012 were selected as the control group,and patients in the control group received traditional CPR process.We selected 80 cardiac arrest cases from January 2013 to December 2014 as experimental group, and patients in the experimental group received the refined defibrillation and tracheal intubation process.The CPR chest compression interruption time,spontaneous circulation recovery time and spontaneous circulation recovery rate were compared between the two groups. Results Comparisons of chest compression interrup-tion length during CPR defibrillation and of chest compression interruption length,spontaneous circulation re-covery time during CPR tracheal intubation process between the control group and the experimental group were performed,there were statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Standard CPR process can shorten the chest compression interruption time in CPR defibrillation and tracheal intubation,and can im-prove the CPR results.%目的:探讨心肺复苏(CPR)过程中,除颤期及气管插管期胸外按压中断时间长短对 CPR 复苏效果的影响。方法根据2010年 CPR 指南,规范 CPR 除颤期及气管插管期流程,缩短 CPR 过程中胸外按压中断时间。选取2011年1月~2012年12月间82例心脏骤停患者为对照组,实施常规 CPR 流程。选取2013年1月~2014年12月间80例心脏骤停患者为实验组,实施规范除颤期及气管插管期流程。对两组患者在 CPR 胸外按压中断时间、自主循环恢复时间、自主循环恢复率进行对

  7. Outcomes of Temporary Interruption of Rivaroxaban Compared With Warfarin in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Matthew W.; Douketis, James D.; Patel, Manesh R.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Spyropoulos, Alex C.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Singer, Daniel E.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.; Becker, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Background During long-term anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation, temporary interruptions (TIs) of therapy are common, but the relationship between patient outcomes and TIs has not been well studied. We sought to determine reasons for TI, the characteristics of patients undergoing TI, and the relationship between anticoagulant and outcomes among patients with TI. Methods and Results In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily, Oral, Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF), a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study of rivaroxaban and warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, baseline characteristics, management, and outcomes, including stroke, non–central nervous system systemic embolism, death, myocardial infarction, and bleeding, were reported in participants who experienced TI (3–30 days) for any reason. The at-risk period for outcomes associated with TI was from TI start to 30 days after resumption of study drug. In 14 236 participants who received at least 1 dose of study drug, 4692 (33%) experienced TI. Participants with TI were similar to the overall ROCKET AF population in regard to baseline clinical characteristics. Only 6% (n=483) of TI incidences involved bridging therapy. Stroke/systemic embolism rates during the at-risk period were similar in rivaroxaban-treated and warfarin-treated participants (0.30% versus 0.41% per 30 days; hazard ratio [confidence interval]=0.74 [0.36–1.50]; P=0.40). Risk of major bleeding during the at-risk period was also similar in rivaroxaban-treated and warfarin-treated participants (0.99% versus 0.79% per 30 days; hazard ratio [confidence interval]=1.26 [0.80–2.00]; P=0.32). Conclusions TI of oral anticoagulation is common and is associated with substantial stroke risks and bleeding risks that were similar among patients treated with rivaroxaban or warfarin. Further investigation is needed to determine the optimal

  8. The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors-a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand-appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service-to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to

  9. Lymphatic Filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Pedersen, Erling Møller; Rwegoshora, Rwehumbiza T.;

    2010-01-01

    In most countries of sub-Saharan Africa the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. Here we present the first detailed study on the effect of 3 repeated MDAs with t...

  10. Increasing the efficiency of solute leaching: impacts of flow interruption with drainage of the ``preferential flow paths''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, C. M.; Bristow, K. L.; Ross, P. J.

    2000-05-01

    Most soils contain preferential flow paths that can impact on solute mobility. Solutes can move rapidly down the preferential flow paths with high pore-water velocities, but can be held in the less permeable region of the soil matrix with low pore-water velocities, thereby reducing the efficiency of leaching. In this study, we conducted leaching experiments with interruption of the flow and drainage of the main flow paths to assess the efficiency of this type of leaching. We compared our experimental results to a simple analytical model, which predicts the influence of the variations in concentration gradients within a single spherical aggregate (SSA) surrounded by preferential flow paths on leaching. We used large (length: 300 mm, diameter: 216 mm) undisturbed field soil cores from two contrasting soil types. To carry out intermittent leaching experiments, the field soil cores were first saturated with tracer solution (CaBr 2), and background solution (CaCl 2) was applied to mimic a leaching event. The cores were then drained at 25- to 30-cm suction to empty the main flow paths to mimic a dry period during which solutes could redistribute within the undrained region. We also conducted continuous leaching experiments to assess the impact of the dry periods on the efficiency of leaching. The flow interruptions with drainage enhanced leaching by 10-20% for our soils, which was consistent with the model's prediction, given an optimised "equivalent aggregate radius" for each soil. This parameter quantifies the time scales that characterise diffusion within the undrained region of the soil, and allows us to calculate the duration of the leaching events and interruption periods that would lead to more efficient leaching. Application of these methodologies will aid development of strategies for improving management of chemicals in soils, needed in managing salts in soils, in improving fertiliser efficiency, and in reclaiming contaminated soils.

  11. The impact of refining cardio-pulmonary resuscitation process on the interruption duration of chest compression%细化心肺复苏流程对胸外按压中断时间的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦良花; 张红梅; 秦历杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the impact of refining cardio -pulmonary resuscitation ( CPR) process on the interruption duration of chest compression of both the CPR's defibrillation phase and endotracheal intubation.Methods Formulate how to refine the CPR process of defibrillation phase and endotracheal intubation, as well as shorten the interruption duration of chest compression during the CPR process, according to the CPR Guidelines 2010.One hundred and twenty-four cases of patients with cardiac arrest during the period from August 2012 to November 2013 were included in experimental group, to whom implement the refined CPR process of defibrillation phase and endotracheal intubation, and shorten the interruption duration of chest compressions for defibrillation phase and endotracheal intubation.And 122 cases of patients with cardiac arrest from April 2011 to July 2012 were included in control group, to whom implement the regular CPR process.The two groups were retrospectively compared from the aspects of their interruption duration of CPR chest compression, recovery time of spontaneous circulation, rate of spontaneous circulation restoration, 72 -hour survival rate, 28 -day survival rate, and the CPC scoring for prognosis of neurological function. Results There were significant differences between the two groups of the interruption duration of CPR chest compression, recovery time of spontaneous circulation, rate of spontaneous circulation restoration, 28 -day survival rate, and the 28-day CPC scoring for prognosis of neurological function, with average P0.05. Conclusion By refining CPR process, the interruption duration of chest compression for both defibrillation phase and endotracheal intubation can be shortened, and the success rate of CPR will be effectively improved.%目的探讨细化心肺复苏( CPR)流程,对CPR的除颤期及气管插管期胸外按压中断时间的影响。方法依据2010 CPR指南,制定细化CPR的除颤期及气管插管期的CPR

  12. Catalytic, Interrupted Formal Homo-Nazarov Cyclization with (Hetero)arenes: Access to α-(Hetero)aryl Cyclohexanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Corey W; Shenje, Raynold; France, Stefan

    2016-09-16

    The first examples of a Lewis-acid catalyzed (hetero)arene interrupted, formal homo-Nazarov cyclization have been disclosed. Using SnCl4 as the catalyst, alkenyl cyclopropyl ketones undergo ring-opening cyclization to form six-membered cyclic oxyallyl cations. Subsequent intermolecular Friedel-Crafts-type arylation with various electron-rich arenes and heteroarenes provides functionalized α-(hetero)arylated cyclohexanones, a scaffold present in many natural products and bioactive compounds, in yields up to 88% and diastereomeric ratios up to 12:1. Regiospecific arylation occurs at the α-carbon of the oxyallyl cation due to polarization caused by the ester group. PMID:27529123

  13. L'accompagnement infirmier des femmes et de leur conjoint lors d'une interruption volontaire de grossesse

    OpenAIRE

    Bürli, Chloé; Vaissband, Kelly; Brokatzky, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Problématique : Le nombre d’interruption volontaire de grossesse [IVG] en Suisse n’est pas négligeable. Dans un service de gynécologie, lorsqu’une femme, accompagnée parfois de son conjoint ou de sa famille, vient subir un avortement, elle rencontre divers professionnels de la santé, tels que des infirmiers(-ères) lors de la prise du médicament abortif ou de la chirurgie. Malgré une prise en charge pluridisciplinaire, peu de temps est finalement accordé à ces patientes, parfois déstabilisées ...

  14. Dual Arterial Access for Stenting of Aortic Coarctation in Patients with Near-Total Descending Aortic Interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Tahir; Jamallulail, Syed Ibrahim; Clarke, Bernard; Mahadevan, Vaikom S

    2015-12-01

    Endovascular stenting is a recognized treatment strategy for the treatment of coarctation of aorta (COA) in adults. The aortic coarctation is usually crossed retrogradely from the descending aorta via the femoral approach. We report three patients who had near-total descending aortic interruption and underwent successful stenting of severe COA using a combined radial/brachial and femoral approach due to difficulty in crossing the lesion retrogradely via a femoral approach. There were no procedural complications and no adverse events during 6 months of follow-up.

  15. Metabolic and immune activation effects of treatment interruption in chronic HIV-1 infection: implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tebas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern about costs and antiretroviral therapy (ART-associated toxicities led to the consideration of CD4 driven strategies for the management of HIV. That approach was evaluated in the SMART trial that reported an unexpected increase of cardiovascular events after treatment interruption (TI. Our goal was to evaluate fasting metabolic changes associated with interruption of antiretroviral therapy and relate them to changes of immune activation markers and cardiovascular risk. METHODOLOGY: ACTG 5102 enrolled 47 HIV-1-infected subjects on stable ART, with or=500 cells/microL. Subjects were randomly assigned to continue ART for 18 weeks with or without 3 cycles of interleukin-2 (IL-2 (cycle = 4.5 million IU sc BID x 5 days every 8 weeks. After 18 weeks ART was discontinued in all subjects until the CD4 cell count dropped below 350 cells/microL. Glucose and lipid parameters were evaluated every 8 weeks initially and at weeks 2, 4, 8 and every 8 weeks after TI. Immune activation was evaluated by flow-cytometry and soluble TNFR2 levels. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By week 8 of TI, levels of total cholesterol (TC (median (Q1, Q3 (-0.73 (-1.19, -0.18 mmol/L, p<0.0001, LDL, HDL cholesterol (-0.36(-0.73,-0.03mmol/L, p = 0.0007 and -0.05(-0.26,0.03, p = 0.0033, respectively and triglycerides decreased (-0.40 (-0.84, 0.07 mmol/L, p = 0.005. However the TC/HDL ratio remained unchanged (-0.09 (-1.2, 0.5, p = 0.2. Glucose and insulin levels did not change (p = 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. After TI there was marked increase in immune activation (CD8+/HLA-DR+/CD38+ cells, 34% (13, 43, p<0.0001 and soluble TNFR2 (1089 ng/L (-189, 1655, p = 0.0008 coinciding with the rebound of HIV viremia. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that interrupting antiretroviral therapy does not reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD risk, as the improvements in lipid parameters are modest and overshadowed by the decreased HDL levels. Increased immune cell activation and systemic

  16. Southern Cone Initiative for the elimination of domestic populations of Triatoma infestans and the interruption of transfusion Chagas disease: historical aspects, present situation, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Pinto Dias

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Created in 1991 by the governments of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, the Southern Cone Initiative (SCI has been extremely important for Chagas disease control in this region. Its basic objective was to reach the interruption of this disease, chiefly by means of the elimination of the principal vector Triatoma infestans and by the selection of safe donors in the regional blood banks. After a summarized historic of SCI, the text shows the advance of technical and operative activities, emphasizing some factors for the initiative success, as well as some difficulties and constraints. The future of SCI will depend of the continuity of the actions and of political priority. Scientific community has been highly responsible for this initiative and its maintenance. At the side of this, national and international efforts must be involved and reinforced to assure the accomplishment of the final targets of SCI. Very specially, the Pan American Health Organization has cooperated with the Initiative in all its moments and activities,being the most important catalytic and technical factor for SCI success.

  17. Southern Cone Initiative for the elimination of domestic populations of Triatoma infestans and the interruption of transfusional Chagas disease. Historical aspects, present situation, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João Carlos Pinto

    2007-10-30

    Created in 1991 by the governments of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, the Southern Cone Initiative (SCI) has been extremely important for Chagas disease control in this region. Its basic objective was to reach the interruption of this disease, chiefly by means of the elimination of the principal vector Triatoma infestans and by the selection of safe donors in the regional blood banks. After a summarized historic of SCI, the text shows the advance of technical and operative activities, emphasizing some factors for the initiative success, as well as some difficulties and constraints. The future of SCI will depend of the continuity of the actions and of political priority. Scientific community has been highly responsible for this initiative and its maintenance. At the side of this, national and international efforts must be involved and reinforced to assure the accomplishment of the final targets of SCI. Very specially, the Pan American Health Organization has cooperated with the Initiative in all its moments and activities,being the most important catalytic and technical factor for SCI success.

  18. The Imaramagambo Onchocerciasis Focus in Southwestern Uganda: Interruption of Transmission After Disappearance of the Vector Simulium neavei and Its Associated Freshwater Crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katabarwa, Moses N; Katamanywa, James; Lakwo, Thomson; Habomugisha, Peace; Byamukama, Edson; Oguttu, David; Nahabwe, Christine; Ngabirano, Monica; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Khainza, Annet; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Unnasch, Thomas R; Richards, Frank O; Garms, Rolf

    2016-08-01

    It was not until early 1990s that, when the Imaramagambo focus of southwest Uganda was mapped, mass treatment with a single annual dose of ivermectin for onchocerciaisis control commenced. However, comprehensive investigations on its transmission were launched after a nationwide policy for onchocerciasis elimination in 2007. Entomological surveys throughout the focus from 2007 to 2015 have yielded few or no freshwater crabs (Potamonautes aloysiisabaudiae), which serve as the obligate phoretic host of the larvae and pupae of the vector Simulium neavei No S. neavei flies have been observed or collected since 2007. Skin snips (microscopy) from 294 individuals in 2008 were negative for skin microfilariae, and of the 462 persons analyzed by polymerase chain reaction skin snip poolscreen in 2009, only five (1.08%) persons were indicated as infected with onchocerciasis. All five of the positive persons were at least 40 years old. Serosurvey results showed negative exposure among 3,332 children in 2012 and 3,108 children in 2015. Both were within the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval of the prevalence estimate of 0.06%, which confirmed the elimination of onchocerciasis. Treatment coverage in Imaramagambo was generally poor, and transmission interruption of onchocerciasis could not be attributed solely to annual mass treatment with ivermectin. There was sufficient evidence to believe that the possible disappearance of the S. neavei flies, presumed to have been the main vector, may have hastened the demise of onchocerciasis in this focus.

  19. Replacement of five main block valves without interruption of normal operation in a remote NGL station placed at 13400 FT AMSL, challenge and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Yamil; Morales, Raul; Elorreaga, Gerson [Compania Operadora del Gas del Amazonas, Lima (Peru)

    2012-07-01

    The present paper is aimed to share experience of the replacement of five block valves carried on in a pressure reduction station remotely operated and located in a remote area in The Andes of Peru at 13400 ft AMSL. To accomplish the job, it was necessary the construction of a temporary bypass made of carbon steel pipeline with its own regulating, instrumentation and automation facilities, hence capable of reduce the NGL pressure, controlled and remotely operated by a SCADA system. The temporary bypass connection and disconnection to put on service was carried out using Hot Tap and Line Stop equipment. The replacement of the five block valves was met without interruption of the hydrocarbons flow, and resetting the pressure reduction station to steady operating conditions. Besides the operating works these activities involve safety considerations for personal working in high altitudes. The outputs were the successful replacements of the block valves, and most important was that the NGL continuous flow was met, so both the production and processing plants were supplied with the daily transportation rates in standard conditions, and in accordance with the requirements of the plant operation. (author)

  20. Resilience of Urban Smart Grids Involving Multiple Control Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent control of energy distribution grids is implemented via a hierarchy of control loops with different input values and different control targets, which also work on different time-scales. This control is enabled by a bi-directional communication flow, which can be interrupted due to ICT...

  1. X-ray diffraction stress analysis of interrupted titanium nitride films: Combining the sin{sup 2}ψ and crystallite group methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkovits, Theo [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Zhao, Yue, E-mail: yue@uow.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); O' Brien, Rebecca [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Dowey, Steve [Surface Technology Coatings, Sutton Tools, Settlement Road, Thomastown, VIC 3074 (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Interruptions during film growth have been discussed by researchers to assist in understanding the evolution of stress in physical vapour deposition films. A change in intrinsic stress is directly related to microstructure, hence careful analysis of stress in films can provide valuable structure–stress correlated information. In this study we discuss the use of combining two X-ray diffraction (XRD) stress analysis methods to elucidate the effect of interruptions during growth on the residual stress of TiN films. The sin{sup 2}ψ and crystallite group method (CGM), scanning the (220) peaks from all grains in the film and only (111) oriented crystallites respectively, were used to analyse residual stress in standard and interrupted cathodic arc TiN films 1.5, 3.5 and 6.5 μm thick, grown on high-speed steel substrates. The sin{sup 2}ψ method does not reveal any changes in stress with interruptions, however, measurements using the CGM show increased compressive stress and increased a{sub 0} in the resultant TiN films. A comparison of results from both XRD methods indicates that an increased compressive stress from interruptions could be due to an increased number of defects in (111) oriented grains during the interruptions which would also affect a{sub 0} as evident. In both methods, compressive stresses are found to decrease with increased thickness of films. - Highlights: • Interrupting TiN film growth increases compressive stress in (111) grains. • Increased stress is believed to be caused by defects incorporated into or not annealed out of (111) grains. • A comparison of sin{sup 2}ψ and CGM results reveals differences in stress. • Compressive stress decreases as TiN films increase in thickness from 1.5 μm to 6.5 μm.

  2. Neglect in Human Communication: Quantifying the Cost of Cell-Phone Interruptions in Face to Face Dialogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  3. Experimental Study of the Airside Performance for Interrupted Fin-and-tube Heat Exchanger with Hydrophilic Coating under Dehumidifying Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-kui; DING Guo-liang; ZHANG Yuan-ming

    2009-01-01

    The airside heat transfer and friction characteristics of seven interrupted fin-and-tube heat exchangers with hydrophilic coating under dehumidifying conditions are experimented. The effects of number of tube rows, fin pitch and inlet relative humidity on airside performance are analyzed. The test results show that the influence of fin pitch on the friction characteristic under dehumidifying conditions is similar to that under dry surface, and the friction factors decrease slightly with the increase of number of tube rows. The heat transfer performance decreases as fin pitch and number of tube rows increases. The heat transfer performance and the friction characteristic are independent of inlet relative humidity. Based on the test results, heat transfer and friction correlations in terms of the Colburn j factor and Fanning f factor, are proposed to describe the airside performance of the interrupted fin geometry with hydrophilic coating under dehumidifying conditions. The correlation of the Colburn j factor gives a mean deviation of 9.7%, while the correlation of the Fanning f factor shows a mean deviation of 7.3%.

  4. SIRT3 participates in glucose metabolism interruption and apoptosis induced by BH3 mimetic S1 in ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xi-Yan; Kang, Jin-Song; Yang, Xiao-Chun; Su, Jing; Wu, Yao; Yan, Xiao-Yu; Xue, Ya-Nan; Xu, Ye; Liu, Yu-He; Yu, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Sun, Lian-Kun

    2016-08-01

    The Bcl-2 antiapoptotic proteins are important cancer therapy targets; however, their role in cancer cell metabolism remains unclear. We found that the BH3-only protein mimetic S1, a novel pan Bcl-2 inhibitor, simultaneously interrupted glucose metabolism and induced apoptosis in human SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells, which was related to the activation of SIRT3, a stress-responsive deacetylase. S1 interrupted the cellular glucose metabolism mainly through causing damage to mitochondrial respiration and inhibiting glycolysis. Moreover, S1 upregulated the gene and protein expression of SIRT3, and induced the translocation of SIRT3 from the nucleus to mitochondria. SIRT3 silencing reversed the effects of S1 on glucose metabolism and apoptosis through increasing the level of HK-II localized to the mitochondria, while a combination of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-DG and S1 intensified the cytotoxicity through further upregulation of SIRT3 expression. This study underscores an essential role of SIRT3 in the antitumor effect of Bcl-2 inhibitors in human ovarian cancer through regulating both metabolism and apoptosis. The manipulation of Bcl-2 inhibitors combined with the use of classic glycolysis inhibitors may be rational strategies to improve ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:27277143

  5. Persistence of lipoatrophy after a four-year long interruption of antiretroviral therapy for HIV1 infection: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Giuseppe

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected patients on long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy often present peculiar patterns of fat redistribution, referred to as lipodystrophy. In spite of recent investigations, it is not known whether and to what extent the main features of lipodystrophy – that is lipoatrophy of peripheral fat at face, limbs and buttocks, as well as fat accumulation at breasts, abdomen and the dorso-cervical region – can be reversible once clinically manifest. Case presentation A 35 year old Caucasian HIV infected female developed severe diffuse lipodystrophy while on highly active antiretroviral therapy. A remarkable increase of breast size, fat accumulation at waist, and a fat pad on her lumbar spine were paralleled by progressive and disfiguring lipoatrophy of face, limbs and buttocks. The patient decided to interrupt her therapy after 20 months, with a stably suppressed viremia and a CD4 lymphocyte count >500/μL. She could carry on a safe treatment interruption for longer than 4 years. Most sites of fat accumulation switched to nearly normal appearance, whereas lipoatrophy was substantially unchanged at all affected sites. Conclusion our observation provides pictorial evidence that lipoatrophy may not be reversible even under ideal circumstances. Therefore, strategies to prevent lipoatrophy should be considered when defining therapeutic regimens for HIV infected patients, especially those at high risk.

  6. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Lopez-Rosenfeld

    Full Text Available There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone. The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . . and about the virtues of the people around them.

  7. Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by Simulium neavei in Mount Elgon focus of Eastern Uganda has been interrupted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katabarwa, Moses; Lakwo, Tom; Habomugisha, Peace; Agunyo, Stella; Byamukama, Edson; Oguttu, David; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Ochieng, Galex Orukan; Abwaimo, Francis; Onapa, Ambrose; Lwamafa, Dennis W K; Walsh, Frank; Unnasch, Thomas R; Richards, Frank O

    2014-06-01

    The study determined that Simulium neavei-transmitted onchocerciasis in Mount Elgon onchocerciasis focus had been interrupted. Annual mass treatment with ivermectin changed to two times per year along with vector elimination in 2007. Then, baseline microfilaria (mf) prevalence data of 1994 in five sentinel communities were compared with follow-up data in 2005 and 2011. Blood spots from 3,051 children obtained in 2009 were analyzed for Onchocerca volvulus immunoglobulin G4 antibodies. Fresh water crab host captures and blackflies collected indicated their infestation with larval stages of S. neavei and presence or absence of the vector, respectively. Mf rates dropped from 62.2% to 0.5%, and 1 (0.03%) of 3,051 children was positive for O. volvulus antibodies. Crab infestation dropped from 41.9% in 2007 to 0%, and S. neavei biting reduced to zero. Both remained zero for the next 3 years, confirming interruption of onchocerciasis transmission, and interventions were halted. PMID:24686740

  8. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Homozygous GPR161 Mutation in a Family with Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Ender; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Pehlivan, Davut; Charng, Wu-Lin; Yaykasli, Kursat O.; Bayram, Yavuz; Gambin, Tomasz; Withers, Marjorie; Atik, Mehmed M.; Arslanoglu, Ilknur; Bolu, Semih; Erdin, Serkan; Buyukkaya, Ayla; Yaykasli, Emine; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a rare, congenital anomaly of the pituitary gland characterized by pituitary gland insufficiency, thin or discontinuous pituitary stalk, anterior pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic positioning of the posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis). The clinical presentation of patients with PSIS varies from isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency to combined pituitary insufficiency and accompanying extrapituitary findings. Mutations in HESX1, LHX4, OTX2, SOX3, and PROKR2 have been associated with PSIS in less than 5% of cases; thus, the underlying genetic etiology for the vast majority of cases remains to be determined. Objective: We applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) to a consanguineous family with two affected siblings who have pituitary gland insufficiency and radiographic findings of hypoplastic (thin) pituitary gland, empty sella, ectopic neurohypophysis, and interrupted pitiutary stalk—characteristic clinical diagnostic findings of PSIS. Design and Participants: WES was applied to two affected and one unaffected siblings. Results: WES of two affected and one unaffected sibling revealed a unique homozygous missense mutation in GPR161, which encodes the orphan G protein–coupled receptor 161, a protein responsible for transducing extracellular signals across the plasma membrane into the cell. Conclusion: Mutations of GPR161 may be implicated as a potential novel cause of PSIS. PMID:25322266

  9. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coating During Interrupted High-Heat Flux Laser Testing Using Upconversion Luminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Upconversion luminescence imaging of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been shown to successfully monitor TBC delamination progression during interrupted furnace cycling. However, furnace cycling does not adequately model engine conditions where TBC-coated components are subjected to significant heat fluxes that produce through-thickness temperature gradients that may alter both the rate and path of delamination progression. Therefore, new measurements are presented based on luminescence imaging of TBC-coated specimens subjected to interrupted high-heat-flux laser cycling exposures that much better simulate the thermal gradients present in engine conditions. The TBCs tested were deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and were composed of 7wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) with an integrated delamination sensing layer composed of 7YSZ co-doped with erbium and ytterbium (7YSZ:Er,Yb). The high-heat-flux exposures that produce the desired through-thickness thermal gradients were performed using a high power CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns. Upconversion luminescence images revealed the debond progression produced by the cyclic high-heat-flux exposures and these results were compared to that observed for furnace cycling.

  10. Art Interrupting Business, Business interrupting Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Tensions between global corporations and digital artists who use business as an artistic and activist medium reveal rough edges in the interface between business and society. This interaction can be seen as a space where the interface between business and society is being challenged, with artists...... performing online art that raises awareness about hidden aspects of business practices. As digital artists place the spotlight on activities and business strategies that are not part of corporate plans for communicating their “transparency,” they also work to reconfigure and re(de)fine this interface. To set...... of transparency.3 These dimensions allow for a critical examination of transparency and demonstrate some inherent tensions between what is revealed and concealed in communication between business and society. This, in turn, addresses the notion of knowledge that leads to new possibilities for understanding...

  11. 不同时间睡眠干扰所致小鼠的类抑郁样行为%Depression-like behavior induced by 5-15 days sleep interruption in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高江晖; 卜兰兰; 石哲; 孙秀萍; 李腾飞; 王琼; 刘新民; 李朋军; 沈伟哉

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究不同时间睡眠干扰后所致的小鼠类抑郁样行为学表现.方法 使用滚筒睡眠干扰仪对小鼠进行不同时间(5、10、15 d)睡眠干扰后,分别对各组动物进行自主活动测试实验、强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验.结果 干扰5d组与对照组比,自主活动总路程、平均速度、运动总时间减少(P<0.05),干扰10 d组与对照组比,自主活动总路程、平均速度、运动总时间减少(P<0.05).干扰5d后,小鼠强迫游泳、悬尾实验中各指标与对照组比无差异,干扰l0d组小鼠的游泳不动时间[(143.92 +9.48)s]和悬尾不动时间[(127.89 +6.33)s]均较对照组小鼠游泳不动时间[ (128.50 +6.63)s]和悬尾不动时间[(102.64±9.57)s]长(P<o.05),干扰15 d组小鼠的游泳不动时间[(143.08±8.13)s]和悬尾不动时间[(119.10±10.43)s]均较对照组小鼠游泳不动时间[(113.00±7.28)s]和悬尾不动时间[(89.55±9.07)s]长(P<0.05).干扰5d组、10 d组、15d组与对照组比,体重均降低(P<0.05).结论 滚筒法睡眠干扰10、15 d可引起小鼠的类抑郁样行为学表现.%Objective To study the depressive behavioral manifestation of mice after different sleep interruption (Sl)times. Methods Put the mice into rotating drum sleep interferometer for different periods of time (5 , 10, 15days). Then to measure their behavioral activities by locomotor activity test, forced swim test and tail suspension test, separately. Results Compared with the control group, the 5-day sleep interruption group had less total distance of locomotor activity, lower average speed, lower total duration of movement (P <0. 05) ; so was the situation with the 10-day sleep interruption group ( P < 0. 05 ) . For the 5-day sleep interruption group, indicators of the forced swim and tail suspension tests were the same as the control control group. In the 10-day sleep interruption group, the immobility time of forced swim [ ( 143. 92 ± 9. 48) s] and tail suspension time [(127

  12. Hosed vs. unhosed: interruptions of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in a global coupled model, with and without freshwater forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicolas; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that glacial periods were punctuated by abrupt climate changes, with large impacts on air temperature, precipitation, and ocean circulation across the globe. However, the long-held idea that freshwater forcing, caused by massive iceberg discharges, was the driving force behind these changes has been questioned in recent years. This throws into doubt the abundant literature on modelling abrupt climate change through "hosing" experiments, whereby the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is interrupted by an injection of freshwater to the North Atlantic: if some, or all, abrupt climate change was not driven by freshwater input, could its character have been very different than the typical hosed experiments? Here, we describe spontaneous, unhosed oscillations in AMOC strength that occur in a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model when integrated under a particular background climate state. We compare these unhosed oscillations to hosed oscillations under a range of background climate states in order to examine how the global imprint of AMOC variations depends on whether or not they result from external freshwater input. Our comparison includes surface air temperature, precipitation, dissolved oxygen concentrations in the intermediate-depth ocean, and marine export production. The results show that the background climate state has a significant impact on the character of the freshwater-forced AMOC interruptions in this model, with particularly marked variations in tropical precipitation and in the North Pacific circulation. Despite these differences, the first-order patterns of response to AMOC interruptions are quite consistent among all simulations, implying that the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere dynamics associated with an AMOC weakening dominate the global response, regardless of whether or not freshwater input is the cause. Nonetheless, freshwater addition leads to a more complete shutdown of the AMOC than occurs in the unhosed oscillations

  13. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after nuclear medicine examinations. Biokinetic and dosimetric data and recommendations on breastfeeding interruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Ahlgren, Lars; Mattsson, Soeren [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Skaane University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Johansson, Lennart [Umeaa University, Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    To review early recommendations and propose guidelines for breastfeeding interruption after administration of radiopharmaceuticals, based on additional biokinetic and dosimetric data. Activity concentrations in breast milk from 53 breastfeeding patients were determined. The milk was collected at various times after administration of 16 different radiopharmaceuticals. The fraction of the activity administered to the mother excreted in the breast milk, the absorbed doses to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to the infant were estimated. The fraction of the administered activity excreted per millilitre of milk varied widely from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -3} MBq/MBq administered. For {sup 99m}Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, the total fraction of the administered activity excreted in the milk varied from 0.0057 % for {sup 99m}Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) to 19 % for {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate. The effective dose to an infant per unit activity administered to the mother ranged from 6.7 x 10{sup -6} mSv/MBq for {sup 99m}Tc-labelled RBC to 3.6 x 10{sup -2} mSv/MBq for {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate. For the other radiopharmaceuticals, the total fraction of administered activity excreted in the milk varied from 0.018 % ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) to 48 % ({sup 131}I-NaI). The effective dose ranged from 5.6 x 10{sup -5} mSv{sub infant}/MBq{sub mother} ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) to 106 mSv{sub infant}/MBq{sub mother} ({sup 131}I-NaI). Based on an effective dose limit of 1 mSv to the infant and a typical administered activity, we recommend cessation of breastfeeding for {sup 131}I-NaI and interruption of feeding for 12 h for {sup 125}I-iodohippurate, {sup 131}I-iodohippurate, {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. During this 12-h period all breast milk should be expressed at least three times and discarded. For the other radiopharmaceuticals included in this study, no interruption of breastfeeding is necessary. (orig.)

  14. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after nuclear medicine examinations. Biokinetic and dosimetric data and recommendations on breastfeeding interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To review early recommendations and propose guidelines for breastfeeding interruption after administration of radiopharmaceuticals, based on additional biokinetic and dosimetric data. Activity concentrations in breast milk from 53 breastfeeding patients were determined. The milk was collected at various times after administration of 16 different radiopharmaceuticals. The fraction of the activity administered to the mother excreted in the breast milk, the absorbed doses to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to the infant were estimated. The fraction of the administered activity excreted per millilitre of milk varied widely from 10-10 to 10-3 MBq/MBq administered. For 99mTc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, the total fraction of the administered activity excreted in the milk varied from 0.0057 % for 99mTc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) to 19 % for 99mTc-pertechnetate. The effective dose to an infant per unit activity administered to the mother ranged from 6.7 x 10-6 mSv/MBq for 99mTc-labelled RBC to 3.6 x 10-2 mSv/MBq for 99mTc-pertechnetate. For the other radiopharmaceuticals, the total fraction of administered activity excreted in the milk varied from 0.018 % (51Cr-EDTA) to 48 % (131I-NaI). The effective dose ranged from 5.6 x 10-5 mSvinfant/MBqmother (51Cr-EDTA) to 106 mSvinfant/MBqmother (131I-NaI). Based on an effective dose limit of 1 mSv to the infant and a typical administered activity, we recommend cessation of breastfeeding for 131I-NaI and interruption of feeding for 12 h for 125I-iodohippurate, 131I-iodohippurate, 99mTc-pertechnetate and 99mTc-MAA. During this 12-h period all breast milk should be expressed at least three times and discarded. For the other radiopharmaceuticals included in this study, no interruption of breastfeeding is necessary. (orig.)

  15. Distribution of natural gas: introduction of the interruptible segment in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Distribuicao de gas natural canalizado: introducao do segmento interruptivel em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio Paiva de [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The principal objective of this paper is the better knowledge and evaluation of the natural gas distribution network interruptible branch. This new service can be appropriate for thermal power generation on flexible dispatch mode, as 'take or pay' contracts surplus jobs. The paper indicates no regulatory restraints in an interruptible network implantation and one can guess that the inexistence of contracts for this service resembles only lack of conjunctural opportunities for this job applications. These difficulties appear both in the supply and distribution branches of the gas business, which prefer flat contracts. The final conclusion is interruptible contracts can be an improvement on the distribution business and certainly can accommodate a suitable demand and supply volumes in the long-term gas market balance. (author)

  16. Complex Prospective Memory: Development across the Lifespan and the Role of Task Interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegel, Matthias; Mackinlay, Rachael; Jager, Theodor

    2008-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) reflects the product of cognitive processes associated with the formation, retention, delayed initiation, and execution of intentions. It has been proposed that developmental changes in PM across the lifespan are heavily dependent upon the developmental trajectory of executive control functions. This study is the first to…

  17. Battery management: Enhanced availability of interruption-free power supply systems; Batteriemanagement: Erhoehung der Zuverlaessigkeit von USV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Lohner, A. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Stromrichtertechnik und Elektrische Antriebe (ISEA); Mauracher, P. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Stromrichtertechnik und Elektrische Antriebe (ISEA)

    1996-08-01

    Longer battery life and higher reliability is one of the main challengers for new generations of interruption-free power supply systems. Bthe battery management system is a step in the right direction: Instead of estimates of model parameters, it uses accurate measurements of the battery charge state. This requires a high-precision, low-cost measuring technology. The results are longer battery life, higher availability, and lower maintenance cost. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Steigerung der Batterielebensdauer und -zuverlaessigkeit ist eine der wichtigsten Herausforderungen fuer neue USV-Generationen. Mit dem Batterie-Management-System (BMS) wird die reine Beobachtung von der aktiven Beeinflussung des Batteriezustands abgeloest. Die exakte Messung des Batteriezustands ersetzt das Schaetzen von Modellparametern. Voraussetzung ist eine sowohl hochpraezise als auch preisguenstige Messtechnik. Das Ergebnis ist eine deutlich gesteigerte Batterielebensdauer, eine hoehere Verfuegbarkeit sowie geringere Wartungskosten. (orig.)

  18. Just-in-time preemptive single machine problem with costs of earliness/tardiness, interruption and work-in-process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazemi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers preemption and idle time are allowed in a single machine scheduling problem with just-in-time (JIT approach. It incorporates Earliness/Tardiness (E/T penalties, interruption penalties and holding cost of jobs which are waiting to be processed as work-in-process (WIP. Generally in non-preemptive problems, E/T penalties are a function of the completion time of the jobs. Then, we introduce a non-linear preemptive scheduling model where the earliness penalty depends on the starting time of a job. The model is liberalized by an elaborately–designed procedure to reach the optimum solution. To validate and verify the performance of proposed model, computational results are presented by solving a number of numerical examples.

  19. An atomtronic flux qubit: a ring lattice of Bose–Einstein condensates interrupted by three weak links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamalyan, D.; Nguyen, N. T.; Auksztol, F.; Gan, K. S.; Martinez Valado, M.; Condylis, P. C.; Kwek, L.-C.; Dumke, R.; Amico, L.

    2016-07-01

    We study a physical system consisting of a Bose–Einstein condensate confined to a ring shaped lattice potential interrupted by three weak links. The system is assumed to be driven by an effective flux piercing the ring lattice. By employing path integral techniques, we explore the effective quantum dynamics of the system in a pure quantum phase dynamics regime. Moreover, the effects of the density’s quantum fluctuations are studied through exact diagonalization analysis of the spectroscopy of the Bose–Hubbard model. We demonstrate that a clear two-level system emerges by tuning the magnetic flux at degeneracy. The lattice confinement, platform for the condensate, is realized experimentally employing a spatial light modulator.

  20. Design of Interruptible Eleetdeity Pricing Mechanism in Power Market%电力市场中可中断电价机制设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成仁

    2012-01-01

    In view of the fact that implementation of any demand side management requires formulation of a reasonable price mechanism, this study looks into the interruptible electricity pricing in China in the current context of power shortage, and based on the experiences of the existing interruptible electricity system both at home and abroad, it proposes renovations on the interruptible electricity price mechanism under the current power economic situation. The paper specifies the definition of interruptible electricity price and designs a reasonable method for calculating price preferences, either by discount estimation or by reasonable price compensation, to further improve the design of the interruptible electricity price mechanism. Through a case study of the current status of Shanghai, the paper provides theoretical support for the implementation program of the interruptible electricity price in Shanghai in future.%推行需求例管理需落实到制定合理的电价机制。研究了目前国内电力紧缺形势下的可中断电价,借鉴国内外已有的可中断电价体系,对目前电力经济形势下的可中断电价机制进行创新。规范了可中断电价含义,通过推算折扣或合理补偿电价2种计价方式,设计合理的电价优惠计算方法,从而进一步完善可中断电价机制的设计。通过对上海市可中断电价进行案例分析,为上海市未来可中断电价实施提供理论支撑。

  1. Internet-based remote counseling to support stress management: preventing interruptions to regular exercise in elderly people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Sayuri; Munakata, Tsunestugu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Okunaka, Jyunzo; Koga, Tatsuzo

    2006-01-01

    Our research showed that a high degree of life-stress has a negative mental health effect that may interrupt regular exercise. We used an internet based, remotely conducted, face to face, preventive counseling program using video monitors to reduce the source of life-stresses that interrupts regular exercise and evaluated the preventative effects of the program in elderly people. NTSC Video signals were converted to the IP protocol and facial images were transmitted to a PC display using the exclusive optical network lines of JGN2. Participants were 22 elderly people in Hokkaido, Japan, who regularly played table tennis. A survey was conducted before the intervention in August 2003. IT remote counseling was conducted on two occasions for one hour on each occasion. A post intervention survey was conducted in February 2004 and a follow-up survey was conducted in March 2005. Network quality was satisfactory with little data loss and high display quality. Results indicated that self-esteem increased significantly, trait anxiety decreased significantly, cognition of emotional support by people other than family members had a tendency to increase, and source of stress had a tendency to decrease after the intervention. Follow-up results indicated that cognition of emotional support by family increased significantly, and interpersonal dependency decreased significantly compared to before the intervention. These results suggest that face to face IT remote counseling using video monitors is useful to keep elderly people from feeling anxious and to make them confident to continue exercising regularly. Moreover, it has a stress management effect.

  2. Assessment of airway function in young children with asthma: comparison of spirometry, interrupter technique, and tidal flow by inductance plethsmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J; Baxter-Jones, A D G; Gordon, J; Findlay, A L; Helms, P J

    2004-06-01

    The assessment of airway function in young children requires adaptation of techniques designed for adults and/or application of techniques that do not require complex respiratory maneuvers. We sought to assess two methods of measuring airway function: time to peak expiratory flows as a ratio of expiratory time (T(PTEF)/T(E)), derived from respiratory inductance plethysmography, and total respiratory resistance by the interrupter technique (Rint), both obtained during quiet tidal breathing. Both techniques were referenced to FEV1 and flow at 50% expired volume (FEF50) from conventional spirometry in 30 children aged 4-8 years (median age, 6.9; range, 4.5-8.5 years) with a physician diagnosis of asthma and who were able to perform FEV1 with a repeatability of at least 8%. T(PTEF)/T(E) and Rint were performed in random order followed by spirometry, in order to reduce the possible effects of pulmonary stretch on tidal breathing measures. Coefficients of variation (CV) and mean absolute change/baseline standard deviation were derived for each measurement. Baseline FEV1 did not correlate significantly with T(PTEF)/T(E) (r = 0.025), but did correlate with Rint (r = 0.737, P inductance plethysmography does not detect mild airway obstruction or modest changes in airway caliber following bronchodilator in young children with asthma. The interrupter technique may have a role in assessing baseline airway function and response to therapy in children unable to perform reliable spirometry, and/or when the investigator wishes to avoid the possible influence of forced maneuvers on airway tone.

  3. LONG TERM OUTCOME AFTER OPEN INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR BY CONTINOUS SUTURE VERSUS INTERRUPTED SUTURE TO FIX THE MESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Raj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : BACK GROUND: Meshplasty is a must in adult patient. P ro lene mesh is widely used and is fixed with prolene suture as well. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of life and pain felt in postoperative phase for 2 years after open inguinal hernia repair by i nterrupted sutures versus continous sutures. METHODS: From Jan 2010 – Dec 2010 , 15 patients were operated using prolene mesh and this mesh was fixed with prolene 2’0’ in continous way starting at pubic tubercle and continues along inguinal ligament beyond deep inguinal r ing and then lateral to deep inguinal ring and above it along conjoint tendon and ends at the pubic tubercle with only single knot , and were compared with 15 patients who underwent same procedure using prolene mesh fixed with p rolene suture but in interrupted way and this creates a lot of knots ( 10 - 12 Av erage . Patients were examined and followed in OPD for 2 years. RESULTS : In the long run the patients treated with continous suture were having comparatively better qua lity of life with less pain and less foreign body sensation of mesh and knots & knots were not felt percutaneously, where as in routine procedure patients were complaining of painful sensation due to pressing of knots in subcutaneous space. CONCLUSION : In this study the quality of life in open hernia repair with prolene suture using continous suture technique versus interrupted suture technique is definitely better , less pain ful and feeling less foreign body sensation.

  4. 4-D MRI flow analysis in the course of interrupted aortic arch reveals complex morphology and quantifies amount of collateral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirtler, Daniel [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease, Freiburg (Germany); Geiger, Julia; Jung, Bernd [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Arnold, Raoul [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    We present findings in a 17-year-old with interrupted aortic arch, in whom standard imaging techniques missed functional and morphological problems. Flow-sensitive four-dimensional magnetic resonance (4-D MR) enabled assessment of the complex anatomy and blood-flow characteristics in the entire aorta and direct quantification of blood flow in collateral vessels. Our findings highlight the entire morphological and functional problem of interrupted aortic arch and illustrate the potential of flow-sensitive 4-D MR for surgical planning in congenital heart disease. (orig.)

  5. Twenty years of the Chernobyl accident: Results and problems in eliminating its consequences in Russia 1986-2006. Russian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, above 1.5 million people in 14 subjects of the Russian Federation continue to live in the area of radioactive contamination. More than 180,000 of the Russians were affected by radiation, when participating in elimination of the accident and its consequences. Since the first days of the accident, the public health service faced a task to develop and implement the measures on minimization of medical effects of the accident and public provision with medical assistance, including the employees of the nuclear power plant and the participants in mitigation of the accident. The health of the liquidators and the public living in the contaminated areas is the most socially significant issue being solved in the process of elimination of the Chernobyl consequences. Radiological effects have been the focus of attention for the overall 20-year period. The radiation protection system was based on performance of the two conditions, namely: absolute prevention of acute (deterministic) effects and reduction in the risk of remote (stochastic) effects to acceptable (justified) levels. As early as in 1986, a decision was made to create the unified system of medical observation for the individuals affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The Russian State Medical and Dosimetry Register (RSMDR) was established on the basis of the Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The two most suffered public groups were defined as a result of research activity of the Register. These are the children (at the moment of the accident) living in the highly contaminated areas and the liquidators who have obtained the exposure dose above 150 mGy. According to the Register's data, 122 cases (54%) out of 226 thyroid cancers revealed during the years 1991-2003 among the children (at the moment of the Chernobyl catastrophe) from the Bryansk region can be considered as radiation-stipulated. Hygienic regulation is one of the most important trends in protection of the public and the human habitat in radiological emergencies. This regulation has developed and improved along with changes in the radiation status, thus, fortifying the latter's improvements with a view to stabilize and normalize it through preventive/protective measures. Since 2002, the emergency standards have been abolished and replaced by the common federal ones. Regardless of the measures for public protection and the remediation activity, the output of products exceeding the hygienic standards has been under way on the individual farms. The samples of such products reach 12% in the south-west districts of the Bryansk region. At present, the public exposure doses obtained in 425 localities of the Brynask region and in 3 settlements of the Kaluga region exceed the established standard of 1 mSv; that requires the arrangements for and performance of a package of protective measures. At the same time, the radiation status has completely normalized in other 12 subjects of the Russian Federation. To minimize medical effects, the Federal Supervision Service for Consumerism and Human Welfare (Rospotrebnadzor) considers it essential to continue a package of actions on health protection and medical rehabilitation of the public affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident, as well as to develop further epidemiological research to reveal radiological effects of the accident. The above mentioned remains the priority for the Russian preventive public health service

  6. Investigaciones etnoarqueológicas en Tierra del Fuego (1986-2006): reflexiones para la arqueología prehistórica europa

    OpenAIRE

    Vila-Mitjà, Assumpció; Mameli, Laura; Terradas-Batlle, Xavier; Estévez Escalera, Jordi; Moreno Rudolph, Federica; Verdún, Ester; Zurro Hernández, Débora; Clemente-Conte, Ignacio; Piqué, Raquel; Briz i Godino, Iván; Barceló-Álvarez, Juan Antonio

    2007-01-01

    (ESP) Durante 20 años se han llevado a cabo en Tierra del Fuego investigaciones dirigidas a contrastar etnográficamente el registro arqueológico de sociedades cazadoras recolectoras. Se trataba de elaborar una metodología específica de abordaje arqueológico para estas sociedades que pudiera aplicarse a otros contextos arqueológicos. Aquí se exponen los diferentes proyectos y sus conclusiones más importantes haciendo especial hincapié en dos aspectos fundamentales, por ...

  7. Generation Changes over the Period of 1986-2006 in the Physical Fitness of Boys Aged 7-19 from Eastern Poland at Particular Stages of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saczuk, Jerzy; Wasiluk, Agnieszka; Zalech, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the size of secular trends in the physical fitness of boys from eastern Poland taking into consideration stages of education. Material and methods: The physical fitness results of boys aged 7-19 years living in eastern regions of Poland were analyzed: 3188 students were examined in 1986 while in 2006 the research included 10…

  8. Estratégias de biossegurança dos trabalhadores da saúde no cuidado às pessoas com HIV/AIDS (1986-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vieira Villarinho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as estratégias de biossegurança utilizadas pelos trabalhadores da saúde de um hospital referência em doença infectocontagiosas, no cuidado às pessoas com HIV/AIDS, no período de 1986 a 2006. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo qualitativo com perspectiva sócio-histórica que utilizou a História Oral para a realização de entrevistas com 23 trabalhadores da saúde. Resultados: Apartir da análise de conteúdo de Bardin emergiram duas categorias: Busca pelo conhecimento sobre a AIDS no início da epidemia; e mudança no processo de trabalho: estratégia de biossegurança à minimização do acidente de trabalho. Conclui-se que foi necessário e correto investir na segurança por meio de ações educativas e preventivas que promoveram transformações culturais, que produziram maior simetria entre os trabalhadores da saúde, sobretudo da enfermagem, e enalteceram o cuidado de si, no cuidado às pessoas, independente do seu diagnóstico soropositivo para o HIV.

  9. Reversion of gingival hyperplasia in a heart transplant patient upon interruption of cyclosporine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somacarrera, M L; Lucas, M; Acero, J

    1996-01-01

    A heart transplant patient undergoing a combined cyclosporine and prednisone treatment was monitored during the 18 months following transplantation. A complete oral and dental examination was performed in each of the first six months after transplantation, and then in the 9th, 12th, 15th, and 18th months. The data collected included gingival hyperplasia secondary to cyclosporine use, and clinical and periodontal variables. Histological studies were also conducted on gingival tissue samples in months 1, 3, 9, 15, and 18. Cyclosporine treatment was replaced by azathioprine treatment in month 10 because the patient was experiencing nephrotoxicity. Between months 9 and 18, gingival hyperplasia regressed by 26.5% due to a reduction in the fibrous connective tissue mass, fibroblasts, and inflammatory infiltration. The control group included 13 heart transplant patients subject to equivalent conditions except discontinuance of cyclosporine treatment; seven of the patients had developed hyperplasia by month 9. Average hyperplasia in the control group increased by 2% between months 9 and 18; only one patient showed a 6.2% decrease in hyperplasia. This provides further evidence for the causal relationship between cyclosporine therapy and gingival hyperplasia, and suggests that this side-effect is reversible.

  10. Hyaluronic acid levels predict increased risk of non-AIDS death in hepatitis-coinfected persons interrupting antiretroviral therapy in the SMART Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Mocroft, Amanda;

    2011-01-01

    In the SMART study, HIV-viral-hepatitis-coinfected persons were, compared with HIV-monoinfected persons, at higher risk of non-AIDS death if randomized to the antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption strategy. We hypothesized that a marker of liver fibrosis, hyaluronic acid (HA), would be...

  11. A comparison of the hemodynamic and respiratory effects of surfactant instillation during interrupted ventilation versus noninterrupted ventilation in rabbits with severe respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikamp, A; Oetomo, SB

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether avoiding interruption of ventilation during surfactant instillation improves the effects on lung function and surfactant distribution and whether it prevents the adverse effects on blood pressure and cerebral blood flow. The study was performed using

  12. The Impact of Interrupted Use of a Speech Generating Device on the Communication Acts of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, Richard A.; Pulliam, Mary Hannah; Catt, Merrill; McDaniel, D. Mike

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined the initial and renewed impact of speech generating devices on the expressive communication behaviors of a child with autism spectrum disorder. The study spanned six years of interrupted use of two speech generating devices. The child's communication behaviors were analyzed from video recordings and included communication…

  13. Interrupting the natural history of diabetes mellitus: lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical strategies targeting disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavandi, Kaivan; Brownrigg, Jack; Hankir, Mohammed; Sood, Harpreet; Younis, Naveed; Worth, Joy; Greenstein, Adam; Soran, Handrean; Wierzbicki, Anthony; Goldsmith, David J

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades we have seen a surge in the incidence of diabetes in industrialized nations; a threat which has now extended to the developing world. Type 2 diabetes is associated with significant microvascular and macrovascular disease, with considerable impact on morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence has cast uncertainty on the benefits of very tight glycaemic goals in these individuals. The natural history of disease follows an insidious course from disordered glucose metabolism in a pre-diabetic state, often with metabolic syndrome and obesity, before proceeding to diabetes mellitus. In the research setting, lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical intervention targeted against obesity and glycaemia has shown that metabolic disturbances can be halted and indeed regressed if introduced at an early stage of disease. In addition to traditional anti-diabetic medications such as the glinides, sulphonylureas and the glitazones, novel therapies manipulating the endocannabinoid system, neurotransmitters, intestinal absorption and gut hormones have shown dual benefit in weight loss and glycaemic control normalisation. Whilst these treatments will not and should not replace lifestyle change, they will act as invaluable adjuncts for weight loss and aid in normalising the metabolic profile of individuals at risk of diabetes. Utilizing novel therapies to prevent diabetes should be the focus of future research, with the aim of preventing the challenging microvascular and macrovascular complications, and ultimately cardiovascular death.

  14. Malaria transmission blocking immunity and sexual stage vaccines for interrupting malaria transmission in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Solarte, Yezid; Marin, Catherin; Santos, Mariana; Castellanos, Jenniffer; Beier, John C; Valencia, Sócrates Herrera

    2011-08-01

    Malaria is a vector-borne disease that is considered to be one of the most serious public health problems due to its high global mortality and morbidity rates. Although multiple strategies for controlling malaria have been used, many have had limited impact due to the appearance and rapid dissemination of mosquito resistance to insecticides, parasite resistance to multiple antimalarial drug, and the lack of sustainability. Individuals in endemic areas that have been permanently exposed to the parasite develop specific immune responses capable of diminishing parasite burden and the clinical manifestations of the disease, including blocking of parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. This is referred to as transmission blocking (TB) immunity (TBI) and is mediated by specific antibodies and other factors ingested during the blood meal that inhibit parasite development in the mosquito. These antibodies recognize proteins expressed on either gametocytes or parasite stages that develop in the mosquito midgut and are considered to be potential malaria vaccine candidates. Although these candidates, collectively called TB vaccines (TBV), would not directly stop malaria from infecting individuals, but would stop transmission from infected person to non-infected person. Here, we review the progress that has been achieved in TBI studies and the development of TBV and we highlight their potential usefulness in areas of low endemicity such as Latin America. PMID:21881775

  15. High-Throughput Assay and Discovery of Small Molecules that Interrupt Malaria Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouffe, David M.; Wree, Melanie; Du, Alan Y.; Meister, Stephan; Li, Fengwu; Patra, Kailash; Lubar, Aristea; Okitsu, Shinji L.; Flannery, Erika L.; Kato, Nobutaka; Tanaseichuk, Olga; Comer, Eamon; Zhou, Bin; Kuhen, Kelli; Zhou, Yingyao; Leroy, Didier; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Scherer, Christina A.; Vinetz, Joseph; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Preventing transmission is an important element of malaria control. However, most of the current available methods to assay for malaria transmission blocking are relatively low throughput and cannot be applied to large chemical libraries. We have developed a high-throughput and cost-effective assay, the Saponin-lysis Sexual Stage Assay (SaLSSA), for identifying small molecules with transmission-blocking capacity. SaLSSA analysis of 13,983 unique compounds uncovered that >90% of well-characterized antimalarials, including endoperoxides and 4-aminoquinolines, as well as compounds active against asexual blood stages, lost most of their killing activity when parasites developed into metabolically quiescent stage V gametocytes. On the other hand, we identified compounds with consistent low nanomolar transmission-blocking activity, some of which showed cross-reactivity against asexual blood and liver stages. The data clearly emphasize substantial physiological differences between sexual and asexual parasites and provide a tool and starting points for the discovery and development of transmission-blocking drugs. PMID:26749441

  16. Malaria transmission blocking immunity and sexual stage vaccines for interrupting malaria transmission in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Arévalo-Herrera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a vector-borne disease that is considered to be one of the most serious public health problems due to its high global mortality and morbidity rates. Although multiple strategies for controlling malaria have been used, many have had limited impact due to the appearance and rapid dissemination of mosquito resistance to insecticides, parasite resistance to multiple antimalarial drug, and the lack of sustainability. Individuals in endemic areas that have been permanently exposed to the parasite develop specific immune responses capable of diminishing parasite burden and the clinical manifestations of the disease, including blocking of parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. This is referred to as transmission blocking (TB immunity (TBI and is mediated by specific antibodies and other factors ingested during the blood meal that inhibit parasite development in the mosquito. These antibodies recognize proteins expressed on either gametocytes or parasite stages that develop in the mosquito midgut and are considered to be potential malaria vaccine candidates. Although these candidates, collectively called TB vaccines (TBV, would not directly stop malaria from infecting individuals, but would stop transmission from infected person to non-infected person. Here, we review the progress that has been achieved in TBI studies and the development of TBV and we highlight their potential usefulness in areas of low endemicity such as Latin America.

  17. Randomized trial of time-limited interruptions of protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy (ART vs. continuous therapy for HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Firnhaber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes of short interruptions of PI-based ART regimens remains undefined. METHODS: A 2-arm non-inferiority trial was conducted on 53 HIV-1 infected South African participants with viral load 450 cells/µl on stavudine (or zidovudine, lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir. Subjects were randomized to a sequential 2, 4 and 8-week ART interruptions or b continuous ART (cART. Primary analysis was based on the proportion of CD4 count >350 cells(c/ml over 72 weeks. Adherence, HIV-1 drug resistance, and CD4 count rise over time were analyzed as secondary endpoints. RESULTS: The proportions of CD4 counts >350 cells/µl were 82.12% for the intermittent arm and 93.73 for the cART arm; the difference of 11.95% was above the defined 10% threshold for non-inferiority (upper limit of 97.5% CI, 24.1%; 2-sided CI: -0.16, 23.1. No clinically significant differences in opportunistic infections, adverse events, adherence or viral resistance were noted; after randomization, long-term CD4 rise was observed only in the cART arm. CONCLUSION: We are unable to conclude that short PI-based ART interruptions are non-inferior to cART in retention of immune reconstitution; however, short interruptions did not lead to a greater rate of resistance mutations or adverse events than cART suggesting that this regimen may be more forgiving than NNRTIs if interruptions in therapy occur. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00100646.

  18. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption amongst patients on antiretroviral therapy – A qualitative study at the Lighthouse Clinic, Lilongwe, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tabatabai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings moved impressively towards universal access. Along with these achievements, public health HIV programs are facing a number of challenges including the support of patients on lifelong therapy and the prevention of temporary/permanent loss of patients in care. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption (TI can inform strategies for improving drug adherence and retention in care. Objective: To evaluate key characteristics of patients resuming ART after TI at the Lighthouse Clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, and to identify their reasons for interrupting ART. Design: This study uses a mixed methods design to evaluate patients resuming ART after TI. We analysed an assessment form for patients with TI using pre-defined categories and a comments field to identify frequently stated reasons for TI. Additionally, we conducted 26 in-depth interviews to deepen our understanding of common reasons for TI. In-depth interviews also included the patients’ knowledge about ART and presence of social support systems. Qualitative data analysis was based on a thematic framework approach. Results: A total of 347 patients (58.2% female, average age 35.1±11.3 years with TI were identified. Despite the presence of social support and sufficient knowledge of possible consequences of TI, all patients experienced situations that resulted in TI. Analysis of in-depth interviews led to new and distinct categories for TI. The most common reason for TI was travel (54.5%, n=80/147, which further differentiated into work- or family-related travel. Patients also stated transport costs and health-care-provider-related reasons, which included perceived/enacted discrimination by health care workers. Other drivers of TI were treatment fatigue/forgetfulness, the patients’ health status, adverse drug effects, pregnancy/delivery, religious belief or perceived/enacted stigma. Conclusions

  19. Interruption of Wnt signaling in Muller cells ameliorates ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelu Kevin Zhou

    Full Text Available Retinal Müller cells are major producers of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines which contribute to diabetic retinopathy (DR. Over-activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been shown to play an important pathogenic role in DR. However, the roles of Müller cell-derived Wnt/β-catenin signaling in retinal neovascularization (NV and DR remain undefined. In the present study, mice with conditional β-catenin knockout (KO in Müller cells were generated and subjected to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR and streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. Wnt signaling was evaluated by measuring levels of β-catenin and expression of its target genes using immunoblotting. Retinal vascular permeability was measured using Evans blue as a tracer. Retinal NV was visualized by angiography and quantified by counting pre-retinal nuclei. Retinal pericyte loss was evaluated using retinal trypsin digestion. Electroretinography was performed to examine visual function. No abnormalities were detected in the β-catenin KO mice under normal conditions. In OIR, retinal levels of β-catenin and VEGF were significantly lower in the β-catenin KO mice than in littermate controls. The KO mice also had decreased retinal NV and vascular leakage in the OIR model. In the STZ-induced diabetic model, disruption of β-catenin in Müller cells attenuated over-expression of inflammatory cytokines and ameliorated pericyte dropout in the retina. These findings suggest that Wnt signaling activation in Müller cells contributes to retinal NV, vascular leakage and inflammation and represents a potential therapeutic target for DR.

  20. cFLIPL Interrupts IRF3-CBP-DNA Interactions To Inhibit IRF3-Driven Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Lauren T; Shisler, Joanna L

    2016-08-01

    Type I IFN induction is critical for antiviral and anticancer defenses. Proper downregulation of type I IFN is equally important to avoid deleterious imbalances in the immune response. The cellular FLIP long isoform protein (cFLIPL) controls type I IFN production, but opposing publications show it as either an inhibitor or inducer of type I IFN synthesis. Regardless, the mechanistic basis for cFLIPL regulation is unknown. Because cFLIPL is important in immune cell development and proliferation, and is a target for cancer therapies, it is important to identify how cFLIPL regulates type I IFN production. Data in this study show that cFLIPL inhibits IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a transcription factor central for IFN-β and IFN-stimulated gene expression. This inhibition occurs during virus infection, cellular exposure to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, or TBK1 overexpression. This inhibition is independent of capase-8 activity. cFLIPL binds to IRF3 and disrupts IRF3 interaction with its IFN-β promoter and its coactivator protein (CREB-binding protein). Mutational analyses reveal that cFLIPL nuclear localization is necessary and sufficient for inhibitory function. This suggests that nuclear cFLIPL prevents IRF3 enhanceosome formation. Unlike other cellular IRF3 inhibitors, cFLIPL did not degrade or dephosphorylate IRF3. Thus, cFLIPL represents a different cellular strategy to inhibit type I IFN production. This new cFLIPL function must be considered to accurately understand how cFLIPL affects immune system development and regulation. PMID:27342840

  1. High antibody responses against Plasmodium falciparum in immigrants after extended periods of interrupted exposure to malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Moncunill

    effect on protection, with important implications for future vaccine design and public health control measures.

  2. Featuring the primordial power spectrum: new constraints on interrupted slow-roll from CMB and LRG data

    CERN Document Server

    Benetti, Micol; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Martinelli, Matteo; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Using the most recent data from the WMAP, ACT and SPT experiments, we update the constraints on models with oscillatory features in the primordial power spectrum of scalar perturbations. This kind of features can appear in models of inflation where slow-roll is interrupted, like multifield models. We also derive constraints for the case in which, in addition to cosmic microwave observations, we also consider the data on the spectrum of luminous red galaxies from the 7th SDSS catalog, and the SNIa Union Compilation 2 data. We have found that: (i) considering a model with features in the primordial power spectrum increases the agreement with data with the respect of the featureless "vanilla" LCDM model by Delta(chi^2) ~ 7; (ii) the uncertainty on the determination of the standard parameters is not degraded when features are included; (iii) the best fit for the features model locates the step in the primordial spectrum at a scale k ~ 0.005 Mpc^-1, corresponding to the scale where the outliers in the WMAP7 data a...

  3. The impact of public transportation strikes on use of a bicycle share program in London: interrupted time series design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the immediate and sustained effects of two London Underground strikes on use of a public bicycle share program. Methods An interrupted time series design was used to examine the impact of two 24 hour strikes on the total number of trips per day and mean trip duration per day on the London public bicycle share program. The strikes occurred on September 6th and October 4th 2010 and limited service on the London Underground. Results The mean total number of trips per day over the whole study period was 14699 (SD=5390) while the mean trip duration was 18.5 minutes (SD=3.7). Significant increases in daily trip rate were observed following strike 1 (3864: 95% CI 125 to 7604) and strike 2 (11293: 95% CI 5169 to 17416). Conclusions Brief interventions that greatly constrain the primary motorised mode of transportation for a population may have short-term effects on travel behaviour. Repeated brief interventions at frequent intervals could contribute to increasing population levels of physical activity by promoting the use of active modes of transportation. PMID:22024219

  4. Electrical impedance tomography for assessing ventilation/perfusion mismatch for pulmonary embolism detection without interruptions in respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Doan Trang; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Bhaskaran, Abhishek; Barry, Michael A; Pouliopoulos, Jim; Jin, Craig; McEwan, Alistair L

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown high correlation between pulmonary perfusion mapping with impedance contrast enhanced Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and standard perfusion imaging methods such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT). EIT has many advantages over standard imaging methods as it is highly portable and non-invasive. Contrast enhanced EIT uses hypertonic saline bolus instead of nephrotoxic contrast medium that are utilized by CT and nuclear Ventilation/Perfusion (V/Q) scans. However, current implementation of contrast enhanced EIT requires induction of an apnea period for perfusion measurement, rendering it disadvantageous compared with current gold standard imaging modalities. In the present paper, we propose the use of a wavelet denoising algorithm to separate perfusion signal from ventilation signal such that no interruption in patient's ventilation would be required. Furthermore, right lung to left lung perfusion ratio and ventilation ratio are proposed to assess the mismatch between ventilation and perfusion for detection of Pulmonary Embolism (PE). The proposed methodology was validated on an ovine model (n=3, 83.7±7.7 kg) with artificially induced PE in the right lung. The results showed a difference in right lung to left lung perfusion ratio between baseline and diseased states in all cases with all paired t-tests between baseline and PE yielding p <; 0.01, while the right lung to left lung ventilation ratio remained unchanged in two out of three experiments. Statistics were pooled from multiple repetitions of measurements per experiment.

  5. Hosed vs. unhosed: global response to interruptions of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning, with and without freshwater forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brown

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that glacial periods were punctuated by abrupt climate changes, with large impacts on air temperature, precipitation, and ocean circulation across the globe. However, the long-held idea that freshwater forcing, caused by massive iceberg discharges, was the driving force behind these changes has been questioned in recent years. This throws into doubt the abundant literature on modelling abrupt climate change through "hosing" experiments, whereby the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC is interrupted by an injection of freshwater to the North Atlantic: if some, or all, abrupt climate change was not driven by freshwater input, could its character have been very different than the typical hosed experiments? Here, we take advantage of a global coupled ocean–atmosphere model that exhibits spontaneous, unhosed oscillations in AMOC strength, in order to examine how the global imprint of AMOC variations depends on whether or not it is the result of external freshwater input. The results imply that, to first order, the ocean–ice–atmosphere dynamics associated with an AMOC weakening dominate the global response, regardless of whether or not freshwater input is the cause. The exception lies in the impact freshwater inputs can have on the strength of other polar haloclines, particularly the Southern Ocean, to which freshwater can be transported relatively quickly after injection in the North Atlantic.

  6. INTERRUPTED IN-SITU COMPRESSIVE DEFORMATION EXPERIMENTS ON MMC FOAMS IN AN XCT: EXPERIMENTS AND ESTIMATION OF DISPLACEMENT FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Losch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of a metal-matrix composite foam are investigated by interrupted in-situ compressive deformation experiments within an X-ray computed tomography device (XCT. Each in-situ experiment generates a sequence of reconstructed 3D images of the foam microstructure. From these data, the deformation field is estimated by registring the images corresponding to three consecutive steps. To this end, the generic registration framework of the itk software suite is exploited and combined with several image preprocessing steps. Both segmented (binary images having just two grey values for foreground (strut structure and background (pore space and the result of the Euclidean distance transform (EDT on pore space and solid phase are used. The estimation quality is evaluated based on a sequence of synthetic data sets, where the foam’s microstructure is modelled by a random Laguerre tessellation. For large deformations, a combination of non-rigid registration for the EDT images and partwise-rigid registration on strongly deformed regions of the binary images, yields surprisingly small estimation errors.

  7. Business interruption and loss of assets risk assessment in support of the design of an innovative concentrating solar power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants are a promising technology of renewable energy production, as witnessed by the increasing public and private investments during the last decade. The assessment of the associated risks of business interruption (loss of production) and loss of assets due to the occurrence of undesired internal or external events, such as failures of components, unfavorable environmental conditions, etc., brings added values by informing design modifications and contributing to production assurance, for rational Company investments in these environmentally sustainable power plants. This work presents and applies a methodology for assessing the risks associated to a CSP of innovative design. The methodology is derived from traditional system risk analysis, specifically focused only on the economic consequences of the internal events of failure behavior of components. The innovation in the design considered is particularly aimed at augmenting the CSP intrinsic capability of being equipped with thermal storage systems by the introduction of a molten salt mixture as heat transfer fluid. This technology presents evident advantages in terms of system simplification and reduction of production costs but on the other hand introduces a risk factor with regards to the solidification of the salt mixture that occurs at about 240 C. (author)

  8. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Kisinza, William N.;

    2013-01-01

    Control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. We present findings from a detailed study on the effect of six rounds of MDA with th...... with this drug combination as implemented by the National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme (NLFEP) in a highly endemic rural area of north-eastern Tanzania....

  9. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...

  10. Interrupting Gendered Assessment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Gaell M.

    This paper is part of the symposium on "Gender and Assessment of Physics in Context: Getting It Right!" It examines ways in which current practices privilege the "masculine" over the "feminine" and presents an agenda for gender inclusive assessment practices. It is argued that physics like other domains of knowledge, is a constructed entity, and…

  11. A CHURCH INTERRUPTED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The history of a German-built Protestant church in Qingdao offers a sketch of Christianity's development in modern China Li Hong's father used to wedge his Bible into a thick mat so it wouldn't be confiscated. That was during the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976, when all religions were suppressed, she said.

  12. MRI Imaging Features of Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome%垂体柄阻断综合征的MRI表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦雨; 冯逢; 有慧; 李明利; 金征宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 讨论垂体柄阻断综合征的MRI特点.资料与方法 回顾性分析临床及MRI诊断的18例垂体柄阻断综合征患儿的影像及临床资料.结果 18例患者垂体前叶明显变薄,垂体柄缺如16例,2例垂体柄纤细,垂体后叶短T1信号未见,下丘脑漏斗处有短T1信号.实验室检查均有生长激素和(或)其他激素的缺乏.结论 垂体柄阻断综合征多发生于男性,有典型的MRI表现.%Purpose To study the MRI features of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.Materials and Methods The MRI findings of the patients with PSIS proved by clinically and MRI were analyzed retrospectively. Results All the subjects were male.Atrophy or aplasia of anterior pituitary, heterotopia of posterior pituitary were found in all the cases. Absence (n=16) and marked thinning (n=2) of the pituitary stalk were identified. Growth hormone deficiency and (or) multiple pituitary hormone deficiency were confirmed by blood laboratory tests. Conclusions PSIS is male-predominant and the MRI findings are characteristic of stalk absence or thinning with anterior pituitary atrophy and neurohypophysis heterotopia.

  13. Changing use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in Thika Hospital, Kenya: a quality improvement intervention with an interrupted time series design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Aiken

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In low-income countries, Surgical Site Infection (SSI is a common form of hospital-acquired infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is an effective method of preventing these infections, if given immediately before the start of surgery. Although several studies in Africa have compared pre-operative versus post-operative prophylaxis, there are no studies describing the implementation of policies to improve prescribing of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in African hospitals. METHODS: We conducted SSI surveillance at a typical Government hospital in Kenya over a 16 month period between August 2010 and December 2011, using standard definitions of SSI and the extent of contamination of surgical wounds. As an intervention, we developed a hospital policy that advised pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis and discouraged extended post-operative antibiotics use. We measured process, outcome and balancing effects of this intervention in using an interrupted time series design. RESULTS: From a starting point of near-exclusive post-operative antibiotic use, after policy introduction in February 2011 there was rapid adoption of the use of pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis (60% of operations at 1 week; 98% at 6 weeks and a substantial decrease in the use of post-operative antibiotics (40% of operations at 1 week; 10% at 6 weeks in Clean and Clean-Contaminated surgery. There was no immediate step-change in risk of SSI, but overall, there appeared to be a moderate reduction in the risk of superficial SSI across all levels of wound contamination. There were marked reductions in the costs associated with antibiotic use, the number of intravenous injections performed and nursing time spent administering these. CONCLUSION: Implementation of a locally developed policy regarding surgical antibiotic prophylaxis is an achievable quality improvement target for hospitals in low-income countries, and can lead to substantial benefits for individual patients and

  14. The free caesareans policy in low-income settings: an interrupted time series analysis in Mali (2003-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Fournier

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several countries have instituted fee exemptions for caesareans to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of fee exemptions for caesareans on population caesarean rates taking into account different levels of accessibility. METHODS: The observation period was from January 2003 to May 2012 in one Region and covered 11.7 million person-years. Exemption fees for caesareans were adopted on June 26, 2005. Data were obtained from a registration system implemented in 2003 that tracks all obstetrical emergencies and interventions including caesareans. The pre-intervention period was 30 months and the post-intervention period was 83 months. We used an interrupted time series to evaluate the trend before and after the policy adoption and the overall tendency. FINDINGS: During the study period, the caesarean rate increased from 0.25 to 1.5% for the entire population. For women living in cities with district hospitals that provided caesareans, the rate increased from 1.7% before the policy was enforced to 5.7% 83 months later. No significant change in trends was observed among women living in villages with a healthcare centre or those in villages with no healthcare facility. For the latter, the caesarean rate increased from 0.4 to 1%. CONCLUSIONS: After nine years of implementation policy in Mali, the caesarean rate achieved in cities with a district hospital reached the full beneficial effect of this measure, whereas for women living elsewhere this policy did not increase the caesarean rate to a level that could contribute effectively to reduce their risk of maternal death. Only universal access to this essential intervention could reduce the inequities and increase the effectiveness of this policy.

  15. Interruption of infection transmission in the onchocerciasis focus of Ecuador leading to the cessation of ivermectin distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lovato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991-2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39-101 and 72.7 (CI 42-116 in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1-15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. SIGNIFICANCE: This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption.

  16. Growth Hormone Therapy Benefits Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome Patients with Short Stature: A Retrospective Study of 75 Han Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Zhi; Guo, Ling-Ling; Han, Bai-Yu; Wang, An-Ping; Liu, Hong-Yan; Su, Xing; Guo, Qing-Hua; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aim to investigate the long-term benefits of growth hormone (GH) therapy in short stature adolescents and adults with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS), which would be beneficial for future clinical applications. Design and Methods. In this study, initial height, final height, total height gain, and GH treatment history were retrospectively investigated in 75 Chinese PSIS patients. We compared height gain between the GH treated cohort and untreated cohort and explored the impact of different GH therapy duration on height gain. Results. For GH treated patients, their final height (SDS) increased from −1.99 ± 1.91 (−6.93~2.80) at bone age (BA) of 11.2 (5.0~17.0) years to −1.47 ± 1.64 (−7.82~1.05) at BA of 16.6 (8.0~18.0) years (P = 0.016). And GH treated patients had more height gain than the untreated patients (P < 0.05). There was a significant difference between the different GH therapy duration groups (P = 0.001): GH 0 versus GH 3, P = 0.000; GH 1 versus GH 3, P = 0.028; GH 2 versus GH 3, P = 0.044. Conclusion. Adult Chinese PSIS patients with short stature benefited the most from at least 12 months of GH therapy. Although patient diagnosis age was lagged behind in the developing countries, GH treatment was still effective for them and resulted in a higher final height and more height gain. PMID:27190512

  17. The effect of interruption to propofol sedation on auditory event-related potentials and electroencephalogram in intensive care patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yppärilä, Heidi; Nunes, Silvia; Korhonen, Ilkka; Partanen, Juhani; Ruokonen, Esko

    2004-01-01

    Introduction In this observational pilot study we evaluated the electroencephalogram (EEG) and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) before and after discontinuation of propofol sedation in neurologically intact intensive care patients. Methods Nineteen intensive care unit patients received a propofol infusion in accordance with a sedation protocol. The EEG signal and the ERPs were measured at the frontal region (Fz) and central region (Cz), both during propofol sedation and after cessation of infusion when the sedative effects had subsided. The EEG signal was subjected to power spectral estimation, and the total root mean squared power and spectral edge frequency 95% were computed. For ERPs, we used an oddball paradigm to obtain the N100 and the mismatch negativity components. Results Despite considerable individual variability, the root mean squared power at Cz and Fz (P = 0.004 and P = 0.005, respectively) and the amplitude of the N100 component in response to the standard stimulus at Fz (P = 0.022) increased significantly after interruption to sedation. The amplitude of the N100 component (at Cz and Fz) was the only parameter that differed between sedation levels during propofol sedation (deep versus moderate versus light sedation: P = 0.016 and P = 0.008 for Cz and Fz, respectively). None of the computed parameters correlated with duration of propofol infusion. Conclusion Our findings suggest that use of ERPs, especially the N100 potential, may help to differentiate between levels of sedation. Thus, they may represent a useful complement to clinical sedation scales in the monitoring of sedation status over time in a heterogeneous group of neurologically intact intensive care patients. PMID:15566595

  18. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coatings During Interrupted High-Heat-Flux Laser Testing using Luminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation showed progress made in extending luminescence-base delamination monitoring to TBCs exposed to high heat fluxes, which is an environment that much better simulates actual turbine engine conditions. This was done by performing upconversion luminescence imaging during interruptions in laser testing, where a high-power CO2 laser was employed to create the desired heat flux. Upconverison luminescence refers to luminescence where the emission is at a higher energy (shorter wavelength) than the excitation. Since there will be negligible background emission at higher energies than the excitation, this methods produces superb contrast. Delamination contrast is produced because both the excitation and emission wavelengths are reflected at delamination cracks so that substantially higher luminescence intensity is observed in regions containing delamination cracks. Erbium was selected as the dopant for luminescence specifically because it exhibits upconversion luminescence. The high power CO2 10.6 micron wavelength laser facility at NASA GRC was used to produce the heat flux in combination with forced air backside cooling. Testing was performed at a lower (95 W/sq cm) and higher (125 W/sq cm) heat flux as well as furnace cycling at 1163C for comparison. The lower heat flux showed the same general behavior as furnace cycling, a gradual, "spotty" increase in luminescence associated with debond progression; however, a significant difference was a pronounced incubation period followed by acceleration delamination progression. These results indicate that extrapolating behavior from furnace cycling measurements will grossly overestimate remaining life under high heat flux conditions. The higher heat flux results were not only accelerated, but much different in character. Extreme bond coat rumpling occurred, and delamination propagation extended over much larger areas before precipitating macroscopic TBC failure. This indicates that under the higher heat flux (and

  19. Effect of growth-interrupted method on quality of AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells prepared by MBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Feng-yun; WANG Huai-mang; ZHAO Lian-cheng

    2006-01-01

    AlGaAs/GaAs multi-quantum well (MQW) was prepared by molecular beam epitaxy(MBE) with growth-interrupted heterointerface (GIH) method and continuous growth (CG) method,respectively. The microstructures of the MQWs were characterized by double-crystal X-ray rocking curve (DCRC) and atomic force microscopy (AFM),and the photoluminescence (PL) properties of the MQWs were also studied. The MQWs grown with GIH method show that higher order satellite peaks of Pendell(o)sung fringes are observed in DCRC,the roughness of surface is much reduced in AFM,and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of exciton line is much narrower in PL. The results indicate that the GIH method reduces the monolayer growth step density at the heterointerface due to the migration of surface atoms for a few minutes growth interruption,and substantially improves the quality of AlGaAs/GaAs MQWs.

  20. Design of CPU with Cache and Precise Interruption Response%带Cache和精确中断响应的CPU设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋菊; 李飞; 刘书伦

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the design of CPU with Cache and precise interruption response was proposed. 15 of the MIPS instruction set were selected as the basic instruction for the CPU. By using 5 stage pipeline, the instruction Cache,data Cache and precise interruption response were realized. The teat results show that the scheme meets the design requirements.%提出了带Cache和精确中断响应的CPU设计方案,实现指令集MIPS中选取15条指令作为本CPU的基本指令.采用基本5步流水线CPU设计,给出了指令Cache、数据Cache和精确中断响应的设计与实现.测试结果表明,该方案符合设计要求.

  1. Beneficial effects of a neurotrophic peptidergic mixture persist for a prolonged period following treatment interruption in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockenstein, Edward; Ubhi, Kiren; Pham, Emiley; Michael, Sarah; Doppler, Edith; Novak, Philipp; Inglis, Chandra; Mante, Michael; Adame, Anthony; Alvarez, X Anton; Moessler, Herbert; Masliah, Eliezer

    2011-11-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by the loss of neurotrophic factors, and experimental therapeutical approaches to AD have investigated the efficacy of replacing or augmenting neurotrophic factor activity. Cerebrolysin, a peptide mixture with neurotrophic-like effects, has been shown to improve cognition in patients with AD and to reduce synaptic and behavioral deficits in transgenic (tg) mice overexpressing the amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, it is unclear how long-lasting the beneficial effects of Cerebrolysin are and whether or not behavioral and neuropathological alterations will reappear following treatment interruption. The objective of the present study was to investigate the consequences of interrupting Cerebrolysin treatment (washout effect) 3 and 6 months after the completion of a 3-month treatment period in APP tg mice. We demonstrate that, in APP tg mice, Cerebrolysin-induced amelioration of memory deficits in the water maze and reduction of neurodegenerative pathology persist for 3 months after treatment interruption; however, these effects dissipate 6 months following treatment termination. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the decrease in neocortical and hippocampal amyloid plaque load observed in Cerebrolysin-treated APP tg mice immediately after treatment was no longer apparent at 3 months after treatment interruption, indicating that the beneficial effects of Cerebrolysin at this time point were independent of its effect on amyloid-β deposition. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the effects of Cerebrolysin persist for a significant period of time following treatment termination and suggest that this prolonged effect may involve the neurotrophic factor-like activity of Cerebrolysin. PMID:21793038

  2. Nurse telephone triage for same day appointments in general practice: multiple interrupted time series trial of effect on workload and costs

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, D. A.; Godfrey, L; Richardson, G.; Russell, D; Meakins, J.; Tawfik, J.; Dutton, E.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the workloads of general practitioners and nurses and costs of patient care for nurse telephone triage and standard management of requests for same day appointments in routine primary care. DESIGN: Multiple interrupted time series using sequential introduction of experimental triage system in different sites with repeated measures taken one week in every month for 12 months. SETTING: Three primary care sites in York. Participants: 4685 patients: 1233 in standard manageme...

  3. Targeting of an Interrupted Polypurine:Polypyrimidine Sequence in Mammalian Cells by a Triplex-Forming Oligonucleotide Containing a Novel Base Analogue†

    OpenAIRE

    Semenyuk, A.; Darian, E.; Liu, J; Majumdar, A; Cuenoud, B; Miller, P S; MacKerell, A.D.; Seidman, M M

    2010-01-01

    The DNA triple helix consists of a third strand of nucleic acid lying in the major groove of an intact DNA duplex. The most stable triplexes form on polypurine:polypyrimidine sequences, and pyrimidine interruptions in the purine strand are destabilizing. Sequence stringency is imparted by specific Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds between third strand bases and the purine bases in the duplex. Appropriate base and sugar modifications of triple helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) confer chromosome tar...

  4. The effect of high speed vessel operations on ship's crew and embarked personnel aboard HSV-2 SWIFT in the areas of motion sickness and motion induced task interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    The Navy's use of high speed vessels such as HSV-2 SWIFT has raised questions of the effects of high speed motion on the ability of personnel to perform assigned duties. Performance degradation may occur during periods of excessive ship motion because of extreme motion sickness or periods of frequent task interruptions. With the use of high speed vessels expected to increase in the near future with the Littoral Combat Ship program, the issue of high speed motion effects on personnel becom...

  5. Off-Label Biologic Regimens in Psoriasis: A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety of Dose Escalation, Reduction, and Interrupted Biologic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth A. Brezinski; Armstrong, April W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: While off-label dosing of biologic treatments may be necessary in selected psoriasis patients, no systematic review exists to date that synthesizes the efficacy and safety of these off-label dosing regimens. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate efficacy and safety of off-label dosing regimens (dose escalation, dose reduction, and interrupted treatment) with etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, and alefacept for psoriasis treatment. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SE...

  6. Comparison of tensile strength among simple interrupted, cruciate, intradermal, and subdermal suture patterns for incision closure in ex vivo canine skin specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Eric M; Hedlund, Cheryl S; Kraus, Karl H; Burton, Andrew F; Kieves, Nina R

    2016-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To compare suture placement time, tension at skin separation and suture line failure, and mode of failure among 4 suture patterns. DESIGN Randomized trial. SAMPLE 60 skin specimens from the pelvic limbs of 30 purpose-bred Beagles. PROCEDURES Skin specimens were harvested within 2 hours after euthanasia and tested within 6 hours after harvest. An 8-cm incision was made in each specimen and sutured with 1 of 4 randomly assigned suture patterns (simple interrupted, cruciate, intradermal, or subdermal). Suture placement time and percentage of skin apposition were evaluated. Specimens were mounted in a calibrated material testing machine and distracted until suture line failure. Tensile strength at skin-edge separation and suture-line failure and mode of failure were compared among the 4 patterns. RESULTS Mean suture placement time for the cruciate pattern was significantly less than that for other patterns. Percentage of skin apposition did not differ among the 4 patterns. Mean tensile strength at skin-edge separation and suture-line failure for the simple interrupted and cruciate patterns were significantly higher than those for the intradermal and subdermal patterns. Mean tensile strength at skin-edge separation and suture-line failure did not differ significantly between the intradermal and subdermal patterns or the simple interrupted and cruciate patterns. The primary mode of failure for the simple interrupted pattern was suture breakage, whereas that for the cruciate, intradermal, and subdermal patterns was tissue failure. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested external skin sutures may be preferred for closure of incisions under tension to reduce risk of dehiscence. PMID:27270059

  7. Should antiplatelet therapy be interrupted in drug eluting stent recipients throughout the periendoscopic period? A very late stent thrombosis case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Peng; Yang, Xin-Chun; Bian, Su-Yan

    2014-01-01

    In-stent thrombosis after cessation of antiplatelet medications in patients with drug-eluting stents (DES) is a significant problem in medical practice, particularly in the perioperative period. We report a case of an 87-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, coronary artery disease and chronic atrophic gastritis. Very late thrombosis of a sirolimus-eluting stent occurred 1207 days after implantation, seven months after discontinuation of clopidogrel, and the interruption of asp...

  8. Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Resistance Identified by Ultra-Deep Sequencing in HIV-1 Infected Children under Structured Interruptions of HAART

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Manuel Vazquez-Guillen; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo C.; Rivera-Morales, Lydia G.; Jorge Garcia-Campos; Rocio Ortiz-Lopez; Marc Noguera-Julian; Roger Paredes; Vielma-Ramirez, Herlinda J.; Ramirez, Teresa J.; Marcelino Chavez-Garcia; Paulo Lopez-Guillen; Evangelina Briones-Lara; Sanchez-Sanchez, Luz M.; Vazquez-Martinez, Carlos A.; Cristina Rodriguez-Padilla

    2016-01-01

    Although Structured Treatment Interruptions (STI) are currently not considered an alternative strategy for antiretroviral treatment, their true benefits and limitations have not been fully established. Some studies suggest the possibility of improving the quality of life of patients with this strategy; however, the information that has been obtained corresponds mostly to studies conducted in adults, with a lack of knowledge about its impact on children. Furthermore, mutations associated with ...

  9. A Study on Gender Differences in Interruption Functions by College Students%大学生插话功能的性别差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣

    2015-01-01

    插话行为是大学生交流中常见的言语行为,其功能各不相同。研究主要从表示异议、改变话题、推进谈话、表示赞同等四个方面,研究男女大学生在同性会话与异性会话中使用插话功能的性别差异。研究结果表明:在同性会话中,男生与女生在使用插话的动因上存在明显的差异;而在异性会话中,双方表现出更大的相似性。%Interruption is a frequent speech behavior in college students’ conversations, with different func-tions in communication. This paper focuses on gender differences of college students when using interruption func-tions in same-sex conversations and cross-sex conversations, in aspects of disagreement, topic changing, informa-tion extension and agreement. In same-sex conversations, there are a lot of evident differences in the use of inter-ruption functions between girls and boys, while in cross-sex conversations, there is a great similarity.

  10. Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Resistance Identified by Ultra-Deep Sequencing in HIV-1 Infected Children under Structured Interruptions of HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Guillen, Jose Manuel; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo C; Rivera-Morales, Lydia G; Garcia-Campos, Jorge; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Noguera-Julian, Marc; Paredes, Roger; Vielma-Ramirez, Herlinda J; Ramirez, Teresa J; Chavez-Garcia, Marcelino; Lopez-Guillen, Paulo; Briones-Lara, Evangelina; Sanchez-Sanchez, Luz M; Vazquez-Martinez, Carlos A; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Although Structured Treatment Interruptions (STI) are currently not considered an alternative strategy for antiretroviral treatment, their true benefits and limitations have not been fully established. Some studies suggest the possibility of improving the quality of life of patients with this strategy; however, the information that has been obtained corresponds mostly to studies conducted in adults, with a lack of knowledge about its impact on children. Furthermore, mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance could be selected due to sub-therapeutic levels of HAART at each interruption period. Genotyping methods to determine the resistance profiles of the infecting viruses have become increasingly important for the management of patients under STI, thus low-abundance antiretroviral drug-resistant mutations (DRM's) at levels under limit of detection of conventional genotyping (drugs. The results could suggest that the evaluated STI program is virologically safe, but strict and carefully planned studies, with greater numbers of patients and interruption/restart cycles, are still needed to evaluate the selection of DRM's during STI. PMID:26807922

  11. Prostate cancer mortality trends in Argentina 1986-2006: an age-period-cohort and joinpoint analysis Tendencias en la mortalidad por cáncer de próstata en Argentina 1986-2006: análisis joinpoint y de edad-período-cohorte

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Niclis; Sonia A. Pou; Rubén H. Bengió; Alberto R. Osella; María del Pilar Díaz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to give an overview of the magnitude, variation by age and time trends in the rates of prostate cancer mortality in Córdoba province and in Argentina as a whole from 1986 to 2006. Mortality data were provided by the Córdoba Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization cancer mortality database. Prostate cancer mortality time trends were analyzed using joinpoint analysis and age-period-cohort models. In Argentina prostate cancer age-standardized mortality rate...

  12. Use of MV and kV imager correlation for maintaining continuous real-time 3D internal marker tracking during beam interruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, R. D.; Riaz, N.; Dieterich, Sonja; Suh, Yelin; Xing, L.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of onboard kV imaging together with a MV electronic portal imaging device (EPID) on linear accelerators (LINAC) can provide an easy to implement real-time 3D organ position monitoring solution for treatment delivery. Currently, real-time MV-kV tracking has only been demonstrated by simultaneous imagining by both MV and kV imaging devices. However, modalities such as step-and-shoot IMRT (SS-IMRT), which inherently contain MV beam interruptions, can lead to loss of target information necessary for 3D localization. Additionally, continuous kV imaging throughout the treatment delivery can lead to high levels of imaging dose to the patient. This work demonstrates for the first time how full 3D target tracking can be maintained even in the presence of such beam interruption, or MV/kV beam interleave, by use of a relatively simple correlation model together with MV-kV tracking. A moving correlation model was constructed using both present and prior positions of the marker in the available MV or kV image to compute the position of the marker on the interrupted imager. A commercially available radiotherapy system, equipped with both MV and kV imaging devices, was used to deliver typical SS-IMRT lung treatment plans to a 4D phantom containing internally embedded metallic markers. To simulate actual lung tumor motion, previous recorded 4D lung patient motion data were used. Lung tumor motion data of five separate patients were inputted into the 4D phantom, and typical SS-IMRT lung plans were delivered to simulate actual clinical deliveries. Application of the correlation model to SS-IMRT lung treatment deliveries was found to be an effective solution for maintaining continuous 3D tracking during 'step' beam interruptions. For deliveries involving five or more gantry angles with 50 or more fields per plan, the positional errors were found to have <=1 mm root mean squared error (RMSE) in all three spatial directions. In addition to increasing the robustness of

  13. The process of interruption in Spanish judicial contexts. A pragmalinguistic approach / El proceso de interrupción en los contextos judidicales españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Ridao Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo nuestros objetivos se basan en analizar los contextos judiciales españoles desde una perspectiva pragmalingüística; más específicamente queremos hacer una contribución a los distintos estudios sobre el fenómeno de la (descortesía, en particular en el proceso de interrupción. El género del interrogatorio judicial se caracteriza por un cambio de hablante muy rápido, por ello creemos interesante analizar este género enfocando nuestra atención en las interrupciones. Así, después de una pequeña introducción, comentamos estudios que están relacionados con este tema y ofrecemos una sistematización de las interrupciones más peculiares que tienen lugar en los contextos legales, basando nuestra argumentación en la taxonomía ofrecida en Bañón (1997. Finalizamos el artículo con una conclusión general: las interrupciones que tienen lugar durante los interrogatorios se consideran más o menos descorteses en función del papel del interruptor.Summary: In this paper our aims are based on the analysis of Spanish judicial contexts from a pragmalinguistic perspective; more specifically we want to make a contribution to the various studies on the phenomenon of (impoliteness, particularly the process of interruption. The genre of judicial interrogation is characterized by a rapid change of speaker, so we believe it interesting to analyse this genre focusing our attention on interruptions. Thus, after a brief introduction, we comment on studies that are related to the topic and we offer a systematization of more peculiar interruptions that take place in legal contexts, basing our argument on Bañón's taxonomy (1997. We end the paper with a general conclusion: Interruptions which occur during interrogations are considered rather rude depending on the role of the interrupter.

  14. Impacts of interruption of the Agulhas leakage on the tropical Atlantic in coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarsma, Reindert J.; Drijfhout, Sybren; Hazeleger, Wilco; Severijns, Camiel [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), P.O. Box 201, De Bilt (Netherlands); Campos, Edmo J.D. [University of Sao Paulo (IOUSP), Oceanographic Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    In this paper we use a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to investigate the impact of the interruption of Agulhas leakage of Indian ocean water on the tropical Atlantic, a region where strong coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions occur. The effect of a shut down of leakage of Indian ocean water is isolated from the effect of a collapse of the MOC. In our experiments, the ocean model is forced with boundary conditions in the southeastern corner of the domain that correspond to no interocean exchange of Indian ocean water into the Atlantic. The southern boundary condition is taken from the Levitus data and ensures an MOC in the Atlantic. Within this configuration, instead of warm and salty Indian ocean water temperature (cold) and salinity (fresh) anomalies of southern ocean origin propagate into the South Atlantic and eventually reach the equatorial region, mainly in the thermocline. This set up mimics the closure of the ''warm water path'' in favor of the ''cold water path''. As part of the atmospheric response, there is a northward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The changes in trade winds lead to reduced Ekman pumping in the equatorial region. This leads to a freshening and warming of the surface waters along the equator. Especially in the Cold Tongue region, the cold and fresh subsurface anomalies do not reach the surface due to the reduced upwelling. The anomaly signals are transported by the equatorial undercurrent and spread away from the equator within the thermocline. Part of the anomaly eventually reaches the Tropical North Atlantic, where it affects the Guinea Dome. Surprisingly, the main effect at the surface is small on the equator and relatively large at the Guinea Dome. In the atmosphere, the northward shift of the ITCZ is associated with a band of negative precipitation anomalies and higher salinities over the Tropical South Atlantic. An important implication of these results is that the

  15. Measuring Quality Improvement in Acute Ischemic Stroke Care: Interrupted Time Series Analysis of Door-to-Needle Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Margreet van Dishoeck

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients with acute ischemic stroke, early treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA improves functional outcome by effectively reducing disability and dependency. Timely thrombolysis, within 1 h, is a vital aspect of acute stroke treatment, and is reflected in the widely used performance indicator ‘door-to-needle time' (DNT. DNT measures the time from the moment the patient enters the emergency department until he/she receives intravenous rtPA. The purpose of the study was to measure quality improvement from the first implementation of thrombolysis in stroke patients in a university hospital in the Netherlands. We further aimed to identify specific interventions that affect DNT. Methods: We included all patients with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a large university hospital in the Netherlands between January 2006 and December 2012, and focused on those treated with thrombolytic therapy on admission. Data were collected routinely for research purposes and internal quality measurement (the Erasmus Stroke Study. We used a retrospective interrupted time series design to study the trend in DNT, analyzed by means of segmented regression. Results: Between January 2006 and December 2012, 1,703 patients with ischemic stroke were admitted and 262 (17% were treated with rtPA. Patients treated with thrombolysis were on average 63 years old at the time of the stroke and 52% were male. Mean age (p = 0.58 and sex distribution (p = 0.98 did not change over the years. The proportion treated with thrombolysis increased from 5% in 2006 to 22% in 2012. In 2006, none of the patients were treated within 1 h. In 2012, this had increased to 81%. In a logistic regression analysis, this trend was significant (OR 1.6 per year, CI 1.4-1.8. The median DNT was reduced from 75 min in 2006 to 45 min in 2012 (p Conclusion and Implications: The DNT steadily improved from the first implementation of thrombolysis. Specific

  16. Research on development of new interruptible load with renewable energy access%可再生能源接入下新型可中断负荷发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向月; 刘俊勇; 魏震波; 刘友波

    2012-01-01

    The basic concepts, main characteristics, and incentive compensation mechanism of interruptible load (IL) are expounded, as well as its application research. With large number of various forms of renewable energy access to the system leading to a series of opportunities and challenges, a new way integrated with characteristic fusion and coordination dispatch of IL is proposed, which contributes to new concepts and questions. This paper discusses concepts extension, participation forms, application research method and problems of IL from aspects of large-scale of wind power access, two-way control of micro-grid, mobile load interruption and distributed energy optimization. Finally, under energy concentrated access and dispersed access, market designing, reserve framework, relay protection, power quantity control and the implementation of the comprehensive evaluation index of IL are analyzed and future research is discussed.%对可中断负荷(IL)的基本概念、主要特性、激励补偿机制和应用研究进行了阐述.大量多样化可再生能源接入系统带来一系列机遇和挑战,IL的特性融合和协调调度为其发展提供了新的思路,一些新的概念和问题也随之产生.主要从大规模风电接入、微网双向控制、移动式负荷中断、分布式能源优化四个方面对IL概念扩充、参与形式、应用研究方法和问题等进行了探讨.最后,对能源集中接入和分散接入下IL市场设计、备用框架、继保配合、电能质量控制、综合指标评估等方面进行了分析,并对未来发展研究进行了展望.

  17. Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Resistance Identified by Ultra-Deep Sequencing in HIV-1 Infected Children under Structured Interruptions of HAART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Vazquez-Guillen

    Full Text Available Although Structured Treatment Interruptions (STI are currently not considered an alternative strategy for antiretroviral treatment, their true benefits and limitations have not been fully established. Some studies suggest the possibility of improving the quality of life of patients with this strategy; however, the information that has been obtained corresponds mostly to studies conducted in adults, with a lack of knowledge about its impact on children. Furthermore, mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance could be selected due to sub-therapeutic levels of HAART at each interruption period. Genotyping methods to determine the resistance profiles of the infecting viruses have become increasingly important for the management of patients under STI, thus low-abundance antiretroviral drug-resistant mutations (DRM's at levels under limit of detection of conventional genotyping (<20% of quasispecies could increase the risk of virologic failure. In this work, we analyzed the protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene by ultra-deep sequencing in pediatric patients under STI with the aim of determining the presence of high- and low-abundance DRM's in the viral rebounds generated by the STI. High-abundance mutations in protease and high- and low-abundance mutations in reverse transcriptase were detected but no one of these are directly associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The results could suggest that the evaluated STI program is virologically safe, but strict and carefully planned studies, with greater numbers of patients and interruption/restart cycles, are still needed to evaluate the selection of DRM's during STI.

  18. Targeting of an interrupted polypurine:polypyrimidine sequence in mammalian cells by a triplex-forming oligonucleotide containing a novel base analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyuk, A; Darian, E; Liu, J; Majumdar, A; Cuenoud, B; Miller, P S; Mackerell, A D; Seidman, M M

    2010-09-14

    The DNA triple helix consists of a third strand of nucleic acid lying in the major groove of an intact DNA duplex. The most stable triplexes form on polypurine:polypyrimidine sequences, and pyrimidine interruptions in the purine strand are destabilizing. Sequence stringency is imparted by specific Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds between third strand bases and the purine bases in the duplex. Appropriate base and sugar modifications of triple helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) confer chromosome targeting activity in living cells. However, broad utilization of TFOs as gene targeting reagents in mammalian cells has been limited by the requirement for homopurine target sequences. Although there have been a number of base analogues described that appear to be promising as candidates for triplex target expansion, none has been examined in a biological system. We have employed a postsynthetic strategy to prepare a collection of TFOs with base analogues at a defined position. Following assessment of affinity for a triplex target with a single C:G inversion, TFOs with a second generation of analogues were synthesized. One of these, TFO-5a, with 2'-OMe-guanidinylethyl-5-methylcytosine at the position corresponding to the C:G interruption in the target sequence, was further modified to confer bioactivity. The activity of this TFO, linked to psoralen, was measured in a mammalian cell line that was engineered by directed sequence conversion to carry a triplex target with a single C:G interruption. TFO-5a was active against this target and inactive against the corresponding target with an uninterrupted polypurine:polypyrimidine sequence. PMID:20701359

  19. Targeting of an Interrupted Polypurine:Polypyrimidine Sequence in Mammalian Cells by a Triplex-Forming Oligonucleotide Containing a Novel Base Analogue†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyuk, A.; Darian, E.; Liu, J.; Majumdar, A.; Cuenoud, B.; Miller, P. S.; MacKerell, A. D.; Seidman, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    The DNA triple helix consists of a third strand of nucleic acid lying in the major groove of an intact DNA duplex. The most stable triplexes form on polypurine:polypyrimidine sequences, and pyrimidine interruptions in the purine strand are destabilizing. Sequence stringency is imparted by specific Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds between third strand bases and the purine bases in the duplex. Appropriate base and sugar modifications of triple helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) confer chromosome targeting activity in living cells. However, broad utilization of TFOs as gene targeting reagents in mammalian cells has been limited by the requirement for homopurine target sequences. Although there have been a number of base analogues described that appear to be promising as candidates for triplex target expansion, none has been examined in a biological system. We have employed a postsynthetic strategy to prepare a collection of TFOs with base analogues at a defined position. Following assessment of affinity for a triplex target with a single C:G inversion, TFOs with a second generation of analogues were synthesized. One of these, TFO-5a, with 2′-OMeguanidinylethyl-5-methylcytosine at the position corresponding to the C:G interruption in the target sequence, was further modified to confer bioactivity. The activity of this TFO, linked to psoralen, was measured in a mammalian cell line that was engineered by directed sequence conversion to carry a triplex target with a single C:G interruption. TFO-5a was active against this target and inactive against the corresponding target with an uninterrupted polypurine:polypyrimidine sequence. PMID:20701359

  20. Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Resistance Identified by Ultra-Deep Sequencing in HIV-1 Infected Children under Structured Interruptions of HAART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Guillen, Jose Manuel; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo C.; Rivera-Morales, Lydia G.; Garcia-Campos, Jorge; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Noguera-Julian, Marc; Paredes, Roger; Vielma-Ramirez, Herlinda J.; Ramirez, Teresa J.; Chavez-Garcia, Marcelino; Lopez-Guillen, Paulo; Briones-Lara, Evangelina; Sanchez-Sanchez, Luz M.; Vazquez-Martinez, Carlos A.; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Although Structured Treatment Interruptions (STI) are currently not considered an alternative strategy for antiretroviral treatment, their true benefits and limitations have not been fully established. Some studies suggest the possibility of improving the quality of life of patients with this strategy; however, the information that has been obtained corresponds mostly to studies conducted in adults, with a lack of knowledge about its impact on children. Furthermore, mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance could be selected due to sub-therapeutic levels of HAART at each interruption period. Genotyping methods to determine the resistance profiles of the infecting viruses have become increasingly important for the management of patients under STI, thus low-abundance antiretroviral drug-resistant mutations (DRM’s) at levels under limit of detection of conventional genotyping (<20% of quasispecies) could increase the risk of virologic failure. In this work, we analyzed the protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene by ultra-deep sequencing in pediatric patients under STI with the aim of determining the presence of high- and low-abundance DRM’s in the viral rebounds generated by the STI. High-abundance mutations in protease and high- and low-abundance mutations in reverse transcriptase were detected but no one of these are directly associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The results could suggest that the evaluated STI program is virologically safe, but strict and carefully planned studies, with greater numbers of patients and interruption/restart cycles, are still needed to evaluate the selection of DRM’s during STI. PMID:26807922

  1. Microstructural Evolution of SAC305 Solder Joints in Wafer Level Chip-Scale Packaging (WLCSP) with Continuous and Interrupted Accelerated Thermal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Zhou, Bite; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Bieler, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Four high-strain design wafer level chip scale packages were given accelerated thermal cycling with a 10°C/min ramp rate and 10 min hold times between 0°C and 100°C to examine the effects of continuous and interrupted thermal cycling on the number of cycles to failure. The interruptions given two of the samples were the result of periodic examinations using electron backscattered pattern mapping, leading to room temperature aging of 30 days-2.5 years after increments of about 100 cycles at several stages of the cycling history. The continuous thermal cycling resulted in solder joints with a much larger degree of recrystallization, whereas the interrupted thermal cycling tests led to much less recrystallization, which was more localized near the package side, and the crack was more localized near the interface and had less branching. The failure mode for both conditions was still the same, with cracks nucleating along the high angle grain boundaries formed during recrystallization. In conditions where there were few recrystallized grains, recovery led to formation of subgrains that strengthened the solder, and the higher strength led to a larger driving force for crack growth through the solder, leading to failure after less than half of the cycles in the continuous accelerated thermal cycling condition. This work shows that there is a critical point where sufficient strain energy accumulation will trigger recrystallization, but this point depends on the rate of strain accumulation in each cycle and various recovery processes, which further depends on local crystal orientations, stress state evolution, and specific activated slip and twinning systems.

  2. Analysis of molecular species of triacylglycerols from vegetable oils containing fatty acids with non-methylene-interrupted double bonds, by HPLC in the silver-ion mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Y.; Kim, S. [Dong A Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-20

    The possibilities for application of silver ion HPLC to analysis of the triacylglycerols containing conjugate trienoic acids and {Delta}{sup 5}-polymethylene-interrupted acids and proportions of triacylglycerol fractions obtained by silver-ion HPLC from the seed oil of Momordica charantia double bonds were examined, respectively. The triacylglycerols of seed oils containing conjugate trienoic acids such as {alpha}-eleostearic acid (C{sub 18:3 9c,11t,13t}) and punicic acid (C{sub 18:3} {sub 9c,11t,13c}) were resolved by silver-ion HPLC. Fractions were fractionated on the basis of the number and configuration of double bonds in the species, and the elution profile is quite different from that of the species comprising exclusively saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with methylene-interrupted double bonds ; for instance, the species (DT(c2)) composed of one dienoic acid and two conjugate trienoic acids eluted much earlier than the species (D{sub 2}T{sub c}) composed of two dienoic acids and one conjugate trienoic acid, in spite of having larger number of double bonds. This means that the interaction of conjugate double bonds with silver ions is weaker than that of methylene-interrupted double bonds, presumably because of the delocalization of {pi}-electrons in conjugate double bonds. In this instance, the strength of interaction of a conjugate trienoic double bond system with silver ions seemed to be between that of methylene-interrupted dienoic and monoenoic double bond systems. Triacylglycerols of the seeds of Ginkgo biloba have been resolved by HPLC in the silver-ion mode according to the number and position of double bonds. In this instance, the strength of interaction between the {pi}-electrons of double bonds in the fatty acyl residues and silver ions is in the order; C{sub 18:3{omega}3}>C(20:3){Delta}{sup 5,11,14}C{sub 18:3}{Delta}{sup 5,9,12}>= C{sub 18:2{omega}6}>C{sub 18:2}{Delta}{sup 5,9}>C{sub 18:1{omega}9}>C{sub 18:1ome= ga7}. 49 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. 如何避免会话中的重叠和干扰%How to Avoid Overlapping and Interruption in Conversation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬梅; 李婷

    2015-01-01

    Both overlapping and interruption impede the fluency of discourse between the speakers. Firstly, overlapping is con-cerned with conversational principles and conversation analysis. On the one hand, overlapping violates the maxim of quantity and quality in conversational principle put forward by Grice;on the other hand, overlapping takes place at the transition relevance place (TRP) where turn-taking happens. Interruption, however, has nothing to do with this principle. But it breaks the continuity of the turn-constructional unite(TCU), leading to an impolite consequence.To some degree, it is an impolite behavior. In a word, overlap-ping and interruption have negative impacts on daily conversation. Therefore,several suggestions are put forward to avoid or save their occurrences.%会话中的重叠(overlapping)和干扰(interruption)既有相同点,也有极大的不同.首先,重叠与会话原则(Conversational Principles)和会话分析(Conversation Analysis)有关.一方面,重叠的发生违反了格莱斯的会话原则中的量的原则(maxim of quantity)和质的原则(maxim of quality);另一方面,重叠一般是发生在话语转换位置(Transition Relevance Place/TRP)的完结处,也就是发生话语轮换(turn-taking)的地方.干扰和会话原则无关,但它会中断轮换结构单元(Turn-Constructional Units/TCU)的连续性,导致当前说话者(current speaker)无法完整表达其话语.因此,从某种程度上说干扰是一种不礼貌的行为.尽管重叠与礼貌无关,但它也会影响交流的顺利进行.所以,文章最后提出了几大预防和补救措施.

  4. Multiple Interconversions of the E' and Oxygen-Hole Defect Centers in High-Purity Amorphous Silica during Anneal-Interrupted x Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Mashkov, V. A.; Leisure, R. G.

    1995-02-01

    Multiple interconversions of E' centers and peroxy radicals have been observed for the first time by means of anneal-interrupted x-irradiation experiments. It is shown that each of these defects can serve as the precursor of the other; under thermal anneal an E' center can convert to a peroxy radical due to the capture of an oxygen molecule, and under irradiation the peroxy radical can covert to an E' center due to irradiation-induced release of oxygen. The results for the defect production and anneal behavior are well described in terms of simple stretched-exponential defect-reaction kinetics.

  5. Interrupted inferior vena cava with hemiazygos continuation in an adult with a persistent left superior vena cava and left single coronary artery: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeo Jin; Kwon, Se Hwan; Ahn, Sung Eun; Kim, Soo Joong; Oh, Joo Hyeong [College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jong Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A 50-year-old woman was referred to our institution for medical screening due to an incidental finding on abdominal ultrasonography. She underwent chest, abdomen and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). Her MDCT revealed absence of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC), with hemiazygos continuation and a left single coronary artery. The dilated hemiazygos vein drained directly into the persistent left superior vena cava (SVC). Herein, we reported a very rare case combining an incidentally found interrupted IVC with hemiazygos vein continuation, persistent left SVC and a left single coronary artery diagnosed by MDCT.

  6. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    CERN Document Server

    Spata, Michael; Fanning, Harry; Oren, Tom C

    2005-01-01

    The Machine Control Center at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility was initially constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on workflow processes and ergonomic attributes. This effort also sets the foundation for the redevelopment of the accelerator's control system to deliver high reliability performance with improvements in beam specifications management and information flow. The complete renovation was performed over a three-week period with no interruption to beam operations. We present the results of this effort.

  7. Bronchial histamine challenge in the diagnosis of asthma. The predictive value of changes in airway resistance determined by the interrupter method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, F; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Frølund, L;

    1986-01-01

    The predictive value of a bronchial challenge with histamine was determined in a prospective survey on a population with a high prevalence of asthma (0.62). Without knowledge of the bronchial responsiveness 133 patients were classified as asthmatics (83) or non-asthmatics (50) according to variat......The predictive value of a bronchial challenge with histamine was determined in a prospective survey on a population with a high prevalence of asthma (0.62). Without knowledge of the bronchial responsiveness 133 patients were classified as asthmatics (83) or non-asthmatics (50) according...... to variation in peak expiratory flow rate and medical history. Response to challenge was determined by the interrupter method, and the concentration of histamine inducing a 40% increase in resistance to breathing (PC40-Rt) was calculated from the log dose response curve. When defining a positive test as a test....../ml the predictive value of a negative test in the diagnosis of asthma was increased to 0.81. The interrupter technique is suitable for diagnostic purposes in the detection and exclusion of bronchial asthma....

  8. Effects of multiple interruptions with trimethylindium-treatment in the InGaN/GaN quantum well on green light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Ma, Zi-Guang; Chen, Hong; Wu, Hai-Yan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Yang, Hao-Jun; Zhao, Bin; He, Miao; Zheng, Shu-Wen; Li, Shu-Ti

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the influence of multiple interruptions with trimethylindium (TMIn)-treatment in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on green light-emitting diode (LED) is investigated. A comparison of conventional LEDs with the one fabricated with our method shows that the latter has better optical properties. Photoluminescence (PL) full-width at half maximum (FWHM) is reduced, light output power is much higher and the blue shift of electroluminescence (EL) dominant wavelength becomes smaller with current increasing. These improvements should be attributed to the reduced interface roughness of MQW and more uniformity of indium distribution in MQWs by the interruptions with TMIn-treatment. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204360 and 61210014), the Science and Technology Planning Projects of Guangdong Province, China (Grant Nos. 2014B050505020, 2015B010114007, and 2014B090904045), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20134407110008), the Guangzhou Municipal Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2016201604030027), and the Zhongshan Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2013B3FC0003).

  9. Recognition of CG interrupting site by W-shaped nucleoside analogs (WNA) having the pyrazole ring in an anti-parallel triplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yosuke; Uchida, Yuko; Takaki, Tomoko; Aoki, Eriko; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2009-10-01

    We have previously developed W-shaped nucleoside analogs (WNA) for recognition of TA and CG interrupting sites, which are the intrinsic limitation for the formation of a stable triplex DNA by the natural triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO). However, the stabilization effect of WNA is dependent on the neighboring nucleobases at both sides of the WNA analogs within the TFO. Considering that the base is located at the hindered site constructed of three bases of the target duplex and the TFO, it was expected that replacement of the pyrimidine base of the WNA analog with a smaller pyrazole ring might avoid steric repulsion to produce a greater stability for the triplex. In this study, the new WNA analogs bearing the pyrazole ring, 3-aminopyrazole (AP), and 4-methyl-3-pyrazole-5-on (MP) were synthesized, incorporated into the TFOs, then their stabilizing effects on the triplexes were evaluated. A remarkable success was illustrated by the fact that the TFO containing WNA-betaAP in the 3'G-WNA-G-5' sequence formed a stable triplex with selectivity to the CG interrupting site where the previous WNA-betaC did not induce the triplex formation. PMID:19736014

  10. Formation of a stable triplex incorporating a CG interrupting site by a new WNA derivative containing 3-aminopyrazole as a nucleobase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuko; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Aoki, Eriko; Togo, Mieko; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2008-01-01

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) bind within the major groove of duplex DNA in a sequence-specific manner, and have attracted much interest as genomic tools. However, as the triplex DNA is formed by the interaction between the TFOs and homopurine/homopyrimidine sequences of the target duplex DNA, the stable triplex formation is prevented by one pyrimidine base in the homopurine strand. Previously, we developed the nucleoside analogues (WNA: W-shaped nucleoside analogues) that furnish an aromatic ring as a stacking part and a nucleobase as a recognition part onto the bicyclic skeleton. Selective recognition of a TA and a CG interrupting site has been achieved by WNA-beta T and WNA-beta C, respectively. In the subsequent study, it was found that the triplex formation by the WNA analogues depend on its neighbouring bases within the TFO. In this paper, we describe the synthesis and the evaluation of the triplex forming ability of WNA-beta 3AP, having 3-aminopyrazole (3AP) as a nucleobase. It is remarkable that the TFO containing the WNA-beta 3AP recognizes the CG interrupting site with high selectivity in the TFO sequence of 3'-GZG-5', in which the previous WNA-beta C did not show the stabilizing effect. PMID:18776291

  11. 基于等微增率准则的可中断电价设计模型%Design Model of Interruptible Price based on Equal Incremental Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兰菊

    2013-01-01

      可中断负荷是电力市场环境下需求侧管理的重要组成部分,可以刺激和鼓励用户改变消费行为和用电方式,达到削峰填谷改变负荷曲线的目的。而实施可中断负荷的核心之一是构建适用的定价模型,设计合理的可中断电价。文章首先对可中断负荷做了概述,论述了我国实施和推广可中断电价的迫切性;介绍了可中断电价的基本概念和特点以及可中断电价的设计受可中断负荷市场参与主体的利益约束;然后,给出了可中断用户缺电成本函数,在此基础上采用等微增率准则,构建了可中断电价的设计模型,并给出了可中断电价的设计流程;最后,以某地级市为例,通过选取不同的最大错峰负荷比例,设计出不同工业用户的可中断电价,算例分析结果验证了该模型的有效性和合理性。为我国可中断电价的设计提供了理论参考依据。%Interruptible load is an important part of Demand Side Management in power market, can stimulate and encourage the user to change consumption behavior and mode, to achieve the purpose of peak clipping and valley filling, then change the load curve. The core issue to implement interruptible load is to establish the right pricing model and design a reasonable interruptible price. Firstly, this paper make a overview of the interruptible load, and discusses the urgency to implement and promote the interruptible load in our country. Introduced the basic definition and features of interruptible price and the constraints of interruptible price designed by the interruptible load market participants. Then, gave out the interruptible users power shortage cost function, on this basis, utilized the equal incremental principle to build interruptible price model, and gave out interruptible price design process. Finally, take a example of a prefecture-level city, by selecting the largest proportion of peak shifting load

  12. Design Model of Interruptible Price based on Equal Incremental Principle%基于等微增率准则的可中断电价设计模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兰菊

    2013-01-01

      可中断负荷是电力市场环境下需求侧管理的重要组成部分,可以刺激和鼓励用户改变消费行为和用电方式,达到削峰填谷改变负荷曲线的目的。而实施可中断负荷的核心之一是构建适用的定价模型,设计合理的可中断电价。文章首先对可中断负荷做了概述,论述了我国实施和推广可中断电价的迫切性;介绍了可中断电价的基本概念和特点以及可中断电价的设计受可中断负荷市场参与主体的利益约束;然后,给出了可中断用户缺电成本函数,在此基础上采用等微增率准则,构建了可中断电价的设计模型,并给出了可中断电价的设计流程;最后,以某地级市为例,通过选取不同的最大错峰负荷比例,设计出不同工业用户的可中断电价,算例分析结果验证了该模型的有效性和合理性。为我国可中断电价的设计提供了理论参考依据。%Interruptible load is an important part of Demand Side Management in power market, can stimulate and encourage the user to change consumption behavior and mode, to achieve the purpose of peak clipping and valley filling, then change the load curve. The core issue to implement interruptible load is to establish the right pricing model and design a reasonable interruptible price. Firstly, this paper make a overview of the interruptible load, and discusses the urgency to implement and promote the interruptible load in our country. Introduced the basic definition and features of interruptible price and the constraints of interruptible price designed by the interruptible load market participants. Then, gave out the interruptible users power shortage cost function, on this basis, utilized the equal incremental principle to build interruptible price model, and gave out interruptible price design process. Finally, take a example of a prefecture-level city, by selecting the largest proportion of peak shifting load

  13. 基于遗传算法的嵌入式软件中断过载动态检测%Dynamic detection of interrupt overloads in embedded software using a genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁; 崔凯; 周宽久; 李显杰

    2011-01-01

    Embedded software needs to deal with many interrupts,but random interrupts lead to test difficulties in embedded systems which are becoming more and more complicated.A method is given to enable dynamic detection of interrupt overloads based on a genetic algorithm.The algorithm handles diverse types of interrupts with non-uniform searches giving improved local searches to construct an interrupt handling sequence to generate the stack depth and detect stack overflow errors during interrupt execution.Tests on a SPARC V8 architecture Virtualsparc simulation platform show that this method quickly detects the loss rate of non-executed interrupts in the stack.Dynamic changes in the stack depth greatly reduce the interrupt overload loss rate with increased detection efficiency of interrupt faults in embedded software.%嵌入式软件需要处理大量中断。中断的随机特性导致越来越复杂的嵌入式系统测试困难。该文基于遗传算法的中断过载动态检测方法,使用均匀变异增加中断类型多样性,非均匀变异算法的使用提高了局部搜索能力;构造产生堆栈深度的中断执行序列测试中断处理的堆栈溢出错误。采用自主研发基于SPARC V8架构的Virtualsparc仿真平台进行中断过载仿真测试,实验表明:该方法可以快速检测堆栈中待处理的中断丢失率,随着堆栈深度的动态修改,大大降低了中断处理在堆栈里的丢失率,同时对中断过载进行定位来提高嵌入式软件中断缺陷检测效率。

  14. A Versatile Control Scheme For Dynamic Voltage Restorer To Limit Downstream Fault Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Nagendra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR is a custom power device utilized to counteract voltage sags. It injects controlled three-phase ac voltages in series with the supply voltage, subsequent to voltage sag, to enhance voltage quality by adjusting the voltage magnitude, wave shape, and phase angle. The DVR is conventionally bypassed during a downstream fault to prevent potential adverse impacts on the fault and to protect the DVR components against the fault current. This paper proposes an augmented control strategy for the DVR that provides:1 voltage-sag compensation under balanced and unbalanced conditions and 2 a fault current interruption (FCI function. This paper introduces and evaluates an auxiliary control strategy for downstream fault current interruption in a radial distribution line by means of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR. The proposed controller supplements the voltage-sag compensation control of the DVR. It does not require phaselocked loop and independently controls the magnitude and phase angle of the injected voltage for each phase. Fast least error squares digital filters are used to estimate the magnitude and phase of the measured voltages and effectively reduce the impacts of noise, harmonics, and disturbances on the estimated phasor parameters, and this enables effective fault current interrupting even under arcing fault conditions. The performance of the DVR for fault current interruption is analyzed by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

  15. Chewing xylitol gum improves self-rated and objective indicators of oral health status under conditions interrupting regular oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Chewing xylitol gum provides oral health benefits including inhibiting Streptococcus mutans plaque. It is thought to be especially effective in conditions where it is difficult to perform daily oral cleaning. Our study aim was to determine the effects of chewing xylitol gum on self-rated and objective oral health status under a condition interfering with oral hygiene maintenance. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted on 55 healthy ≥ 20-year-old men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force who were undergoing field training. Participants were randomly assigned to a test group (chewing gum; n = 27) or a control group (no gum; n = 28) and the researchers were blinded to the group assignments. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of oral conditions subjectively evaluated oral health, and the stimulated salivary bacteria quantity objectively evaluated oral health 1 day before field training (baseline) and 4 days after the beginning of field training (follow-up). VAS scores of all three oral conditions significantly increased in the control group (malodor: p bacteria significantly increased in the control group (p xylitol gum positively affects self-rated and objective oral health status by controlling oral hygiene under conditions that interfere with oral hygiene maintenance. PMID:25744362

  16. A Power Interruption Technique for Investigation of Temperature Difference in Stabilized Low Direct-Current Arc Burning in Pure Argon on Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. Kuzmanovi(c); J. J. Savovi(c); D. P. Rankovi(c); M. Stoiljkovi(c); A. Anti(c)-Jovanovi(c); M.S. Pavlovi(c); M. Marinkovi(c)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Plasma of argon stabilized arc column, in a current range 3-11 A, is investigated using emission spectrometric diagnostic techniques. Temperatures are evaluated using several methods: argon line to adjacent recombinational continuum intensity ratio, absolute emissivity of argon fine, measurement of electron number density, and power interruption. Electron number density is evaluated from absolute emissivity of recombinational continuum. The difference between electron Te and heavy particle Th temperature ranged from 4500 K for 3 A to 2300 K for 11 A arc current. By comparing the present with the previously obtained results, using the same arc device but with the introduction of water aerosol, it is concluded that water aerosol reduces the difference Te - Th and brings plasma closer to the partial thermodynamic equilibrium state.

  17. Comparison of airway resistance measurements by the forced oscillation technique and the interrupter technique for detecting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan-fei; SUN Tie-ying; Francois Herrmann; Jean-Paul Janssens

    2005-01-01

    @@ Pulmonary function tests provide an objective means to verify ventilatory dysfunction and to estimate its severity in respiratory disorders. Measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) is considered to be the basic tests for the assessment of airway obstruction. Although they are useful diagnostically and prognostically, the results of FEV1 and FVC are strongly dependent on the cooperation of the patient. Lack of collaboration is particularly present in elderly patients because of mood alterations, fatigability or cognitive impairment.1 The forced oscillation technique (FOT) and the interrupter resistance technique are the two methods of measuring respiratory resistance during tidal breathing, they are of special interest because both of them are noninvasive, requires minimal cooperation, takes little time and can be easily repeated, especially in children and elderly subjects who cannot accomplish forced expiratory maneuvers in a reproducible manner.2

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of interruption of the inferior vena cava by ultrasound%下腔静脉离断产前超声诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚远; 李胜利; 陈秀兰; 文华轩; 廖玉媚; 肖志莲

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨胎儿下腔静脉离断产前超声声像图特征和有效诊断切面,以提高其产前超声诊断准确率.方法 回顾性分析我院2006年1月至2010年5月诊断的10例下腔静脉离断胎儿(其中7例经引产后尸体解剖证实)产前超声声像图,与正常超声声像图对比,总结其产前超声声像图特征及有效切面.结果 10例下腔静脉离断胎儿,9例合并严重心内结构畸形,7例合并心外结构畸形(其中5例合并内脏反位).本组10例下腔静脉离断胎儿产前超声声像图均表现为四腔心切面异常(奇静脉扩张)、上腹部横切面异常(正常下腔静脉不能显示)、胸腹部斜冠状切面异常[离断的下腔静脉异位连接于奇(半奇)静脉并穿过膈肌连于腔静脉]及右心房纵切面异常(肝上段下腔静脉入右心房,肾上段肝段间的下腔静脉缺失并离断).结论 下腔静脉离断常合并心内、外结构畸形.下腔静脉离断胎儿在四腔心切面、上腹部横切面、胸腹部斜冠状切面及右心房纵切面上均有特征性超声声像图表现.识别下腔静脉离断特征性超声声像图表现可明显提高其产前超声检出率和诊断准确率.%Objective To investigate ultrasound characteristics and effective diagnosis views of interruption of the inferior vena cava. Methods Between January 2006 and May 2010, 10 fetuses were diagnosed as interruption of the inferior vena cava by ultrasound in our hospital. Seven cases of them were confirmed by autopsy. Their ultrasound images were retrospectively reviewed and compared with normal ones. Results Among the ten fetuses, 9 were complicated with severe cardiac malformations and 7 were complicated with outside cardiac malformations ( including 5 with situ inverse ). For all the 10 cases, dilated venae azygos could be found in four-chamber view, normal inferior vena cava could not be found in the upper abdominal view, inferior vena cava connected with venae azygos or

  19. Interrupted thymidylate synthase gene of bacteriophages T2 and T6 and other potential self-splicing introns in the T-even bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, F.K.; Maley, F.; Martinez, J.; Maley, G.F.

    1987-09-01

    Southern hybridization analyses of procaryotic DNA from Escherchia coli, lambda bacteriophage, and T1 to T7 phages were carried out. The hybridization probes used consisted of DNA restriction fragments derived from the T4 phage intron-containing thymidylate synthase gene (td) and short synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides defining specific exon and intron regions of the gene. It was shown that intact as well as restricted DNA from the T-even phages hybridized not only to both T4 phage td intron- and exon-specific probes but also to probes defining the td 5' (exon I-intron) and 3' (intron-exon II) presplice junctions. These data strongly suggest that, analogous to the T4 phage, only the T2 and T6 phages among the procaryotes tested contain interrupted td genes. The td intervening sequence in each phage is roughly 1 kilobase pair (kb) in size and interrupts the td gene at a site analogous to that in the T4 phage. This was confirmed by data from Northern (RNA) hybridization analysis of td-specific in vitro transcripts of these phage DNAs. (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)GTP in vitro labeling of total RNA from T4 phage-infected cells produced five species of labeled RNAs that were 1, 0.9, 0.83, 0.75, and 0.6 kb in size. Only the 1-, 0.9-, and 0.75-kb species were labeled in RNA from T2- or T6-infected cells. The commonly present 1-kb RNA is the excised td intron, which exists in both linear and circular forms in the respective T-even-phage-infected cells, while the 0.6-kb RNA unique to T4 may be the excised intron derived from the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit gene (nrdB) of the phage. The remaining labeled RNA species are likely candidates for other self-splicing introns.

  20. Development of a composite line source emission model for traffic interrupted microenvironments and its application in particle number emissions at a bus station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Jayaratne, Rohan; Heuff, Darlene; Morawska, Lidia

    A composite line source emission (CLSE) model was developed to specifically quantify exposure levels and describe the spatial variability of vehicle emissions in traffic interrupted microenvironments. This model took into account the complexity of vehicle movements in the queue, as well as different emission rates relevant to various driving conditions (cruise, decelerate, idle and accelerate), and it utilised multi-representative segments to capture the accurate emission distribution for real vehicle flow. Hence, this model was able to quickly quantify the time spent in each segment within the considered zone, as well as the composition and position of the requisite segments based on the vehicle fleet information, which not only helped to quantify the enhanced emissions at critical locations, but it also helped to define the emission source distribution of the disrupted steady flow for further dispersion modelling. The model then was applied to estimate particle number emissions at a bi-directional bus station used by diesel and compressed natural gas fuelled buses. It was found that the acceleration distance was of critical importance when estimating particle number emission, since the highest emissions occurred in sections where most of the buses were accelerating and no significant increases were observed at locations where they idled. It was also shown that emissions at the front end of the platform were 43 times greater than at the rear of the platform. Although the CLSE model is intended to be applied in traffic management and transport analysis systems for the evaluation of exposure, as well as the simulation of vehicle emissions in traffic interrupted microenvironments, the bus station model can also be used for the input of initial source definitions in future dispersion models.

  1. Interrupted thymidylate synthase gene of bacteriophages T2 and T6 and other potential self-splicing introns in the T-even bacteriophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southern hybridization analyses of procaryotic DNA from Escherchia coli, λ bacteriophage, and T1 to T7 phages were carried out. The hybridization probes used consisted of DNA restriction fragments derived from the T4 phage intron-containing thymidylate synthase gene (td) and short synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides defining specific exon and intron regions of the gene. It was shown that intact as well as restricted DNA from the T-even phages hybridized not only to both T4 phage td intron- and exon-specific probes but also to probes defining the td 5' (exon I-intron) and 3' (intron-exon II) presplice junctions. These data strongly suggest that, analogous to the T4 phage, only the T2 and T6 phages among the procaryotes tested contain interrupted td genes. The td intervening sequence in each phage is roughly 1 kilobase pair (kb) in size and interrupts the td gene at a site analogous to that in the T4 phage. This was confirmed by data from Northern (RNA) hybridization analysis of td-specific in vitro transcripts of these phage DNAs. [α-32P]GTP in vitro labeling of total RNA from T4 phage-infected cells produced five species of labeled RNAs that were 1, 0.9, 0.83, 0.75, and 0.6 kb in size. Only the 1-, 0.9-, and 0.75-kb species were labeled in RNA from T2- or T6-infected cells. The commonly present 1-kb RNA is the excised td intron, which exists in both linear and circular forms in the respective T-even-phage-infected cells, while the 0.6-kb RNA unique to T4 may be the excised intron derived from the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit gene (nrdB) of the phage. The remaining labeled RNA species are likely candidates for other self-splicing introns

  2. Research on perception of quality and interruption costs for customers of high and medium voltage; Pesquisa sobre percepcao da qualidade e custos de interrupcao em clientes de alta e media tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelegrini, Marcelo A.P.; Almeida, Carlos Frederico Mechini; Baldan, Silvio; Amasifen, Juan C. Cebrian; Cunha, Gabriel R.A.; Garcia, Valdomiro V.; Cyrillo, Ivo O.; Souza, Tiago P. de; Magalhaes, Cecilia H. Magalhaes; Silva, Fabiana A. Toledo [Sinapsis Inovacao em Energia S/S LTDA, Bela Vista, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: marcelo.pelegrini@sinapsienergia.com, carlos.almeida, juan.cebrian@sinapsienergia.com

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents partial results of an applied research on the perceived quality of energy by customers of AES Eletropaulo of high and medium voltage. In general, occurrences related to power interruption can cause serious consequences for industrial and commercial customers. This issue motivated the calculation, from the results obtained, of the cost of interruption incurred by customers individually, based on 12 categories of spending, and this result was validated by comparison with actual expenditures incurred during an intervention in a large industrial customer. (author)

  3. Interruption of the blood-stage cycle of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi, by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Gazarini

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a devastating disease caused by a unicellular protozoan, Plasmodium, which affects 3.7 million people every year. Resistance of the parasite to classical treatments such as chloroquine requires the development of new drugs. To gain insight into the mechanisms that control Plasmodium cell cycle, we have examined the effects of kinase inhibitors on the blood-stage cycle of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. In vitro incubation of red blood cells for 17 h at 37ºC with the inhibitors led to a decrease in the percent of infected cells, compared to control treatment, as follows: genistein (200 µM - 75%, staurosporine (1 µM - 58%, R03 (1 µM - 75%, and tyrphostins B44 (100 µM - 66% and B46 (100 µM - 68%. All these treatments were shown to retard or prevent maturation of the intraerythrocytic parasites. The diverse concentration ranges at which these inhibitors exert their effects give a clue as to the types of signals that initiate the transitions between the different developmental stages of the parasite. The present data support our hypothesis that the maturation of the intraerythrocytic cycle of malaria parasites requires phosphorylation. In this respect, we have recently reported a high Ca2+ microenvironment surrounding the parasite within red blood cells. Several kinase activities are modulated by Ca2+. The molecular identification of the targets of these kinases could provide new strategies against malaria.

  4. Genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control: requirements to be considered before field releases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touré, Y.T.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The technical feasibility of the development of transgenic mosquitoes highly refractory to (rodent) malaria parasites has been demonstrated in the laboratory. Following this proof of principle, genetic control of vectors could have an important role to play in the interruption of transmission of hum

  5. HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells and viremia: who's in control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Jansen; D. van Baarle; F. Miedema

    2006-01-01

    It has been proposed that HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells with a central memory phenotype might be involved in controlling HIV replication. Based on recent data (lack of protective effects of HIV-specific CD4+ T-cell responses in acutely infected patients undergoing treatment interruptions; loss of init

  6. Interruption of dendritic cell-mediated TIM-4 signaling induces regulatory T cells and promotes skin allograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Melissa Y; McGrath, Martina M; Nakayama, Masafumi; Shimizu, Tetsunosuke; Boenisch, Olaf; Magee, Ciara N; Abdoli, Rozita; Akiba, Hisaya; Ueno, Takuya; Turka, Laurence A; Najafian, Nader

    2013-10-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the central architects of the immune response, inducing inflammatory or tolerogenic immunity, dependent on their activation status. As such, DCs are highly attractive therapeutic targets and may hold the potential to control detrimental immune responses. TIM-4, expressed on APCs, has complex functions in vivo, acting both as a costimulatory molecule and a phosphatidylserine receptor. The effect of TIM-4 costimulation on T cell activation remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Ab blockade of DC-expressed TIM-4 leads to increased induction of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) from naive CD4(+) T cells, both in vitro and in vivo. iTreg induction occurs through suppression of IL-4/STAT6/Gata3-induced Th2 differentiation. In addition, blockade of TIM-4 on previously activated DCs still leads to increased iTreg induction. iTregs induced under TIM-4 blockade have equivalent potency to control and, upon adoptive transfer, significantly prolong skin allograft survival in vivo. In RAG(-/-) recipients of skin allografts adoptively transferred with CD4(+) T cells, we show that TIM-4 blockade in vivo is associated with a 3-fold prolongation in allograft survival. Furthermore, in this mouse model of skin transplantation, increased induction of allospecific iTregs and a reduction in T effector responses were observed, with decreased Th1 and Th2 responses. This enhanced allograft survival and protolerogenic skewing of the alloresponse is critically dependent on conversion of naive CD4(+) to Tregs in vivo. Collectively, these studies identify blockade of DC-expressed TIM-4 as a novel strategy that holds the capacity to induce regulatory immunity in vivo.

  7. One digit interruption: the altered force patterns during functionally cylindrical grasping tasks in patients with trigger digits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Tsun Chen

    Full Text Available Most trigger digit (TD patients complain that they have problems using their hand in daily or occupational tasks due to single or multiple digits being affected. Unfortunately, clinicians do not know much about how this disease affects the subtle force coordination among digits during manipulation. Thus, this study examined the differences in force patterns during cylindrical grasp between TD and healthy subjects. Forty-two TD patients with single digit involvement were included and sorted into four groups based on the involved digits, including thumb, index, middle and ring fingers. Twelve healthy subjects volunteered as healthy controls. Two testing tasks, holding and drinking, were performed by natural grasping with minimal forces. The relations between the force of the thumb and each finger were examined by Pearson correlation coefficients. The force amount and contribution of each digit were compared between healthy controls and each TD group by the independent t test. The results showed all TD groups demonstrated altered correlation patterns of the thumb relative to each finger. Larger forces and higher contributions of the index finger were found during holding by patients with index finger involved, and also during drinking by patients with affected thumb and with affected middle finger. Although no triggering symptom occurred during grasping, the patients showed altered force patterns which may be related to the role of the affected digit in natural grasping function. In conclusion, even if only one digit was affected, the subtle force coordination of all the digits was altered during simple tasks among the TD patients. This study provides the information for the future studies to further comprehend the possible injuries secondary to the altered finger coordination and also to adopt suitable treatment strategies.

  8. Task Interruptions of Human-computer Interaction:New Issues in the New Environment%人机互动中的任务中断:新环境中的新问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 伍麟

    2012-01-01

    任务中断是人机互动中常见的一种现象。关于中断延迟期间心理作用机制的主要理论包括:任务转换理论、长时工作记忆理论、目标记忆理论和线程认知理论。任务转换理论为中断延迟作用机制的研究提供了基础的模式,长时工作记忆理论和目标记忆理论各自提出了复述和编码两种不同的观点,线程认知理论主张多线程并行,深化了任务中断的研究。未来研究应关注中断对主任务执行产生不同影响的原因、影响中断任务执行期间复述机会的因素等。%In this paper we discuss some issues about task interruption. We try to summarize the existing experimental results and theoretical results and analyze what these studies show. Then, we hope that our study can inform researchers about what has been done about this area. More importantly, we’d like to further explore the direction and focus of future research. In the first place, based on the literature review of previous task interruption studies, we present task interruptions’ background and theories. The rapid development of Internet technology weakens the space-time boundary of traditional environment. Virtual settings emerge in that the interaction and the sense of immersion in network using expand settings from geographical areas to cyberspace. Human behavior setting is divided into real settings and virtual settings. Interaction between these behavior settings generates a new environment system-"R-V" mesosystems ("real-virtual" mesosystems).The intermingling of real and virtual behavior programs within "R-V" mesosystems reflects the polyfunctional nature of settings. In these settings, human-computer interaction(HCI) is common. In addition to efficient processing of information, HCI also brings information overland, psychological stress, health damage and interpersonal stress. These negative impacts result from the fact that humans have to face and deal

  9. Investigation of interruption of mother-to-child transmission among HIV-infected women%人类免疫缺陷病毒感染母婴传播阻断临床探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 李征; 郭晓峰; 陈捷谐; 梁丽; 戴卫东

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the method and effectiveness of interruption of mother-to-child transmis-sion among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women. Methods Clinical information of 110 cases of HIV-infected pregnant women who gave birth in the eighth municipal hospital of Guangzhou from June 2009 to June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Measures such as antiviral treatment , elective caesarean and artificial feeding were taken to interupt mother-to-child transmission , differences in pregnancy outcomes bewteen CD4 t-lymphocyte count > 200/μL and 200 /μL ( 84 cases ) ] and group 2 [< 200/μL group (26 cases)]. In group 1, the rate of anemia, preterm and postpartum hemorrhage was lower than that of group 2; the rate of low birth weight and FGR was obviously lower than that of group 2. There was statisticsly significantly difference between the two groups. 112 infants were all aged 18 months , among those we regularly followed up 88 cases (78.58%) and no infants were HIV-infected. Conclusion Interruptions of moth-er-to-child transmission of HIV are important measures to control AIDS epidemic among children.%目的:探讨人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染母婴传播的阻断方法与效果。方法:回顾性分析2009年6月至2012年6月在我院分娩的110例HIV阳性孕妇的临床资料。通过采取抗病毒治疗、选择性剖宫产和人工喂养等措施进行母婴阻断,比较CD4+T 淋巴细胞计数>200个/μL组和<200个/μL组的不同妊娠结局。观察婴儿出生后18个月龄以上HIV抗体情况。结果:(1)110例HIV阳性孕妇实行药物阻断102例,阻断率92.72%,分娩方式选择剖宫产106例,阻断率96.36%,112例新生儿全部实行人工喂养,阻断率100%。(2)CD4+T淋巴计数分为>200个/μL组(84例)和<200个/μL组(26例), CD4+T淋巴细胞计数>200个/μL 组中,贫血、早产和产后出血发生率均低于<200个/μL

  10. 人类免疫缺陷病毒感染母婴传播阻断临床探讨%Investigation of interruption of mother-to-child transmission among HIV-infected women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 李征; 郭晓峰; 陈捷谐; 梁丽; 戴卫东

    2015-01-01

    that of group 2. There was statisticsly significantly difference between the two groups. 112 infants were all aged 18 months , among those we regularly followed up 88 cases (78.58%) and no infants were HIV-infected. Conclusion Interruptions of moth-er-to-child transmission of HIV are important measures to control AIDS epidemic among children.

  11. Conditional Deletion of Murine Fgf23: Interruption of the Normal Skeletal Responses to Phosphate Challenge and Rescue of Genetic Hypophosphatemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinkenbeard, Erica L; Cass, Taryn A; Ni, Pu; Hum, Julia M; Bellido, Teresita; Allen, Matthew R; White, Kenneth E

    2016-06-01

    The transgenic and knockout (KO) animals involving Fgf23 have been highly informative in defining novel aspects of mineral metabolism, but are limited by shortened lifespan, inability of spatial/temporal FGF23 control, and infertility of the global KO. To more finely test the role of systemic and genetic influences in FGF23 production, a mouse was developed that carried a floxed ("f")-Fgf23 allele (exon 2 floxed) which demonstrated in vivo recombination when bred to global-Cre transgenic mice (eIIa-cre). Mice homozygous for the recombined allele ("Δ") had undetectable serum intact FGF23, elevated serum phosphate (p Col2.3-cre) and the late osteoblast/early osteocyte Dentin matrix protein-1-cre (Dmp1-cre). Fgf23(Δ/f) /Col2.3-cre(+) and Fgf23(Δ/f) /Dmp1-cre(+) exhibited reduced baseline serum intact FGF23 versus controls. After challenge with high-phosphate diet Cre(-) mice had 2.1-fold to 2.5-fold increased serum FGF23 (p Col2.3-cre(+) mice had no significant increase, and Dmp1-cre(+) mice had only a 37% increase (p Col2.3-cre was bred onto the Hyp (murine X-linked hypophosphatemia [XLH] model) genetic background to test the contribution of osteoblasts and osteocytes to elevated FGF23 and Hyp disease phenotypes. Whereas Hyp mice maintained inappropriately elevated FGF23 considering their marked hypophosphatemia, Hyp/Fgf23(Δ/f) /Col2.3-cre(+) mice had serum FGF23 <4% of Hyp (p < 0.01), and this targeted restriction normalized serum phosphorus and ricketic bone disease. In summary, deleting FGF23 within early osteoblasts and osteocytes demonstrated that both cell types contribute to baseline circulating FGF23 concentrations, and that targeting osteoblasts/osteocytes for FGF23 production can modify systemic responses to changes in serum phosphate concentrations and rescue the Hyp genetic syndrome. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26792657

  12. Prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis of fetal interrupted aortic arch%胎儿主动脉弓离断产前超声诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董莹; 王玲; 赵晟; 郭宁; 肖蕾

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨产前超声对胎儿主动脉弓离断(IAA)的诊断价值,分析漏、误诊原因,提高产前诊断率。方法回顾性分析16例胎儿主动脉弓异常超声图像特征,与正常胎儿超声图像、解剖结果进行对比研究,并分析胎儿IAA与染色体异常的相关性。结果16例产前诊断IAA病例,经解剖确诊15例,超声诊断正确率为94%(15/16),1例为主动脉弓严重缩窄(CoA),1例分型错误,3例产前超声不能分型病例获得明确分型,超声分型符合率为73%(11/15)。确诊的15例全部合并室间隔缺损,其中5例合并完全性心内膜垫缺损,合并心脏外畸形者9例。7例进行了染色体核型检查,3例18‐三体,1例13‐三体,3例正常,18‐三体发生率为43%(3/7)。结论产前超声对胎儿IAA的诊断准确率高,但在明确分型方面有待提高。胎儿IAA与严重CoA的鉴别存在困难。18‐三体在IAA胎儿染色体异常中发生率较高。%Objective To evaluate the value of prenatal ultrasound in the interrupted aortic arch (IAA), and analyze the reasons of misdiagnosis and improve diagnostic ratio of this kind of defects. Methods Ultrasonic characteristics were analyzed in 16 fetuses with aortic arch anomalies, which were compared with ultrasound image and autopsy results of the normal fetus. The relativity of fetal IAA and abnormal chromosome was also analyzed. Results Among the 16 cases, 15 cases were confirmed by anatomy and the accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis was 94% (15/16), of which one case was serious constriction of aortic arch, one case was error type, three cases were obtained explicit type due to unsatisfactory results of prenatal ultrasound. The coincidence rate of ultrasonic type was 73% (11/15). All of the corrected diagnosed cases were detected with ventricular septal, of which 5 cases were detected with complete endocardial cushion defect, 9 cases were found extra cardiac

  13. Quorum Sensing Inhibition by Asparagopsis taxiformis, a Marine Macro Alga: Separation of the Compound that Interrupts Bacterial Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Hartmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the marine algal species, though completing their life cycle in seawater, are rarely susceptible to fouling, making them an important source of quorum sensing (QS inhibitory substances. The separation and characterization of QS inhibitors are crucial for any potential application. Thirty marine macroalgae were tested for QS inhibition activity by using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as the reporter strain, and among them, Asparagopsis taxiformis showed antibacterial, as well as antiquorum, sensing activities. Cinnamaldehyde (75 mM and methanol were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The antiquorum sensing activity of A. taxiformis was further confirmed using the sensor strain, Serratia liquefaciens MG44, having green fluorescent protein (gfp. Methanolic extract of the alga was fractionated by solid phase extraction (SPE, and each fraction was tested for QS inhibition. Two types of activities were observed—zone of clearance (antibacterial activity and zone of inhibition with or without finger-like projections (QS inhibition. Out of five SPE cartridges, Bond Elut PH showed clear separation of these two fractions. The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Fourier Transformation Mass Spectrometer (ICR-FT/MS analysis of the fractions further supported the bioassay results. The presence of strong QS inhibitory compound in A. taxiformis indicates its potential use in antifouling preparations.

  14. Helicopter internal noise control: Three case histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Cox, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    Case histories are described in which measurable improvements in the cabin noise environments of the Bell 214B, 206B, and 222 were realized. These case histories trace the noise control efforts followed in each vehicle. Among the design approaches considered, the addition of a fluid pulsation damper in a hydraulic system and the installation of elastomeric engine mounts are highlighted. It is concluded that substantial weight savings result when the major interior noise sources are controlled by design, both in altering the noise producing mechanism and interrupting the sound transmission paths.

  15. 用软件中断实现的Linux内核故障注入方法%Software interrupt implemented fault injection method in Linux kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆伟; 杨麦顺; 张影; 张兴军

    2014-01-01

    针对容错操作系统的可靠性评测问题,提出一种向Linux内核注入“单个位”故障的方法。基于x86体系结构中的软件中断机制,首先利用可加载内核模块机制在时钟中断中设置一个探测点,然后将用户态的故障数据传输到内核空间,最后利用一种C/S结构的故障注入模型,分别向Linux内核的arch、fs、kernel和mm四个子系统注入故障(瞬时型、间歇型和永久型)6700余次。实验结果表明,与arch和fs子系统相比,kernel和mm子系统对故障的敏感度较高,平均检测故障覆盖率达到38.23';与数据段相比,内核代码段对故障的敏感度较高,平均检测故障覆盖率达到73.49',该方法提高了容错型操作系统可靠性评测的速度和准确度。%Aiming at the problem of evaluating the dependability of fault-tolerant operating system, a scheme was proposed to inject single-bit faults in the Linux kernel. Based on software interrupt technology existing in x86 architecture, a probe point was firstly installed in the timer interrupt using loadable kernel module. Then the faults data were delivered from user space to kernel space. Finally about 6 700 faults including transient, intermittent and permanent type were conducted targeting four kernel subsystems, i. e. arch, fs, kernel and mm, by means of a C/S fault injecting model. Experiments indicate that compared with arch and fs subsystems, the kernel and mm are more sensitive to faults, the average detection fault coverage reaches 38. 23' . Compared with data segment, the code segment is more sensitive to faults, the average detection fault coverage reaches 73. 49' . This scheme improves the speed and accuracy when evaluating the dependability of fault-tolerant operating system.

  16. Estudio comparativo de microsutura vascular en ratas: punto simple y punto de colchonero horizontal Comparative study about vascular microsurgery on rats: classic interrupted suture versus horizontal mattress suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Casado Sánchez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La Microcirugía es la técnica empleada para la realización de la microanastomosis vascular. El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar dos tipos de técnicas de microsutura: los puntos simples clásicos, de empleo habitual en la microcirugía vascular, y los puntos de colchonero horizontales, no evaluados habitualmente para este tipo de cirugía. Fueron intervenidas 20 ratas albinas de la cepa Wistar (peso medio de 250 - 300 gr. bajo anestesia general; realizamos sección transversal en la arteria femoral, procediendo a su reparación microquirúrgica inmediata. Se establecieron 2 grupos de animales: en el grupo A (n=10, la microsutura se hizo mediante 6 puntos sueltos simples, y en el grupo B (n=10, empleando 3 puntos de colchonero horizontal. Comprobamos la patencia en el desclampado inmediato y tras una hora del desclampado (para ambas técnicas fue positiva en el 100% de los casos, y la hemorragia en ambos tiempos (se registró un único caso de sangrado en el postoperatorio inmediato en el grupo B, que requirió la revisión de la microsutura. El tiempo medio de ejecución de la sutura en el grupo B, 15 minutos aproximadamente, fue más corto que en el grupo A, 21 minutos aproximadamente, diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p Microsurgery is the procedure of choice for vascular microanastamoses. The objective of this study was to compare two types of suture techniques: classic interrupted suture anastomoses, commonly used for vascular anastamoses in microsurgery, and another technique using horizontal mattress sutures, rarely evaluated in this type of surgery. Twenty albino Wistar rats were operated (average weight: 250 - 300 gr. under general anaesthesia. A transverse section of the femoral artery was performed and immediately followed by an anastamoses. The animals were placed into two groups of ten. The classic 6 interrupted suture anastomoses technique was performed in group A (n = 10 and another technique using 3

  17. Rapid CD4 decline after interruption of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharananan Siriorn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI with stavudine and lamivudine is widely used as the first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings. Lipodystrophy is common and options for switching ART regimen are limited; this situation can lead to patients' poor adherence and antiretroviral resistance. Treatment interruption (TI in patients with high CD4 cell counts, lipodystrophy, and limited options may be an alternative in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to determine time to resume ART after TI and predictors for early resumption of ART in a resource-limited setting. Methods A prospective study was conducted in January 2005 to December 2006 and enrolled HIV-infected patients with HIV-1 RNA 350 cells/mm3, and willing to interrupt ART. CD4 cell count, HIV-1 RNA, lipid profile, and lipodystrophy were assessed at baseline and every 3 months. ART was resumed when CD4 declined to 3 or developed HIV-related symptoms. Patients were grouped based on ART regimens [NNRTI or protease inhibitor (PI] prior to TI. Results There were 99 patients, 85 in NNRTI group and 14 in PI group. Mean age was 40.6 years; 46% were males. Median duration of ART was 47 months. Median nadir CD4 and baseline CD4 were 151 and 535 cells/mm3, respectively. Median CD4 change at 3 months after TI were -259 (NNRTI and -105 (PI cells/mm3 (p = 0.038. At 13-month median follow-up, there was no AIDS-defining illness; 38% (NNRTI and 29% (PI of patients developed HIV-related symptoms. ART was resumed in 51% (NNRTI and 36% (PI of patients (p = 0.022. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, median time to resume ART was 5.5 (NNRTI and 14.2 (PI months (log rank test, p = 0.026. By Cox's regression analysis, NNRTI-based ART (HR 4.9; 95%CI, 1.5–16.3, nadir CD4 3 (HR 2.7; 95%CI 1.4–5.3 and baseline CD4 3 (HR 1.6; 95%CI, 1.2–3.1 were predictors for early ART resumption. Conclusion TI of NNRTI-based ART leads to rapid CD4 decline and high

  18. Maleic Acid--but Not Structurally Related Methylmalonic Acid--Interrupts Energy Metabolism by Impaired Calcium Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Ali Tunç; Ruppert, Thorsten; Wang, Bei-Tzu; Okun, Jürgen Günther; Kölker, Stefan; Morath, Marina Alexandra; Sauer, Sven Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Maleic acid (MA) has been shown to induce Fanconi syndrome via disturbance of renal energy homeostasis, though the underlying pathomechanism is still under debate. Our study aimed to examine the pathomechanism underlying maleic acid-induced nephrotoxicity. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is structurally similar to MA and accumulates in patients affected with methymalonic aciduria, a defect in the degradation of branched-chain amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids and cholesterol, which is associated with the development of tubulointerstitial nephritis resulting in chronic renal failure. We therefore used MMA application as a control experiment in our study and stressed hPTECs with MA and MMA to further validate the specificity of our findings. MMA did not show any toxic effects on proximal tubule cells, whereas maleic acid induced concentration-dependent and time-dependent cell death shown by increased lactate dehydrogenase release as well as ethidium homodimer and calcein acetoxymethyl ester staining. The toxic effect of MA was blocked by administration of single amino acids, in particular L-alanine and L-glutamate. MA application further resulted in severe impairment of cellular energy homeostasis on the level of glycolysis, respiratory chain, and citric acid cycle resulting in ATP depletion. As underlying mechanism we could identify disturbance of calcium homeostasis. MA toxicity was critically dependent on calcium levels in culture medium and blocked by the extra- and intracellular calcium chelators EGTA and BAPTA-AM respectively. Moreover, MA-induced cell death was associated with activation of calcium-dependent calpain proteases. In summary, our study shows a comprehensive pathomechanistic concept for MA-induced dysfunction and damage of human proximal tubule cells. PMID:26086473

  19. Maleic Acid--but Not Structurally Related Methylmalonic Acid--Interrupts Energy Metabolism by Impaired Calcium Homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tunç Tuncel

    Full Text Available Maleic acid (MA has been shown to induce Fanconi syndrome via disturbance of renal energy homeostasis, though the underlying pathomechanism is still under debate. Our study aimed to examine the pathomechanism underlying maleic acid-induced nephrotoxicity. Methylmalonic acid (MMA is structurally similar to MA and accumulates in patients affected with methymalonic aciduria, a defect in the degradation of branched-chain amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids and cholesterol, which is associated with the development of tubulointerstitial nephritis resulting in chronic renal failure. We therefore used MMA application as a control experiment in our study and stressed hPTECs with MA and MMA to further validate the specificity of our findings. MMA did not show any toxic effects on proximal tubule cells, whereas maleic acid induced concentration-dependent and time-dependent cell death shown by increased lactate dehydrogenase release as well as ethidium homodimer and calcein acetoxymethyl ester staining. The toxic effect of MA was blocked by administration of single amino acids, in particular L-alanine and L-glutamate. MA application further resulted in severe impairment of cellular energy homeostasis on the level of glycolysis, respiratory chain, and citric acid cycle resulting in ATP depletion. As underlying mechanism we could identify disturbance of calcium homeostasis. MA toxicity was critically dependent on calcium levels in culture medium and blocked by the extra- and intracellular calcium chelators EGTA and BAPTA-AM respectively. Moreover, MA-induced cell death was associated with activation of calcium-dependent calpain proteases. In summary, our study shows a comprehensive pathomechanistic concept for MA-induced dysfunction and damage of human proximal tubule cells.

  20. Microbial transmission from mothers with obesity or diabetes to infants: an innovative opportunity to interrupt a vicious cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderborg, Taylor K; Borengasser, Sarah J; Barbour, Linda A; Friedman, Jacob E

    2016-05-01

    Maternal obesity and diabetes dramatically increase the long-term risk for obesity in the next generation, and pregnancy and lactation may be critical periods at which to aim primary prevention to break the obesity cycle. It is becoming increasingly clear that the gut microbiome in newborns and infants plays a significant role in gut health and therefore child development. Alteration of the early infant gut microbiome has been correlated with the development of childhood obesity and autoimmune conditions, including asthma, allergies and, more recently, type 1 diabetes. This is likely to be due to complex interactions between mode of delivery, antibiotic use, maternal diet, components of breastfeeding and a network of regulatory events involving both the innate and adaptive immune systems within the infant host. Each of these factors are critical for informing microbiome development and can affect immune signalling, toxin release and metabolic signals, including short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, that regulate appetite, metabolism and inflammation. In several randomised controlled trials, probiotics have been administered with the aim of targeting the microbiome during pregnancy to improve maternal and infant health but the findings have often been confounded by mode of delivery, antibiotic use, ethnicity, infant sex, maternal health and length of exposure. Understanding how nutritional exposure, including breast milk, affects the assembly and development of both maternal and infant microbial communities may help to identify targeted interventions during pregnancy and in infants born to mothers with obesity or diabetes to slow the transmission of obesity risk to the next generation. The aim of this review is to discuss influences on infant microbiota colonisation and the mechanism(s) underlying how alterations due to maternal obesity and diabetes may lead to increased risk of childhood obesity. PMID:26843076

  1. Sutura arterial com técnicas contínua e de pontos separados, utilizando-se os fios polipropilene e polidioxanone: estudo experimental em coelhos Arterial suture with continuous and interrupted techniques, using polypropylene and polydioxanone threads: experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Leonardo Kerdahi Leite de Campos

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Observar o comportamento da sutura arterial em aortas abdominais de coelhos em crescimento, comparando-se as técnicas contínua e com pontos separados, empregando-se dois tipos de fios: Polipropilene 7-0 (inabsorvível e Polidioxanone 7-0 (absorvível. MÉTODOS: Grupos: GI - Controle (sem sutura; GII - Polipropilene, Pontos Separados; GIII - Polipropilene, Contínua; GIV - Polidioxanone, Pontos Separados e GV - Polidioxanone, Contínua. Cada grupo foi subdividido em quatro Momentos de Eutanásia: aos 7, 14, 30 e 60 dias de pós-operatório. Foram avaliados: peso dos animais, diâmetros e pulsos arteriais, estenose, trombose, aderências, aortografia, visibilidade do fio, cicatrização e microscopia. RESULTADOS: a após 60 dias, o local da linha de sutura cresceu de forma significativa em todos os grupos; b a técnica de sutura com pontos separados causou menor estenose da linha de sutura, observada tanto no ato cirúrgico, como na eutanásia dos animais; c no exame histopatológico, as diferenças encontradas entre grupos foram transitórias, não persistindo após 60 dias de pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: O polidioxanone mostrou ser a melhor opção, entre os dois fios, para sutura de artérias em crescimento, pois causa pouca ou nenhuma restrição ao crescimento arterial na linha de sutura, mesmo quando se emprega a técnica contínua.PURPOSE: To assess the arterial suture, comparing continuous and interrupted techniques, in abdominal aorta of growing rabbbits, using two types of suture material: Polypropylene 7-0 (nonabsorbable and Polydioxanone 7-0 (absorbable. METHODS: Groups: GI - Control, without arterial suture; GII - Polypropylene, Interrupted technique; GIII - Polipropilene, Continuous technique; GIV - Polydioxanone, Interrupted technique and GV - Polydioxanone, Continuous technique. Each group was subdivided in four Moments of Euthanasia , according with the number of days after surgery: 7 , 14 , 30 and 60 days. The

  2. Acute effects of aircraft noise on cardiovascular admissions - an interrupted time-series analysis of a six-day closure of London Heathrow Airport caused by volcanic ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tim; Campbell, Michael J; Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Acute noise exposure may acutely increase blood pressure but the hypothesis that acute exposure to aircraft noise may trigger cardiovascular events has not been investigated. This study took advantage of a six-day closure of a major airport in April 2010 caused by volcanic ash to examine if there was a decrease in emergency cardiovascular hospital admissions during or immediately after the closure period, using an interrupted daily time-series study design. The population living within the 55dB(A) noise contour was substantial at 0.7 million. The average daily admission count was 13.9 (SD 4.4). After adjustment for covariates, there was no evidence of a decreased risk of hospital admission from cardiovascular disease during the closure period (relative risk 0.97 (95% CI 0.75-1.26)). Using lags of 1-7 days gave similar results. Further studies are needed to investigate if transient aircraft noise exposure can trigger acute cardiovascular events. PMID:27494958

  3. Chill injury in the eggs of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae): the time-temperature relationship with high-temperature interruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-HONGJING; XIAN-HUIWANG; LEKANG

    2005-01-01

    Mortality of the overwinteing egg of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria L., was attributed to chill injury because of its occurrence weU above the egg's supercooling point. In this study, two parameters, upper limit of chill injury zone (ULCIZ) and sum of the injurious temperature (SIT), were used to examine the locust egg' s cold hardiness.The value of ULCIZ for the locust egg is 1.06 + 0.54℃, and the SIT is -329.7 (hour·degree). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities changed dramatically after cold stress, indicating that oxygen and hydroxide free radicals are probably efficiently detoxified at low temperatures. It was suggested that the nature of chill in jury inlocust egg might be a complex of metabolic disorder and a non-proportional decrease in enzymatic reaction and transports, because the LDH activity at low temperature increased significantly and the ATPase activity decreased with prolonged duration of exposure to low temperatures. The results from high temperature interruption revealed that the high temperature intervals significantly increased the survival of locust eggs.

  4. Biological and physical properties of a model calcitonin containing a glutamate residue interrupting the hydrophobic face of the idealized amphiphilic alpha-helical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, F R; Lynch, B; Kaiser, E T

    1987-01-01

    2A new calcitonin analogue, model calcitonin III (MCt-III), has been synthesized, and its biological and physical characteristics have been studied. This analogue has an idealized alpha-helix from residue 8-22 with glutamate at position 15 interrupting an otherwise continuous surface of aliphatic side chains (those of leucine residues) on the hydrophobic face of the helix. MCt-III differs from a previous model, MCt-II, only by the substitution Leu15----Glu and is here compared with salmon calcitonin I (sCt-I) and MCt-II to elucidate further the role of the putative amphiphilic alpha-helix in determining biological and physical properties of the hormone. MCt-III shows physical properties intermediate between those of sCt-I and MCt-II, demonstrating the influence of appropriately positioned single residues on properties of amphiphilic structures. In our two biological assays, a brain-binding assay and an in vivo hypocalcemic assay, MCt-III reproduces the sigmoidal dose-response curves of sCt-I; this contrasts with the behavior of MCt-II, which demonstrated unusual dose-response curves in these two assays. MCt-III is almost three times more potent than sCt-I in our hypocalcemic assay; this activity groups MCt-III among the most potent known analogues of sCt-I. PMID:2825187

  5. Exploration of Psychological Effect in Interrupted Timing Task%间断计时任务中的心理效应探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞光

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to explore the important function of attention and expectation in in- terrupted timing tasks. Four main conclusions were drawn from this study: Attention and expectation were important psychological factors which influenced the interrupted timing behavior. A break in duration estimation was the result of transfer of continuous attention, the expect level of a break was decided to the cue factor which was presented or not. Subjects' timing behavior which included a break was processed through a bottleneck.%通过实验研究揭示了注意和期望在时距估计中的作用。由此得知:注意和期望是影响间断计时行为的重要心理因素。计时中的间断是信息加工过程中注意转移的结果,提示线索的有无决定个体计时的期望水平,间断计时任务中的时距估计过程是通过一个"瓶颈"来实现的。

  6. Should antiplatelet therapy be interrupted in drug eluting stent recipients throughout the periendoscopic period? A very late stent thrombosis case re-port and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng DONG; Xin-Chun YANG; Su-Yan BIAN

    2014-01-01

    In-stent thrombosis after cessation of antiplatelet medications in patients with drug-eluting stents (DES) is a significant problem in medical practice, particularly in the perioperative period. We report a case of an 87-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, coronary artery disease and chronic atrophic gastritis. Very late thrombosis of a sirolimus-eluting stent occurred 1207 days after implantation, seven months after discontinuation of clopidogrel, and the interruption of aspirin 13 days in preparation of an elective endoscopic gastroin-testinal procedure presented with acute myocardial infarction. The patient was treated with thrombectomy and successfully revascularized with superimposition of two sirolimus-eluting stents. Medications administered in the catheterization laboratory included low molecular weight heparin and nitroglycerin. Flow was defined as grade 2 according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction scale. Electrocardio-gram after the procedure revealed persistent, but decreased, ST-segment elevation in the anterolateral leads. The patient recovered and was discharged on aspirin and clopidogrel indefinitely. There was no cardiac event during the two year follow-up period. This case underlines the importance of maintaining the balance of thrombosis and bleeding during perioperation of non-cardiac procedure and the possible need for continuation of aspirin therapy during periendoscopic procedures among patients with low bleeding risks who received DES.

  7. Interruption of the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles to ethanol-baited traps and ethanol-injected trap trees by verbenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Christopher M; Tobin, Patrick C; Reding, Michael E; Bray, Alicia M; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Frank, Steven D; Persad, Anand B

    2013-06-01

    We examined the extent to which verbenone, a bark beetle antiaggregation pheromone, interrupted the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles. Field trapping studies conducted in Ohio showed that a verbenone dispenser with a release rate of 50 mg/d at 25°C reduced the attraction of Anisandrus sayi Hopkins, Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Hypothenemus dissimilis (Zimmermann), Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), and Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg) to ethanol-baited traps. A verbenone dispenser attached to ethanol-injected Magnolia virginiana L. trap trees deployed in Ohio also reduced ambrosia beetle attacks compared to trap trees without a verbenone dispenser. Subsequent field trials demonstrated a direct relationship between distance from a verbenone dispenser and ambrosia beetle attacks on trap trees in Ohio in 2011 and 2012 and Tennessee in 2012, but not in Tennessee and Virginia in 2011. Assessment of the influence of verbenone on the probability of attacks above a density threshold found that although attacks occurred on trap trees regardless of their proximity to a verbenone dispenser, the higher density of attacks per tree occurred on trap trees farthest away from the verbenone source in Ohio and Tennessee. Verbenone alone could be somewhat useful for discouraging ambrosia beetle attacks on individual trees or on a small spatial scale, but deployment of verbenone might be most effective when integrated as part of a "push-pull" strategy.

  8. Transhepatic approach to create stent fenestration in the extracardiac Fontan conduit in a child with dextrocardia and interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Turner, Daniel R; Forbes, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare life-threatening complication of Fontan operation. When medical treatment is ineffective in the setting of high systemic venous pressures, Fontan fenestration may be considered to decompress venous pressures and improve cardiac output by creation of the right-to-left shunting. However, transcatheter approach can be difficult in patients with complex venous anatomy. We report a 4-year-old girl born with hypoplastic left ventricle and heterotaxy syndrome, who developed plastic bronchitis following extracardiac Fontan procedure. Her venous anatomy was complex with dextrocardia and interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation. Stent fenestration was successfully performed via transhepatic approach, which was selected based on the anatomical relationship (between extracardiac conduit, left atrium, and hepatic veins) delineated by pre-catheterization cardiac MRI. Simultaneous transesophageal echocardiography guided the intervention. Her plastic bronchitis improved significantly in 3 months but slowly progressed after the stent fenestration. At her 8-month follow-up, stent fenestration remains open and she is currently under heart transplantation evaluation due to persistent plastic bronchitis. Treatment of plastic bronchitis can be undertaken with Fontan fenestration, with pre-procedural MRI playing an essential role in patients with complex venous anatomy.

  9. Interruption of electronically excited Xe dimer formation by the photoassociation of Xe(6s[3/2]2)-Xe(5p6 1S0) thermal collision pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, T. C.; Wagner, C. J.; Eden, J. G.

    2016-06-01

    The diatomic collisional intermediate responsible for the formation of an electronically excited molecule by teratomic recombination has been observed in both the spectral and temporal domains by laser spectroscopy. We report experiments demonstrating thermal Xe(6s[3/2]2)-Xe(5p6 1S0) atomic collision pairs to be the immediate precursor to the formation of Xe 2∗ ( a 3 Σu + , A 1 Σu +) by the three body process: Xe∗(6s) + 2Xe ⟶ Xe 2∗ + Xe, where the asterisk denotes an excited electronic state. Photoassociating Xe(6s)-Xe atomic pairs by free ⟵ free transitions of the collision complex interrupts the production of the electronically excited Xe dimer, thereby suppressing Xe2 spontaneous emission in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, λ ˜ 172 nm, A 1 Σu + → X 1 Σg +). Intercepting Xe(6s)-Xe pairs before the complex is stabilized by the arrival of the third atom in the teratomic collision process selectively depletes the pair population in a specific Franck-Condon region determined by the probe laser wavelength (λ). Measurements of the variation of VUV emission suppression with λ provide a spectral signature of the [Xe(6s[3/2]2) - Xe(1S0)]∗ complex and map the probe laser wavelength onto the thermal energy (ɛ″) of the incoming collision pairs.

  10. Advance in diagnosis and therapy of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome%垂体柄中断综合征诊治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦; 郭清华; 母义明

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome(PSIS) is a rare disease characterized by different degrees of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency.The typical imaging finding is a thin or absent pituitary stalk,often associated with an ectopic posterior pituitary and a hypoplastic anterior pituitary.The cause is still unkown.Dynamic contrastenhanced MRI helps to confirm the diagnosis.Replacement of multiple anterior pituitary hormones is the key of the treatment.Doctors should have a thorough understanding of the disease and give patients efficacious treatment and a better prognosis would be obtained.%垂体柄中断综合征(PSIS)是以不同程度的垂体前叶激素分泌缺乏为主要临床表现的罕见疾病,其影像学特征为垂体柄缺如或纤细,常合并垂体后叶高信号异位、垂体前叶发育不良.目前病因仍不明确.鞍区动态增强MRI有助于明确诊断.各种垂体前叶激素替代是有效治疗手段.医生应加强认识、积极治疗,以改善患者预后.

  11. Should antiplatelet therapy be interrupted in drug eluting stent recipients throughout the periendoscopic period? A very late stent thrombosis case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Peng; Yang, Xin-Chun; Bian, Su-Yan

    2014-09-01

    In-stent thrombosis after cessation of antiplatelet medications in patients with drug-eluting stents (DES) is a significant problem in medical practice, particularly in the perioperative period. We report a case of an 87-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, coronary artery disease and chronic atrophic gastritis. Very late thrombosis of a sirolimus-eluting stent occurred 1207 days after implantation, seven months after discontinuation of clopidogrel, and the interruption of aspirin 13 days in preparation of an elective endoscopic gastrointestinal procedure presented with acute myocardial infarction. The patient was treated with thrombectomy and successfully revascularized with superimposition of two sirolimus-eluting stents. Medications administered in the catheterization laboratory included low molecular weight heparin and nitroglycerin. Flow was defined as grade 2 according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction scale. Electrocardiogram after the procedure revealed persistent, but decreased, ST-segment elevation in the anterolateral leads. The patient recovered and was discharged on aspirin and clopidogrel indefinitely. There was no cardiac event during the two year follow-up period. This case underlines the importance of maintaining the balance of thrombosis and bleeding during perioperation of non-cardiac procedure and the possible need for continuation of aspirin therapy during periendoscopic procedures among patients with low bleeding risks who received DES. PMID:25278977

  12. Characterization of the human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) mediated Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling transduction in proliferating mammalian dopaminergic neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Lei [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Physiology, Nankai University School of Medicine, Tianjin 300071 (China); Carr, Aprell L. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Center for Zebrafish Research, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Li, Ping; Lee, Jessica; McGregor, Mary [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Li, Lei, E-mail: Li.78@nd.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Center for Zebrafish Research, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Stil is a human oncogene that is conserved in vertebrate species. • Stil functions in the Shh pathway in mammalian cells. • The expression of Stil is required for mammalian dopaminergic cell proliferation. - Abstract: The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) is highly conserved in all vertebrate species. In humans, the expression of Stil is involved in cancer cell survival, apoptosis and proliferation. In this research, we investigated the roles of Stil expression in cell proliferation of mammalian dopaminergic (DA) PC12 cells. Stil functions through the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation tests revealed that STIL interacts with Shh downstream components, which include SUFU and GLI1. By examining the expression of Stil, Gli1, CyclinD2 (cell-cycle marker) and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), we found that up-regulation of Stil expression (transfection with overexpression plasmids) increased Shh signaling transduction and PC12 cell proliferation, whereas down-regulation of Stil expression (by shRNA) inhibited Shh signaling transduction, and thereby decreased PC12 cell proliferation. Transient transfection of PC12 cells with Stil knockdown or overexpression plasmids did not affect PC12 cell neural differentiation, further indicating the specific roles of Stil in cell proliferation. The results from this research suggest that Stil may serve as a bio-marker for neurological diseases involved in DA neurons, such as Parkinson’s disease.

  13. The choice of foreign entry modes in a control perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    The aim of this article is to investigate the choice of entry modes for international markets in a control perspective. A survey from The Confederation of Danish Industry with 234 Danish small- and medium sized enterprises served as a data base. The entry modes are categorized into three groups d...... turnover. The factors: personal networks and the interruption of the international activities were the most significant factors for the choice of intermediate mode (joint ventures and strategic alliances)....

  14. Selection assessment of interruptible load participating in market reserve during peak period and benefit measurement%可中断负荷参与高峰时段市场备用选择评估及效益测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泓泽; 王宝; 苏晨博; 郭森; 李春杰

    2013-01-01

      为了提高可中断负荷(Interruptible Load, IL)承担高峰时段市场备用的安全可靠性和经济性,构建了IL参与高峰时段市场备用的选择评估模型和电网企业效益测算模型。基于随机生产模拟方法,从安全可靠性和经济性两个层面,选取了响应时间、系统缺电量减少额等4个主要评选指标,利用理想点排序法(Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution, TOPSIS)对IL的优劣特性进行了综合评价。测算了电网企业择优购入部分IL承担高峰时段市场备用后的效益状况。算例结果表明:该选择评估模型能很好地甄别各种IL在安全可靠性和经济性方面的优劣差异,能有效提高电网的供电可靠性和经济性,从而证明了模型的科学性和有效性。%In order to improve the security, reliability and economy of interruptible load undertaking market reserve during peak period, we establish a selection assessment model on interruptible load participating in market reserve during peak period and a benefit measurement model for Grid Company. In the aspects of security, reliability and economy, four main selection indices such as response time and reduction in system’s power shortage, etc. are selected based on probabilistic production simulation technique. By means of TOPSIS method, interruptible load’s characteristic in advantage and disadvantage is comprehensively assessed. Grid Company’s benefit is measured after preferentially purchasing a part of interruptible loads to undertake market reserve during peak period. The results of calculation instance demonstrate that the selection assessment model can distinguish each interruptible load’s difference very well in terms of security, reliability and economy and improve system’s power supply reliability and economy. Therefore, the science and validity of the model are verified. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of

  15. Ácido giberélico e dia curto interrompido em crisântemo de corte (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzvelev., "Gompier Chá" Gibberellic acid and short day interrupted in cut chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzvelev., 'Gompier Chá'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antônio Bellé

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Algumas cultivares de crisântemo, como a "Gompier Chá", apresentam menor crescimento quando cultivadas no período de inverno. A utilização do ácido giberélico (GA3 e o manejo do fotoperíodo com dia curto interrompido podem ser alternativas para estimular o crescimentodas plantas. Assim, foi realizado um experimento com objetivo de avaliar a resposta do GA3 e do dia curto (DC interrompido por dias longos (DL na qualidade de hastes de crisântemo de corte "Gompier Chá", cultivado no inverno no Rio Grande do Sul. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, no período de maio a agosto de 2001. Os tratamentos foram diferentes concentrações de ácido giberélico (50, 100, 200, 300, 500 e 500mg L-1 aplicadas seis, três, duas, duas, uma e duas vezes, respectivamente, e o uso de dia curto interrompido (32DL+9DC+12DL+DC até a colheita. Os tratamentos que proporcionaram a formação de hastes de melhor qualidade foram as dosagens de 100mg L-1 aplicado três vezes e 200mg L-1 aplicado duas vezes. O esquema de dia curto interrompido usado foi ineficiente para a qualidade da cultivar "Gompier Chá", já o uso de ácido giberélico possibilitou melhoria no comprimento dos pedúnculos e na altura das plantas em cultivo de inverno no Rio Grande do Sul.Some chrysanthemum"s cultivars, as the 'Gompier Chá', have problems of small growth during winter crop. The spraying whit gibberellic acid (GA3 and the control photoperiod with interrupted short day can be options for to stimulate growth. Thus, an experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the stems quality of cut chrysanthemum 'Gompier Chá' response of GA3 and short day (DC interrupted by long day (DL, during winter time in Rio Grande do Sul. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, in 2001, from May to August. The treatments consisted of different gibberellic acid concentration (50, 100, 200, 300, 500 e 500mg L-1 sprayed six

  16. A Multi-core Heterogeneous Programmable Automation Controller System of Construction Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Guoqing

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two main issues, high cost and interrupt response delay for current PACs (programmable automation controllers which are using high frequency single-chip microprocessors and commercial RTOS (real-time operating system working by switching the tasks and interrupts. To solve these problems, a new low-cost multi-core heterogeneous PAC structure was proposed. Based on the traditional front-end of interrupt service without interrupt switching delay and the division & deployment of multi real-time tasks. We implemented a new programming language Engineer C including its syntax, compiler and an integrated development environment, which can dynamically divide the multi tasks and deploy the division to single low-cost microcontroller, then built the hardware prototype, which consists of a digital signal board, an analog signal board and a motion control board, every board has its microcontroller and communicates each other by an enhanced SPI bus. Testing results show the hardware prototype and IDE can be provided as a low-cost PAC solution for construction machine.

  17. Curricula as Spaces of Interruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests that there has been a move away from teaching as a means of transmitting information, towards supporting learning as a student-generated activity. There has been much work relating to this in the arena of problem-based learning, which to date has been seen as a relatively stable approach to learning, delineated by particular…

  18. Ligustrazine attenuates oxidative stress-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells by interrupting platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor-mediated ERK and p38 pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic fibrosis represents a frequent event following chronic insult to trigger wound healing reactions with accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the liver. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the pivotal event during liver fibrogenesis. Compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress is concomitant with liver fibrosis irrespective of the underlying etiology. Natural antioxidant ligustrazine exhibits potent antifibrotic activities, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Our studies were to investigate the ligustrazine effects on HSC activation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative stress in liver fibrogenesis, and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that H2O2 at 5 μM significantly stimulated HSC proliferation and expression of marker genes of HSC activation; whereas ligustrazine dose-dependently suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in H2O2-activated HSCs, and attenuated expression of fibrotic marker genes. Mechanistic investigations revealed that ligustrazine reduced platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor (PDGF-βR) expression and blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase, two downstream effectors of PDGF-βR. Further molecular evidence suggested that ligustrazine interruption of ERK and p38 pathways was dependent on the blockade of PDGF-βR and might be involved in ligustrazine reduction of fibrotic marker gene expression under H2O2 stimulation. Furthermore, ligustrazine modulated some proteins critical for HSC activation and ECM homeostasis in H2O2-stimulated HSCs. These data collectively indicated that ligustrazine could attenuate HSC activation caused by oxidative stress, providing novel insights into ligustrazine as a therapeutic option for hepatic fibrosis. Highlights: ► Ligustrazine inhibits oxidative stress-induced HSC activation. ► Ligustrazine reduces fibrotic marker genes in HSCs under

  19. Interrupted incubation and short-term storage of the alfalfa pollinator Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): a potential tool for synchronizing bees with bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; West, Mark; Kemp, William P

    2010-04-01

    A useful technique for synchronizing pollinators with the alfalfa, Medicago savita L. (Fabaceae), bloom is to interrupt the late spring incubation of developing bee pupae and pharate adults of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) with short-term low-temperature storage. However, low-temperature exposure can be stressful depending on the temperature, duration of exposure, and the developmental stage exposed. To evaluate the effect of low-temperature storage after development had already been initiated by exposure to 29 degrees C, three developmental stages (eye pigment pupae, body pigment pupae, and pharate adults ready to emerge) were exposed to 6, 12, or 18 degrees C for durations up to 28 d. The effect of delaying the termination of overwintering storage (6 degrees C) from April to July ("April bees" and "July bees," respectively) also was examined. The following observations were made: (1) All developmental stages of the April bees and July bees examined can be stored without harmful effects, as measured by percentage of survival, for 14 d at 12 degrees C and above. (2) Postponing the termination of overwintering storage at 6 degrees C from April until July significantly decreased the mean number of days to 95% adult emergence in the July ready-to-emerge bees across the three temperatures tested. (3) The increase of overwintering duration also caused a decrease in the postemergence longevity of the ready-to-emerge adults stored at 6 degrees C for 14 d. (4) Of the three storage temperatures examined, 18 degrees C seems to be the optimal storage temperature for short-term storage of developing bees because of their slow but continuing development without increased mortality either during storage or after emergence. PMID:20429433

  20. Small tyrosine kinase inhibitors interrupt EGFR signaling by interacting with erbB3 and erbB4 in glioblastoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Saceda, Miguel [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Grasso, Silvina; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Conde, Mariano; Gomez-Martinez, Angeles [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Garcia-Morales, Pilar [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Ferragut, Jose A. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Martinez-Lacaci, Isabel, E-mail: imlacaci@umh.es [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad AECC de Investigacion Traslacional en Cancer, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-06-10

    Signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is relevant in glioblastoma. We have determined the effects of the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 in glioblastoma cell lines and found that U87 and LN-229 cells were very sensitive to this drug, since their proliferation diminished and underwent a marked G{sub 1} arrest. T98 cells were a little more refractory to growth inhibition and A172 cells did not undergo a G{sub 1} arrest. This G{sub 1} arrest was associated with up-regulation of p27{sup kip1}, whose protein turnover was stabilized. EGFR autophosphorylation was blocked with AG1478 to the same extent in all the cell lines. Other small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors employed in the clinic, such as gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib, were able to abrogate proliferation of glioblastoma cell lines, which underwent a G{sub 1} arrest. However, the EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab had no effect on cell proliferation and consistently, had no effect on cell cycle either. Similarly, cetuximab did not inhibit proliferation of U87 {Delta}EGFR cells or primary glioblastoma cell cultures, whereas small-molecule EGFR inhibitors did. Activity of downstream signaling molecules of EGFR such as Akt and especially ERK1/2 was interrupted with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, whereas cetuximab treatment could not sustain this blockade over time. Small-molecule EGFR inhibitors were able to prevent phosphorylation of erbB3 and erbB4, whereas cetuximab only hindered EGFR phosphorylation, suggesting that EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors may mediate their anti-proliferative effects through other erbB family members. We can conclude that small-molecule EGFR inhibitors may be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of glioblastoma patients.

  1. Diagnostic Value of Prospective Electrocardiogram-triggered Dual-source Computed Tomography Angiography for Infants and Children with Interrupted Aortic Arch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ou Li; Xi-Ming Wang; Pei Nie; Xiao-Peng Ji; Zhao-Ping Cheng; Jiu-Hong Chen; Zhuo-Dong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Accurate assessment of intra-as well as extra-cardiac malformations and radiation dosage concerns are especially crucial to infants and children with interrupted aortic arch (IAA).The purpose of this study is to investigate the value of prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) angiography with low-dosage techniques in the diagnosis of IAA.Methods:Thirteen patients with suspected IAA underwent prospective ECG-triggered DSCT scan and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE).Surgery was performed on all the patients.A five-point scale was used to assess image quality.The diagnostic accuracy ofDSCT angiography and TTE was compared with the surgical findings as the reference standard.A nonparametric Chi-square test was used for comparative analysis.P<0.05 was considered as a significant difference.The mean effective radiation dose (ED) was calculated.Results:Diagnostic DSCT images were obtained for all the patients.Thirteen IAA cases with 60 separate cardiovascular anomalies were confirmed by surgical findings.The diagnostic accuracy of TTE and DSCT for total cardiovascular malformations was 93.7% and 97.9% (P>0.05),and that for extra-cardiac vascular malformations was 92.3% and 99.0% (P < 0.05),respectively.The mean score of image quality was 3.77 ± 0.83.The mean ED was 0.30 ± 0.04 mSv (range from 0.23 mSv to 0.39 mSv).Conclusions:In infants and children with IAA,prospective ECG-triggered DSCT with low radiation exposure and high diagnostic efficiency has higher accuracy compared to TTE in detection of extra-cardiac vascular anomalies.

  2. Aneurisma do ducto arterioso associado a interrupção do arco aórtico Aneurysm of the arterial duct associated to aortic arch interruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Zielinsky

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de aneurisma de ducto arterioso, com diagnóstico pré-natal, o que é muito raro, numa gestante com 33 semanas, onde o feto apresentou uma dilatação aneurismática do canal arterial, com calibre uniformemente aumentado, inserindo-se na aorta descendente, associado à interrupção do arco aórtico. A criança nasceu de parto cesáreo e manteve-se estável com o uso de prostaglandina até o 9º dia de vida, quando foi levada à cirurgia, tendo falecido durante o procedimento por falência biventricular. Este é o primeiro relato da associação desta anomalia com outra malformação cardiovascular intra-uterina, mostrando que este achado nem sempre é associado a uma evolução benigna.Aneurysm of the arterial duct is an infrequent finding, which is very rarely detected prenatally. A case of antenatal diagnosis in a pregnant patient (33 weeks is reported. The fetus presented an aneurysmatic dilation of the arterial duct with uniformly enlarged diameter, inserting into the descending aorta, which was interrupted. The neonate was born by cesarean section and was kept on postaglandins till the 9th day of life, when he was sent to surgery. During the surgical procedure, the baby died as a result of biventricular failure. This is the first report of prenatal association of aneurysm of the ducts anteriosus with other cardiovascular malformations and emphasizes that this finding does not always have a benign course.

  3. HIV-1 and T cell dynamics after interruption of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with a history of sustained viral suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Richard T.; Bhat, Niranjan; Yoder, Christian; Chun, Tae-Wook; Metcalf, Julia A.; Dewar, Robin; Natarajan, Ven; Lempicki, Richard A.; Adelsberger, Joseph W.; Miller, Kirk D.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Polis, Michael A.; Walker, Robert E.; Falloon, Judith; Masur, Henry; Gee, Dennis; Baseler, Michael; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Fauci, Anthony S.; Lane, H. Clifford

    1999-01-01

    Identifying the immunologic and virologic consequences of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients is of major importance in developing long-term treatment strategies for patients with HIV-1 infection. We designed a trial to characterize these parameters after interruption of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients who had maintained prolonged viral suppression on antiretroviral drugs. Eighteen patients with CD4+ T cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μl and viral load below the limits of detection for ≥1 year while on HAART were enrolled prospectively in a trial in which HAART was discontinued. Twelve of these patients had received prior IL-2 therapy and had low frequencies of resting, latently infected CD4 cells. Viral load relapse to >50 copies/ml occurred in all 18 patients independent of prior IL-2 treatment, beginning most commonly during weeks 2–3 after cessation of HAART. The mean relapse rate constant was 0.45 (0.20 log10 copies) day−1, which was very similar to the mean viral clearance rate constant after drug resumption of 0.35 (0.15 log10 copies) day−1 (P = 0.28). One patient experienced a relapse delay to week 7. All patients except one experienced a relapse burden to >5,000 RNA copies/ml. Ex vivo labeling with BrdUrd showed that CD4 and CD8 cell turnover increased after withdrawal of HAART and correlated with viral load whereas lymphocyte turnover decreased after reinitiation of drug treatment. Virologic relapse occurs rapidly in patients who discontinue suppressive drug therapy, even in patients with a markedly diminished pool of resting, latently infected CD4+ T cells. PMID:10611346

  4. Use of Interrupted Time-Series Method to Evaluate the Impact of Cigarette Excise Tax Increases in Pennsylvania, 2000–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Lewis H.; Fisher, Monica A.; Ostroff, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Scientific evidence shows that cigarette price increases can significantly reduce smoking prevalence and smoking initiation among adolescents and young adults. However, data are lacking regarding the effectiveness of increasing Pennsylvania’s cigarette tax to reduce smoking and/or adverse health effects of smoking. The objective of our study was to assess the impact of cigarette tax increases and resulting price increases on smoking prevalence, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and asthma hospitalization rates, and sudden cardiac death (SCD) rates in Pennsylvania. Methods We used segmented regression analyses of interrupted time series to evaluate the level and trend changes in Pennsylvania adults’ current smoking prevalence, age-adjusted AMI and asthma hospitalization rates, age-specific asthma hospitalization rates, and age-adjusted SCD rates following 2 cigarette excise tax increases. Results After the first excise tax increase, no beneficial effects were noted on the outcomes of interest. The second tax increase was associated with significant declines in smoking prevalence for people aged 18 to 39, age-adjusted AMI hospitalization rates for men, age-adjusted asthma hospitalizations rates, and SCD rates among men. Overall smoking prevalence declined by 5.2% (P = .01), with a quarterly decrease of 1.4% (P = .01) for people aged 18 to 39 years. The age-adjusted AMI hospitalization rate for men showed a decline of 3.87/100,000 population (P = .04). The rate of age-adjusted asthma hospitalizations decreased by 10.05/100,000 population (P rates for men decreased by 1.34/100,000 population (P rates. Further research and policy development regarding the effect of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption should be cognizant of the psychological tipping points at which overall price affects smoking patterns. PMID:24135393

  5. Application of asynchronous interrupt function in machine tool break for 840D system%840D系统的异步中断功能在机床断刀后的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建全; 吴春平; 王恒; 康晓兰

    2013-01-01

      利用840D系统的异步中断功能,可以实现机床在断刀后暂停当前的加工程序,转而执行中断程序,使机床移动到安全地方后执行手动换刀功能,当刀具更换完毕后继续执行断电程序自动返回断点继续加工。%To pause the current program after the machine tool break can be realized by using asynchronous interrupt function of 840D system. Then the interrupt program can be implemented for the machine moving to safe place to carry on manual tool changing function. The power-off procedure can be completed continually to return the breakpoint automatically for processing after the tool is changed.

  6. Programming a real-time operating system for satellite control applications Satellite Control Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the realization of ideas like formation flights and multi-body space vehicles the demands on an attitude control system have become increasingly complex. Even in its most simplified form, the control system for a typical geostationary satellite has to run various supervisory functions along with determination and control algorithms side by side. Within each algorithm it has to employ multiple actuation and sensing mechanisms and service real time interrupts, for example, in the case of actuator saturation and sensor data fusion. This entails the idea of thread scheduling and program synchronization, tasks specifically meant for a real time OS. This paper explores the embedding of attitude determination and control loop within the framework of a real time operating system provided for TI's DSP C6xxx series. The paper details out the much functionality provided within the scaleable real time kernel and the analysis and configuration tools available, It goes on to describe a layered implementation stack associated with a typical control for Geo Stationary satellites. An application for control is then presented in which state of the art analysis tools are employed to view program threads, synchronization semaphores, hardware interrupts and data exchange pipes operating in real time. (author)

  7. Brian Carpenter at the PS control computer

    CERN Multimedia

    vmo

    1971-01-01

    Brian E. Carpenter has been Group Leader of the Communications Systems group at CERN since 1985, following ten years' experience in software for process control systems at CERN, which was interrupted by three years teaching undergraduate computer science at Massey University in New Zealand. He holds a first degree in physics and a Ph.D. in computer science, and is an M.I.E.E. He is Chair of the Internet Architecture Board and an active participant in the Internet Engineering Task Force.

  8. 多重中断C程序中数据竞争及原子性检测%Data Race and Atomicity Checking for C Programs with Multiple Interruptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴学光; 文艳军; 王戟; 傅秀涛; 綦艳霞; 顾斌

    2011-01-01

    In C programs with multiple interruptions, the interleaving of interruptions may cause some unexpected interleaving executions and even wrong execution results. A kind of frequently occurred error is that the atomicity of programs is violated because of data race. To solve this problem, this paper introduces the abstract execution semantics for C programs under multiple interruptions, gives an atomicity definition based on the access of shared variables, presents the data race and atomicity checking algorithms based on the atomicity definition, and adopts function abstraction technique to reduce the traversed state space. At last, it designs and implements a prototype checker named MIDAC (multiple interruption C program data race and atomicity checker), and the experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness on several practical programs.%在多重中断C程序中,中断嵌套可能会导致一些非期望的交叠执行,从而造成错误的程序执行结果.典型的问题是共享变量引起的数据竞争破坏了程序的原子性.针对此类问题,对多重中断C程序的运行时语义进行建模,根据共享变量的访问给出了一种原子性的定义,提出了相应的数据竞争及原子性检测方法,并采用函数摘要技术缩减静态分析过程中所需遍历的程序状态.最后,设计并实现了一个数据竞争及原子性检测原型工具MIDAC(multiple interruption C program data race and atomicity checker),实验结果表明,该工具能够针对一定规模的实际程序得到很好的检测效果.

  9. Research of Optimum Explosion Interruption Parameters of Tandem Warhead%串联战斗部最佳隔爆参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈闯; 王晓鸣; 沈晓军; 李文彬; 李伟兵

    2014-01-01

    To improve the penetration ability of shaped charge warhead (SCW ),a sequential initiation tandem warhead was designed.Shock wave Hugoniot relationship was used for calculating the process of the front charge blast shock wave attenuation in the composite structure explosion interrupter.It was confirmed that the distance between forward and backward charge was 2 times the diameter of charge.The calculation model of delay initiation time was established to obtain the optimum delay initiation time,and the calculation results were validated through X-ray imaging and penetration steel target experiments.The results show that the optimum delay initiation time was 85μs,and the backward charge can overcome the forward detonation and form effective jet.The penetration depth can achieve 80% of normal jet,and the armor penetrating power of tandem SCW satisfies the requirement of increasing penetration depth.%为了提高聚能装药战斗部的侵彻威力,设计了一种顺序起爆式串联战斗部。利用冲击波 Hugoniot关系计算了前级装药爆轰产生的冲击波在复合结构隔爆装置中的衰减过程,确定了前、后级装药间距为2倍装药口径;建立了延迟起爆时间的计算模型,获得了最佳延迟时间,通过 X光成像及侵彻钢靶试验进行了验证。研究结果表明,最佳延迟时间为85μs,在此延迟时间下后级装药能够克服前级爆轰场的作用并形成有效射流,侵深能够达到正常射流的80%,破甲威力满足串联聚能装药战斗部增大穿深的需求。

  10. Ligustrazine attenuates oxidative stress-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells by interrupting platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor-mediated ERK and p38 pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Ni, Chunyan [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); The First People' s Hospital of Changzhou, Changzhou 213003 (China); Kong, Desong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhu, Xiaojing; Chen, Li [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Lu, Yin [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); National First-Class Key Discipline for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); Zheng, Shizhong, E-mail: nytws@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); National First-Class Key Discipline for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Hepatic fibrosis represents a frequent event following chronic insult to trigger wound healing reactions with accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the liver. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the pivotal event during liver fibrogenesis. Compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress is concomitant with liver fibrosis irrespective of the underlying etiology. Natural antioxidant ligustrazine exhibits potent antifibrotic activities, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Our studies were to investigate the ligustrazine effects on HSC activation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative stress in liver fibrogenesis, and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at 5 μM significantly stimulated HSC proliferation and expression of marker genes of HSC activation; whereas ligustrazine dose-dependently suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-activated HSCs, and attenuated expression of fibrotic marker genes. Mechanistic investigations revealed that ligustrazine reduced platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor (PDGF-βR) expression and blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase, two downstream effectors of PDGF-βR. Further molecular evidence suggested that ligustrazine interruption of ERK and p38 pathways was dependent on the blockade of PDGF-βR and might be involved in ligustrazine reduction of fibrotic marker gene expression under H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulation. Furthermore, ligustrazine modulated some proteins critical for HSC activation and ECM homeostasis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-stimulated HSCs. These data collectively indicated that ligustrazine could attenuate HSC activation caused by oxidative stress, providing novel insights into ligustrazine as a therapeutic option for hepatic fibrosis. Highlights: ► Ligustrazine inhibits oxidative stress-induced HSC activation.

  11. Recommended Practice for Patch Management of Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Tom; Dale Christiansen; Dan Berrett

    2008-12-01

    A key component in protecting a nation’s critical infrastructure and key resources is the security of control systems. The term industrial control system refers to supervisory control and data acquisition, process control, distributed control, and any other systems that control, monitor, and manage the nation’s critical infrastructure. Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) consists of electric power generators, transmission systems, transportation systems, dam and water systems, communication systems, chemical and petroleum systems, and other critical systems that cannot tolerate sudden interruptions in service. Simply stated, a control system gathers information and then performs a function based on its established parameters and the information it receives. The patch management of industrial control systems software used in CIKR is inconsistent at best and nonexistent at worst. Patches are important to resolve security vulnerabilities and functional issues. This report recommends patch management practices for consideration and deployment by industrial control systems owners.

  12. Potential and Electric Field Distributions of 72.5 kV Vacuum Interrupter%72.5 kV真空灭弧室电位和电场分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱志斌; 黄道春; 阮江军

    2012-01-01

    An axisymmetric finite element model of 72.5 kV vacuum interrupter is established to analyze the potential and electric field distributions as well as the factors influencing the distributions. Subsequently, the potential and electric field distributions are calculated, the area effect of vacuum breakdown is investigate, and the effects of main shield's structure and size and multiple shields on the electric field distribution inside the vacuum interrupter are analyzed. The results indicate that: The potentials between moving and stationary contacts and between contacts and shield change obviously, and the electric field distribution inside the interrupter is non-uniform; With the increase in contact gap distance, contact radius, and curvature radius of contact chamfer, the active area on contact surface enlarges, but the maximum electric field strength inside the interrupter reduces; The increase in radius and length of the main shield leads to decrease in electric field strength at both ends of the shield, and the internal electric field distribution gets more uniform if there are multiple shields in the vacuum interrupter. This study may provide a reference for optimization design of high voltage vacuum interrupter.%为分析72.5 kV真空灭孤室的电位分布和电场分布及其影响因素,建立了其轴对称有限元分析模型,计算了其电位分布和电场分布,研究了真空击穿的面积效应,并分析了主屏蔽罩的结构尺寸及多个屏蔽罩对真空灭弧室内部电场分布的影响.结果表明:真空灭孤室动静触头之间、触头和屏蔽罩之间的电位变化比较显著,灭弧室内部电场分布不均匀;随着触头间隙距离、触头半径及倒角部分曲率半径的增大,触头表面有效面积将增大,而灭弧室内部最大场强将有所减小;增大主屏蔽罩的半径和长度,可以使屏蔽罩两端的场强有所减小,在真空灭孤室内安装多个屏蔽罩,可以改善内部电

  13. Mujeres que 'interrumpen' procesos: las primeras antologias feministas em los Estúdios Culturales Women who 'interrupt' processes: the first feminist anthologies in Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel González Díaz

    2009-08-01

    incorporation of feminism to the discipline. The analysis will endeavour to show how what some critics have called the feminist 'interruption' of the development of the process which Cultural Studies was undergoing at the end of the 70's in the 20th century, was in fact an enormous contribution to the discipline. The inclusion of new subjects and concepts in the academic debate, as well as new tools of analysis, provide evidence of that contribution, despite the difficulties which feminist intellectuals had to face at the start.

  14. Surgical treatment of interrupted aortic arch associated with ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus in patients over one year of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhiqiang; Li Bin; Fan Xiangming; Su Junwu; Zhang Jing; He Yan; Liu Yinglong

    2014-01-01

    Background Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare congenital anomaly affecting 1.5% of infants with congenital heart disease.Neonatal repair of IAA is required to avoid irreversible pulmonary vascular lesion.However,in China,patients with IAA associated with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) over one year of age are common.So we investigated the outcome of surgical treatment of IAA with VSD and PDA in patients over one year of age.Methods From January 2009 to December 2012,19 patients with IAA have undergone complete single-stage repair.The patients' mean age was 4.4 years,ranging 1 to 15 years; and their mean weight was 12.8 kg,ranging 4.2 to 36.0 kg.Fifteen IAA were type A,four were type B.Preoperative cardiac catheterization data were available from all patients.Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were measured.The measurements of postoperative pulmonary artery pressure were taken in the operating room at the end of the case.All patients underwent echocardiographic examinations before discharged from the hospital.In addition,cardiac catheterization and echocardiographic examinations were performed during follow-up.Selective brain perfusion through the innominate artery during aortic arch reconstruction was used in all patients.Mean follow-up was (1.6±0.8) years.Results There were two hospital deaths (2/19,11%).One patient died of pulmonary hypertension crisis,and another died of postoperative low cardiac output.Five cases had other main postoperative complications but no postoperative neurologic complications.Seventeen survivors were followed up,and there were no late deaths or reoperation.Mean cross-clamp duration was (85±22) minutes and selective brain perfusion duration was (34±11) minutes.Two patients required delayed sternal closure at two days postoperatively.Intensive care unit and hospital stays were (9±8) days and (47±24) days,respectively.Pressure gradients across

  15. Estudo comparativo entre a sutura contínua e a com pontos separados na parede abdominal de ratos A comparative study between continuous and interrupted sutures in rat's abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo F. Tognini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi comparar a sutura contínua e a sutura com pontos separados no fechamento da parede abdominal. Foram utilizados 48 ratos machos Wistar, submetidos a laparotomia com técnica de diérese padronizada, 24 submetidos a sutura da parede abdominal por técnica contínua e 24 com pontos separados, com fio polidioxanona. No 7º e 14º dia de pós-operatório foram submetidos a eutanásia 12 animais de cada grupo e deles retirados a camada músculo-fascial abdominal envolvendo a cicatriz operatória e dividida aleatoriamente em dois segmentos (cranial e caudal, um para ser submetido a avaliação da força de rotura mediante o uso de tensiômetro e outro para exame histológico, onde foi realizada a avaliação quantitativa de colágeno na linha de sutura. Os resultados encontrados foram analisados estatisticamente. Concluiu-se que no 7º dia de pós-operatório a parede abdominal suturada com pontos separados é mais resistente, porém sem diferenças significantes na quantidade de colágeno, do que a suturada por técnica contínua, e no 14º dia, ambas se equivalem nos dois parâmetros estudados, em ratos.The purpose of the experiment was to compare the continuous and interrupted techniques of abdominal clousure. It was used 48 male rats Wistar to realize longudinal laparotomies with a standardized technique. In 24 of them, the abdominal wall was closed by continuous suture and in 24 of them closed by interrupted suture. All of them using polidioxanone. In the 7th and 14th postoperative day, 12 animals of each group were submitted to euthanasia and the front abdominal wall was removed (without skin and divided in two segmentes (cranial and caudal, one for hystological analysis with an objective measurament og collagenous and another to the test of tensile strength by tensiometer. The resultant data were submitted to statistical analysis. It was conclued that in the 7th day , the abdominal wall closed by interrupted

  16. 风电并网后可中断负荷参与的备用获取方式研究%STUDY ON THE RESERVE PROCUREMENT METHOD INCLUDING INTERRUPTIBLE LOAD BY WIND POWER INTEGRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云丽; 朱全胜; 王娟娟; 李卫东

    2012-01-01

    After analyzing the characteristics of reserve demand by wind power integration, this paper found that small probability reserve demand increasing after wind power integration. For satisfying the increased reserve demand, using the high compensation interruptible load as a reserve support for cooperating with the traditional reserve is proposed. Based on the increased reserve requiring method which integrating the traditional reserve and high compensation interruptible load, the reserve cost optimization model for determining the best proportion of high compensation interruptible load is constructed. In the context of guarantying the safety and stability of the system, this method would save the reserve cost and improve the system operation efficiency. The influence factors of the cost optimization model include wind power penetration, wind power forecast error, reserve bidding, etc. Simulation results demonstrate that there factors how influence the proportion of high compensation interruptible load in increased reserve demand and the cost of the system reserve.%通过对风电并网后系统备用需求变化特性进行分析,发现风电并网后小概率备用需求增加的特性.针对这一特性,提出应用高赔偿可中断负荷作为一种备用支持配合传统备用,满足风电并网后系统增加的备用需求.采用传统备用和高赔偿可中断负荷两种备用相互协调配合的方式,构建了备用成本最优化模型,进而确定高赔偿可中断负荷在系统增加备用中的最佳比例.该方法在确保风电并网后系统安全稳定运行的前提下,节约了系统备用成本,从而提高了系统运行的经济性.仿真验证了风电穿透功率、风电预测误差、备用报价等因素对高赔偿可中断负荷占增加备用比例及系统备用成本的影响.

  17. 自保护药芯焊丝弧桥并存过渡试验分析%Experimental analysis of bridging transfer without arc interruption of self-shielded flux cored wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志明; 刘海云; 王勇; 张英乔

    2011-01-01

    采用高速摄影、汉诺威弧焊质量分析仪和体式显微镜对自保护药芯焊丝弧桥并存过渡特征和过渡机理进行了试验研究,结果表明:弧桥并存过渡是一种液桥持续存在的同时电弧不熄灭的熔滴过渡模式,是自保护药芯焊丝主要熔滴过渡模式之一;电弧电压和焊接电流波形没有短路过渡特征,表现为一定范围内小幅波动,与弧桥并存过渡特征相对应;电压概率密度分布曲线和电流概率密度曲线都没有短路过渡的特征;弧桥并存过渡的液桥是由熔融渣包裹液态金属混合形成的;自保护药芯焊丝孤桥并存过渡主要是在表面张力和电磁收缩力的共同作用下完成.%By using the high speed photography,Hanover analyzer and macro-microscope,the tranfer characteristic and the tranfer mechanisim of metal transfer of self-shielded flux cored wire have been studied.The results reaveal that bridging transfer without arc interruption transfer is a kind of transfer which the bridge exists lastingly while the arc isn't extinguished,and it is one of the metal transfer models of self-shielded flux cored wire.Without the characteristic of short-circuit transfer,the wave pattern of arc voltage and welding current represent the slight waving within a certain scope,corresponding to the characteristic of bridging transfer without arc interruption,the U-PDD & I-PDD doesn't show the characteristic of short circuit transfer.The bridge of bridging transfer without arc interruption is formed of mixture of the slag's covering the liquid metal.The accomplishment of bridging transfer without arc interruption is mainly conducted by joint work of surface tension and electromagnetic force.

  18. Advancements in non-destructive control of efficiency of electrochemical repair techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Sierra, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    [EN] The main electrochemical techniques used for reducing corrosion on reinforced structures are cathodic protection (CP), electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) and realkalisation (ER). Traditionally, for controlling the efficiency of CP, standard methods based in the depolarisation of rebar are used, with inconvenience of requiring the interruption of the protection current even for several hours. Concerning ECE and ER, the usual methods involve extraction and chemical analysis (chlorid...

  19. Power Electronics for Mitigation of Voltage Sags and Improved Control of AC Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães de Oliveira, Marcio

    2000-01-01

    The thesis deals with the application of compensators andswitches based on power electronics in AC transmission anddistribution systems. The objective of the studieddevices/equipment is the power flow and voltage control intransmission systems and the mitigation of voltage sags andmomentary interruptions to critical loads in distributionsystems. For validating the power electronics based devices/equipmentdescribed in the thesis, scaled models at a real-time simulatorhave been built. Simulatio...

  20. Simulation Analysis of Coherent False Target String by Interrupted-sampling Repeater Jamming Based on DRFM%基于DRFM间歇采样转发的相干假目标串干扰仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄成家; 刘晓东

    2011-01-01

    The interrupted-sampling repeater jamming is such a technique which can produce coher- ent false target string jamming to the coherent radar,the key device to realize the jamming is digital radio frequency memory. This paper discusses the implementation scheme and key steps of this jamming mode in theory,and emphasizes on the simulation and analysis,validates the availability and feasibility of the interrupted-sampling repeater jamming.%间歇采样转发干扰是一种能对相干雷达进行相干假目标串干扰的技术,实现这种干扰的关键器件是数字射频存储器。从理论上对这种干扰样式的实现方案与关键步骤进行了讨论,并重点对其进行了仿真与分析,验证了间歇采样转发干扰的有效性与可行性。