WorldWideScience

Sample records for 1986-2006 controlled interrupted

  1. Ressox Control of QZSS During Communication Interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    model, Cr=1.2, 30 m2Solar radiation pressure model Moon , Sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter , Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto Other bodies x...QZSS During Communication Interruption 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology

  2. Reduction of Hospital Physicians' Workflow Interruptions: A Controlled Unit-Based Intervention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weigl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly interruptive clinical environments may cause work stress and suboptimal clinical care. This study features an intervention to reduce workflow interruptions by re-designing work and organizational practices in hospital physicians providing ward coverage. A prospective, controlled intervention was conducted in two surgical and two internal wards. The intervention was based on physician quality circles - a participative technique to involve employees in the development of solutions to overcome work-related stressors. Outcome measures were the frequency of observed workflow interruptions. Workflow interruptions by fellow physicians and nursing staff were significantly lower after the intervention. However, a similar decrease was also observed in control units. Additional interviews to explore process-related factors suggested that there might have been spill-over effects in the sense that solutions were not strictly confined to the intervention group. Recommendations for further research on the effectiveness and consequences of such interventions for professional communication and patient safety are discussed.

  3. Multiple MIPS 4Kc cores based interrupt controller design and its implementation on HDTV SoC platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A multiple MIPS 4Kc processor cores based interrupt processing system is introduced. The interrupt controller plays a key role in the high definition television (HDTV) system-on-a-chip (SoC) platform,especially when it is a multiple processor system. Based on a general introduction to the whole HDTV SoC platform, a layered interrupt controller and its implementation are discussed in detail. The proposed scheme was implemented in our FPGA verification board. The results indicate that our scheme is reliable and efficient. Meanwhile, as a functional intellectual property (IP), the interrupt controller has reusability and expandability with the layered structure.

  4. Direct Load Control (DLC) Considering Nodal Interrupted Energy Assessment Rate (NIEAR) in Restructured Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2010-01-01

    A direct load control (DLC) scheme of air conditioning loads (ACL) considering direct monetary compensation to ACL customers for the service interruption caused by the DLC program is proposed in this paper for restructured power systems. The nodal interrupted energy assessment rate (NIEAR), which...... is used as the bids from the ACL customers, is utilized to determine the direct monetary compensation to the ACL customers. The proposed scheme was investigated for the PoolCo electricity market. The optimal DLC scheme is determined based on the minimum system operating cost which is comprised...... of the system energy cost, the system spinning reserve cost and the compensation cost to the ACL customers. Dynamic programming (DP) was used to obtain the optimal DLC scheme. The IEEE reliability test system (RTS) was studied to illustrate the proposed DLC scheme....

  5. Interrupt Handlers in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan; Schoeberl, Martin; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    An important part of implementing device drivers is to control the interrupt facilities of the hardware platform and to program interrupt handlers. Current methods for handling interrupts in Java use a server thread waiting for the VM to signal an interrupt occurrence. It means that the interrupt...... is handled at a later time, which has some disadvantages. We present constructs that allow interrupts to be handled directly and not at a later point decided by a scheduler. A desirable feature of our approach is that we do not require a native middleware layer but can handle interrupts entirely with Java...... code. We have implemented our approach using an interpreter and a Java processor, and give an example demonstrating its use....

  6. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  7. A randomized control trial on interruption of HBV transmission in uterus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱启镕; 于广军; 俞蕙; 吕晴; 顾新焕; 董左权; 张秀珍

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the interruptive effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) specific immunolobulin (HBIG) before delivery in attempt to prevent intrauterine transmission of HBV.Methods Nine hundred and eighty HBsAg carrier pregnant women were randomly divided into HBIG group and control group. Each subject in the HBIG group received 200 IU or 400 IU of HBIG intramuscularly at 3, 2 and 1 month before delivery. The subjects in the control group did not receive any specific treatment. All newborn infants received 100 IU of HBIG intramascularty after venous blood samples were taken at birth and 2 weeks after birth, followed by 30 μg plasma-derived HB vaccine or 5 μg recombinant yeast-derived hepatitis B vaccine at 1, 2 and 7 months of age. Blood tests were performed for all the lying-in women and their neonates. Blood specimens were tested for HBsAg and HBeAg by enzyme immunoassay. All infants were followed up for 1 year.Results In the HBIG group, 491 neonates were born to 487 HBV carrier mothers; and in the control group, 496 neonates were born to 493 HBV carrier mothers. The rates of intrauterine transmission in the two groups were 14.3% and 5.7% respectively (χ2=20.280, P<0.001), and the rates of chronic hepatitis B in the two groups were 2.2% and 7.3% respectively (χ2=13.696, P<0.001). The high risk factors of intrauterine HBV infection included HBsAg HBeAg double positive and HBV DNA positive in the peripheral blood of pregnant women.Conclusion HBV infection in the uterus may be interrupted by injecting multiple intramuscular HBIG injections before delivery without causing any side-effects.

  8. Redox-Controled Preservation of Mediterranean Sapropel S1 deposits during Formation and Interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Filippidi, Amalia; Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Hennekam, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Organic-rich units (sapropels) occur in Mediterraneran sediments in a repetitive, climate-controled way. Their deposition is thought to be precession-related and to be associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period and vegetated Sahara. Within that period, the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1 formation. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1sediments determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation of the deep-water at 5.7 kyr. The sustaining oxic conditions thereafter have resulted in a downward progressing oxidation-front that is not only characterized by the degradation of most organic matter over its active pathway, but also by the built-up of manganese oxide. The latter has resulted in a secondary diagenetic Mn-peak below the first, upper, ventilation Mn-peak. Apart from the major re-ventilation event at the end of sapropel S1 formation, also other, short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during its formation, notably during the 8.2 ka event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation

  9. Network interruptions

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Sunday 12 June 2005, a site-wide security software upgrade will be performed on all CERN network equipment. This maintenance operation will cause at least 2 short network interruptions of 2 minutes on each equipment item. There are hundreds of such items across the CERN site (Meyrin, Prévessin and all SPS and LHC pits), and it will thus take the whole day to treat them all. All network users and services will be affected. Central batch computing services will be interrupted during this period, expected to last from 8 a.m. until late evening. Job submission will still be possible but no jobs will actually be run. It is hoped to complete the computer centre upgrades in the morning so that stable access can be restored to lxplus, afs and nice services as soon as possible; this cannot be guaranteed, however. The opportunity will be used to interrupt and perform upgrades on the CERN Document Servers.

  10. Randomized, controlled trial of therapy interruption in chronic HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Papasavvas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approaches to limiting exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART drugs are an active area of HIV therapy research. Here we present longitudinal follow-up of a randomized, open-label, single-center study of the immune, viral, and safety outcomes of structured therapy interruptions (TIs in patients with chronically suppressed HIV-1 infection as compared to equal follow-up of patients on continuous therapy and including a final therapy interruption in both arms. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Forty-two chronically HIV-infected patients on suppressive ART with CD4 counts higher than 400 were randomized 1:1 to either (1 three successive fixed TIs of 2, 4, and 6 wk, with intervening resumption of therapy with resuppression for 4 wk before subsequent interruption, or (2 40 wk of continuous therapy, with a final open-ended TI in both treatment groups. Main outcome was analysis of the time to viral rebound (>5,000 copies/ml during the open-ended TI. Secondary outcomes included study-defined safety criteria, viral resistance, therapy failure, and retention of immune reconstitution. There was no difference between the groups in time to viral rebound during the open-ended TI (continuous therapy/single TI, median [interquartile range] = 4 [1-8] wk, n = 21; repeated TI, median [interquartile range] = 5 [4-8] wk, n = 21; p = 0.36. No differences in study-related adverse events, viral set point at 12 or 20 wk of open-ended interruption, viral resistance or therapy failure, retention of CD4 T cell numbers on ART, or retention of lymphoproliferative recall antigen responses were noted between groups. Importantly, resistance detected shortly after initial viremia following the open-ended TI did not result in a lack of resuppression to less than 50 copies/ml after reinitiation of the same drug regimen. CONCLUSION: Cycles of 2- to 6-wk time-fixed TIs in patients with suppressed HIV infection failed to confer a clinically significant benefit with regard to viral

  11. Immune control of HIV-1 infection after therapy interruption: immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernaschi Massimo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal stage for initiating antiretroviral therapies in HIV-1 bearing patients is still a matter of debate. Methods We present computer simulations of HIV-1 infection aimed at identifying the pro et contra of immediate as compared to deferred Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART. Results Our simulations highlight that a prompt specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes response is detected when therapy is delayed. Compared to very early initiation of HAART, in deferred treated patients CD8+ T cells manage to mediate the decline of viremia in a shorter time and, at interruption of therapy, the virus experiences a stronger immune pressure. We also observe, however, that the immunological effects of the therapy fade with time in both therapeutic regimens. Thus, within one year from discontinuation, viral burden recovers to the value at which it would level off in the absence of therapy. In summary, simulations show that immediate therapy does not prolong the disease-free period and does not confer a survival benefit when compared to treatment started during the chronic infection phase. Conclusion Our conclusion is that, since there is no therapy to date that guarantees life-long protection, deferral of therapy should be preferred in order to minimize the risk of adverse effects, the occurrence of drug resistances and the costs of treatment.

  12. Immune and viral correlates of "secondary viral control" after treatment interruption in chronically HIV-1 infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Van Gulck

    Full Text Available Upon interruption of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients usually show viral load rebound to pre-treatment levels. Four patients, hereafter referred to as secondary controllers (SC, were identified who initiated therapy during chronic infection and, after stopping treatment, could control virus replication at undetectable levels for more than six months. In the present study we set out to unravel possible viral and immune parameters or mechanisms of this phenomenon by comparing secondary controllers with elite controllers and non-controllers, including patients under HAART. As candidate correlates of protection, virus growth kinetics, levels of intracellular viral markers, several aspects of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell function and HIV neutralizing antibodies were investigated. As expected all intracellular viral markers were lower in aviremic as compared to viremic subjects, but in addition both elite and secondary controllers had lower levels of viral unspliced RNA in PBMC as compared to patients on HAART. Ex vivo cultivation of the virus from CD4+ T cells of SC consistently failed in one patient and showed delayed kinetics in the three others. Formal in vitro replication studies of these three viruses showed low to absent growth in two cases and a virus with normal fitness in the third case. T cell responses toward HIV peptides, evaluated in IFN-γ ELISPOT, revealed no significant differences in breadth, magnitude or avidity between SC and all other patient groups. Neither was there a difference in polyfunctionality of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, as evaluated with intracellular cytokine staining. However, secondary and elite controllers showed higher proliferative responses to Gag and Pol peptides. SC also showed the highest level of autologous neutralizing antibodies. These data suggest that higher T cell proliferative responses and lower replication kinetics might be instrumental in secondary viral control in the absence of

  13. Flint Water Crisis Caused By Interrupted Corrosion Control: Investigating "Ground Zero" Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Kelsey J; Tang, Min; Edwards, Marc A

    2017-02-21

    Flint, Michigan switched to the Flint River as a temporary drinking water source without implementing corrosion control in April 2014. Ten months later, water samples collected from a Flint residence revealed progressively rising water lead levels (104, 397, and 707 μg/L) coinciding with increasing water discoloration. An intensive follow-up monitoring event at this home investigated patterns of lead release by flow rate-all water samples contained lead above 15 μg/L and several exceeded hazardous waste levels (>5000 μg/L). Forensic evaluation of exhumed service line pipes compared to water contamination "fingerprint" analysis of trace elements, revealed that the immediate cause of the high water lead levels was the destabilization of lead-bearing corrosion rust layers that accumulated over decades on a galvanized iron pipe downstream of a lead pipe. After analysis of blood lead data revealed spiking lead in blood of Flint children in September 2015, a state of emergency was declared and public health interventions (distribution of filters and bottled water) likely averted an even worse exposure event due to rising water lead levels.

  14. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  15. Effects of beam interruption time on tumor control probability in single-fractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Suzuki, M.; Hawkins, R. B.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment plans are designed on the assumption that the beams are delivered instantaneously, irrespective of actual dose-delivery time structure in a treatment session. As the beam lines are fixed in the vertical and horizontal directions at our facility, beam delivery is interrupted in multi-field treatment due to the necessity of patient repositioning within the fields. Single-fractionated treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is such a case, in which four treatment fields in multiple directions are delivered in one session with patient repositioning during the session. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the period of dose delivery, including interruptions due to patient repositioning, on tumor control probability (TCP) of NSCLC. All clinical doses were weighted by relative biological effectiveness (RBE) evaluated for instantaneous irradiation. The rate equations defined in the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) for primary lesions induced in DNA were applied to the single-fractionated treatment of NSCLC. Treatment plans were made for an NSCLC case for various prescribed doses ranging from 25 to 50 Gy (RBE), on the assumption of instantaneous beam delivery. These plans were recalculated by varying the interruption time τ ranging from 0 to 120 min between the second and third fields for continuous irradiations of 3 min per field based on the MKM. The curative doses that would result in a TCP of 90% were deduced for the respective interruption times. The curative dose was 34.5 Gy (RBE) for instantaneous irradiation and 36.6 Gy (RBE), 39.2 Gy (RBE), 41.2 Gy (RBE), 43.3 Gy (RBE) and 44.4 Gy (RBE) for τ = 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min, respectively. The realistic biological effectiveness of therapeutic carbon-ion beam decreased with increasing interruption time. These data suggest that the curative dose can increase by 20% or more compared to the planned dose if the

  16. A randomised control trial of structured interrupted generic antiretroviral therapy versus continuous therapy in HIV-infected individuals in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasamy, N; Flanigan, T P; Vallabhaneni, S; Cecelia, A J; Christybai, P; Balakrishnan, P; Yepthomi, T; Solomon, S; Carpenter, C C J; Mayer, K H

    2007-04-01

    This randomised control trial, conducted in Chennai, India, compared structured interrupted therapy (SIT) and continuous therapy (CT) in relation to immunologic and virologic outcomes, adverse events (AEs) and cost of therapy. ART-naïve adult HIV1-infected participants with CD4 counts 50-350 cells/mm(3), and plasma viral load (PVL)>5000 copies/mL were enrolled and placed on Indian-manufactured generic ART: zidovudine(AZT)/stavudine(d4T)+lamivudine(3TC)+efavirenz(EFV). After at least six months of continuous therapy, subjects were randomised to SIT (one-week-on/one-week-off cycles) or CT. The primary end-point was the proportion of subjects maintaining CD4>200 cells/mm(3) at six and 12 months after randomisation. Secondary end-points were effective viral suppression (PVL200 cells/mm(3). One participant on CT and two on SIT had sustained PVL>400 copies/mL. There were no serious AEs or deaths. Structured interrupted therapy cost was half of CT. Structured interrupted therapy was effective at maintaining CD4 above 200 cells/mm(3). Adverse events were comparable in both groups, with 50% reduction in cost for SIT. Further research on such strategies may benefit resource-constrained settings.

  17. Servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attinella, John E.; Davis, Kristan D.; Musselman, Roy G.; Satterfield, David L.

    2015-12-29

    Methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer comprising a plurality of processor threads. Embodiments include an interrupt controller indicating in a plurality of local interrupt status locations that a globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include a thread determining that a local interrupt status location corresponding to the thread indicates that the globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include the thread processing one or more entries in a global interrupt status bit queue based on whether global interrupt status bits associated with the globally broadcast interrupt signal are locked. Each entry in the global interrupt status bit queue corresponds to a queued global interrupt.

  18. Interruptions: Derrida and Hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Westmoreland

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Come in. Welcome. Be my guest and I will be yours. Shall we ask, in accordance with the Derridean question, "Is not hospitality an interruption of the self?" What is the relationship between the interruption and the moment one enters the host's home? Derrida calls us toward a new understanding of hospitality - as an interruption. This paper will illuminate the history of hospitality in the West as well as trace Derrida's discussions of hospitality throughout many of works. The overall goal of this project is to provide readers of Derrida with a sort of reference guide for his discussions on and deconstructive approach to hospitality.

  19. Post-treatment HIV-1 controllers with a long-term virological remission after the interruption of early initiated antiretroviral therapy ANRS VISCONTI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Sáez-Cirión

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART reduces HIV-associated morbidities and mortalities but cannot cure the infection. Given the difficulty of eradicating HIV-1, a functional cure for HIV-infected patients appears to be a more reachable short-term goal. We identified 14 HIV patients (post-treatment controllers [PTCs] whose viremia remained controlled for several years after the interruption of prolonged cART initiated during the primary infection. Most PTCs lacked the protective HLA B alleles that are overrepresented in spontaneous HIV controllers (HICs; instead, they carried risk-associated HLA alleles that were largely absent among the HICs. Accordingly, the PTCs had poorer CD8+ T cell responses and more severe primary infections than the HICs did. Moreover, the incidence of viral control after the interruption of early antiretroviral therapy was higher among the PTCs than has been reported for spontaneous control. Off therapy, the PTCs were able to maintain and, in some cases, further reduce an extremely low viral reservoir. We found that long-lived HIV-infected CD4+ T cells contributed poorly to the total resting HIV reservoir in the PTCs because of a low rate of infection of naïve T cells and a skewed distribution of resting memory CD4+ T cell subsets. Our results show that early and prolonged cART may allow some individuals with a rather unfavorable background to achieve long-term infection control and may have important implications in the search for a functional HIV cure.

  20. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory.

  1. Closed-loop optogenetic control of thalamus as a new tool to interrupt seizures after cortical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Jeanne T.; Davidson, Thomas J.; Frechette, Eric S.; Delord, Bruno; Parada, Isabel; Peng, Kathy; Deisseroth, Karl; Huguenard, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrocortical injuries, such as stroke, are a major source of disability. Maladaptive consequences can result from post-injury local reorganization of cortical circuits. For example, epilepsy is a common sequela of cortical stroke, yet mechanisms responsible for seizures following cortical injuries remain unknown. In addition to local reorganization, long-range, extra-cortical connections might be critical for seizure maintenance. Here we report in rats the first evidence that the thalamus – a structure remote from but connected to the injured cortex – is required to maintain cortical seizures. Thalamocortical neurons connected to the injured epileptic cortex undergo changes in HCN channel expression and become hyperexcitable. Targeting these neurons with a closed-loop optogenetic strategy demonstrates that reducing their activity in real-time is sufficient to immediately interrupt electrographic and behavioral seizures. This approach is of therapeutic interest for intractable epilepsy, since it spares cortical function between seizures, in contrast to existing treatments such as surgical lesioning or drugs. PMID:23143518

  2. Void Shapes Controlled by Using Interruption-Free Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of GaN Films on Patterned SiO2 AlN/Sapphire Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-An Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available GaN epitaxial layers with embedded air voids grown on patterned SiO2 AlN/sapphire templates were proposed. Using interruption-free epitaxial lateral overgrowth technology, we realized uninterrupted growth and controlled the shape of embedded air voids. These layers showed improved crystal quality using X-ray diffraction and measurement of etching pits density. Compared with conventional undoped-GaN film, the full width at half-maximum of the GaN (0 0 2 and (1 0 2 peaks decreased from 485 arcsec to 376 arcsec and from 600 arcsec to 322 arcsec, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the coalesced GaN growth led to bending threading dislocation. We also proposed a growth model based on results of scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Miscarriage: A Dream Interrupted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepal, Heather C.; Semivan, Suzanne Gibson; Caley-Bruce, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy is a developmental task that requires women to become accustomed to inherent and sometimes profound biological, somatic, and psychological changes. When pregnancy is interrupted by miscarriage, it may become a pivotal crisis point in the development of a woman's maternal identity as well as an issue in family development. This manuscript…

  4. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways...... of supporting such behavior, we implemented a gesture controlled multiuser game with four pausing techniques. We evaluated them in a field study analyzing 704 users and found that our pausing techniques were eagerly explored, but rarely used with the intention to pause the game. Our study shows...... that interactions with public displays are considerably intermissive, and that users mostly interrupt interaction to socialize and mainly approach public displays in groups. We conclude that, as a typical characteristic of public display interaction, interruptions deserve consideration. However, manual pause modes...

  5. Analysis on epidemiologic characteristics of human plague case form Rattus flavipectus plague natural foci in Yunnan Province%1986-2006年云南省家鼠鼠疫疫源地人间鼠疫流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊勇; 董兴齐; 赵文红; 梁云

    2008-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiologic characters of human plague from Rattus flavipectus plague natural foci in Yunnan Province from 1986 to 2006 and to provide references for prevention and control strategy.Methods Data were collected and analyzed on epidemic situation of human plague in the past twenty-one years.Results From 1986 to 2006,the total human plague cases from Rattus flavipectus plague natural foci in Yunnan were 507,accounted for 59.5%(507/866)of the total cases in the whole country.There were three peaks of human plague outbreak in 1990,1996 and 2000.The number of annual cases were 73,88 and 122,accounting for 97.3%(73/75),89.8%(88/98),48.0%(122/254)of the total cases in the whole country respectively.The epidemic areas were mainly located in the west,southwest and southeast pans of Yunnan,but the number of cases changed with year in different prefectures(or cities).Seasonal pattern analyses revealed that the epidemic could occur in whole year,with a peak period through July to November,especially September.There were different prevalence of plague cases in age and professions,which related to the chance of contact with infected animals and infectious fleas.All human plague cases were primary bubonic plague.Conclusions The results suggested that there were clear epidemic characteristics for human plague for Rattus flavipectus plague natural foci in Yunnan.In order to control human plague effectively,it was necessary to reinforce surveillance and warning system to diminish the outbreak of human plague.%目的 分析1986-2006年云南省家鼠鼠疫疫源地人间鼠疫流行特征,为制订防治策略提供参考依据.方法 结合疫情现场调查资料和疫情总结报告,采用描述流行病学方法进行分析.结果 1986-2006年,云南省共发现507例人间鼠疫病例,占全国同期病例的58.5%(507/866),居各省份之首.1990、1996、2000午出现3次流行高峰,分别占全国同期病例的97.3%(73/75)、89.8%(88/98)、48

  6. Customer interruption cost and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eua-Arporn, B.; Bisarnbutra, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-12-31

    Results of a comprehensive study on short-term direct impacts and consumer interruption costs, incurred as a result of power supply interruption, were discussed. The emphasis was on questionnaire development, general responses and the average customer damage function of some selected sectors. The customer damage function was established for each category of customers (agriculture, industry, mining, wholesale, retail merchandising, residential, etc) as well as for different locations. Results showed that the average customer damage function depended mostly on customer category. Size and location were not significant factors. 5 refs., 7 tabs.

  7. Perceptual Learning of Interrupted Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benard, Michel Ruben; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    The intelligibility of periodically interrupted speech improves once the silent gaps are filled with noise bursts. This improvement has been attributed to phonemic restoration, a top-down repair mechanism that helps intelligibility of degraded speech in daily life. Two hypotheses were investigated u

  8. The Effects of Continuous and Interrupted Episiotomy Repair on Pain Severity and Rate of Perineal Repair: A Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Hasanpoor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Perineal pain is the most common complaint after episiotomy. It imposes extra pressure on mothers who attempt to adapt to their new conditions. Therefore, the present study was performed to compare pain severity and perineal repair in two episiot-omy repair methods. Methods: In this clinical trial, 100 primiparous women who re-ferred to hospitals of Tabriz (Iran for delivery were randomly allocated into two groups of 50 to undergo either continuous or interrupted episiotomy repair. A visual analogue scale (VAS was used to evaluate pain severity 12-18 hours after episiotomy repair and also 10 days after delivery. Perineal repair rate was also assessed using the REEDA (redness, edema, ecchymosis, discharge, and approximation scoring scale. The obtained data was analyzed in SPSS15. Results: Statistical tests did not show significant differ-ences between the 2 groups in pain severity variations or REEDA scores at 12-18 hours and the 10th day after delivery. However, the mean required time for repair and the num-ber of used threads were significantly lower in the continuous repair group (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that pain severity and episiotomy repair rate were similar in the two methods. Nevertheless, shorter time of repair and fewer threads were required using the continuous repair method. Therefore, this method would provide better services for mothers and reduce the required time, energy, and costs.

  9. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1998-08-11

    A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

  10. Interruptions during hospital nurses’ medication administration rounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Smeulers

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Medication administration errors are common, costly and the cause of adverse events in clinical practice. Interruptions during medication administration rounds are thought to be a prominent causative factor of these medication errors. In this observational study, data were collected on the number and duration of several different sources of verbal and non-verbal interruptions using unobtrusive structured observations on 32 medication administration rounds. Interruptions occurred very often (6.9 times per nurse each hour, differed in frequency among the medication administration rounds and were from a variety of sources. The most frequent interruptions were caused by nursing colleagues (43% and non-verbal interruptions from the ward environment (25%, such as noises from pagers, conversations in the vicinity of the nurse, the work of cleaners, or stock management by pharmacy staff. The longest durations of interruptions were from nursing colleagues’ verbal interrup- interruptions. When comparing the medication rounds, more and longer interruptions were observed during the morning rounds than those at noon. A comparison between surgical and non-surgical units showed that interruptions occurred more often and lasted longer in non-surgical units than those in surgical units. But the observed differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, interruptions during medication administration rounds are frequent and originated from different human and environmental sources. Interventions should target not only interruptions by colleagues, but should also consider ways to reduce self-initiated interruptions and those arising from the immediate ward environment.

  11. Children and Career Interruptions: The Family Gap in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Smith, Nina

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: The effect of children and career interruptions on the family gap is analysed based on longitudinal data covering the years 1980-1995. The estimated model controls for unobserved time-constant heterogeneity. The results show that when controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, the negative...

  12. Thinking aloud in the presence of interruptions and time constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    Thinking aloud is widely used for usability evaluation and its reactivity is therefore important to the quality of evaluation results. This study investigates whether thinking aloud (i.e., verbalization at levels 1 and 2) affects the behaviour of users who perform tasks that involve interruptions...... and time constraints, two frequent elements of real-world activities. We find that the presence of auditory, visual, audiovisual, or no interruptions interacts with thinking aloud for task solution rate, task completion time, and participants’ fixation rate. Thinking-aloud participants also spend longer...... responding to interruptions than control participants. Conversely, the absence or presence of time constraints does not interact with thinking aloud, suggesting that time pressure is less likely to make thinking aloud reactive than previously assumed. Our results inform practitioners faced with the decision...

  13. Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Gheorghe; Archer, Charles J.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2010-05-11

    Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt including creating a thread; receiving an interrupt having an interrupt type; determining whether a value of a semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled; if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are not disabled: calling, by the thread, one or more preconfigured functions in dependence upon the interrupt type of the interrupt; yielding the thread; and if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled: setting the value of the semaphore to represent to a kernel that interrupts are hard-disabled; and hard-disabling interrupts at the kernel.

  14. A note on conversational interruptions A note on conversational interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F. Deyes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974 examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the authors introduce the notion of "transition relevance place", that is, a point in the turn-holder's utterance where another speaker is most likely to take up a turn. Clearly the most obvious transition relevance place occurs at the end of an utterance sentence, where a pause may be made. However, clause or thersyntactic boundaries also offer opportunities for other speakers to interrupt. As Sacks et al point out, if conversational participants do not take up a turn at a transition relevance place the turn holder will normally continue. In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974 examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the authors introduce the notion of "transition relevance place", that is, a point in the turn-holder's utterance where another speaker is most likely to take up a turn. Clearly the most obvious transition relevance place occurs at the end of an utterance sentence, where a pause may be made. However, clause or thersyntactic boundaries also offer opportunities for other speakers to interrupt. As Sacks et al point out, if conversational participants do not take up

  15. Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens

    2001-01-01

    at the assembly level. In this paper we present the design and implementation of a static checker for interrupt-driven Z86-based software with hard real-time requirements. For six commercial microcontrollers, our checker has produced upper bounds on interrupt latencies and stack sizes, as well as verified...

  16. A 33-GVA Interrupter Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    REFERENCES 1. c. E. Swannack, R. A. Haarman, J. D. G. Lindsay, and D. M. Weldon, " HVDC Interrupter Experiments for Large Magnetic Energy...7759-MS, April 1979. 3. E. M. Honig, "Dual 30-kA, HVDC Interrupter Test Facility", Proc• 7th Symp. Eng. Problems of Fusion Res., Knoxville, TN

  17. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways of supp...

  18. Optical Cutting Interruption Sensor for Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Adelmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on an optical sensor system attached to a 4 kW fiber laser cutting machine to detect cutting interruptions. The sensor records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a modified ring mirror and optical filter arrangement, which is placed between the cutting head and the collimator. The process radiation is sensed by a Si and InGaAs diode combination with the detected signals being digitalized with 20 kHz. To demonstrate the function of the sensor, signals arising during fusion cutting of 1 mm stainless steel and mild steel with and without cutting interruptions are evaluated and typical signatures derived. In the recorded signals the piercing process, the laser switch on and switch off point and waiting period are clearly resolved. To identify the cutting interruption, the signals of both Si and InGaAs diodes are high pass filtered and the signal fluctuation ranges being subsequently calculated. Introducing a correction factor, we identify that only in case of a cutting interruption the fluctuation range of the Si diode exceeds the InGaAs diode. This characteristic signature was successfully used to detect 80 cutting interruptions of 83 incomplete cuts (alpha error 3.6% and system recorded no cutting interruption from 110 faultless cuts (beta error of 0. This particularly high detection rate in combination with the easy integration of the sensor, highlight its potential for cutting interruption detection in industrial applications.

  19. The long-term costs of career interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available.

  20. Vacuum interrupters and thyratrons as opening switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, E. M.

    High power opening switches for inductive storage for large scale energy storage applications are described. The triggered vacuum interrupter and the magnetically quenched thyratrons are discussed. By electrically retriggering the discharge in the vacuum interrupter between pulses, the dependence on mechanical motion is eliminated. This should enable repetition rate operation at 10 to 15 kHz while still maintaining the vacuum interrupter's proven interrupting performance of tens of kiloamps at tens of kilovolts. The magnetically quenched thyratron uses a cross magnetic field to raise the switch impedance by decreasing the electron mobility and driving the discharge into an arc chute wall where it is quenched. Attempts to understand the basic mechanisms involved and to increase the switch, ratings, and particularly the conduction time, are discussed.

  1. Complete interruption of the aortic arch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Hak; Park, In Kyu; Lee, Won Hwa; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik; Lee, Jong Tae [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-09-15

    Complete interrupture of the aortic arch is one of the least common cardiac malformation. In this condition, continuity between the ascending and descending protions of the aorta is not present, and the descending aorta is supplied through a reversing patent ductus arteriosus. In the majority of the patients a ventricular septal defect is present. Authors have experienced a case of the complete interruption of aortic arch, interruption between the left carotid and the left subclavian artery.

  2. El Cartel Cultural en Bogotá 1986 - 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Castell, Edmon; Cortez Guzmán, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Hoja de Mano (plegable) de la muestra museográfica que expone la historia del cartel como patrimonio visual en las categorias de Bogotá, Arquitectura, Editorial y letras, Cine, Teatro y danza, Infantil, Música, Diseño Gráfico, Academia Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Arte, Fotografía y Cultura y patrimonio.

  3. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  4. Coordinating the interruption of assembly workers in manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbeinsson, Ari; Thorvald, Peter; Lindblom, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how interruptions from information and communications technology systems affect errors and the time to complete tasks for assembly workers. Interruptions have previously been examined in laboratory experiments and office environments, but not much work has been performed in other authentic environments. This paper contains the results of an experiment that was performed in a simulated manufacturing assembly environment, which tested the effects of interruptions on a manual assembly task. The experiment used existing interruption coordination methods as a basis, and the results showed a difference in the effect of interruptions and interruption coordination between cognitively complex laboratory tasks and manual assembly tasks in an authentic environment. Most notably, the negative effects of interruptions delivered without consideration were smaller in this experiment. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems for minimizing the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

  5. How do Interruptions Impact Nurses’ Visual Scanning Patterns When Using Barcode Medication Administration Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ze; Marquard, Jenna L.; Henneman, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    While barcode medication administration (BCMA) systems have the potential to reduce medication errors, they may introduce errors, side effects, and hazards into the medication administration process. Studies of BCMA systems should therefore consider the interrelated nature of health information technology (IT) use and sociotechnical systems. We aimed to understand how the introduction of interruptions into the BCMA process impacts nurses’ visual scanning patterns, a proxy for one component of cognitive processing. We used an eye tracker to record nurses’ visual scanning patterns while administering a medication using BCMA. Nurses either performed the BCMA process in a controlled setting with no interruptions (n=25) or in a real clinical setting with interruptions (n=21). By comparing the visual scanning patterns between the two groups, we found that nurses in the interruptive environment identified less task-related information in a given period of time, and engaged in more information searching than information processing. PMID:25954449

  6. How do interruptions impact nurses' visual scanning patterns when using barcode medication administration systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ze; Marquard, Jenna L; Henneman, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    While barcode medication administration (BCMA) systems have the potential to reduce medication errors, they may introduce errors, side effects, and hazards into the medication administration process. Studies of BCMA systems should therefore consider the interrelated nature of health information technology (IT) use and sociotechnical systems. We aimed to understand how the introduction of interruptions into the BCMA process impacts nurses' visual scanning patterns, a proxy for one component of cognitive processing. We used an eye tracker to record nurses' visual scanning patterns while administering a medication using BCMA. Nurses either performed the BCMA process in a controlled setting with no interruptions (n=25) or in a real clinical setting with interruptions (n=21). By comparing the visual scanning patterns between the two groups, we found that nurses in the interruptive environment identified less task-related information in a given period of time, and engaged in more information searching than information processing.

  7. Testing Of Choiced Ceramics Cutting Tools At Irregular Interrupted Cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyncl, Ladislav; Malotová, Šárka; Nováček, Pavel; Nicielnik, Henryk; Šoková, Dagmar; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David; Holubjak, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the test of removable ceramic cutting inserts during machining irregular interrupted cut. Tests were performed on a lathe, with the preparation which simulated us the interrupted cut. By changing the number of plates mounted in a preparation it simulate us a regular or irregular interrupted cut. When with four plates it was regular interrupted cut, the remaining three variants were already irregular cut. It was examined whether it will have the irregular interrupted cutting effect on the insert and possibly how it will change life of inserts during irregular interrupted cut (variable delay between shocks).

  8. Chemoradiotherapy in patients with anal cancer: Impact of length of unplanned treatment interruption on outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Andreas; Meier Zu Eissen, Juergen; Karstens, Johann H.; Bremer, Michael [Medical School Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate feasibility and effectiveness of definitive chemoradiotherapy without split-course technique in anal cancer patients. From 1993 to 2003, 81 patients were treated; 13 were excluded due to various chemotherapeutic regimes, thus 68 patients were analysed. In case of acute grade 3 toxicities, treatment was halted until improvement or resolution independent of dose. Short interruption was defined as completing treatment without exceeding eight cumulative treatment days beyond scheduled plan, other patients were considered to have had prolonged interruption. Median follow-up was 46 months. Median overall treatment time was 53 days corresponding to an interruption of eight cumulative treatment days. Thirty-five patients (51%) had treatment interruption of <8 days. No acute grade 4 toxicities were observed; one fatality occurred during treatment due to ileus-like symptoms according to acute grade 5 toxicity. Comparing patients with short vs. prolonged interruption 5-year actuarial rates for local control were 85% vs. 81% (p{approx}0.605) and for colostomy-free survival 85% vs. 87% (p{approx}0.762), respectively. Chemoradiotherapy with short individualised treatment interruptions seems to be feasible with acceptable acute or late toxicities. Treatment is highly effective in terms of local control and colostomy-free survival.

  9. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Geller, Aaron M.; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    Binary mass transfer (MT) is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including SNe Ia, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this timescale to the mean time for stable MT to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing MT that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster properties. We find that for lower-mass clusters (≲ {10}4 {M}⊙ ), on the order of a few to a few tens of percent of binaries undergoing MT are expected to be interrupted by an interloping single, or more often binary, star, over the course of the cluster lifetime, whereas in more massive globular clusters we expect \\ll 1% to be interrupted. Furthermore, using numerical scattering experiments performed with the FEWBODY code, we show that the probability of interruption increases if perturbative fly-bys are considered as well, by a factor ˜2.

  10. Assembly interruptability robustness model with applications to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, James William

    1991-02-01

    Interruptability robustness of a construction project together with its assembly sequence may be measured by calculating the probability of its survival and successful completion in the face of unplanned interruptions of the assembly process. Such an interruption may jeopardize the survival of the structure being assembled, the survival of the support equipment, and/or the safety of the members of the construction crew, depending upon the stage in the assembly sequence when the interruption occurs. The interruption may be due to a number of actors such as: machinery break-downs, environmental damage, worker emergency illness or injury, etc. Each source of interruption has a probability of occurring, and adds an associated probability of loss, schedule delay, and cost to the project. Several options may exist for reducing the consequences of an interruption at a given point in the assembly sequence, including altering the assembly sequence, adding extra components or equipment as interruptability 'insurance', increasing the capability of support facilities, etc. Each option may provide a different overall performance of the project as it relates to success, assembly time, and project cost. The Interruptability Robustness Model was devised and provides a method which allows the overall interruptability robustness of construction of a project design and its assembly sequence to be quantified. In addition, it identifies the susceptibility to interruptions for the assembly sequence at all points within the assembly sequence. The model is applied to the present problem of quantifying and improving interruptability robustness during the construction of Space Station Freedom. This application was used as a touchstone for devising the Interruptability Robustness Model. However, the model may be utilized to assist in the analysis of interruptability robustness for other space-related construction projects such as the lunar base and orbital assembly of the manned Mars

  11. Behavior of the Siemens Virtual Wedge following an interruption to beam delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, N D; Walker, C P

    2003-01-01

    Investigations were made into the beam profile shape and dose delivered by the Siemens Virtual Wedge trade mark under standard operational conditions compared with those following delivery interruption on two Siemens Primus linear accelerators (Type 7445 and 8067) running different versions of control software (7.2 and 7.0, respectively). The shape of the Virtual Wedge trade mark profiles was found to be unaffected by beam delivery interruption. An increase in the dose delivered to the central axis was found when delivery was interrupted and subsequently resumed using information recorded in a recall data file on one of the accelerators. This dose increase was attributed to a difference in delivered monitor units recorded in the recall data file compared to those displayed on the linear accelerator control console.

  12. PolyQ repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are CAA interrupted repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Yu

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, rapidly progressive disease leading to paralysis and death. Recently, intermediate length polyglutamine (polyQ repeats of 27-33 in ATAXIN-2 (ATXN2, encoding the ATXN2 protein, were found to increase risk for ALS. In ATXN2, polyQ expansions of ≥ 34, which are pure CAG repeat expansions, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, similar length expansions that are interrupted with other codons, can present atypically with parkinsonism, suggesting that configuration of the repeat sequence plays an important role in disease manifestation in ATXN2 polyQ expansion diseases. Here we determined whether the expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS were pure or interrupted CAG repeats, and defined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs695871 and rs695872 in exon 1 of the gene, to assess haplotype association. We found that the expanded repeat alleles of 40 ALS patients and 9 long-repeat length controls were all interrupted, bearing 1-3 CAA codons within the CAG repeat. 21/21 expanded ALS chromosomes with 3CAA interruptions arose from one haplotype (GT, while 18/19 expanded ALS chromosomes with <3CAA interruptions arose from a different haplotype (CC. Moreover, age of disease onset was significantly earlier in patients bearing 3 interruptions vs fewer, and was distinct between haplotypes. These results indicate that CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are uniformly interrupted repeats and that the nature of the repeat sequence and haplotype, as well as length of polyQ repeat, may play a role in the neurological effect conferred by expansions in ATXN2.

  13. Interrupting the Interruption: Neoliberalism and the Challenges of an Antiracist School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Assaf; Apple, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines a US public elementary bilingual, multicultural school that attempts to interrupt the reproduction of existing relations of dominance and subordination across a variety of differences. The school's experiences illuminate the complex reality of schools as a site of struggle and compromise between at times contradictory…

  14. Dynamic response of an accelerator driven system to accelerator beam interruptions for criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A.; Abanades, A.; Leon, P.T.; Sordo, F. [E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, J. Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006 Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Val, J.M. [E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, J. Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mval@etsii.upm.es

    2008-06-21

    Subcritical nuclear reactors driven by intense neutron sources can be very suitable tools for nuclear waste transmutation, particularly in the case of minor actinides with very low fractions of delayed neutrons. A proper control of these systems needs to know at every time the absolute value of the reactor subcriticality (negative reactivity), which must be measured by fully reliable methods, usually conveying a short interruption of the accelerator beam in order to assess the neutron flux reduction. Those interruptions should be very short in time, for not disturbing too much the thermal magnitudes of the reactor. Otherwise, the cladding and the fuel would suffer from thermal fatigue produced by those perturbations, and the mechanical integrity of the reactor would be jeopardized. It is shown in this paper that beam interruptions of the order of 400 {mu}s repeated every second would not disturb significantly the reactor thermal features, while enabling for an adequate measurement of the negative reactivity.

  15. Dynamic response of an accelerator driven system to accelerator beam interruptions for criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, A.; Abanades, A.; Leon, P. T.; Sordo, F.; Martinez-Val, J. M.

    2008-06-01

    Subcritical nuclear reactors driven by intense neutron sources can be very suitable tools for nuclear waste transmutation, particularly in the case of minor actinides with very low fractions of delayed neutrons. A proper control of these systems needs to know at every time the absolute value of the reactor subcriticality (negative reactivity), which must be measured by fully reliable methods, usually conveying a short interruption of the accelerator beam in order to assess the neutron flux reduction. Those interruptions should be very short in time, for not disturbing too much the thermal magnitudes of the reactor. Otherwise, the cladding and the fuel would suffer from thermal fatigue produced by those perturbations, and the mechanical integrity of the reactor would be jeopardized. It is shown in this paper that beam interruptions of the order of 400 μs repeated every second would not disturb significantly the reactor thermal features, while enabling for an adequate measurement of the negative reactivity.

  16. Sequencing analysis of the spinal bulbar muscular atrophy CAG expansion reveals absence of repeat interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratta, Pietro; Collins, Toby; Pemble, Sally; Nethisinghe, Suran; Devoy, Anny; Giunti, Paola; Sweeney, Mary G; Hanna, Michael G; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2014-02-01

    Trinucleotide repeat disorders are a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by the expansion, beyond a pathogenic threshold, of unstable DNA tracts in different genes. Sequence interruptions in the repeats have been described in the majority of these disorders and may influence disease phenotype and heritability. Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by a CAG trinucleotide expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Diagnostic testing and previous research have relied on fragment analysis polymerase chain reaction to determine the AR CAG repeat size, and have therefore not been able to assess the presence of interruptions. We here report a sequencing study of the AR CAG repeat in a cohort of SBMA patients and control subjects in the United Kingdom. We found no repeat interruptions to be present, and we describe differences between sequencing and traditional sizing methods.

  17. Multislice CT angiography of interrupted aortic arch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong Hyun; Goo, Hyun Woo [Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Seo, Dong-Man; Yun, Tae-Jin; Park, Jeong-Jun [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Park, In-Sook; Ko, Jae Kon; Kim, Young Hwee [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-01-15

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between the ascending and descending aorta. Because almost all patients with IAA become critically ill during the neonatal period, they should undergo urgent corrective surgery. This clinical urgency necessitates a fast and accurate noninvasive diagnostic method. Although echocardiography remains the primary imaging tool for this purpose, it is not always sufficient for planning surgical correction of IAA, principally due to a limited acoustic window and the inexperience of imagers. In this context, multislice CT angiography is regarded as an appropriate imaging technique complementary to echocardiography because it is fast, accurate, and objective for the diagnosis of IAA. In this article we describe what cardiac radiologists should know about IAA in their clinical practice, including clinicopathological features, CT features with contemporary surgical methods and postoperative complications, and differentiation from coarctation of the aorta and aortic arch atresia. (orig.)

  18. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Specification, functional model and information flows - Call priority interruption and call priority interruption protection supplementary services

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Specification, functional model and information flows - Call priority interruption and call priority interruption protection supplementary services

  19. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Inter-exchange signalling protocol - Call priority interruption and call priority interruption protection supplementary services

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Private integrated services network - Inter-exchange signalling protocol - Call priority interruption and call priority interruption protection supplementary services

  20. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  1. Interrupter resistance and wheezing phenotypes at 4 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussee, JE; Smit, HA; Koopman, LP; Wijga, AH; Kerkhof, M; Corver, K; Vos, APH; Gerritsen, J; Grobbee, DE; Brunekreef, B; Merkus, PJFM; Jongste, JCC

    2004-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish young children with respiratory symptoms who will develop asthma from those with transient symptoms only. Measurement of interrupter resistance may help to identify children at high risk of asthma. The aim of this study is to compare interrupter resistance in 4-year-ol

  2. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135.417 Section 135.417 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report....

  3. INTERRUPTED STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Aaron M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Leigh, Nathan W. C., E-mail: a-geller@northwestern.edu, E-mail: nleigh@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West and 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Strong encounters between single stars and binaries play a pivotal role in the evolution of star clusters. Such encounters can also dramatically modify the orbital parameters of binaries, exchange partners in and out of binaries, and are a primary contributor to the rate of physical stellar collisions in star clusters. Often, these encounters are studied under the approximation that they happen quickly enough and within a small enough volume to be considered isolated from the rest of the cluster. In this paper, we study the validity of this assumption through the analysis of a large grid of single–binary and binary–binary scattering experiments. For each encounter we evaluate the encounter duration, and compare this with the expected time until another single or binary star will join the encounter. We find that for lower-mass clusters, similar to typical open clusters in our Galaxy, the percent of encounters that will be “interrupted” by an interloping star or binary may be 20%–40% (or higher) in the core, though for typical globular clusters we expect ≲1% of encounters to be interrupted. Thus, the assumption that strong encounters occur in relative isolation breaks down for certain clusters. Instead, many strong encounters develop into more complex “mini-clusters,” which must be accounted for in studying, for example, the internal dynamics of star clusters, and the physical stellar collision rate.

  4. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Nathan W C; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Binary mass transfer is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including Type Ia supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this time-scale to the mean time for stable mass transfer to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing mass transfer that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster pro...

  5. Interrupted Stellar Encounters in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Geller, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Strong encounters between single stars and binaries play a pivotal role in the evolution of star clusters. Such encounters can also dramatically modify the orbital parameters of binaries, exchange partners in and out of binaries, and are a primary contributor to the rate of physical stellar collisions in star clusters. Often, these encounters are studied under the approximation that they happen quickly enough and within a small enough volume to be considered isolated from the rest of the cluster. In this paper, we study the validity of this assumption through the analysis of a large grid of single - binary and binary - binary scattering experiments. For each encounter we evaluate the encounter duration, and compare this with the expected time until another single or binary star will join the encounter. We find that for lower-mass clusters, similar to typical open clusters in our Galaxy, the percent of encounters that will be "interrupted" by an interloping star or binary may be 20-40% (or higher) in the core,...

  6. Interrupting characteristics of puffer and suction type SF/sub 6/ gas interrupter especially in thermal breakdown region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsui, K.; Hirasawa, K.; Hirata, K.; Nakamura, I.; Takasuna, T.; Yoshioka, Y.

    1984-04-01

    Interrupting characteristics in thermal region within the range of 30-60kA current levels have been examined with an experimental model breaker under some SF/sub 6/ gas pressures of 4.5-15 bars. The interrupter tested with the breaker was designed to shorten the arcing time based on the puffer principle with the aid of a suction chamber. Arcing time was shortened with the fastly established gas-flow into the suction chamber in comparison with conventional puffer type interrupters. Interrupting characteristics in short arcing time region were much influenced by interrupter structures, interrupting currents, filling gas pressures and rates of rise of recovery voltage (rrrV). Particularly, in large current region over 50kA, the minimum arcing time was sensitively affected by moving side interrupter structures. Using a newly developed interrupter characterized by a follower type insulating nozzle, it has demonstrated a minimum arcing time of 0.37 cycles for the 63kA 90% short line fault (SLF) condition for two breaks per pole under an SF/sub 6/ gas pressure of 10 bars, and also has demonstrated 0.33 cycles for the 50kA 90% SLF condition under a pressure of 6 bars.

  7. Deformation of contact surfaces in a vacuum interrupter after high-current interruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhou, Zhipeng; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Jianhua; Geng, Yingsan; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2016-08-01

    In a high-current interruption, the contact surface in a vacuum interrupter might be severely damaged by constricted vacuum arcs causing a molten area on it. As a result, a protrusion will be initiated by a transient recovery voltage after current zero, enhancing the local electric field and making breakdowns occur easier. The objective of this paper is to simulate the deformation process on the molten area under a high electric field by adopting the finite element method. A time-dependent Electrohydrodynamic model was established, and the liquid-gas interface was tracked by the level-set method. From the results, the liquid metal can be deformed to a Taylor cone if the applied electric field is above a critical value. This value is correlated to the initial geometry of the liquid metal, which increases as the size of the liquid metal decreases. Moreover, the buildup time of a Taylor cone obeys the power law t = k × E-3, where E is the initial electric field and k is a coefficient related to the material property, indicating a temporal self-similar characteristic. In addition, the influence of temperature has little impact on the deformation but has great impact on electron emission. Finally, the possible reason to initiate a delayed breakdown is associated with the deformation. The breakdown does not occur immediately when the voltage is just applied upon the gap but is postponed to several milliseconds later when the tip is formed on the liquid metal.

  8. Anticipating Interruptions. Security and risk in a liberalized electricity infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvast, A.

    2013-11-01

    During the past ten years, a number of social scientists have emphasized the importance of material infrastructures like electricity supply as a research topic for the social sciences. The developing of such new perspectives concerning infrastructures also includes uncertainties and risks. This research analyzes the management of uncertainties in the Finnish electricity infrastructure by posing the following research question: how are electricity interruptions, or blackouts, anticipated in Finland and how are these interruptions managed as risks? The main research methodology of the work is multi-sited field work. The empirical materials include interviews with experts and lay people (33 interviews); participant observation in two electricity control rooms; an electricity consumer survey (115 respondents); and also a number of infrastructure and security policy documents and observations from electricity security seminars. The materials were primarily gathered between 2004 and 2008. Social science research often links risks with major current social changes or socio-cultural risk perceptions. In recent international social science discussions, however, a new research topic has emerged - those styles of reasoning and techniques of governance that are deployed to manage risk as a practical matter. My study explores these themes empirically by focusing on the specific habitual practices of risk management in the Finnish electricity infrastructure. The work develops various also semi-ethnographic inquiries into infrastructure risk techniques like monitor screening of real-time risks in electricity control rooms; the management of risks in a liberalized electricity market; the emergence of Finnish reasoning about blackouts from a specific historical background; and the ways in which electricity consumers respond to blackouts in their homes. In addition, the work reflects upon the position of a risk researcher in those situations when the research subjects do not define

  9. Trends of Development of Interruption Technologies in DC Circuit Breaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.Y.; Chung, J.K.; Shin, Y.J.; Park, K.Y. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes the necessity and the history of the development of DC circuit breaker and the trends of the development of interruption technologies in DC circuit breaker. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. A case of neonatal arterial thrombosis mimicking interrupted aortic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsu, Hazım Alper; Varan, Birgül; Oktay, Ayla; Özkan, Murat

    2015-06-01

    Neonatal arterial thrombosis is a very rare entity with clinical findings resembling coarctation of aorta or interrupted aortic arch. A two day-old male newborn was admitted to a different hospital with difficulty in sucking and sleepiness. On echocardiographic examination, a diagnosis of interrupted aortic arch was made and he was treated with prostoglandin E2. When the patient presented to our center, physical examination revealed that his feet were bilaterally cold. The pulses were not palpable and there were ecchymotic regions in the lower extremities. Echocardiography ruled out interrupted aortic arch. Computerized tomographic angiography revealed a large thrombosis and total occlusion of the abdominal aorta. Since there was no response to treatment with tissue plasminogen activator, we performed thrombectomy. Homozygous Factor V Leiden and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations were found in this patient. Neonatal aortic thrombosis which is observed very rarely and fatal should be considered in the differential diagnosis of coarctation of aorta and interrupted aortic arch.

  11. Instant Messaging Usage and Interruptions in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui‐Jung Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to explore IM interruption by relating it to media choices and purposes of IM use in the workplace. Two major media choice concepts were: media richness and social influence; while four purposes of IM use were: organization work, knowledge work, socializing, and boundary spanning activities. Data (N = 283 were collected via a combination of convenience and snowball sampling of “computer‐using workers” in Taiwan, based on the Standard Occupational Classification system published by the Taiwan government. Results indicated that media choice works better than purpose of IM use to explain IM interruption. Among them, social influence was the best predictor to IM interruption in the workplace. In addition, instant feedback and personalization provided by IM, and IM usage for the purposes of knowledge work and socializing, also relate to IM interruption in the workplace.

  12. A Wrist-Worn Thermohaptic Device for Graceful Interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, Frank; Jalaliniya, Shahram; Pederson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Thermal haptics is a potential system output modality for wearable devices that promises to function at the periphery of human attention. When adequately combined with existing attention-governing mechanisms of the human mind, it could be used for interrupting the human agent at a time when......-Aware-systems-inspired approach “Egocentric Interaction” aimed at supporting the design of envisioned Wearable Personal Assistants intended to, among other things, help human perception and cognition with the management of interruptions....

  13. Transmission of stability information through the N-domain of tropomyosin is interrupted by a stabilizing mutation (A109L) in the hydrophobic core of the stability control region (residues 97-118).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, J Paul; Hodges, Robert S

    2014-02-14

    Tropomyosin (Tm) is an actin-binding, thin filament, two-stranded α-helical coiled-coil critical for muscle contraction and cytoskeletal function. We made the first identification of a stability control region (SCR), residues 97-118, in the Tm sequence that controls overall protein stability but is not required for folding. We also showed that the individual α-helical strands of the coiled-coil are stabilized by Leu-110, whereas the hydrophobic core is destabilized in the SCR by Ala residues at three consecutive d positions. Our hypothesis is that the stabilization of the individual α-helices provides an optimum stability and allows functionally beneficial dynamic motion between the α-helices that is critical for the transmission of stabilizing information along the coiled-coil from the SCR. We prepared three recombinant (rat) Tm(1-131) proteins, including the wild type sequence, a destabilizing mutation L110A, and a stabilizing mutation A109L. These proteins were evaluated by circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry. The single mutation L110A destabilizes the entire Tm(1-131) molecule, showing that the effect of this mutation is transmitted 165 Å along the coiled-coil in the N-terminal direction. The single mutation A109L prevents the SCR from transmitting stabilizing information and separates the coiled-coil into two domains, one that is ∼9 °C more stable than wild type and one that is ∼16 °C less stable. We know of no other example of the substitution of a stabilizing Leu residue in a coiled-coil hydrophobic core position d that causes this dramatic effect. We demonstrate the importance of the SCR in controlling and transmitting the stability signal along this rodlike molecule.

  14. [Progress towards the interruption of transmission of Chagas disease in the southern countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, A

    1999-01-01

    The epidemiological and entomological data and the trends observed in the decreasing of the incidence of infection in young age groups indicate that only ninety years after the discovery of Chagas disease, the control of vectorial and transfusional transmission has reduced the incidence by 70% in the Southern Cone countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). This has been accomplished thanks to the political and financial engagement of the concerned governments who have invested US$340 millions since 1991 to the present. The initiatives to interrupt transmission of Chagas in the Andean countries and the Central American countries have begun their activities in 1997 and the evolution of the control operations allows to forecast the complete interruption in these areas before the year 2010 to comply with the mandate of Resolution WHA. 52.14 of the World Health Assembly in May 1998.

  15. When and why Filipino mothers of term low birth weight infants interrupted breastfeeding exclusively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrasada, Grace V; Kylberg, Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    This paper makes use of data collected in a randomised controlled trial that was designed to test the efficacy of postpartum breastfeeding counselling to increase exclusive breastfeeding among term low birth weight infants in Manila during the first six months. Mothers were randomised to a control group or one of two home visit interventions: by trained breastfeeding counsellors or child care counsellors without breastfeeding support training. Sixty mothers received peer breastfeeding counselling while a further 119 mothers did not. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers who received counselling was five weeks versus two weeks among those who received no counselling (pbreastfeeding was interrupted to offer infants water, traditional herbal extracts or artificial baby milk. Mothers who interrupted exclusive breastfeeding claimed they had insufficient milk or that their infants had slow weight gain. Early and sustained breastfeeding support will enable mothers to exclusively breastfeed low birth weight infants for the first six months.

  16. [Interrupted aortic arch in a 68-year-old female with hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Susanna; Fineschi, Massimo; Ceccherini, Claudio; Pierli, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare congenital malformation of the aorta and aortic arch. We report the case of a 68-year-old female with hypertension and poor control of blood pressure levels. She was diagnosed with aortic coarctation by aortography during young age. A double access angiography was performed that showed a type A IAA, a rare condition in adults that may cause hypertension.

  17. Current interruption measurement and analysis for PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.C.; Yuan, X.; Wang, H. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation

    2007-07-01

    The ohmic resistance, charge transfer resistance and the capacity discharge limit of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells can be evaluated and characterized by a newly developed, low cost, current interruption measuring method. This paper presented the results of a study in which the current interruption measurement for a PEM fuel cell was set up and proven through measurements with a dummy cell. The current interruption characteristics of a 500 W PEM fuel cell stack with an active area of 280 cm{sup 2} was measured using the National Instrument PCI data acquisition unit combined with a TDI electronics load-bank and a FuelCon test station, at different load currents. The ohmic loss of the stack determined by current interruption measurements was in good agreement with that determined by AC impedance spectroscopy. The same setup was shown to be effective for single cell measurements of a small PEM fuel cell and for a PEM fuel cell stack with a load bank. It was concluded that the current interruption measurement is much faster than the AC impedance method, but has lower accuracy, particularly for a signal with high noise. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  18. The Effects of Interruptions on Oncologists' Patient Assessment and Medication Ordering Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Trbovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interruptions are causal factors in medication errors. Although researchers have assessed the nature and frequency of interruptions during medication administration, there has been little focus on understanding their effects during medication ordering. The goal of this research was to examine the nature, frequency, and impact of interruptions on oncologists' ordering practices. Direct observations were conducted at a Canadian cancer treatment facility to (1 document the nature, frequency, and timing of interruptions during medication ordering, and (2 quantify the use of coping mechanisms by oncologists. On average, oncologists were interrupted 17 % of their time, and were frequently interrupted during safety-critical stages of medication ordering. When confronted with interruptions, oncologists engaged/multitasked more often than resorting to deferring/blocking. While some interruptions are necessary forms of communication, efforts must be made to reduce unnecessary interruptions during safety-critical tasks, and to develop interventions that increase oncologists' resiliency to inevitable interruptions.

  19. Approximator: Predicting Interruptibility in Software Development with Commodity Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Jalaliniya, Shahram; Andersen, Kristian S. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the presence and availability of a remote colleague is key in coordination in global software development but is not easily done using existing computer-mediated channels. Previous research has shown that automated estimation of interruptibility is feasible and can achieve a precision...... laptops. Experimental results show that the information aggregated from several activity monitors (i.e., Key-logger, mouse-logger, and face-detection) provide useful data, which, once combined with machine learning techniques, can automatically estimate the interruptibility of users with a 78% accuracy...

  20. Identifying biological pathway interrupting toxins using multi-tree ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergo Barta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry constantly seeks new ways to improve current methods that scientists use to evaluate environmental chemicals and develop new medicines. Various automated steps are involved in the process as testing hundreds of thousands of chemicals manually would be infeasible. Our research effort and the Toxicology in the 21st Century Data Challenge focused on cost-effective automation of toxicological testing, a chemical substance screening process looking for possible toxic effects caused by interrupting biological pathways. The computational models we propose in this paper successfully combine various publicly available substance fingerprinting tools with advanced machine learning techniques. In our paper, we explore the significance and utility of assorted feature selection methods as the structural analyzers generate a plethora of features for each substance. Machine learning models were carefully selected and evaluated based on their capability to cope with the high-dimensional high-variety data with multi-tree ensemble methods coming out on top. Techniques like Random forests and Extra trees combine numerous simple tree models and proved to produce reliable predictions on toxic activity while being nearly non-parametric and insensitive to dimensionality extremes. The Tox21 Data Challenge contest offered a great platform to compare a wide range of solutions in a controlled and orderly manner. The results clearly demonstrate that the generic approach presented in this paper is comparable to advanced deep learning and domain-specific solutions. Even surpassing the competition in some nuclear receptor signaling and stress pathway assays and achieving an accuracy of up to 94 percent.

  1. Report of the procedure of voluntary interruption of pregnancy at a university hospital in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bentancor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the constitution and operation of a voluntary interruption of pregnancy team of a university hospital, from the outlook of the mental health team. METHODS In this case study, the following aspects were analyzed: 1 historical background; 2 implementation of Law 18,897 of October 22, 2012; and 3 functioning of the program at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Facultad de Medicina (Universidad de la República, Uruguay, taking into account three dimensions: structure, process, and results. RESULTS Between December 2012 and November 2013, a total of 6,676 voluntary interruptions of pregnancy were reported in Uruguay; out of these, 80 were conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas. The patients’ demographic data agreed with those reported at the national level: Of the total patients, 81.0% were aged over 19 years; 6.2% decided to continue with the pregnancy; and only 70.0% attended the subsequent control and received advice on contraception. CONCLUSIONS In its implementation year in Uruguay, we can assess the experience as positive from the point of view of women’s health. Our experience as a mental health team at the Hospital de Clínicas, inserted into the multidisciplinary voluntary interruption of pregnancy team, is in the process of assessment and reformulation of practices.

  2. HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117 suppresses viral rebound in humans during treatment interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Johannes F; Horwitz, Joshua A; Bar-On, Yotam; Kreider, Edward F; Lu, Ching-Lan; Lorenzi, Julio C C; Feldmann, Anna; Braunschweig, Malte; Nogueira, Lilian; Oliveira, Thiago; Shimeliovich, Irina; Patel, Roshni; Burke, Leah; Cohen, Yehuda Z; Hadrigan, Sonya; Settler, Allison; Witmer-Pack, Maggi; West, Anthony P; Juelg, Boris; Keler, Tibor; Hawthorne, Thomas; Zingman, Barry; Gulick, Roy M; Pfeifer, Nico; Learn, Gerald H; Seaman, Michael S; Bjorkman, Pamela J; Klein, Florian; Schlesinger, Sarah J; Walker, Bruce D; Hahn, Beatrice H; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-07-28

    Interruption of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected individuals leads to rapid viral rebound. Here we report the results of a phase IIa open label clinical trial evaluating 3BNC117,a broad and potent neutralizing antibody against the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 Env protein, during analytical treatment interruption in 13 HIV-1-infected individuals. Participants with 3BNC117-sensitive virus outgrowth cultures were enrolled. Results show that two or four 30 mg kg(-1) 3BNC117 infusions,separated by 3 or 2 weeks, respectively, are generally well tolerated.Infusions are associated with a delay in viral rebound of 5-9 weeks after two infusions, and up to 19 weeks after four infusions, or an average of 6.7 and 9.9 weeks, respectively, compared with 2.6 weeks for historical controls (P < 0.00001). Rebound viruses arise predominantly from a single provirus. In most individuals,emerging viruses show increased resistance, indicating escape.However, 30% of participants remained suppressed until antibody concentrations waned below 20 μg ml(-1), and the viruses emerging in all but one of these individuals showed no apparent resistance to 3BCN117, suggesting failure to escape over a period of 9-19 weeks.We conclude that the administration of 3BNC117 exerts strong selective pressure on HIV-1 emerging from latent reservoirs during analytical treatment interruption in humans.

  3. Interrupted or continuous-intradermal suturing? Statistical analysis of postoperative scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Sarı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Postoperative scar development is an important problem for patients treated in plastic surgery clinics. Most patients think that continuous intradermal suturing is superior to interrupted suturing because they assume that it creates less scarring. We evaluated scars that form following intradermal and interrupted suturing. This article presents our controlled study that objectively compared the scars on patients' faces using a wound evaluation scale. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients, who had undergone operations on the bilateral cheeks, were included in this study. Thirty patients were female; five patients were male. Their mean age was 40.05 years. The average scar evaluation time after surgery was 9.05 months. Elliptical excisions were made on the lesions under local anesthesia. The incisions on the right cheeks were sutured with 6/0 monofilament nonabsorbable sutures using the continuous intradermal suturing technique. The left cheek incisions were sutured with same sutures using the interrupted suturing method. Results: The patients were evaluated 7–11 months after operation (mean: 9.05 months using the Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale. A Related Samples T-test was used for statistical evaluation of the differences between the suturing techniques. No significant differences were noted in scar formation between the two suturing methods (p>0.05. Conclusion: We found no differences in scar formation between the two frequently used suturing techniques studied here. We believe that the suturing technique is a less important determinant of scar formation than are other factors.

  4. Bisimilarity is not finitely based over BPA with interrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Fokkink, Wan; Ingolfsdottir, Anna;

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows that bisimulation equivalence does not afford a finite equational axiomatization over the language obtained by enriching Bergstra and Klop's Basic Process Algebra with the interrupt operator. Moreover, it is shown that the collection of closed equations over this language is also...

  5. User Assistance for Multitasking with Interruptions on a Mobile Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagata, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    Issues users have with use of the web on a mobile device can be attributed to difficulties with the mobile interface. A major challenge that we address is improving the user experience for handling of interruptions and multitasking when using the web in a mobile context. The usability issues with a

  6. User assistance for multitasking with interruptions on a mobile device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagata, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    Issues users have with use of the web on a mobile device can be attributed to difficulties with the mobile interface. A major challenge that we address is improving the user experience for handling of interruptions and multitasking when using the web in a mobile context. The usability issues with a

  7. A Wrist-Worn Thermohaptic Device for Graceful Interruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Jalaliniya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal haptics is a potential system output modality for wearable devices that promises to function at the periphery of human attention. When adequately combined with existing attention-governing mechanisms of the human mind, it could be used for interrupting the human agent at a time when the negative influence on the ongoing activity is minimal. In this article we present our self-mitigated interruption concept (essentially a symbiosis of artificial external stimuli tuned to existing human attention management mechanisms and perform a pilot study laying the ground for using a wrist-worn thermohaptic actuator for self-mitigating interruption. We then develope a prototype and perform an insightful pilot study. We frame our empirical thermohaptic experimental work in terms of Peripheral Interaction concepts and show how this new approach to Human-Computer Interaction relates to the Context-Aware-systems-inspired approach “Egocentric Interaction” aimed at supporting the design of envisioned Wearable Personal Assistants intended to, among other things, help human perception and cognition with the management of interruptions.

  8. Approximator: Predicting Interruptibility in Software Development with Commodity Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Jalaliniya, Shahram; Andersen, Kristian S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the presence and availability of a remote colleague is key in coordination in global software development but is not easily done using existing computer-mediated channels. Previous research has shown that automated estimation of interruptibility is feasible and can achieve a precision...

  9. Building and Verifying a Predictive Model of Interruption Resumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    contain gist information. Because these episodic codes decay, the current one will always be the most active ( modulo effects of activation noise), so...Li, A. Blandford, P. Cairns, and R. M. Young , BThe effect of interruptions on postcompletion and other procedural errors: An account based on the

  10. Institutional Narcissism, Arrogant Organization Disorder and Interruptions in Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…

  11. Pressure-induced optic nerve axonal transport interruption in cat eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Bade, B

    1981-12-01

    After intravitreal injection of tritiated leucine, optic nerve axonal transport was studied in 30 cat eyes by tissue radioautography. Twenty-five experimental eyes were examined after four hours of acute pressure elevation with perfusion pressures maintained at 20 to 70 mm Hg. In five control specimens, intraocular pressures were maintained at 10 mm Hg for the four-hour interval. The extent of leucine accumulation, as seen by radioautographs, was inversely proportional to the perfusion pressure. Accumulation was limited to the region fo the lamina cribrosa. The anatomic distribution and pressure response of this transport interruption were similar to those seen in primate eyes studied under similar conditions.

  12. Pressure-induced optic nerve axonal transport interruption in cat eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radius, R.L.; Bade, B.

    1981-12-01

    After intravitreal injection of tritiated leucine, optic nerve axonal transport was studied in 30 cat eyes by tissue radioautography. Twenty-five experimental eyes were examined after four hours of acute pressure elevation with perfusion pressures maintained at 20 to 70 mm Hg. In five control specimens, intraocular pressures were maintained at 10 mm Hg for the four-hour interval. The extent of leucine accumulation, as seen by radioautographs, was inversely proportional to the perfusion pressure. Accumulation was limited to the region fo the lamina cribrosa. The anatomic distribution and pressure response of this transport interruption were similar to those seen in primate eyes studied under similar conditions.

  13. A Multiple-Reception Access Protocol with Interruptions with Mixed Priorities in CDMA Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaowen; Zhu Jinkang

    2003-01-01

    A novel access protocol called Multiple-Reception Access Protocol (MRAP) and its modification MRAP/WI are proposed. In this protocol, all colliding users with a common code can be identified by the base station due to the offset of arrival time Thus they can retransmit access requests under the base station's control. Furthermore new arrivals with higher priority level can interrupt the lower retransmission in order to reduce its access delay although it increases the lower priority's delay. Simulation results of MRAP and MRAP/WI are given in order to highlight the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  14. Mathematic principles of interrupted-sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XueSong; LIU JianCheng; ZHANG WenMing; FU QiXiang; LIU Zhong; XIE XiaoXia

    2007-01-01

    Coherent jamming is one of the important trends in modern radar electronic warfare. High-speed sampling of wideband radio frequency (RF) signals and high isolation of two receive-transmit antennas are key technologies for the realization of coherent jamming. However, these technologies present significant challenges to engineering application. In this paper, a novel repeater jamming based on interrupted sampling technique is presented. For a jammer with a receive-transmit time-sharing antenna, a radar signal is sampled with a low rate by the jammer. Then, a train of false targets will be achieved after the jamming signal feed the matched filter of a pulse compression radar. For the case of the linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulse compression radars, mathematic principles of the interrupted-sam- pling repeater jamming is developed, and then the efficiency of the jamming is described and stated as expressions of key parameters which are also beneficial to the jamming design for other coherent radars.

  15. Realistically Rendering SoC Traffic Patterns with Interrupt Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angiolini, Frederico; Mahadevan, Sharkar; Madsen, Jan;

    2005-01-01

    traffic generators have been used to overcome such an issue. However, target applications increasingly present non-trivial execution flows and synchronization patterns, especially in presence of underlying operating systems and when exploiting interrupt facilities. This property makes it very difficult...... to generate realistic test traffic. This paper presents a selection of applications using interrupt-based synchronization; a reference methodology to split such applications in execution subflows and to adjust the overall execution stream based upon hardware events; a reactive simulation device capable......In Multi-Processor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) design stages, accurate modeling of IP behaviour is crucial to analyze interconnect effectiveness. However, parallel development of components may cause IP core models to be still unavailable when tuning communication performance. Traditionally, synthetic...

  16. Antenatal evaluation of fetal interrupted aortic arch type B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Babacan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interruption of the aortic arch (IAA is a rare, severe form of congenital heart defect characterized by complete anatomical discontinuity between two adjacent segments of the aortic arch. The data on the features and outcomes of fetal IAA are limited. Three anatomical types have been described according to the site of interruption. The current recommendations for screening on the obstetric fetal anomaly scan include identification of a 4-chamber view, all 4 valves, and the outflow tracts, all of which can appear to be normal to the ultrasonographer in fetuses with conotruncal anomalies. Although the identification of IAA on a prenatal echocardiogram can be challenging, a number of anatomic features can facilitate the diagnosis. We aim to present the features and outcome of a case of IAA type B referred to our centre in the light of literatures.

  17. Axonal transport interruption and anatomy at the lamina cribrosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Bade, B

    1982-10-01

    Pressure-induced, focal axonal transport abnormalities were studied in 14 cat eyes by the examination of serial step-section tissue radioautogram. Although the patterns of the transport interruption at the lamina cribrosa varied from eye to eye, the temporal sectors of the nerve head were most often involved by this abnormality. The anatomy at the lamina cribrosa was studied in adjacent (6 micrometers) cross-sectional specimens. The thickness of the extra-bundle trabeculae and the nerve fiber bundle dimensions including the cross-sectional area and the number and the shape (the ratio of the major and the minor axis diameters) of the laminar pores were measured by computer-assisted perimeter analysis. There was no correlation between the location of the transport interruption and any of these anatomic measurements.

  18. Understanding interruptions in the mathematics classroom: Implications for equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Núria; Civil, Marta

    2002-12-01

    The article is based on an extensive microethnographic study (Planas, 2001) that was focused on students aged 15-16 years who exhibited a high number of interruptions in their participation in the mathematics classroom. Our research points to the importance of considering how the students construe normative meanings for the classroom episodes, and how they value others and the knowledge construed. We argue that some interruptions in the students' participation can be understood as an active contestation to the classroom norms and to the perceived valorisations. Broadening the understanding of the learning opportunities for all the students requires studying further how the classroom sociocultural context and participants' valorisations mediate both the participation processes and the construction of mathematical knowledge.

  19. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putora Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. Methods We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. Results The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. Conclusions The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations.

  20. Stress Analysis and Calculation of Flow Interruption Capability Test Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; Bo; QI; Xiao-guang; CHENG; Dao-xi

    2012-01-01

    <正>A stress-analysis and calculation has been done for the flow interruption capability test loop (Fig. 1). In the design condition, the test loop is operated on 350 ℃ and 20MPa. By reasonably simplifying and modeling, a stress-analysis program named Triflex was used to analyze the piping stress and optimize the piping supports, which meet the compliance. The work will provide the necessary basis for the construction of the loop and operation security.

  1. Interrupted innovation : innovation system dynamics in latecomer aerospace industries

    OpenAIRE

    Vertesy, D.; Szirmai, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the role of sectoral innovation systems in the emergence and catch-up of aerospace industries in latecomer economies. We argue that the aerospace sector is characterized by a process of interrupted innovation. Competitive pressures and the cyclical nature of the industry not only require shifts in the direction of innovation and changes in the production system, but also periodical restructuring of the whole sectoral system of innovation. Aerospace manufacturing requi...

  2. Interrupting the transmission of wild polioviruses with vaccines: immunological considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghendon, Y.; Robertson, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988 the World Health Assembly set the goal of global poliomyelitis eradication by the year 2000. Substantial progress has been made, and 143 countries reported no poliomyelitis cases associated with the wild virus in 1993. This article reviews the immunological considerations relevant to interrupting the transmission of wild polioviruses with vaccines. Although serum immunity prevents poliomyelitis in the individual, it is local immunity that is important in preventing the transmission of...

  3. ICDS database: interrupted CoDing sequences in prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodou, Emmanuel; Deshayes, Caroline; Muller, Jean; Schaeffer, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Ripp, Raymond; Poch, Olivier; Reyrat, Jean-Marc; Lecompte, Odile

    2006-01-01

    Unrecognized frameshifts, in-frame stop codons and sequencing errors lead to Interrupted CoDing Sequence (ICDS) that can seriously affect all subsequent steps of functional characterization, from in silico analysis to high-throughput proteomic projects. Here, we describe the Interrupted CoDing Sequence database containing ICDS detected by a similarity-based approach in 80 complete prokaryotic genomes. ICDS can be retrieved by species browsing or similarity searches via a web interface (http://www-bio3d-igbmc.u-strasbg.fr/ICDS/). The definition of each interrupted gene is provided as well as the ICDS genomic localization with the surrounding sequence. Furthermore, to facilitate the experimental characterization of ICDS, we propose optimized primers for re-sequencing purposes. The database will be regularly updated with additional data from ongoing sequenced genomes. Our strategy has been validated by three independent tests: (i) ICDS prediction on a benchmark of artificially created frameshifts, (ii) comparison of predicted ICDS and results obtained from the comparison of the two genomic sequences of Bacillus licheniformis strain ATCC 14580 and (iii) re-sequencing of 25 predicted ICDS of the recently sequenced genome of Mycobacterium smegmatis. This allows us to estimate the specificity and sensitivity (95 and 82%, respectively) of our program and the efficiency of primer determination.

  4. Interruption Phenomenon in Intermediate-Frequency Vacuum Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wu, Jianwen

    2016-03-01

    In the condition of the 3 mm gap, experiments for 360 Hz intermediate-frequency vacuum arc are carried out in interrupters with the diameters being 41 mm and with the contact materials being CuCr50 and Cu-W-WC alloy respectively. The results indicate that the contacts material is closely related to the breaking capacity of the vacuum interrupters and characteristics of an intermediate-frequency vacuum arc. For contacts with the same diameter, the breaking capacity of CuCr50 is better than that of Cu-W-WC. When the current fails to be interrupted, the arcs overflow the gap and present irregular performances in the first half wave. Consequently a voltage spike appears. More macroscopic metal droplets can be seen in the arc column between CuCr50 contacts because of the lower melting point. It is observed that the droplet emission is much more severe during arc reignition than that in the first half wave. It is much more conspicuous that the high frequency arc voltage noises appear in Cu-W-WC contacts when the vacuum arcs reignite, for higher temperature and stronger electronic emission ability of Cu-W-WC contacts. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51377007), Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20131102130006), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China

  5. The effect of interruption probability in lattice model of two-lane traffic flow with passing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan

    2016-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking into account the interruption probability with passing for two-lane freeway. The effect of interruption probability with passing is investigated about the linear stability condition and the mKdV equation through linear stability analysis and nonlinear analysis, respectively. Furthermore, numerical simulation is carried out to study traffic phenomena resulted from the interruption probability with passing in two-lane system. The results show that the interruption probability with passing can improve the stability of traffic flow for low reaction coefficient while the interruption probability with passing can destroy the stability of traffic flow for high reaction coefficient on two-lane highway.

  6. Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripassorn Krittaecho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP. We compared the virological outcomes of (1 HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV; and (2 HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls. Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161; (b Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82; and (c Control, in which the subjects were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (n=316. The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4 and Control (6.6. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first

  7. High-capacity single-pressure SF/sub 6/ interrupters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostron, J R; Berkebile, L E; Spindle, H E

    1983-05-01

    The object of this project was to design and develop a high-voltage, single-pressure, SF/sub 6/ interrupter with an interrupting capability of 120 kA at 145 kV with a continuous current rating of 5000 A and an interrupting time of 1.5 cycles or less. A second objective of 100 kA at 242 kV was added during the project. Mathematical models were used to extrapolate design requirements from existing data for 63 and 80 kA. Two model puffers, one liquid and the other gas, were designed and tested to obtain data at 100 kA. An interrupter, optimized on the basis of total prospective breaker cost, was designed using the mathematical models. A study was made of the construction materials to operate under the high-stress conditions in this interrupter. Existing high-speed movies of high-current arcs under double-flow conditions were analyzed to obtain more information for modeling the interrupter. The optimized interrupter design was built and tested. The interrupting capability confirmed calculations of predicted performance near current zero; however, the dielectric strength after interrupting these high-current arcs was not adequate for the 145-kV or the 242-kV ratings. The dielectric strength was reduced by hot gases flowing out of the interrupter. Valuable data have been obtained for modeling the SF/sub 6/ puffer interrupter for high currents.

  8. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  9. Asynchronous Broadcast on the Intel SCC using Interrupts

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Darko; Shahmirzadi, Omid; Ropars, Thomas; Schiper, André

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper focuses on the design of an asynchronous broadcast primitive on the Intel SCC. Our solution is based on OC-Bcast, a state-of-the-art k-ary tree synchronous broadcast algorithm that leverages the parallelism provided by on-chip Remote Memory Accesses to Message Passing Buffers. In the paper, we study the use of parallel inter-core interrupts as a means to implement an efficient asynchronous group communication primitive, and present the userspace library we d...

  10. Generalized Negative Reciprocity in the Dictator Game--How to Interrupt the Chain of Unfairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Sabrina; Grote, Xenia; Kuss, Katarina; Park, Soyoung Q; Weber, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Humans are tremendously sensitive to unfairness. Unfairness provokes strong negative emotional reactions and influences our subsequent decision making. These decisions might not only have consequences for ourselves and the person who treated us unfairly but can even transmit to innocent third persons--a phenomenon that has been referred to as generalized negative reciprocity. In this study we aimed to investigate whether regulation of emotions can interrupt this chain of unfairness. Real allocations in a dictator game were used to create unfair situations. Three different regulation strategies, namely writing a message to the dictator who made an unfair offer, either forwarded or not forwarded, describing a neutral picture and a control condition in which subjects just had to wait for three minutes, were then tested on their ability to influence the elicited emotions. Subsequently participants were asked to allocate money between themselves and a third person. We show that writing a message which is forwarded to the unfair actor is an effective emotion regulation strategy and that those participants who regulated their emotions successfully by writing a message made higher allocations to a third person. Thus, using message writing as an emotion regulation strategy can interrupt the chain of unfairness.

  11. Phasic and tonic pain differentially impact the interruptive function of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, Christopher; Schmidt, Katharina; Forkmann, Katarina; Bingel, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The interruptive effect of painful experimental stimulation on cognitive processes is a well-known phenomenon. This study investigated the influence of pain duration on the negative effects of pain on cognition. Thirty-four healthy volunteers performed a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP) in which subjects had to detect (visual detection task) and count the occurrence of a target letter (working memory task) in two separate sessions while being stimulated on the left volar forearm with either short (2 sec) or long (18 sec) painful heat stimuli of equal subjective intensity. The results show that subjects performed significantly worse in the long pain session as indexed by decreased detection and counting performance. Interestingly, this effect on performance was also observed during control trials of the long pain session in which participants did not receive any painful stimulation. Moreover, subjects expected long painful stimulation to have a greater impact on their performance and individual expectation correlated with working memory performance. These findings suggest that not only the length of painful stimulation but also its expected ability to impair cognitive functioning might influence the interruptive function of pain. The exact relevance of expectation for the detrimental effects of pain on cognitive processes needs to be explored in more detail in future studies.

  12. Phasic and tonic pain differentially impact the interruptive function of pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sinke

    Full Text Available The interruptive effect of painful experimental stimulation on cognitive processes is a well-known phenomenon. This study investigated the influence of pain duration on the negative effects of pain on cognition. Thirty-four healthy volunteers performed a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP in which subjects had to detect (visual detection task and count the occurrence of a target letter (working memory task in two separate sessions while being stimulated on the left volar forearm with either short (2 sec or long (18 sec painful heat stimuli of equal subjective intensity. The results show that subjects performed significantly worse in the long pain session as indexed by decreased detection and counting performance. Interestingly, this effect on performance was also observed during control trials of the long pain session in which participants did not receive any painful stimulation. Moreover, subjects expected long painful stimulation to have a greater impact on their performance and individual expectation correlated with working memory performance. These findings suggest that not only the length of painful stimulation but also its expected ability to impair cognitive functioning might influence the interruptive function of pain. The exact relevance of expectation for the detrimental effects of pain on cognitive processes needs to be explored in more detail in future studies.

  13. ANTI IMPLANTATION AND PREGNANCY INTERRUPTION ACTIVITY OF JAPAKUSUMA (HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashinath Hadimur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

  14. The interrupted power law and the size of shadow banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is "interrupted" by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an "interrupted" Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimate-which we propose as a shadow banking index-compares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity.

  15. Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob; Meares, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    While the 2011 National Electrical Codeª (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

  16. Effect of Redundant Haptic Information on Task Performance During Visuo-Tactile Task Interruption and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Seung Moon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that interruption induces disruptive influences on the performance of cognitive tasks. While much research has focused on the use of multimodal channels to reduce the cost of interruption, few studies have utilized haptic information as more than an associative cue. In the present study, we utilized a multimodal task interruption scenario involving the simultaneous presentation of visual information and haptic stimuli in order to investigate how the combined stimuli affect performance on the primary task (cost of interruption. Participants were asked to perform a two-back visuo-tactile task, in which visual and haptic stimuli were presented simultaneously, which was interrupted by a secondary task that also utilized visual and haptic stimuli. Four experimental conditions were evaluated: (1 paired information (visual stimulus + paired haptic stimulus with interruption; (2 paired information without interruption; (3 non-paired information (visual stimulus + non-paired haptic stimulus with interruption; and (4 non-paired information without interruption. Our findings indicate that, within a visuo-tactile task environment, redundant haptic information may not only increase accuracy on the primary task but also reduce the cost of interruption in terms of accuracy. These results suggest a new way of understanding the task recovery process within a multimodal environment.

  17. Interruption of vector transmission by native vectors and "the art of the possible".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatella, Roberto; Irabedra, Pilar; Castellanos, Luis G

    2014-02-01

    In a recent article in the Reader's Opinion, advantages and disadvantages of the certification processes of interrupted Chagas disease transmission (American trypanosomiasis) by native vector were discussed. Such concept, accepted by those authors for the case of endemic situations with introduced vectors, has been built on a long and laborious process by endemic countries and Subregional Initiatives for Prevention, Control and Treatment of Chagas, with Technical Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, to create a horizon target and goal to concentrate priorities and resource allocation and actions. With varying degrees of sucess, which are not replaceable for a certificate of good practice, has allowed during 23 years to safeguard the effective control of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi not to hundreds of thousands, but millions of people at risk conditions, truly "the art of the possible."

  18. Interruption of vector transmission by native vectors and the art of the possible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salvatella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article in the Reader’s Opinion, advantages and disadvantages of the certification processes of interrupted Chagas disease transmission (American trypanosomiasis by native vector were discussed. Such concept, accepted by those authors for the case of endemic situations with introduced vectors, has been built on a long and laborious process by endemic countries and Subregional Initiatives for Prevention, Control and Treatment of Chagas, with Technical Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, to create a horizon target and goal to concentrate priorities and resource allocation and actions. With varying degrees of sucess, which are not replaceable for a certificate of good practice, has allowed during 23 years to safeguard the effective control of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi not to hundreds of thousands, but millions of people at risk conditions, truly “the art of the possible.”

  19. Derechos políticos de la mujer en Costa Rica: 1986-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia María Zamora Chavarría

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo reseña las propuestas de reformas legislativas que se han conocido en la Asamblea Legislativa de Costa Rica, sobre participación política de la mujer, desde marzo de 1988 hasta noviembre de 2008, con énfasis en la cuota o la paridad, para facilitar su acceso a cargos de elección popular y a los órganos internos partidarios, incluyendo la actual reforma de paridad propuesta por el TSE en enero de 2001. También hace referencia a los pronunciamientos del TSE en esta materia, en especial a su jurisprudencia, destacando cómo ésta ha posibilitado que Costa Rica ocupe el tercer lugar mundial de mujeres parlamentarias, ya que fue precisando que debía entenderse por puestos elegibles, los criterios para determinar esa elegibilidad (históricos o emergentes, la obligatoriedad del Registro Civil de no inscribir partidos ni candidaturas que no respeten la legislación, etc. También se incluyen gráficas que dan cuenta de lo reseñado. Cierra con un resumen de la propuesta de paridad y alternabilidad de género que, dentro del proyecto de reforma integral del Código Electoral, acaba de ser dictaminada, con voto afirmativo de mayoría, por la Comisión Especial de Partidos Políticos y Reformas Electorales de la Asamblea Legislativa, resaltando que retoma el espíritu de la propuesta desechada en 1998 y su necesidad su ek país desea una democracia real para las mujeres costarricenses

  20. HIV/AIDS epidemic features and trends in Iran, 1986-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahzadeh, H; Morowatisharifabad, M; Ehrampoosh, M H

    2009-04-01

    This study describes the reported HIV/AIDS data for all verified cases in Iran between 1986 and 2006. The cumulative number of the reported cases of HIV/AIDS among Iranians, up to the end of September 2006 was 13,702. Over the 20-year surveillance period, the rate of HIV/AIDS infections diagnosed annually among Iranian citizens gradually increased and, over the period 1997-2004, it reached from 1.38 to 4.6 cases per 100,000 populations per year. Our findings highlight the need for intensified HIV prevention efforts with men who use drugs via injection and strengthened efforts to encourage the individual at risk to get tested for HIV.

  1. Changes in main causes of death in Macao residents from 1986-2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN Man-si; CHEN Qing; LAM Christopher Wai-kei

    2013-01-01

    Background Since Macao's return of sovereignty to China in December 1999,the life style of Macao residents has changed.The aim of this study was to investigate changes of death patterns in Macao residents from 1986 to 2006 in order to identify the trends and patterns of major public health problems,which could provide the guidance for developing public health policies.Methods A retrospective study was conducted for this investigation.Research data were collected from official websites and statistical yearbooks and classified by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9.Results It was observed that mortality from the three major causes of (1) infectious,maternal and childhood diseases,(2) chronic non-communicable diseases,and (3) injury and poisoning were 17.7,298.2 and 26.0 per 100 000,respectively.The largest decrease in death rate over the 21-year study-period was from infectious,maternal and childhood diseases (62.5%).The highest mortality rate was ischemic heart diseases (37.0%).The largest increase in mortality rate was lung cancer (46.9%).Conclusions Mortality rate of Macao residents progressively decreased,but the constituent ratio of death from chronic non-communicable diseases was increasing.The mortality rate of lung cancer was clearly ascending,so emphasis should be put on tertiary prevention in future.

  2. HIV Reactivation from Latency after Treatment Interruption Occurs on Average Every 5-8 Days--Implications for HIV Remission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Pinkevych

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection can be effectively controlled by anti-retroviral therapy (ART in most patients. However therapy must be continued for life, because interruption of ART leads to rapid recrudescence of infection from long-lived latently infected cells. A number of approaches are currently being developed to 'purge' the reservoir of latently infected cells in order to either eliminate infection completely, or significantly delay the time to viral recrudescence after therapy interruption. A fundamental question in HIV research is how frequently the virus reactivates from latency, and thus how much the reservoir might need to be reduced to produce a prolonged antiretroviral-free HIV remission. Here we provide the first direct estimates of the frequency of viral recrudescence after ART interruption, combining data from four independent cohorts of patients undergoing treatment interruption, comprising 100 patients in total. We estimate that viral replication is initiated on average once every ≈6 days (range 5.1- 7.6 days. This rate is around 24 times lower than previous thought, and is very similar across the cohorts. In addition, we analyse data on the ratios of different 'reactivation founder' viruses in a separate cohort of patients undergoing ART-interruption, and estimate the frequency of successful reactivation to be once every 3.6 days. This suggests that a reduction in the reservoir size of around 50-70-fold would be required to increase the average time-to-recrudescence to about one year, and thus achieve at least a short period of anti-retroviral free HIV remission. Our analyses suggests that time-to-recrudescence studies will need to be large in order to detect modest changes in the reservoir, and that macaque models of SIV latency may have much higher frequencies of viral recrudescence after ART interruption than seen in human HIV infection. Understanding the mean frequency of recrudescence from latency is an important first step in

  3. Jamming transitions and the effect of interruption probability in a lattice traffic flow model with passing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhu, Poonam; Gupta, Arvind Kumar

    2015-03-01

    A new lattice hydrodynamic model is proposed by considering the interruption probability effect on traffic flow with passing and analyzed both theoretically and numerically. From linear and non-linear stability analysis, the effect of interruption probability on the phase diagram is investigated and the condition of existence for kink-antikink soliton solution of mKdV equation is derived. The stable region is enhanced with interruption probability and the jamming transition occurs from uniform flow to kink flow through chaotic flow for higher and intermediate values of non-interruption effect of passing. It is also observed that there exists conventional jamming transition between uniform flow and kink flow for lower values of non-interruption effect of passing. Numerical simulations are carried out and found in accordance with the theoretical findings which confirm that the effect of interruption probability plays an important role in stabilizing traffic flow when passing is allowed.

  4. Critical Causes and Consequences of Construction Project Interruption: Client, Contractor, Consultant and External Factors Standpoints

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    It should be pointed out that the dilemma of interruption and stoppage in the construction industry is a large-scale trend. Construction interruption and stoppage is considered one of the most recurring problems in the construction industry. Construction Interruption and stoppage is always measured as costly to all parties concerned in the projects and very often it will result in clash, claims, total desertion and much difficult for the feasibility and it slows the growth o...

  5. ON THE COMPLETION TIME AND THE INTERRUPTION TIME OF A JOB PROCESSED ON AN UNRELIABLE MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Dequan; TU Fengsheng

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the completion time and the interruption time of a job processed on an unreliable machine.By using the general theory of stochastic orderings,we obtain the closure properties of the distribution of the completion time and the interruption time on L+ and PH life distribution classes.We get an exponential bound for the tail probability of the interruption time.

  6. Improving Catastrophe Modeling for Business Interruption Insurance Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Huyck, Charles K

    2016-10-01

    While catastrophe (CAT) modeling of property damage is well developed, modeling of business interruption (BI) lags far behind. One reason is the crude nature of functional relationships in CAT models that translate property damage into BI. Another is that estimating BI losses is more complicated because it depends greatly on public and private decisions during recovery with respect to resilience tactics that dampen losses by using remaining resources more efficiently to maintain business function and to recover more quickly. This article proposes a framework for improving hazard loss estimation for BI insurance needs. Improved data collection that allows for analysis at the level of individual facilities within a company can improve matching the facilities with the effectiveness of individual forms of resilience, such as accessing inventories, relocating operations, and accelerating repair, and can therefore improve estimation accuracy. We then illustrate the difference this can make in a case study example of losses from a hurricane.

  7. Recognition of temporally interrupted and spectrally degraded sentences with additional unprocessed low-frequency speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskent, Deniz; Chatterjeec, Monita

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of periodically interrupted sentences (with an interruption rate of 1.5 Hz, 50% duty cycle) was investigated under conditions of spectral degradation, implemented with a noiseband vocoder, with and without additional unprocessed low-pass filtered speech (cutoff frequency 500 Hz). Intelli

  8. Unemployment and Work Interruption among African American Single Mothers: Effects on Parenting and Adolescent Socioemotional Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoyd, Vonnie C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using interview data from 241 single African American mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, this study tested a model of how 2 economic stressors, maternal unemployment and work interruption, influenced adolescent socioemotional functioning. Found that current unemployment, but not past work interruption, contributed to depressive…

  9. How Speakers Interrupt Themselves in Managing Problems in Speaking: Evidence from Self-Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfeddinipur, Mandana; Kita, Sotaro; Indefrey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When speakers detect a problem in what they are saying, they must decide whether or not to interrupt themselves and repair the problem, and if so, when. Speakers will maximize accuracy if they interrupt themselves as soon as they detect a problem, but they will maximize fluency if they go on speaking until they are ready to produce the repair.…

  10. INFLUENCE OF INTERRUPTED PULMONARY LYMPH-DRAINAGE ON ANTIBODY-RESPONSES IN HILAR-STRIPPED LUNGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WANG, FZ; WINTER, JB; WILDEVUUR, CRH; PROP, J

    1992-01-01

    Lung transplantation interrupts hilar lymphatics. This may have an impact on immune responses to antigens entering the lung because the antigens cannot reach the lung-associated lymph nodes where the immune response is generated. We investigated the interruption and regeneration of lymphatics and th

  11. Two sides to every story: The Dual Perspectives Method for examining interruptions in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdie, Tara; Sanderson, Penelope; Aitken, Leanne M; Liu, David

    2017-01-01

    Interruptions are widely considered a problem in healthcare. Results from observation and experimental studies have guided extensive mitigation efforts, but the effectiveness of interventions remains mixed. We have built on current theories and methods for studying interruptions to develop a novel observational approach - the Dual Perspectives Method - for examining interruptions from the perspectives of the different work functions in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We detail the method and provide representative examples of the insights it offers, such as why interruptions happen, the role they play, and the consequences of preserving them or eliminating them. We anticipate that the Dual Perspectives Method will help us to arrive at a better basis on which to draw conclusions about interruptions, and will lead to the development of appropriate and sustainable interventions to ensure the effective and safe functioning of the work system under examination.

  12. Power spectra for both interrupted and perennial aging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovic, Mirko; Grigolini, Paolo

    2008-11-01

    We study the power spectrum of a random telegraphic noise with the distribution density of waiting times τ given by ψ(τ )∝1/τμ, with μ ≈2. The condition μ power spectrum obeys the prescription S(f )=K/fη, with η =3-μ, namely, the 1/f noise lives at border between the ergodic μ >2 and nonergodic μ legitimate by two different kinds of truncation effects: the physical and observation-induced effect. In the former case ψ(τ ) is truncated at τ ≈Tmax and L ≫Tmax ensures the condition of interrupted aging. In this case, we find that K is a number independent of L. The latter case, L ≪Tmax, is more challenging. It was already solved by Margolin and Barkai, who used time asymptotic arguments based on the ergodicity breakdown and obtained K ∝1/L2-μ, proving that the out-of-equilibrium nature of the condition μ 2. We do not limit our treatment to the time asymptotic case, thereby producing a prediction that accounts for the transition from the 1/fη to the 1/f2 regime, recently observed in an experiment on blinking quantum dots. Our theoretical approach allows us to discuss some other recent experiments on molecular intermittent fluorescence and affords indications that should help to assess whether the spectrum is determined by the L ≪Tmax or by the L ≫Tmax condition.

  13. [Ethical dilemmas in medicine. The interruption of pregnancy in woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual-Castro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy interruption or abortion may be spontaneous or induced for medical, legal, demographic, and personal reasons. Different events that are present during the woman´s gravid period were described, paying attention to the differences in between fertilization and conception. These issues are very important because people or institutions mix these concepts and posit that pregnancy or conception starts at fertilization in opposition to the actual medical and scientific knowledge. In Mexico there are several millions of spontaneous and induced abortions without medical care, responsible for the high maternal-infant mortality rates. To avoid this undesirable situation, it has been proposed to follow the established WHO guidelines and adopt national health policies to re-orientate population goals on life quality, gender equity, universal public health services, and to promote the new holistic concepts of reproductive and sexual health such as: family planning, use of anti-fertility methods, adolescent reproductive health, sexually transmitted diseases, maternal and newborn health, peri- and post-menopausal women's health, and prevention, diagnosis, and opportune treatment of mammary, cervical-uterine, and ovarian cancers. Finally, it is recommended to revise our national health policies and existing laws on abortion de-penalization.

  14. Progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission - worldwide, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    In 1988, an estimated 350,000 cases of poliomyelitis were occurring annually worldwide. By 2005, because of global vaccination efforts, indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 1 and 3 (WPV1 and WPV3) had been eliminated from all but four countries (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan). No cases of WPV type 2 have been reported since 1999. This report describes progress toward global WPV eradication during 2009 and updates previous reports. During 2009 a total of 1,606 cases of WPV infection were reported, compared with 1,651 in 2008. WPV3 incidence increased 67%, to 1,124 cases, compared with 675 in 2008. However, WPV1 incidence decreased 51%, to 482 cases in 2009, compared with 976 cases in 2008. In India, nearly all polio cases in 2009 were reported in high-risk districts in western Uttar Pradesh and central Bihar. In Afghanistan and Pakistan, WPV circulation in high-risk districts continued because of difficulties vaccinating children in conflict-affected areas and operational limitations in parts of Pakistan. In Nigeria, cases decreased by 51%, to 388 cases in 2009, compared with 798 in 2008. During 2009, outbreaks from importation of WPV affected 19 previously polio-free African countries. Two key steps are needed to make further progress in polio eradication: 1) addressing local barriers to interrupting transmission, and 2) using bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) broadly for WPV 1 and 3 in supplemental immunization activities (SIAs).

  15. Development of distribution and subtransmission SF/sub 6/ circuit breaker and hybrid transmission interrupter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votta, G.A.

    1978-06-01

    This project covered the development of a new generation of SF/sub 6/ arc spinner interrupters, a 15-kV circuit breaker (distribution) using this interrupter, and investigated the feasibility of a high voltage (transmission) hybrid interrupter using the arc-spinner and a vacuum interrupter in series. The arc spinner interrupter concept uses a self-generated magnetic field to drive an arc, on a circular path in an atmosphere of SF/sub 6/ gas, to achieve interruption. Test models of the arc spinner interrupter were built and tested to determine the component requirements and arrangements necessary for the desired performance. A single-phase laboratory model of this interrupter was successfully tested up through 25 kA at 13.5 kV. Interruption of 40 kA at 13.5 kV was demonstrated; however, satisfactory performance was not obtained at significant current levels during this program when tested at higher voltages. A full-scale model of a three-phase outdoor distribution power circuit breaker rated 18 kA at 15.5 kV was built and successfully tested to standards. The hybrid interrupter concept (transmission) uses an arc spinner and a vacuum interrupter in series. The vacuum interrupter handles the high initial rate of rise of recovery voltage associated with short line faults, and the arc spinner interrupter handles the high peak transient recovery voltage. The hybrid interrupter demonstrated an ability to handle the initial high rate of rise recovery voltage but encountered dielectric failures at relatively low current levels. This feasibility investigation was limited by the unavailability of a suitable rating of vacuum interrupters and by limitations inherent to an early model arc spinner interrupter for the tests. The investigation of the hybrid was discontinued until further development of a higher voltage arc spinner interrupter could be accomplished.

  16. Safe interruption of maintenance therapy against previous infection with four common HIV-associated opportunistic pathogens during potent antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The safety of interrupting maintenance therapy for previous opportunistic infections other than Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia among patients with HIV infection who respond to potent antiretroviral therapy has not been well documented. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety of interrupting m...

  17. Causes of unplanned interruption of radiotherapy; Causas da interrupcao nao programada da radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegues, Sylvia Suelotto [Hospital AlemAo Oswaldo Cruz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. of Oncology]. E-mail: ssdiegues@terra.com.br; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Medicine. Centro de Economia da Saude; Segreto, Roberto Araujo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Medicine

    2008-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the occurrence and causes of unplanned interruption of radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Retrospective study developed in the Division of Radiotherapy of Hospital Alemao Oswaldo Cruz in Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, with data collected from 560 dossiers of patients submitted to radiotherapy in the period between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2005. Chi-squared and Student t tests were utilized in the data analysis, and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Interruption of treatment was identified in 350 cases, corresponding to 62.5% of the patients. The reasons for treatment interruption were the following: preventive device maintenance (55%), patient's own private reasons (13%), adverse reactions to the treatment or to combined radiotherapy/chemotherapy (6%), clinical worsening (3%), two or more combined reasons (23%). The interruption time interval ranged between 1 and 24 days (mean 1.4 day). One-day interruption was mostly due to preventive device maintenance (84.4%); two-five-day interruption was due to combined reasons (48.28%). Conclusion: The most frequent cause of interruption was preventive device maintenance, with maximum two-day time interval. (author)

  18. Progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission--worldwide, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Since 1988, when the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was established, the incidence of polio has decreased from an estimated 350,000 cases annually to 1,655 reported in 2008. Cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) type 2 were last reported in October 1999, and indigenous WPV types 1 and 3 (WPV1 and WPV3) have been eliminated from all but four countries worldwide (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan). This report updates previous reports and describes overall progress toward global eradication in 2008. Despite accelerated efforts, polio cases increased 26%, from 1,315 cases in 2007 to 1,655 in 2008. This increase primarily resulted from an increase in Nigeria from 285 cases in 2007 to 801 cases in 2008. Resurgent WPV1 transmission in northern states of Nigeria spread to polio-free southern states and eight neighboring countries in 2008. In India, repeated use of monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) type 1 (mOPV1) during 2005--2008 interrupted WPV1 transmission in the western districts of the northern state of Uttar Pradesh for >12 months during 2007--2008; however, in mid-2008, WPV1 imported from the neighboring state of Bihar caused renewed transmission. In Afghanistan and Pakistan, problems in accessing children in conflict-affected areas increased, and an upsurge in WPV1 and WPV3 cases occurred, including an outbreak of WPV1 in Punjab Province, Pakistan. In Africa, during 2008, sustained WPV transmission for >12 months after importation continued in Angola, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Niger, and southern Sudan. Increased political oversight and accountability and improved vaccination outreach to insecure areas are needed to achieve the eradication goal.

  19. Semi-polling based interrupt mitigation for high performance packet processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Interrupt-driven systems can be collapsed due to frequent NIC interrupts under heavy network traffic. To mitigate this problem, a high-performance communication mechanism SBIM based on real-time OS RTLinux is designed and implemented. A new concept of semi-polling is presented. With state-based semi-polling mechanism and lightweight buffering algorithm, interrupt frequency is reduced and the performance for short packet is significantly ameliorated. The experimental results indicate that the throughputs of SBIM for 64byte and 1500byte packets are 394Mbps and 895Mbps in Gigabit Ethernet environments, which show that the performance of SBIM surpasses that of other mechanisms.

  20. Cardiogenic shock due to coronary artery disease associated with interrupted aortic arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alberto Oliveira Dallan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary edema is a serious event. Its occurrence in association with interrupted aortic arch and coronary heart disease is rare. Recently, an old patient developed cardiogenic shock and acute pulmonary edema due to acute coronary insufficiency, associated with interrupted aortic arch. The coronary angiography revealed occlusion of the right coronary artery and 95% obstruction in the left main coronary artery, associated with interruption of the descending aorta. Coronary artery bypass graft was performed, without extracorporeal circulation, to the anterior descending coronary artery. We discuss the initial management, given the seriousness of the case.

  1. Effect of HIV Antibody VRC01 on Viral Rebound after Treatment Interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Katharine J; Sneller, Michael C; Harrison, Linda J; Justement, J Shawn; Overton, Edgar T; Petrone, Mary E; Salantes, D Brenda; Seamon, Catherine A; Scheinfeld, Benjamin; Kwan, Richard W; Learn, Gerald H; Proschan, Michael A; Kreider, Edward F; Blazkova, Jana; Bardsley, Mark; Refsland, Eric W; Messer, Michael; Clarridge, Katherine E; Tustin, Nancy B; Madden, Patrick J; Oden, KaSaundra; O'Dell, Sijy J; Jarocki, Bernadette; Shiakolas, Andrea R; Tressler, Randall L; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Bailer, Robert T; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Capparelli, Edmund V; Lynch, Rebecca M; Graham, Barney S; Moir, Susan; Koup, Richard A; Mascola, John R; Hoxie, James A; Fauci, Anthony S; Tebas, Pablo; Chun, Tae-Wook

    2016-11-24

    Background The discovery of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has made passive immunization a potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. We sought to determine whether passive administration of VRC01, a bNAb targeting the HIV CD4-binding site, can safely prevent or delay plasma viral rebound after the discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods We conducted two open-label trials (AIDS Clinical Trials Group [ACTG] A5340 and National Institutes of Health [NIH] 15-I-0140) of the safety, side-effect profile, pharmacokinetic properties, and antiviral activity of VRC01 in persons with HIV infection who were undergoing interruption of ART. Results A total of 24 participants were enrolled, and one serious alcohol-related adverse event occurred. Viral rebound occurred despite plasma VRC01 concentrations greater than 50 μg per milliliter. The median time to rebound was 4 weeks in the A5340 trial and 5.6 weeks in the NIH trial. Study participants were more likely than historical controls to have viral suppression at week 4 (38% vs. 13%, P=0.04 by a two-sided Fisher's exact test in the A5340 trial; and 80% vs. 13%, P<0.001 by a two-sided Fisher's exact test in the NIH trial) but the difference was not significant at week 8. Analyses of virus populations before ART as well as before and after ART interruption showed that VRC01 exerted pressure on rebounding virus, resulting in restriction of recrudescent viruses and selection for preexisting and emerging antibody neutralization-resistant virus. Conclusions VRC01 slightly delayed plasma viral rebound in the trial participants, as compared with historical controls, but it did not maintain viral suppression by week 8. In the small number of participants enrolled in these trials, no safety concerns were identified with passive immunization with a single bNAb (VRC01). (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious

  2. Measurements of interrupter resistance: reference values for children 3-13 yrs of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F.M. Merkus (Peter); H.G. Arets (Hubertus); T. Joosten; A. Siero; M. Brouha; J.Y. Mijnsbergen; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); C.K. van der Ent (Cornelis)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe interrupter technique is a convenient and sensitive technique for studying airway function in subjects who cannot actively participate in (forced) ventilatory function tests. Reference values for preschool children exist but are lacking for children >7 yrs. Referenc

  3. Critical care 24 × 7: But, why is critical nutrition interrupted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Adequate nutritional support is crucial in prevention and treatment of malnutrition in critically ill-patients. Despite the intention to provide appropriate enteral nutrition (EN, meeting the full nutritional requirements can be a challenge due to interruptions. This study was undertaken to determine the cause and duration of interruptions in EN. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a multidisciplinary critical care unit (CCU of a tertiary care hospital from September 2010 to January 2011 and who received EN for a period >24 h were included in this observational, prospective study. A total of 327 patients were included, for a total of 857 patient-days. Reasons and duration of EN interruptions were recorded and categorized under four groups-procedures inside CCU, procedures outside CCU, gastrointestinal (GI symptoms and others. Results: Procedure inside CCU accounted for 55.9% of the interruptions while GI symptoms for 24.2%. Although it is commonly perceived that procedures outside CCU are the most common reason for interruption, this contributed only to 18.4% individually; ventilation-related procedures were the most frequent cause (40.25%, followed by nasogastric tube aspirations (15.28%. Although GI bleed is often considered a reason to hold enteral feed, it was one of the least common reasons (1% in our study. Interruption of 2-6 h was more frequent (43% and most of this (67.1% was related to "procedures inside CCU". Conclusion: Awareness of reasons for EN interruptions will aid to modify protocol and minimize interruptions during procedures in CCU to reach nutrition goals.

  4. Investigating membrane and mitochondrial cryobiological responses of HUVEC using interrupted cooling protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Anthony J F; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E

    2015-10-01

    The success of cryopreservation protocols is largely based on membrane integrity assessments after thawing, since membrane integrity can be considered to give an upper limit in assessment of cell viability and the plasma membrane is considered to be a primary site of cryoinjury. However, the exposure of cells to conditions associated with low temperatures can induce injury to cellular structure and function that may not be readily identified by membrane integrity alone. Interrupted cooling protocols (including interrupted slow cooling without a hold time (graded freezing), and interrupted rapid cooling with a hold time (two-step freezing)), can yield important information about cryoinjury by separating the damage that occurs upon cooling to (and possibly holding at) a critical intermediate temperature range from the damage that occurs upon plunging to the storage temperature (liquid nitrogen). In this study, we used interrupted cooling protocols in the absence of cryoprotectant to investigate the progression of damage to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), comparing an assessment of membrane integrity with a mitochondrial polarization assay. Additionally, the membrane integrity response of HUVEC to interrupted cooling was investigated as a function of cooling rate (for interrupted slow cooling) and hold time (for interrupted rapid cooling). A key finding of this work was that under slow cooling conditions which resulted in a large number of membrane intact cells immediately post thaw, mitochondria are predominantly in a non-functional depolarized state. This study, the first to look directly at mitochondrial polarization throughout interrupted cooling profiles and a detailed study of HUVEC response, highlights the complexity of the progression of cell damage, as the pattern and extent of cell injury throughout the preservation process differs by injury site.

  5. Comparison of Interruption in Relatively Formal and Informal Talk Show Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨宇

    2013-01-01

    Interruption, as a linguistic phenomenon, can be see everywhere. And talk show programs are common setting for in⁃terruptions. So in this thesis three questions are addressed as followed: What function does the interruption have in these two kinds of talk shows (relatively formal and informal) respectively; what are the similarities of relatively formal and informal talk show programs;what are the differences between relatively formal and informal talk shows.

  6. Patient-ventilator asynchrony during daily interruption of sedation versus no sedation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Daily interruption of sedation could minimize the problem of sedatives accumulation. Nevertheless, whatever is the sedation strategy; sedation, particularly deep levels, has been associated with high frequency of patient-ventilator asynchrony. Extending these findings, one would expect that no sedation protocol could reduce the frequency of patient-ventilator asynchrony. Aim: To assess the effect of no sedation protocol compared with daily interruption of sedation on patient-ven...

  7. Interruption or congenital stenosis of the inferior vena cava: Prevalence, imaging, and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Zafer [Baskent University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey)]. E-mail: koczafer@gmail.com; Oguzkurt, Levent [Baskent University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey)

    2007-05-15

    Objective: To present the prevalence, clinical, and imaging findings of interruption or congenital stenotic lesions of the inferior vena cava (IVC), associated malformations, and their clinical relevance. Materials and methods: Between March 2004 and March 2006, 7972 patients who had undergone consecutive routine abdominal multidetector row computed tomography were analyzed for interruption or stenotic lesion of the IVC. Results: Prevalence of interruption (n = 8) or congenital stenosis (n = 4) of the IVC occurred in 12 (0.15%) of 7972 patients. Four patients with interruption and four patients with congenital stenosis of the IVC were symptomatic with DVT (n = 4), leg swelling (n = 4), leg pain (n = 2), lower extremity varices (n = 2), hepatic vein thrombosis (n = 1), and hematochezia (n = 1). All four of the asymptomatic patients were from the interruption group, and these patients had interrupted IVC with well-developed azygos/hemiazygos continuation. Eight symptomatic patients did not have a well-developed azygos/hemiazygos continuation, and drainage of lower extremity was mainly from collateral veins. Additional findings in eight symptomatic patients were abdominal venous collaterals (n = 8), venous aneurysm (n = 2), lower extremity varices (n = 2), varicocele (n = 2), and pelvic varices (n = 1). Conclusion: Interruption or stenosis of the IVC are rare on routine abdominal CT examinations and may cause different clinical findings depending on the variant drainage patterns or collaterals. Interrupted IVC is commonly asymptomatic if associated with well-developed azygos/hemiazygos continuation, whereas commonly symptomatic if well-developed azygos/hemiazygos continuation is not present.

  8. Deleterious effects of interruption followed by reintroduction of enzyme replacement therapy on a lysosomal storage disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ana Paula; Matte, Ursula; Pasqualim, Gabriela; Tavares, Angela Maria Vicente; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Martinelli, Barbara; Ribas, Graziela; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Giugliani, Roberto; Baldo, Guilherme

    2016-10-01

    Temporary interruption of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in patients with different lysosomal storage disorders may happen for different reasons (adverse reactions, issues with reimbursement, logistic difficulties, and so forth), and the impact of the interruption is still uncertain. In the present work, we studied the effects of the interruption of intravenous ERT (Laronidase, Genzyme) followed by its reintroduction in mice with the prototypical lysosomal storage disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type I, comparing to mice receiving continuous treatment, untreated mucopolysaccharidosis type I mice, and normal mice. In the animals which treatment was temporarily interrupted, we observed clear benefits of treatment in several organs (liver, lung, heart, kidney, and testis) after reintroduction, but a worsening in the thickness of the aortic wall was detected. Furthermore, these mice had just partial improvements in behavioral tests, suggesting some deterioration in the brain function. Despite worsening is some disease aspects, urinary glycosaminoglycans levels did not increase during interruption, which indicates that this biomarker commonly used to monitor treatment in patients should not be used alone to assess treatment efficacy. The deterioration observed was not caused by the development of serum antienzyme antibodies. All together our results suggest that temporary ERT interruption leads to deterioration of function in some organs and should be avoided whenever possible.

  9. Conformational effects of Gly-X-Gly interruptions in the collagen triple helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Jordi; Liu, Jingsong; Kramer, Rachel; Brodsky, Barbara; Berman, Helen M

    2006-09-15

    The collagen model peptide with sequence (Pro-Hyp-Gly)4-Pro-Gly-(Pro-Hyp-Gly)5 contains a central Gly-Pro-Gly interruption in the consensus collagen sequence. Its high-resolution crystal structure defines the molecular consequences of such an interruption for the collagen triple-helical conformation, and provides insight into possible structural and biological roles of similar interruptions in the -Gly-X-Y- repeating pattern found in non-fibrillar collagens. The peptide (denoted as the Hyp minus peptide or Hyp-) forms a rod-like triple helix structure without any bend or kink, and crystallizes in a quasi-hexagonal lattice. The two Pro-Hyp-Gly zones adopt the typical triple-helical collagen conformation with standard Rich and Crick II hydrogen bonding topology. Notably, the central zone containing the Gly-Pro-Gly interruption deviates from the standard structure in terms of hydrogen bonding topology, torsion angles, helical, and superhelical parameters. These deviations are highly localized, such that the standard features are regained within one to two residues on either side. Conformational variations and high temperature factors seen for the six chains of the asymmetric unit in the zone around the interruption point to the presence of a local region of considerable plasticity and flexibility embedded within two highly rigid and ordered standard triple-helical segments. The structure suggests a role for Gly-X-Gly interruptions as defining regions of flexibility and molecular recognition in the otherwise relatively uniform repeating collagen conformation.

  10. Treatment interruptions: Statistics, causes and management in service radiotherapy; Interrupciones de tratamiento: estadistica, causa y manejo en un servicio de radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrando Sanchez, A.; Milanes Gaillet, A. I.; Eugui Martinez, R.; Crespo Diaz, M. P.

    2013-07-01

    Despite the clinical maximum administer the prescribed dose at a given time, treatment interruptions are unavoidable in practice. In tumors quickly reproduce no evidence that the prolongation thereof entails loss of tumor control. It has tracked two of these conditions: squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN) and lung cancer (NSCLC) over 2011 and 2012 to evaluate both the number of stops treatment as the reason for them and its management. (Author)

  11. Speed-Flow Analysis for Interrupted Oversaturated Traffic Flow with Heterogeneous Structure for Urban Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Speed–flow functions have been developed by several transportation experts to predict accurately the speed of urban road network. HCM Speed-Flow Curve, BPR Curve, MTC Speed-Flow Curve, Akçelik Speed-Flow Curve are some extraordinary efforts to define the shape of speed-flow curve. However, the complexity of driver’s behaviour, interactions among different type of vehicles, lateral clearance, co-relation of driver’s psychology with vehicular characteristics and interdependence of various variables of traffic has led to continuous development and refinement of speed-flow curves. The problem gets more tedious in case of urban roads with heterogeneous traffic, oversaturated flow and signalized network (which includes some unsignalized intersections as well. This paper presents speed-flow analysis for urban roads with interrupted flow comprising of heterogeneous traffic. Model has been developed for heterogeneous traffic under constraints of roadway geometry, vehicle characteristics, driving behaviour and traffic controls. The model developed in this paper shall predict speed, delay, average queue and maximum queue estimates for urban roads and quantify congestion for oversaturated condition. The investigation details oversaturated portion of flow in particular.

  12. Interruption of Electrical Conductivity of Titanium Dental Implants Suggests a Path Towards Elimination Of Corrosion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex E Pozhitkov

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of soft tissue and bone around the implant. Titanium implant corrosion has been attributed to the implant failure and cytotoxic effects to the alveolar bone. We have documented the extent of titanium release into surrounding plaque in patients with and without peri-implantitis. An in vitro model was designed to represent the actual environment of an implant in a patient's mouth. The model uses actual oral microbiota from a volunteer, allows monitoring electrochemical processes generated by biofilms growing on implants and permits control of biocorrosion electrical current. As determined by next generation DNA sequencing, microbial compositions in experiments with the in vitro model were comparable with the compositions found in patients with implants. It was determined that the electrical conductivity of titanium implants was the key factor responsible for the biocorrosion process. The interruption of the biocorrosion current resulted in a 4-5 fold reduction of corrosion. We propose a new design of dental implant that combines titanium in zero oxidation state for osseointegration and strength, interlaid with a nonconductive ceramic. In addition, we propose electrotherapy for manipulation of microbial biofilms and to induce bone healing in peri-implantitis patients.

  13. Interruption of Electrical Conductivity of Titanium Dental Implants Suggests a Path Towards Elimination Of Corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhitkov, Alex E; Daubert, Diane; Brochwicz Donimirski, Ashley; Goodgion, Douglas; Vagin, Mikhail Y; Leroux, Brian G; Hunter, Colby M; Flemmig, Thomas F; Noble, Peter A; Bryers, James D

    2015-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of soft tissue and bone around the implant. Titanium implant corrosion has been attributed to the implant failure and cytotoxic effects to the alveolar bone. We have documented the extent of titanium release into surrounding plaque in patients with and without peri-implantitis. An in vitro model was designed to represent the actual environment of an implant in a patient's mouth. The model uses actual oral microbiota from a volunteer, allows monitoring electrochemical processes generated by biofilms growing on implants and permits control of biocorrosion electrical current. As determined by next generation DNA sequencing, microbial compositions in experiments with the in vitro model were comparable with the compositions found in patients with implants. It was determined that the electrical conductivity of titanium implants was the key factor responsible for the biocorrosion process. The interruption of the biocorrosion current resulted in a 4-5 fold reduction of corrosion. We propose a new design of dental implant that combines titanium in zero oxidation state for osseointegration and strength, interlaid with a nonconductive ceramic. In addition, we propose electrotherapy for manipulation of microbial biofilms and to induce bone healing in peri-implantitis patients.

  14. Evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic HIV vaccines through analytical treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina M Graziani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The development of an effective therapeutic HIV vaccine that induces immunologic control of viral replication, thereby eliminating or reducing the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART, would be of great value. Besides the obvious challenges of developing a therapeutic vaccine that would generate effective, sustained anti-HIV immunity in infected individuals is the issue of how to best assess the efficacy of vaccine candidates. Discussion: This review discusses the various outcome measures assessed in therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials involving individuals receiving suppressive ART, with a particular focus on the role of analytical treatment interruption (ATI as a way to assess the virologic control induced by an immunotherapy. This strategy is critical given that there are otherwise no readily available measures to determine the ability of a vaccine-induced immune response to effectively control HIV replication. The various outcome measures that have been used to assess vaccine efficacy in published therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials will also be discussed. Outcome measures have included the kinetics of viral rebound, the new viral set point and changes in the size of the viral reservoir. Clinically relevant outcomes such as the CD4 decline, the time to resume therapy or the time to meet the criterion to resume therapy, the proportion of participants who resume therapy and/or the development of clinical symptoms such as acute retroviral syndrome are also measures of vaccine efficacy. Conclusions: Given the lack of consistency between therapeutic HIV vaccine trials in how efficacy is assessed, comparing vaccines has been difficult. It would, therefore, be beneficial to determine the most clinically relevant measure for use in future studies. Other recommendations for future clinical trials also include studying compartments in addition to blood and replacing ATIs with single-copy assays in situations in which the use of

  15. Cheyne-Stokes respiration: hypoxia plus a deep breath that interrupts hypoxic drive, initiating cyclic breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntheroth, Warren G

    2011-11-01

    In the 19th Century, Cheyne and Stokes independently reported cycles of respiration in patients with heart failure, beginning with apnea, followed by a few breaths. However Cheyne-Stokes respiration (C-SR) can also occur in healthy individuals with sleep, and was demonstrated in 1908 with voluntary hyperventilation, followed by apnea that Haldane blamed on hypoxia, subsequently called post-hyperventilation apnea. Additional theories explaining C-SR did not appear until 1954, based on control theory, specifically a feed-back regulator controlling CO(2). This certainly describes control of normal respiration, but to produce an unstable state such as C-SR requires either a very long transit time (3½ min) or an increase of the controller gain (13 times), physiologically improbable. There is general agreement that apnea initiates C-SR but that has not been well explained except for post-hyperventilation apnea, and that explanation is not compatible with a study by Nielsen and Smith in 1951. They plotted the effects of diminished oxygen on ventilation (V) in relation to CO(2) (Fig. 1). They found that the slope of V/CO(2) (gain) increased with hypoxia, but it flattened at a moderate CO(2) level and had nointercept with zero (apnea). It is also incompatible with our published findings in 1975 that showed that apnea did not occur until an extreme level of hypoxia occurred (the PO(2) fell below 10 mmHg), followed shortly by gasping. Much milder hypoxia underlies most cases of C-SR, when hypoxic drive replaces the normal CO(2)-based respiratory drive, in a failsafe role. I hypothesize that the cause of apnea is a brief interruption of hypoxic drive caused by a pulse of oxygen from a stronger than average breath, such as a sigh. The rapidity of onset of apnea in response to a pulse of oxygen, reflects the large pressure gradient for oxygen from air to lung with each breath, in contrast to CO(2). With apnea, there is a gradual fall in oxygen, resulting in a resumption of

  16. System Control for the Transitional DCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    Still other circuits go to Rheinmain . At Rheinmain , the weather circuits terminate at the Rheinmain weather central. The remaining circuits travel to...that link fails: - Command and control non common user voice circuits between Ramstein and Berlin, and Ramstein and Rheinmain are interrupted... Rheinmain AUTOVON users access circuits are interrupted - The access circuits from Frankfurt ULS to Donnersberg are interrupted. Frankfurt still has network

  17. Photodiode-based cutting interruption sensor for near-infrared lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelmann, B; Schleier, M; Neumeier, B; Hellmann, R

    2016-03-01

    We report on a photodiode-based sensor system to detect cutting interruptions during laser cutting with a fiber laser. An InGaAs diode records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a ring mirror and optical filter arrangement mounted between a collimation unit and a cutting head. The photodiode current is digitalized with a sample rate of 20 kHz and filtered with a Chebyshev Type I filter. From the measured signal during the piercing, a threshold value is calculated. When the diode signal exceeds this threshold during cutting, a cutting interruption is indicated. This method is applied to sensor signals from cutting mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum, as well as different material thicknesses and also laser flame cutting, showing the possibility to detect cutting interruptions in a broad variety of applications. In a series of 83 incomplete cuts, every cutting interruption is successfully detected (alpha error of 0%), while no cutting interruption is reported in 266 complete cuts (beta error of 0%). With this remarkable high detection rate and low error rate, the possibility to work with different materials and thicknesses in combination with the easy mounting of the sensor unit also to existing cutting machines highlight the enormous potential for this sensor system in industrial applications.

  18. Prediction of SFL Interruption Performance from the Results of Arc Simulation during High-Current Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chul; Lee, Won-Ho; Kim, Woun-Jea

    2015-09-01

    The design and development procedures of SF6 gas circuit breakers are still largely based on trial and error through testing although the development costs go higher every year. The computation cannot cover the testing satisfactorily because all the real processes arc not taken into account. But the knowledge of the arc behavior and the prediction of the thermal-flow inside the interrupters by numerical simulations are more useful than those by experiments due to the difficulties to obtain physical quantities experimentally and the reduction of computational costs in recent years. In this paper, in order to get further information into the interruption process of a SF6 self-blast interrupter, which is based on a combination of thermal expansion and the arc rotation principle, gas flow simulations with a CFD-arc modeling are performed during the whole switching process such as high-current period, pre-current zero period, and current-zero period. Through the complete work, the pressure-rise and the ramp of the pressure inside the chamber before current zero as well as the post-arc current after current zero should be a good criterion to predict the short-line fault interruption performance of interrupters.

  19. Male effect associated with suckling interruption on the reproductive performance of Santa Inês ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Cavalcante Caldas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of temporary suckling interruption associated with the male effect on reproductive performance of pluriparous Santa Inês ewes. The females were kept apart from the males for 60 days and then randomly distributed into three treatments associated with the male effect (DT0, DT24 and DT48; in DT0, there was no suckling interruption; in DT24, suckling was interrupted for 24 hours, and in DT48, sucking was interrupted for 48 hours. Estrous distribution was observed within 31 (DT0, 27 (DT24 and 38 (DT48 days of the breeding season. Estrous synchronization up to the 5th day of the mating season was observed in 15% (DT0, 30% (DT24 and 25% (DT48 of the females, with no difference among treatments. Estrous percentages were 90% (DT0, 100% (DT24 and 100% (DT48, with no difference among treatments. Pregnancy rates were 38.4% (DT0, 60.0% (DT24 and 45.0% (DT48 with no difference among treatments. Prolificacy was 1.43 (DT0, 1.17 (DT24 and 1.22 (DT48 and did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, temporary suckling interruption associated with the male effect is efficient to induce estrous but not to synchronize estrous or increase the pregnancy rates and prolificacy of Santa Inês ewes during a 45-day breeding season.

  20. Digital evaluation of the influence of interruption of the fixation process on radiographic contrast and base-plus-fog density in three commercial brands of radiographic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Verona Ragusa da Silva

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : With the interest in anticipating access to the result of intraoral radiography, the radiographic processing is frequently neglected, compromising image quality. OBJECTIVE : The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of interrupting the fixation process on the radiographic contrast and base-plus-fog density (BPFD in three brands of periapical films. MATERIAL AND METHOD : Ninety radiographs were taken of an aluminum stepwedge and a lead plate for each brand, and they were divided according to the time of initial immersion in the fixative in: control group (without interrupting the fixing, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 seconds. During processing, films had the fixing stage stopped and were exposed to a negatoscope for 1 minute, then the fixation time of 10 minutes was completed. The radiographs were digitized and exported to Image Tool 3.0.software. RESULT : Kodak(r film showed no statistically significant differences between groups, while Agfa(r film presented difference in BPFD compared with Group 5 seconds, and Dentix(r film showed statistical difference in all groups in comparison with the control group. CONCLUSION : Under the conditions studied, Kodak(r film is not influenced by disruption of fixation as regards BPFD and image contrast, enabling early access to the results of radiographs, whereas Agfa(r film requires at least 10 seconds of initial fixation, and Dentix(r film obtains better results when the process of fixation is not interrupted.

  1. On the electrical arc interruption by using PMMA/iron oxide nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, Venkatesh; Saleemi, Mohsin; Ye, Fei; Gati, Rudolf; Toprak, Muhammet S.

    2016-10-01

    An experimental study is undertaken on the fabrication of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/iron oxide nanocomposites to determine their potential use for electrical arc interruption in the electrical switching applications such as circuit breakers. Monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles of average size ∼11 nm are synthesized via thermal decomposition method and then homogeneously dispersed in the PMMA matrix by in situ polymerization. PMMA/iron oxide nanocomposites with different nanoparticle loading have been fabricated to study the effect of loading content on the thermal energy absorption. Detailed physicochemical characterizations on synthesized material are performed using x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, TEM, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry at different processing stages. A test-setup was designed to evaluate the quality of the nanocomposites for electric arc interruption capability. The results showed that PMMA/iron oxide nanocomposites have a clear impact on the electric arc interruption and therefore should be considered as promising candidates for electrical switching applications.

  2. A new car-following model with consideration of the traffic interruption probability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Tie-Qiao; Huang Hai-Jun; Wong S. C.; Jiang Rui

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new car-following model by taking into account the effects of the traffic interruption probability on the car-following behaviour of the following vehicle. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is constructed and solved, and three types of traffic flows in the headway sensitivity space-stable, metastable, and unstable-are classified. Both the analytical and simulation results show that the traffic interruption probability indeed has an influence on driving behaviour, and the consideration of traffic interruption probability in the car-following model could stabilize traffic flow.

  3. The role of AGG interruptions in fragile X repeat expansions: A twenty year perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. Latham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 it was suggested that AGG interruptions affect the stability of the fragile X triplet repeat. Until recently, however, this hypothesis was not explored on a large scale due primarily to the technical difficulty of determining AGG interruption patterns of the two alleles in females. The recent development of a PCR technology that overcomes this difficulty and accurately identifies the number and position of AGGs has led to several studies that examine their influence on repeat stability. Here we present a historical perspective of relevant studies published during the last twenty years on AGG interruptions and examine those recent publications that have refined risk estimates for repeat instability and full mutation expansions.

  4. Mediated interruptions of anaesthesia providers using predictions of workload from anaesthesia information management system data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R H; Dexter, F

    2012-09-01

    Perioperative interruptions generated electronically from anaesthesia information management systems (AIMS) can provide useful feedback, but may adversely affect task performance if distractions occur at inopportune moments. Ideally such interruptions would occur only at times when their impact would be minimal. In this study of AIMS data, we evaluated the times of comments, drugs, fluids and periodic assessments (e.g. electrocardiogram diagnosis and train-of-four) to develop recommendations for the timing of interruptions during the intraoperative period. The 39,707 cases studied were divided into intervals between: 1) enter operating room; 2) induction; 3) intubation; 4) surgical incision; and 5) end surgery. Five-minute intervals of no documentation were determined for each case. The offsets from the start of each interval when >50% of ongoing cases had completed initial documentation were calculated (MIN50). The primary endpoint for each interval was the percentage of all cases still ongoing at MIN50. Results were that the intervals from entering the operating room to induction and from induction to intubation were unsuitable for interruptions confirming prior observational studies of anaesthesia workload. At least 13 minutes after surgical incision was the most suitable time for interruptions with 92% of cases still ongoing. Timing was minimally affected by the type of anaesthesia, surgical facility, surgical service, prone positioning or scheduled case duration. The implication of our results is that for mediated interruptions, waiting at least 13 minutes after the start of surgery is appropriate. Although we used AIMS data, operating room information system data is also suitable.

  5. PRODUCTION INVENTORY SYSTEM WITH RANDOM SUPPLY INTERRUPTIONS STATUE AND RANDOM LEAD TIMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Yumei; Liu Wenyuan; Zhang Qiang; Wu Fengqing

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes a continuous-review inventory system with random supply interruptions and random lead time which may be interrupted by a random number of supplier's OFF periods. The inventory with constant demand rate is managed by a (r; q1, q2,..., qm) policy and supplies from an unreliable sole supplier. By renewal theory and matrix Geometric method, the long-run average cost function is obtained and some important properties of the function are proved. Furthermore, performance of the inventory is derived.

  6. MEASUREMENT OF ANODIC OVERVOLTAGE BY A MODIFIED CURRENT INTERRUPTION METHOD IN CRYOLITE-ALUMINA MELTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Generally, there are reasons to believe that the experimental technique has been inadequate in some works on anodic overvoltage measurements in aluminium electrolysis, therefore, the overvoltage data are not quite correct. Several causes affecting the precision of measurements were analyzed, a cell configuration ( vertical carbon anodes, insulated bottom and inner wall of graphite crucible as cathode) was used for overvoltage studies. An improved current interruption technique was used with current interrupted in less than 2μs and a simulation was applied to the oscillating potential decay curve.

  7. MAXIMIZING NETWORK INTERRUPTION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK: AN INTRUDER’S PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahfuzul Islam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the colossal growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs in different applications starting from home automation to military affairs, the pressure on ensuring security in such a network is paramount. Considering the security challenges, it is really a hard-hitting effort to develop a secured WSN system. Moreover, as the information technology is getting popular, the intruders are also planning new ideas to break the system security, to harm the network and to make the system quality down with the target of taking the control of the network to corrupt it or to get benefits from it anyway. The intruders corrupt the system only when the security breaking cost (SBC is lower compared with the benefits they attained or the harm it can make to others. In this paper, the authors define the term “maximizing network interruption problem” and propose a technique, called the grid point approximation algorithm, to estimate the SBC of a multi-hop WSN so that it can be made tougher for an intruder to break the system security. It is assumed that the intruder has the complete picture of the entire network. The technique is designed from the intruder’s point of view for completely jamming all the sensor nodes in the network through placing jammers or malicious nodes strategically and at the same time keeping the number of jammer nodes to minimum or near minimum. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no work proposed so far of the same kind. Experimental results with the changes of the different network parameters show that the proposed algorithm is able to provide excellent performances to achieve the targets.

  8. Relationship between regulatory T cells and immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients interrupting antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Weiss

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Persistent immune activation plays a central role in driving Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV disease progression. Whether CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs are harmful by suppressing HIV-specific immune responses and/or beneficial through a decrease in immune activation remains debatable. We analysed the relationship between proportion and number of regulatory T cells (Tregs and immune activation in HIV-infected patients interrupting an effective antiretroviral therapy (ART. Twenty-five patients were included in a substudy of a prospective multicenter trial of treatment interruption (TI (ANRS 116. Proportions and numbers of Tregs and the proportion of activated CD4 and CD8 T cells were assessed at baseline and month 12 (M12 of TI. Specific anti-HIV CD4 and CD8 responses were investigated at baseline and M12. Non parametric univariate analyses and multivariate linear regression models were conducted. At baseline, the proportion of Tregs negatively correlated with the proportion of HLA-DR+CD8+T cells (r=-0.519. Following TI, the proportion of Tregs increased from 6.3% to 7.2% (p=0.029; absolute numbers of Tregs decreased. The increase in the proportion of HLA-DR+CD38+CD8+T cells was significantly related to the increase in proportion of Tregs (p=0.031. At M12, the proportion of Tregs did not negatively correlate with CD8 T-cell activation. Nevertheless, Tregs retain a suppressive function since depletion of Treg-containing CD4+CD25+ cells led to an increase in lymphoproliferative responses in most patients studied. Our data suggest that Tregs are efficient in controlling residual immune activation in patients with ART-mediated viral suppression. However, the insufficient increase in the proportion and/or the decrease in the absolute number of Tregs result in a failure to control immune activation following TI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00118677.

  9. Analysis of Data Interruption in an LTE Highway Scenario with Dual Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Michaelsen, Per-Henrik; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates whether last versions of Long Term Evolution with dual connectivity are able to support the latency and reliability requirements for the upcoming vehicular use-cases and time-critical applications. Data interruption times during handovers and cell management operations are ev...

  10. 78 FR 65904 - Permanent Discontinuance or Interruption in Manufacturing of Certain Drug or Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... otherwise result in delayed patient treatment or interruption in clinical trial development. II... manufacturers and distributes them to awardees--i.e., State health departments and certain local and territorial....html .) \\9\\ The Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), which is...

  11. RTtxGap: An android radiobiological tool for compensation of radiotherapy treatment interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, A. L.; Mohamad, M.; Abdullah, R.; Bhavaraju, V. M. K.; Nik Idris, N. R.

    2016-03-01

    Treatment interruption is not uncommon in radiotherapy. Common reasons for treatment interruption include machine breakdown, holidays and patient severe radiation reactions. Here RTtxGap, an Android application to assist calculations of compensation for treatment gap, is reported. It uses linear quadratic (LQ) model to calculate the biological effective dose (BED) that is used to solve for treatment gap compensations. Solutions are calculated using BED equation, with consideration for tissue proliferation. The accuracy of results has been verified using LQL Equiv software to be accurate within 1%. Five treatment interruption examples were used to illustrate the capability of the software to calculate the treatment compensation schedules. Solving these examples also illustrates the general consensus regarding compensating for unscheduled treatment interruptions, which ultimately involves balancing the BEDs of tumour and organ at risk. In addition to compensation for treatment gap, RTtxGap can also be used to calculate equivalent total dose in 2-Gy fraction (EQD2), to modify treatment schedule and to calculate alternative dose prescriptions having the same isoeffect.

  12. The Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection and Sertraline on Vocal Stereotypy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Caio F.; Clark, Kathy; Tereshko, Lisa; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Although response interruption and redirection (RIRD) has been shown to be successful in reducing vocal stereotypy, recent reports have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may also reduce these behaviors. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effects of RIRD with and without sertraline on…

  13. Integrating Knowledge of Multitasking and Interruptions Across Different Perspectives and Research Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Chris; Gould, Sandy J. J.; Li, Simon Y.W.; Cox, Anna L.; Brumby, Duncan P.

    2015-01-01

    Multitasking and interruptions have been studied using a variety of methods in multiple fields (e.g., HCI, cognitive science, computer science, and social sciences). This diversity brings many complementary insights. However, it also challenges researchers to understand how seemingly disparate ideas

  14. The Reasons for the Interruption of Vocational Training in Estonian Vocational Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilmann, Mai; Espenberg, Kerly

    2016-01-01

    Dropping out of school before achieving any qualification is a serious problem both at an individual and societal level. This study provides an insight into the lives of young people who have dropped out or are at a risk of dropping out of vocational schools in Estonia and gives an overview of the reasons behind the interruption of their studies.…

  15. Analysis of the Vacuum Arc Interruption Process in Aviation Intermediate-Frequency Power Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present our research into the interruption performance of vacuum circuit breakers in aviation intermediate-frequency (360 Hz to 800 Hz power supply systems. Intermediate-frequency vacuum arc experiments were carried out in interrupters with a diameter of 41 mm and CuCr50 alloy contact material. The results show that, as the frequency and peak value of the current increase, both the peak value and rise rate of the intermediate-frequency vacuum arc voltage also increase, and the interruption ability decreases. However, compared to the power frequency current at the same value, the erosion of the contacts is weaker over a shorter arc period. When the vacuum arc reignites, metal droplets are emitted from the contacts. The drive force is from the center of the contact to the edge. If the density of the plasmas and metal vapors and the number of the metal droplets reaches a certain level, the arc may break down, which will cause the interruption to fail.

  16. Children with smoking parents have a higher airway resistance measured by the interruption technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, EMW; Vrijlandt, Elianne J.L.E.; Boezen, HM; Duiverman, EJ

    2004-01-01

    Children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, during or after pregnancy, are known to have decreased lung function. So far this has been measured using spirometry in schoolchildren and invasive techniques in newborns. The interruption technique (Rint) is a noninvasive technique to measure airway

  17. Interruptions between the triple helix peptides can promote the formation of amyloid-like fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Avanish; Hwang, Eileen; Brodsky, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    It has been reported that collagen can initiate or accelerate the formation of amyloid fibrils. Non-fibrillar collagen types have sites where the repeating (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n sequences are interrupted by non- Gly-Xaa-Yaa sequences, and we are investigating the hypothesis that some of these interruptions can promote amyloid formation. Our experimental data show that model peptides containing an 8 or 9 residue interruption sequence between (Gly-Pro-Hyp)n domains have a strong propensity for self association to form fibrous structures. A peptide containing only the 9-residue interruption sequence forms amyloid like fibrils with anti-parallel β sheet. Computational analysis predicts that 33 out of 374 naturally occurring human non-fibrillar collagen sequences within or between triple-helical sequences have significant cross-β aggregation potential, including the 8 and 9 residue sequences studied in peptides. Further studies are in progress to investigate whether a triple-helix peptide promotes amyloidogenesis and whether amyloid interferes with collagen fibrillogenesis.

  18. Relational Identity Making on the Professional Landscape as a Substitute Teacher: Interruptions and Continuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedger-Enns, Lynnette M.

    2014-01-01

    This article, which comes out of a research project exploring teaching as intellectual work, focuses specifically on a young woman who worked as a substitute teacher after she graduated from a two-year teacher education program at her local university. For Penny, substitute teaching was an interruption as she shaped a professional life moving…

  19. Crude oil contamination interrupts settlement of coral larvae after direct exposure ends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Hartmann; S.A. Sandin; V.F. Chamberland; K.L. Marhaver; J.M. de Goeij; M.J.A. Vermeij

    2015-01-01

    il spills cause damage to marine wildlife that lasts well past their immediate aftermath. Marine offspring that must settle and metamorphose to reach adulthood may be particularly prone to harm if the legacy of oil exposure interrupts later transitions across life stages. Following an oil spill on C

  20. Preparing School Leaders to Interrupt Racism at Various Levels in Educational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boske, Christa

    2015-01-01

    This narrative inquiry seeks to advance the field of educational leadership preparation by exploring ways to interrupt personal, interpersonal, and institutional racism through the senses--ways in which people perceive their experiences and relation to others. Findings suggest that participants engage in actions aligned with revelations from their…

  1. The Discharge Development and Arc Modes in Vacuum at A Long Gap Distance in Vacuum Interrupters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shaoyong; XIU Shixin; WANG Jimei; SHEN Zhengchao

    2007-01-01

    The influence of an arc current on the discharge development and the arc modes of a single coil type axial magnetic field (AMF) electrode were investigated by a high-speed charge couple device (CCD) video camera in a long gap distance of 40 mm. The distribution of the axial magnetic field of the single coil type AMF electrode was computed. By computational results, the single coil type AMF electrode could generate higher axial magnetic flux density than the slot type AMF electrode. It was found that the single coil type AMF electrode could perform better than the slot type AMF electrode with the same designing parameters. And the development of the arc modes experienced diffuse mode, constricted but unstable mode, and constricted and stable mode with the amplitude of the arc current increasing. The correlation between the vacuum arc and the noise components of arc voltage was investigated too. The interruption capability could be known in a practical commercial vacuum interrupter by the test results in a demountable vacuum interrupter (DVC) with a electrode diameter of 50 mm and a gap distance of 40mm.The test results could provide reference to design the high voltage vacuum interrupter adopting the single coil type AMF electrode.

  2. Women’s work interruptions and career prospects in Germany and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Evertsson; D. Grunow

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to focus on two welfare state regimes with differing degrees of de-familialisation strategies, Germany and Sweden, to study whether and how women's career interruptions influence their labour market prospects. By comparing women with continuous careers to those

  3. Differential reactions of virtual actors and observers to the triggering and interruption of psychological momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briki, Walid; Doron, Julie; Markman, Keith D.; Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Gernigon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The present study compared virtual actors’ and observers’ perceptions of positive and negative psychological momentum (PM) and their responses to sudden interruptions of momentum. Participants with experience playing competitive table tennis imagined that they were playing a table tennis game (virtu

  4. 煤矿安全监控系统传输中断后断点续传必要性的探讨%Probe on Necessity of Broken-point Continuingly-transferring after Transmission Interruption of Coal Mine Safety Monitoring and Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建庆

    2011-01-01

    针对煤矿安全监控系统传输中断后数据恢复上传的情况,在遵守《AQ6201-2006煤矿安全监控系统通用技术要求》的前提下,进行了是否有必要增加数据断点续传功能的探讨,得出了在目前以时分制为主的煤矿安全监控系统中实现断点续传的必要性不大的结论.%In view of status of data recowery transmission after data break off of coal mine safety monitoring and control system, the paper discussed whether there is a necessity to increase function of data broken-point continuingly-transferring in compliance with AQ6201-2006 Coal Mine Safety Monitoring System General Technical Requirements, and obtained conclusion that broken-point continuingly-transferring is unnecessary in coal mine safety monitoring and control system which used time-devision system at present.

  5. Garnet growth interruptions during high- and ultra high-pressure metamorphism constrained by thermodynamic forward models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad-Schmolke, M.; Schildhauer, H.

    2013-12-01

    Growth and chemical composition of garnet in metamorphic rocks excellently reflect thermodynamic as well kinetic properties of the host rock during garnet growth. This valuable information can be extracted from preserved compositional growth zoning patterns in garnet. However, metamorphic rocks often contain multiple garnet generations that commonly develop as corona textures with distinct compositional core-overgrowth features. This circumstance can lead to a misinterpretation of information extracted from such grains if the age- and metamorphic relations between different garnet generations are unclear. Especially garnets from high-pressure (HP) and ultra high-pressure (UHP) rocks often preserve textures that show multiple growth stages reflected in core-overgrowth differences both in main and trace element composition and in the inclusion assemblage. Distinct growth zones often have sharp boundaries with strong compositional gradients and/or inclusion- and trace-element-enriched zones. Such growth patterns indicate episodic garnet growth as well as growth interruptions during the garnet evolution. A quantitative understanding of these distinct growth pulses enables the relationship between reaction path, age determinations in spatially controlled garnet domains or temperature-time constraints to be fully characterised. In this study we apply thermodynamic forward models to simulate garnet growth along a series of HP and UHP P-T paths, representative for subducted oceanic crust. We study garnet growth in different basaltic rock compositions and under different element fractionation scenarios in order to detect path-dependent P-T regions of limited or ceased garnet growth. Modeled data along P-T trajectories involving fractional crystallisation are assembled in P-T diagrams reflecting garnet growth in a changing bulk rock composition. Our models show that in all investigated rock compositions garnet growth along most P-T trajectories is discontinuous, pulse

  6. Interrupting the reenactment cycle: psychotherapy of a sexually traumatized boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, P L; Piersma, H L; Grayson, C E

    1990-10-01

    This case study describes the course in psychotherapy of an eight-year-old boy who had been sexually traumatized at an early age by his biological father. He was seen for 35 individual sessions during a three-month hospitalization. Many of the problems evidenced at admission were conceptualized as ineffective attempts to reenact and master the original trauma. Hospitalization provided an environment in which acting-out behaviors could be controlled in a manner sufficient to allow anxiety to be utilized in psychodynamically oriented therapy. A key element in psychotherapeutic work was the recognition that the boy struggled with positive as well as negative feelings toward his abusing father. Individual therapy provided a context in which these ambivalent feelings could be expressed, which ultimately allowed for developmental progression.

  7. Interrupting malaria transmission by genetic manipulation of anopheline mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria ranks among the deadliest infectious diseases that kills more than one million persons everyyear. The mosquito is an obligatory vector for malaria transmission. In the mosquito, Plasmodiumundergoes a complex series of developmental events that includes transformation into severaldistinct morphological forms and the crossing of two different epithelia—midgut and salivarygland. Circumstantial evidence suggests that crossing of the epithelia requires specific interactionsbetween Plasmodium and epithelial surface molecules. By use of a phage display library we haveidentified a small peptide-SM1—that binds to the surfaces of the mosquito midgut and salivaryglands. Transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes expressing a SM1 tetramer from a bloodinducibleand gut-specific promoter are substantially impaired in their ability to sustain parasitedevelopment and transmission. A second effector gene, phospholipase A2, also impairs parasitetransmission in transgenic mosquitoes. These findings have important implications for the developmentof new strategies for malaria control.

  8. Computer assessment of indirect insight during an airflow interrupter maneuver of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Ireneusz

    2013-06-01

    The paper answers the questions if it is possible to conclude in objective way on more (than one -Rint - in a classical IT) number of parameters from the time domain post-interrupter signals during the occlusional measurement of respiratory mechanics and also verifies what accuracy can be achieved in such attempt. To obtain reported results, the time-domain enhanced interrupter technique (TD-EIT) was developed in this paper using computer simulations. Three-stage scheme of work was assumed in the project. First, the quality of the model identification was assessed for various combinations of pressure and flow signals recorded during the interruption. Then, the correlation between the working characteristics of the interrupter valve and the precision of the parameter estimation were assessed for the TD-EIT algorithm. Finally, a verification experiment by forward-inverse modeling was organized, in which the mechanical characteristics of a complex model were mapped with reduced analogs and with the use of neural networks for three typical modes: 'Normal state', 'Airway constriction' and 'Cheeks supported'. Obtained results show that to became effective in time-domain post-interrupter data exploration, both pressure and flow signals should be used in assessment of respiratory mechanics, taken in a range of at least 100ms and when both slopes (valve closing and opening) of quasi-step excitation are included. What is more, the faster the valve the smaller error of parameter estimation in proposed TD-EIT was observed, and this uncertainty importantly falls down for the length of time window exceeding the limit of 100ms. The pioneering use of neural network for mapping the mechanical properties of lungs with the use of interrupter experiment methodology proves that it is possible to conclude about more (than one) number of parameters characterizing the complex system and that this insight is biased with the error not exceeding of 10%; only peripheral properties are

  9. The role of interruptions in polyQ in the pathology of SCA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh P Menon

    Full Text Available At least nine dominant neurodegenerative diseases are caused by expansion of CAG repeats in coding regions of specific genes that result in abnormal elongation of polyglutamine (polyQ tracts in the corresponding gene products. When above a threshold that is specific for each disease the expanded polyQ repeats promote protein aggregation, misfolding and neuronal cell death. The length of the polyQ tract inversely correlates with the age at disease onset. It has been observed that interruption of the CAG tract by silent (CAA or missense (CAT mutations may strongly modulate the effect of the expansion and delay the onset age. We have carried out an extensive study in which we have complemented DNA sequence determination with cellular and biophysical models. By sequencing cloned normal and expanded SCA1 alleles taken from our cohort of ataxia patients we have determined sequence variations not detected by allele sizing and observed for the first time that repeat instability can occur even in the presence of CAG interruptions. We show that histidine interrupted pathogenic alleles occur with relatively high frequency (11% and that the age at onset inversely correlates linearly with the longer uninterrupted CAG stretch. This could be reproduced in a cellular model to support the hypothesis of a linear behaviour of polyQ. We clarified by in vitro studies the mechanism by which polyQ interruption slows down aggregation. Our study contributes to the understanding of the role of polyQ interruption in the SCA1 phenotype with regards to age at disease onset, prognosis and transmission.

  10. 短时停电及其经济损失的估算%Short Interruption and Its Cost Appraisal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天友; 赵会茹; 欧大昌; 乞建勋

    2012-01-01

    The causes and characteristics of short interruption and its impact on customers are analyzed.The implication of short interruption is described and suggestions on the definition of short interruption in China are proposed.Through questionnaire and customers interview,an investigation is conducted on the distribution network short interruption situation and relevant customers' short interruption cost in a coastal city.An appraisal method for customers' short interruption cost is proposed.The relationship between the customer cost and the duration of short interruption is dealt with and the characteristics of customers' short interruption cost are indicated.%分析了短时停电发生的原因、特性及其对用户造成的影响,阐述了短时停电的含义并对国内短时停电的定义提出了建议。通过调查问卷和用户走访,对某沿海城市配电网短时停电情况及其对用户造成的经济损失进行了调研,提出了短时停电损失的估算方法,同时得出了该市短时停电时间与经济损失的关系,揭示了短时停电损失的特点。

  11. Application of energy-saving technology system of the oil well liquid level continuous monitoring and interrupted control system%油井液面连续监测及间开控制节能技术系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱益飞

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the system components, the acoustic level monitoring principle, main technical parameters, oil EMC measures, and the implementation of project application. The comprehensive benefits of the project are analyzed and evaluated. Practice has proved that the oil well liquid level continuous moni⁃toring and control system is a kind of energy⁃saving technology combined with EMC can resolve not only difficult problems in ener⁃gy⁃saving and emissions reduction effectively with funds and tech⁃nology, promote energy⁃saving and emissions reduction of oil field enterprises, but also create an internal energy professional market for oil field enterprises, promote the innovation of energy manage⁃ment mechanism.%介绍油井液面连续监测及间开控制节能技术的系统组成、次声波液位监测原理、主要技术参数、油田合同能源管理配套措施以及项目现场应用实施情况,并对项目综合效益进行了分析评价。实践证明,应用油井液面连续监测及间开控制节能技术结合合同能源管理创新模式实施油田节能技术项目改造,不仅能有效解决油田企业在节能减排方面存在的资金和技术不足的难题,促进油田企业节能减排,而且有利于营造油田企业内部节能专业市场,促进能源管理机制创新。

  12. Differences between tree species seedling and adult altitudinal distribution in mountain foests during the recent warm period (1986-2006)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Pierrat, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Spatial fingerprints of climate change on tree species distribution are usually detected at latitudinal or altitudinal extremes (arctic or alpine tree line), where temperatures play a key role in tree species distribution. However, early detection of recent climate change effects on tree species ...

  13. From space to Earth: advances in human physiology from 20 years of bed rest studies (1986-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavy-Le Traon, A; Heer, M; Narici, M V; Rittweger, J; Vernikos, J

    2007-09-01

    Bed rest studies of the past 20 years are reviewed. Head-down bed rest (HDBR) has proved its usefulness as a reliable simulation model for the most physiological effects of spaceflight. As well as continuing to search for better understanding of the physiological changes induced, these studies focused mostly on identifying effective countermeasures with encouraging but limited success. HDBR is characterised by immobilization, inactivity, confinement and elimination of Gz gravitational stimuli, such as posture change and direction, which affect body sensors and responses. These induce upward fluid shift, unloading the body's upright weight, absence of work against gravity, reduced energy requirements and reduction in overall sensory stimulation. The upward fluid shift by acting on central volume receptors induces a 10-15% reduction in plasma volume which leads to a now well-documented set of cardiovascular changes including changes in cardiac performance and baroreflex sensitivity that are identical to those in space. Calcium excretion is increased from the beginning of bed rest leading to a sustained negative calcium balance. Calcium absorption is reduced. Body weight, muscle mass, muscle strength is reduced, as is the resistance of muscle to insulin. Bone density, stiffness of bones of the lower limbs and spinal cord and bone architecture are altered. Circadian rhythms may shift and are dampened. Ways to improve the process of evaluating countermeasures--exercise (aerobic, resistive, vibration), nutritional and pharmacological--are proposed. Artificial gravity requires systematic evaluation. This review points to clinical applications of BR research revealing the crucial role of gravity to health.

  14. Bank consolidation/capitalization in the Nigerian Commercial Bank(1986-2006:causes,consequences and implication for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Ikpefan Ochei Ailemen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital can include the skills and knowledge that a company has developed about how to make its goods or services; individual employees or groups of employees whose knowledge is deemed critical to a company’s continued success; and its aggregation of documents about processes, customers, research results, and other information that might have value for a competitor that is not common knowledge. Business organizations employ knowledge. To cope with new era of management complexity; the necessity of being Learning Organization, LO is essential for any organizations and enterprises. This paper is aims to review the Intellectual Capital, IC concept among organizations and employees and also the Knowledge sharing barriers in the organization. Generally, this paper looks the IC concept in Management sphere.

  15. La interdicción lingüística en textos legales educativos (1986-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa María Armenta Moreno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Alvaro

    2003-07-01

    Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Bras lia in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering Committee on Chagas Disease

  16. Cyst and encystment in protozoan parasites: optimal targets for new life-cycle interrupting strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Díaz, Hugo; Carrero, Julio César; Argüello-García, Raúl; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-10-01

    Certain protozoan parasites use survival strategies to reside outside the host such as the formation of cysts. This dormant and resistant stage results from the complex process of encystment that involves diverse molecular and cellular modifications. The stimuli and changes associated with cyst biogenesis are a matter of ongoing studies in human and animal protozoan parasites such as amoeba and Giardia species because blocking every step in the encystment pathway should, in theory, interrupt their life cycles. The present review thoroughly examines this essential process in those protozoan parasites and discusses the possibility of using that information to develop new kinds of anti-parasite specific and life cycle-interrupting drugs, aimed at holding back the dissemination of these infections.

  17. Avoiding Interruptions - QoE Trade-offs in Block-coded Streaming Media Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Parandehgheibi, Ali; Shakkottai, Srinivas; Ozdaglar, Asu

    2010-01-01

    We take an analytical approach to study Quality of user Experience (QoE) for video streaming applications. First, we show that random linear network coding applied to blocks of video frames can significantly simplify the packet requests at the network layer and save resources by avoiding duplicate packet reception. Network coding allows us to model the receiver's buffer as a queue with Poisson arrivals and deterministic departures. We consider the probability of interruption in video playback as well as the number of initially buffered packets (initial waiting time) as the QoE metrics. We characterize the optimal trade-off between these metrics by providing upper and lower bounds on the minimum initial buffer size, required to achieve certain level of interruption probability for different regimes of the system parameters. Our bounds are asymptotically tight as the file size goes to infinity.

  18. Teacher Interrupted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie Mulholland

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 399 secondary school teachers (156 males, 243 females, 18 schools responded to a survey questionnaire containing one measure of stress and two measures of strain. The Stressors in Teaching Scale (SITS, developed specifically to place work stress within the Scottish “teaching” context (Mulholland, 2005, gauged work stress. The General Health Questionnaire-30 (GHQ-30; Goldberg, 1972 and Glasgow Symptom Checklist (GSC; Mahmood, 1999 presented a unique opportunity to compare teachers’ perception of strain with a “general” and “clinical” population. Positive correlations were observed between work stress and strain. Perceptions of work stress and strain differed significantly according to teaching role. Quantitative job demands (e.g., “workload” was the main predictor of strain, and middle managers, who held leadership and classroom teaching responsibilities, reported this feature of work and “changing demands” specifically, as significantly more stressful than senior managers. Middle managers’ experiences of work were reflective of a “pile-up” of stressors, indicative of quantitative and qualitative overload. Crucially, 22% of middle managers recorded strain scores (GHQ-30 case indicative of psychiatric morbidity, and approximately 67% had experienced feelings of “personal ineffectiveness” and “depression” (GSC, normally associated with a “clinical” population. The unique interaction of “stressors” associated with teacher role, job demands, and job resources highlighted a range of risk factors (e.g., “workload,” “teaching-learning interface,” “professional ethos,” “change,” and “role” that have the potential to affect health in the long term.

  19. Impact of a critical care clinical information system on interruption rates during intensive care nurse and physician documentation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballermann, Mark A; Shaw, Nicola T; Arbeau, Kelly J; Mayes, Damon C; Noel Gibney, R T

    2010-01-01

    Computerized documentation methods in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) may assist Health Care Providers (HCP) with their documentation workload, but evaluating impacts remains problematic. A Critical Care clinical Information System (CCIS) is an electronic charting tool designed for ICUs that may fit seamlessly into HCP work. Observers followed ICU nurses and physicians in two ICUs in Edmonton, Canada, in which a CCIS had recently been introduced. Observers recorded amounts of time HCPs spent on documentation related tasks, interruptions encountered by HCPs, and contextual information in field notes. Interruption rates varied depending on the charting medium used, with physicians being interrupted less frequently when performing documentation tasks using the CCIS, than when performing documentation tasks using other methods. In contrast, nurses were interrupted more frequently when charting using the CCIS than when using other methods. Interruption rates coupled with qualitative observations suggest that physicians utilize strategies to avoid interruptions if interfaces for entering textual notes are not well adapted to interruption-rich environments such as ICUs. Potential improvements are discussed such that systems like the CCIS may better integrate into ICU work.

  1. A re-entry tachycardia triggered by the spontaneous interruption of an atrial tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttà, Carmelo; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Giarrusso, Lucia; Miceli, Giuseppe; Cuttitta, Francesco; La Rosa, Donata; Licata, Giuseppe; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The common atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia is the most common form of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. It starts frequently with a supraventricular ectopic beat that, on finding the fast pathway in refractory period, travels in the slow pathway as to appear as a prolongation of the PR interval on the ECG. In this study, we show a singular case of a common atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia triggered by the spontaneous interruption of an atrial tachycardia.

  2. Mass flow on the interrupter of regenerative blowers; Massestrom am Unterbrecher von Seitenkanalverdichtern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, D. [Fachbereich Maschinenbau, Fachhochschule Merseburg (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    The interruptor makes the working principle of side channel machines with their high pressure possible. The work transmission and the characteristic of side channel pumps are also determined by the thermodynamic and flow processes at the interrupter. To set up a calculation model of side channel compressors and their design, it is essential to know the flow processes at the interrupter, particularly from the rotor via the interrupter when giving up work to the mass flow transported to the rotor. Therefore, the mass flow flowing over is examined as a precondition for the design, based on the energy and mass flow balance at the interrupter and experimental investigations. The mass flow ratios m{sub U}/dot m{sub S} are given depending on the delivery and pressure figures. The circulationdelivery for the internal mass flow m{sub U} is defined and proved. The product of {phi}.m{sub U}/m{sub S} of a side channel machine is a constant over the whole working range. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Unterbrecher ermoeglicht das Arbeitsprinzip von Seitenkanalmaschinen mit ihrer grossen Druckzahl. Die Arbeitsuebertragung und die Kennliniencharakteristik von Seitenkanalpumpen werden aber auch ganz wesentlich von den thermodynamischen und Stroemungsvorgaengen am Unterbrecher bestimmt. Fuer die Aufstellung eines Berechnungsmodells von Seitenkanalverdichtern und deren Auslegung ist die Kenntnis der Stroemungsvorgaenge am Unterbrecher, insbesonder des vom Laufrad ueber den Unterbrecher bei Arbeitsabgabe an das Laufrad transportierten Massestromes, unerlaesslich. Deshalb wird auf der Grundlage der Energie- und Massestrombilanz am Unterbrecher und experimenteller Untersuchungen der ueberstroemende Massestrom als Voraussetzung fuer die Auslegung untersucht. Die Massestromverhaeltnisse m{sub U}/m{sub S}, werden in Abhaengigkeit der Lieferzahl und Druckzahl angegeben. Fuer den inneren Massestrom m{sub U} wird die Zirkulationslieferzahl definiert und nachgewiesen. Das Produkt aus {phi}.m{sub U

  3. Hybrid palliation of interrupted aortic arch in a high-risk neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a high-risk neonate with interrupted aortic arch (IAA and ventricular septal defect who underwent a successful hybrid palliative procedure using a ductal stent and bilateral branch pulmonary artery banding. This case represents not only a successful use of hybrid approach in high-risk neonates with IAA, but also introduces an alternative and safe access for ductal stent insertion through the right ventricular infundibulum.

  4. Impact of the rotavirus vaccine in Valladolid, Spain: An interrupted time series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Pérez-Rubio; Francisco Javier Luquero; Maria Rosario Bachiller Luque; Paz de la Torre Pardo; José María Eiros Bouza

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccines (RV) have decreased the infant morbidity and mortality in countries that included RV in their national schedule. Rotavirus vaccination is recommended by the Spanish Society of Pediatrics; however, Spain, as most countries in Europe, has authorized commercialization but not included RV in its national vaccination program. We assessed the impact of RV on the rotavirus hospitalization rate through an interrupted time series analysis. There was a 46.8% (95% CI: 29.3–60.2) decre...

  5. Interruption of the Calvin cycle inhibits the repair of Photosystem II from photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shunichi; Murata, Norio

    2005-07-15

    In photosynthetic organisms, impairment of the activities of enzymes in the Calvin cycle enhances the extent of photoinactivation of Photosystem II (PSII). We investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for this phenomenon in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. When the Calvin cycle was interrupted by glycolaldehyde, which is known to inhibit phosphoribulokinase, the extent of photoinactivation of PSII was enhanced. The effect of glycolaldehyde was very similar to that of chloramphenicol, which inhibits protein synthesis de novo in chloroplasts. The interruption of the Calvin cycle by the introduction of a missense mutation into the gene for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) also enhanced the extent of photoinactivation of PSII. In such mutant 10-6C cells, neither glycolaldehyde nor chloramphenicol has any additional effect on photoinactivation. When wild-type cells were incubated under weak light after photodamage to PSII, the activity of PSII recovered gradually and reached a level close to the initial level. However, recovery was inhibited in wild-type cells by glycolaldehyde and was also inhibited in 10-6C cells. Radioactive labelling and Northern blotting demonstrated that the interruption of the Calvin cycle suppressed the synthesis de novo of chloroplast proteins, such as the D1 and D2 proteins, but did not affect the levels of psbA and psbD mRNAs. Our results suggest that the photoinactivation of PSII that is associated with the interruption of the Calvin cycle is attributable primarily to the inhibition of the protein synthesis-dependent repair of PSII at the level of translation in chloroplasts.

  6. Brief Lags in Interrupted Sequential Performance: Evaluating a Model and Model Evaluation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    Task interruption Sequence errors Cognitive modeling Goodness-of-fit testing a b s t r a c t We examined effects of adding brief (1 second ) lags...should decay faster than pred2, such that after a lag there is increased probability of an intrusion by pred2 and thus an error at offset 1. The second ...For example, language production requires that words be produced in the correct order, and research in this domain has examined sequence errors at the

  7. Sedation protocols versus daily sedation interruption: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar Junior, Antonio Paulo; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to systematically review studies that compared a mild target sedation protocol with daily sedation interruption and to perform a meta-analysis with the data presented in these studies. Methods We searched Medline, Scopus and Web of Science databases to identify randomized clinical trials comparing sedation protocols with daily sedation interruption in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was mortality in the intensive care unit. Results Seven studies were included, with a total of 892 patients. Mortality in the intensive care unit did not differ between the sedation protocol and daily sedation interruption groups (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60 - 1.10; I2 = 0%). Hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay did not differ between the groups either. Sedation protocols were associated with an increase in the number of days free of mechanical ventilation (mean difference = 6.70 days; 95%CI 1.09 - 12.31 days; I2 = 87.2%) and a shorter duration of hospital length of stay (mean difference = -5.05 days, 95%CI -9.98 - -0.11 days; I2 = 69%). There were no differences in regard to accidental extubation, extubation failure and the occurrence of delirium. Conclusion Sedation protocols and daily sedation interruption do not appear to differ in regard to the majority of analyzed outcomes. The only differences found were small and had a high degree of heterogeneity. PMID:28099642

  8. Fully kinetic model of breakdown during sheath expansion after interruption of vacuum arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Haoran; Zhou, Zhipeng; Tian, Yunbo; Geng, Yingsan; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2016-08-01

    Research on sheath expansion is critical to the understanding of the dielectric recovery process in a vacuum interrupter after interruption of vacuum arcs. In this paper, we investigated how residual plasma affects breakdown in the sheath expansion period after the current zero. To simulate sheath expansion and breakdown, we developed a fully kinetic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision model with one spatial dimension and three velocity dimensions. The model accounted for various collisions, including ionization, excitation, elastic collisions, charge exchange, and momentum exchange, and we added an external circuit to the model to make the calculations self-consistent. The existence of metal vapor slowed the sheath expansion in the gap and caused high electric field formation in front of the cathode surface. The initial residual plasma, which was at sufficiently low density, seemed to have a limited impact on breakdown, and the metal vapor dominated the breakdown in this case. Additionally, the breakdown probability was sensitive to the initial plasma density if the value exceeded a specific threshold, and plasma at sufficiently high density could mean that breakdown would occur more easily. We found that if the simulation does not take the residual plasma into account, it could overestimate the critical value of the metal vapor density, which is always used to describe the boundary of breakdown after interruption of vacuum arcs. We discussed the breakdown mechanism in sheath expansion, and the breakdown is determined by a combination of metal vapor, residual plasma, and the electric field in front of the cathode surface.

  9. A Neural Mechanism for Surprise-related Interruptions of Visuospatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2016-11-30

    Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST). We used independent component analysis and single-trial scalp-electroencephalogram to test whether the same inhibitory mechanism that reflects motor inhibition in the SST relates to surprise-related visuospatial WM decrements, as was the case for verbal WM. As expected, surprising tones elicited activity of the inhibitory mechanism, and this activity correlated strongly with the trial-by-trial level of surprise. However, unlike for verbal WM, the activity of this mechanism was unrelated to visuospatial WM accuracy. Instead, inhibition-independent activity that immediately succeeded the inhibitory mechanism was increased when visuospatial WM was disrupted. This shows that surprise-related interruptions of visuospatial WM are not effected by the same inhibitory mechanism that interrupts verbal WM, and instead provides evidence for a 2-stage model of distraction.

  10. Interrupt-Based Step-Counting to Extend Battery Life in an Activity Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Young Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most activity monitors use an accelerometer and gyroscope sensors to characterize the wearer’s physical activity. The monitor measures the motion by polling an accelerometer or gyroscope sensor or both every 20–30 ms and frequent polling affects the battery life of a wearable device. One of the key features of a commercial daily-activity monitoring device is longer battery life so that the user can keep track of his or her activity for a week or so without recharging the battery of the monitoring device. Many low-power approaches for a step-counting system use either a polling-based algorithm or an interrupt-based algorithm. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that uses the tap interrupt of an accelerometer to count steps while consuming low power. We compared the accuracy of step counting and measured system-level power consumption to a periodic sensor-reading algorithm. Our tap interrupt approach shows a battery lifetime that is 175% longer than that of a 30 ms polling method without gyroscope. The battery lifetime can be extended up to 863% with a gyroscope by putting both the processor and the gyroscope into sleep state during the majority of operation time.

  11. Influence of metalorganic precursors flow interruption timing on green InGaN multiple quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmukauskas, M.; Kadys, A.; Malinauskas, T.; Grinys, T.; Reklaitis, I.; Badokas, K.; Skapas, M.; Tomašiūnas, R.; Dobrovolskas, D.; Stanionytė, S.; Pietzonka, I.; Strassburg, M.; Lugauer, H.-J.

    2016-12-01

    The paper reports on fully strained green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells, grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, using metal precursor multiple flow interruptions during InGaN quantum well growth. Optimization of the interruption timing (pulse t 1  =  20 s, pause t 2  =  12 s) lets us reach the integrated photoluminescence enhancement for the growth at temperature 780 ºC. The enhancement, as a function of pause duration, appeared to be pulse duration dependent: a lower enhancement can be achieved using shorter pulses with optimized relatively shorter pauses. Indium evaporation during the interruption time was interpreted as the main issue to keep the layers intact. Quantum wells revealing the highest photoluminescence enhancement were inspected for interface quality, layer thickness, growth speed, strain, surface morphology and roughness by TEM, XRD and AFM techniques, and compared with the one grown in the conventional mode.

  12. Effects of Continuous and Interrupted Forces on Gene Transcription in Periodontal Ligament Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Nasser Ostad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The biological mechanisms of tooth movement are based on the response of periodontal tissues to mechanical forces. The final result of these responses is remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Tissue reactions may vary depending upon the type, magnitude and duration of the applied forces. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of centrifugal force on the transcription of collagen type-I (Col-I, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase- 1 (TIMP-1 genes in human periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts. Human fibroblasts obtained from the PDL were cultured and subjected to centrifugal forces (36.3 g/cm2 for 30, 60 and 90 min continuously. This was also carried out interruptedly, three times for 30 min and six times for 15 min. The mRNAs encoding for Col-I, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 were quantified using RT-PCR. The mRNA levels of Col-I and MMP-1 were increased when continuous force was applied for 30 min and 60 min respectively. The interrupted force had almost no effect on Col-I, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 genes. These results indicate that continuous forces may have a greater effect in inducing gene expression during the remodeling process of PDL compared to interrupted forces with short rest periods.

  13. Critical Causes and Consequences of Construction Project Interruption: Client, Contractor, Consultant and External Factors Standpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbasirah Mohamed Alias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It should be pointed out that the dilemma of interruption and stoppage in the construction industry is a large-scale trend. Construction interruption and stoppage is considered one of the most recurring problems in the construction industry. Construction Interruption and stoppage is always measured as costly to all parties concerned in the projects and very often it will result in clash, claims, total desertion and much difficult for the feasibility and it slows the growth of construction sector. The objective of the research work that underpins this paper was to investigate the Factors and Consequences of construction projects on local contractors. A construction project is commonly acknowledged as successful when the aim of the project is achieved in terms of predetermined objectives that are mainly completed the project on time, within budget and specified quality in accordance with the specifications and to stakeholders’ satisfaction. One of the most important problems that may arise in the construction project is delays and the magnitude of these delays varies considerably from project to project. According to delay categories that were contractor related, client related, consultant related, labour related and external related, the study revealed the six major effects of delay that were time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, arbitration, total abandonment, and litigation.

  14. Interruption of pacemaker signals by a diencephalic nucleus in the African electric fish, Gymnarchus niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2006-05-01

    The African electric fish Gymnarchus niloticus rhythmically emits electric organ discharges (EODs) for communication and navigation. The EODs are generated by the electric organ in the tail in response to the command signals from the medullary pacemaker complex, which consists of a pacemaker nucleus (PN), two lateral relay nuclei (LRN) and a medial relay nucleus (MRN). The premotor structure and its modulatory influences on the pacemaker complex have been investigated in this paper. A bilateral prepacemaker nucleus (PPn) was found in the area of the dorsal posterior nucleus (DP) of the thalamus by retrograde labeling from the PN. No retrogradely labeled neurons outside the pacemaker complex were found after tracer injection into the LRN or MRN. Accordingly, anterogradely labeled terminal fibers from PPn neurons were found only in the PN. Iontophoresis of L-glutamate into the region of the PPn induced EOD interruptions. Despite the exclusive projection of the PPn neurons to the PN, extracellular and intracellular recordings showed that PN neurons continue their firing while MRN neurons ceased their firing during EOD interruption. This mode of EOD interruption differs from those found in any other weakly electric fishes in which EOD cessation mechanisms have been known.

  15. Children's Avoidance of Interrupting Others' Activities in Requesting Help: Cultural Aspects of Considerateness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba, Omar; Rogoff, Barbara; López, Angélica; Correa-Chávez, Maricela; Gutiérrez, Kris

    2015-01-01

    To be able to collaborate skillfully, people need to coordinate well with others, taking into account how their actions fit with those of their partners. This is a key aspect of an approach to learning called Learning by Observing and Pitching In, hypothesized to be common in many Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. This chapter considers cultural values that emphasize considerateness and awareness of how one's actions impact others such as the Mexican cultural value of respeto and cultural differences in children's efforts to avoid interrupting others' activity. US Mexican-heritage children showed more evidence of avoiding interrupting the ongoing activity of an adult when they requested help, compared with European American children from families with extensive schooling experience. Most of the Mexican-heritage children's requests for help that gave evidence of avoiding interruption were made nonverbally, which may facilitate unobtrusive requests. There were no significant differences among children from two US Mexican-heritage backgrounds varying in experience with Western schooling and likely experience with Indigenous-American practices, suggesting that the Mexican cultural value of respeto and associated considerateness is widespread even among US Mexican-heritage families with extensive experience with Western schooling and life in the United States.

  16. Interruption of a dry-type transformer in no-load by a vacuum circuit-breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenheuvel, W. M. C.; Daalder, J. E.; Boone, M. J. M.; Wilmes, L. A. H.

    1983-08-01

    Overvoltages generated during interruption of a dry type delta-star connected transformer in no load by a vacuum breaker were studied. During interruption of inrush current 37% of the phase-to-ground overvoltages were 5 pu, and 6% 7 pu. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results using Boyle's model shows no discrepancy for inrush currents and clean overvoltages from the steady-state interruption. Overvoltages due to repetitive reignitions (not covered by Boyle's model) are higher than the calculated values during steady-state switching.

  17. Dynamic dielectric recovery characteristics of hybrid circuit breaker based on vacuum interrupter and SF6 interrupter in series%基于真空灭弧室与SF6灭弧室串联的混合断路器动态介质恢复特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程显; 廖敏夫; 段雄英; 邹积岩

    2012-01-01

    论述了基于真空灭弧室和SF6灭弧室串联的混合断路器开断能力提高的原理,分析了混合断路器两灭弧室的介质恢复过程.结合混合断路器开断能力提高的机理提出了混合断路器对其操动控制机构的要求,设计了一种基于真空灭弧室与SF6灭弧室串联的光控模块式混合断路器实验模型.实验模型能满足分析混合断路器中真空灭弧室与SF6灭弧室在不同时刻协同动作开断容量增益特性的要求,其协同动作时间分散性在微秒级.实验对比了SF6断路器与基于相同SF6灭弧室串联真空灭弧室的混合断路器短路电流开断能力,证明在不增加SF6气体使用量的前提下,混合断路器具有比SF6断路器更加优越的开断能力.%The principle of breaking capacity improvement of hybrid circuit breaker with serial vacuum interrupter and SF6 interrupter is discussed and the dielectric recovery process of two interrupters is analyzed. Based on the improvement of breaking capacity,the requirements of hybrid circuit breaker for its control mechanism are proposed. The experimental model of hybrid circuit breaker based on optical control modules is designed,which meets the research requirement for the breaking capacity gain characteristic of coordinating operation at different moments between vacuum interrupter and SF6 interrupter, and the time dispersion is microsecond level. Experimental results show that,if the usage of SF6 gas is same,the breaking capacity of hybrid circuit breaker is higher than that of SF6 circuit breaker.

  18. Characteristics and outcomes of initial virologic suppressors during analytic treatment interruption in a therapeutic HIV-1 gag vaccine trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Z Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the placebo-controlled trial ACTG A5197, a trend favoring viral suppression was seen in the HIV-1-infected subjects who received a recombinant Ad5 HIV-1 gag vaccine. OBJECTIVE: To identify individuals with initial viral suppression (plasma HIV-1 RNA set point <3.0 log(10 copies/ml during the analytic treatment interruption (ATI and evaluate the durability and correlates of virologic control and characteristics of HIV sequence evolution. METHODS: HIV-1 gag and pol RNA were amplified and sequenced from plasma obtained during the ATI. Immune responses were measured by flow cytometric analysis and intracellular cytokine expression assays. Characteristics of those with and without initial viral suppression were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum and Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Eleven out of 104 participants (10.6% were classified as initial virologic suppressors, nine of whom had received the vaccine. Initial virologic suppressors had significantly less CD4+ cell decline by ATI week 16 as compared to non-suppressors (median 7 CD4+ cell gain vs. 247 CD4+ cell loss, P = 0.04. However, of the ten initial virologic suppressors with a pVL at ATI week 49, only three maintained pVL <3.0 log(10 copies/ml. HIV-1 Gag-specific CD4+ interferon-γ responses were not associated with initial virologic suppression and no evidence of vaccine-driven HIV sequence evolution was detected. Participants with initial virologic suppression were found to have a lower percentage of CD4+ CTLA-4+ cells prior to treatment interruption, but a greater proportion of HIV-1 Gag-reactive CD4+ TNF-α+ cells expressing either CTLA-4 or PD-1. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals participating in a rAd5 therapeutic HIV-1 gag vaccine trial, initial viral suppression was found in a subset of patients, but this response was not sustained. The association between CTLA-4 and PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells and virologic outcome warrants further study in trials of other

  19. Impact of STROBE statement publication on quality of observational study reporting: interrupted time series versus before-after analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Bastuji-Garin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In uncontrolled before-after studies, CONSORT was shown to improve the reporting of randomised trials. Before-after studies ignore underlying secular trends and may overestimate the impact of interventions. Our aim was to assess the impact of the 2007 STROBE statement publication on the quality of observational study reporting, using both uncontrolled before-after analyses and interrupted time series. METHODS: For this quasi-experimental study, original articles reporting cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies published between 2004 and 2010 in the four dermatological journals having the highest 5-year impact factors (≥ 4 were selected. We compared the proportions of STROBE items (STROBE score adequately reported in each article during three periods, two pre STROBE period (2004-2005 and 2006-2007 and one post STROBE period (2008-2010. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was also performed. RESULTS: Of the 456 included articles, 187 (41% reported cohort studies, 166 (36.4% cross-sectional studies, and 103 (22.6% case-control studies. The median STROBE score was 57% (range, 18%-98%. Before-after analysis evidenced significant STROBE score increases between the two pre-STROBE periods and between the earliest pre-STROBE period and the post-STROBE period (median score2004-05 48% versus median score2008-10 58%, p<0.001 but not between the immediate pre-STROBE period and the post-STROBE period (median score2006-07 58% versus median score2008-10 58%, p = 0.42. In the pre STROBE period, the six-monthly mean STROBE score increased significantly, by 1.19% per six-month period (absolute increase 95%CI, 0.26% to 2.11%, p = 0.016. By segmented analysis, no significant changes in STROBE score trends occurred (-0.40%; 95%CI, -2.20 to 1.41; p = 0.64 in the post STROBE statement publication. INTERPRETATION: The quality of reports increased over time but was not affected by STROBE. Our findings raise

  20. The impact of sleep interruptions on vital measurements and chronic fatigue of female caregivers providing home care in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Keiko; Kido, Teruhiko; Makimoto, Kiyoko; Naganuma, Rie; Ohno, Masami; Sunaga, Kyoko

    2006-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the impact of sleep interruptions on diurnal changes in blood pressure and chronic fatigue in middle-aged and elderly caregivers by using a cross-sectional quantitative method. Thirty-five female caregivers who were not taking antihypertensive and/or sleeping drugs were recruited for this study. Blood pressure was monitored over a 24 h period. Sleeping or waking periods were monitored with an actigraph. Fatigue was determined from a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were classified into four groups by cause of sleep interruption. One-way analysis of variance showed no differences in blood pressure, but hypertension was prevalent (40%). Sleep duration differed significantly, with the longest duration for those scheduled to wake up for care. Substantial variations were identified in the eight subcategories of chronic fatigue, with those without sleep interruption having the worst profile. This suggests that multiple factors in addition to sleep interruption affect the care burden.

  1. Interrupted aortic arch diagnosed by ECG-gated multi-slice computed tomography angiography: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yang-yang; HAN Ping; FENG Gan-sheng; LIANG Bo

    2005-01-01

    @@ Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare congenital cardiovascular disease with major intracardiac defects and always with multisystem non-cardiac malformations. It occurs in 1: 10,000 births, and about 1% of the patients with congenital heart defects.

  2. Reappearance of an 11-year-old sequence in an HIV-1 infected patient during treatment interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T.V.; Gerstoft, J.; Nielsen, C.;

    2008-01-01

    HIV-1 from a patient with multi-drug resistant virus was identified as wild type during treatment interruption. The aim of the study was to describe how the viral population is affected by treatment interruptions and use phylogeny to reconstruct the evolutionary pattern. 15 samples covering 13 y...... and 2 treatment interruptions were analysed in both pol and env. The wild type virus found in the sample from the second treatment interruption in 2002 had not been present as a dominant population since 1994. Phylogeny showed that the 2002 sample was more closely related to wild type sequences than...... to other sequences sampled in 2002. This indicated that the wild type virus was caused by recruitment from the viral archives rather than reversion of previously circulating resistant strains. A few weeks after re-initiated treatment, virus showed full resistance, indicating that resistant virus...

  3. A comparative study of continuous versus interrupted suturing for repair of episiotomy or second degree perineal tear

    OpenAIRE

    Lopamudra Jena; Shyama Kanungo

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study has been taken up to assess the effects of continuous versus interrupted suturing methods on the incidence of short and long term postpartum maternal morbidity experienced by women following repair of episiotomy or second-degree perineal tears after vaginal birth. Methods: This comparative prospective study was conducted in department of obstetrics and gynaecology of S.C.B. medical college, Cuttack, Odisha to compare continuous suturing technique with interrupted m...

  4. Utilizing direct skin feeding assays for development of vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission: A systematic review of methods and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickley, Elizabeth B; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Gabriel, Erin E; Healy, Sara A; Hume, Jen C C; Sagara, Issaka; Traore, Sekou F; Doumbo, Ogobara; Duffy, Patrick E

    2016-11-21

    Shifting the malaria priorities from a paradigm of control and elimination to a goal of global eradication calls for renewed attention to the interruption of malaria transmission. Sustained progress toward eradication will require both improved understanding of infectious reservoirs and efficient development of novel transmission-blocking interventions, such as rapidly acting and highly efficacious therapeutics and vaccines. Here, we review the direct skin feeding assay (DSF), which has been proposed as a valuable tool for measuring the in natura transmission of malaria parasites from human hosts to mosquito vectors across heterogeneous populations. To capture the methodological breadth of this assay's use, we first systematically review and qualitatively synthesize previously published investigations using DSFs to study malaria transmission in humans. Then, using a recent Phase 1 trial in Mali of the Pfs25H-EPA/Alhydrogel® vaccine candidate (NCT01867463) designed to interrupt Plasmodium falciparum transmission as a case study, we describe the potential opportunities and current limitations of utilizing the endpoints measured by DSF in making early clinical decisions for individually randomized transmission-interrupting intervention candidates. Using simulations based on the data collected in the clinical trial, we demonstrate that the capacity of the DSF to serve as an evaluative tool is limited by the statistical power constraints of the "effective sample size" (i.e. the number of subjects that are capable of transmitting at the time of feeding). Altogether, our findings suggest DSFs have great potential utility for assessing the public health impacts of emerging antimalarial tools, but additional research is needed to address issues of scalability and to establish correlation with community-wide clinical endpoints as well as complementary in vitro measures, such as standard membrane feeding assays.

  5. Operating characteristics of superconducting fault current limiter using 24kV vacuum interrupter driven by electromagnetic repulsion switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, M; Hori, T; Koyama, K; Kaiho, K; Yanabu, S [Tokyo Denki University, 2-2 Kandanishiki-chou Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 101-8457 (Japan); Yamaguchi, I; Arai, K [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology(AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)], E-mail: yanabu@e.dendai.ac.jp

    2008-02-01

    Using a high temperature superconductor, we constructed and tested a model Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL). SFCL which has a vacuum interrupter with electromagnetic repulsion mechanism. We set out to construct high voltage class SFCL. We produced the electromagnetic repulsion switch equipped with a 24kV vacuum interrupter(VI). There are problems that opening speed becomes late. Because the larger vacuum interrupter the heavier weight of its contact. For this reason, the current which flows in a superconductor may be unable to be interrupted within a half cycles of current. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to change the design of the coil connected in parallel and to strengthen the electromagnetic repulsion force at the time of opening the vacuum interrupter. Then, the design of the coil was changed, and in order to examine whether the problem is solvable, the current limiting test was conducted. We examined current limiting test using 4 series and 2 parallel-connected YBCO thin films. We used 12-centimeter-long YBCO thin film. The parallel resistance (0.1{omega}) is connected with each YBCO thin film. As a result, we succeed in interrupting the current of superconductor within a half cycle of it. Furthermore, series and parallel-connected YBCO thin film could limit without failure.

  6. Growth Interruption Effect on the Fabrication of GaAs Concentric Multiple Rings by Droplet Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the molecular beam epitaxy fabrication and optical properties of complex GaAs nanostructures by droplet epitaxy: concentric triple quantum rings. A significant difference was found between the volumes of the original droplets and the final GaAs structures. By means of atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, we found that a thin GaAs quantum well-like layer is developed all over the substrate during the growth interruption times, caused by the migration of Ga in a low As background.

  7. Understanding the cost of power interruptions to U.S. electricity consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Eto, Joseph H.

    2004-09-01

    The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern United States and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 resulted in the U.S. electricity system being called ''antiquated'' and catalyzed discussions about modernizing the grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of $50 to $100 billion would be needed. This report seeks to quantify an important piece of information that has been missing from these discussions: how much do power interruptions and fluctuations in power quality (power-quality events) cost U.S. electricity consumers? Accurately estimating this cost will help assess the potential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of the grid. We develop a comprehensive end-use framework for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumers of power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectively as ''reliability events''). The framework expresses these costs as a function of: (1) Number of customers by type in a region; (2) Frequency and type of reliability events experienced annually (including both power interruptions and power-quality events) by these customers; (3) Cost of reliability events; and (4) Vulnerability of customers to these events. The framework is designed so that its cost estimate can be improved as additional data become available. Using our framework, we estimate that the national cost of power interruptions is about $80 billion annually, based on the best information available in the public domain. However, there are large gaps in and significant uncertainties about the information currently available. Notably, we were not able to develop an estimate of power-quality events. Sensitivity analysis of some of these uncertainties suggests that the total annual cost could range from less than $30 billion to more than $130 billion. Because of this large range and the enormous cost of the decisions that may be based on this estimate, we encourage policy makers, regulators, and

  8. Advances in high voltage insulation and arc interruption in SF6 and vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Maller, V N

    1982-01-01

    Advances in High Voltage Insulation and Arc Interruption in SF6 and Vacuum deals with high voltage breakdown and arc extinction in sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and high vacuum, with special emphasis on the application of these insulating media in high voltage power apparatus and devices. The design and developmental aspects of various high voltage power apparatus using SF6 and high vacuum are highlighted. This book is comprised of eight chapters and opens with a discussion on electrical discharges in SF6 and high vacuum, along with the properties and handling of SF6 gas. The following chapters fo

  9. A rare association of interrupted aortic arch type C and microdeletion 22q11.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuturilo, Goran; Drakulic, Danijela; Stevanovic, Milena; Jovanovic, Ida; Djukic, Milan; Miletic-Grkovic, Slobodanka; Atanaskovic-Markovic, Marina

    2008-10-01

    Microdeletion 22q11.2 is associated with a variety of findings, and the most common are cardiac defects. It is very frequently associated with interrupted aortic arch (IAA) type B and very rarely with type A and type C. Here we report the first case of IAA type C associated with 22q11.2 deletion in Serbia and, to the best of our knowledge, the fourth case described worldwide so far. By this report we would like to point out that all patients with IAA type C who have additional features specific for 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome should be screened for the presence of this deletion.

  10. Optimal Allocation of Smart Substations in a Distribution System Considering Interruption Costs of Customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Lei; You, Shi; Hu, Junjie;

    2016-01-01

    One of the major functions of a smart substation (SS) is to restore power supply to interrupted customers as quickly as possible after an outage. The high cost of a smart substation limits its widespread utilization. In this paper, a smart substation allocation model (SSAM) to determine the optimal...... is simplified into a mixed integer linear programming problem which could be solved efficiently with commercial solvers. Finally, the performance of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by the standard RBTS-BUS 4 test system and a medium voltage power distribution system in Denmark....

  11. Creating a Fontan fenestration in a child with dextrocardia and interrupted inferior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlagorla, Pradeepkumar; Breinholt, John P

    2016-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare life-threatening complication of the Fontan operation. Transcatheter Fontan fenestration can ameliorate symptoms by decompressing elevated venous pressures. Transcatheter creation of a fenestration can be technically challenging in cases with complex venous anatomy. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with heterotaxy, dextrocardia with unbalanced atrioventricular canal (AVC), atrial and visceral situs inversus, left-sided superior vena cava (SVC), and left-sided interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC) with azygos continuation. With few modifications to the equipment, a successful Fontan fenestration with stent implantation was performed via transjugular approach. At 2-year follow-up, his symptoms of plastic bronchitis improved significantly.

  12. Response to planned treatment interruptions in HIV infection varies across childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Valerius, Niels Henrik

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical, immunological and virological consequences of CD4-guided antiretroviral therapy (ART) planned treatment interruptions (PTIs) compared with continuous therapy in children with chronic HIV infection in the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS 11 trial....... DESIGN: This was a multicentre, 72-week, open, randomized, phase II trial. METHODS: One hundred and nine children with HIV-RNA below 50 copies/ml and CD4% of at least 30% (2-6 years) or at least 25% and CD4 cell count of at least 500 cells/microl (7-15 years) were randomized to continuous therapy (53...

  13. Interrupted Magnetic First Order Transitions and Kinetic Arrest probed with In-field Neutron Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siruguri, V.; Kaushik, S. D.; Rayaprol, S.; Babu, P. D.; Chaddah, P.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.; Hoser, A.; Ritter, C.

    2016-09-01

    In-field neutron diffraction studies were carried out on two compounds that exhibit magnetic first order phase transitions (FOPT). It is shown that the FOPT can be interrupted by an external magnetic field, resulting in a coexistence of kinetically arrested metastable states and equilibrium phases. Use of a novel protocol CHUF (Cooling and Heating under Unequal Fields) helps to determine the coexisting phase fractions and also to observe the devitrification of the kinetically arrested phase into the equilibrium phase, in a manner similar to that found in structural glassy systems.

  14. On migration of primary/peritectic interface during interrupted directional solidification of Sn-Ni peritectic alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Jiangong; Su, Yanqing; Guo, Jingjie; Fu, Hengzhi

    2016-04-01

    The migration of the primary/peritectic interface in local isothermal condition is observed in dendritic structure of Sn–Ni peritectic alloy after experiencing interrupted directional solidification. It was observed that this migration of primary Ni3Sn2/peritectic Ni3Sn4 interface towards the primary Ni3Sn2 phase was accompanied by migration of liquid film located at this interface. The migration velocity of this interface was confirmed to be much faster than that of peritectic transformation, so this migration was mostly caused by superheating of primary Ni3Sn2 phase below TP, leading to nucleation and migration of liquid film at this interface. This migration can be classified as a kind of liquid film migration (LFM), and the migration velocity at the horizontal direction has been confirmed to be much faster than that along the direction of temperature gradient. Analytical prediction has shown that the migration of liquid film could be divided into two stages depending on whether primary phase exists below TP. If the isothermal annealing time is not long enough, both the liquid film and the primary/peritectic interface migrate towards the primary phase until the superheated primary phase has all been dissolved. Then, this migration process towards higher temperature is controlled by temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM).

  15. Microsatellite interruptions stabilize primate genomes and exist as population-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms within individual human genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E; Breski, Amanda; Wang, Yanli; Kelkar, Yogeshwar; Makova, Kateryna D; Eckert, Kristin A

    2014-07-01

    Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units in length. We detected ∼26,000-40,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two- to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors. Modeling the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene sequence, we observed that a single base substitution interruption reduced strand slippage error rates five- to 50-fold, relative to a perfect repeat, during synthesis by DNA polymerases α, β, or η. Computationally, we demonstrate that iMSs arise primarily by base substitution mutations within individual human genomes. Our biochemical survey of human DNA polymerase α, β, δ, κ, and η error rates within certain microsatellites suggests that interruptions are created most frequently by low fidelity polymerases. Our combined computational and biochemical results demonstrate that iMSs are abundant in human genomes and are sources of population-specific genetic variation that may affect genome stability. The

  16. Causas de interrupção não-programadas da radioterapia Causes of unplanned interruption of radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Suelotto Diegues

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ocorrência e as causas de interrupção não-programadas da radioterapia. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado no Serviço de Radioterapia do Hospital Alemão Oswaldo Cruz, na cidade de São Paulo, SP. Os dados foram obtidos dos prontuários dos 560 pacientes submetidos a radioterapia, de 1º de janeiro de 2005 a 31 de dezembro de 2005. Os dados foram analisados pelos testes qui-quadrado e t Student, e os valores de p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence and causes of unplanned interruption of radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study developed in the Division of Radiotherapy of Hospital Alemão Oswaldo Cruz in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, with data collected from 560 dossiers of patients submitted to radiotherapy in the period between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2005. Chi-squared and Student t tests were utilized in the data analysis, and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: Interruption of treatment was identified in 350 cases, corresponding to 62.5% of the patients. The reasons for treatment interruption were the following: preventive device maintenance (55%, patient's own private reasons (13%, adverse reactions to the treatment or to combined radiotherapy/chemotherapy (6%, clinical worsening (3%, two or more combined reasons (23%. The interruption time interval ranged between 1 and 24 days (mean 1.4 day. One-day interruption was mostly due to preventive device maintenance (84.4%; two-five-day interruption was due to combined reasons (48.28%. CONCLUSION: The most frequent cause of interruption was preventive device maintenance, with maximum two-day time interval.

  17. 硬件中断引入方法及中断深度性能测试%Introducing Method of Hardware Interruption and Depth Performance Test of Interruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文斋

    2014-01-01

    讨论了Windows操作系统下硬件中断产生的方法,使用硬件DIO输出卡对设计的中断服务程序作了多种时序下试验,做了Windows系统下中断服务工作时的干扰试验,在中断线程和工作线程内部提出了多种试验方法,深入研究了Windows系统下的内核级调度执行相关代码段所需的时间,测试了多种时钟的精确度,设计了工程实用的中断服务程序。%This paper discusses the generation method of hardware interruption in Windows operation system. The designed interruption service procedure is tested in various time sequences by using hardware DIO output card, and the interference test is carried out when interruption service works in Windows system. Multiple test methods within the interruption threads and work threads are proposed, the required time of implementing the relevant code segment by kernel level scheduling in Windows system is studied intensively, the accuracy of multiple timers is tested, and the interruption service procedure is designed for engineering purpose.

  18. Effects of the interruption of the irradiation process on PMMA Harwell Industry Dosimetry Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo S.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, the use of dyed-polymethylmethacrylate dosimetry systems in measurements at industrial irradiations has been broadly, despite the use of alanine dosimeters. Accurate dosimetry measurements are essential for the sterilization applications of medical products as well as the preservation of food by ionizing radiation. Regulations in many countries require in-plant dosimetry to ensure that the specified radiation dose has been delivered to the product. Harwell commercial dosimeters commonly are built to work with measurements between 1 kGy to 50 kGy, this means that a same dosimeter could be used until reach these values. Radiation processing demands partial measurements of the absorbed dose to guarantee the final desired applied absorbed dose depending to the dose rate. In this sense, the total absorbed dose corresponds to the cumulative partial values. In this study, several dosimeters were irradiated at the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility at IPEN - CNEN/SP to evaluate the response to the interruption of the irradiation process in the total cumulative absorbed dose values considering statistical changes and some processing parameters. When studied the Harwell dyed-polymethylmethacrylate dosimeters Red 4034 and Amber 3042, applying processing interruptions, results shown a coefficient of variation under 7% for industrial irradiation conditions to the total cumulative absorbed dose. (author)

  19. La interrupcion voluntaria e informada del embarazo Voluntary and informed interruption of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Mary Madden Arias

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo desde la perspectiva feminista, y con un enfoque legal, y parte del hecho que una de las formas de violencia contra las mujeres, y en particular, del ejercicio pleno de sus derechos reproductivos, es la imposibilidad legal, cultural, social o religiosa de decidir voluntaria e informada la interrupción del embarazo. Así, el artículo analiza la normativa recogida en el Código Penal sobre el aborto y cómo estos tipos penales son formas de violencia contra las mujeres.This article analyses the voluntary interruption of pregnancy from the feminist, along with a legal, point of view, parting from the fact that one of the forms of violence against women, and particularly, against their reproductive rights, is the legal, cultural, social, or religious impossibilities to decide informed and voluntarily the interruption of pregnancy. This way, the article studies the regulations imposed by the Penal Code regarding abortion and how they are forms of violence against women.

  20. Vacuum interrupter, high reliability component of distribution switches, circuit breakers and contactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SLADE Paul G.; LI Wang-pei; MAYO Stephen; SMITH R.Kirkland; TAYLOR Erik D.

    2007-01-01

    The use of vacuum interrupters (VIs) as the current interruption component for switches, circuit breakers, reclosers and contactors operating at distribution voltages has escalated since their introduction in the mid-1950's. This electrical product has developed a dominating position for switching and protecting distribution circuits. VIs are even being introduced into switching products operating at transmission voltages. Among the reasons for the VI's popularity are its compactness, its range of application, its low cost, its superb electrical and mechanical life and its ease of application. Its major advantage is its well-established reliability. In this paper we show how this reliability has been achieved by design, by mechanical life testing and by electrical performance testing. We introduce the "sealed for life" concept for the VI's integrity. We discuss this in terms of what is meant by a practical leak rate for VIs with a life of over 30 years. We show that a simple high voltage withstand test is an easy and effective method for monitoring the long-term vacuum integrity. Finally we evaluate the need for routine inspection of this electrical product when it is used in adverse ambient environments.

  1. Transgastric endoscopic gastrojejunostomy using holing followed by interrupted suture technique in a porcine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Yu; Chen; Hong; Shi; Sheng-Jun; Jiang; Yong-Guang; Wang; Kai; Lin; Zhao-Fei; Xie; Xiao-Jing; Liu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate the feasibility and reproducibility of a pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery(NOTES) gastrojejunostomy using holing followed by interrupted suture technique using a single endoloop matched with a pair of clips in a non-survival porcine model.METHODS: NOTES gastrojejunostomy was performed on three female domestic pigs as follows: Gastrostomy, selection and retrieval of a free-floating loop of the small bowel into the stomach pouch, hold and exposure of the loop in the gastric cavity using a submucosal inflation technique, execution of a gastro-jejunal mucosal-seromuscular layer approximation using holing followed by interrupted suture technique with endoloop/clips, and full-thickness incision of the loop with a Dual knife.RESULTS: Pure NOTES side-to-side gastrojejunostomy was successfully performed in all three animals. No leakage was identified via methylene blue evaluation following surgery.CONCLUSION: This novel technique for preforming a gastrointestinal anastomosis exclusively by NOTES is technically feasible and reproducible in an animal model but warrants further improvement.

  2. Analysis of Interrupted Rectangular Microchannel Heat Sink with High Aspect Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshin Kamal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational modelling of microchannel heat sinks with high aspect ratio has been performed to compare the geometrical features in the plane parallel to the heating surface and to determine the optimum configuration for the best heat transfer characteristics. A periodic thermal development of flow can cause significant heat transfer enhancement. A consensus on a particular geometrical configuration that provides the best heat transfer characteristics has not been reached in the literature, although many novel ideas have been proposed recently. Firstly the validity and applicability of microchannel sink modelling is presented followed by an optimization of parameters of interrupted microchannel heat sink. Consequences of the multichannel effect due to the introduction of transverse microchamber are also presented. It has been shown that the average Nusselt number of the microchannel heat sink increases by the introduction of a transverse microchamber with the additional advantage of a lower pressure drop. There exists an optimum width for the transverse microchamber for which the interrupted microchannel heat sink shows optimum characteristics.

  3. Estimating kinetic mass transfer by resting-period measurements in flow-interruption tracer tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, R; Lu, C; Wu, W-M; Cheng, H; Gu, B; Watson, D B; Criddle, C S; Kitanidis, P K; Brooks, S C; Jardine, P M; Luo, J

    2010-09-20

    Flow-interruption tracer test is an effective approach to identify kinetic mass transfer processes for solute transport in subsurface media. By switching well pumping and resting, one may alter the dominant transport mechanism and generate special concentration patterns for identifying kinetic mass transfer processes. In the present research, we conducted three-phase (i.e., pumping, resting, and pumping) field-scale flow-interruption tracer tests using a conservative tracer bromide in a multiple-well system installed at the US Department of Energy Site, Oak Ridge, TN. A novel modeling approach based on the resting-period measurements was developed to estimate the mass transfer parameters. This approach completely relied on the measured breakthrough curves without requiring detailed aquifer characterization and solving transport equations in nonuniform, transient flow fields. Additional measurements, including hydraulic heads and tracer concentrations in large pumping wells, were taken to justify the assumption that mass transfer processes dominated concentration change during resting periods. The developed approach can be conveniently applied to any linear mass transfer model. Both first-order and multirate mass transfer models were applied to analyze the breakthrough curves at various monitoring wells. The multirate mass transfer model was capable of jointly fitting breakthrough curve behavior, showing the effectiveness and flexibility for incorporating aquifer heterogeneity and scale effects in upscaling effective mass transfer models.

  4. Cockpit Interruptions and Distractions: An Analysis of ASRS Reports and an Experimental Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dismukes, R. K.; Young, Grant E.; Connors, Mary (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A recent detailed analysis of 107 ASRS incident reports focusing on interruptions and distractions as their primary feature revealed several interesting and surprising findings. Of those tasks that were interfered with, over 40% fell within the category of monitoring; for example, monitoring the autopilot flying the aircraft, monitoring the pilot flying, or monitoring the altimeter or navigation instruments for future action. Surprisingly, over 60% of the tasks that were considered distractions fell under the broad category of communication or conversation. Using these findings, we have developed an experimental paradigm that will help us understand the method by which pilots perform certain monitoring tasks. Specifically, we hope to determine the degree to which pilots rely on internal time mechanisms versus external cues as a means of successfully completing a monitoring task. In addition, we will incorporate a battery of competing aviation type tasks, including communication, to see how these tasks affect the process of monitoring. The long range goal of this research is to find operational solutions that facilitate effective monitoring in the presence of both sudden interruptions and distractions that lead to unintended multiple tasks situations.

  5. Interrupting violence: how the CeaseFire Program prevents imminent gun violence through conflict mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation.

  6. A Cognitive Paradigm to Investigate Interference in Working Memory by Distractions and Interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowich, Jacki; Mishra, Jyoti; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-07-16

    Goal-directed behavior is often impaired by interference from the external environment, either in the form of distraction by irrelevant information that one attempts to ignore, or by interrupting information that demands attention as part of another (secondary) task goal. Both forms of external interference have been shown to detrimentally impact the ability to maintain information in working memory (WM). Emerging evidence suggests that these different types of external interference exert different effects on behavior and may be mediated by distinct neural mechanisms. Better characterizing the distinct neuro-behavioral impact of irrelevant distractions versus attended interruptions is essential for advancing an understanding of top-down attention, resolution of external interference, and how these abilities become degraded in healthy aging and in neuropsychiatric conditions. This manuscript describes a novel cognitive paradigm developed the Gazzaley lab that has now been modified into several distinct versions used to elucidate behavioral and neural correlates of interference, by to-be-ignored distractors versus to-be-attended interruptors. Details are provided on variants of this paradigm for investigating interference in visual and auditory modalities, at multiple levels of stimulus complexity, and with experimental timing optimized for electroencephalography (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. In addition, data from younger and older adult participants obtained using this paradigm is reviewed and discussed in the context of its relationship with the broader literatures on external interference and age-related neuro-behavioral changes in resolving interference in working memory.

  7. THE M/M/1 QUEUE WITH WORKING VACATIONS AND VACATION INTERRUPTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jihong LI; Naishuo TIAN

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we study the M/M/1 queue with working vacations and vacation interruptions.The working vacation is introduced recently,during which the server can still provide service on the original ongoing work at a lower rate.Meanwhile,we introduce a new policy:the server can come back from the vacation to the normal working level once some indices of the system,such as the number of customers,achieve a certain value in the vacation period.The server may come back from the vacation without completing the vacation.Such policy is called vacation interruption.We connect the above mentioned two policies and assume that if there are customers in the system after a service completion during the vacation period,the server will come back to the normal working level.In terms of the quasi birth and death process and matrix-geometric solution method,we obtain the distributions and the stochastic decomposition structures for the number of customers and the waiting time and provide some indices of systems.

  8. Determining the Interruptible Load with Strategic Behavior in a Competitive Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyun Yoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a deregulated market, independent system operators meet power balance based on supply and demand bids to maximize social welfare. Since electricity markets are typically oligopolies, players with market power may withhold capacity to maximize profit. Such exercise of market power can lead to various problems, including increased electricity prices, and hence lower social welfare. Here we propose an approach to maximize social welfare and prevent the exercising of market power by means of interruptible loads in a competitive market environment. Our approach enables management of the market power by analyzing the benefit to the companies of capacity withdrawal and scheduling resources with interruptible loads. Our formulation shows that we can prevent power companies and demand-resource owners from exercising market powers. The oligopolistic conditions are described using the Cournot model to reflect the capacity withdrawal in electricity markets. The numerical results confirm the effectiveness of proposed method, via a comparison of perfect competition and oligopoly scenarios. Our approach provides reductions in market-clearing prices, increases in social welfare, and more equal distribution of surpluses between players.

  9. A cryptic promoter in potato virus X vector interrupted plasmid construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Ronald D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato virus X has been developed into an expression vector for plants. It is widely used to express foreign genes. In molecular manipulation, the foreign genes need to be sub-cloned into the vector. The constructed plasmid needs to be amplified. Usually, during amplification stage, the foreign genes are not expressed. However, if the foreign gene is expressed, the construction work could be interrupted. Two different viral genes were sub-cloned into the vector, but only one foreign gene was successfully sub-cloned. The other foreign gene, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 VP1 could not be sub-cloned into the vector and amplified without mutation (frame shift mutation. Results A cryptic promoter in the PVX vector was discovered with RT-PCR. The promoter activity was studied with Northern blots and Real-time RT-PCR. Conclusion It is important to recognize the homologous promoter sequences in the vector when a virus is developed as an expression vector. During the plasmid amplification stage, an unexpected expression of the CPV-2 VP1 gene (not in the target plants, but in E. coli can interrupt the downstream work.

  10. [Strategy for determining a baseline in areas of vector interruption for Chagas disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Diego; Vera, Mauricio; Zuleta, Liliana; Llanos, Violeta; Junqueira, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Present a strategy to determine the baseline in endemic areas in the process of vector interruption for Chagas disease (CHD). Methods A social and environmental questionnaire and an entomological survey evaluated the physical conditions of dwellings, the inhabitants' knowledge of CHD, the entomological triatomine indicators and the statistical relationship among these variables. Results Colonization and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi exist in Rhodnius prolixus, the principal vector of CHD in Colombia. Colonization was related to palm-thatched houses constructed with adobe or wattle and daub. The Panstrongylus geniculatus vector was found to be colonizing. Almost 50% of the surveyed population associated the term CHD with human disease and 37%, with triatomines. Conclusions R. prolixus can be considered to be the principal vector of T. cruzi in domestic environments and the process of interruption is feasible within the prioritized municipality. New studies are needed to verify the existence of wild populations of R. prolixus that could affect future stages of the process and demonstrate whether P. geniculatus is a factor in the transmission of T. cruzi. These scenarios can be made viable by including the inhabitants throughout the process, since they have been highly sensitive in vector detection inside their houses. The study design presented here can be adapted to other endemic areas of the Region of the Americas.

  11. Development and testing of a 180-volt dc electronic circuit breaker with a 335-ampere carry and 1200-ampere interrupt rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, A. S.; Phillips, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center and associated contractors have conducted a program to assess the potential requirements for a high-current switch to conceptually design a switch using the best existing technology, and to build and demonstrate a breadboard which meets the requirements. The result is the high current remote bus isolator (HRBI). The HRBI is rated at 180 V dc, 335 A continuous with a 1200 A interrupt rating. It also incorporates remote-control and protective features called for by the Space Station Freedom PMAD dc test bed design. Two breadboard 335 A circuit breakers were built and tested that demonstrate a promising concept of paralleled current-limiting modules. The units incorporated all control and protective features required by advanced aerospace power systems. Component stresses in each unit were determined by design, and are consistent with a life of many thousands of fault operations.

  12. Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Moncayo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Brasília in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering

  13. Viral resuppression and detection of drug resistance following interruption of a suppressive non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Zoe; Phillips, Andrew; Cohen, Cal;

    2008-01-01

    . METHODS: Patients in the drug-conservation arm of the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial who interrupted a fully suppressive NNRTI-regimen were evaluated. From 2003, SMART recommended interruption of an NNRTI by a staggered interruption, in which the NNRTI was stopped before...... the NRTIs, or by replacing the NNRTI with another drug before interruption. Simultaneous interruption of all antiretrovirals was discouraged. Resuppression rates 4-8 months after reinitiating NNRTI-therapy were assessed, as was the detection of drug-resistance mutations within 2 months of the treatment...... regimen. NNRTI drug-resistance mutations were observed in a relatively high proportion of patients. These data provide additional support for a staggered or switched interruption strategy for NNRTI drugs....

  14. Natural gas power generation: interruptible gas distribution network regulation; Geracao termoeletrica a gas natural: regulacao do segmento interruptivel de distribuicao de gas canalizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio Paiva de; Kann, Zevi [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The paper relates studies regarding the natural gas distribution network interruptible branch. This new service can be appropriate for thermal power generation on flexible dispatch mode, as 'take or pay' contracts surplus jobs. The paper indicates no regulatory restraints in an interruptible network implantation. The final conclusion is that interruptible contracts can be an improvement on the distribution business and certainly can accommodate a suitable demand and supply volumes in the long-term gas market balance. (author)

  15. Note: A compact three-axis optical force/torque sensor using photo-interrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2013-12-01

    By integrating four photo-interrupters in a cross-shaped structure, we developed a compact three-axis optical force/torque (F/T) sensor. The developed sensor has a diameter of 28 mm and a thickness of 7 mm. Despite simplicity and compactness, the experiments with a prototype of the proposed sensor demonstrate notably high accuracy. The RMS errors are 0.5% ± 0.1% of the maximum vertical force in z-axis, 1.9% ± 0.2% of the maximum torque in x-axis, and 2.0% ± 0.3% of the maximum torque in y-axis. It is expected that the proposed sensor allows cost-effective integration of robot systems requiring compact and multi-axis F/T sensors such as a walking assist robot.

  16. Varicella Vaccination of Children With Leukemia Without Interruption of Maintenance Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedegaard, Lotte Møller; Poulsen, Anja; Kristensen, Ines Ackerl

    2016-01-01

    of vaccination and (5) receiving maintenance therapy. Results: Forty-five children were vaccinated. No child died or experienced serious adverse events due to VZV vaccination. Nine children developed late chickenpox despite vaccination. Long-term protection was found in 86% of children not receiving acyclovir......, a vaccine-induced rash reduced the risk of late chickenpox [hazard ratio = 0.08 (0.01, 0.66), P = 0.02]. No child had interruption of maintenance therapy at the time of vaccination, but 33% experienced discontinuation of therapy due to vaccine-induced rash. Dexamethasone was associated with an increased...... risk of vaccine-induced rash [hazard ratio = 2.9 (1.21, 6.90), P = 0.02]. Conclusions: This analysis indicates that VZV vaccination is feasible and justified in seronegative children with ALL, in countries where VZV vaccination is not part of the national vaccination program....

  17. Effects of interruptible load program on equilibrium outcomes of electricity markets with wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Xuena; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Xue [Shanghai Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Power Station Automation Technology

    2013-07-01

    High wind power penetration presents a lot of challenges to the flexibility and reliability of power system operation. In this environment, various demand response (DR) programs have got much attention. As an effective measure of demand response programs, interruptible load (IL) programs have been widely used in electricity markets. This paper addresses the problem of impacts of the IL programs on the equilibrium outcomes of electricity wholesale markets with wind power. A Cournot equilibrium model of wholesale markets with wind power is presented, in which IL programs is included by a market demand model. The introduction of the IL programs leads to a non-smooth equilibrium problem. To solve this equilibrium problem, a novel solution method is proposed. Numerical examples show that IL programs can lower market price and its volatility significantly, facilitate the integration of wind power.

  18. Bronchial histamine challenge. A combined interrupter-dosimeter method compared with a standard method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Madsen, F

    1985-01-01

    We compared the provocative concentration (PC) values obtained by two different methods of performing bronchial histamine challenge. One test was done on an APTA, an apparatus which allows simultaneous provocation with histamine and measurement of airway resistance (Rtot) by the interrupter method...... of the histamine challenge done on the APTA. When the PC30-Rtot values were compared, a correlation coefficient of 0.56 (NS) was found. For the PC40- and PC50-Rtot values the correlation coefficients were 0.65 (P less than 0.05) and 0.70 (P less than 0.02) respectively. We conclude that the APTA is useful...... for routine bronchial histamine challenge when 40-50% increase in basal Rtot is used as endpoint....

  19. ECCM scheme against interrupted sampling repeater jammer based on time-frequency analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixian Gong; Xizhang Wei; Xiang Li

    2014-01-01

    The interrupted sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ) is an effective deception jamming method for coherent radar, especial y for the wideband linear frequency modulation (LFM) radar. An electronic counter-countermeasure (ECCM) scheme is proposed to remove the ISRJ-based false targets from the pulse compres-sion result of the de-chirping radar. Through the time-frequency (TF) analysis of the radar echo signal, it can be found that the TF characteristics of the ISRJ signal are discontinuous in the pulse duration because the ISRJ jammer needs short durations to re-ceive the radar signal. Based on the discontinuous characteristics a particular band-pass filter can be generated by two alternative approaches to retain the true target signal and suppress the ISRJ signal. The simulation results prove the validity of the proposed ECCM scheme for the ISRJ.

  20. Rapid axonal transport in primate optic nerve. Distribution of pressure-induced interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Anderson, D R

    1981-04-01

    Six primate eyes were studied after four hours of elevated intraocular pressure. Tissue specimens from the region of the lamina cribrosa were examined in cross section by transmission electron microscopy. Interruption in fast orthograde and retrograde axonal transport was identified in individual axons by noting accumulation of membraneous microorganelles, such as mitochondria and microvesicles within axon cylinders. Although organelle accumulation varied from bundle to bundle, involvement of individual axons was diffuse across the extent of a specific axon bundle. This observation contradicts the apparent association of axonal transport block with crosswise-oriented trabecular beams at the level of the lamina cribrosa as seen in tissue specimens examined in longitudinal section. It also fails to support the notion that blocked axonal transport with elevated pressure is produced by kinking of axons at the lamina.

  1. [Interrupted alcohol treatment and liver: free radical homeostasis, nitric oxide, adaptive mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskevich, D A; Borodinskiĭ, A N; Petushok, N E; Konovalenko, O V; Lelevich, V V

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol administration can result in liver damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and their interaction are crucial factors in this process. The aim of work was to investigate, free radical state and mechanisms of adaptation of the antioxidant system (AOS) to stress, caused by interrupted alcohol intake. Repeated cycles of alcoholization caused an imbalance between production and utilization of various ROS. This imbalance was due to impairments in the system superoxide dismutase/catalase. Nevertheless, in most experimental groups there was clear reduction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. This might be attributed to the antioxidant effect of NO. However, there was an increased level of transaminases in blood plasma. After 28 days of this experimental scheme all the parameters studied normalized.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of coarctation of the aorta and postoperative interrupted aortic arch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakizawa, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Takashi; Takada, Osamu; Nakayama, Shingo; Ogata, Hiroshi; Zuguchi, Masayuki (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-03-01

    ECG-gated MRI was performed at 1.5 T on 9 patients with coarctation of the aorta and restensis of the aorta after previous aortoplasty for coarctation of the aorta or interrupted aortic arch. The age of the patients ranged from 7 days to 3.3 years. MRI was more useful in assessing the severity of stenosis than echocardiography. Four patients had balloon dilation angioplasty for restenosis of the aorta. MRI was also useful in deciding the appropriate balloon size for angioplasty, and follow up after treatment. However, MRI could not always visualize the whole lesion in one slice, especially when the course of the aortic arch was not on the same plane. (author).

  3. Creating a Fontan fenestration in a child with dextrocardia and interrupted inferior vena cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepkumar Charlagorla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis is a rare life-threatening complication of the Fontan operation. Transcatheter Fontan fenestration can ameliorate symptoms by decompressing elevated venous pressures. Transcatheter creation of a fenestration can be technically challenging in cases with complex venous anatomy. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with heterotaxy, dextrocardia with unbalanced atrioventricular canal (AVC, atrial and visceral situs inversus, left-sided superior vena cava (SVC, and left-sided interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC with azygos continuation. With few modifications to the equipment, a successful Fontan fenestration with stent implantation was performed via transjugular approach. At 2-year follow-up, his symptoms of plastic bronchitis improved significantly.

  4. The jointing stress analysis of one-shot seal-off high-voltage vacuum interrupters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhizhong; Zou Jiyan; Cong Jiyuan; Wen Huabin; Sun Hui

    2006-01-01

    The free shrinkage of ceramic or metal is restricted due to solidification of the solder. Hence the shrinkage stress arises and the jointing strength is reduced during the brazing of high-voltage vacuum interrupters ( HVVIs ) . The solder bound contour was gained by solved energy bound equation. The finite element model of weld beads was established with Surface Evolver software. Then the stress in two different cooling techniques ( natural cooling and force cooling) was calculated with ANSYS. Comparing the stress, a better cooling technique was selected for HVVIs. Its cooling time is shortened by 3 hours while the jointing stress doesn' t increase and the tensile strength of ceramic to metal seal is not decreased. The stress-rupture tests have validated the calculated results. More important, a method is found, by which the brazing technique could be improved in advance instead of blind experiments.

  5. The Use of Interrupted Case Studies to Enhance Critical Thinking Skills in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy K. White

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the availability of case studies for use in the biology classroom, and perceptions of the effectiveness of case-study-based learning are overwhelmingly positive. Here we report the results of a study in which we evaluated the ability of interrupted case studies to improve critical thinking in the context of experimental design and the conventions of data interpretation. Students were assessed using further case studies designed to evaluate their ability to recognize and articulate problematic approaches to these elements of experimentation. Our work reveals that case studies have broad utility in the classroom. In addition to demonstrating a small but statistically significant increase in the number of students capable of critically evaluating selected aspects of experimental design, we also observed increased student engagement and documented widespread misconceptions regarding the conventions of data acquisition and analysis.

  6. Decomposition kinetics study of zirconium hydride by interrupted thermal desorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Mingwang; Liang, Li; Tang, Binghua; Xiang, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Cheng, Yanlin; Tan, Xiaohua, E-mail: caepiee@163.com

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Interrupted TDS was applied to investigate the mechanism of ZrH{sub 2} decomposition. • The activation energies for the five desorption peaks were determined. • The origins of the five desorption peaks were identified. • The γZrH phase was observed at ambient conditions. - Abstract: Thermal desorption kinetics of zirconium hydride powder were studied using thermogravimetry and simultaneous thermal desorption spectroscopy. The activation energies for observed desorption peaks were estimated according to Kissinger relation. The intermediate phase composition was studied using X-ray diffraction by rapid cooling on different stages of heating. The origins of the peaks were described as the equilibrium hydrogen pressure of a number of consecutive phase regions that decomposition reaction passed through. The zirconium monohydride γZrH was observed for extended periods of time at ambient conditions, which has been supposed to be metastable for a long time.

  7. The Electroluminescence Characterization of Poly(p-phenyleneethynylene)——The π-conjugated Backbone Interrupted by a Butylene Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    π-Conjugated poly(p-phenyleneethynylene) with the interruption of the conjugation by a butylene unit was synthesized. Its absorption, PL and EL spectra were investigated respectively. The spectral peaks shifted to the higher energy side with the interruption of the conjugation lengths. The model compound was synthesized, by which the results were proved. The thermal characteristics of the polymer was determined by DSC and TGA, indicating that the polymer has a good thermal stability. The electroluminescence(EL) in the green region of the spectrum with a maximum at 500 nm was observed from the polymer films sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide and an Al electrode.

  8. Long-lasting insecticidal nets are synergistic with mass drug administration for interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Eigege

    Full Text Available In central Nigeria Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF. The strategy used for interrupting LF transmission in this area is annual mass drug administration (MDA with albendazole and ivermectin, but after 8 years of MDA, entomological evaluations in sentinel villages showed continued low-grade mosquito infection rates of 0.32%. After long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN distribution by the national malaria program in late 2010, however, we were no longer able to detect infected vectors over a 24-month period. This is evidence that LLINs are synergistic with MDA in interrupting LF transmission.

  9. Don’t Interrupt Me While I Type: Inferring Text Entered Through Gesture Typing on Android Keyboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new side-channel attack against soft keyboards that support gesture typing on Android smartphones. An application without any special permissions can observe the number and timing of the screen hardware interrupts and system-wide software interrupts generated during user input, and analyze this information to make inferences about the text being entered by the user. System-wide information is usually considered less sensitive than app-specific information, but we provide concrete evidence that this may be mistaken. Our attack applies to all Android versions, including Android M where the SELinux policy is tightened.

  10. Dopplersonographic diagnosis of subclavian steal in infants with coarctation of the aorta and interrupted aortic arch. [Comparison with angiocardiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeg, K.H.; Singer, H.

    1989-03-01

    In two newborns with severe coarctation of the aorta and interrupted aortic arch, subclavian-steal was shown by angiocardiography. In both children pulsed doppler recordings were obtained in the cerebral arteries: Normal forward flow during systole and diastole could be shown in the anterior cerebral arteries, both internal carotid arteries, the basilar artery and the right vertebral artery. In the left vertebral artery in both infants a negative flow indicating backflow from the brain could be shown. Pulsed doppler sonography of the flow in the vertebral arteries is a non invasive method for diagnosis of subclavian steal in infants with coarctation of the aorta and interrupted aortic arch.

  11. Analysis of ethylene plant steam treatment interruption%乙烯装置蒸汽中断处理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟东

    2015-01-01

    本文基于SW公司前脱丙烷前加氢工艺,介绍蒸汽中断条件下,为确保装置损失最小、装置平稳运行及安全环保前提下,乙烯装置如何进行操作处理。%This paper introduces the operation of ethylene plant under the condition of steam interruption,which is based on the technology of hydrogenation of SW before removing propane and the condition of steam interruption.

  12. Wearable interrupter module for home-based applications in a telemedical system dedicated to respiratory mechanics measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Ireneusz

    2011-03-01

    The mobile interrupter module, dedicated to the enhanced interrupter (EIT) measurement of respiratory mechanics in a home environment and capable of cooperation with a telemedical system, is presented. Characterized by noninvasiveness and minimal requirements regarding patient cooperation, the EIT algorithm is especially suitable for newborns, preschool children, and patients suffering from respiratory muscle impairment. Furthermore, this device enables access to raw data--without initial preprocessing--in a fully flexible measurement protocol (which is not available in any commercial apparatus), and the EIT procedure improves insight (the number and precision of assessed parameters) into the physiological system with respect to the classical occlusive methods.

  13. A comparative study of continuous versus interrupted suturing for repair of episiotomy or second degree perineal tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Jena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study has been taken up to assess the effects of continuous versus interrupted suturing methods on the incidence of short and long term postpartum maternal morbidity experienced by women following repair of episiotomy or second-degree perineal tears after vaginal birth. Methods: This comparative prospective study was conducted in department of obstetrics and gynaecology of S.C.B. medical college, Cuttack, Odisha to compare continuous suturing technique with interrupted method for the repair of episiotomy and second degree perineal tear following vaginal delivery in 211 women. One group was repaired with continuous non-locking sutures involving the vaginal mucosa, perineal muscles and subcutaneous tissue for skin and other group had continuous locking stitch of vaginal mucosa, interrupted sutures in perineal muscles and interrupted transcutaneous stitches for skin. Identical suture material (catgut supplied by the government was used for both the groups. The mothers were interviewed on the 2nd, 10th and 42nd day following repair regarding pain perception with lying, walking and sitting posture using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Results: The pain score measured by VAS on 2nd day showed mild to moderate pain in continuous group compared to moderate and severe pain in interrupted group (P = 0.008 in lying position and (P = 0.000 in sitting and walking position. On 10th day no difference in perception in lying position (P = 0.571 but more subjects of interrupted group had pain in sitting and walking position (P = 0.05. On 42nd day no difference in pain perception in both groups was seen (P = 1.000. There was no difference in wound dehiscence in both the groups (P = 0.361. Subjects in the interrupted group had greater complains of dyspareunia compared to subjects in continuous group (P = 0.009. Less length of suture were required in the continuous group (P = 0.000. Conclusions: Continuous suturing technique for repair of episiotomy and

  14. Syndrome d'interruption de la tige pituitaire à révélation tardive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmouch, Héla; Graja, Samah; Arfa, Sondes; Boubaker, Fadia; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Le syndrome d'interruption de la tige pituitaire est une cause assez fréquente de déficit en hormone de croissance et d'hypopituitarisme souvent révélé pendant la période néonatale et l'enfance. Cette observation illustre les particularités d'une révélation tardive de ce syndrome. Il s'agit d'une patiente âgée de 17ans hospitalisée pour aménorrhée primaire et impubérisme. Elle n'a pas d'antécédent d'incident néonatal. L'examen clinique révèle un retard de croissance sévère. L'hypophysiogramme a montré un hypopituitarisme complet sans diabète insipide. L'imagerie par résonnance magnétique a montré une interruption de la tige pituitaire avec une post hypophyse ectopique. Une malformation rénale a été objectivée, ce qui est en faveur d'une origine congénitale malformative de ce syndrome. Une substitution hormonale a été administrée à cette patiente. Cette forme clinique tardive souligne la nécessité de diagnostic précoce d'impubérisme et/ou de retard de croissance révélant une pathologie à potentiel de gravité important. PMID:27231511

  15. Activation and interruption of the reproduction of Varroa destructor is triggered by host signals (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Eva; Odemer, Richard; Blum, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The reproductive cycle of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor is closely linked to the development of the honey bee host larvae. Using a within colony approach we introduced phoretic Varroa females into brood cells of different age in order to analyze the capacity of certain stages of the honey bee larva to either activate or interrupt the reproduction of Varroa females. Only larvae within 18 h (worker) and 36 h (drones), respectively, after cell capping were able to stimulate the mite's oogenesis. Therewith we could specify for the first time the short time window where honey bee larvae provide the signals for the activation of the Varroa reproduction. Stage specific volatiles of the larval cuticle are at least part of these activation signals. This is confirmed by the successful stimulation of presumably non-reproducing mites to oviposition by the application of a larval extract into the sealed brood cells. According to preliminary quantitative GC-MS analysis we suggest certain fatty acid ethyl esters as candidate compounds. If Varroa females that have just started with egg formation are transferred to brood cells containing host larvae of an elder stage two-thirds of these mites stopped their oogenesis. This confirms the presence of an additional signal in the host larvae allowing the reproducing mites to adjust their own reproductive cycle to the ontogenetic development of the host. From an adaptive point of view that sort of a stop signal enables the female mite to save resources for a next reproductive cycle if the own egg development is not sufficiently synchronized with the development of the host. The results presented here offer the opportunity to analyze exactly those host stages that have the capacity to activate or interrupt the Varroa reproduction in order to identify the crucial host signals.

  16. Causes of interruption of radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu P.; Tsang, Ngan M.; Tseng, Chen K.; Lin, Shinn Y. [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China)

    2000-05-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is now curable with early diagnosis and radiotherapy treatment. In the past several decades, few studies have investigated why some patients fail to complete the recommended full course of radiotherapy. A total of 3273 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were treated at the Radiation Oncology Department of Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in a span of 18 years from 1979 to 1996. Among these patients, 276 did not complete the full course of treatment of radiation therapy. The medical records of these patients were reviewed to determine the factors contributing to treatment interruption. Of the 276 patients whose treatment was interrupted, 120 (43.5%) were unable to endure the acute side effects of radiation therapy and were afraid of the possible complications resulting from the treatment; 57 (20.7%) had doubts about the diagnosis or had the subjective perception that the treatment offered would be ineffective in view of the severity of their disease; 50 (18.1%) resorted to folk prescriptions; 17 (6.2%) were faced with socioeconomic problems; 15 (5.4%) sought treatment at another hospital owing to transport considerations; 10 (3.6%) stopped radiation therapy and switched to chemotherapy for palliative management; seven (2.5%) resorted to praying, god worshipping and taking incense powder and magic elixirs because their families were against any established therapy. The acute side effects and complications caused by radiation therapy were the major factors influencing patients' decisions to discontinue treatment. This finding suggests that more attention should be paid to providing care with regard to the acute side effects of radiotherapy and to reinforcing pretreatment education. (author)

  17. Conduction Disorders in Continuous Versus Interrupted Suturing Technique in Ventricular Septal Defect Surgical Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholampour-Dehaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Ventricular septal defects (VSD is one of the most frequent congenital cardiac malformations and cardiac conduction disorders are still one of the serious postoperative complications in this surgery. Objectives This study aimed to compare the incidence of conduction disorders with the use of continuous compared to interrupted suturing techniques in VSD surgical repair. Patients and Methods Previously recorded data of 231 patients who underwent surgical closure of VSD between January 2009 and January 2012 at the Rajaie cardiovascular medical and research center were retrospectively reviewed. VSD surgical repair was performed using continues suturing technique in group A patients (n = 163, 70.6% and interrupted suturing technique in group B patients (n = 68, 29.4%. Results The most common concomitant congenital anomaly was Tetralogy of Fallot (27.3%. Twenty-four (10.4% patients had intraoperative cardiac arrhythmia, including 19 (8.2% transient and 5 (2.2 % permanent arrhythmia. During their ICU stay, ventricular arrhythmia and complete heart block were observed in 34 (14.7% and 5 patients (2.2%, respectively. At the time of the last follow-up, incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB, complete RBBB, RBBB with left anterior hemi-block, and complete heart block were identified in 84 (36.4%, 42 (18.2%, 29 (12.6%, and 5 patients (2.2%, respectively. The results revealed that group A patients were most likely to have had cardiac arrhythmias during their ICU stay and at the time of last follow-up (P < 0.001, while the intraoperative incidence of cardiac arrhythmia during surgery was not statistically significant between the two groups (P = 0.06. Conclusions In the absence of any statistical differences in the other risk factors between the two groups, the difference in the incidence of conduction disorders can be attributed to the type of suturing used during the procedure.

  18. Interrupting transmission of soil-transmitted helminths: a study protocol for cluster randomised trials evaluating alternative treatment strategies and delivery systems in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Simon J; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Halliday, Katherine E; Njenga, Sammy M; Mcharo, Carlos; Gichuki, Paul M; Wasunna, Beatrice; Kihara, Jimmy H; Njomo, Doris; Alusala, Dorcas; Chiguzo, Athuman; Turner, Hugo C; Teti, Caroline; Gwayi-Chore, Claire; Nikolay, Birgit; Truscott, James E; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Balabanova, Dina; Griffiths, Ulla K; Freeman, Matthew C; Allen, Elizabeth; Pullan, Rachel L; Anderson, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, an unprecedented emphasis has been given to the control of neglected tropical diseases, including soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The mainstay of STH control is school-based deworming (SBD), but mathematical modelling has shown that in all but very low transmission settings, SBD is unlikely to interrupt transmission, and that new treatment strategies are required. This study seeks to answer the question: is it possible to interrupt the transmission of STH, and, if so, what is the most cost-effective treatment strategy and delivery system to achieve this goal? Methods and analysis Two cluster randomised trials are being implemented in contrasting settings in Kenya. The interventions are annual mass anthelmintic treatment delivered to preschool- and school-aged children, as part of a national SBD programme, or to entire communities, delivered by community health workers. Allocation to study group is by cluster, using predefined units used in public health provision—termed community units (CUs). CUs are randomised to one of three groups: receiving either (1) annual SBD; (2) annual community-based deworming (CBD); or (3) biannual CBD. The primary outcome measure is the prevalence of hookworm infection, assessed by four cross-sectional surveys. Secondary outcomes are prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, intensity of species infections and treatment coverage. Costs and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated. Among a random subsample of participants, worm burden and proportion of unfertilised eggs will be assessed longitudinally. A nested process evaluation, using semistructured interviews, focus group discussions and a stakeholder analysis, will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and scale-up of each delivery system. Ethics and dissemination Study protocols have been reviewed and approved by the ethics committees of the Kenya Medical Research Institute and National Ethics Review Committee, and

  19. Completion of Flow Interruption Capability Test Stand for Functional Qualification Test of Valves Used in Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Dao-xi; QI; Xiao-guang; ZHAI; Wei-ming; YANG; Bing; ZHOU; Ping

    2013-01-01

    The flow interruption capability test of valve is used for researching the capability of the valves used in nuclear power plants emergently shut off the flow,when the reactor loop is in emergency situations,especially in the design basis accident conditions.This test is one of the most difficult tests in the functional

  20. Technical Note: The use of an interrupted-flow centrifugation method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Crane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an interrupted-flow centrifugation technique to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media. The method entails a minimum of three phases: centrifuge induced flow, no flow and centrifuge induced flow, which may be repeated several times in order to most effectively characterise multi-rate mass transfer behaviour. In addition, the method enables accurate simulation of relevant in situ total stress conditions during flow by selecting an appropriate centrifugal force level. We demonstrate the utility of the technique for characterising the hydraulic properties of smectite clay dominated core samples. All samples exhibited a non-Fickian tracer breakthrough (early tracer arrival, combined with a decrease in tracer concentration immediately after each period of interrupted-flow. This is indicative of dual (or multi porosity behaviour, with solute migration predominately via advection during induced flow, and via molecular diffusion (between the preferential flow network(s and the low hydraulic conductivity domain during interrupted-flow. Tracer breakthrough curves were simulated using a bespoke dual porosity model with excellent agreement between the data and model output (Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient was >0.97 for all samples. In combination interrupted-flow centrifuge experiments and dual porosity transport modelling are shown to be a powerful method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media.

  1. Critical finger ischemia and myocardial fibrosis development after sudden interruption of sildenafil treatment in a systemic sclerosis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, C; Bellando-Randone, S; Gargani, L; Picano, E; Pingitore, A; Matucci-Cerinic, M; Guiducci, S

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease frequently associated with Raynaud's Phenomenon (RP). Among possible pharmacological treatments, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are considered in cases of severe non -responsive RP. We present the case of a male SSc patient wh presented with critical finger ischemia and concomitant appearance of myocardial fibrosis after sudden interruption of sildenafil treatment.

  2. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by natural gas..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to...

  3. Absence or interruption of the supra-acetabular line: a subtle plain film indicator of hip pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, N.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, Box 0628, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Helms, C.A. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, Box 0628, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Objective. To show that absence or interruption of the supraacetabular line is a subtle plain film indicator of pathology in the acetabulum. Design. Nineteen hips from 17 patients with known disease processes involving the acetabulum as demonstrated by subsequent magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan or plain film follow-up were evaluated with antero-posterior (AP) plain films of the pelvis. Three additional cases were diagnosed prospectively using interruption of the supra-acetabular line as the criterion for inclusion. Fifty AP plain films of the pelvis in patients without hip pain were examined prospectively to determine normal imaging criteria. Results and conclusions. The normal supra-acetabular line measures 2-3 mm in thickness superiorly and is a thin sclerotic line in the medial aspect. In all 22 hips (with pathology) in this series, the line was interrupted or absent. Loss or interruption of the supra-acetabular line may thus be a subtle pain film indicator of a disease process involving the acetabulum. This plain film sign has not previously been reported. (orig.). With 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The value of supply security The cost of power interruptions: Economic input for damage reduction and investment in networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, M.; Koopmans, C.C.; Bijvoet, C.

    2007-01-01

    Most research into the reliability of electricity supply focuses on the suppliers. Reductions in the number of power interruptions will often be possible, but are often very costly. These costs will eventually be borne by electricity users. This paper studies the value of supply security in order to

  5. Use of Transnational Services to Prevent Treatment Interruption in Tuberculosis-Infected Persons Who Leave the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnick, Deborah W.; Zuroweste, Edward; Razavi, Moaven; Shepard, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    A major problem resulting from interrupted tuberculosis (TB) treatment is the development of drug-resistant TB, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), a more deadly and costly-to-treat form of the disease. Global health systems are not equipped to diagnose and treat the current burden of MDR TB. TB-infected foreign visitors and temporary US residents who leave the country during treatment can experience treatment interruption and, thus, are at greater risk for drug-resistant TB. Using epidemiologic and demographic data, we estimated TB incidence among this group, as well as the proportion of patients referred to transnational care–continuity and management services during relocation; each year, ≈2,827 visitors and temporary residents are at risk for TB treatment interruption, 222 (8%) of whom are referred for transnational services. Scale up of transnational services for persons at high risk for treatment interruption is possible and encouraged because of potential health gains and reductions in healthcare costs for the United States and receiving countries. PMID:26886720

  6. Exploring Relationships between Teachers' Philosophical Beliefs and Practices Relative to Unforeseen Interruptions in Elementary Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Faye Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge, goals, beliefs, and decision-making activities were explored individually and combined relative to their philosophical beliefs and practices in the elementary classroom setting in response to unforeseen interruptions. Schoenfeld's Theory of Teaching-in-Context and Brown's "The Experimental Mind in…

  7. Breeding limits foraging time : evidence of interrupted foraging response from body mass variation in a tropical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nwaogu, Chima J.; Dietz, Maurine W.; Tieleman, B. Irene; Cresswell, Will

    2017-01-01

    Birds should store body reserves if starvation risk is anticipated; this is known as an ‘interrupted foraging response’. If foraging remains unrestricted, however, body mass should remain low to limit the predation risk that gaining and carrying body reserves entails. In temperate environments mass

  8. Use of Transnational Services to Prevent Treatment Interruption in Tuberculosis-Infected Persons Who Leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschampl, Cynthia A; Garnick, Deborah W; Zuroweste, Edward; Razavi, Moaven; Shepard, Donald S

    2016-03-01

    A major problem resulting from interrupted tuberculosis (TB) treatment is the development of drug-resistant TB, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), a more deadly and costly-to-treat form of the disease. Global health systems are not equipped to diagnose and treat the current burden of MDR TB. TB-infected foreign visitors and temporary US residents who leave the country during treatment can experience treatment interruption and, thus, are at greater risk for drug-resistant TB. Using epidemiologic and demographic data, we estimated TB incidence among this group, as well as the proportion of patients referred to transnational care-continuity and management services during relocation; each year, ≈2,827 visitors and temporary residents are at risk for TB treatment interruption, 222 (8%) of whom are referred for transnational services. Scale up of transnational services for persons at high risk for treatment interruption is possible and encouraged because of potential health gains and reductions in healthcare costs for the United States and receiving countries.

  9. Water supply interruptions and suspected cholera incidence: a time-series regression in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Jeandron

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been identified as endemic areas for cholera transmission, and despite continuous control efforts, they continue to experience regular cholera outbreaks that occasionally spread to the rest of the country. In a region where access to improved water sources is particularly poor, the question of which improvements in water access should be prioritized to address cholera transmission remains unresolved. This study aimed at investigating the temporal association between water supply interruptions and Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC admissions in a medium-sized town.Time-series patterns of daily incidence of suspected cholera cases admitted to the Cholera Treatment Centre in Uvira in South Kivu Province between 2009 and 2014 were examined in relation to the daily variations in volume of water supplied by the town water treatment plant. Quasi-poisson regression and distributed lag nonlinear models up to 12 d were used, adjusting for daily precipitation rates, day of the week, and seasonal variations. A total of 5,745 patients over 5 y of age with acute watery diarrhoea symptoms were admitted to the CTC over the study period of 1,946 d. Following a day without tap water supply, the suspected cholera incidence rate increased on average by 155% over the next 12 d, corresponding to a rate ratio of 2.55 (95% CI: 1.54-4.24, compared to the incidence experienced after a day with optimal production (defined as the 95th percentile-4,794 m3. Suspected cholera cases attributable to a suboptimal tap water supply reached 23.2% of total admissions (95% CI 11.4%-33.2%. Although generally reporting less admissions to the CTC, neighbourhoods with a higher consumption of tap water were more affected by water supply interruptions, with a rate ratio of 3.71 (95% CI: 1.91-7.20 and an attributable fraction of cases of 31.4% (95% CI: 17.3%-42.5%. The analysis did not suggest any association between levels of

  10. Water Supply Interruptions and Suspected Cholera Incidence: A Time-Series Regression in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandron, Aurélie; Saidi, Jaime Mufitini; Kapama, Alois; Burhole, Manu; Birembano, Freddy; Vandevelde, Thierry; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been identified as endemic areas for cholera transmission, and despite continuous control efforts, they continue to experience regular cholera outbreaks that occasionally spread to the rest of the country. In a region where access to improved water sources is particularly poor, the question of which improvements in water access should be prioritized to address cholera transmission remains unresolved. This study aimed at investigating the temporal association between water supply interruptions and Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC) admissions in a medium-sized town. Methods and Findings Time-series patterns of daily incidence of suspected cholera cases admitted to the Cholera Treatment Centre in Uvira in South Kivu Province between 2009 and 2014 were examined in relation to the daily variations in volume of water supplied by the town water treatment plant. Quasi-poisson regression and distributed lag nonlinear models up to 12 d were used, adjusting for daily precipitation rates, day of the week, and seasonal variations. A total of 5,745 patients over 5 y of age with acute watery diarrhoea symptoms were admitted to the CTC over the study period of 1,946 d. Following a day without tap water supply, the suspected cholera incidence rate increased on average by 155% over the next 12 d, corresponding to a rate ratio of 2.55 (95% CI: 1.54–4.24), compared to the incidence experienced after a day with optimal production (defined as the 95th percentile—4,794 m3). Suspected cholera cases attributable to a suboptimal tap water supply reached 23.2% of total admissions (95% CI 11.4%–33.2%). Although generally reporting less admissions to the CTC, neighbourhoods with a higher consumption of tap water were more affected by water supply interruptions, with a rate ratio of 3.71 (95% CI: 1.91–7.20) and an attributable fraction of cases of 31.4% (95% CI: 17.3%–42.5%). The analysis did not suggest any

  11. Off-label biologic regimens in psoriasis: a systematic review of efficacy and safety of dose escalation, reduction, and interrupted biologic therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Brezinski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: While off-label dosing of biologic treatments may be necessary in selected psoriasis patients, no systematic review exists to date that synthesizes the efficacy and safety of these off-label dosing regimens. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate efficacy and safety of off-label dosing regimens (dose escalation, dose reduction, and interrupted treatment with etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, and alefacept for psoriasis treatment. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: We searched OVID Medline from January 1, 1990 through August 1, 2011 for prospective clinical trials that studied biologic therapy for psoriasis treatment in adults. Individual articles were screened for studies that examined escalated, reduced, or interrupted therapy with etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, or alefacept. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 23 articles with 12,617 patients matched the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the systematic review. Data were examined for primary and secondary efficacy outcomes and adverse events including infections, malignancies, cardiovascular events, and anti-drug antibodies. The preponderance of data suggests that continuous treatment with anti-TNF agents and anti-IL12/23 agent was necessary for maintenance of disease control. Among non-responders, dose escalation with etanercept, adalimumab, ustekinumab, and alefacept typically resulted in greater efficacy than standard dosing. Dose reduction with etanercept and alefacept resulted in reduced efficacy. Withdrawal of the examined biologics led to an increase in disease activity; efficacy from retreatment did not result in equivalent initial response rates for most biologics. Safety data on off-label dosing regimens are limited. CONCLUSION: Dose escalation in non-responders generally resulted in increased efficacy in the examined biologics used to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Continuous treatment with anti-TNF agents and anti-IL12/23 agent

  12. Inbox Messaging: an effective tool for minimizing non-urgent paging related interruptions in hospital medicine provider workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alice; Aaronson, Barry; Anuradhika, Anuradhika

    2016-01-01

    Communication is one of the foundations on which safe, high quality care is built.1, 3, 6, 17, 20 The nature of hospital medicine requires that nurses and providers be efficient and effective in communicating with multiple disciplines.17 This need for timely communication must continually be balanced with the need to minimize interruptions in workflow.1,2 3,4,6,7,9,13,15,17,18 Interruptions not only lead to distraction, they also add inefficiency to the care process and have been shown to contribute to an increased risk of medical error.2,3,4,7,17,18 A major source of interruptions are pagers that emit an audible tone with each message received.3,9,10,17,18 This interruptive nature makes pagers a less-than-ideal tool for communicating non-urgent (address within one hour) messages received.3,9,10,17,18 In addition to increasing interruptions, pagers do not facilitate closed loop communication, another feature that has been shown to improve safety.14,17,25 Inbox Messaging is intended to provide a less disruptive closed-loop method of communication for non-urgent messages. Inbox Messaging is an interface within the electronic health record (EHR) that functions similarly to e-mail. A multi-disciplinary communication workgroup identified this interface as having potential to not only decrease interruptions, but to also facilitate closed-loop communication. Inbox is currently utilized between the hours of 0700 and 1800 for non-urgent nurse-provider communication about patients on the hospital medicine service. The number of RN non-urgent pages per day was 103 (SD=19, n=97) prior to the Inbox intervention, with a significant decrease (p<.001) during follow-up to 38 (SD=14, n=354) pages per day. At the same time, the number of messages per day increased from 0 to 80 (SD=20, n=354) messages during follow-up. As desired, the mean number of RN urgent pages was unchanged from 13 per day to 13 per day (p=.52). Cerner Inbox Messaging decreases the frequency of non-urgent pager

  13. Interruption of CD40 Pathway Improves Efficacy of Transplanted Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Monocrotaline Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YanYun Pan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs plays a therapeutic role in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Meanwhile, recruitment of progenitors has potential inflammatory effects and exaggerates vascular injury. CD40 pathway is identified as a major player in vascular inflammatory events. In this study, we investigated the role of CD40 pathway in regulating early outgrowth EPC functions, and searched for improvements in PAH cell therapy. Methods: EPCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and cultured for 7 days. After treatment with soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L for 24 hours, EPC migration, adhesion, proliferation, paracrine and vasculogenesis functions were tested. Rat PAH model was founded by subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (MCT. Control EPCs or lentivirus vectors (Lv-shRNA-CD40 EPCs were infused via tail vein at day 7, 14, and 21 after MCT injection. Therapeutic effects were evaluated at day 28. Results: sCD40L dose-dependently impaired EPC migration, adhesion, proliferation, and vasculogenesis functions. However, paracrine effects of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 were dose-dependently improved by sCD40L. Control EPC-derived conditioned medium protected endothelial cell in vitro vasculogenesis, while sCD40L-pretreated ones showed detrimental effects. After MCT injection, sCD40L levels in rat serum increased gradually. Other than in vitro results, benefits of both two EPC treatments were obvious, even taken at day 21. Benefits of control EPCs wore off over time, but those of Lv-shRNA-CD40 EPCs were more effective and enduring, as characterized by both ameliorated rat hemodynamic and reversed vascular remodeling. Furthermore, Lv-shRNA-CD40 EPCs integrated into endothelium better, rather than into adventitia and media. Conclusion: sCD40L impaired protective effects of EPCs. Traditional EPC treatments were limited in PAH, while interruption of CD

  14. Caring Is Not Enough: Teachers' Enactment of Ethical Care for Adolescent Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education (SLIFE) in a Newcomer Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hos, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    The educational landscape for schools in the United States is continuing to shift with the arrival of refugee students with limited or interrupted formal education, especially at the secondary schools. As refugee students with limited or interrupted formal education (SLIFE) adjust to schools in the United States, they may experience acculturative…

  15. Protective Factors Interrupting the Continuity from School Bullying to Later Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: A Systematic Review of Prospective Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ttofi, Maria M.; Bowes, Lucy; Farrington, David P.; Lösel, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review is presented, based on prospective longitudinal studies, on protective factors that interrupt the continuity from bullying perpetration at school to externalizing problem behaviors later in life; and from bullying victimization to later internalizing problems. Some common factors were established, which seem to interrupt the…

  16. Increased short-term risk of thrombo-embolism or death after interruption of warfarin treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raunsø, Jakob; Selmer, Christian; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring;

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: It is presently unknown whether patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at increased risk of thrombo-embolic adverse events after interruption of warfarin treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk and timing of thrombo-embolism after warfarin treatment interruption...

  17. Retomando a Interrupção... Getting Back to Interruption...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Pérez de SOUZA E SILVA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é uma continuação de outros estudos sobre interrupção que vêm sendo desenvolvidos desde 1995 pelo grupo "Organização textual interativa" no âmbito do Projeto da Gramática do Português Falado. Nosso objetivo é explicitar o estatuto da interrupção: trata-se de um mecanismo de construção do texto falado ou, apenas, de um índice de ocorrência de alguns desses mecanismos (correção, paráfrase, repetição, parênteses? Para responder a essa questão, analisamos seis inquéritos de natureza diferente (elocuções formais - EFs - , entrevistas - DIDs - e diálogos entre dois informantes - D2s, extraídos do Projeto NURC/SP, NURC/RJ e NURC/Recife. Do ponto de vista teórico, recorremos às pesquisas desenvolvidas pelo grupo acima mencionado, cujos artigos foram publicados na coleção: Gramática do Português Falado ( volumes IV, V e VI .This work follows other studies on interruption that we have been developping since 1995 in a group engaged in the interactive textual organization within the Grammatical Project of the Spoken Portuguese. Our aim is to uncover the status of interruption: is it a mecanism of construction of the spoken text or only of a token of the occurrence of some of these mecanisms (correction, paraphrase, repetition, parentheses? To answer this question, we analysed six inquiries of different nature (formal elocutions - Efs; interviews - DIDs - and dialogues between two informants - D2s extracted from the NURC/SP, NURC/RJ and NURC/Recife Project. As to the theoretical point of view, we turned our attention to assumptions which supported the arguments put forward by the researchers belonging to the above mentioned group, whose articles were published in Grammatical Project of Spoken Portuguese (IV, V, VI

  18. Common interruptions in the repeating tripeptide sequence of non-fibrillar collagens: sequence analysis and structural studies on triple-helix peptide models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Geetha; Li, Yingjie; Mohs, Angela; Strafaci, Christopher; Popiel, Magdalena; Baum, Jean; Brodsky, Barbara

    2008-02-22

    Interruptions in the repeating (Gly-X1-X2)(n) amino acid sequence pattern are found in the triple-helix domains of all non-fibrillar collagens, and perturbations to the triple-helix at such sites are likely to play a role in collagen higher-order structure and function. This study defines the sequence features and structural consequences of the most common interruption, where one residue is missing from the tripeptide pattern, Gly-X1-X2-Gly-AA(1)-Gly-X1-X2, designated G1G interruptions. Residues found within G1G interruptions are predominantly hydrophobic (70%), followed by a significant amount of charged residues (16%), and the Gly-X1-X2 triplets flanking the interruption are atypical. Studies on peptide models indicate the degree of destabilization is much greater when Pro is in the interruption, GP, than when hydrophobic residues (GF, GY) are present, and a rigid Gly-Pro-Hyp tripeptide adjacent to the interruption leads to greater destabilization than a flexible Gly-Ala-Ala sequence. Modeling based on NMR data indicates the Phe residue within a GF interruption is located on the outside of the triple helix. The G1G interruptions resemble a previously studied collagen interruption GPOGAAVMGPO, designated G4G-type, in that both are destabilizing, but allow continuation of rod-like triple helices and maintenance of the single residue stagger throughout the imperfection, with a loss of axial register of the superhelix on both sides. Both kinds of interruptions result in a highly localized perturbation in hydrogen bonding and dihedral angles, but the hydrophobic residue of a G4G interruption packs near the central axis of the superhelix, while the hydrophobic residue of a G1G interruption is located on the triple-helix surface. The different structural consequences of G1G and G4G interruptions in the repeating tripeptide sequence pattern suggest a physical basis for their differential susceptibility to matrix metalloproteinases in type X collagen.

  19. A Novel Implementation of RISI Controller Employing Adaptive Clock Gating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kamaraju

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available With the scaling of technology and the need for higher performance and more functionality power dissipation is becoming a major issue for controller design. Interrupt based programming is widely used for interfacing a processor with peripherals. The proposed architecture implements a mechanism which combines interrupt controller and RIS (Reduced Instruction Set CPU (Central processing unit on a single die. RISI Controller takes only one cycle for both interrupt request generation and acknowledgement. The architecture have a dynamic control unit which consists of a program flow controller, interrupt controller and I/O controller. Adaptive clock gating technique is used to reduce power consumption in the dynamic control unit. The controller consumes a power of 174µw@1MHz and is implemented in verilog HDL using Xilinx platform

  20. Interruption of glycerol pathway in industrial alcoholic yeasts to improve the ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhong-peng; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Zhong-yang; Shi, Gui-Yang [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). Key Lab. of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education; Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). Lab. of Biomass Refinery and Processing, School of Biotechnology; Wang, Zheng-Xiang [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). Key Lab. of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education

    2009-02-15

    The two homologous genes GPD1 and GPD2, encoding two isoenzymes of NAD{sup +}-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CICIMY0086, had been deleted. The obtained two kinds of mutants gpd1{delta} and gpd2{delta} were studied under alcoholic fermentation conditions. gpd1{delta} mutants exhibited a 4.29% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) decrease in glycerol production and 6.83% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) increased ethanol yield while gpd2{delta} mutants exhibited a 7.95% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) decrease in glycerol production and 7.41% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) increased ethanol yield compared with the parental strain. The growth rate of the two mutants were slightly lower than that of the wild type under the exponential phase whereas ANG1 (gpd1{delta}) and the decrease in glycerol production was not accompanied by any decline in the protein content of the strain ANG1 (gpd1{delta}) but a slight decrease in the strain ANG2 (gpd2{delta}). Meanwhile, dramatic decrease of acetate acid formation was observed in strain ANG1 (gpd1{delta}) and ANG2 (gpd2{delta}) compared to the parental strain. Therefore, it is possible to improve the ethanol yield by interruption of glycerol pathway in industrial alcoholic yeast. (orig.)

  1. Human Trafficking: The Role of Medicine in Interrupting the Cycle of Abuse and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Konstantopoulos, Wendy

    2016-10-18

    Human trafficking, a form of modern slavery, is an egregious violation of human rights with profound personal and public health implications. It includes forced labor and sexual exploitation of both U.S. and non-U.S. citizens and has been reported in all 50 states. Victims of human trafficking are currently among the most abused and disenfranchised persons in society, and they face a wide range of negative health outcomes resulting from their subjugation and exploitation. Medicine has an important role to play in mitigating the devastating effects of human trafficking on individuals and society. Victims are cared for in emergency departments, primary care offices, urgent care centers, community health clinics, and reproductive health clinics. In addition, they are unknowingly being treated in hospital inpatient units. Injuries and illnesses requiring medical attention thus represent unique windows of opportunity for trafficked persons to receive assistance from trusted health care professionals. With education and training, health care providers can recognize signs and symptoms of trafficking, provide trauma-informed care to this vulnerable population, and respond to exploited persons who are interested and ready to receive assistance. Multidisciplinary response protocols, research, and policy advocacy can enhance the impact of antitrafficking health care efforts to interrupt the cycle of abuse and violence for these victims.

  2. Diagnosis of growth hormone (GH deficiency: comparison of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome and transient GH deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauner Raja

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients with childhood non-organic growth hormone (GH deficiency (GHD produce a normal GH peak as young adults. Our objectives were to better define this transient GHD and evaluate the factors influencing the growth response of patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS. Methods We studied 72 prepubertal patients with a GH peak Results At diagnosis, 64% of Group 1 and one Group 2 were During the first year of GH treatment, the growth rate was ≥ 2 SDS in 81% Group 1 and 37% Group 2 patients. In Group 1, it was negatively correlated with the GH peak before treatment (P The height gain SDSs between diagnosis and adult height were 1.7 ± 1.2 in Group 1 (n = 30 and 1.08 ± 0.8 in Group 2 (n = 12, P = 0.05. Conclusion The factors of the growth response to GH treatment should be analysed separately for each population: with and without PSIS or other markers.

  3. Flexible transfer limits in an open power market - Congestion versus risk of interruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warland, Geir

    1999-07-01

    Traditionally, power systems have been operated by deterministic criteria which tend to provide conservative security limits and will be inflexible and insensitive to changes in outage probabilities or market demands in a deregulated power system. This thesis introduces a new approach to power system operation in which the determination of operating limits for critical transmission lines or corridors is presented as a multiobjective decision problem, including risk assessment. Two objectives are included: (1) minimization of operating cost and (2) obtaining a secure operating level. The operating costs included are congestion costs, interruption costs and the costs of corrective or preventive actions to enhance security. In modelling uncertainties, a fuzzy model for the amount of load lost due to outages is presented. It includes the subjective uncertainty in the assessment of the amount of load lost, considering weather dependency of outage probabilities. There are four main conclusions: (1) The approach is flexible and sensitive to changes in outage probabilities and market demand, (2) A recommended solution will depend on system operator preference and expert opinion, (3) The approach includes the deterministic N-1 criterion as a special case, (4) The regret measure may in some difficult cases lead to indecision between solutions. 84 refs., 71 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. A LTR copia retrotransposon and Mutator transposons interrupt Pgip genes in cultivated and wild wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovanni, Michela; Cenci, Alberto; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. Wheat pgip genes have been isolated from the B (Tapgip1) and D (Tapgip2) genomes, and now we report the identification of pgip genes from the A genomes of wild and cultivated wheats. By Southern blots and sequence analysis of BAC clones we demonstrated that wheat contains a single copy pgip gene per genome and the one from the A genome, pgip3, is inactivated by the insertion of a long terminal repeat copia retrotranspon within the fourth LRR. We demonstrated also that this retrotransposon insertion is present in Triticum urartu and all the polyploidy wheats assayed, but is absent in T. monococcum (Tmpgip3), suggesting that this insertion took place after the divergence between T. monococcum and T. urartu, but before the formation of the polyploid wheats. We identified also two independent insertion events of new Class II transposable elements, Vacuna, belonging to the Mutator superfamily, that interrupted the Tdipgip1 gene of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The occurrence of these transposons within the coding region of Tdipgip1 facilitated the mapping of the Pgip locus in the pericentric region of the short arm of chromosome group 7. We speculate that the inactivation of pgip genes are tolerated because of redundancy of PGIP activities in the wheat genome.

  5. Dolphins can maintain vigilant behavior through echolocation for 15 days without interruption or cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Branstetter

    Full Text Available In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation.

  6. Non-structured treatment interruptions (NTIs) among injection drug users in Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavasery, Ravi; Galai, Noya; Astemborski, Jacquie; Lucas, Gregory M; Celentano, David D; Kirk, Gregory D; Mehta, Shruti H.

    2009-01-01

    Background We characterized patterns of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use and predictors of non-structured treatment interruptions (NTIs) among injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore, MD. Methods 335 IDUs who initiated HAART from 1996-2006 were studied. NTIs were defined as any subsequent six-month interval where HAART was not reported. Predictors of the first NTI and subsequent restart of HAART were examined using Cox regression. Results 260 (78%) reported ≥1 NTI. Of 215 with ≥1 follow-up visit after the NTI, 44 (20%) never restarted HAART, 62 (29%) restarted and remained on HAART and 109 (51%) reported multiple NTIs. NTIs were less likely among those who initiated HAART in later calendar years and hada recent outpatient visit and more likely among women, persons with detectable HIV RNA at the prior visit and those who reported injecting daily. Among those with NTIs, interuptions occurred earlier in persons who were younger, did not have a prior AIDS diagnosis and were actively injecting; NTIs lasted longer in persons who had higher HIV RNA levels, were incarcerated and drinking alcohol. A recent outpatient visit and not actively injecting were associated with restarting HAART. Conclusions NTIs were common in this population and occurred most frequently in the setting of active drug use and disruption of health care. Effective linkages between primary care for HIV and substance abuse treatment may improve HAART outcomes in this population. PMID:19214124

  7. Dolphins can maintain vigilant behavior through echolocation for 15 days without interruption or cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branstetter, Brian K; Finneran, James J; Fletcher, Elizabeth A; Weisman, Brian C; Ridgway, Sam H

    2012-01-01

    In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation.

  8. Motivational priming and processing interrupt: startle reflex modulation during shallow and deep processing of emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kissler, Johanna

    2010-05-01

    Valence-driven modulation of the startle reflex, that is larger eyeblinks during viewing of unpleasant pictures and inhibited blinks while viewing pleasant pictures, is well documented. The current study investigated, whether this motivational priming pattern also occurs during processing of unpleasant and pleasant words, and to what extent it is influenced by shallow vs. deep encoding of verbal stimuli. Emotional and neutral adjectives were presented for 5s, and the acoustically elicited startle eyeblink response was measured while subjects memorized the words by means of shallow or deep processing strategies. Results showed blink potentiation to unpleasant and blink inhibition to pleasant adjectives in subjects using shallow encoding strategies. In subjects using deep-encoding strategies, blinks were larger for pleasant than unpleasant or neutral adjectives. In line with this, free recall of pleasant words was also better in subjects who engaged in deep processing. The results suggest that motivational priming holds as long as processing is perceptual. However, during deep processing the startle reflex appears to represent a measure of "processing interrupt", facilitating blinks to those stimuli that are more deeply encoded.

  9. Resilient Control under Denial-Of-Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Tesi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    We investigate resilient control strategies for linear systems under Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks. By DoS attacks we mean interruptions of communication on measurement (sensor-to-controller) and control (controller-to-actuator) channels carried out by an intelligent adversary. We characterize the

  10. Numerical Prediction on the Thermal Interrupting Capability of HV SF6 Gas Circuit Breakers%Numerical Prediction on the Thermal Interrupting Capability of HV SF6Gas Circuit Breakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Jingwei; GUO Jin; DENG Xiang'e

    2013-01-01

    The design technology for HV SF6 gas circuit breakers is very demanding.A numerical method for prediction of the thermal interruption capability of SF6 gas circuit breakers is established based on the two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model and a commercial CFD(computational fluid dynamics) software,FLUENT.Nozzle ablation effect is considered by introducing an independent mass conservation equation for the ablated material to the overall conservation equations of mass,momentum,and energy.The ohmic heating and the radiation of the electric arc are considered in the model by adding relevant source terms.To predict the thermal interruption capability,the arc conductance 200 ns before current zero is used as an indicator.The CFD model is applied for the high current arcing phase,and Mayr arc model is used near the current zero period.The arc conductance at 200 ns before current zero(G200) for various arcing periods are computed by the present method.It shows that there exist a limit of the G200.For those whose arcing periods are within the arcing window,the related G200 are below the limit,therefore result a successful current interruption,and vice versa.The validation of the developed computer simulation tool is therefore verified.The numerical prediction by the simulation tool is verified by the direct interrupting test of 550 kV gas circuit breaker (GCB).The developed computer simulation tool was applied in the design of a 550 kV GCB.Significant benefits have been achieved in terms of both the cost saving and shorten of the development cycle.

  11. Performance of an M/M/1 Retrial Queue with Working Vacation Interruption and Classical Retrial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An M/M/1 retrial queue with working vacation interruption is considered. Upon the arrival of a customer, if the server is busy, it would join the orbit of infinite size. The customers in the orbit will try for service one by one when the server is idle under the classical retrial policy with retrial rate nα, where n is the size of the orbit. During a working vacation period, if there are customers in the system at a service completion instant, the vacation will be interrupted. Under the stable condition, the probability generating functions of the number of customers in the orbit are obtained. Various system performance measures are also developed. Finally, some numerical examples and cost optimization analysis are presented.

  12. Emergency doctors' strategies to manage competing workload demands in an interruptive environment: An observational workflow time study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott R; Raban, Magdalena Z; Dunsmuir, William T M; Douglas, Heather E; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2017-01-01

    An observational workflow time study was conducted involving doctors in the emergency department (ED) of a large Australian hospital. During 121.7 h across 58 sessions, we observed interruptive events, conceptualised as prompts, and doctors' strategies to handle those prompts (task-switching, multitasking, acknowledgement, deferral and deflection) to assess the role of multiple work system factors influencing doctors' work in the ED. Prompt rates varied vastly between work scenarios, being highest during non-verbal solo tasks. The propensity to use certain strategies also differed with task type, prompt type and location within the department, although task-switching was by far the most frequent. Communicative prompts were important in patient treatment and workload management. Clinicians appear to adjust their communication strategies in response to contextual factors in order to deliver patient care. Risk due to the interruptive nature of ED communication is potentially outweighed by the positive effects of timely information transfer and advice provision.

  13. Safe interruption of maintenance therapy against previous infection with four common HIV-associated opportunistic pathogens during potent antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina;

    2002-01-01

    maintenance therapy for cytomegalovirus (CMV) end-organ disease, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and extrapulmonary cryptococcosis in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Seven European HIV cohorts. PATIENTS: 358...... identified: 162 for CMV disease, 103 for MAC infection, 75 for toxoplasmosis, and 39 for cryptococcosis. During 781 person-years of follow-up, five patients had relapse. Two relapses (one of CMV disease and one of MAC infection) were diagnosed after maintenance therapy was interrupted when the CD4 lymphocyte....... One relapse (toxoplasmosis) was diagnosed after maintenance therapy interruption at a CD4 lymphocyte count greater than 200 x 10(6) cells/L for 15 months. The overall incidences of recurrent CMV disease, MAC infection, toxoplasmosis, and cryptococcosis were 0.54 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 0.07 to 1...

  14. The Touch Pad Body: A Generative Transcultural Digital Device Interrupting Received Ideas and Practices in Aboriginal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Christie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yolŋu Aboriginal understandings of the body, health, life and sickness, and roles their ancestral epistemologies and knowledge practices play in making agreement have seldom been taken seriously in the biomedical world. In this paper, we describe how insights developed in three different cross-cultural collaborative transdisciplinary research projects led to the design of a digital device aimed at intervening in communicative practices around body, health, life and sickness, interrupting the received practices and assumptions on both sides of the practitioner-client divide. The interrupting device slows down and opens up communication practices potentially leading to mutual understanding, collective agreement making, and bottom-up changes in remote Aboriginal health policy and practice.

  15. Frequent hepatitis B virus rebound among HIV-hepatitis B virus-coinfected patients following antiretroviral therapy interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dore, Gregory J; Soriano, Vicente; Rockstroh, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption in HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV)-coinfected patients was examined in the Strategic Management of AntiRetroviral Therapy (SMART) study. METHODS: Plasma HBV DNA was measured in all hepatitis B surface antigen-positive (HBV.......0002), nondetectable HBV DNA at baseline (P = 0.007), and black race (P = 0.03). Time to ART reinitiation was shorter (7.5, 15.6, and 17.8 months; P hepatitis C virus-positive and non-HBV/hepatitis...... C virus participants in the drug conservation arm. No hepatic decompensation events occurred among HBV-positive participants in either arm. CONCLUSION: HBV DNA rebound following ART interruption is common and may be associated with accelerated immune deficiency in HIV-HBV-coinfected patients....

  16. Researches on Nutritional Behaviour in Romanian Black and White Primiparous Cows. Interruptions Number and their Duration in the Ration Consumption Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White primiparous cows. The aim of this study was todetermine some aspect of nutritional behaviour of the cows. During the experiments, the following behaviour aspectswere determined: interruption number and their duration in the feed consumption time. Results showed that theadministration order of forages had an influence on the interruptions number, which was 0.74 less for hay in fibroussucculentorder (O1. For silage, the interruption number was 0.42 higher in fibrous-succulent order (O1. Betweenportion 1 (P1 and portion 3 (P3, the significant difference (p<0.05 was for interruptions duration, duringconsumption silage, in favour portion P1. Distinct significant differences (p<0.01 was observed for the interruptionnumber during consumption silage (0.95 sec. higher in P1 than in P3, for interruption duration (5.96 sec. higher inP1 than in P3. Between P2 and P3, significant difference (p<0.05 was observed for interruptions number duringconsumption silage and for average interruptions duration during consumption beet in favour to portion P2.Regarding the number of feedings per portion, always the differences were higher in the second feeding F1 than inthe first feeding F2.

  17. Genomic analysis of Pseudomonas putida phage tf with localized single-strand DNA interruptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly S Glukhov

    Full Text Available The complete sequence of the 46,267 bp genome of the lytic bacteriophage tf specific to Pseudomonas putida PpG1 has been determined. The phage genome has two sets of convergently transcribed genes and 186 bp long direct terminal repeats. The overall genomic architecture of the tf phage is similar to that of the previously described Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages PaP3, LUZ24 and phiMR299-2, and 39 out of the 72 products of predicted tf open reading frames have orthologs in these phages. Accordingly, tf was classified as belonging to the LUZ24-like bacteriophage group. However, taking into account very low homology levels between tf DNA and that of the other phages, tf should be considered as an evolutionary divergent member of the group. Two distinguishing features not reported for other members of the group were found in the tf genome. Firstly, a unique end structure--a blunt right end and a 4-nucleotide 3'-protruding left end--was observed. Secondly, 14 single-chain interruptions (nicks were found in the top strand of the tf DNA. All nicks were mapped within a consensus sequence 5'-TACT/RTGMC-3'. Two nicks were analyzed in detail and were shown to be present in more than 90% of the phage population. Although localized nicks were previously found only in the DNA of T5-like and phiKMV-like phages, it seems increasingly likely that this enigmatic structural feature is common to various other bacteriophages.

  18. Within-season flowering interruptions are common in the water-limited Sky Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M; Bertelsen, David C; Crimmins, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Within-season breaks in flowering have been reported in a wide range of highly variable ecosystems including deserts, tropical forests and high-elevation meadows. A tendency for interruptions in flowering has also been documented in southwestern US "Sky Island" plant communities, which encompass xeric to mesic conditions. Seasonal breaks in flowering have implications for plant reproductive success, population structure, and gene flow as well as resource availability for pollinators and dependent animals. Most reports of multiple within-season flowering events describe only two distinct flowering episodes. In this study, we set out to better quantify distinct within-season flowering events in highly variable Sky Islands plant communities. Across a >1,200 m elevation gradient, we documented a strong tendency for multiple within-season flowering events. In both distinct spring and summer seasons, we observed greater than two distinct within-season flowering in more than 10 % of instances. Patterns were clearly mediated by the different climate factors at work in the two seasons. The spring season, which is influenced by both temperature and precipitation, showed a mixed response, with the greatest tendency for multiple flowering events occurring at mid-elevations and functional types varying in their responses across the gradient. In the summer season, during which flowering across the gradient is limited by localized precipitation, annual plants exhibited the fewest within-season flowering events and herbaceous perennial plants showed the greatest. Additionally, more distinct events occurred at lower elevations. The patterns documented here provide a baseline for comparison of system responses to changing climate conditions.

  19. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome in Chinese people: clinical characteristic analysis of 55 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Guo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS is characterized by the absence of pituitary stalk, pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic posterior pituitary. Due to the rarity of PSIS, clinical data are limited, especially in Chinese people. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with PSIS from our center over 10 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical manifestations and laboratory and MRI findings in 55 patients with PSIS. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients with PSIS, 48 (87.3% were male. The average age was 19.7±6.7 years and there was no familial case. A history of breech delivery was documented in 40 of 45 patients (88.9% and 19 of 55 patients (34.5% had a history of dystocia. Short stature was found in 47 of 55 patients (85.5% and bone age delayed 7.26±5.37 years. Secondary sex characteristics were poor or undeveloped in most patients. The prevalence of deficiencies in growth hormone, gonadotropins, corticotropin, and thyrotropin were 100%, 95.8%, 81.8%, 76.3%, respectively. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 36.4% of patients. Three or more pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 92.7% of the patients. All patients had normal posterior pituitary function and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. The average height of anterior pituitary was 28 mm, documented anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Midline abnormalities were presented in 9.1% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of our Chinese PSIS patients seem to be different from other reported patients in regarding to the higher degree of hypopituitarism and lower prevalence of midline defects. In addition, our patients were older at the time of case detection and the bone age was markedly delayed. We also had no cases of familial PSIS.

  20. Detecting the molecular scars of evolution in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by analyzing interrupted coding sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poch Olivier

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-assisted analyses have shown that all bacterial genomes contain a small percentage of open reading frames with a frameshift or in-frame stop codon We report here a comparative analysis of these interrupted coding sequences (ICDSs in six isolates of M. tuberculosis, two of M. bovis and one of M. africanum and question their phenotypic impact and evolutionary significance. Results ICDSs were classified as "common to all strains" or "strain-specific". Common ICDSs are believed to result from mutations acquired before the divergence of the species, whereas strain-specific ICDSs were acquired after this divergence. Comparative analyses of these ICDSs therefore define the molecular signature of a particular strain, phylogenetic lineage or species, which may be useful for inferring phenotypic traits such as virulence and molecular relationships. For instance, in silico analysis of the W-Beijing lineage of M. tuberculosis, an emergent family involved in several outbreaks, is readily distinguishable from other phyla by its smaller number of common ICDSs, including at least one known to be associated with virulence. Our observation was confirmed through the sequencing analysis of ICDSs in a panel of 21 clinical M. tuberculosis strains. This analysis further illustrates the divergence of the W-Beijing lineage from other phyla in terms of the number of full-length ORFs not containing a frameshift. We further show that ICDS formation is not associated with the presence of a mutated promoter, and suggest that promoter extinction is not the main cause of pseudogene formation. Conclusion The correlation between ICDSs, function and phenotypes could have important evolutionary implications. This study provides population geneticists with a list of targets, which could undergo selective pressure and thus alters relationships between the various lineages of M. tuberculosis strains and their host. This approach could be applied to any

  1. Baseline and post-bronchodilator interrupter resistance and spirometry in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydon, Nicole; Mahut, Bruno; Maingot, L; Guillo, H; La Rocca, M C; Medjahdi, N; Koskas, M; Boulé, M; Delclaux, Christophe

    2012-10-01

    In children unable to perform reliable spirometry, the interrupter resistance (R(int) ) technique for assessing respiratory resistance is easy to perform. However, few data are available on the possibility to use R(int) as a surrogate for spirometry. We aimed at comparing R(int) and spirometry at baseline and after bronchodilator administration in a large population of asthmatic children. We collected retrospectively R(int) and spirometry results measured in 695 children [median age 7.8 (range 4.8-13.9) years] referred to our lab for routine assessment of asthma disease. Correlations between R(int) and spirometry were studied using data expressed as z-scores. Receiver operator characteristic curves for the baseline R(int) value (z-score) and the bronchodilator effect (percentage predicted value and z-score) were generated to assess diagnostic performance. At baseline, the relationship between raw values of R(int) and FEV(1) was not linear. Despite a highly significant inverse correlation between R(int) and all of the spirometry indices (FEV(1) , FVC, FEV(1) /FVC, FEF(25-75%) ; P 12% baseline increase) with 70% sensitivity and 69% specificity (AUC = 0.79). R(int) measurements fitted a one-compartment model that explained the relationship between flows and airway resistance. We found that R(int) had poor sensitivity to detect baseline obstruction, but fairly good sensitivity and specificity to detect reversibility. However, in order to implement asthma guidelines for children unable to produce reliable spirometry, bronchodilator response measured by R(int) should be systematically studied and further assessed in conjunction with clinical outcomes.

  2. Reduction of maternal mortality due to preeclampsia in Colombia-an interrupted time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Herrera-Escobar, Juan Pablo; Nieto-Díaz, Aníbal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Preeclampsia is the most important cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. A comprehensive prenatal care program including bio-psychosocial components was developed and introduced at a national level in Colombia. We report on the trends in maternal mortality rates and their related causes before and after implementation of this program. Methods: General and specific maternal mortality rates were monitored for nine years (1998-2006). An interrupted time-series analysis was performed with monthly data on cases of maternal mortality that compared trends and changes in national mortality rates and the impact of these changes attributable to the introduction of a bio-psychosocial model. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate correlations between the interventions. Results: Five years after (2002 - 2006) its introduction the general maternal mortality rate was significantly reduced to 23% (OR=0.77, CI 95% 0.71-0.82).The implementation of BPSM also reduced the incidence of preeclampsia in 22% (OR= 0.78, CI 95% 0.67-0.88), as also the labor complications by hemorrhage in 25% (OR=0.75, CI 95% 0.59-0.90) associated with the implementation of red code. The other causes of maternal mortality did not reveal significant changes. Biomedical, nutritional, psychosocial assessments, and other individual interventions in prenatal care were not correlated to maternal mortality (p= 0.112); however, together as a model we observed a significant association (p= 0.042). Conclusions: General maternal mortality was reduced after the implementation of a comprehensive national prenatal care program. Is important the evaluation of this program in others populations. PMID:24970956

  3. Reduction of maternal mortality due to preeclampsia in Colombia-an interrupted time-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Alberto Herrera

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.  Preeclampsia is the most important cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. A comprehensive prenatal care program including bio-psychosocial components was developed and introduced at a national level in Colombia. We report on the trends in maternal mortality rates and their related causes before and after implementation of this program. Methods: General and specific maternal mortality rates were monitored for nine years (1998-2006. An interrupted time-series analysis was performed with monthly data on cases of maternal mortality that compared trends and changes in national mortality rates and the impact of these changes attributable to the introduction of a bio-psychosocial model. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate correlations between the interventions. Results: Five years after (2002–2006 its introduction the general maternal mortality rate was significantly reduced to 23% (OR= 0.77, CI 95% 0.71-0.82.The implementation of BPSM also reduced the incidence of preeclampsia in 22%  (OR= 0.78, CI 95% 0.67-0.88, as also the labor complications by hemorrhage in 25%  (OR= 0.75, CI 95% 0.59-0.90 associated with the implementation of red code. The other causes of maternal mortality did not reveal significant changes. Biomedical, nutritional, psychosocial assessments, and other individual interventions in prenatal care were not correlated to maternal mortality (p= 0.112; however, together as a model we observed a significant association (p= 0.042. Conclusions: General maternal mortality was reduced after the implementation of a comprehensive national prenatal care program. Is important the evaluation of this program in others populations. 

  4. STAT3 interrupts ATR-Chk1 signaling to allow oncovirus-mediated cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koganti, Siva; Hui-Yuen, Joyce; McAllister, Shane; Gardner, Benjamin; Grasser, Friedrich; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Tangye, Stuart G; Freeman, Alexandra F; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita

    2014-04-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) is a signaling network that senses DNA damage and activates response pathways to coordinate cell-cycle progression and DNA repair. Thus, DDR is critical for maintenance of genome stability, and presents a powerful defense against tumorigenesis. Therefore, to drive cell-proliferation and transformation, viral and cellular oncogenes need to circumvent DDR-induced cell-cycle checkpoints. Unlike in hereditary cancers, mechanisms that attenuate DDR and disrupt cell-cycle checkpoints in sporadic cancers are not well understood. Using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a source of oncogenes, we have previously shown that EBV-driven cell proliferation requires the cellular transcription factor STAT3. EBV infection is rapidly followed by activation and increased expression of STAT3, which mediates relaxation of the intra-S phase cell-cycle checkpoint; this facilitates viral oncogene-driven cell proliferation. We now show that replication stress-associated DNA damage, which results from EBV infection, is detected by DDR. However, signaling downstream of ATR is impaired by STAT3, leading to relaxation of the intra-S phase checkpoint. We find that STAT3 interrupts ATR-to-Chk1 signaling by promoting loss of Claspin, a protein that assists ATR to phosphorylate Chk1. This loss of Claspin which ultimately facilitates cell proliferation is mediated by caspase 7, a protein that typically promotes cell death. Our findings demonstrate how STAT3, which is constitutively active in many human cancers, suppresses DDR, fundamental to tumorigenesis. This newly recognized role for STAT3 in attenuation of DDR, discovered in the context of EBV infection, is of broad interest as the biology of cell proliferation is central to both health and disease.

  5. Chemical disinfection to interrupt transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from environmental surfaces to hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, S A; Jacobsen, H; Springthorpe, V S; Cusack, T M; Rubino, J R

    1993-05-01

    Rhinoviruses can survive on environmental surfaces for several hours under ambient conditions. Hands can readily become contaminated after contact with such surfaces, and self-inoculation may lead to infection. Whereas hand washing is crucial in preventing the spread of rhinovirus colds, proper disinfection of environmental surfaces may further reduce rhinovirus transmission. In this study, the capacities of Lysol Disinfectant Spray (0.1% o-phenylphenol and 79% ethanol), a domestic bleach (6% sodium hypochlorite diluted to give 800 ppm of free chlorine), a quaternary ammonium-based product (7.05% quaternary ammonium diluted 1:128 in tap water), and a phenol-based product (14.7% phenol diluted 1:256 in tap water) were compared in interrupting the transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from stainless steel disks to fingerpads of human volunteers upon a 10-s contact at a pressure of 1 kg/cm2. Ten microliters of the virus, suspended in bovine mucin (5 mg/ml), was placed on each disk, and the inoculum was dried under ambient conditions; the input number on each disk ranged from 0.5 x 10(5) to 2.1 x 10(6) PFU. The dried virus was exposed to 20 microliters of the test disinfectant. The Lysol spray was able to reduce virus infectivity by > 99.99% after a contact of either 1 or 10 min, and no detectable virus was transferred to fingerpads from Lysol-treated disks. The bleach (800 ppm of free chlorine) reduced the virus titer by 99.7% after a contact time of 10 min, and again no virus was transferred from the disks treated with it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Evaluating the impact of flexible alcohol trading hours on violence: an interrupted time series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Humphreys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On November 24(th 2005, the Government of England and Wales removed regulatory restrictions on the times at which licensed premises could sell alcohol. This study tests availability theory by treating the implementation of Licensing Act (2003 as a natural experiment in alcohol policy. METHODS: An interrupted time series design was employed to estimate the Act's immediate and delayed impact on violence in the City of Manchester (Population 464,200. We collected police recorded rates of violence, robbery, and total crime between the 1st of February 2004 and the 31st of December 2007. Events were aggregated by week, yielding a total of 204 observations (95 pre-, and 109 post-intervention. Secondary analysis examined changes in daily patterns of violence. Pre- and post-intervention events were separated into four three-hour segments 18∶00-20∶59, 21∶00-23.59, 00∶00-02∶59, 03∶00-05∶59. RESULTS: Analysis found no evidence that the Licensing Act (2003 affected the overall volume of violence. However, analyses of night-time violence found a gradual and permanent shift of weekend violence into later parts of the night. The results estimated an initial increase of 27.5% between 03∶00 to 06∶00 (ω = 0.2433, 95% CI = 0.06, 0.42, which increased to 36% by the end of the study period (δ = -0.897, 95% CI = -1.02, -0.77. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence that a national policy increasing the physical availability of alcohol affected the overall volume of violence. There was, however, evidence suggesting that the policy may be associated with changes to patterns of violence in the early morning (3 a.m. to 6 a.m..

  7. Saramago’s Death with Interruptions: A Path to Reconsider Essential Dilemmas Linked to Health Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mabel Wierzba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available What would happen if somewhere people would stop dying? In Saramago’s Death with interruptions, after the initial joy associated to the possibility of eternal life, anxiety and conflict invade the community. The end of death not only shakes Philosophy and Religion foundations, but it impacts on various legal institutions as well. In this paper, we consider the notion of Justice from the Right to Health perspective. In particular, we analyse the concept of “euthanasia" and the current role of insurance from the private law viewpoint, taking into account its “constitutionalization" process. We remark the wisdom of the parable built by the author because of the simplicity, sharpness and versatility when addressing dilemmas that Law cannot fully solve. ¿Qué ocurriría si en algún lugar la gente dejara de morir? En Las intermitencias de la muerte de Saramago, tras la alegría inicial por la posibilidad de la vida eterna, la ansiedad y el conflicto predominan en la comunidad. El final de la muerte no sólo sacude los cimientos de la Filosofía y Religión, pero también afecta a diversas instituciones jurídicas. En este artículo se considera el concepto de Justicia desde la perspectiva de derecho a la salud. En particular, se analiza el concepto de “eutanasia” y el papel actual de los seguros desde el punto de vista del derecho privado, teniendo en cuenta su proceso de “constitucionalización”. Se destaca la sensatez de la parábola construida por el autor por su simplicidad, nitidez y versatilidad al abordar los dilemas que la Ley no puede resolver completamente. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2520437

  8. Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula successfully treated with surgical interruption of leptomeningeal venous drainage:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei-hua; XU Geng-sheng; LI Yi-yun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a rare disease, accounting for some 4% of all cases of intracranial DAVF.1 Because of a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage, patients with DAVF need aggressive treatment. Despite recent advances in endovascular technology, many researchers2-4 advocate open surgery for the treatment of tentorial DAVF. In this report, we present a case of tentorial DAVF with pure leptomeningeal venous drainage successfully treated by interruption of the draining vein.

  9. Posterior Nutcracker Syndrome Associated with Interrupted Left Inferior Vena Cava with Azygos Continuation and Retroaortic Right Renal Vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xiao Li; Zhou, Xiao Dong [Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi (China); Qian, Gen Nian; Xiao, Hui; Zhao, Chun Lei [Fuzhou General Hospital, Fujian (China)

    2012-06-15

    Various anatomic anomalies have been considered the causes of nutcracker syndrome (NCS). Posterior NCS refers to the condition, in which vascular narrowing was secondary to the compression of the retroaortic left renal vein while it is crossing between the aorta and the vertebral column. Here, we report an unusual case of posterior NCS associated with a complicated malformation of the interrupted left inferior vena cava with azygos continuation and retroaortic right renal vein, diagnosed by both color Doppler ultrasonography and CT angiography.

  10. Large number of rebounding/founder HIV variants emerge from multifocal infection in lymphatic tissues after treatment interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Meghan K; Keele, Brandon F; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Fletcher, Courtney V; Beilman, Gregory J; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Khoruts, Alexander; Estes, Jacob D; Anderson, Jodi; Callisto, Samuel P; Schmidt, Thomas E; Thorkelson, Ann; Reilly, Cavan; Perkey, Katherine; Reimann, Thomas G; Utay, Netanya S; Nganou Makamdop, Krystelle; Stevenson, Mario; Douek, Daniel C; Haase, Ashley T; Schacker, Timothy W

    2015-03-10

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV replication in most individuals but cannot eradicate latently infected cells established before ART was initiated. Thus, infection rebounds when treatment is interrupted by reactivation of virus production from this reservoir. Currently, one or a few latently infected resting memory CD4 T cells are thought be the principal source of recrudescent infection, but this estimate is based on peripheral blood rather than lymphoid tissues (LTs), the principal sites of virus production and persistence before initiating ART. We, therefore, examined lymph node (LN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) biopsies from fully suppressed subjects, interrupted therapy, monitored plasma viral load (pVL), and repeated biopsies on 12 individuals as soon as pVL became detectable. Isolated HIV RNA-positive (vRNA+) cells were detected by in situ hybridization in LTs obtained before interruption in several patients. After interruption, multiple foci of vRNA+ cells were detected in 6 of 12 individuals as soon as pVL was measureable and in some subjects, in more than one anatomic site. Minimal estimates of the number of rebounding/founder (R/F) variants were determined by single-gene amplification and sequencing of viral RNA or DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma obtained at or just before viral recrudescence. Sequence analysis revealed a large number of R/F viruses representing recrudescent viremia from multiple sources. Together, these findings are consistent with the origins of recrudescent infection by reactivation from many latently infected cells at multiple sites. The inferred large pool of cells and sites to rekindle recrudescent infection highlights the challenges in eradicating HIV.

  11. An analysis of strategic treatment interruptions during imatinib treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia with imatinib-resistant mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, Dana; Sacco, David; Shamshoian, John

    2015-04-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the white blood cells that results from increased and uncontrolled growth of myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. The most common form of treatment for CML is imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Although imatinib is an effective treatment for CML and most patients treated with imatinib do attain some form of remission, imatinib does not completely eradicate all leukemia cells, and if treatment is stopped, all patients eventually relapse (Cortes, 2005). In Kim (2008), the authors developed a mathematical model for the dynamics of CML under imatinib treatment that incorporates the anti-leukemia immune response, and in Paquin (2011), the authors used this mathematical model to study strategic treatment interruptions as a potential therapeutic strategy for CML patients. Although the authors presented the results of several numerical simulations in Paquin (2011), the studies in that work did not include the possibility of imatinib-resistant mutations or an initial population of imatinib-resistant leukemia cells. As resistance is a significant consideration in any drug treatment, it is important to study the efficacy of the strategic treatment interruption plan in the presence of imatinib resistance. In this work, we modify the delay differential equations model of Kim (2008), Paquin (2011) to include the possibility of imatinib resistance, and we analyze strategic treatment interruptions as a potential therapeutic tool in the case of patients with imatinib-resistance leukemia cells.

  12. Failure of unilateral carotid artery ligation to affect pressure-induced interruption of rapid axonal transport in primate optic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Schwartz, E L; Anderson, D R

    1980-02-01

    Previous experiments showed that optic nerve axonal transport can be blocked at the level of the lamina cribrosa by elevated intraocular pressure. In an effort to discover if this blockage might be secondary to pressure-induced ischemia, we studied the effect of unilateral common carotid artery ligation upont the pressure-induced interruption of axonal transport. In 13 owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus), the right common carotid artery was ligated within the anterior cervical triangle. Three days later, ophtalmodynomometry was performed on all experimental eyes. In nine of the 13 animals, this estimate of ophthalmic artery pressure was 10 to 20 mm Hg less in the right compared to the left eye. Optic nerve axonal transport was studied in right and left eyes during 5 hours of increased intraocular pressure (ocular pressure 35 mm Hg less than mean femoral artery blood pressure). No significant difference in the extent to which the transport mechanisms were interrupted could be demonstrated when comparing right and left eyes of the experimental animals. These observations fail to support a vascular mechanism for this pressure-induced interruption of axonal transport.

  13. A pilot study on the vacuum degree online detection of vacuum interrupter using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. H.; Yuan, H.; Liu, D. X.; Yang, A. J.; Liu, P.; Gao, L.; Ding, H. B.; Wang, W. T.; Rong, M. Z.

    2016-11-01

    Vacuum degree online detection of vacuum interrupter has been a great challenge for decades. In this letter, a novel approach based on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was proposed to solve this tough problem, which is suitable for non-intrusive, electro-magnetic interference free and remote detection. The spectral lines of Cu, H, N and O elements from the interrupter shield were detected for a large gas pressure range from p  =  1  ×  10-3 Pa to 1  ×  105 Pa. It was found that the spectral intensities of O and H increase monotonically with gas pressure, in contrast the spectral intensity of Cu first decreases slightly and then increases. Their intensity ratios, especially for that of Cu to O, change dramatically and monotonically with the gas pressure when p  ⩽  0.1 Pa, indicating that they can be used for determining the vacuum degree values. Spectral ratio method fundamentally reduces the influences of the possible variation in measuring distance and the laser power fluctuation, making LIBS a promising method for vacuum degree online detection of vacuum interrupters.

  14. Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN yellow-green light-emitting diodes by growth interruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Chunhua; Ma, Ziguang; Zhou, Junming; Lu, Taiping; Jiang, Yang; Zuo, Peng; Jia, Haiqiang; Chen, Hong, E-mail: hchen@iphy.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condense Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-08-18

    We studied the effect of multiple interruptions during the quantum well growth on emission-efficiency enhancement of InGaN-based yellow-green light emitting diodes on c-plane sapphire substrate. The output power and dominant wavelength at 20 mA are 0.24 mW and 556.3 nm. High resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence measurements demonstrate that efficiency enhancement could be partially attributed to crystal quality improvement of the active region resulted from reduced In clusters and relevant defects on the surface of InGaN layer by introducing interruptions. The less tilted energy band in the quantum well is also caused by the decrease of In-content gradient along c-axis resulted from In segregation during the interruptions, which increases spatial overlap of electron-hole wavefunction and thus the internal quantum efficiency. The latter also leads to smaller blueshift of dominant wavelength with current increasing.

  15. Successful surgical treatment of descending aorta interruption in a 29-year-old woman with acute paraplegia and subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shutang; Wang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Hongdu; Zhuang, Huanwei; Cao, Xianjun; Liang, Liming; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-06-06

    Interruption of the descending aorta is an extremely rare great vessel malformation. In this report, we describe a very unusual case of a 29-year-old female with a 13-year history of hypertension who was found to have an interruption of the descending aorta when she was hospitalized with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and symptoms of acute paraplegia. We successfully surgically corrected the defect using a Gore-Tex® graft to bypass the aortic interruption. The patient's blood pressure postoperatively returned to normal, and the patient recovered completely from her paraplegia by the time of her 5-month follow-up visit.

  16. The effects of brief visual interruption tasks on drivers' ability to resume their visual search for a pre-cued hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Avinoam; Horrey, William J; Liang, Yulan; Garabet, Angela; Simmons, Lucinda; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-08-01

    Driver visual distraction is known to increase the likelihood of being involved in a crash, especially for long glances inside the vehicle. The detrimental impact of these in-vehicle glances may carry over and disrupt the ongoing processing of information after the driver glances back up on the road. This study explored the effect of different types of visual tasks inside the vehicle on the top-down processes that guide the detection and monitoring of road hazards after the driver glances back towards the road. Using a driving simulator, 56 participants were monitored with an eye tracking system while they navigated various hazardous scenarios in one of four experimental conditions. In all conditions, a potential hazard was visible 4-5s before the driver could strike the potential hazard were it to materialize. All interruptions were exactly two seconds in length. After the interruption the potential hazard again became visible for about a half-second after which the driver passed by the hazard. The nature of the in-vehicle visual interruption presented to the participants was varied across conditions: (1) Visual interruptions comprised of spatial, driving unrelated, tasks; (2) visual interruptions comprised of non-spatial, driving unrelated, tasks; (3) visual interruptions with no tasks added; and (4) no visual interruptions. In the first three conditions drivers glancing on the forward roadway was momentarily interrupted (either with or without a task) just after the potential hazard first became visible by the occurrence of an in-vehicle task lasting two seconds. In the last condition (no interruptions) the driver could not see the potential hazard after it just became visible because of obstructions in the built or natural environment. The obstruction (like the interruption) lasted for two seconds. In other words, across all conditions the hazard was visible, then became invisible, and finally became visible again. Importantly, the results show that the

  17. Cockpit Interruptions and Distractions: Effective Management Requires a Careful Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dismukes, R. K.; Young, Grant E.; Sumwalt, Robert L., III; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Managing several tasks concurrently is an everyday part of cockpit operations. For the most part, crews handle concurrent task demands efficiently, yet crew preoccupation with one task to the detriment of performing other tasks is one of the more common forms of error in the cockpit. Most pilots are familiar with the December 1972 L1011 crash that occurred when the crew became preoccupied with a landing gear light malfunction and failed to notice that someone had inadvertently bumped off the autopilot. More recently a DC-9 landed gear-up in Houston when the crew, preoccupied with an stabilized approach, failed to recognize that the gear was not down because they had not switched the hydraulic pumps to high. We have recently started a research project to study why crews are vulnerable to these sorts of errors. As part of that project we reviewed NTSB reports of accidents attributed to crew error; we concluded that nearly half of these accidents involved lapses of attention associated with interruptions, distractions, or preoccupation with one task to the exclusion of another task. We have also analyzed 107 ASRS reports involving competing tasks; we present here some of our conclusions from those ASRS reports. These 107 reports involved 21 different types of routine tasks crews neglected at a critical moment while attending to another task. Sixty-nine percent of the neglected tasks involved either failure to monitor the current status or position of the aircraft or failure to monitor the actions of the pilot flying or taxiing. Thirty-four different types of competing activities distracted or preoccupied the pilots. Ninety percent of these competing activities fell into one of four broad categories: communication (e.g., discussion among crew or radio communication), heads-down work (e.g., programming the FMS or reviewing approach plates), responding to abnormals, or searching for VMC traffic. We will discuss examples of each of these four categories and suggest things

  18. Outcomes of Temporary Interruption of Rivaroxaban Compared With Warfarin in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Matthew W.; Douketis, James D.; Patel, Manesh R.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Spyropoulos, Alex C.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Singer, Daniel E.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.; Becker, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Background During long-term anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation, temporary interruptions (TIs) of therapy are common, but the relationship between patient outcomes and TIs has not been well studied. We sought to determine reasons for TI, the characteristics of patients undergoing TI, and the relationship between anticoagulant and outcomes among patients with TI. Methods and Results In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily, Oral, Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF), a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study of rivaroxaban and warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, baseline characteristics, management, and outcomes, including stroke, non–central nervous system systemic embolism, death, myocardial infarction, and bleeding, were reported in participants who experienced TI (3–30 days) for any reason. The at-risk period for outcomes associated with TI was from TI start to 30 days after resumption of study drug. In 14 236 participants who received at least 1 dose of study drug, 4692 (33%) experienced TI. Participants with TI were similar to the overall ROCKET AF population in regard to baseline clinical characteristics. Only 6% (n=483) of TI incidences involved bridging therapy. Stroke/systemic embolism rates during the at-risk period were similar in rivaroxaban-treated and warfarin-treated participants (0.30% versus 0.41% per 30 days; hazard ratio [confidence interval]=0.74 [0.36–1.50]; P=0.40). Risk of major bleeding during the at-risk period was also similar in rivaroxaban-treated and warfarin-treated participants (0.99% versus 0.79% per 30 days; hazard ratio [confidence interval]=1.26 [0.80–2.00]; P=0.32). Conclusions TI of oral anticoagulation is common and is associated with substantial stroke risks and bleeding risks that were similar among patients treated with rivaroxaban or warfarin. Further investigation is needed to determine the optimal

  19. The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-11-01

    This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors--a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand--appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service--to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to

  20. Lymphatic Filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Pedersen, Erling Møller; Rwegoshora, Rwehumbiza T.

    2010-01-01

    In most countries of sub-Saharan Africa the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. Here we present the first detailed study on the effect of 3 repeated MDAs...

  1. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Kisinza, William N.

    2013-01-01

    Control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. We present findings from a detailed study on the effect of six rounds of MDA...

  2. Lymphatic Filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Pedersen, Erling Møller; Rwegoshora, Rwehumbiza T.;

    2010-01-01

    In most countries of sub-Saharan Africa the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. Here we present the first detailed study on the effect of 3 repeated MDAs with t...

  3. NMR studies demonstrate a unique AAB composition and chain register for a heterotrimeric type IV collagen model peptide containing a natural interruption site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianxi; Sun, Xiuxia; Madhan, Balaraman; Brodsky, Barbara; Baum, Jean

    2015-10-02

    All non-fibrillar collagens contain interruptions in the (Gly-X-Y)n repeating sequence, such as the more than 20 interruptions found in chains of basement membrane type IV collagen. Two selectively doubly labeled peptides are designed to model a site in type IV collagen with a GVG interruption in the α1(IV) and a corresponding GISLK sequence within the α2(IV) chain. CD and NMR studies on a 2:1 mixture of these two peptides support the formation of a single-component heterotrimer that maintains the one-residue staggering in the triple-helix, has a unique chain register, and contains hydrogen bonds at the interruption site. Formation of hydrogen bonds at interruption sites may provide a driving force for self-assembly and chain register in type IV and other non-fibrillar collagens. This study illustrates the potential role of interruptions in the structure, dynamics, and folding of natural collagen heterotrimers and forms a basis for understanding their biological role.

  4. Dual Arterial Access for Stenting of Aortic Coarctation in Patients with Near-Total Descending Aortic Interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Tahir; Jamallulail, Syed Ibrahim; Clarke, Bernard; Mahadevan, Vaikom S

    2015-12-01

    Endovascular stenting is a recognized treatment strategy for the treatment of coarctation of aorta (COA) in adults. The aortic coarctation is usually crossed retrogradely from the descending aorta via the femoral approach. We report three patients who had near-total descending aortic interruption and underwent successful stenting of severe COA using a combined radial/brachial and femoral approach due to difficulty in crossing the lesion retrogradely via a femoral approach. There were no procedural complications and no adverse events during 6 months of follow-up.

  5. Metabolic and immune activation effects of treatment interruption in chronic HIV-1 infection: implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tebas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern about costs and antiretroviral therapy (ART-associated toxicities led to the consideration of CD4 driven strategies for the management of HIV. That approach was evaluated in the SMART trial that reported an unexpected increase of cardiovascular events after treatment interruption (TI. Our goal was to evaluate fasting metabolic changes associated with interruption of antiretroviral therapy and relate them to changes of immune activation markers and cardiovascular risk. METHODOLOGY: ACTG 5102 enrolled 47 HIV-1-infected subjects on stable ART, with or=500 cells/microL. Subjects were randomly assigned to continue ART for 18 weeks with or without 3 cycles of interleukin-2 (IL-2 (cycle = 4.5 million IU sc BID x 5 days every 8 weeks. After 18 weeks ART was discontinued in all subjects until the CD4 cell count dropped below 350 cells/microL. Glucose and lipid parameters were evaluated every 8 weeks initially and at weeks 2, 4, 8 and every 8 weeks after TI. Immune activation was evaluated by flow-cytometry and soluble TNFR2 levels. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By week 8 of TI, levels of total cholesterol (TC (median (Q1, Q3 (-0.73 (-1.19, -0.18 mmol/L, p<0.0001, LDL, HDL cholesterol (-0.36(-0.73,-0.03mmol/L, p = 0.0007 and -0.05(-0.26,0.03, p = 0.0033, respectively and triglycerides decreased (-0.40 (-0.84, 0.07 mmol/L, p = 0.005. However the TC/HDL ratio remained unchanged (-0.09 (-1.2, 0.5, p = 0.2. Glucose and insulin levels did not change (p = 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. After TI there was marked increase in immune activation (CD8+/HLA-DR+/CD38+ cells, 34% (13, 43, p<0.0001 and soluble TNFR2 (1089 ng/L (-189, 1655, p = 0.0008 coinciding with the rebound of HIV viremia. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that interrupting antiretroviral therapy does not reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD risk, as the improvements in lipid parameters are modest and overshadowed by the decreased HDL levels. Increased immune cell activation and systemic

  6. Southern Cone Initiative for the elimination of domestic populations of Triatoma infestans and the interruption of transfusional Chagas disease. Historical aspects, present situation, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João Carlos Pinto

    2007-10-30

    Created in 1991 by the governments of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, the Southern Cone Initiative (SCI) has been extremely important for Chagas disease control in this region. Its basic objective was to reach the interruption of this disease, chiefly by means of the elimination of the principal vector Triatoma infestans and by the selection of safe donors in the regional blood banks. After a summarized historic of SCI, the text shows the advance of technical and operative activities, emphasizing some factors for the initiative success, as well as some difficulties and constraints. The future of SCI will depend of the continuity of the actions and of political priority. Scientific community has been highly responsible for this initiative and its maintenance. At the side of this, national and international efforts must be involved and reinforced to assure the accomplishment of the final targets of SCI. Very specially, the Pan American Health Organization has cooperated with the Initiative in all its moments and activities,being the most important catalytic and technical factor for SCI success.

  7. Replacement of five main block valves without interruption of normal operation in a remote NGL station placed at 13400 FT AMSL, challenge and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Yamil; Morales, Raul; Elorreaga, Gerson [Compania Operadora del Gas del Amazonas, Lima (Peru)

    2012-07-01

    The present paper is aimed to share experience of the replacement of five block valves carried on in a pressure reduction station remotely operated and located in a remote area in The Andes of Peru at 13400 ft AMSL. To accomplish the job, it was necessary the construction of a temporary bypass made of carbon steel pipeline with its own regulating, instrumentation and automation facilities, hence capable of reduce the NGL pressure, controlled and remotely operated by a SCADA system. The temporary bypass connection and disconnection to put on service was carried out using Hot Tap and Line Stop equipment. The replacement of the five block valves was met without interruption of the hydrocarbons flow, and resetting the pressure reduction station to steady operating conditions. Besides the operating works these activities involve safety considerations for personal working in high altitudes. The outputs were the successful replacements of the block valves, and most important was that the NGL continuous flow was met, so both the production and processing plants were supplied with the daily transportation rates in standard conditions, and in accordance with the requirements of the plant operation. (author)

  8. Southern Cone Initiative for the elimination of domestic populations of Triatoma infestans and the interruption of transfusion Chagas disease: historical aspects, present situation, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Pinto Dias

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Created in 1991 by the governments of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, the Southern Cone Initiative (SCI has been extremely important for Chagas disease control in this region. Its basic objective was to reach the interruption of this disease, chiefly by means of the elimination of the principal vector Triatoma infestans and by the selection of safe donors in the regional blood banks. After a summarized historic of SCI, the text shows the advance of technical and operative activities, emphasizing some factors for the initiative success, as well as some difficulties and constraints. The future of SCI will depend of the continuity of the actions and of political priority. Scientific community has been highly responsible for this initiative and its maintenance. At the side of this, national and international efforts must be involved and reinforced to assure the accomplishment of the final targets of SCI. Very specially, the Pan American Health Organization has cooperated with the Initiative in all its moments and activities,being the most important catalytic and technical factor for SCI success.

  9. The Imaramagambo Onchocerciasis Focus in Southwestern Uganda: Interruption of Transmission After Disappearance of the Vector Simulium neavei and Its Associated Freshwater Crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katabarwa, Moses N; Katamanywa, James; Lakwo, Thomson; Habomugisha, Peace; Byamukama, Edson; Oguttu, David; Nahabwe, Christine; Ngabirano, Monica; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Khainza, Annet; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Unnasch, Thomas R; Richards, Frank O; Garms, Rolf

    2016-08-01

    It was not until early 1990s that, when the Imaramagambo focus of southwest Uganda was mapped, mass treatment with a single annual dose of ivermectin for onchocerciaisis control commenced. However, comprehensive investigations on its transmission were launched after a nationwide policy for onchocerciasis elimination in 2007. Entomological surveys throughout the focus from 2007 to 2015 have yielded few or no freshwater crabs (Potamonautes aloysiisabaudiae), which serve as the obligate phoretic host of the larvae and pupae of the vector Simulium neavei No S. neavei flies have been observed or collected since 2007. Skin snips (microscopy) from 294 individuals in 2008 were negative for skin microfilariae, and of the 462 persons analyzed by polymerase chain reaction skin snip poolscreen in 2009, only five (1.08%) persons were indicated as infected with onchocerciasis. All five of the positive persons were at least 40 years old. Serosurvey results showed negative exposure among 3,332 children in 2012 and 3,108 children in 2015. Both were within the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval of the prevalence estimate of 0.06%, which confirmed the elimination of onchocerciasis. Treatment coverage in Imaramagambo was generally poor, and transmission interruption of onchocerciasis could not be attributed solely to annual mass treatment with ivermectin. There was sufficient evidence to believe that the possible disappearance of the S. neavei flies, presumed to have been the main vector, may have hastened the demise of onchocerciasis in this focus.

  10. Resilience of Urban Smart Grids Involving Multiple Control Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent control of energy distribution grids is implemented via a hierarchy of control loops with different input values and different control targets, which also work on different time-scales. This control is enabled by a bi-directional communication flow, which can be interrupted due to ICT...

  11. Generation Changes over the Period of 1986-2006 in the Physical Fitness of Boys Aged 7-19 from Eastern Poland at Particular Stages of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saczuk, Jerzy; Wasiluk, Agnieszka; Zalech, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the size of secular trends in the physical fitness of boys from eastern Poland taking into consideration stages of education. Material and methods: The physical fitness results of boys aged 7-19 years living in eastern regions of Poland were analyzed: 3188 students were examined in 1986 while in 2006 the research included 10…

  12. Estratégias de biossegurança dos trabalhadores da saúde no cuidado às pessoas com HIV/AIDS (1986-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vieira Villarinho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as estratégias de biossegurança utilizadas pelos trabalhadores da saúde de um hospital referência em doença infectocontagiosas, no cuidado às pessoas com HIV/AIDS, no período de 1986 a 2006. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo qualitativo com perspectiva sócio-histórica que utilizou a História Oral para a realização de entrevistas com 23 trabalhadores da saúde. Resultados: Apartir da análise de conteúdo de Bardin emergiram duas categorias: Busca pelo conhecimento sobre a AIDS no início da epidemia; e mudança no processo de trabalho: estratégia de biossegurança à minimização do acidente de trabalho. Conclui-se que foi necessário e correto investir na segurança por meio de ações educativas e preventivas que promoveram transformações culturais, que produziram maior simetria entre os trabalhadores da saúde, sobretudo da enfermagem, e enalteceram o cuidado de si, no cuidado às pessoas, independente do seu diagnóstico soropositivo para o HIV.

  13. Neglect in Human Communication: Quantifying the Cost of Cell-Phone Interruptions in Face to Face Dialogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  14. Persistence of lipoatrophy after a four-year long interruption of antiretroviral therapy for HIV1 infection: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Giuseppe

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected patients on long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy often present peculiar patterns of fat redistribution, referred to as lipodystrophy. In spite of recent investigations, it is not known whether and to what extent the main features of lipodystrophy – that is lipoatrophy of peripheral fat at face, limbs and buttocks, as well as fat accumulation at breasts, abdomen and the dorso-cervical region – can be reversible once clinically manifest. Case presentation A 35 year old Caucasian HIV infected female developed severe diffuse lipodystrophy while on highly active antiretroviral therapy. A remarkable increase of breast size, fat accumulation at waist, and a fat pad on her lumbar spine were paralleled by progressive and disfiguring lipoatrophy of face, limbs and buttocks. The patient decided to interrupt her therapy after 20 months, with a stably suppressed viremia and a CD4 lymphocyte count >500/μL. She could carry on a safe treatment interruption for longer than 4 years. Most sites of fat accumulation switched to nearly normal appearance, whereas lipoatrophy was substantially unchanged at all affected sites. Conclusion our observation provides pictorial evidence that lipoatrophy may not be reversible even under ideal circumstances. Therefore, strategies to prevent lipoatrophy should be considered when defining therapeutic regimens for HIV infected patients, especially those at high risk.

  15. Mechanism of Fast Current Interruption in p -π -n Diodes for Nanosecond Opening Switches in High-Voltage-Pulse Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabani, Y.; Rosenwaks, Y.; Eger, D.

    2015-07-01

    Step-recovery diodes operating in the snappy recovery regime are used as opening switches for generating narrow pulses with high-voltage amplitude. Physical modeling of the switching process is complex due to the large number of parameters involved, including diode structure, the extreme physical conditions, and the effect of external driving conditions. In this work, we address the problem by using a physical device simulator for solving the coupled device and electrical driving circuit equations. This method allows deciphering of the physical processes to take place in the diode during the fast current interruption phase. Herein we analyze the complete hard (snappy) reverse recovery process in short-base devices and determine the fast-transition-phase mechanism. It was found that the fast current interruption phase is constructed of two processes; the main parameters governing the switching time duration and the prepulse magnitude are the diode's reverse current density and its base-doping concentration. We describe the dependence of the switching performance in these parameters.

  16. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them.

  17. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Lopez-Rosenfeld

    Full Text Available There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone. The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . . and about the virtues of the people around them.

  18. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coating During Interrupted High-Heat Flux Laser Testing Using Upconversion Luminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Upconversion luminescence imaging of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been shown to successfully monitor TBC delamination progression during interrupted furnace cycling. However, furnace cycling does not adequately model engine conditions where TBC-coated components are subjected to significant heat fluxes that produce through-thickness temperature gradients that may alter both the rate and path of delamination progression. Therefore, new measurements are presented based on luminescence imaging of TBC-coated specimens subjected to interrupted high-heat-flux laser cycling exposures that much better simulate the thermal gradients present in engine conditions. The TBCs tested were deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and were composed of 7wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) with an integrated delamination sensing layer composed of 7YSZ co-doped with erbium and ytterbium (7YSZ:Er,Yb). The high-heat-flux exposures that produce the desired through-thickness thermal gradients were performed using a high power CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns. Upconversion luminescence images revealed the debond progression produced by the cyclic high-heat-flux exposures and these results were compared to that observed for furnace cycling.

  19. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Homozygous GPR161 Mutation in a Family with Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Ender; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Pehlivan, Davut; Charng, Wu-Lin; Yaykasli, Kursat O.; Bayram, Yavuz; Gambin, Tomasz; Withers, Marjorie; Atik, Mehmed M.; Arslanoglu, Ilknur; Bolu, Semih; Erdin, Serkan; Buyukkaya, Ayla; Yaykasli, Emine; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a rare, congenital anomaly of the pituitary gland characterized by pituitary gland insufficiency, thin or discontinuous pituitary stalk, anterior pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic positioning of the posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis). The clinical presentation of patients with PSIS varies from isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency to combined pituitary insufficiency and accompanying extrapituitary findings. Mutations in HESX1, LHX4, OTX2, SOX3, and PROKR2 have been associated with PSIS in less than 5% of cases; thus, the underlying genetic etiology for the vast majority of cases remains to be determined. Objective: We applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) to a consanguineous family with two affected siblings who have pituitary gland insufficiency and radiographic findings of hypoplastic (thin) pituitary gland, empty sella, ectopic neurohypophysis, and interrupted pitiutary stalk—characteristic clinical diagnostic findings of PSIS. Design and Participants: WES was applied to two affected and one unaffected siblings. Results: WES of two affected and one unaffected sibling revealed a unique homozygous missense mutation in GPR161, which encodes the orphan G protein–coupled receptor 161, a protein responsible for transducing extracellular signals across the plasma membrane into the cell. Conclusion: Mutations of GPR161 may be implicated as a potential novel cause of PSIS. PMID:25322266

  20. Experimental Study of the Airside Performance for Interrupted Fin-and-tube Heat Exchanger with Hydrophilic Coating under Dehumidifying Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-kui; DING Guo-liang; ZHANG Yuan-ming

    2009-01-01

    The airside heat transfer and friction characteristics of seven interrupted fin-and-tube heat exchangers with hydrophilic coating under dehumidifying conditions are experimented. The effects of number of tube rows, fin pitch and inlet relative humidity on airside performance are analyzed. The test results show that the influence of fin pitch on the friction characteristic under dehumidifying conditions is similar to that under dry surface, and the friction factors decrease slightly with the increase of number of tube rows. The heat transfer performance decreases as fin pitch and number of tube rows increases. The heat transfer performance and the friction characteristic are independent of inlet relative humidity. Based on the test results, heat transfer and friction correlations in terms of the Colburn j factor and Fanning f factor, are proposed to describe the airside performance of the interrupted fin geometry with hydrophilic coating under dehumidifying conditions. The correlation of the Colburn j factor gives a mean deviation of 9.7%, while the correlation of the Fanning f factor shows a mean deviation of 7.3%.

  1. 不同时间睡眠干扰所致小鼠的类抑郁样行为%Depression-like behavior induced by 5-15 days sleep interruption in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高江晖; 卜兰兰; 石哲; 孙秀萍; 李腾飞; 王琼; 刘新民; 李朋军; 沈伟哉

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究不同时间睡眠干扰后所致的小鼠类抑郁样行为学表现.方法 使用滚筒睡眠干扰仪对小鼠进行不同时间(5、10、15 d)睡眠干扰后,分别对各组动物进行自主活动测试实验、强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验.结果 干扰5d组与对照组比,自主活动总路程、平均速度、运动总时间减少(P<0.05),干扰10 d组与对照组比,自主活动总路程、平均速度、运动总时间减少(P<0.05).干扰5d后,小鼠强迫游泳、悬尾实验中各指标与对照组比无差异,干扰l0d组小鼠的游泳不动时间[(143.92 +9.48)s]和悬尾不动时间[(127.89 +6.33)s]均较对照组小鼠游泳不动时间[ (128.50 +6.63)s]和悬尾不动时间[(102.64±9.57)s]长(P<o.05),干扰15 d组小鼠的游泳不动时间[(143.08±8.13)s]和悬尾不动时间[(119.10±10.43)s]均较对照组小鼠游泳不动时间[(113.00±7.28)s]和悬尾不动时间[(89.55±9.07)s]长(P<0.05).干扰5d组、10 d组、15d组与对照组比,体重均降低(P<0.05).结论 滚筒法睡眠干扰10、15 d可引起小鼠的类抑郁样行为学表现.%Objective To study the depressive behavioral manifestation of mice after different sleep interruption (Sl)times. Methods Put the mice into rotating drum sleep interferometer for different periods of time (5 , 10, 15days). Then to measure their behavioral activities by locomotor activity test, forced swim test and tail suspension test, separately. Results Compared with the control group, the 5-day sleep interruption group had less total distance of locomotor activity, lower average speed, lower total duration of movement (P <0. 05) ; so was the situation with the 10-day sleep interruption group ( P < 0. 05 ) . For the 5-day sleep interruption group, indicators of the forced swim and tail suspension tests were the same as the control control group. In the 10-day sleep interruption group, the immobility time of forced swim [ ( 143. 92 ± 9. 48) s] and tail suspension time [(127

  2. Impact of a program combining pre-authorization requirement and post-prescription review of carbapenems: an interrupted time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delory, T; De Pontfarcy, A; Emirian, A; About, F; Berdougo, B; Brun-Buisson, C; Lesprit, P

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact on carbapenems use of a program combining pre-authorization requirement and systematic post-prescription review of carbapenems prescriptions. The program was implemented in a 1,230-bed teaching tertiary hospital. Monthly carbapenems consumption was analyzed using a controlled interrupted time-series method and compared to that of vancomycin before and after implementation of the intervention. Compared to the pre-intervention period (14 monthly points), a significant and sustained decrease of carbapenems consumption [1.66 defined daily doses (DDD)/1,000 patient-days; p = 0.048] was observed during the intervention period (12 monthly points), despite an increasing trend in incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) isolates (0.02/1,000 patient-days per month; p = 0.093). As expected, vancomycin consumption was unaffected by the intervention. A total of 337 prescriptions were reviewed in the intervention period; most were microbiologically documented (81.3%; ESBL-PE: 39.2%). Three of four (76.6%) carbapenems prescriptions were modified within a median [interquartile range] of 2 [1; 4] days, either after infectious disease physician (IDP) advice (48.4%) or by ward physicians (28.2%). Most changes included de-escalating (52.2%) or reducing the planned duration (22.2%), which resulted in a median duration of treatment of only 3 [2; 7] days. The median length of stay and mortality rate were not influenced by the intervention. This reasonably practicable antimicrobial stewardship program including controlled delivery and systematic reevaluation of carbapenems prescriptions was able to reduce their use in our hospital, despite a rising ESBL-PE incidence.

  3. Art Interrupting Business, Business interrupting Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    performing online art that raises awareness about hidden aspects of business practices. As digital artists place the spotlight on activities and business strategies that are not part of corporate plans for communicating their “transparency,” they also work to reconfigure and re(de)fine this interface. To set......Tensions between global corporations and digital artists who use business as an artistic and activist medium reveal rough edges in the interface between business and society. This interaction can be seen as a space where the interface between business and society is being challenged, with artists...... of transparency.3 These dimensions allow for a critical examination of transparency and demonstrate some inherent tensions between what is revealed and concealed in communication between business and society. This, in turn, addresses the notion of knowledge that leads to new possibilities for understanding...

  4. Hosed vs. unhosed: interruptions of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in a global coupled model, with and without freshwater forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicolas; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that glacial periods were punctuated by abrupt climate changes, with large impacts on air temperature, precipitation, and ocean circulation across the globe. However, the long-held idea that freshwater forcing, caused by massive iceberg discharges, was the driving force behind these changes has been questioned in recent years. This throws into doubt the abundant literature on modelling abrupt climate change through "hosing" experiments, whereby the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is interrupted by an injection of freshwater to the North Atlantic: if some, or all, abrupt climate change was not driven by freshwater input, could its character have been very different than the typical hosed experiments? Here, we describe spontaneous, unhosed oscillations in AMOC strength that occur in a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model when integrated under a particular background climate state. We compare these unhosed oscillations to hosed oscillations under a range of background climate states in order to examine how the global imprint of AMOC variations depends on whether or not they result from external freshwater input. Our comparison includes surface air temperature, precipitation, dissolved oxygen concentrations in the intermediate-depth ocean, and marine export production. The results show that the background climate state has a significant impact on the character of the freshwater-forced AMOC interruptions in this model, with particularly marked variations in tropical precipitation and in the North Pacific circulation. Despite these differences, the first-order patterns of response to AMOC interruptions are quite consistent among all simulations, implying that the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere dynamics associated with an AMOC weakening dominate the global response, regardless of whether or not freshwater input is the cause. Nonetheless, freshwater addition leads to a more complete shutdown of the AMOC than occurs in the unhosed oscillations

  5. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after nuclear medicine examinations. Biokinetic and dosimetric data and recommendations on breastfeeding interruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Ahlgren, Lars; Mattsson, Soeren [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Skaane University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Johansson, Lennart [Umeaa University, Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    To review early recommendations and propose guidelines for breastfeeding interruption after administration of radiopharmaceuticals, based on additional biokinetic and dosimetric data. Activity concentrations in breast milk from 53 breastfeeding patients were determined. The milk was collected at various times after administration of 16 different radiopharmaceuticals. The fraction of the activity administered to the mother excreted in the breast milk, the absorbed doses to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to the infant were estimated. The fraction of the administered activity excreted per millilitre of milk varied widely from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -3} MBq/MBq administered. For {sup 99m}Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, the total fraction of the administered activity excreted in the milk varied from 0.0057 % for {sup 99m}Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) to 19 % for {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate. The effective dose to an infant per unit activity administered to the mother ranged from 6.7 x 10{sup -6} mSv/MBq for {sup 99m}Tc-labelled RBC to 3.6 x 10{sup -2} mSv/MBq for {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate. For the other radiopharmaceuticals, the total fraction of administered activity excreted in the milk varied from 0.018 % ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) to 48 % ({sup 131}I-NaI). The effective dose ranged from 5.6 x 10{sup -5} mSv{sub infant}/MBq{sub mother} ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) to 106 mSv{sub infant}/MBq{sub mother} ({sup 131}I-NaI). Based on an effective dose limit of 1 mSv to the infant and a typical administered activity, we recommend cessation of breastfeeding for {sup 131}I-NaI and interruption of feeding for 12 h for {sup 125}I-iodohippurate, {sup 131}I-iodohippurate, {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. During this 12-h period all breast milk should be expressed at least three times and discarded. For the other radiopharmaceuticals included in this study, no interruption of breastfeeding is necessary. (orig.)

  6. Distribution of natural gas: introduction of the interruptible segment in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Distribuicao de gas natural canalizado: introducao do segmento interruptivel em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio Paiva de [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The principal objective of this paper is the better knowledge and evaluation of the natural gas distribution network interruptible branch. This new service can be appropriate for thermal power generation on flexible dispatch mode, as 'take or pay' contracts surplus jobs. The paper indicates no regulatory restraints in an interruptible network implantation and one can guess that the inexistence of contracts for this service resembles only lack of conjunctural opportunities for this job applications. These difficulties appear both in the supply and distribution branches of the gas business, which prefer flat contracts. The final conclusion is interruptible contracts can be an improvement on the distribution business and certainly can accommodate a suitable demand and supply volumes in the long-term gas market balance. (author)

  7. Design of Interruptible Eleetdeity Pricing Mechanism in Power Market%电力市场中可中断电价机制设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成仁

    2012-01-01

    In view of the fact that implementation of any demand side management requires formulation of a reasonable price mechanism, this study looks into the interruptible electricity pricing in China in the current context of power shortage, and based on the experiences of the existing interruptible electricity system both at home and abroad, it proposes renovations on the interruptible electricity price mechanism under the current power economic situation. The paper specifies the definition of interruptible electricity price and designs a reasonable method for calculating price preferences, either by discount estimation or by reasonable price compensation, to further improve the design of the interruptible electricity price mechanism. Through a case study of the current status of Shanghai, the paper provides theoretical support for the implementation program of the interruptible electricity price in Shanghai in future.%推行需求例管理需落实到制定合理的电价机制。研究了目前国内电力紧缺形势下的可中断电价,借鉴国内外已有的可中断电价体系,对目前电力经济形势下的可中断电价机制进行创新。规范了可中断电价含义,通过推算折扣或合理补偿电价2种计价方式,设计合理的电价优惠计算方法,从而进一步完善可中断电价机制的设计。通过对上海市可中断电价进行案例分析,为上海市未来可中断电价实施提供理论支撑。

  8. Influence of electrode surface microstructures on the state of short vacuum gaps after interruption of high-frequency currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayesh, Kaveh

    2000-09-01

    In this paper the influences of electrode surface microstructures on the electrical field near the new cathode surface and on the distribution of ion density and velocity in the space-charge region after interruption of high-frequency currents in short vacuum gaps have been studied. To investigate these effects, the equations of conservation of mass and momentum are solved two dimensionally in the space-charge region. The results indicate a considerable increase in ion density at the points with high electrical fields, which results in an enhancement of the electrical field at these points compared with one-dimensional calculations. Considering the calculated electrical field near the cathode surface and the power density deposited into the cathode surface by ions, the initiation of a breakdown during the post arc period under the mechanism of explosive electron emission may be possible.

  9. Battery management: Enhanced availability of interruption-free power supply systems; Batteriemanagement: Erhoehung der Zuverlaessigkeit von USV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Lohner, A. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Stromrichtertechnik und Elektrische Antriebe (ISEA); Mauracher, P. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Stromrichtertechnik und Elektrische Antriebe (ISEA)

    1996-08-01

    Longer battery life and higher reliability is one of the main challengers for new generations of interruption-free power supply systems. Bthe battery management system is a step in the right direction: Instead of estimates of model parameters, it uses accurate measurements of the battery charge state. This requires a high-precision, low-cost measuring technology. The results are longer battery life, higher availability, and lower maintenance cost. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Steigerung der Batterielebensdauer und -zuverlaessigkeit ist eine der wichtigsten Herausforderungen fuer neue USV-Generationen. Mit dem Batterie-Management-System (BMS) wird die reine Beobachtung von der aktiven Beeinflussung des Batteriezustands abgeloest. Die exakte Messung des Batteriezustands ersetzt das Schaetzen von Modellparametern. Voraussetzung ist eine sowohl hochpraezise als auch preisguenstige Messtechnik. Das Ergebnis ist eine deutlich gesteigerte Batterielebensdauer, eine hoehere Verfuegbarkeit sowie geringere Wartungskosten. (orig.)

  10. Functional expression of SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) protects retinal dopaminergic cells from neurotoxin-induced degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingling; Li, Ping; Carr, Aprell; Wang, Xiaokai; DeLaPaz, April; Sun, Lei; Lee, Eric; Tomei, Erika; Li, Lei

    2013-01-11

    We previously isolated a dominant mutation, night blindness b (nbb), which causes a late onset of retinal dopaminergic cell degeneration in zebrafish. In this study, we cloned the zebrafish nbb locus. Sequencing results revealed that nbb is a homolog of the vertebrate SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil). The Stil gene has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of vertebrate embryonic neural development and human cancer cell proliferation. In this study, we demonstrate that functional expression of Stil is also required for neural survival. In zebrafish, decreased expression of Stil resulted in increased toxic susceptibility of retinal dopaminergic cells to 6-hydroxydopamine. Increases in Stil-mediated Shh signaling transduction (i.e. by knocking down the Shh repressor Sufu) prevented dopaminergic cell death induced by neurotoxic insult. The data suggest that the oncogene Stil also plays important roles in neural protection.

  11. Temporal and spectral evolution of an interrupted virtual single-photon transition: creation of optical gain and loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rost Jan-Michael

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the optical response of a virtual dipole transition of a quantum mechanical two-level system (TLS. In the case of off-resonant excitation the time-integrated dipole response (TIDR is expected to be zero, which corresponds to transparency of the system with respect to the exciting pulse. Our new time-frequency representation reveals that even for a zero TIDR there are positive and negative contributions included in the response. Furthermore, we present a way to access these contributions by using a second electromagnetic field, which interrupts the temporal evolution of the dipole response. The theoretical results are confirmed by attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in helium (He.

  12. Use of Interrupted Helium Flow in the Analysis of Vapor Samples with Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Andrew P.; Zeiri, Offer M.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2017-02-01

    The flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source was used for the mass-spectrometric analysis of vapor samples introduced between the source and mass spectrometer inlet. Through interrupted operation of the plasma-supporting helium flow, helium consumption is greatly reduced and dynamic gas behavior occurs that was characterized by schlieren imaging. Moreover, mass spectra acquired immediately after the onset of helium flow exhibit a signal spike before declining and ultimately reaching a steady level. This initial signal appears to be due to greater interaction of sample vapor with the afterglow of the source when helium flow resumes. In part, the initial spike in signal can be attributed to a pooling of analyte vapor in the absence of helium flow from the source. Time-resolved schlieren imaging of the helium flow during on and off cycles provided insight into gas-flow patterns between the FAPA source and the MS inlet that were correlated with mass-spectral data.

  13. Just-in-time preemptive single machine problem with costs of earliness/tardiness, interruption and work-in-process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazemi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers preemption and idle time are allowed in a single machine scheduling problem with just-in-time (JIT approach. It incorporates Earliness/Tardiness (E/T penalties, interruption penalties and holding cost of jobs which are waiting to be processed as work-in-process (WIP. Generally in non-preemptive problems, E/T penalties are a function of the completion time of the jobs. Then, we introduce a non-linear preemptive scheduling model where the earliness penalty depends on the starting time of a job. The model is liberalized by an elaborately–designed procedure to reach the optimum solution. To validate and verify the performance of proposed model, computational results are presented by solving a number of numerical examples.

  14. Transcription of the SCL/TAL1 interrupting Locus (Stil) is required for cell proliferation in adult Zebrafish Retinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Li, Ping; Carr, Aprell L; Gorsuch, Ryne; Yarka, Clare; Li, Jingling; Bartlett, Michael; Pfister, Delaney; Hyde, David R; Li, Lei

    2014-03-07

    The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) is highly conserved in vertebrate species. Previously, we identified a homolog of the Stil gene in zebrafish mutant (night blindness b, nbb), which showed neural defects in the retina (e.g. dopaminergic cell degeneration and/or lack of regeneration). In this research, we examined the roles of Stil in cell proliferation after degeneration in adult zebrafish retinas. We demonstrated that knockdown of Stil gene expression or inhibition of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling transduction decreases the rate of cell proliferation. In contrast, activation of Shh signal transduction promotes cell proliferation. In nbb(+/-) retinas, inhibition of SUFU (a repressor in the Shh pathway) rescues the defects in cell proliferation due to down-regulation of Stil gene expression. The latter data suggest that Stil play a role in cell proliferation through the Shh signal transduction pathway.

  15. Transcription of the SCL/TAL1 Interrupting Locus (Stil) Is Required for Cell Proliferation in Adult Zebrafish Retinas*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Li, Ping; Carr, Aprell L.; Gorsuch, Ryne; Yarka, Clare; Li, Jingling; Bartlett, Michael; Pfister, Delaney; Hyde, David R.; Li, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) is highly conserved in vertebrate species. Previously, we identified a homolog of the Stil gene in zebrafish mutant (night blindness b, nbb), which showed neural defects in the retina (e.g. dopaminergic cell degeneration and/or lack of regeneration). In this research, we examined the roles of Stil in cell proliferation after degeneration in adult zebrafish retinas. We demonstrated that knockdown of Stil gene expression or inhibition of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling transduction decreases the rate of cell proliferation. In contrast, activation of Shh signal transduction promotes cell proliferation. In nbb+/− retinas, inhibition of SUFU (a repressor in the Shh pathway) rescues the defects in cell proliferation due to down-regulation of Stil gene expression. The latter data suggest that Stil play a role in cell proliferation through the Shh signal transduction pathway. PMID:24469449

  16. 4-D MRI flow analysis in the course of interrupted aortic arch reveals complex morphology and quantifies amount of collateral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirtler, Daniel [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease, Freiburg (Germany); Geiger, Julia; Jung, Bernd [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Arnold, Raoul [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    We present findings in a 17-year-old with interrupted aortic arch, in whom standard imaging techniques missed functional and morphological problems. Flow-sensitive four-dimensional magnetic resonance (4-D MR) enabled assessment of the complex anatomy and blood-flow characteristics in the entire aorta and direct quantification of blood flow in collateral vessels. Our findings highlight the entire morphological and functional problem of interrupted aortic arch and illustrate the potential of flow-sensitive 4-D MR for surgical planning in congenital heart disease. (orig.)

  17. Linux0.01键盘中断的C语言实现%Implementation of Linux 0. 01 Keyboard Interrupt Functions in C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于江涛; 曲波

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the main techniques of adapting keyboard interrupt functions of Linux O. O1 in C, including programming methods and key codes of ASCII map tables, routines calling table, keyboard manipulating routines, keyboard interrupt handler, etc.%文章阐述了用C语言改写Linux0.01键盘模块的技术要点,包括ASCⅡ码映射表、键盘处理子程序跳转表、键盘处理程序、键盘中断程序的编程方法及关键代码.

  18. Responses of plant growth rate to nitrogen supply: a comparison of relative addition and N interruption treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R L; Burns, I G; Moorby, J

    2001-02-01

    This paper investigates the effects of uptake of nitrate and the availability of internal N reserves on growth rate in times of restricted supply, and examines the extent to which the response is mediated by the different pools of N (nitrate N, organic N and total N) in the plant. Hydroponic experiments were carried out with young lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) to compare responses to either an interruption in external N supply or the imposition of different relative N addition rate (RAR) treatments. The resulting relationships between whole plant relative growth rate (RGR) and N concentration varied between linear and curvilinear (or possibly bi-linear) forms depending on the treatment conditions. The relationship was curvilinear when the external N supply was interrupted, but linear when N was supplied by either RAR methods or as a supra-optimal external N supply. These differences resulted from the ability of the plant to use external sources of N more readily than their internal N reserves. These results show that when sub-optimal sources of external N were available, RGR was maintained at a rate which was dependent on the rate of nitrate uptake by the roots. Newly acquired N was channelled directly to the sites of highest demand, where it was assimilated rapidly. As a result, nitrate only tended to accumulate in plant tissues when its supply was essentially adequate. By comparison, plants forced to rely solely on their internal reserves were never able to mobilize and redistribute N between tissues quickly enough to prevent reductions in growth rate as their tissue N reserves declined. Evidence is presented to show that the rate of remobilization of N depends on the size and type of the N pools within the plant, and that changes in their rates of remobilization and/or transfer between pools are the main factors influencing the form of the relationship between RGR and N concentration.

  19. Peroxiredoxin-6 Negatively Regulates Bactericidal Activity and NF-κB Activity by Interrupting TRAF6-ECSIT Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yoon; Wi, Sae M.; Shin, Dongwoo; Chun, Eunyoung; Lee, Ki-Young

    2017-01-01

    A TRAF6-ECSIT complex is crucial for the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation induced by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Peroxiredoxin-6 (Prdx6) as a member of the peroxiredoxin family of antioxidant enzymes is involved in antioxidant protection and cell signaling. Here, we report on a regulatory role of Prdx6 in mROS production and NF-κB activation by TLR4. Prdx6 was translocated into the mitochondria by TLR4 stimulation and Prdx6-knockdown (Prdx6KD) THP-1 cells had increased level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels and were resistant to Salmonella typhimurium infection. Biochemical studies revealed Prdx6 interaction with the C-terminal TRAF-C domain of TRAF6, which drove translocation into the mitochondria. Interestingly, Prdx6 competitively interacted with ECSIT to TRAF6 through its C-terminal TRAF-C domain, leading to the interruption of TRAF6-ECSIT interaction. The inhibitory effect was critically implicated in the activation of NF-κB induced by TLR4. Overexpression of Prdx6 led to the inhibition of NF-κB induced by TLR4, whereas Prdx6KD THP-1 cells displayed enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 and -1β, and the up-regulation of NF-κB-dependent genes induced by TLR4 stimulation. Taken together, the data demonstrate that Prdx6 interrupts the formation of TRAF6-ECSIT complex induced by TLR4 stimulation, leading to suppression of bactericidal activity because of inhibited mROS production in mitochondria and the inhibition of NF-κB activation in the cytoplasm.

  20. Assessment of airway function in young children with asthma: comparison of spirometry, interrupter technique, and tidal flow by inductance plethsmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J; Baxter-Jones, A D G; Gordon, J; Findlay, A L; Helms, P J

    2004-06-01

    The assessment of airway function in young children requires adaptation of techniques designed for adults and/or application of techniques that do not require complex respiratory maneuvers. We sought to assess two methods of measuring airway function: time to peak expiratory flows as a ratio of expiratory time (T(PTEF)/T(E)), derived from respiratory inductance plethysmography, and total respiratory resistance by the interrupter technique (Rint), both obtained during quiet tidal breathing. Both techniques were referenced to FEV1 and flow at 50% expired volume (FEF50) from conventional spirometry in 30 children aged 4-8 years (median age, 6.9; range, 4.5-8.5 years) with a physician diagnosis of asthma and who were able to perform FEV1 with a repeatability of at least 8%. T(PTEF)/T(E) and Rint were performed in random order followed by spirometry, in order to reduce the possible effects of pulmonary stretch on tidal breathing measures. Coefficients of variation (CV) and mean absolute change/baseline standard deviation were derived for each measurement. Baseline FEV1 did not correlate significantly with T(PTEF)/T(E) (r = 0.025), but did correlate with Rint (r = 0.737, P inductance plethysmography does not detect mild airway obstruction or modest changes in airway caliber following bronchodilator in young children with asthma. The interrupter technique may have a role in assessing baseline airway function and response to therapy in children unable to perform reliable spirometry, and/or when the investigator wishes to avoid the possible influence of forced maneuvers on airway tone.

  1. Internet-based remote counseling to support stress management: preventing interruptions to regular exercise in elderly people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Sayuri; Munakata, Tsunestugu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Okunaka, Jyunzo; Koga, Tatsuzo

    2006-01-01

    Our research showed that a high degree of life-stress has a negative mental health effect that may interrupt regular exercise. We used an internet based, remotely conducted, face to face, preventive counseling program using video monitors to reduce the source of life-stresses that interrupts regular exercise and evaluated the preventative effects of the program in elderly people. NTSC Video signals were converted to the IP protocol and facial images were transmitted to a PC display using the exclusive optical network lines of JGN2. Participants were 22 elderly people in Hokkaido, Japan, who regularly played table tennis. A survey was conducted before the intervention in August 2003. IT remote counseling was conducted on two occasions for one hour on each occasion. A post intervention survey was conducted in February 2004 and a follow-up survey was conducted in March 2005. Network quality was satisfactory with little data loss and high display quality. Results indicated that self-esteem increased significantly, trait anxiety decreased significantly, cognition of emotional support by people other than family members had a tendency to increase, and source of stress had a tendency to decrease after the intervention. Follow-up results indicated that cognition of emotional support by family increased significantly, and interpersonal dependency decreased significantly compared to before the intervention. These results suggest that face to face IT remote counseling using video monitors is useful to keep elderly people from feeling anxious and to make them confident to continue exercising regularly. Moreover, it has a stress management effect.

  2. LONG TERM OUTCOME AFTER OPEN INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR BY CONTINOUS SUTURE VERSUS INTERRUPTED SUTURE TO FIX THE MESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Raj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : BACK GROUND: Meshplasty is a must in adult patient. P ro lene mesh is widely used and is fixed with prolene suture as well. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of life and pain felt in postoperative phase for 2 years after open inguinal hernia repair by i nterrupted sutures versus continous sutures. METHODS: From Jan 2010 – Dec 2010 , 15 patients were operated using prolene mesh and this mesh was fixed with prolene 2’0’ in continous way starting at pubic tubercle and continues along inguinal ligament beyond deep inguinal r ing and then lateral to deep inguinal ring and above it along conjoint tendon and ends at the pubic tubercle with only single knot , and were compared with 15 patients who underwent same procedure using prolene mesh fixed with p rolene suture but in interrupted way and this creates a lot of knots ( 10 - 12 Av erage . Patients were examined and followed in OPD for 2 years. RESULTS : In the long run the patients treated with continous suture were having comparatively better qua lity of life with less pain and less foreign body sensation of mesh and knots & knots were not felt percutaneously, where as in routine procedure patients were complaining of painful sensation due to pressing of knots in subcutaneous space. CONCLUSION : In this study the quality of life in open hernia repair with prolene suture using continous suture technique versus interrupted suture technique is definitely better , less pain ful and feeling less foreign body sensation.

  3. Virtual single-photon transition interrupted: time-gated optical gain and loss

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Jens; Locher, Reto; Sabbar, Mazyar; Rivière, Paula; Saalmann, Ulf; Rost, Jan-Michael; Gallmann, Lukas; Keller, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    The optical response of a virtual dipole transition triggered by an ultra-short light pulse intrinsically consists of both absorption and emission in time and frequency. So far, this fundamental feature has been hidden by the time-integrated detection. However, as we will demonstrate, the time-dependence during a virtual single-photon transition can be mapped out and controlled by a second electromagnetic field. The resulting time-gated optical signal shows previously unexpected radiation gain and loss at different delays of the control pulse. The model presented here can be applied to any system that assumes a two-level character through near-resonant optical dipole excitation, whether they are of atomic, molecular or even solid-state nature. We validate the theoretical model by an attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy experiment in helium. Our model and the experimental data display excellent qualitative agreement.

  4. Use of micro interrupts to provide an instrument oriented input/output structure

    CERN Document Server

    Zaky, S G

    1981-01-01

    Describes the design of a bit-slice based computer, which has been developed for use in data acquisition and control applications. The main design goals have been to provide fast response to external events, and sufficient processing capability to perform data reduction in real time. The initial application of this computer has been in airborne, geophysical surveying, where such instruments as gamma-ray spectrometers, magnetometers and navigation equipment are involved. To meet these response requirements, a microinterrupt has been incorporated. Microinterrupts are serviced in microcode routines, which can be initiated within a maximum of two microinstruction cycle times from an external event. This facility makes it possible to implement powerful input/output control functions without complex and specialized hardware interfaces for each instrument. (2 refs).

  5. Motion-Induced Interruptions and Postural Equilibrium in Linear Lateral Accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    of MIIs have extended the Carderock research by addressing the dynamics of human balance and postulating a multiple inverted pendulum model for the...pitch motion, but this finding is less evident in the sway + pitch motion condition. The trend, however, seems to be reversed when sway is combined...postural control and body mass index. Journal of Biomechanics, 45(9), 1638–1642. Langlois, R. G. (2010). Development of a spatial inverted pendulum

  6. When, how, and where can oral cholera vaccines be used to interrupt cholera outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, John; Holmgren, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Cholera continues to be a major global health problem, at times causing major and prolonged outbreaks in both endemic and nonendemic settings in developing countries. While improved water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) will provide the ultimate solution to prevention of this disease burden, this is a far-off goal for most developing countries. Oral cholera vaccines cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been demonstrated to be effective in the control of cholera outbreaks, and constitute useful tools to be used in conjunction with efforts to improve WASH. Two killed OCVs are prequalified by WHO for purchase by UN agencies for international use. Recently, WHO has launched a global stockpile stockpile of killed OCVs for use to control outbreaks. Rational deployment of OCV from this stockpile will require consideration of costs, feasibility, disease epidemiology epidemiology , and the protective characteristics of the vaccine deployed, as well as effective and rapid coordination of processes and logistics logistics used to make decisions on deployment and delivery of the vaccine to the population in need. Despite not having data on all the questions of relevance as to how to use OCVs to control cholera outbreaks in different settings, there is clearly more than enough evidence to initiate their use, as answers to remaining questions and refinement of policies will mainly come with experience.

  7. RNAi of selected candidate genes interrupts growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikate, Yojana R; Dawkar, Vishal V; Barbole, Ranjit S; Tilak, Priyadarshini V; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-10-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major crop pests and is less amenable to current pest control approaches. RNA interference (RNAi) is emerging as a potent arsenal for the insect pest control over current methods. Here, we examined the effect on growth and development in H. armigera by targeting various enzymes/proteins such as proteases like trypsins (HaTry2, 3, 4 and 6), chymotrypsin (HaChy4) and cysteine protease like cathepsin (HaCATHL); glutathione S-transferases (HaGST1a, 6 and 8); esterases (HaAce4, HaJHE); catalase (HaCAT); super-oxide-dismutase (HaCu/ZnSOD); fatty acid binding protein (HaFabp) and chitin deacetylase (HaCda5b) through dsRNA approach. Significant downregulation of cognate mRNA expression and reduced activity of trypsin and GST-like enzyme were evident upon feeding candidate dsRNAs to the larvae. Among these, the highest mortality was observed in HaAce4 dsRNA fed larvae followed by HaJHE; HaCAT; HaCuZnSOD; HaFabp and HaTry3 whereas remaining ones showed relatively lower mortality. Furthermore, the dsRNA fed larvae showed significant reduction in the larval mass and abnormalities at the different stages of H. armigera development compared to their control diets. For example, malformed larvae, pupae and moth at a dose of 60μg/day were evident in high number of individual insects fed on dsRNA containing diets. Moreover, the growth and development of insects and moths were retarded in dsRNA fed larvae. These findings might provide potential new candidates for designing effective dsRNA as pesticide in crop protection.

  8. Bronchial histamine challenge in the diagnosis of asthma. The predictive value of changes in airway resistance determined by the interrupter method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, F; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Frølund, L

    1986-01-01

    to variation in peak expiratory flow rate and medical history. Response to challenge was determined by the interrupter method, and the concentration of histamine inducing a 40% increase in resistance to breathing (PC40-Rt) was calculated from the log dose response curve. When defining a positive test as a test...

  9. [The comparative characteristics of the bone marrow cellular composition in rats after the prolonged continuous or interrupted action of a low geomagnetic field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarenko, V V; Smirnov, R V

    1992-01-01

    Bone marrow cell composition in male Wistar rats exposed to long-term continuous (Run 1) or interrupted (Run 2) hypo-geomagnetic field (HGMF) with an attenuation coefficient of 172.5 generating in a permalloic chamber has been studied. When comparing the rat myelograms of the two test runs, a significant increase of lymphoid cell content, less pronounced during an interrupted exposure to HGMF by 10.1 and 6.5%, respectively, was noted. Analysis of myeloid cell response indicated that on a continuous exposure to HGMF the percentage of neutrophilic promyelocytes and myelocytes is somewhat declined. The levels of mature relating to stab and nuclear-segmental neutrophils in bone marrow during both modes of HGMF exposures practically remained unchanged. A certain decrease in cell fractions of erythroblastic shoot (chiefly at the cost of polychromatophilic normocytes), to a lesser extent manifested during an interrupted exposure to HGMF (by 5.8 and 2.4%, respectively) was noted. Long-term exposure of the animals to a weak terrestrial magnetic field causes a particular eosinophilia of bone marrow due to an increased fraction of mature eosinophils approximately similar on both HGMF profiles (by 2.1 and 2.0% respectively). On an interrupted HGMF exposure there was a significant myelogram elevation of the mast cell counts by 1.4%.

  10. 47 CFR 64.1507 - Prohibition on disconnection or interruption of service for failure to remit pay-per-call and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... service for failure to remit pay-per-call and similar service charges. 64.1507 Section 64.1507... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1507 Prohibition on disconnection or interruption of service for failure to remit pay-per-call and similar...

  11. Community mapping of sex work criminalization and violence: impacts on HIV treatment interruptions among marginalized women living with HIV in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Deering, Kathleen; Amram, Ofer; Guillemi, Silvia; Nguyen, Paul; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high HIV burden faced by sex workers, data on access and retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited. Using an innovative spatial epidemiological approach, we explored how the social geography of sex work criminalization and violence impacts HIV treatment interruptions among sex workers living with HIV in Vancouver over a 3.5-year period. Drawing upon data from a community-based cohort (AESHA, 2010-2013) and linked external administrative data on ART dispensation, GIS mapping and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to prospectively examine the effects of spatial criminalization and violence near women's places of residence on 2-day ART interruptions. Analyses were restricted to 66 ART-exposed women who contributed 208 observations and 83 ART interruption events. In adjusted multivariable models, heightened density of displacement due to policing independently correlated with HIV treatment interruptions (AOR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00-1.04); density of legal restrictions (AOR: 1.30, 95%CI: 0.97-1.76) and a combined measure of criminalization/violence (AOR: 1.00, 95%CI: 1.00-1.01) were marginally correlated. The social geography of sex work criminalization may undermine access to essential medicines, including HIV treatment. Interventions to promote 'enabling environments' (e.g. peer-led models, safer living/working spaces) should be explored, alongside policy reforms to ensure uninterrupted treatment access.

  12. Randomized trial of time-limited interruptions of protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy (ART vs. continuous therapy for HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Firnhaber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes of short interruptions of PI-based ART regimens remains undefined. METHODS: A 2-arm non-inferiority trial was conducted on 53 HIV-1 infected South African participants with viral load 450 cells/µl on stavudine (or zidovudine, lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir. Subjects were randomized to a sequential 2, 4 and 8-week ART interruptions or b continuous ART (cART. Primary analysis was based on the proportion of CD4 count >350 cells(c/ml over 72 weeks. Adherence, HIV-1 drug resistance, and CD4 count rise over time were analyzed as secondary endpoints. RESULTS: The proportions of CD4 counts >350 cells/µl were 82.12% for the intermittent arm and 93.73 for the cART arm; the difference of 11.95% was above the defined 10% threshold for non-inferiority (upper limit of 97.5% CI, 24.1%; 2-sided CI: -0.16, 23.1. No clinically significant differences in opportunistic infections, adverse events, adherence or viral resistance were noted; after randomization, long-term CD4 rise was observed only in the cART arm. CONCLUSION: We are unable to conclude that short PI-based ART interruptions are non-inferior to cART in retention of immune reconstitution; however, short interruptions did not lead to a greater rate of resistance mutations or adverse events than cART suggesting that this regimen may be more forgiving than NNRTIs if interruptions in therapy occur. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00100646.

  13. Influence of apheresis container size on the maintenance of platelet in vitro storage properties after a 30-h interruption of agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stephen J; Skripchenko, Andrey; Seetharaman, Shalini; Myrup, Andrew; Kurtz, James; Thomas-Montgomery, Dedeene; Awatefe, Helen; Moroff, Gary

    2010-08-01

    We have previously conducted studies investigating maintenance of apheresis platelet in vitro quality measures during storage under simulated shipping conditions in which agitation was interrupted. This study examines the effect of increasing bag surface area on the preservation of in vitro platelet properties during storage with continuous agitation and with a 30 h interruption of agitation. Apheresis platelets were collected in 100% plasma with the Amicus separator to provide two identical platelet products, each with approximately 4-5 x 10(11) platelets. After collection, the volume was divided equally between 1.0 and 1.3 L PL2410 containers. In an initial study, both products were continuously agitated. In a second study, both products were subjected to a single 30-h period of interrupted agitation between Days 2 and 3 of storage by placement in a standard shipping box at room temperature. In each study, units were assayed during storage for standard in vitro platelet quality measures. Platelets stored in the 1.3 L container maintained slightly greater mean pH during 7 day storage with either continuous agitation (n=6) or with a 30-h interruption of agitation (n=12) than those of similarly treated identical platelets stored in the 1.0 L container. Most noteworthy, in experiments with products stored in the 1.0 L container in which there was a large decrease in pH to levels container was substantially greater (0.17+/-06 and 0.37+/-0.09 pH units greater, n=4, respectively). Other measures showed either small differences or comparability of platelet in vitro parameters with storage in the two containers after an interruption of agitation.

  14. Malaria transmission blocking immunity and sexual stage vaccines for interrupting malaria transmission in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Arévalo-Herrera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a vector-borne disease that is considered to be one of the most serious public health problems due to its high global mortality and morbidity rates. Although multiple strategies for controlling malaria have been used, many have had limited impact due to the appearance and rapid dissemination of mosquito resistance to insecticides, parasite resistance to multiple antimalarial drug, and the lack of sustainability. Individuals in endemic areas that have been permanently exposed to the parasite develop specific immune responses capable of diminishing parasite burden and the clinical manifestations of the disease, including blocking of parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. This is referred to as transmission blocking (TB immunity (TBI and is mediated by specific antibodies and other factors ingested during the blood meal that inhibit parasite development in the mosquito. These antibodies recognize proteins expressed on either gametocytes or parasite stages that develop in the mosquito midgut and are considered to be potential malaria vaccine candidates. Although these candidates, collectively called TB vaccines (TBV, would not directly stop malaria from infecting individuals, but would stop transmission from infected person to non-infected person. Here, we review the progress that has been achieved in TBI studies and the development of TBV and we highlight their potential usefulness in areas of low endemicity such as Latin America.

  15. Interrupting the natural history of diabetes mellitus: lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical strategies targeting disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavandi, Kaivan; Brownrigg, Jack; Hankir, Mohammed; Sood, Harpreet; Younis, Naveed; Worth, Joy; Greenstein, Adam; Soran, Handrean; Wierzbicki, Anthony; Goldsmith, David J

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades we have seen a surge in the incidence of diabetes in industrialized nations; a threat which has now extended to the developing world. Type 2 diabetes is associated with significant microvascular and macrovascular disease, with considerable impact on morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence has cast uncertainty on the benefits of very tight glycaemic goals in these individuals. The natural history of disease follows an insidious course from disordered glucose metabolism in a pre-diabetic state, often with metabolic syndrome and obesity, before proceeding to diabetes mellitus. In the research setting, lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical intervention targeted against obesity and glycaemia has shown that metabolic disturbances can be halted and indeed regressed if introduced at an early stage of disease. In addition to traditional anti-diabetic medications such as the glinides, sulphonylureas and the glitazones, novel therapies manipulating the endocannabinoid system, neurotransmitters, intestinal absorption and gut hormones have shown dual benefit in weight loss and glycaemic control normalisation. Whilst these treatments will not and should not replace lifestyle change, they will act as invaluable adjuncts for weight loss and aid in normalising the metabolic profile of individuals at risk of diabetes. Utilizing novel therapies to prevent diabetes should be the focus of future research, with the aim of preventing the challenging microvascular and macrovascular complications, and ultimately cardiovascular death.

  16. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption amongst patients on antiretroviral therapy – A qualitative study at the Lighthouse Clinic, Lilongwe, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tabatabai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings moved impressively towards universal access. Along with these achievements, public health HIV programs are facing a number of challenges including the support of patients on lifelong therapy and the prevention of temporary/permanent loss of patients in care. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption (TI can inform strategies for improving drug adherence and retention in care. Objective: To evaluate key characteristics of patients resuming ART after TI at the Lighthouse Clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, and to identify their reasons for interrupting ART. Design: This study uses a mixed methods design to evaluate patients resuming ART after TI. We analysed an assessment form for patients with TI using pre-defined categories and a comments field to identify frequently stated reasons for TI. Additionally, we conducted 26 in-depth interviews to deepen our understanding of common reasons for TI. In-depth interviews also included the patients’ knowledge about ART and presence of social support systems. Qualitative data analysis was based on a thematic framework approach. Results: A total of 347 patients (58.2% female, average age 35.1±11.3 years with TI were identified. Despite the presence of social support and sufficient knowledge of possible consequences of TI, all patients experienced situations that resulted in TI. Analysis of in-depth interviews led to new and distinct categories for TI. The most common reason for TI was travel (54.5%, n=80/147, which further differentiated into work- or family-related travel. Patients also stated transport costs and health-care-provider-related reasons, which included perceived/enacted discrimination by health care workers. Other drivers of TI were treatment fatigue/forgetfulness, the patients’ health status, adverse drug effects, pregnancy/delivery, religious belief or perceived/enacted stigma. Conclusions

  17. Interruption of Wnt signaling in Muller cells ameliorates ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelu Kevin Zhou

    Full Text Available Retinal Müller cells are major producers of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines which contribute to diabetic retinopathy (DR. Over-activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been shown to play an important pathogenic role in DR. However, the roles of Müller cell-derived Wnt/β-catenin signaling in retinal neovascularization (NV and DR remain undefined. In the present study, mice with conditional β-catenin knockout (KO in Müller cells were generated and subjected to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR and streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. Wnt signaling was evaluated by measuring levels of β-catenin and expression of its target genes using immunoblotting. Retinal vascular permeability was measured using Evans blue as a tracer. Retinal NV was visualized by angiography and quantified by counting pre-retinal nuclei. Retinal pericyte loss was evaluated using retinal trypsin digestion. Electroretinography was performed to examine visual function. No abnormalities were detected in the β-catenin KO mice under normal conditions. In OIR, retinal levels of β-catenin and VEGF were significantly lower in the β-catenin KO mice than in littermate controls. The KO mice also had decreased retinal NV and vascular leakage in the OIR model. In the STZ-induced diabetic model, disruption of β-catenin in Müller cells attenuated over-expression of inflammatory cytokines and ameliorated pericyte dropout in the retina. These findings suggest that Wnt signaling activation in Müller cells contributes to retinal NV, vascular leakage and inflammation and represents a potential therapeutic target for DR.

  18. Discussion of interrupted circular suture dming caesarean section with placenta previa%前置胎盘剖宫产时环形间断缝合止血方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张渺; 金燕志; 周子杰

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨环形间断缝合在前置胎盘剖宫产术时出血的止血效果。方法对54例前置胎盘剖宫产术病例进行总结。结果用环形间断缝合方法止血的9例病人手术时间少于子宫切除组(P<0.05),出血及输血少于子宫切除组,但无统计学差异(P>0.05),成功止血,保留子宫,且未发生术后合并症。结论环形间断缝合术是前置胎盘胎盘剥离面引起出血的有效止血方法之一。%Objective To discuss the value of interrupted circular suture in hemostasis of placenta previa during cesarean section. Methods We summarized 54 caesarean section patients with placenta previa. Results The hemostasis was succeeded in all of the 9 patients and uterus was retained without postpartum complications. The duration of operation was obviously shorter than that of hysterectomy( P<0.05). Bleeding and blood transfusion were less than that of hysterectomy, but without statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusion Interrupted circular suture is one of the efficient methods in controlling postpartum bleeding during caesarean section with placenta previa.

  19. High antibody responses against Plasmodium falciparum in immigrants after extended periods of interrupted exposure to malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Moncunill

    effect on protection, with important implications for future vaccine design and public health control measures.

  20. Reliable Control of Ship-mounted Satellite Tracking Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Motorized antenna is a key element in overseas satellite telecommunication. The control system directs the on-board antenna toward a chosen satellitewhile the high sea waves disturb the antenna. Certain faults (communication system malfunction or signal blocking) cause interruption in the communi......Motorized antenna is a key element in overseas satellite telecommunication. The control system directs the on-board antenna toward a chosen satellitewhile the high sea waves disturb the antenna. Certain faults (communication system malfunction or signal blocking) cause interruption...

  1. Hosed vs. unhosed: global response to interruptions of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning, with and without freshwater forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brown

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that glacial periods were punctuated by abrupt climate changes, with large impacts on air temperature, precipitation, and ocean circulation across the globe. However, the long-held idea that freshwater forcing, caused by massive iceberg discharges, was the driving force behind these changes has been questioned in recent years. This throws into doubt the abundant literature on modelling abrupt climate change through "hosing" experiments, whereby the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC is interrupted by an injection of freshwater to the North Atlantic: if some, or all, abrupt climate change was not driven by freshwater input, could its character have been very different than the typical hosed experiments? Here, we take advantage of a global coupled ocean–atmosphere model that exhibits spontaneous, unhosed oscillations in AMOC strength, in order to examine how the global imprint of AMOC variations depends on whether or not it is the result of external freshwater input. The results imply that, to first order, the ocean–ice–atmosphere dynamics associated with an AMOC weakening dominate the global response, regardless of whether or not freshwater input is the cause. The exception lies in the impact freshwater inputs can have on the strength of other polar haloclines, particularly the Southern Ocean, to which freshwater can be transported relatively quickly after injection in the North Atlantic.

  2. Electrical impedance tomography for assessing ventilation/perfusion mismatch for pulmonary embolism detection without interruptions in respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Doan Trang; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Bhaskaran, Abhishek; Barry, Michael A; Pouliopoulos, Jim; Jin, Craig; McEwan, Alistair L

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown high correlation between pulmonary perfusion mapping with impedance contrast enhanced Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and standard perfusion imaging methods such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT). EIT has many advantages over standard imaging methods as it is highly portable and non-invasive. Contrast enhanced EIT uses hypertonic saline bolus instead of nephrotoxic contrast medium that are utilized by CT and nuclear Ventilation/Perfusion (V/Q) scans. However, current implementation of contrast enhanced EIT requires induction of an apnea period for perfusion measurement, rendering it disadvantageous compared with current gold standard imaging modalities. In the present paper, we propose the use of a wavelet denoising algorithm to separate perfusion signal from ventilation signal such that no interruption in patient's ventilation would be required. Furthermore, right lung to left lung perfusion ratio and ventilation ratio are proposed to assess the mismatch between ventilation and perfusion for detection of Pulmonary Embolism (PE). The proposed methodology was validated on an ovine model (n=3, 83.7±7.7 kg) with artificially induced PE in the right lung. The results showed a difference in right lung to left lung perfusion ratio between baseline and diseased states in all cases with all paired t-tests between baseline and PE yielding p <; 0.01, while the right lung to left lung ventilation ratio remained unchanged in two out of three experiments. Statistics were pooled from multiple repetitions of measurements per experiment.

  3. Fifteen Years of Annual Mass Treatment of Onchocerciasis with Ivermectin Have Not Interrupted Transmission in the West Region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses N. Katabarwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We followed up the 1996 baseline parasitological and entomological studies on onchocerciasis transmission in eleven health districts in West Region, Cameroon. Annual mass ivermectin treatment had been provided for 15 years. Follow-up assessments which took place in 2005, 2006, and 2011 consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf and palpation examinations for nodules. Follow-up Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates were done from 2011 to 2012. mf prevalence in adults dropped from 68.7% to 11.4%, and nodule prevalence dropped from 65.9% to 12.1%. The decrease of mf prevalence in children from 29.2% to 8.9% was evidence that transmission was still continuing. mf rates in the follow-up assessments among adults and in children levelled out after a sharp reduction from baseline levels. Only three health districts out of 11 were close to interruption of transmission. Evidence of continuing transmission was also observed in two out of three fly collection sites that had infective rates of 0.19% and 0.18% and ATP of 70 (Foumbot and 300 (Massangam, respectively. Therefore, halting of annual mass treatment with ivermectin cannot be done after 15 years as it might escalate the risk of transmission recrudescence.

  4. Featuring the primordial power spectrum: new constraints on interrupted slow-roll from CMB and LRG data

    CERN Document Server

    Benetti, Micol; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Martinelli, Matteo; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Using the most recent data from the WMAP, ACT and SPT experiments, we update the constraints on models with oscillatory features in the primordial power spectrum of scalar perturbations. This kind of features can appear in models of inflation where slow-roll is interrupted, like multifield models. We also derive constraints for the case in which, in addition to cosmic microwave observations, we also consider the data on the spectrum of luminous red galaxies from the 7th SDSS catalog, and the SNIa Union Compilation 2 data. We have found that: (i) considering a model with features in the primordial power spectrum increases the agreement with data with the respect of the featureless "vanilla" LCDM model by Delta(chi^2) ~ 7; (ii) the uncertainty on the determination of the standard parameters is not degraded when features are included; (iii) the best fit for the features model locates the step in the primordial spectrum at a scale k ~ 0.005 Mpc^-1, corresponding to the scale where the outliers in the WMAP7 data a...

  5. Testimony, Instant, Memory. Spaces of cut and interruption in Video Letter (1982, by Shuji Terayama and Shuntaro Tanikawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mesquita Duarte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This text takes as a central subject of investigation the documentary film Video Letter (1982, by Shuji Terayama and Shuntaro Tanikawa, inquiring its technical procedures and thematic approaches in parallel with a Jacques Derrida’s essay which is built around a fictional text,L’instant de ma mort, by Maurice Blanchot. The approximation between these two works permits us, despite their differences – one, a video work, the other, a literary text, - explore issues associated with the instant, dead, memory, and the relations inscribing the factual and the fictional, writing and image, as well as conceive new forms of temporality proceeding through the fragmentation and the interruption of the univocal diegetic structures. We try to suggest, by this mean, the privilege of processes related with editing and cut, assessing the emergence of points and singular instants which, being normally attached to the consideration of the still image, ultimately participate and profusely determine the reconstitution and reevaluation of the filmic structure and the image in motion.

  6. INTERRUPTED IN-SITU COMPRESSIVE DEFORMATION EXPERIMENTS ON MMC FOAMS IN AN XCT: EXPERIMENTS AND ESTIMATION OF DISPLACEMENT FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Losch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of a metal-matrix composite foam are investigated by interrupted in-situ compressive deformation experiments within an X-ray computed tomography device (XCT. Each in-situ experiment generates a sequence of reconstructed 3D images of the foam microstructure. From these data, the deformation field is estimated by registring the images corresponding to three consecutive steps. To this end, the generic registration framework of the itk software suite is exploited and combined with several image preprocessing steps. Both segmented (binary images having just two grey values for foreground (strut structure and background (pore space and the result of the Euclidean distance transform (EDT on pore space and solid phase are used. The estimation quality is evaluated based on a sequence of synthetic data sets, where the foam’s microstructure is modelled by a random Laguerre tessellation. For large deformations, a combination of non-rigid registration for the EDT images and partwise-rigid registration on strongly deformed regions of the binary images, yields surprisingly small estimation errors.

  7. Design of CPU with Cache and Precise Interruption Response%带Cache和精确中断响应的CPU设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋菊; 李飞; 刘书伦

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the design of CPU with Cache and precise interruption response was proposed. 15 of the MIPS instruction set were selected as the basic instruction for the CPU. By using 5 stage pipeline, the instruction Cache,data Cache and precise interruption response were realized. The teat results show that the scheme meets the design requirements.%提出了带Cache和精确中断响应的CPU设计方案,实现指令集MIPS中选取15条指令作为本CPU的基本指令.采用基本5步流水线CPU设计,给出了指令Cache、数据Cache和精确中断响应的设计与实现.测试结果表明,该方案符合设计要求.

  8. A series on optimizing satellite systems. I - Restoring interruptions of communications sattelite service: Logistical and cost comparisons of mature and newly operational systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Marcellus S.

    1989-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented of costs and operational factors involved in provision for service interruptions of both a mature and typically large incumbent satellite system and of a smaller, more recently operational system. The equation expresses the required launch frequency for the new system as a function of the launch spacing of the mature system; the time disparity between the inauguration of the two systems; and the rate of capacity depreciation. In addition, a technique is presented to compare the relative extent to which the discounted costs of the new system exceed those of the mature system in furnishing the same effective capacity in orbit, and thus the same service liability, at a given point in time. It is determined that a mature incumbent communications satellite system, having more capacity in orbit, will on balance have a lower probability of service interruption than a newer, smaller system.

  9. Effect of growth interruption and strain buffer layer on PL performance of AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs quantum well for 1065 nm wavelength lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Jiaoqing; HUANG Baibiao; ZHANG Xiaoyang; YUE Jinshun; YU Yongqin; WEI Jiyong

    2004-01-01

    Strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum well (QW) was grown by low-pressure metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Growth interruption and strain buffer layer were introduced to improve the photoluminescence (PL) performance of the InGaAs/GaAs quantum well. Good PL results were obtained under condition of growth an interruption of 10 s combined with a moderate strain buffer layer. Wavelength lasers of 1064 nm using the QW were grown and processed into devices. Broad area lasers (1130 μm × 500 μm) show very low threshold current densities (43 A/cm2) and high slop efficiency (0.34 W/A, per facet).

  10. Effect of growth-interrupted method on quality of AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells prepared by MBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Feng-yun; WANG Huai-mang; ZHAO Lian-cheng

    2006-01-01

    AlGaAs/GaAs multi-quantum well (MQW) was prepared by molecular beam epitaxy(MBE) with growth-interrupted heterointerface (GIH) method and continuous growth (CG) method,respectively. The microstructures of the MQWs were characterized by double-crystal X-ray rocking curve (DCRC) and atomic force microscopy (AFM),and the photoluminescence (PL) properties of the MQWs were also studied. The MQWs grown with GIH method show that higher order satellite peaks of Pendell(o)sung fringes are observed in DCRC,the roughness of surface is much reduced in AFM,and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of exciton line is much narrower in PL. The results indicate that the GIH method reduces the monolayer growth step density at the heterointerface due to the migration of surface atoms for a few minutes growth interruption,and substantially improves the quality of AlGaAs/GaAs MQWs.

  11. Interruption of Neural Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    post synaptic phases of this response (the EPSP and "Pop Spike") which were especially sensitive to wide microwave pulses of rather low intensity. For...3.0 E % 2.0 z 0 a. C,) -. 0 -6.0 -4.0 2.0 CURRENT INJECTION LEVEL (nA)---- . -2.0 -25- STIMULUS PREVOLLEY .5mVin 1 Omsec EPSP POP SPIKE COMPONENTS O.f

  12. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...

  13. A CHURCH INTERRUPTED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The history of a German-built Protestant church in Qingdao offers a sketch of Christianity's development in modern China Li Hong's father used to wedge his Bible into a thick mat so it wouldn't be confiscated. That was during the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976, when all religions were suppressed, she said.

  14. Interrupting Gendered Assessment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Gaell M.

    This paper is part of the symposium on "Gender and Assessment of Physics in Context: Getting It Right!" It examines ways in which current practices privilege the "masculine" over the "feminine" and presents an agenda for gender inclusive assessment practices. It is argued that physics like other domains of knowledge, is a constructed entity, and…

  15. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coatings During Interrupted High-Heat-Flux Laser Testing using Luminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation showed progress made in extending luminescence-base delamination monitoring to TBCs exposed to high heat fluxes, which is an environment that much better simulates actual turbine engine conditions. This was done by performing upconversion luminescence imaging during interruptions in laser testing, where a high-power CO2 laser was employed to create the desired heat flux. Upconverison luminescence refers to luminescence where the emission is at a higher energy (shorter wavelength) than the excitation. Since there will be negligible background emission at higher energies than the excitation, this methods produces superb contrast. Delamination contrast is produced because both the excitation and emission wavelengths are reflected at delamination cracks so that substantially higher luminescence intensity is observed in regions containing delamination cracks. Erbium was selected as the dopant for luminescence specifically because it exhibits upconversion luminescence. The high power CO2 10.6 micron wavelength laser facility at NASA GRC was used to produce the heat flux in combination with forced air backside cooling. Testing was performed at a lower (95 W/sq cm) and higher (125 W/sq cm) heat flux as well as furnace cycling at 1163C for comparison. The lower heat flux showed the same general behavior as furnace cycling, a gradual, "spotty" increase in luminescence associated with debond progression; however, a significant difference was a pronounced incubation period followed by acceleration delamination progression. These results indicate that extrapolating behavior from furnace cycling measurements will grossly overestimate remaining life under high heat flux conditions. The higher heat flux results were not only accelerated, but much different in character. Extreme bond coat rumpling occurred, and delamination propagation extended over much larger areas before precipitating macroscopic TBC failure. This indicates that under the higher heat flux (and

  16. A 1D Model of Radial Ion Motion Interrupted by Ion–Neutral Interactions in a Cometary Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigren, E.; Eriksson, A. I.

    2017-04-01

    Because ion–neutral reaction cross sections are energy dependent, the distance from a cometary nucleus within which ions remain collisionally coupled to the neutrals is dictated not only by the comet’s activity level but also by the electromagnetic fields in the coma. Here we present a 1D model simulating the outward radial motion of water group ions with radial acceleration by an ambipolar electric field interrupted primarily by charge transfer processes with H2O. We also discuss the impact of plasma waves. For a given electric field profile, the model calculates key parameters, including the total ion density, n I , the H3O+/H2O+ number density and flux ratios, R dens and R flux, and the mean ion drift speed, , as a function of cometocentric distance. We focus primarily on a coma roughly resembling that of the ESA Rosetta mission target comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko near its perihelion in 2015 August. In the presence of a weak ambipolar electric field in the radial direction the model results suggest that the neutral coma is not sufficiently dense to keep the mean ion flow speed close to that of the neutrals by the spacecraft location (∼200 km from the nucleus). In addition, for electric field profiles giving n I and within limits constrained by measurements, the R dens values are significantly higher than values typically observed. However, when including the ion motion in large-amplitude plasma waves in the model, results more compatible with observations are obtained. We suggest that the variable and often low H3O+/H2O+ number density ratios observed may reflect nonradial ion trajectories strongly influenced by electromagnetic forces and/or plasma instabilities, with energization of the ion population by plasma waves.

  17. Interruption of infection transmission in the onchocerciasis focus of Ecuador leading to the cessation of ivermectin distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lovato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991-2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39-101 and 72.7 (CI 42-116 in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1-15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. SIGNIFICANCE: This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption.

  18. MRI Imaging Features of Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome%垂体柄阻断综合征的MRI表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦雨; 冯逢; 有慧; 李明利; 金征宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 讨论垂体柄阻断综合征的MRI特点.资料与方法 回顾性分析临床及MRI诊断的18例垂体柄阻断综合征患儿的影像及临床资料.结果 18例患者垂体前叶明显变薄,垂体柄缺如16例,2例垂体柄纤细,垂体后叶短T1信号未见,下丘脑漏斗处有短T1信号.实验室检查均有生长激素和(或)其他激素的缺乏.结论 垂体柄阻断综合征多发生于男性,有典型的MRI表现.%Purpose To study the MRI features of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.Materials and Methods The MRI findings of the patients with PSIS proved by clinically and MRI were analyzed retrospectively. Results All the subjects were male.Atrophy or aplasia of anterior pituitary, heterotopia of posterior pituitary were found in all the cases. Absence (n=16) and marked thinning (n=2) of the pituitary stalk were identified. Growth hormone deficiency and (or) multiple pituitary hormone deficiency were confirmed by blood laboratory tests. Conclusions PSIS is male-predominant and the MRI findings are characteristic of stalk absence or thinning with anterior pituitary atrophy and neurohypophysis heterotopia.

  19. Pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy: A comparison between the two pancreaticojejunostomy methods for approximating the pancreatic parenchyma to the jejunal seromuscular layer: Interrupted vs continuous stitches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study is to find a better operative technique by comparing interrupted stitches with continuous stitches for the outer layer of the pancreaticojejunostomy, i.e. the stitches between the stump parenchyma of the pancreas and the jejunal seromuscular layer, and other risk factors for the incidence of pancreatic leakage. METHODS: During the period January 1997 to October 2004, 133 patients have undergone the end-to-side and duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy with interrupted suture for outer layer of the pancreaticojejunostomy and 170 patients with a continuous suture at our institution by one surgeon. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in the diagnosis, texture of the pancreas, use of octreotide and pathologic stage. Pancreatic fistula occurred in 14 patients (11%) among the interrupted suture cases and in 10 (6%) among the continuous suture cases (P = 0.102). Major pancreatic leakage developed in three interrupted suture patients (2%) and zero continuous suture patients (P = 0.026). In multivariate analysis, soft pancreatic consistency (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval 2.3-13.1) and common bile duct cancer (odds ratio, 3.7; 95%CI 1.6-8.5) were predictive of pancreatic leakage. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic texture and pathology are the most important factors in determining the fate of pancreaticojejunal anastomosis and our continuous suture method was performed with significantly decreased occurrence of major pancreatic fistula. In conclusion, the continuous suture method is more feasible and safer in performing duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy.

  20. Diagnosis Value of MRI for Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome%垂体柄阻断综合征的MRI诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永榜

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨垂体柄阻断综合征的MRI表现,以提高对其的认识及诊断水平。方法回顾性分析本院13例垂体柄阻断综合征患者的影像学及临床资料。结果本研究13例生长发育迟缓患者中MRI均未见垂体柄显示,垂体窝内垂体后叶高信号均消失,腺垂体体积缩小,神经垂体异位于视交叉漏斗隐窝。结论垂体柄阻断综合征在MRI具有特征性表现,是无创诊断垂体柄阻断综合征的最佳方法。%Objective To explore the MRI image features of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, in order to improvethe knowledge and diagnostic ievel of this disease. Methods The imaging and ciinicai data of 13 patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome were analyzed retrospectively.Results Pituitary stalks were not shown in MRI among al 13 growth retardation patients, the high signal intensity of posterior lobe in ephippium disappeared, whiie adenohypophysis volume became smal, and neurohypophysis located in funnel fossae of neural cross.ConclusionThere is specific performance of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome in MRI,MRI is the most valuable noninvasive method for diagnosis of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.

  1. A Study on Gender Differences in Interruption Functions by College Students%大学生插话功能的性别差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣

    2015-01-01

    插话行为是大学生交流中常见的言语行为,其功能各不相同。研究主要从表示异议、改变话题、推进谈话、表示赞同等四个方面,研究男女大学生在同性会话与异性会话中使用插话功能的性别差异。研究结果表明:在同性会话中,男生与女生在使用插话的动因上存在明显的差异;而在异性会话中,双方表现出更大的相似性。%Interruption is a frequent speech behavior in college students’ conversations, with different func-tions in communication. This paper focuses on gender differences of college students when using interruption func-tions in same-sex conversations and cross-sex conversations, in aspects of disagreement, topic changing, informa-tion extension and agreement. In same-sex conversations, there are a lot of evident differences in the use of inter-ruption functions between girls and boys, while in cross-sex conversations, there is a great similarity.

  2. Study of IP Network Address Planning from Troubleshooting Multicast-Interruptions%从IP组播数据中断故障谈网络地址设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 李敬; 鹿泽洲

    2012-01-01

    Interruptions encountered in multicast data flow in an IP network are described and reasons for the faults are analyzed. Then, the process of interruptions is analyzed in detail from the operational mechanism of IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) following introduction of multicast maintenance mechanism. Finally, a solution hased on redesigning of IP network addresses is given to avoid interruptions and a segmented IP network address assignment principle featuring switches or routers -VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) -hosts incremental assignment is proposed.%首先描述了在IP网络环境中出现的组播数据偶断现象,分析定位了故障出现的原因.然后,详细阐述了组播维护机理,从组播管理协议的运行机制上进一步分析了组播数据偶断的过程.最后,给出了通过网络地址重新设计的方法解决问题的方案,并提出了交换机、路由器 VLAN(虚拟局域网) 主机的网络地址按顺序进行由小到大地分级分配的原则.

  3. Antiretroviral Therapy Interruption Among HIV Postive People Who Use Drugs in a Setting with a Community-Wide HIV Treatment-as-Prevention Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Coleman, Bill; Maher, Lisa; Milloy, M J; Small, Will

    2017-02-01

    HIV Treatment as Prevention (TasP) initiatives promote antiretroviral therapy (ART) access and optimal adherence (≥95 %) to produce viral suppression among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and prevent the onward transmission of HIV. ART treatment interruptions are common among PLHIV who use drugs and undermine the effectiveness of TasP. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 39 PLHIV who use drugs who had experienced treatment ART interruptions in a setting with a community-wide TasP initiative (Vancouver, Canada) to examine influences on these outcomes. While study participants attributed ART interruptions to "treatment fatigue," our analysis revealed individual, social, and structural influences on these events, including: (1) prior adverse ART-related experiences among those with long-term treatment histories; (2) experiences of social isolation; and, (3) breakdowns in the continuity of HIV care following disruptive events (e.g., eviction, incarceration). Findings reconceptualise 'treatment fatigue' by focusing attention on its underlying mechanisms, while demonstrating the need for comprehensive structural reforms and targeted interventions to optimize TasP among drug-using PLHIV.

  4. The process of interruption in Spanish judicial contexts. A pragmalinguistic approach / El proceso de interrupción en los contextos judidicales españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Ridao Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo nuestros objetivos se basan en analizar los contextos judiciales españoles desde una perspectiva pragmalingüística; más específicamente queremos hacer una contribución a los distintos estudios sobre el fenómeno de la (descortesía, en particular en el proceso de interrupción. El género del interrogatorio judicial se caracteriza por un cambio de hablante muy rápido, por ello creemos interesante analizar este género enfocando nuestra atención en las interrupciones. Así, después de una pequeña introducción, comentamos estudios que están relacionados con este tema y ofrecemos una sistematización de las interrupciones más peculiares que tienen lugar en los contextos legales, basando nuestra argumentación en la taxonomía ofrecida en Bañón (1997. Finalizamos el artículo con una conclusión general: las interrupciones que tienen lugar durante los interrogatorios se consideran más o menos descorteses en función del papel del interruptor.Summary: In this paper our aims are based on the analysis of Spanish judicial contexts from a pragmalinguistic perspective; more specifically we want to make a contribution to the various studies on the phenomenon of (impoliteness, particularly the process of interruption. The genre of judicial interrogation is characterized by a rapid change of speaker, so we believe it interesting to analyse this genre focusing our attention on interruptions. Thus, after a brief introduction, we comment on studies that are related to the topic and we offer a systematization of more peculiar interruptions that take place in legal contexts, basing our argument on Bañón's taxonomy (1997. We end the paper with a general conclusion: Interruptions which occur during interrogations are considered rather rude depending on the role of the interrupter.

  5. Cues and control in Expert-Client Dialogues

    CERN Document Server

    Whittaker, S; Whittaker, Steve; Stenton, Phil

    1995-01-01

    We conducted an empirical analysis into the relation between control and discourse structure. We applied control criteria to four dialogues and identified 3 levels of discourse structure. We investigated the mechanism for changing control between these structures and found that utterance type and not cue words predicted shifts of control. Participants used certain types of signals when discourse goals were proceeding successfully but resorted to interruptions when they were not.

  6. Potassium ion recycling pathway via gap junction systems in the mammalian cochlea and its interruption in hereditary nonsyndromic deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T; Adams, J C; Miyabe, Y; So, E; Kobayashi, T

    2000-01-01

    In the mammalian cochlea, there are two independent gap junction systems, the epithelial cell gap junction system and the connective tissue cell gap junction system. Thus far, four different connexin molecules, including connexin 26, 30, 31, and 43, have been reported in the cochlea. The two networks of gap junctions form the route by which K+ ions that pass through the sensory cells during mechanosensory transduction can be recycled back to the endolymphatic space, from which they reenter the sensory cells. Activation of hair cells by acoustic stimuli induces influx of K+ ions from the endolymph to sensory hair cells. These K+ ions are released basolaterally to the extracellular space of the organ of Corti, from which they enter the cochlear supporting cells. Once inside the supporting cells they move via the epithelial cell gap junction system laterally to the lower part of the spiral ligament. The K+ ions are released into the extracellular space of the spiral ligament by root cells and taken up by type II fibrocytes. This uptake incorporates K+ into the connective tissue gap junction system. Within this system, the K+ ions pass through the tight junctional barrier of the stria vascularis and are released within the intrastrial extracellular space. The marginal cells of the stria vascularis then take up K+ and return it to the endolymphatic space, where it can be used again in sensory transduction. It is highly probable that mutations of connexin genes that result in human nonsyndromic deafness cause dysfunction of cochlear gap junctions and thereby interrupt K+ ion recirculation pathways. In addition to connexin mutations, other conditions may disrupt gap junctions within the ear. For example, mice with a functionally significant mutation of Brain-4, which is expressed in the connective tissue cells within the cochlea, show marked depression of the endolymphatic potential and profound sensorineural hearing loss. It seems likely that disruption of connective

  7. Measuring Quality Improvement in Acute Ischemic Stroke Care: Interrupted Time Series Analysis of Door-to-Needle Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Margreet van Dishoeck

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients with acute ischemic stroke, early treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA improves functional outcome by effectively reducing disability and dependency. Timely thrombolysis, within 1 h, is a vital aspect of acute stroke treatment, and is reflected in the widely used performance indicator ‘door-to-needle time' (DNT. DNT measures the time from the moment the patient enters the emergency department until he/she receives intravenous rtPA. The purpose of the study was to measure quality improvement from the first implementation of thrombolysis in stroke patients in a university hospital in the Netherlands. We further aimed to identify specific interventions that affect DNT. Methods: We included all patients with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a large university hospital in the Netherlands between January 2006 and December 2012, and focused on those treated with thrombolytic therapy on admission. Data were collected routinely for research purposes and internal quality measurement (the Erasmus Stroke Study. We used a retrospective interrupted time series design to study the trend in DNT, analyzed by means of segmented regression. Results: Between January 2006 and December 2012, 1,703 patients with ischemic stroke were admitted and 262 (17% were treated with rtPA. Patients treated with thrombolysis were on average 63 years old at the time of the stroke and 52% were male. Mean age (p = 0.58 and sex distribution (p = 0.98 did not change over the years. The proportion treated with thrombolysis increased from 5% in 2006 to 22% in 2012. In 2006, none of the patients were treated within 1 h. In 2012, this had increased to 81%. In a logistic regression analysis, this trend was significant (OR 1.6 per year, CI 1.4-1.8. The median DNT was reduced from 75 min in 2006 to 45 min in 2012 (p Conclusion and Implications: The DNT steadily improved from the first implementation of thrombolysis. Specific

  8. Impacts of interruption of the Agulhas leakage on the tropical Atlantic in coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarsma, Reindert J.; Drijfhout, Sybren; Hazeleger, Wilco; Severijns, Camiel [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), P.O. Box 201, De Bilt (Netherlands); Campos, Edmo J.D. [University of Sao Paulo (IOUSP), Oceanographic Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    In this paper we use a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to investigate the impact of the interruption of Agulhas leakage of Indian ocean water on the tropical Atlantic, a region where strong coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions occur. The effect of a shut down of leakage of Indian ocean water is isolated from the effect of a collapse of the MOC. In our experiments, the ocean model is forced with boundary conditions in the southeastern corner of the domain that correspond to no interocean exchange of Indian ocean water into the Atlantic. The southern boundary condition is taken from the Levitus data and ensures an MOC in the Atlantic. Within this configuration, instead of warm and salty Indian ocean water temperature (cold) and salinity (fresh) anomalies of southern ocean origin propagate into the South Atlantic and eventually reach the equatorial region, mainly in the thermocline. This set up mimics the closure of the ''warm water path'' in favor of the ''cold water path''. As part of the atmospheric response, there is a northward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The changes in trade winds lead to reduced Ekman pumping in the equatorial region. This leads to a freshening and warming of the surface waters along the equator. Especially in the Cold Tongue region, the cold and fresh subsurface anomalies do not reach the surface due to the reduced upwelling. The anomaly signals are transported by the equatorial undercurrent and spread away from the equator within the thermocline. Part of the anomaly eventually reaches the Tropical North Atlantic, where it affects the Guinea Dome. Surprisingly, the main effect at the surface is small on the equator and relatively large at the Guinea Dome. In the atmosphere, the northward shift of the ITCZ is associated with a band of negative precipitation anomalies and higher salinities over the Tropical South Atlantic. An important implication of these results is that the

  9. Research on development of new interruptible load with renewable energy access%可再生能源接入下新型可中断负荷发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向月; 刘俊勇; 魏震波; 刘友波

    2012-01-01

    The basic concepts, main characteristics, and incentive compensation mechanism of interruptible load (IL) are expounded, as well as its application research. With large number of various forms of renewable energy access to the system leading to a series of opportunities and challenges, a new way integrated with characteristic fusion and coordination dispatch of IL is proposed, which contributes to new concepts and questions. This paper discusses concepts extension, participation forms, application research method and problems of IL from aspects of large-scale of wind power access, two-way control of micro-grid, mobile load interruption and distributed energy optimization. Finally, under energy concentrated access and dispersed access, market designing, reserve framework, relay protection, power quantity control and the implementation of the comprehensive evaluation index of IL are analyzed and future research is discussed.%对可中断负荷(IL)的基本概念、主要特性、激励补偿机制和应用研究进行了阐述.大量多样化可再生能源接入系统带来一系列机遇和挑战,IL的特性融合和协调调度为其发展提供了新的思路,一些新的概念和问题也随之产生.主要从大规模风电接入、微网双向控制、移动式负荷中断、分布式能源优化四个方面对IL概念扩充、参与形式、应用研究方法和问题等进行了探讨.最后,对能源集中接入和分散接入下IL市场设计、备用框架、继保配合、电能质量控制、综合指标评估等方面进行了分析,并对未来发展研究进行了展望.

  10. Synthetic RNA Controllers for Programming Mammalian Cell Fate and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    changes. We applied our method to build biosensors for diverse ligands and determine consensus sequences that enable ligand-responsive tertiary...performed without human interruption. We have done control selections on naïve libraries for theophylline biosensors , and demonstrated that the method can

  11. The clinical effect of retroperitoneal laparoscopic selectivity renal artery interrupted and renal artery interrupted on the treatment of T1a suprarenal epithelioma%后腹腔镜下高选择性肾动脉阻断与肾动脉全阻断治疗T1a期肾透明细胞癌的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵剑锋; 奉友刚; 何俊

    2015-01-01

    目的 比较后腹腔镜下高选择性肾动脉阻断与肾动脉全阻断治疗T1a期肾透明细胞癌的有效性和安全性.方法 选择本院泌尿外科住院行肾部分切除术的患者42例,其中21例患者的肾门处理方式为高选择性肾动脉阻断治疗,作为高选择组,21例患者的肾门处理方式为肾动脉全阻断治疗,作为全阻断组.比较两组患者的肾动脉平均阻断时间、平均手术时间、平均术中出血量、平均术中输血率、手术切缘的阳性率、平均术后住院天数,术后并发症情况,术后患者的肌酐变化情况等.结果 高选择组患者在平均阻断时间、术后肌酐变化百分率等指标均明显优于全阻断组患者(P<0.05),手术时间明显长于全阻断组患者(P<0.05),而在平均术中出血量、平均术中输血率、手术切缘阳性率、平均术后住院天数、术后并发症等观察指标比较,两组患者间的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 与后腹腔镜下肾动脉全阻断治疗比较,后腹腔镜下高选择性肾动脉阻断治疗具有阻断时间短、术后肾功能损害小的特点,值得临床推广.%Objectives To compare the clinical effeot and safty between retroperitoneal laparoscopic selectivity renal artery interrupted and renal artery interrupted on the treatment of T1a suprarenal epithelioma.Methods Retrospective analysis of 42 T1 a suprarenal epithelioma patients in our hospital.Among them,21 patients treated with retroperitoneal laparoscopic selectivity renal artery interrupted were put into selective group,meanwhile,the rest 21 patients with retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal artery interrupted were renal artery interrupted group.Comparisons between two groups have been made in the renal pedical clamping,operation time,blood loss,rate of blood transfusion,postoperative hospital stay,incidence of complications and the rate of change about creatinine.Results Patients in selective group,which had longer

  12. Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Resistance Identified by Ultra-Deep Sequencing in HIV-1 Infected Children under Structured Interruptions of HAART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Guillen, Jose Manuel; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo C.; Rivera-Morales, Lydia G.; Garcia-Campos, Jorge; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Noguera-Julian, Marc; Paredes, Roger; Vielma-Ramirez, Herlinda J.; Ramirez, Teresa J.; Chavez-Garcia, Marcelino; Lopez-Guillen, Paulo; Briones-Lara, Evangelina; Sanchez-Sanchez, Luz M.; Vazquez-Martinez, Carlos A.; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Although Structured Treatment Interruptions (STI) are currently not considered an alternative strategy for antiretroviral treatment, their true benefits and limitations have not been fully established. Some studies suggest the possibility of improving the quality of life of patients with this strategy; however, the information that has been obtained corresponds mostly to studies conducted in adults, with a lack of knowledge about its impact on children. Furthermore, mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance could be selected due to sub-therapeutic levels of HAART at each interruption period. Genotyping methods to determine the resistance profiles of the infecting viruses have become increasingly important for the management of patients under STI, thus low-abundance antiretroviral drug-resistant mutations (DRM’s) at levels under limit of detection of conventional genotyping (<20% of quasispecies) could increase the risk of virologic failure. In this work, we analyzed the protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene by ultra-deep sequencing in pediatric patients under STI with the aim of determining the presence of high- and low-abundance DRM’s in the viral rebounds generated by the STI. High-abundance mutations in protease and high- and low-abundance mutations in reverse transcriptase were detected but no one of these are directly associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The results could suggest that the evaluated STI program is virologically safe, but strict and carefully planned studies, with greater numbers of patients and interruption/restart cycles, are still needed to evaluate the selection of DRM’s during STI. PMID:26807922

  13. Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Resistance Identified by Ultra-Deep Sequencing in HIV-1 Infected Children under Structured Interruptions of HAART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Vazquez-Guillen

    Full Text Available Although Structured Treatment Interruptions (STI are currently not considered an alternative strategy for antiretroviral treatment, their true benefits and limitations have not been fully established. Some studies suggest the possibility of improving the quality of life of patients with this strategy; however, the information that has been obtained corresponds mostly to studies conducted in adults, with a lack of knowledge about its impact on children. Furthermore, mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance could be selected due to sub-therapeutic levels of HAART at each interruption period. Genotyping methods to determine the resistance profiles of the infecting viruses have become increasingly important for the management of patients under STI, thus low-abundance antiretroviral drug-resistant mutations (DRM's at levels under limit of detection of conventional genotyping (<20% of quasispecies could increase the risk of virologic failure. In this work, we analyzed the protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene by ultra-deep sequencing in pediatric patients under STI with the aim of determining the presence of high- and low-abundance DRM's in the viral rebounds generated by the STI. High-abundance mutations in protease and high- and low-abundance mutations in reverse transcriptase were detected but no one of these are directly associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The results could suggest that the evaluated STI program is virologically safe, but strict and carefully planned studies, with greater numbers of patients and interruption/restart cycles, are still needed to evaluate the selection of DRM's during STI.

  14. A Fuzzy Track Association Algorithm in Track Interrupt-oriented%面向航迹中断的模糊航迹关联算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜渐; 夏学知

    2013-01-01

    In afloat battlefield situation,because of system error,EMI,geographical environment,electronic silent,etc.,problems of sensor signal interrupt,target lost and track discontinuity appear.Aiming at these problems,this study presents an improved fuzzy track association algorithm.Using the method of uniting speed fuzzy factor,course fuzzy factor,improving acceleration fuzzy factor,twice association strategy and autoregulation association threshold value of membership function,the algorithm achieves track association of high maneuverable targets with long time interrupts,ensures the oneness and stability of situation.The Monte Carlo simulation results show that the algorithm is effective to solve the association problem under the condition of track interrupt and has a high robustness.%针对海战场态势中,由于系统误差、电磁干扰、地理环境隔绝、电子静默等原因,出现的传感器信号长时间中断、目标丢失,导致态势中航迹不连续的问题,提出了一种改进的模糊航迹关联算法.该算法通过采用统一速度模糊因素和方向模糊因素、改进加速度模糊因素、制定二级关联策略和自动调整隶属度函数关联阈值等方法,实现了在目标机动性较强、中断时间较长等情况下的航迹关联,保证了态势的稳定.通过Monte Carlo仿真实验表明,该算法具备较高的关联性和鲁棒性.

  15. Not all are lost: interrupted laboratory monitoring, early death, and loss to follow-up (LTFU in a large South African treatment program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aima A Ahonkhai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many HIV treatment programs in resource-limited settings are plagued by high rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU. Most studies have not distinguished between those who briefly interrupt, but return to care, and those more chronically lost to follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 11,397 adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART in 71 Southern African Catholic Bishops Conference/Catholic Relief Services HIV treatment clinics between January 2004 and December 2008. We distinguished among patients with early death, within the first 7 months on ART; patients with interruptions in laboratory monitoring (ILM, defined as missing visits in the first 7 months on ART, but returning to care by 12 months; and those LTFU, defined as missing all follow-up visits in the first 12 months on ART. We used multilevel logistic regression models to determine patient and clinic-level characteristics associated with these outcomes. RESULTS: In the first year on ART, 60% of patients remained in care, 30% missed laboratory visits, and 10% suffered early death. Of the 3,194 patients who missed laboratory visits, 40% had ILM, resuming care by 12 months. After 12 months on ART, patients with ILM had a 30% increase in detectable viremia compared to those who remained in care. Risk of LTFU decreased with increasing enrollment year, and was lowest for patients who enrolled in 2008 compared to 2004 [OR 0.49, 95%CI 0.39-0.62]. CONCLUSIONS: In a large community-based cohort in South Africa, nearly 30% of patients miss follow-up visits for CD4 monitoring in the first year after starting ART. Of those, 40% have ILM but return to clinic with worse virologic outcomes than those who remain in care. The risk of chronic LTFU decreased with enrollment year. As ART availability increases, interruptions in care may become more common, and should be accounted for in addressing program LTFU.

  16. Curcumin eliminates the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on the divergent regulation of gene expression of receptors of AGEs by interrupting leptin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Youcai; Chen, Anping

    2014-05-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a major risk factor for hepatic fibrogenesis. NASH is often found in diabetic patients with hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia induces non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, yielding advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Effects of AGEs are mainly mediated by two categories of cytoplasmic membrane receptors. Receptor for AGEs (RAGE) is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, whereas AGE receptor-1 (AGE-R1) is involved in detoxification and clearance of AGEs. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) is crucial to the development of hepatic fibrosis. We recently reported that AGEs stimulated HSC activation likely by inhibiting gene expression of AGE-R1 and inducing gene expression of RAGE in HSC, which were eliminated by the antioxidant curcumin. This study is to test our hypothesis that curcumin eliminates the effects of AGEs on the divergent regulation of the two receptors of AGEs in HSC by interrupting the AGE-caused activation of leptin signaling, leading to the inhibition of HSC activation. We observed herein that AGEs activated leptin signaling by inducing gene expression of leptin and its receptor in HSC. Like AGEs, leptin differentially regulated gene expression of RAGE and AGE-R1. Curcumin eliminated the effects of AGEs in HSC by interrupting leptin signaling and activating transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), leading to the elevation of cellular glutathione and the attenuation of oxidative stress. In conclusions, curcumin eliminated the effects of AGEs on the divergent regulation of gene expression of RAGE and AGE-R1 in HSC by interrupting the AGE-caused activation of leptin signaling, leading to the inhibition of HSC activation.

  17. Implementation of Reliable Interruption of 50kA Direct Current Circuit Breakers Based on High Parameters Thyristors%基于高参数晶闸管实现50kA直流断路器的可靠开断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼晓峰; 胡醇; 董涛; 杨孝志; 陈超

    2015-01-01

    Introduction was made to the application of the current hedge method in the reliable interruption of direct current (DC) circuit breakers, and analysis was made to the operating principle of the current hedge method and the technical problems in the test process. Through the co-use of the thyristor devices with high parameters, saturated reactors and synchronous operating mechanism, the reliable and accurate interruption of DC circuit breakers were achieved. The result shows that the key point is how to accurately seize the hedge point of two circuits in the interruption process by controlling the synchronous operating mechanism and trigger thy-ristor devices. The current hedge method takes full advantage of the thyristor devices, ensuring the accuracy of the whole interruption process. The di/dt of hedge current at current zero and the rising amplitude of peak reverse voltage have been suppressed effectively by saturated reactors, and the thyristor devices have also been protected. The whole circuit costs economically and largely make up for the shortcomings of the traditional methods.%介绍了电流对冲法在直流断路器可靠开断方面的应用,分析了电流对冲法的工作原理和试验过程中遇到的技术问题,通过高参数晶闸管器件、饱和电抗器和同步操作机构的配合使用,实现了直流断路器精确、可靠的开断,结果表明:通过控制同步操作机构和触发晶闸管器件来精确把握开断过程中两个回路的对冲点是关键,电流对冲法充分利用了晶闸管器件的优点,保证了整个开断过程的精确性;饱和电抗器有效抑制了对冲电流过零时的di/dt和反峰电压的增长,保护了晶闸管器件;整个回路造价经济,很大程度上弥补了传统试验方法中的不足.

  18. Analysis of molecular species of triacylglycerols from vegetable oils containing fatty acids with non-methylene-interrupted double bonds, by HPLC in the silver-ion mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Y.; Kim, S. [Dong A Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-20

    The possibilities for application of silver ion HPLC to analysis of the triacylglycerols containing conjugate trienoic acids and {Delta}{sup 5}-polymethylene-interrupted acids and proportions of triacylglycerol fractions obtained by silver-ion HPLC from the seed oil of Momordica charantia double bonds were examined, respectively. The triacylglycerols of seed oils containing conjugate trienoic acids such as {alpha}-eleostearic acid (C{sub 18:3 9c,11t,13t}) and punicic acid (C{sub 18:3} {sub 9c,11t,13c}) were resolved by silver-ion HPLC. Fractions were fractionated on the basis of the number and configuration of double bonds in the species, and the elution profile is quite different from that of the species comprising exclusively saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with methylene-interrupted double bonds ; for instance, the species (DT(c2)) composed of one dienoic acid and two conjugate trienoic acids eluted much earlier than the species (D{sub 2}T{sub c}) composed of two dienoic acids and one conjugate trienoic acid, in spite of having larger number of double bonds. This means that the interaction of conjugate double bonds with silver ions is weaker than that of methylene-interrupted double bonds, presumably because of the delocalization of {pi}-electrons in conjugate double bonds. In this instance, the strength of interaction of a conjugate trienoic double bond system with silver ions seemed to be between that of methylene-interrupted dienoic and monoenoic double bond systems. Triacylglycerols of the seeds of Ginkgo biloba have been resolved by HPLC in the silver-ion mode according to the number and position of double bonds. In this instance, the strength of interaction between the {pi}-electrons of double bonds in the fatty acyl residues and silver ions is in the order; C{sub 18:3{omega}3}>C(20:3){Delta}{sup 5,11,14}C{sub 18:3}{Delta}{sup 5,9,12}>= C{sub 18:2{omega}6}>C{sub 18:2}{Delta}{sup 5,9}>C{sub 18:1{omega}9}>C{sub 18:1ome= ga7}. 49 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Interrupted inferior vena cava with hemiazygos continuation in an adult with a persistent left superior vena cava and left single coronary artery: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeo Jin; Kwon, Se Hwan; Ahn, Sung Eun; Kim, Soo Joong; Oh, Joo Hyeong [College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jong Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A 50-year-old woman was referred to our institution for medical screening due to an incidental finding on abdominal ultrasonography. She underwent chest, abdomen and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). Her MDCT revealed absence of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC), with hemiazygos continuation and a left single coronary artery. The dilated hemiazygos vein drained directly into the persistent left superior vena cava (SVC). Herein, we reported a very rare case combining an incidentally found interrupted IVC with hemiazygos vein continuation, persistent left SVC and a left single coronary artery diagnosed by MDCT.

  20. 多层介质阻抗匹配对隔爆效果的影响%Influence of multilayered media impedance matching on explosion interruption effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈闯; 王晓鸣; 李文彬; 贾方秀; 殷婷婷

    2014-01-01

    为了有效提升隔爆结构衰减爆炸冲击波的性能,将45#钢、铝和有机玻璃进行不同组合,设计了顺序波阻抗梯度、逆序波阻抗梯度以及硬软硬三种多层隔爆结构。利用锰铜压阻传感器测压实验和数值计算对多层介质阻抗匹配特性对隔爆效果的影响进行了研究,获得了多层介质的不同组合引起的冲击波在传播过程中各层介质压力,理论分析、数值计算与实验结果吻合较好,并分析了第三层介质能量与冲量的变化规律。从不同方面得到的结果表明:逆序波阻抗梯度的输出冲击波压力最小,其第三层的能量与冲量最小,隔爆效果最佳。%In order to improve the performance of explosion interruption structures to attenuate explosion shock wave effectively,the explosion interruption structures with sequential impedance matching gradient, reverse impedance matching gradient and hard-soft-hard layers were designed through different combinations of 45 #steel,Aluminum and PMMA.The influence of multilayered media impedance matching property on the explosion interruption effect was studied by using a manganin pressure-resistance sensor and numerical calculation.The pressure of each layer media was obtained due to shock wave caused with different combinations of multilayered media in a process of shock wave transmission.The test results were consistent with those of the theoretical analysis and numerical calculation,the change rules of energy and impulse in the third layer were analyzed as well.The results from different aspects showed that the structures with reverse impedance matching gradient have an optimal explosion interruption effect,their output shock wave pressure is the minimum,their third layer's energy and impulse are the minimum too.

  1. Iub接口部分E1中断对HSDPA吞吐率的影响及优化%Iub Interface Part E1 Interruption to HSDPA Throughput Rate Influence and Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李筱林; 卢琦

    2013-01-01

    主述在3G网络中,Iub接口在基于ATM/E1的传输方式下,因为部分E1传输发生中断后,带宽分配无法动态调度,使实际网络资源能力小于规划配置资源需求从而引起瓶颈,导致数据传输过程中出现网络拥塞,使HSDPA产生吞吐率大幅度下降的情况。通过剖析其内在拥塞原因,研究其拥塞控制优化手段,从而提高用户的感受度。%Mainly describes the 3G network, Iub interface based ATM/E1 transmission, because part of the E1 transmis-sion interruption, bandwidth allocation can not be dynamic scheduling, planning capacity less than the actual network re-sources causing the bottleneck resource allocation needs, resulting inthe digital transmission network congestion, the HS-DPA throughput dropped significantly; By analyzing its inherent congestion reasons to study its congestion control opti-mization tools to improve the user's feelings.

  2. The Significance of Sedation Control in Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate assessment and control of sedation play crucial roles in the proper performance of mechanical ventilation. Methods A total of 30 patients with various pulmonary diseases were prospectively enrolled. The study population was randomized into two groups. The sedation assessment group (SAG) received active protocol-based control of sedation, and in the empiric control group (ECG), the sedation levels were empirically adjusted. Subsequently, daily interruption of sedation (DIS)...

  3. Wuchereria bancrofti infection in human and mosquito populations of a Polynesian village ten years after interruption of mass chemoprophylaxis with diethylcarbamazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartel, J L; Nguyen, N L; Spiegel, A; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Plichart, R; Martin, P M; Manuellan, A B; Lardeux, F

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, a study on Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae (mf) and infection rates was carried out in the human and mosquito populations of a Polynesian village where, 10 years before, the mf prevalence rate was 6.4% and twice-yearly mass treatment with 3 mg/kg of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was interrupted. Venous blood samples were collected from 575 (97%) individuals aged 15 years or more, of whom 122 (21.4%) were mf positive. The mf carrier prevalence rate was 27.4% in males, significantly higher than that of 14% in females; it increased from 7-12% in the youngest age group (15-19 years) to 40-50% in the oldest (> or = 60 years) for both males and females. 387 mosquito collections were performed and 1748 female Aedes polynesiensis were dissected, of which 1176 were parous. Among the latter, 114 (9.7%) were infected with Wuchereria bancrofti larvae at L1, L2 or L3 stages. The mean number of larvae per mosquito was 2.46 (range 1-15). Of the 114 infected mosquitoes, 30 harboured L3 larvae, giving a 2.55% infective rate; the mean number of L3 larvae per mosquito was 1.15 (range 1-2). Such findings indicate that the interruption of systematic twice-yearly mass treatment with DEC (3 mg/kg) has resulted, after 10 years, in a substantial increase of microfilarial prevalence in humans, and in high infection rates in mosquitoes.

  4. 课堂话语中断现象的语篇信息结构分析%Structural Analysis of Textual Information of Classroom Discourse Interruptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春丹

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of discourse function, Halliday, Martin's English information structure theory as a guide to analyze the structural characteristics of teachers and students in conversational discourse interrupted, the operating mechan- ism and treatment. Clear relationship between the discourse purpose and intention of the speaker's verbal behavior, and the session the two sides with the new information highlights to perceive speech intention. The study found that the appropriate use of session interruption strategy to enhance the instructor-led teaching ability to grasp the students' attention and active classroom atmosphere.%本文从语篇功能角度,以韩礼德、马丁等人的英语信息结构理论为指导,分析师生会话语篇中断的结构特点、运行机制及处理情况。明确了语篇目的与说话人言语行为意图二者之间的关系,及会话双方借助新信息的凸显来觉察言语意图。研究发现,适当采用会话中断策略,能提高教师引导式教学能力抓住学生注意力,活跃课堂气氛。

  5. Improved water and child health in Egypt: impact of interrupted water supply and storage of household water on the prevalence of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushdy, R; Sieverding, M

    2016-04-19

    Egypt is approaching universal access to improved water supply, but the variable quality of improved water may have a measureable health impact. We investigated the impact of different measures of improved water access on the prevalence of diarrhoea among children aged under 5 years. Using data from the 2008 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey and propensity score matching techniques we compared children in households with improved water supplies, with/without interruptions to supplies and with/without in-home storage of water. Access to improved water that was not subject to cuts resulted in a significant 2.6 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of diarrhoea (4.7% reduction in rural areas), and access to improved water that was not stored prior to use resulted in a 3.5% reduction. Further research is needed to better understand the nature and causes of piped water interruptions in Egypt, in order to address potential infrastructure challenges that are leading to poorer health outcomes.

  6. Effects of multiple interruptions with trimethylindium-treatment in the InGaN/GaN quantum well on green light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Ma, Zi-Guang; Chen, Hong; Wu, Hai-Yan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Yang, Hao-Jun; Zhao, Bin; He, Miao; Zheng, Shu-Wen; Li, Shu-Ti

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the influence of multiple interruptions with trimethylindium (TMIn)-treatment in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on green light-emitting diode (LED) is investigated. A comparison of conventional LEDs with the one fabricated with our method shows that the latter has better optical properties. Photoluminescence (PL) full-width at half maximum (FWHM) is reduced, light output power is much higher and the blue shift of electroluminescence (EL) dominant wavelength becomes smaller with current increasing. These improvements should be attributed to the reduced interface roughness of MQW and more uniformity of indium distribution in MQWs by the interruptions with TMIn-treatment. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204360 and 61210014), the Science and Technology Planning Projects of Guangdong Province, China (Grant Nos. 2014B050505020, 2015B010114007, and 2014B090904045), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20134407110008), the Guangzhou Municipal Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2016201604030027), and the Zhongshan Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2013B3FC0003).

  7. Transient expiratory flow interruptions (TEFI increase expiratory flow in acute asthma exacerbation Incremento del flujo espiratorio luego de interrupciones transitorias en la exacerbación aguda de asma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Fernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that expiratory flows increase when expirations are rapidly interrupted in stable asthmatic patients. We hypothesized that a similar increase could be obtained in patients with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma treated in the Emergency Room. A total of 30 asthmatic patients were randomly allocated into two groups, the study and the control groups. Patients in the study group were connected to a device with an inspiratory line designed to administer pressurized aerosols. The expiratory line passed through a valve completely interrupting flow at 4 Hz, with an open/closed time ratio of 10/3. The control group patients were also connected to the device, but with the valve kept open. Mean expiratory flow at tidal volume (MEFTV was measured under basal conditions and at 4, 8 and 12 minutes after connecting the patients to the device. All patients received standard treatment throughout the procedure. At all time points MEFTV increased more in the study than in the control group (p Demostramos que el flujo espiratorio máximo, en pacientes asmáticos en estado estable, se incrementaba cuando se generaban rápidas y transitorias interrupciones del flujo. Formulamos la hipótesis de que un incremento similar podría ser observado en pacientes con exacerbación aguda de asma tratados en la sala de emergencias. Un total de 30 pacientes asmáticos fueron distribuidos al azar en dos grupos. Los pacientes del grupo en estudio fueron conectados a un aparato con una vía inspiratoria diseñada para la administración de aerosoles. La vía espiratoria pasaba por una válvula que interrumpía el flujo completamente a 4 hz, con una relación tiempo abierta/tiempo cerrada de 10/3. Los pacientes del grupo control también fueron conectados al aparato pero con la válvula siempre abierta. Se midió el flujo medio de la espiración a volumen circulante en condiciones basales y a los 4, 8 y 12 minutos después de conectado el paciente al equipo. Todos

  8. 基于等微增率准则的可中断电价设计模型%Design Model of Interruptible Price based on Equal Incremental Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兰菊

    2013-01-01

      可中断负荷是电力市场环境下需求侧管理的重要组成部分,可以刺激和鼓励用户改变消费行为和用电方式,达到削峰填谷改变负荷曲线的目的。而实施可中断负荷的核心之一是构建适用的定价模型,设计合理的可中断电价。文章首先对可中断负荷做了概述,论述了我国实施和推广可中断电价的迫切性;介绍了可中断电价的基本概念和特点以及可中断电价的设计受可中断负荷市场参与主体的利益约束;然后,给出了可中断用户缺电成本函数,在此基础上采用等微增率准则,构建了可中断电价的设计模型,并给出了可中断电价的设计流程;最后,以某地级市为例,通过选取不同的最大错峰负荷比例,设计出不同工业用户的可中断电价,算例分析结果验证了该模型的有效性和合理性。为我国可中断电价的设计提供了理论参考依据。%Interruptible load is an important part of Demand Side Management in power market, can stimulate and encourage the user to change consumption behavior and mode, to achieve the purpose of peak clipping and valley filling, then change the load curve. The core issue to implement interruptible load is to establish the right pricing model and design a reasonable interruptible price. Firstly, this paper make a overview of the interruptible load, and discusses the urgency to implement and promote the interruptible load in our country. Introduced the basic definition and features of interruptible price and the constraints of interruptible price designed by the interruptible load market participants. Then, gave out the interruptible users power shortage cost function, on this basis, utilized the equal incremental principle to build interruptible price model, and gave out interruptible price design process. Finally, take a example of a prefecture-level city, by selecting the largest proportion of peak shifting load

  9. 基于遗传算法的嵌入式软件中断过载动态检测%Dynamic detection of interrupt overloads in embedded software using a genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁; 崔凯; 周宽久; 李显杰

    2011-01-01

    Embedded software needs to deal with many interrupts,but random interrupts lead to test difficulties in embedded systems which are becoming more and more complicated.A method is given to enable dynamic detection of interrupt overloads based on a genetic algorithm.The algorithm handles diverse types of interrupts with non-uniform searches giving improved local searches to construct an interrupt handling sequence to generate the stack depth and detect stack overflow errors during interrupt execution.Tests on a SPARC V8 architecture Virtualsparc simulation platform show that this method quickly detects the loss rate of non-executed interrupts in the stack.Dynamic changes in the stack depth greatly reduce the interrupt overload loss rate with increased detection efficiency of interrupt faults in embedded software.%嵌入式软件需要处理大量中断。中断的随机特性导致越来越复杂的嵌入式系统测试困难。该文基于遗传算法的中断过载动态检测方法,使用均匀变异增加中断类型多样性,非均匀变异算法的使用提高了局部搜索能力;构造产生堆栈深度的中断执行序列测试中断处理的堆栈溢出错误。采用自主研发基于SPARC V8架构的Virtualsparc仿真平台进行中断过载仿真测试,实验表明:该方法可以快速检测堆栈中待处理的中断丢失率,随着堆栈深度的动态修改,大大降低了中断处理在堆栈里的丢失率,同时对中断过载进行定位来提高嵌入式软件中断缺陷检测效率。

  10. A Versatile Control Scheme For Dynamic Voltage Restorer To Limit Downstream Fault Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Nagendra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR is a custom power device utilized to counteract voltage sags. It injects controlled three-phase ac voltages in series with the supply voltage, subsequent to voltage sag, to enhance voltage quality by adjusting the voltage magnitude, wave shape, and phase angle. The DVR is conventionally bypassed during a downstream fault to prevent potential adverse impacts on the fault and to protect the DVR components against the fault current. This paper proposes an augmented control strategy for the DVR that provides:1 voltage-sag compensation under balanced and unbalanced conditions and 2 a fault current interruption (FCI function. This paper introduces and evaluates an auxiliary control strategy for downstream fault current interruption in a radial distribution line by means of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR. The proposed controller supplements the voltage-sag compensation control of the DVR. It does not require phaselocked loop and independently controls the magnitude and phase angle of the injected voltage for each phase. Fast least error squares digital filters are used to estimate the magnitude and phase of the measured voltages and effectively reduce the impacts of noise, harmonics, and disturbances on the estimated phasor parameters, and this enables effective fault current interrupting even under arcing fault conditions. The performance of the DVR for fault current interruption is analyzed by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

  11. Changes in first-line injectable disease-modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis: predictors of non-adherence, switching, discontinuation, and interruption of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Piccinni, Carlo; Sangiorgi, Diego; Perrone, Valentina; Aledda, Lucia; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Lombardo, Fabio

    2017-01-11

    This study was aimed to describe changes of Disease-Modifying Treatments (DMT) in an Italian cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to identify predictors of therapeutic modifications. Patients with MS and treated with the first-line injectable DMT (interferons-IFNs or glatiramer) between 1/7/2009 and 31/10/2012 were selected from administrative databases of the MS Center of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy). Socio-demographic, therapeutic, and clinical information was collected in the 6 months preceding the index date. All patients were followed for 36 months to evaluate therapeutic changes in terms of non-adherence, switch, temporary discontinuation, and permanent interruption. Predictors of changes were estimated by multivariable regression models. Data on 1698 patients were collected: glatiramer was prescribed in 27% of cases, IFNβ-1b in 22%, IFNβ-1a-im in 20%, IFNβ-1a-sc-44mcg in 19%, and IFNβ-1a-sc-22mcg in 12%. Non-adherence was observed in 25% of cases, therapeutic switch in 30%, discontinuation in 37%, and permanent interruption in 28%. The risk of non-adherence was higher for IFNβ-1b, compared with IFNβ-1a-im (adjOR = 1.73). Therapeutic switch occurred especially in patients recently diagnosed (each year from diagnosis causes a decrease of this risk adjHR = 0.97); the risk of discontinuation was higher with EDSS = 4-6 and 7-9 (adjHR = 1.52 and 4.42, respectively). The risk of permanent interruption increased with the augmentation of disability (adjHR = 1.67 and 5.43 for EDSS 4-6 and 7-9). This study mirrored a detailed framework of DMT prescription and identified factors related to changes in the MS therapy. These findings could support healthcare providers in the evaluation and maximization of benefits associated with a long-term DMT.

  12. The choice of foreign entry modes in a control perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    depending on the control that the company has over its activities abroad. The paper examines selected factors that influence the ‘entry modes’ of Danish SMEs in different strategic settings. Results show that the most deciding factor for the choice of high control entry mode (subsidiary) was the factor...... turnover. The factors: personal networks and the interruption of the international activities were the most significant factors for the choice of intermediate mode (joint ventures and strategic alliances)....

  13. A Power Interruption Technique for Investigation of Temperature Difference in Stabilized Low Direct-Current Arc Burning in Pure Argon on Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. Kuzmanovi(c); J. J. Savovi(c); D. P. Rankovi(c); M. Stoiljkovi(c); A. Anti(c)-Jovanovi(c); M.S. Pavlovi(c); M. Marinkovi(c)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Plasma of argon stabilized arc column, in a current range 3-11 A, is investigated using emission spectrometric diagnostic techniques. Temperatures are evaluated using several methods: argon line to adjacent recombinational continuum intensity ratio, absolute emissivity of argon fine, measurement of electron number density, and power interruption. Electron number density is evaluated from absolute emissivity of recombinational continuum. The difference between electron Te and heavy particle Th temperature ranged from 4500 K for 3 A to 2300 K for 11 A arc current. By comparing the present with the previously obtained results, using the same arc device but with the introduction of water aerosol, it is concluded that water aerosol reduces the difference Te - Th and brings plasma closer to the partial thermodynamic equilibrium state.

  14. Comparison of airway resistance measurements by the forced oscillation technique and the interrupter technique for detecting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan-fei; SUN Tie-ying; Francois Herrmann; Jean-Paul Janssens

    2005-01-01

    @@ Pulmonary function tests provide an objective means to verify ventilatory dysfunction and to estimate its severity in respiratory disorders. Measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) is considered to be the basic tests for the assessment of airway obstruction. Although they are useful diagnostically and prognostically, the results of FEV1 and FVC are strongly dependent on the cooperation of the patient. Lack of collaboration is particularly present in elderly patients because of mood alterations, fatigability or cognitive impairment.1 The forced oscillation technique (FOT) and the interrupter resistance technique are the two methods of measuring respiratory resistance during tidal breathing, they are of special interest because both of them are noninvasive, requires minimal cooperation, takes little time and can be easily repeated, especially in children and elderly subjects who cannot accomplish forced expiratory maneuvers in a reproducible manner.2

  15. 静态检测中断驱动程序的数据竞争%Static Race Detection of Interrupt-Driven Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍玮; 于洪涛; 冯晓兵; 张兆庆

    2011-01-01

    Interrupt-driven programs that run directly on the microcontrollers are ubiquitous in safety-critical areas. In these programs, data races, a class of critical errors, may occur. Using static race detection tools is an important way to find such bugs. Unfortunately, the state-of-art static race detection tools which only focus on multithread codes may be not helpful. In this paper, a new static race detection tool is designed for such programs. The tool is named Draco and implemented on top of Open64 compiler. It provides a simple and easy-to-use language that is used to annotate the programs with the interrupt-related features, so it can detect programs independent of running platforms. Moreover, it embodies a flow-sensitive and context-sensitive race detection algorithm that takes into account the atomicity, the flexibility and the partial randomicity of interrupt-driven programs. Because of adopting the program analysis techniques, Draco succeeds to detect the data races of interrupt-driven programs. It is efficient and precise. Experimental results show that the detecting time of Draco increases asymptotically linearly with the growth of code size, and it only takes 3. 6s to detect 17 850 lines of code. Moreover, the race detection accuracy rate on the average is 2. 13 times as much as that of lockset based race detection algorithm.%直接运行于微控制器上的中断驱动程序中可能存在一种重要的程序错误:数据竞争.然而当前主流的数据竞争静态检测技术因其服务于多线程模型程序而不适用.设计简明、易用的中断特征描述语言可以使得竞争检测具有平台无关性;同时,提出了一个流敏感的、上下文敏感的、考虑中断驱动程序原子性、易变性和部分随机性的数据竞争检测算法.该算法具有高效、精确的特点.实验表明,其检测时间与代码规模基本呈线性关系,分析17 850行代码仅用时3.6s;同时,相比于基于锁集技术的典型

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of interruption of the inferior vena cava by ultrasound%下腔静脉离断产前超声诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚远; 李胜利; 陈秀兰; 文华轩; 廖玉媚; 肖志莲

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨胎儿下腔静脉离断产前超声声像图特征和有效诊断切面,以提高其产前超声诊断准确率.方法 回顾性分析我院2006年1月至2010年5月诊断的10例下腔静脉离断胎儿(其中7例经引产后尸体解剖证实)产前超声声像图,与正常超声声像图对比,总结其产前超声声像图特征及有效切面.结果 10例下腔静脉离断胎儿,9例合并严重心内结构畸形,7例合并心外结构畸形(其中5例合并内脏反位).本组10例下腔静脉离断胎儿产前超声声像图均表现为四腔心切面异常(奇静脉扩张)、上腹部横切面异常(正常下腔静脉不能显示)、胸腹部斜冠状切面异常[离断的下腔静脉异位连接于奇(半奇)静脉并穿过膈肌连于腔静脉]及右心房纵切面异常(肝上段下腔静脉入右心房,肾上段肝段间的下腔静脉缺失并离断).结论 下腔静脉离断常合并心内、外结构畸形.下腔静脉离断胎儿在四腔心切面、上腹部横切面、胸腹部斜冠状切面及右心房纵切面上均有特征性超声声像图表现.识别下腔静脉离断特征性超声声像图表现可明显提高其产前超声检出率和诊断准确率.%Objective To investigate ultrasound characteristics and effective diagnosis views of interruption of the inferior vena cava. Methods Between January 2006 and May 2010, 10 fetuses were diagnosed as interruption of the inferior vena cava by ultrasound in our hospital. Seven cases of them were confirmed by autopsy. Their ultrasound images were retrospectively reviewed and compared with normal ones. Results Among the ten fetuses, 9 were complicated with severe cardiac malformations and 7 were complicated with outside cardiac malformations ( including 5 with situ inverse ). For all the 10 cases, dilated venae azygos could be found in four-chamber view, normal inferior vena cava could not be found in the upper abdominal view, inferior vena cava connected with venae azygos or

  17. Business interruption impacts of a terrorist attack on the electric power system of Los Angeles: customer resilience to a total blackout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Oladosu, Gbadebo; Liao, Shu-Yi

    2007-06-01

    Regional economies are highly dependent on electricity, thus making their power supply systems attractive terrorist targets. We estimate the largest category of economic losses from electricity outages-business interruption-in the context of a total blackout of electricity in Los Angeles. We advance the state of the art in the estimation of the two factors that strongly influence the losses: indirect effects and resilience. The results indicate that indirect effects in the context of general equilibrium analysis are moderate in size. The stronger factor, and one that pushes in the opposite direction, is resilience. Our analysis indicates that electricity customers have the ability to mute the potential shock to their business operations by as much as 86%. Moreover, market resilience lowers the losses, in part through the dampening of general equilibrium effects.

  18. Investigating Brain Network Characteristics Interrupted by Covert White Matter Injury in Patients with Moyamoya Disease: Insights from Graph Theoretical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazumata, Ken; Tha, Khin Khin; Narita, Hisashi; Shichinohe, Hideo; Ito, Masaki; Uchino, Haruto; Abumiya, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    Chronic ischemia in adult moyamoya disease (MMD) reduces the integrity of normal-appearing white matter (WM). We investigated whether covert WM impairment alters large-scale brain networks and specific neural circuits associated with neurocognitive dysfunction in MMD. Forty-six participants (control, n = 23; MMD, n = 23) were examined using diffusion tensor imaging and streamline tractography. Structural connectivity among 90 cortical and subcortical brain regions was evaluated using the mean fractional anisotropy along the fiber tracts. Graph theoretical analysis was used to measure network parameters and inter-regional connectivity. Global network parameters were reduced in patients with MMD, including cluster coefficient (controls vs. MMD: 3.62 ± 0.24 vs. 3.26 ± 0.36; P < 0.0001), characteristic path length (controls vs. MMD: 1.20 ± 0.02 vs. 1.17 ± 0.01; P < 0.001), and small-world property (controls vs. MMD: 3.07 ± 0.18 vs. 2.83 ± 0.27; P < 0.001). Reduced pairwise connectivity was found in prefrontal neural circuits within the middle/inferior frontal gyrus; supplementary motor area; and insular, inferior temporal, and dorsal cingulate cortices. Covert WM microstructural changes in patients with MMD alter large-scale brain networks, as well as lateral prefrontal neural circuits. Evaluation of structural connectivity may be useful to assess the severity of chronic ischemic injury from a network perspective.

  19. Estimation of the annual rate of interruptions in a industrial plant resulting from short-circuits in the utilities networks; Estimativa da taxa anual de interrupcoes numa planta industrial causadas por curtos-circuitos nas redes das concessionarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Antonio Guilherme Garcia; Ross, Ricardo Penido Dutt; Sollero, Raul Balbi [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: aggl@cepel.br

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the CEPEL experience in interruptions and voltage sags analysis and the supplier system characteristic influence - radial, parallel lines, multiple feeding, etc - on the magnitude of the voltage sags detected inside the facility. The paper shows a technique for the estimation of the significant voltage sags (below 70 % of the nominal voltage) in a industry based on simulations of short-circuit in the network, and the existent data of the number of interruptions on transmission lines per each 100 km, per year.

  20. Research on perception of quality and interruption costs for customers of high and medium voltage; Pesquisa sobre percepcao da qualidade e custos de interrupcao em clientes de alta e media tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelegrini, Marcelo A.P.; Almeida, Carlos Frederico Mechini; Baldan, Silvio; Amasifen, Juan C. Cebrian; Cunha, Gabriel R.A.; Garcia, Valdomiro V.; Cyrillo, Ivo O.; Souza, Tiago P. de; Magalhaes, Cecilia H. Magalhaes; Silva, Fabiana A. Toledo [Sinapsis Inovacao em Energia S/S LTDA, Bela Vista, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: marcelo.pelegrini@sinapsienergia.com, carlos.almeida, juan.cebrian@sinapsienergia.com

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents partial results of an applied research on the perceived quality of energy by customers of AES Eletropaulo of high and medium voltage. In general, occurrences related to power interruption can cause serious consequences for industrial and commercial customers. This issue motivated the calculation, from the results obtained, of the cost of interruption incurred by customers individually, based on 12 categories of spending, and this result was validated by comparison with actual expenditures incurred during an intervention in a large industrial customer. (author)

  1. A high HIV DNA level in PBMCs at antiretroviral treatment interruption predicts a shorter time to treatment resumption, independently of the CD4 nadir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Christophe; Weiss, Laurence; Assoumou, Lambert; Burgard, Marianne; Mélard, Aurélie; Ragnaud, Jean-Michel; Bentata, Michele; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Rouzioux, Christine; Costagliola, Dominique

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the safety of antiretroviral treatment interruption (TI) in HIV-infected patients who started treatment based on earlier guidelines, and to identify baseline factors predictive of the time to reach fixed criteria for treatment resumption. Prospective, open-label, multicenter trial. Patients were eligible if they had a CD4 cell count >350/mm(3) and plasma HIV RNA 450/mm(3) and stable plasma HIV RNA <5,000 copies/ml for at least 6 months prior to enrollment. The criteria for ART resumption were a CD4 cell count <300/mm(3) and/or a CDC stage B or C event. 116 patients had received ART for a median of 5.3 years. The median CD4 cell count and plasma HIV RNA values at inclusion were 809/mm(3) and 2.6 log copies/ml, respectively. Median HIV DNA load at inclusion was 2.3 log copies/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Thirty-six months after TI, 63.9% of the patients had not yet reached the criteria for ART resumption, and 55.9% of patients had not resumed ART. In Cox multivariable analysis, a high HIV DNA level at TI, a low CD4 nadir, and pre-existing AIDS status were the only significant risk factors for reaching the criteria for ART resumption (hazards ratio: 2.15 (1.02-4.53), 4.59 (1.22-17.24), and 5.74 (1.60-20.56), respectively). Patients who started ART with a CD4 cell count above 350/mm(3) were able to interrupt treatment for long periods without a high absolute risk of either AIDS or severe non-AIDS morbidity/mortality. A high PBMC HIV DNA level at TI was a strong predictor for more rapid treatment resumption.

  2. Interrupted thymidylate synthase gene of bacteriophages T2 and T6 and other potential self-splicing introns in the T-even bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, F.K.; Maley, F.; Martinez, J.; Maley, G.F.

    1987-09-01

    Southern hybridization analyses of procaryotic DNA from Escherchia coli, lambda bacteriophage, and T1 to T7 phages were carried out. The hybridization probes used consisted of DNA restriction fragments derived from the T4 phage intron-containing thymidylate synthase gene (td) and short synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides defining specific exon and intron regions of the gene. It was shown that intact as well as restricted DNA from the T-even phages hybridized not only to both T4 phage td intron- and exon-specific probes but also to probes defining the td 5' (exon I-intron) and 3' (intron-exon II) presplice junctions. These data strongly suggest that, analogous to the T4 phage, only the T2 and T6 phages among the procaryotes tested contain interrupted td genes. The td intervening sequence in each phage is roughly 1 kilobase pair (kb) in size and interrupts the td gene at a site analogous to that in the T4 phage. This was confirmed by data from Northern (RNA) hybridization analysis of td-specific in vitro transcripts of these phage DNAs. (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)GTP in vitro labeling of total RNA from T4 phage-infected cells produced five species of labeled RNAs that were 1, 0.9, 0.83, 0.75, and 0.6 kb in size. Only the 1-, 0.9-, and 0.75-kb species were labeled in RNA from T2- or T6-infected cells. The commonly present 1-kb RNA is the excised td intron, which exists in both linear and circular forms in the respective T-even-phage-infected cells, while the 0.6-kb RNA unique to T4 may be the excised intron derived from the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit gene (nrdB) of the phage. The remaining labeled RNA species are likely candidates for other self-splicing introns.

  3. Development of a composite line source emission model for traffic interrupted microenvironments and its application in particle number emissions at a bus station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Jayaratne, Rohan; Heuff, Darlene; Morawska, Lidia

    A composite line source emission (CLSE) model was developed to specifically quantify exposure levels and describe the spatial variability of vehicle emissions in traffic interrupted microenvironments. This model took into account the complexity of vehicle movements in the queue, as well as different emission rates relevant to various driving conditions (cruise, decelerate, idle and accelerate), and it utilised multi-representative segments to capture the accurate emission distribution for real vehicle flow. Hence, this model was able to quickly quantify the time spent in each segment within the considered zone, as well as the composition and position of the requisite segments based on the vehicle fleet information, which not only helped to quantify the enhanced emissions at critical locations, but it also helped to define the emission source distribution of the disrupted steady flow for further dispersion modelling. The model then was applied to estimate particle number emissions at a bi-directional bus station used by diesel and compressed natural gas fuelled buses. It was found that the acceleration distance was of critical importance when estimating particle number emission, since the highest emissions occurred in sections where most of the buses were accelerating and no significant increases were observed at locations where they idled. It was also shown that emissions at the front end of the platform were 43 times greater than at the rear of the platform. Although the CLSE model is intended to be applied in traffic management and transport analysis systems for the evaluation of exposure, as well as the simulation of vehicle emissions in traffic interrupted microenvironments, the bus station model can also be used for the input of initial source definitions in future dispersion models.

  4. The Stability Analysis for an Extended Car Following Model Based on Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-Xia; Meng, Xiang-Pei; Zhu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Rong-Jun

    2014-08-01

    A new method is proposed to study the stability of the car-following model considering traffic interruption probability. The stability condition for the extended car-following model is obtained by using the Lyapunov function and the condition for no traffic jam is also given based on the control theory. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate and verify the analytical results. Moreover, numerical simulations show that the traffic interruption probability has an influence on driving behavior and confirm the effectiveness of the method on the stability of traffic flow.

  5. Discussion and Analysis of Avoiding Kovar Materials Cracking in Vacuum Interrupter Brazing%避免可伐材料在真空灭弧室钎焊时开裂的措施探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立娟; 王雅杰; 刘永飞

    2012-01-01

    4J33可伐材料也称铁-镍-钴合金,由于其具有与无氧铜、陶瓷材料等相近的热膨胀系数,并具有良好的真空钎焊性能,故在真空灭弧室的结构设计中多被采用,但在用银铜焊料对可伐材料进行钎焊封接时经常会发生无法修补的可伐开裂现象,直接给应用者造成损失.针对这一现象做了一系列的试验,并结合相关的理论知识对此现象进行了详细的分析,从结构设计与工艺控制角度来探寻适宜可行的解决方法.%4J33 Kovar is also called iron-nickel-cobalt alloy. Because of it's coefficient of thermal expansion close to the oxygen-free copper and ceramic materials etc. and good vacuum brazing performance, it is commonly used in structure design of Vacuum Interrupter. However, kovar always happened at the time of silver-copper solder brazing which caused great loss. The authors conduct a series of experiments according to these phenomena and make some detailed analysis and theoretical discussion. Feasible solutions are proposed from the angle of structure design and process control.

  6. Genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control: requirements to be considered before field releases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touré, Y.T.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The technical feasibility of the development of transgenic mosquitoes highly refractory to (rodent) malaria parasites has been demonstrated in the laboratory. Following this proof of principle, genetic control of vectors could have an important role to play in the interruption of transmission of hum

  7. Software control for large scale on-board checkout: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grounds, H. K.; Norton, D. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Two level system checkout in which first level satisfies continuous monitoring requirements and second level provides fault isolation to satisfy maintenance requirements, provides self-checking capability for monitoring system and enables recovery from unexpected error or failure interruptions. System must perform operational duties of navigation, control, and experimentation.

  8. Interruption of the blood-stage cycle of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi, by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Gazarini

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a devastating disease caused by a unicellular protozoan, Plasmodium, which affects 3.7 million people every year. Resistance of the parasite to classical treatments such as chloroquine requires the development of new drugs. To gain insight into the mechanisms that control Plasmodium cell cycle, we have examined the effects of kinase inhibitors on the blood-stage cycle of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. In vitro incubation of red blood cells for 17 h at 37ºC with the inhibitors led to a decrease in the percent of infected cells, compared to control treatment, as follows: genistein (200 µM - 75%, staurosporine (1 µM - 58%, R03 (1 µM - 75%, and tyrphostins B44 (100 µM - 66% and B46 (100 µM - 68%. All these treatments were shown to retard or prevent maturation of the intraerythrocytic parasites. The diverse concentration ranges at which these inhibitors exert their effects give a clue as to the types of signals that initiate the transitions between the different developmental stages of the parasite. The present data support our hypothesis that the maturation of the intraerythrocytic cycle of malaria parasites requires phosphorylation. In this respect, we have recently reported a high Ca2+ microenvironment surrounding the parasite within red blood cells. Several kinase activities are modulated by Ca2+. The molecular identification of the targets of these kinases could provide new strategies against malaria.

  9. Use of steerable delivery catheter to successfully deliver a Ceraflex septal occluder to close an atrial septal defect in a child with interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, İlker K; Ballı, Şevket; Küçük, Mehmet; Çelebi, Ahmet

    2016-04-01

    The closure of a secundum atrial septal defect through the jugular vein in a child with interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation by steerable delivery catheter is described in the present report. The steerable catheter can be used to correct the perpendicular position of the device over the margins of the defect, and is particularly useful in cases of large defects.

  10. Task Interruptions of Human-computer Interaction:New Issues in the New Environment%人机互动中的任务中断:新环境中的新问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 伍麟

    2012-01-01

    任务中断是人机互动中常见的一种现象。关于中断延迟期间心理作用机制的主要理论包括:任务转换理论、长时工作记忆理论、目标记忆理论和线程认知理论。任务转换理论为中断延迟作用机制的研究提供了基础的模式,长时工作记忆理论和目标记忆理论各自提出了复述和编码两种不同的观点,线程认知理论主张多线程并行,深化了任务中断的研究。未来研究应关注中断对主任务执行产生不同影响的原因、影响中断任务执行期间复述机会的因素等。%In this paper we discuss some issues about task interruption. We try to summarize the existing experimental results and theoretical results and analyze what these studies show. Then, we hope that our study can inform researchers about what has been done about this area. More importantly, we’d like to further explore the direction and focus of future research. In the first place, based on the literature review of previous task interruption studies, we present task interruptions’ background and theories. The rapid development of Internet technology weakens the space-time boundary of traditional environment. Virtual settings emerge in that the interaction and the sense of immersion in network using expand settings from geographical areas to cyberspace. Human behavior setting is divided into real settings and virtual settings. Interaction between these behavior settings generates a new environment system-"R-V" mesosystems ("real-virtual" mesosystems).The intermingling of real and virtual behavior programs within "R-V" mesosystems reflects the polyfunctional nature of settings. In these settings, human-computer interaction(HCI) is common. In addition to efficient processing of information, HCI also brings information overland, psychological stress, health damage and interpersonal stress. These negative impacts result from the fact that humans have to face and deal

  11. One digit interruption: the altered force patterns during functionally cylindrical grasping tasks in patients with trigger digits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Tsun Chen

    Full Text Available Most trigger digit (TD patients complain that they have problems using their hand in daily or occupational tasks due to single or multiple digits being affected. Unfortunately, clinicians do not know much about how this disease affects the subtle force coordination among digits during manipulation. Thus, this study examined the differences in force patterns during cylindrical grasp between TD and healthy subjects. Forty-two TD patients with single digit involvement were included and sorted into four groups based on the involved digits, including thumb, index, middle and ring fingers. Twelve healthy subjects volunteered as healthy controls. Two testing tasks, holding and drinking, were performed by natural grasping with minimal forces. The relations between the force of the thumb and each finger were examined by Pearson correlation coefficients. The force amount and contribution of each digit were compared between healthy controls and each TD group by the independent t test. The results showed all TD groups demonstrated altered correlation patterns of the thumb relative to each finger. Larger forces and higher contributions of the index finger were found during holding by patients with index finger involved, and also during drinking by patients with affected thumb and with affected middle finger. Although no triggering symptom occurred during grasping, the patients showed altered force patterns which may be related to the role of the affected digit in natural grasping function. In conclusion, even if only one digit was affected, the subtle force coordination of all the digits was altered during simple tasks among the TD patients. This study provides the information for the future studies to further comprehend the possible injuries secondary to the altered finger coordination and also to adopt suitable treatment strategies.

  12. Prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis of fetal interrupted aortic arch%胎儿主动脉弓离断产前超声诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董莹; 王玲; 赵晟; 郭宁; 肖蕾

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨产前超声对胎儿主动脉弓离断(IAA)的诊断价值,分析漏、误诊原因,提高产前诊断率。方法回顾性分析16例胎儿主动脉弓异常超声图像特征,与正常胎儿超声图像、解剖结果进行对比研究,并分析胎儿IAA与染色体异常的相关性。结果16例产前诊断IAA病例,经解剖确诊15例,超声诊断正确率为94%(15/16),1例为主动脉弓严重缩窄(CoA),1例分型错误,3例产前超声不能分型病例获得明确分型,超声分型符合率为73%(11/15)。确诊的15例全部合并室间隔缺损,其中5例合并完全性心内膜垫缺损,合并心脏外畸形者9例。7例进行了染色体核型检查,3例18‐三体,1例13‐三体,3例正常,18‐三体发生率为43%(3/7)。结论产前超声对胎儿IAA的诊断准确率高,但在明确分型方面有待提高。胎儿IAA与严重CoA的鉴别存在困难。18‐三体在IAA胎儿染色体异常中发生率较高。%Objective To evaluate the value of prenatal ultrasound in the interrupted aortic arch (IAA), and analyze the reasons of misdiagnosis and improve diagnostic ratio of this kind of defects. Methods Ultrasonic characteristics were analyzed in 16 fetuses with aortic arch anomalies, which were compared with ultrasound image and autopsy results of the normal fetus. The relativity of fetal IAA and abnormal chromosome was also analyzed. Results Among the 16 cases, 15 cases were confirmed by anatomy and the accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis was 94% (15/16), of which one case was serious constriction of aortic arch, one case was error type, three cases were obtained explicit type due to unsatisfactory results of prenatal ultrasound. The coincidence rate of ultrasonic type was 73% (11/15). All of the corrected diagnosed cases were detected with ventricular septal, of which 5 cases were detected with complete endocardial cushion defect, 9 cases were found extra cardiac

  13. Helicopter internal noise control: Three case histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Cox, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    Case histories are described in which measurable improvements in the cabin noise environments of the Bell 214B, 206B, and 222 were realized. These case histories trace the noise control efforts followed in each vehicle. Among the design approaches considered, the addition of a fluid pulsation damper in a hydraulic system and the installation of elastomeric engine mounts are highlighted. It is concluded that substantial weight savings result when the major interior noise sources are controlled by design, both in altering the noise producing mechanism and interrupting the sound transmission paths.

  14. Quorum Sensing Inhibition by Asparagopsis taxiformis, a Marine Macro Alga: Separation of the Compound that Interrupts Bacterial Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Hartmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the marine algal species, though completing their life cycle in seawater, are rarely susceptible to fouling, making them an important source of quorum sensing (QS inhibitory substances. The separation and characterization of QS inhibitors are crucial for any potential application. Thirty marine macroalgae were tested for QS inhibition activity by using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as the reporter strain, and among them, Asparagopsis taxiformis showed antibacterial, as well as antiquorum, sensing activities. Cinnamaldehyde (75 mM and methanol were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The antiquorum sensing activity of A. taxiformis was further confirmed using the sensor strain, Serratia liquefaciens MG44, having green fluorescent protein (gfp. Methanolic extract of the alga was fractionated by solid phase extraction (SPE, and each fraction was tested for QS inhibition. Two types of activities were observed—zone of clearance (antibacterial activity and zone of inhibition with or without finger-like projections (QS inhibition. Out of five SPE cartridges, Bond Elut PH showed clear separation of these two fractions. The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Fourier Transformation Mass Spectrometer (ICR-FT/MS analysis of the fractions further supported the bioassay results. The presence of strong QS inhibitory compound in A. taxiformis indicates its potential use in antifouling preparations.

  15. Rapid CD4 decline after interruption of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharananan Siriorn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI with stavudine and lamivudine is widely used as the first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings. Lipodystrophy is common and options for switching ART regimen are limited; this situation can lead to patients' poor adherence and antiretroviral resistance. Treatment interruption (TI in patients with high CD4 cell counts, lipodystrophy, and limited options may be an alternative in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to determine time to resume ART after TI and predictors for early resumption of ART in a resource-limited setting. Methods A prospective study was conducted in January 2005 to December 2006 and enrolled HIV-infected patients with HIV-1 RNA 350 cells/mm3, and willing to interrupt ART. CD4 cell count, HIV-1 RNA, lipid profile, and lipodystrophy were assessed at baseline and every 3 months. ART was resumed when CD4 declined to 3 or developed HIV-related symptoms. Patients were grouped based on ART regimens [NNRTI or protease inhibitor (PI] prior to TI. Results There were 99 patients, 85 in NNRTI group and 14 in PI group. Mean age was 40.6 years; 46% were males. Median duration of ART was 47 months. Median nadir CD4 and baseline CD4 were 151 and 535 cells/mm3, respectively. Median CD4 change at 3 months after TI were -259 (NNRTI and -105 (PI cells/mm3 (p = 0.038. At 13-month median follow-up, there was no AIDS-defining illness; 38% (NNRTI and 29% (PI of patients developed HIV-related symptoms. ART was resumed in 51% (NNRTI and 36% (PI of patients (p = 0.022. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, median time to resume ART was 5.5 (NNRTI and 14.2 (PI months (log rank test, p = 0.026. By Cox's regression analysis, NNRTI-based ART (HR 4.9; 95%CI, 1.5–16.3, nadir CD4 3 (HR 2.7; 95%CI 1.4–5.3 and baseline CD4 3 (HR 1.6; 95%CI, 1.2–3.1 were predictors for early ART resumption. Conclusion TI of NNRTI-based ART leads to rapid CD4 decline and high

  16. Estudio comparativo de microsutura vascular en ratas: punto simple y punto de colchonero horizontal Comparative study about vascular microsurgery on rats: classic interrupted suture versus horizontal mattress suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Casado Sánchez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La Microcirugía es la técnica empleada para la realización de la microanastomosis vascular. El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar dos tipos de técnicas de microsutura: los puntos simples clásicos, de empleo habitual en la microcirugía vascular, y los puntos de colchonero horizontales, no evaluados habitualmente para este tipo de cirugía. Fueron intervenidas 20 ratas albinas de la cepa Wistar (peso medio de 250 - 300 gr. bajo anestesia general; realizamos sección transversal en la arteria femoral, procediendo a su reparación microquirúrgica inmediata. Se establecieron 2 grupos de animales: en el grupo A (n=10, la microsutura se hizo mediante 6 puntos sueltos simples, y en el grupo B (n=10, empleando 3 puntos de colchonero horizontal. Comprobamos la patencia en el desclampado inmediato y tras una hora del desclampado (para ambas técnicas fue positiva en el 100% de los casos, y la hemorragia en ambos tiempos (se registró un único caso de sangrado en el postoperatorio inmediato en el grupo B, que requirió la revisión de la microsutura. El tiempo medio de ejecución de la sutura en el grupo B, 15 minutos aproximadamente, fue más corto que en el grupo A, 21 minutos aproximadamente, diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p Microsurgery is the procedure of choice for vascular microanastamoses. The objective of this study was to compare two types of suture techniques: classic interrupted suture anastomoses, commonly used for vascular anastamoses in microsurgery, and another technique using horizontal mattress sutures, rarely evaluated in this type of surgery. Twenty albino Wistar rats were operated (average weight: 250 - 300 gr. under general anaesthesia. A transverse section of the femoral artery was performed and immediately followed by an anastamoses. The animals were placed into two groups of ten. The classic 6 interrupted suture anastomoses technique was performed in group A (n = 10 and another technique using 3

  17. Interruptions of antiretroviral therapy in children and adolescents with HIV infection in clinical practice: a retrospective cohort study in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natella Rakhmanina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Changes in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART throughout childhood challenge the continuity of paediatric HIV treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of treatment interruption (TI, including lamivudine (3TC monotherapy, and the relationship of TI to virologic and immunologic parameters in HIV-infected paediatric patients. Methods: Nested within a prospective observational study of a city-wide cohort of HIV-infected persons in the District of Columbia, this sub-study collected retrospective data on antiretroviral therapy, enrolment (endpoint and historic (lifelong CD4 counts and HIV RNA viral load (VL of the paediatric cohort. TI was defined as interruption of cART ≥4 consecutive weeks. Data on TI, including 3TC monotherapy TI (MTI, were collected. Descriptive statistics and univariate testing were used to compare children with TI and MTI to children on continuous treatment (CT. Results: Thirty-eight (28% out of 136 enrolled children (median age=12.9 years experienced TI, with 14 (37% of those placed on 3TC MTI. Significantly lower endpoint median CD4 counts (598 cells/mm3 vs. 815 cells/mm3; p=0.003 and CD4% (27.5% vs. 33%; p=0.006 were observed in the TI cohort as compared to the CT cohort. The median endpoint VL in the overall TI cohort was ~4 times higher than among the CT cohort (1427 copies/mL vs. 5581 copies/mL; p<0.0001. After a median TI duration of one year, a majority (n=31; 82% of patients with TI restarted cART, including 100% of those with total TI and 53% of those on MTI, respectively. Conclusions: In our study, we observed high frequency of the TI in HIV in paediatric HIV clinical practice. All TIs, including 3TC MTI, were associated with significantly lower endpoint median CD4 counts and higher median VLs, as compared to CT in paediatric patients. The high frequency of TI and associated poor outcomes suggest a need for a better strategy in managing the course of the paediatric and adolescent cART.

  18. Sutura arterial com técnicas contínua e de pontos separados, utilizando-se os fios polipropilene e polidioxanone: estudo experimental em coelhos Arterial suture with continuous and interrupted techniques, using polypropylene and polydioxanone threads: experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Leonardo Kerdahi Leite de Campos

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Observar o comportamento da sutura arterial em aortas abdominais de coelhos em crescimento, comparando-se as técnicas contínua e com pontos separados, empregando-se dois tipos de fios: Polipropilene 7-0 (inabsorvível e Polidioxanone 7-0 (absorvível. MÉTODOS: Grupos: GI - Controle (sem sutura; GII - Polipropilene, Pontos Separados; GIII - Polipropilene, Contínua; GIV - Polidioxanone, Pontos Separados e GV - Polidioxanone, Contínua. Cada grupo foi subdividido em quatro Momentos de Eutanásia: aos 7, 14, 30 e 60 dias de pós-operatório. Foram avaliados: peso dos animais, diâmetros e pulsos arteriais, estenose, trombose, aderências, aortografia, visibilidade do fio, cicatrização e microscopia. RESULTADOS: a após 60 dias, o local da linha de sutura cresceu de forma significativa em todos os grupos; b a técnica de sutura com pontos separados causou menor estenose da linha de sutura, observada tanto no ato cirúrgico, como na eutanásia dos animais; c no exame histopatológico, as diferenças encontradas entre grupos foram transitórias, não persistindo após 60 dias de pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: O polidioxanone mostrou ser a melhor opção, entre os dois fios, para sutura de artérias em crescimento, pois causa pouca ou nenhuma restrição ao crescimento arterial na linha de sutura, mesmo quando se emprega a técnica contínua.PURPOSE: To assess the arterial suture, comparing continuous and interrupted techniques, in abdominal aorta of growing rabbbits, using two types of suture material: Polypropylene 7-0 (nonabsorbable and Polydioxanone 7-0 (absorbable. METHODS: Groups: GI - Control, without arterial suture; GII - Polypropylene, Interrupted technique; GIII - Polipropilene, Continuous technique; GIV - Polydioxanone, Interrupted technique and GV - Polydioxanone, Continuous technique. Each group was subdivided in four Moments of Euthanasia , according with the number of days after surgery: 7 , 14 , 30 and 60 days. The

  19. Microbial transmission from mothers with obesity or diabetes to infants: an innovative opportunity to interrupt a vicious cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderborg, Taylor K; Borengasser, Sarah J; Barbour, Linda A; Friedman, Jacob E

    2016-05-01

    Maternal obesity and diabetes dramatically increase the long-term risk for obesity in the next generation, and pregnancy and lactation may be critical periods at which to aim primary prevention to break the obesity cycle. It is becoming increasingly clear that the gut microbiome in newborns and infants plays a significant role in gut health and therefore child development. Alteration of the early infant gut microbiome has been correlated with the development of childhood obesity and autoimmune conditions, including asthma, allergies and, more recently, type 1 diabetes. This is likely to be due to complex interactions between mode of delivery, antibiotic use, maternal diet, components of breastfeeding and a network of regulatory events involving both the innate and adaptive immune systems within the infant host. Each of these factors are critical for informing microbiome development and can affect immune signalling, toxin release and metabolic signals, including short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, that regulate appetite, metabolism and inflammation. In several randomised controlled trials, probiotics have been administered with the aim of targeting the microbiome during pregnancy to improve maternal and infant health but the findings have often been confounded by mode of delivery, antibiotic use, ethnicity, infant sex, maternal health and length of exposure. Understanding how nutritional exposure, including breast milk, affects the assembly and development of both maternal and infant microbial communities may help to identify targeted interventions during pregnancy and in infants born to mothers with obesity or diabetes to slow the transmission of obesity risk to the next generation. The aim of this review is to discuss influences on infant microbiota colonisation and the mechanism(s) underlying how alterations due to maternal obesity and diabetes may lead to increased risk of childhood obesity.

  20. Maleic Acid--but Not Structurally Related Methylmalonic Acid--Interrupts Energy Metabolism by Impaired Calcium Homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tunç Tuncel

    Full Text Available Maleic acid (MA has been shown to induce Fanconi syndrome via disturbance of renal energy homeostasis, though the underlying pathomechanism is still under debate. Our study aimed to examine the pathomechanism underlying maleic acid-induced nephrotoxicity. Methylmalonic acid (MMA is structurally similar to MA and accumulates in patients affected with methymalonic aciduria, a defect in the degradation of branched-chain amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids and cholesterol, which is associated with the development of tubulointerstitial nephritis resulting in chronic renal failure. We therefore used MMA application as a control experiment in our study and stressed hPTECs with MA and MMA to further validate the specificity of our findings. MMA did not show any toxic effects on proximal tubule cells, whereas maleic acid induced concentration-dependent and time-dependent cell death shown by increased lactate dehydrogenase release as well as ethidium homodimer and calcein acetoxymethyl ester staining. The toxic effect of MA was blocked by administration of single amino acids, in particular L-alanine and L-glutamate. MA application further resulted in severe impairment of cellular energy homeostasis on the level of glycolysis, respiratory chain, and citric acid cycle resulting in ATP depletion. As underlying mechanism we could identify disturbance of calcium homeostasis. MA toxicity was critically dependent on calcium levels in culture medium and blocked by the extra- and intracellular calcium chelators EGTA and BAPTA-AM respectively. Moreover, MA-induced cell death was associated with activation of calcium-dependent calpain proteases. In summary, our study shows a comprehensive pathomechanistic concept for MA-induced dysfunction and damage of human proximal tubule cells.

  1. Prevention and control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-09-01

    Taenia solium is endemic in most of the world, causing seizures and other neurological symptoms. Transmission is mainly maintained in rural areas by a human to pig cycle. Despite claims on its eradicability, sustainable interruption of transmission has not yet been reported. This manuscript reviews the conceptual basis for control, available diagnostic and control tools, and recent experiences on control in the field performed in Peru along the past decade.

  2. Statistical analysis of major ion and trace element geochemistry of water, 1986-2006, at seven wells transecting the freshwater/saline-water interface of the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, describes the results of a statistical analysis of major ion and trace element geochemistry of water at seven wells transecting the freshwater/saline-water interface of the Edwards aquifer in San Antonio, Texas, either over time or in response to variations in hydrologic conditions. The data used in this report were collected during 1986–2006. The seven monitoring wells are screened at different depths in the aquifer at three sites that form a generally north-to-south transect. The three wells of the southern site and the deeper of the two middle-site wells are open to the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, which contains saline water. The shallower well of the middle site and the two wells of the northern site are open to the freshwater zone.

  3. PERCEPÇÃO DOS TRABALHADORES DA SAÚDE ACERCA DA PREVENÇÃO DA EPIDEMIA DA AIDS EM FLORIANÓPOLIS-SC, BRASIL (1986-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vieira Villarinho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigación socio-histórica cuyo objetivo fue conocer la percepción de los profesionales de salud de un hospital referencia en enfermedades infecto-contagiosas acerca de la prevención de la epidemia del SIDA de 1986 hasta 2006. Los datos fueron recopilados de marzo a octubre de 2011, utilizando la técnica de historia oral, con veintitrés profesionales de la salud que estuvieron a cargo del cuidado de personas con el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida durante el período del estudio. Fue utilizado el análisis de contenido descrito por Bardin, del cual surgieron dos categorías: necesidad de estrategias de prevención y falta de uso de preservativos (condones. Los resultados muestran que la percepción de los profesionales de la salud sobre la prevención del SIDA a lo largo de la epidemia fue mala, lo que está relacionado a las fragilidades de los medios de comunicación, a los profesionales de la salud en las acciones de prevención y a la banalización de la prevención por la misma sociedad, al no usar condones en las relaciones sexuales. Concluimos que desconocer la enfermedad tuvo como resultado la lentitud en las aclaraciones y prevención sobre el HIV/SIDA.

  4. Compulsory for Whom? Mandatory Voting and Electoral Participation in Brazil, 1986-2006 Obrigatório para Quem? Voto Obrigatório e Participação Eleitoral no Brasil, 1986 a 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Power

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Latin America contains roughly half of the world’s countries that use compulsory voting, but this electoral institution has received only limited attention from researchers. This article examines the determinants of voter turnout in the world’s largest electorate subject to mandatory voting, that of Brazil. In analyzing data from six national legislative elections held in Brazil between 1986 and 2006, the study finds that the impact of compulsory laws varies across social and economic groups. From a methodological perspective, the article argues that “compulsoriness” of mandatory voting legislation can be modeled by taking into account both exemptions to the law and the relevance of potential sanctions against non-voters. The issue of enforcement must be considered if we are to develop comprehensive models of electoral participation under conditions of compulsory voting. A América Latina congrega aproximadamente a metade dos paises do mundo que utilizam o voto obrigatório, mas até hoje essa instituição eleitoral tem recebido pouca atenção dos pesquisadores. O presente artigo examina os determinantes da participação eleitoral no maior eleitorado do mundo sujeito ao voto obrigatório, o brasileiro. Ao analisar dados de seis eleições legislativas nacionais entre 1986 e 2006, o estudo mostra que o impacto do voto obrigatório varia entre os grupos sociais e econômicos. Desde uma perspectiva metodológica, o artigo sustenta que a “obrigatoriedade” da legislação eleitoral pode ser modelada, levando-se em conta tanto as isenções à lei como a relevância de potenciais sanções contra os não-participantes. Devemos levar em consideração a questão do enforcement para podermos desenvolver modelos abrangentes de participação eleitoral sob condições de voto obrigatório.

  5. Should antiplatelet therapy be interrupted in drug eluting stent recipients throughout the periendoscopic period? A very late stent thrombosis case re-port and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng DONG; Xin-Chun YANG; Su-Yan BIAN

    2014-01-01

    In-stent thrombosis after cessation of antiplatelet medications in patients with drug-eluting stents (DES) is a significant problem in medical practice, particularly in the perioperative period. We report a case of an 87-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, coronary artery disease and chronic atrophic gastritis. Very late thrombosis of a sirolimus-eluting stent occurred 1207 days after implantation, seven months after discontinuation of clopidogrel, and the interruption of aspirin 13 days in preparation of an elective endoscopic gastroin-testinal procedure presented with acute myocardial infarction. The patient was treated with thrombectomy and successfully revascularized with superimposition of two sirolimus-eluting stents. Medications administered in the catheterization laboratory included low molecular weight heparin and nitroglycerin. Flow was defined as grade 2 according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction scale. Electrocardio-gram after the procedure revealed persistent, but decreased, ST-segment elevation in the anterolateral leads. The patient recovered and was discharged on aspirin and clopidogrel indefinitely. There was no cardiac event during the two year follow-up period. This case underlines the importance of maintaining the balance of thrombosis and bleeding during perioperation of non-cardiac procedure and the possible need for continuation of aspirin therapy during periendoscopic procedures among patients with low bleeding risks who received DES.

  6. Interruption of electronically excited Xe dimer formation by the photoassociation of Xe(6s[3/2]2)-Xe(5p(6) (1)S0) thermal collision pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, T C; Wagner, C J; Eden, J G

    2016-06-28

    The diatomic collisional intermediate responsible for the formation of an electronically excited molecule by teratomic recombination has been observed in both the spectral and temporal domains by laser spectroscopy. We report experiments demonstrating thermal Xe(6s[3/2]2)-Xe(5p(6) (1)S0) atomic collision pairs to be the immediate precursor to the formation of Xe2 (∗)(a(3)Σu (+),A(1)Σu (+)) by the three body process: Xe(∗)(6s) + 2Xe ⟶ Xe2 (∗) + Xe, where the asterisk denotes an excited electronic state. Photoassociating Xe(6s)-Xe atomic pairs by free ⟵ free transitions of the collision complex interrupts the production of the electronically excited Xe dimer, thereby suppressing Xe2 spontaneous emission in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, λ ∼ 172 nm, A(1)Σu (+)→X(1)Σg (+)). Intercepting Xe(6s)-Xe pairs before the complex is stabilized by the arrival of the third atom in the teratomic collision process selectively depletes the pair population in a specific Franck-Condon region determined by the probe laser wavelength (λ). Measurements of the variation of VUV emission suppression with λ provide a spectral signature of the [Xe(6s[3/2]2) - Xe((1)S0)](∗) complex and map the probe laser wavelength onto the thermal energy (ϵ″) of the incoming collision pairs.

  7. Interruption of electronically excited Xe dimer formation by the photoassociation of Xe(6s[3/2]2)-Xe(5p6 1S0) thermal collision pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, T. C.; Wagner, C. J.; Eden, J. G.

    2016-06-01

    The diatomic collisional intermediate responsible for the formation of an electronically excited molecule by teratomic recombination has been observed in both the spectral and temporal domains by laser spectroscopy. We report experiments demonstrating thermal Xe(6s[3/2]2)-Xe(5p6 1S0) atomic collision pairs to be the immediate precursor to the formation of Xe 2∗ ( a 3 Σu + , A 1 Σu +) by the three body process: Xe∗(6s) + 2Xe ⟶ Xe 2∗ + Xe, where the asterisk denotes an excited electronic state. Photoassociating Xe(6s)-Xe atomic pairs by free ⟵ free transitions of the collision complex interrupts the production of the electronically excited Xe dimer, thereby suppressing Xe2 spontaneous emission in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, λ ˜ 172 nm, A 1 Σu + → X 1 Σg +). Intercepting Xe(6s)-Xe pairs before the complex is stabilized by the arrival of the third atom in the teratomic collision process selectively depletes the pair population in a specific Franck-Condon region determined by the probe laser wavelength (λ). Measurements of the variation of VUV emission suppression with λ provide a spectral signature of the [Xe(6s[3/2]2) - Xe(1S0)]∗ complex and map the probe laser wavelength onto the thermal energy (ɛ″) of the incoming collision pairs.

  8. Acute effects of aircraft noise on cardiovascular admissions - an interrupted time-series analysis of a six-day closure of London Heathrow Airport caused by volcanic ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tim; Campbell, Michael J; Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Acute noise exposure may acutely increase blood pressure but the hypothesis that acute exposure to aircraft noise may trigger cardiovascular events has not been investigated. This study took advantage of a six-day closure of a major airport in April 2010 caused by volcanic ash to examine if there was a decrease in emergency cardiovascular hospital admissions during or immediately after the closure period, using an interrupted daily time-series study design. The population living within the 55dB(A) noise contour was substantial at 0.7 million. The average daily admission count was 13.9 (SD 4.4). After adjustment for covariates, there was no evidence of a decreased risk of hospital admission from cardiovascular disease during the closure period (relative risk 0.97 (95% CI 0.75-1.26)). Using lags of 1-7 days gave similar results. Further studies are needed to investigate if transient aircraft noise exposure can trigger acute cardiovascular events.

  9. Moracin M inhibits airway inflammation by interrupting the JNK/c-Jun and NF-κB pathways in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Hee; Ko, Hae Ju; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Lee, Sang Kook; Moon, Bong Soo; Lee, Chan Woo; Mandava, Suresh; Samala, Mallesham; Lee, Jongkook; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2016-07-15

    The therapeutic effectiveness of moracins as 2-arylbenzofuran derivatives against airway inflammation was examined. Moracin M, O, and R were isolated from the root barks of Morus alba, and they inhibited interleukin (IL)-6 production from IL-1β-treated lung epithelial cells (A549) at 101-00μM. Among them, moracin M showed the strongest inhibitory effect (IC50=8.1μM). Downregulation of IL-6 expression by moracin M was mediated by interrupting the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun pathway. Moracin derivatives inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-catalyzed NO production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated alveolar macrophages (MH-S) at 50-100μM. In particular, moracin M inhibited NO production by downregulating iNOS. When orally administered, moracin M (20-60mg/kg) showed comparable inhibitory action with dexamethasone (30mg/kg) against LPS-induced lung inflammation, acute lung injury, in mice with that of dexamethasone (30mg/kg). The action mechanism included interfering with the activation of nuclear transcription factor-κB in inflamed lungs. Therefore, it is concluded that moracin M inhibited airway inflammation in vitro and in vivo, and it has therapeutic potential for treating lung inflammatory disorders.

  10. Chill injury in the eggs of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae): the time-temperature relationship with high-temperature interruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-HONGJING; XIAN-HUIWANG; LEKANG

    2005-01-01

    Mortality of the overwinteing egg of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria L., was attributed to chill injury because of its occurrence weU above the egg's supercooling point. In this study, two parameters, upper limit of chill injury zone (ULCIZ) and sum of the injurious temperature (SIT), were used to examine the locust egg' s cold hardiness.The value of ULCIZ for the locust egg is 1.06 + 0.54℃, and the SIT is -329.7 (hour·degree). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities changed dramatically after cold stress, indicating that oxygen and hydroxide free radicals are probably efficiently detoxified at low temperatures. It was suggested that the nature of chill in jury inlocust egg might be a complex of metabolic disorder and a non-proportional decrease in enzymatic reaction and transports, because the LDH activity at low temperature increased significantly and the ATPase activity decreased with prolonged duration of exposure to low temperatures. The results from high temperature interruption revealed that the high temperature intervals significantly increased the survival of locust eggs.

  11. 涡流对真空灭弧室开断电流的影响%Eddy Current Influence on Breaking Current of Vacuum Interrupter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司红

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the influence on current breaking capability of vacuum interrupter contact by eddy current theoretically. And the cause of forming eddy current is analyzed. It presents the experiments and analyses to prove the conclusion as following: contact body will form eddy current in alternating magnetic field, that lead to magnetic field of contact lags behind current. It will affect the capability of contact current breaking. Eddy current of contact should be minimized even to zero to get the ideal design of contact body.%论述了涡流对真空灭弧室触头开断能力的影响,以及涡流产生的原因,并加以证明,表明了触头体在交变磁场中将产生感应涡流,使触头磁场滞后于电流,影响触头开断能力;要使触头达到理想设计,应将触头涡流减到最小.

  12. Characterization of the human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) mediated Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling transduction in proliferating mammalian dopaminergic neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Lei [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Physiology, Nankai University School of Medicine, Tianjin 300071 (China); Carr, Aprell L. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Center for Zebrafish Research, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Li, Ping; Lee, Jessica; McGregor, Mary [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Li, Lei, E-mail: Li.78@nd.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Center for Zebrafish Research, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Stil is a human oncogene that is conserved in vertebrate species. • Stil functions in the Shh pathway in mammalian cells. • The expression of Stil is required for mammalian dopaminergic cell proliferation. - Abstract: The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) is highly conserved in all vertebrate species. In humans, the expression of Stil is involved in cancer cell survival, apoptosis and proliferation. In this research, we investigated the roles of Stil expression in cell proliferation of mammalian dopaminergic (DA) PC12 cells. Stil functions through the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation tests revealed that STIL interacts with Shh downstream components, which include SUFU and GLI1. By examining the expression of Stil, Gli1, CyclinD2 (cell-cycle marker) and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), we found that up-regulation of Stil expression (transfection with overexpression plasmids) increased Shh signaling transduction and PC12 cell proliferation, whereas down-regulation of Stil expression (by shRNA) inhibited Shh signaling transduction, and thereby decreased PC12 cell proliferation. Transient transfection of PC12 cells with Stil knockdown or overexpression plasmids did not affect PC12 cell neural differentiation, further indicating the specific roles of Stil in cell proliferation. The results from this research suggest that Stil may serve as a bio-marker for neurological diseases involved in DA neurons, such as Parkinson’s disease.

  13. Yatein from Chamaecyparis obtusa suppresses herpes simplex virus type 1 replication in HeLa cells by interruption the immediate-early gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yuh-Chi; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Yuang-Lian; Tsai, Wei-Jern

    2006-07-01

    Inhibitory effects of methanolic extracts from nine Chinese herbs on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication were studied. By a bioassay-guided fractionation procedure, yatein (C(22)H(23)O(7); M.W.399) was isolated from Chamaecyparis obtusa; yatein significantly suppressed HSV-1 multiplication in HeLa cells without apparent cytotoxicity. To further localize the point in the HSV-1 replication cycle where arrest occurred, a set of key regulatory events leading to the viral multiplication was examined, including viral immediate-early (alpha) and late (gamma) gene expression and DNA replication. Results indicated that levels of glycoprotein B (gB) and gC mRNA expression in HeLa cells were impeded by yatein. Data from polymerase chain reaction showed that replication of HSV-1 DNA in HeLa cells was arrested by yatein. Furthermore, yatein decreased ICP0 and ICP4 gene expression in HeLa cells. Results of an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that yatein interrupted the formation of alpha-trans-induction factor/C1/Oct-1/GARAT multiprotein complex. The mechanisms of antiviral action of yatein seem to be mediated, by inhibiting HSV-1 alpha gene expression, including expression of the ICP0 and ICP4 genes, and by arresting HSV-1 DNA synthesis and structural protein expression in HeLa cells. These results suggest that yatein is an antiviral agent against HSV-1 replication.

  14. Interruption of the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles to ethanol-baited traps and ethanol-injected trap trees by verbenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Christopher M; Tobin, Patrick C; Reding, Michael E; Bray, Alicia M; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Frank, Steven D; Persad, Anand B

    2013-06-01

    We examined the extent to which verbenone, a bark beetle antiaggregation pheromone, interrupted the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles. Field trapping studies conducted in Ohio showed that a verbenone dispenser with a release rate of 50 mg/d at 25°C reduced the attraction of Anisandrus sayi Hopkins, Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Hypothenemus dissimilis (Zimmermann), Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), and Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg) to ethanol-baited traps. A verbenone dispenser attached to ethanol-injected Magnolia virginiana L. trap trees deployed in Ohio also reduced ambrosia beetle attacks compared to trap trees without a verbenone dispenser. Subsequent field trials demonstrated a direct relationship between distance from a verbenone dispenser and ambrosia beetle attacks on trap trees in Ohio in 2011 and 2012 and Tennessee in 2012, but not in Tennessee and Virginia in 2011. Assessment of the influence of verbenone on the probability of attacks above a density threshold found that although attacks occurred on trap trees regardless of their proximity to a verbenone dispenser, the higher density of attacks per tree occurred on trap trees farthest away from the verbenone source in Ohio and Tennessee. Verbenone alone could be somewhat useful for discouraging ambrosia beetle attacks on individual trees or on a small spatial scale, but deployment of verbenone might be most effective when integrated as part of a "push-pull" strategy.

  15. Transhepatic approach to create stent fenestration in the extracardiac Fontan conduit in a child with dextrocardia and interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Turner, Daniel R; Forbes, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare life-threatening complication of Fontan operation. When medical treatment is ineffective in the setting of high systemic venous pressures, Fontan fenestration may be considered to decompress venous pressures and improve cardiac output by creation of the right-to-left shunting. However, transcatheter approach can be difficult in patients with complex venous anatomy. We report a 4-year-old girl born with hypoplastic left ventricle and heterotaxy syndrome, who developed plastic bronchitis following extracardiac Fontan procedure. Her venous anatomy was complex with dextrocardia and interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation. Stent fenestration was successfully performed via transhepatic approach, which was selected based on the anatomical relationship (between extracardiac conduit, left atrium, and hepatic veins) delineated by pre-catheterization cardiac MRI. Simultaneous transesophageal echocardiography guided the intervention. Her plastic bronchitis improved significantly in 3 months but slowly progressed after the stent fenestration. At her 8-month follow-up, stent fenestration remains open and she is currently under heart transplantation evaluation due to persistent plastic bronchitis. Treatment of plastic bronchitis can be undertaken with Fontan fenestration, with pre-procedural MRI playing an essential role in patients with complex venous anatomy.

  16. Partial interruption of the inferior vena cava: ten-year evolution in protocols at Grenoble University Hospital. Study of 621 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, J L; Olinic, D; Franco, G; Pichot, O; Magne, J L; Carpentier, P; Franco, A

    1995-01-01

    An evolution in protocols regarding indications and modalities for Partial Interruption of the Inferior Vena Cava (PIIVC) on 621 patients at Grenoble University Hospital is reported and the influence of new methods in diagnosis (vascular sonography) and therapy (percutaneous filters) is assessed. This comparative study covers the intervals from 1982-1984 (Period A - 333 patients), and 1989-1991 (Period B - 288 patients). The percentage of patients with venous thromboembolic disease who underwent PIIVC clearly decreased (21.8% in period A vs. 13% in period B, p < 0.01). The incidence of what are currently miscalled "prophylactic", but are in fact adjunctive indications also diminished (115 patients in period A, or 34.5% of the PIIVC cases vs. 60 patients in period B, or 20.8% of the PIIVC cases, p < 0.05). There was a reduction in the use of Miles caval clips (59 patients or 17.7% for period A vs. 34 patients or 11.8% for period B, p < 0.05). Although there has been an increase in the use of percutaneous caval filters, the use of percutaneous filters has not lead to an increase in the real rate of PIIVC performed by an Angiology Unit with a large experience in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with venous thromboembolic disease.

  17. Characterization of the human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) mediated Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling transduction in proliferating mammalian dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Carr, Aprell L; Li, Ping; Lee, Jessica; McGregor, Mary; Li, Lei

    2014-07-11

    The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) is highly conserved in all vertebrate species. In humans, the expression of Stil is involved in cancer cell survival, apoptosis and proliferation. In this research, we investigated the roles of Stil expression in cell proliferation of mammalian dopaminergic (DA) PC12 cells. Stil functions through the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation tests revealed that STIL interacts with Shh downstream components, which include SUFU and GLI1. By examining the expression of Stil, Gli1, CyclinD2 (cell-cycle marker) and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), we found that up-regulation of Stil expression (transfection with overexpression plasmids) increased Shh signaling transduction and PC12 cell proliferation, whereas down-regulation of Stil expression (by shRNA) inhibited Shh signaling transduction, and thereby decreased PC12 cell proliferation. Transient transfection of PC12 cells with Stil knockdown or overexpression plasmids did not affect PC12 cell neural differentiation, further indicating the specific roles of Stil in cell proliferation. The results from this research suggest that Stil may serve as a bio-marker for neurological diseases involved in DA neurons, such as Parkinson's disease.

  18. A Multi-core Heterogeneous Programmable Automation Controller System of Construction Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Guoqing

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two main issues, high cost and interrupt response delay for current PACs (programmable automation controllers which are using high frequency single-chip microprocessors and commercial RTOS (real-time operating system working by switching the tasks and interrupts. To solve these problems, a new low-cost multi-core heterogeneous PAC structure was proposed. Based on the traditional front-end of interrupt service without interrupt switching delay and the division & deployment of multi real-time tasks. We implemented a new programming language Engineer C including its syntax, compiler and an integrated development environment, which can dynamically divide the multi tasks and deploy the division to single low-cost microcontroller, then built the hardware prototype, which consists of a digital signal board, an analog signal board and a motion control board, every board has its microcontroller and communicates each other by an enhanced SPI bus. Testing results show the hardware prototype and IDE can be provided as a low-cost PAC solution for construction machine.

  19. A note on conversational interruptions A note on conversational interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony F. Deyes

    2008-01-01

    In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974) examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the author...

  20. 基于3D打印机传输中断解决方案的设计与实现%Transmission Interruption ofSolution Design and Implementation Based on 3D Printer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晋; 金禹含; 步亚楠; 苏臣

    2016-01-01

    PC uses C# language to write software for data processing on VS2008. The lower computer selects STM32F103RBT6 from the STM32 series as the main control system, and uss the serial port as the hardware transmission medium. The design oflower computer software uses uC/OS-III to realize the multi-task concurrent processing. It also designs the method and solution scheme for the phenomenon of transmission interruption in the process of data transmission, and the error position and information can be checked out easily and fast by using it. Through theoretical analysis and a testing combining hardware and software, it not only proves the feasibility and practicability of the transmission system, but also provides solution and reference value for costreducing, practicality, convenience construction of data transmission system.%PC机使用C#语言在VS2008的工具上编写实现“数据处理”软件。下位机选取STM32系列的STM32F103RBT6作为主控系统,采用串口作为硬件传输媒介,下位机软件设计借助uC/OS-III实现多任务并发处理。数据传输过程中传输中断现象设计方法和解决方案,借助此方案很容易快速查询出错位置以及信息。经过理论分析和软硬件结合测试,不但证明了传输系统的可行性和实用性,而且还为降低研发成本、实用性、方便性构建数据传输系统提供了问题解决思路及参考价值。