Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baughcum, S.L.; Henderson, S.C.; Tritz, T.G. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States)
1997-12-31
Emission inventories of fuel burned, NO{sub x}, CO, and hydrocarbons have been calculated for scheduled air traffic in 1976, 1984, 1990 and 1992 on a 1 deg latitude x 1 deg longitude x 1 km pressure altitude grid. Using this database, the seasonal variation and historical trends in aircraft emissions have been calculated for selected geographical regions (e.g., North Atlantic, Europe, North America, North Pacific). The trend in emissions is a combination of the effects of passenger demand growth, improved aircraft efficiency, changes in combustor characteristics, and aircraft size. (author) 8 refs.
How Sensitively Timed Are Sensitive Periods?
Zener, Rita Schaefer
2003-01-01
Reviews Maria Montessori's view of sensitive periods and examines the kinds of help needed from adults: an open mind, specific help from a prepared learning environment, and challenges presented at the right time. Stresses the universality of sensitive periods and their connection to brain development. Focuses on the unconscious nature and…
First passage times: Busy periods and waiting times
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐光煇; 袁学明
1995-01-01
General expressions of first passage times for denumerable Markov processes are discussed and computation problems for busy periods and waiting times for queues corresponding to Markov processes are studied. In particular, the simplified algorithms for busy periods and waiting times for queues corresponding to G//M/1 type and M/G/1 type Markov processes are derived and some numerical examples are presented.
On periodic orbits in discrete-time cascade systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huimin Li
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We present some results on existence, minimum period, number of periodic orbits, and stability of periodic orbits in discrete-time cascade systems. Some examples are presented to illustrate these results.
36 CFR 218.10 - Objection time periods and process.
2010-07-01
... holidays. However, when the time period expires on a Saturday, Sunday, or Federal holiday, the time is extended to the end of the next Federal working day as stated in the legal notice or to the end of...
Satisfactory control of discrete-time linear periodic systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shiqian LIU; Jihong ZHU; JinChun HU
2007-01-01
In this paper satisfactory control for discrete-time linear periodic systems is studied.Based on a suitable time-invariant state sampled reformulation,periodic state feedback controller has been designed such that desired requirements of steady state covariance,H-infinity rejection bound and regional pole assignment for the periodic system are met simultaneously.By using satisfactory control theory,the problem of satisfactory periodic controller can be transformed into a linear programming problem subject to a set of linear matrix inequalities(LMIs).and a feasible designing approach is presented via LMI technique.Numeric example validates the obtained conclusion.
The Time Periodic Solution for Camassa-Holm Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
付一平
2003-01-01
@@ 1 Introduction and Preliminaries In this paper, we are interested in one dimensional viscous Camassa-Holm equation ut-uxxt-γ(uxx-uxxxx)+3uux=uuxxx+2uxuxx+f(x,t), x∈Ω,t＞0, (1) where Ω = [0, L], γ＞ 0 is the constant viscosity and the forcing term f is ω-periodic in time t.We shall prove that under a periodic boundary condition u(x, t) is ω-periodic in the spatial variable x,Eq.(1) has a time periodic solution by using the Galerkin method and Leary-Schauder fixed point theorem (similar to the method of [4]).
A time-periodic reaction-diffusion epidemic model with infection period
Zhang, Liang; Wang, Zhi-Cheng
2016-10-01
In this paper, we propose a time-periodic and diffusive SIR epidemic model with constant infection period. By introducing the basic reproduction number R_0 via a next generation operator for this model, we show that the disease goes extinction if R_0 1.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun Wen [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen Shihua [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: shcheng@whu.edu.cn; Hong Zhiming [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang Changping [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 3J5 (Canada)
2007-08-15
A two-species periodic competition Lotka-Volterra system with time delay and diffusion is investigated. Some sufficient conditions of the existence of positive periodic solution are established for the system by using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory.
Controlling mobility via rapidly oscillating time-periodic stimulus
Sarkar, Prasun; Maity, Alok Kumar; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray; Banik, Suman K.
2014-01-01
To address the dynamics of a Brownian particle on a periodic symmetric substrate under high-frequency periodic forcing with a vanishing time average, we construct an effective Langevin dynamics by invoking Kapitza-Landau time window. Our result is then exploited to simulate the mobility both for original and effective dynamics which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. This close agreement and the enhancement of mobility are very robust against the tailoring of amplitude-to-fre...
Forecasting Daily Time Series using Periodic Unobserved Components Time Series Models
Koopman, Siem Jan; Ooms, Marius
2004-01-01
We explore a periodic analysis in the context of unobserved components time series models that decompose time series into components of interest such as trend and seasonal. Periodic time series models allow dynamic characteristics to depend on the period of the year, month, week or day. In the stand
Identifying multiple periodicities in sparse photon event time series
Koen, Chris
2016-07-01
The data considered are event times (e.g. photon arrival times, or the occurrence of sharp pulses). The source is multiperiodic, or the data could be multiperiodic because several unresolved sources contribute to the time series. Most events may be unobserved, either because the source is intermittent, or because some events are below the detection limit. The data may also be contaminated by spurious pulses. The problem considered is the determination of the periods in the data. A two-step procedure is proposed: in the first, a likely period is identified; in the second, events associated with this periodicity are removed from the time series. The steps are repeated until the remaining events do not exhibit any periodicity. A number of period-finding methods from the literature are reviewed, and a new maximum likelihood statistic is also introduced. It is shown that the latter is competitive compared to other techniques. The proposed methodology is tested on simulated data. Observations of two rotating radio transients are discussed, but contrary to claims in the literature, no evidence for multiperiodicity could be found.
False periodicities in quasar time-domain surveys
Vaughan, S; Markowitz, A G; Huppenkothen, D; Middleton, M J; Alston, W N; Scargle, J D; Farr, W M
2016-01-01
There have recently been several reports of apparently periodic variations in the light curves of quasars, e.g. PG 1302-102 by Graham et al. (2015a). Any quasar showing periodic oscillations in brightness would be a strong candidate to be a close binary supermassive black hole and, in turn, a candidate for gravitational wave studies. However, normal quasars -- powered by accretion onto a single, supermassive black hole -- usually show stochastic variability over a wide range of timescales. It is therefore important to carefully assess the methods for identifying periodic candidates from among a population dominated by stochastic variability. Using a Bayesian analysis of the light curve of PG 1302-102, we find that a simple stochastic process is preferred over a sinusoidal variations. We then discuss some of the problems one encounters when searching for rare, strictly periodic signals among a large number of irregularly sampled, stochastic time series, and use simulations of quasar light curves to illustrate ...
Variable time-period optical switching: a novel OBS implementation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jinsong Zhang(张劲松); Mingcui Cao(曹明翠); Fengguang Luo(罗风光); Tao Chen(陈涛)
2003-01-01
In this paper, we proposed a novel optical switching method based on optical burst switching (OBS), we call it variable time-period optical switching (VTPOS). It can both support circuit services and other immerged packet services. It has better usability of bandwidth, shorter offset and latency time than others of unidirectional transport signaling mechanisms for OBS. It supports deflection switching for improve blocking performance without the need of schedule buffer. It introduces a time pointer and phase indicator that made synchronous more precisely and requires less guard time, it also classifies the different services classes with a relative QoS model.
Pseudo analytical solution to time periodic stiffness systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Yan-Zhong; Zhou Yuan-Zi
2011-01-01
An analytical form of state transition matrix for a system of equations with time periodic stiffness is derived in order to solve the free response and also allow for the determination of system stability and bifurcation. A pseudoclosed form complete solution for parametrically excited systems subjected to inhomogeneous generalized forcing is developed, based on the Fourier expansion of periodic matrices and the substitution of matrix exponential terms via Lagrange-Sylvester theorem. A Mathieu type of equation with large amplitude is presented to demonstrate the method of formulating state transition matrix and Floquet multipliers. A two-degree-of-freedom system with irregular time periodic stiffness characterized by spiral bevel gear mesh vibration is presented to find forced response in stability and instability. The obtained results are presented and discussed.
Analysis of time-domain scattering by periodic structures
Gao, Yixian; Li, Peijun
2016-11-01
This paper is devoted to the mathematical analysis of a time-domain electromagnetic scattering by periodic structures which are known as diffraction gratings. The scattering problem is reduced equivalently into an initial-boundary value problem in a bounded domain by using an exact transparent boundary condition. The well-posedness and stability of the solution are established for the reduced problem. Moreover, a priori energy estimates are obtained with minimum regularity requirement for the data and explicit dependence on the time.
Time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ambrose , D.M.; Wilkening, Jon
2008-04-01
We present a spectrally accurate numerical method for finding non-trivial time-periodic solutions of non-linear partial differential equations. The method is based on minimizing a functional (of the initial condition and the period) that is positive unless the solution is periodic, in which case it is zero. We solve an adjoint PDE to compute the gradient of this functional with respect to the initial condition. We include additional terms in the functional to specify the free parameters, which, in the case of the Benjamin-Ono equation, are the mean, a spatial phase, a temporal phase and the real part of one of the Fourier modes at t = 0. We use our method to study global paths of non-trivial time-periodic solutions connecting stationary and traveling waves of the Benjamin-Ono equation. As a starting guess for each path, we compute periodic solutions of the linearized problem by solving an infinite dimensional eigenvalue problem in closed form. We then use our numerical method to continue these solutions beyond the realm of linear theory until another traveling wave is reached (or until the solution blows up). By experimentation with data fitting, we identify the analytical form of the solutions on the path connecting the one-hump stationary solution to the two-hump traveling wave. We then derive exact formulas for these solutions by explicitly solving the system of ODE's governing the evolution of solitons using the ansatz suggested by the numerical simulations.
False periodicities in quasar time-domain surveys
Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.; Markowitz, A. G.; Huppenkothen, D.; Middleton, M. J.; Alston, W. N.; Scargle, J. D.; Farr, W. M.
2016-09-01
There have recently been several reports of apparently periodic variations in the light curves of quasars, e.g. PG 1302-102 by Graham et al. Any quasar showing periodic oscillations in brightness would be a strong candidate to be a close binary supermassive black hole and, in turn, a candidate for gravitational wave studies. However, normal quasars - powered by accretion on to a single, supermassive black hole - usually show stochastic variability over a wide range of time-scales. It is therefore important to carefully assess the methods for identifying periodic candidates from among a population dominated by stochastic variability. Using a Bayesian analysis of the light curve of PG 1302-102, we find that a simple stochastic process is preferred over a sinusoidal variation. We then discuss some of the problems one encounters when searching for rare, strictly periodic signals among a large number of irregularly sampled, stochastic time series, and use simulations of quasar light curves to illustrate these points. From a few thousand simulations of steep spectrum (`red noise') stochastic processes, we find many simulations that display few-cycle periodicity like that seen in PG 1302-102. We emphasize the importance of calibrating the false positive rate when the number of targets in a search is very large.
Fully automated period detection from variable stars' time series data
Shaju, K Y; Thayyullathil, Ramesh Babu
2010-01-01
We propose a fully automated method of period determination for the time series data of variable stars. For convenience the discussions in this paper are done in terms of frequency instead of period. Relying on the SigSpec technique (Reegen 2007), it employs a statistically unbiased treatment of frequency-domain noise and avoids spurious (i. e. noise induced) and alias peaks to the highest possible extent without any human intervention. From the output file produced by SigSpec, the frequency with maximum significance is chosen as the genuine frequency. We present tests on ASAS data and the results show that SigSpec can be effectively used for fully automated frequency detection from variable stars' time series data.
Periodic, Quasi-periodic and Chaotic Dynamics in Simple Gene Elements with Time Delays.
Suzuki, Yoko; Lu, Mingyang; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Onuchic, José N
2016-02-15
Regulatory gene circuit motifs play crucial roles in performing and maintaining vital cellular functions. Frequently, theoretical studies of gene circuits focus on steady-state behaviors and do not include time delays. In this study, the inclusion of time delays is shown to entirely change the time-dependent dynamics for even the simplest possible circuits with one and two gene elements with self and cross regulations. These elements can give rise to rich behaviors including periodic, quasi-periodic, weak chaotic, strong chaotic and intermittent dynamics. We introduce a special power-spectrum-based method to characterize and discriminate these dynamical modes quantitatively. Our simulation results suggest that, while a single negative feedback loop of either one- or two-gene element can only have periodic dynamics, the elements with two positive/negative feedback loops are the minimalist elements to have chaotic dynamics. These elements typically have one negative feedback loop that generates oscillations, and another unit that allows frequent switches among multiple steady states or between oscillatory and non-oscillatory dynamics. Possible dynamical features of several simple one- and two-gene elements are presented in details. Discussion is presented for possible roles of the chaotic behavior in the robustness of cellular functions and diseases, for example, in the context of cancer.
Periodic, Quasi-periodic and Chaotic Dynamics in Simple Gene Elements with Time Delays
Suzuki, Yoko; Lu, Mingyang; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Onuchic, José N.
2016-02-01
Regulatory gene circuit motifs play crucial roles in performing and maintaining vital cellular functions. Frequently, theoretical studies of gene circuits focus on steady-state behaviors and do not include time delays. In this study, the inclusion of time delays is shown to entirely change the time-dependent dynamics for even the simplest possible circuits with one and two gene elements with self and cross regulations. These elements can give rise to rich behaviors including periodic, quasi-periodic, weak chaotic, strong chaotic and intermittent dynamics. We introduce a special power-spectrum-based method to characterize and discriminate these dynamical modes quantitatively. Our simulation results suggest that, while a single negative feedback loop of either one- or two-gene element can only have periodic dynamics, the elements with two positive/negative feedback loops are the minimalist elements to have chaotic dynamics. These elements typically have one negative feedback loop that generates oscillations, and another unit that allows frequent switches among multiple steady states or between oscillatory and non-oscillatory dynamics. Possible dynamical features of several simple one- and two-gene elements are presented in details. Discussion is presented for possible roles of the chaotic behavior in the robustness of cellular functions and diseases, for example, in the context of cancer.
Krylov-subspace acceleration of time periodic waveform relaxation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lumsdaine, A. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)
1994-12-31
In this paper the author uses Krylov-subspace techniques to accelerate the convergence of waveform relaxation applied to solving systems of first order time periodic ordinary differential equations. He considers the problem in the frequency domain and presents frequency dependent waveform GMRES (FDWGMRES), a member of a new class of frequency dependent Krylov-subspace techniques. FDWGMRES exhibits many desirable properties, including finite termination independent of the number of timesteps and, for certain problems, a convergence rate which is bounded from above by the convergence rate of GMRES applied to the static matrix problem corresponding to the linear time-invariant ODE.
Slow periodic oscillations in time domain dynamics of NO2
Sanrey, M; Sanrey, Michael; Joyeux, Marc
2007-01-01
We investigated the time domain nonadiabatic dynamics of NO2 on the coupled X2A1 and A2B2 electronic states by launching wave packets on the excited electronic state and focused on the evolution at long times (t>200 fs), which has received little attention up to now. We showed that the initial fast spreading of the wave packets is followed at all energies by slow periodic intramolecular vibronic energy redistribution (IVER) with periods in the range 0.3 to several tens of ps. These energy transfers lead to oscillations with the same periods in the population of each electronic state. Propagation of wave packets indicates that IVER frequencies also dominate the fluctuations of the squared modulus of the autocorrelation function, |A(t)|^2, at energies not too high above the bottom of the conical intersection, but that this is no longer the case at higher energies. For example, for initial wave packets prepared by almost vertical excitation of the vibrational ground state of the ground electronic surface, the os...
Lagrangian structures in time-periodic vortical flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. V. Kostrykin
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The Lagrangian trajectories of fluid particles are experimentally studied in an oscillating four-vortex velocity field. The oscillations occur due to a loss of stability of a steady flow and result in a regular reclosure of streamlines between the vortices of the same sign. The Eulerian velocity field is visualized by tracer displacements over a short time period. The obtained data on tracer motions during a number of oscillation periods show that the Lagrangian trajectories form quasi-regular structures. The destruction of these structures is determined by two characteristic time scales: the tracers are redistributed sufficiently fast between the vortices of the same sign and much more slowly transported into the vortices of opposite sign. The observed behavior of the Lagrangian trajectories is quantitatively reproduced in a new numerical experiment with two-dimensional model of the velocity field with a small number of spatial harmonics. A qualitative interpretation of phenomena observed on the basis of the theory of adiabatic chaos in the Hamiltonian systems is given. The Lagrangian trajectories are numerically simulated under varying flow parameters. It is shown that the spatial-temporal characteristics of the Lagrangian structures depend on the properties of temporal change in the streamlines topology and on the adiabatic parameter corresponding to the flow. The condition for the occurrence of traps (the regions where the Lagrangian particles reside for a long time is obtained.
Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving
Raz, O.; Subaşı, Y.; Jarzynski, C.
2016-04-01
Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP)—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.
Almost Periodically Correlated Time Series in Business Fluctuations Analysis
Lenart, Lukasz
2012-01-01
We propose a non-standard subsampling procedure to make formal statistical inference about the business cycle, one of the most important unobserved feature characterising fluctuations of economic growth. We show that some characteristics of business cycle can be modelled in a non-parametric way by discrete spectrum of the Almost Periodically Correlated (APC) time series. On the basis of estimated characteristics of this spectrum business cycle is extracted by filtering. As an illustration we characterise the man properties of business cycles in industrial production index for Polish economy.
Scheduling Periodic Real-Time Tasks with Heterogeneous Reward Requirements
Hou, I-Hong
2010-01-01
We study the problem of scheduling periodic real-time tasks so as to meet their individual minimum reward requirements. A task generates jobs that can be given arbitrary service times before their deadlines. A task then obtains rewards based on the service times received by its jobs. We show that this model is compatible to the imprecise computation models and the increasing reward with increasing service models. In contrast to previous work on these models, which mainly focus on maximize the total reward in the system, we aim to fulfill different reward requirements by different tasks, which offers better fairness and allows fine-grained tradeoff between tasks. We first derive a necessary and sufficient condition for a system, along with reward requirements of tasks, to be feasible. We also obtain an off-line feasibility optimal scheduling policy. We then studies a sufficient condition for a policy to be feasibility optimal or achieves some approximation bound. This condition can serve as a guideline for des...
Desensitization to media violence over a short period of time.
Fanti, Kostas A; Vanman, Eric; Henrich, Christopher C; Avraamides, Marios N
2009-01-01
This study investigated the desensitization to violence over a short period of time. Participants watched nine violent movie scenes and nine comedy scenes, and reported whether they enjoyed the violent or comedy scenes and whether they felt sympathetic toward the victim of violence. Using latent growth modeling, analyses were carried out to investigate how participants responded to the different scenes across time. The findings of this study suggested that repeated exposure to media violence reduces the psychological impact of media violence in the short term, therefore desensitizing viewers to media violence. As a result, viewers tended to feel less sympathetic toward the victims of violence and actually enjoy more the violence portrayed in the media. Additionally, desensitization to media violence was better represented by a curvilinear pattern, whereas desensitization to comedy scenes was better represented by a linear pattern. Finally, trait aggression was not related to the pattern of change over time, although significant effects were found for initial reports of enjoyment and sympathy. PMID:19172659
Swimming and transport of bacteria in time-periodic flows
Winter, Rebecca; Patteson, Alison; Gagnon, David; Arratia, Paulo
The transport of bacteria can be highly influenced by external flows in oceans, rivers, and intestinal tracts. This has implications in biological systems for the performance of major biological processes, such as biofilm formation. In this study, we experimentally investigate the aggregation and transport of swimming Vibrio cholerae bacteria in time-periodic flows. Bacteria are placed in a well-characterized flow, and bacterial concentrations are recorded for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) that spans two orders of magnitude, from 0.1 to 10. It is generally found that bacteria deplete from regions of high deformation rate and accumulate near vortices. This phenomenon seems to be dictated by a combination of bacterial activity and background flow vorticity. R.W. supported by NSF-GRFP.
Relaxation Characteristics of 828 DGEBA Epoxy Over Long Time Periods
Hoo, Jasmine; Reprogle, Riley C.; Wisler, Brian; Arechederra, Gabriel K.; McCoy, John D.; Kropka, Jamie M.; Long, Kevin N.
The mechanical relaxation response in uniaxial compression of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy was studied over long time periods. The epoxy, 828DEA, was Epon 828 cured with diethanolamine (DEA). A sample was compressed at constant strain rate and held at various strain levels for days to allow the sample to relax. The sample was then compressed further and held once more. The relaxation curves were fit with a stretched exponential function. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Navy Global Predictions for the Dynamo Time Period
Reynolds, C. A.; Ridout, J. A.; Flatau, M. K.; Chen, J.; Richman, J. G.; Jensen, T. G.; Shriver, J. F.
2014-12-01
The performance of 30-day simulations of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) is evaluated under several metrics. The time period of interest is the DYNAMO (Dynamics of Madden Julian Oscillation) field experiment period, starting late October 2011. The NAVGEM experiments are run at an effective 37-km resolution with several different SST configurations. The in the first set of experiments, the initial SST analysis, provided by the NCODA (Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation) system, is either held fixed to the initial value (fixed SST) or updated every 6 hours. These forecasts are compared with forecasts in which the SST is updated with 3-h analyses from the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and forecasts in which NAVGEM is interactively coupled to HYCOM. Experiments are also performed with different physical parameterization options. The extended integrations are verified using observed OLR, TRMM precipitation estimates, and global analyses. The use of fixed SSTs is clearly sub-optimal. Biases in monthly mean fields are far more pronounced in the simulations where the SST is held fixed as compared to those in simulations where updated SST analyses are used. Biases in the monthly mean fields are further reduced when NAVGEM is coupled to HYCOM. Differences in SST can "migrate" to substantial changes in the time-mean land-surface temperatures, illustrating the substantial impact of SSTs over the full domain. Concerning the simulation of the MJO, some improvement is noted when the system is fully coupled, although the simulations still exhibit deficiencies such as eastward propagation that is too slow, and difficulty propagating over the maritime continent. Simulations that are started every 5 days indicate that the NAVGEM uncoupled system has difficulty predicting MJO initiation, but simulations started when the MJO is active in the Indian Ocean are able to capture eastward propagation characteristics. The coupled NAVGEM-HYCOM system shows ability to
Zhao, Guangyu; Ruan, Shigui
2011-01-01
We study the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic stability of time periodic traveling wave solutions to a periodic diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition system. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exists a maximal wave speed c* such that for each wave speed c ≤ c*, there is a time periodic traveling wave connecting two semi-trivial periodic solutions of the corresponding kinetic system. It is shown that such a traveling wave is unique modulo translation and is monotone with respect...
Herrmann, Samuel; Imkeller, Peter; Peithmann, Dierk
2006-01-01
We consider potential type dynamical systems in finite dimensions with two meta-stable states. They are subject to two sources of perturbation: a slow external periodic perturbation of period $T$ and a small Gaussian random perturbation of intensity $\\epsilon$, and, therefore, are mathematically described as weakly time inhomogeneous diffusion processes. A system is in stochastic resonance, provided the small noisy perturbation is tuned in such a way that its random trajectories follow the ex...
Wang, Chao; Agarwal, Ravi P.
2016-07-01
In this paper, we improve the new concepts of almost periodic time scales addressed in 2014 to introduce the new concepts of piecewise almost periodic functions. Then we establish some first results for the existence and exponential stability of almost periodic solution for a general type of delay neural networks with impulsive effects. The approaches are based on contraction principle and Gronwall-Bellman's inequality. In addition, the numerical example and simulations are provided to illustrate our time scale methods are feasible and effective. The obtained results are more general and comprehensive than the results obtained on periodic time scales before.
7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?
2010-01-01
... as follows: (1) The day of the act or event from which the period begins to run is not included. (2... delay in filing. (iii) The ALJ may grant the extension only if: (A) It would not unduly prejudice...
False periodicities in quasar time-domain surveys
Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.; Markowitz, A. G.; Huppenkothen, D.; Middleton, M. J.; Alston, W.N.; Scargle, J. D.; Farr, W. M.
2016-01-01
There have recently been several reports of apparently periodic variations in the light curves of quasars, e.g. PG 1302-102 by Graham et al. (2015a). Any quasar showing periodic oscillations in brightness would be a strong candidate to be a close binary supermassive black hole and, in turn, a candidate for gravitational wave studies. However, normal quasars -- powered by accretion onto a single, supermassive black hole -- usually show stochastic variability over a wide range of timescales. It...
Logic Model Checking of Time-Periodic Real-Time Systems
Florian, Mihai; Gamble, Ed; Holzmann, Gerard
2012-01-01
In this paper we report on the work we performed to extend the logic model checker SPIN with built-in support for the verification of periodic, real-time embedded software systems, as commonly used in aircraft, automobiles, and spacecraft. We first extended the SPIN verification algorithms to model priority based scheduling policies. Next, we added a library to support the modeling of periodic tasks. This library was used in a recent application of the SPIN model checker to verify the engine control software of an automobile, to study the feasibility of software triggers for unintended acceleration events.
Zhao, Guangyu; Ruan, Shigui
2011-06-01
We study the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic stability of time periodic traveling wave solutions to a periodic diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition system. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exists a maximal wave speed c(*) such that for each wave speed c ≤ c(*), there is a time periodic traveling wave connecting two semi-trivial periodic solutions of the corresponding kinetic system. It is shown that such a traveling wave is unique modulo translation and is monotone with respect to its co-moving frame coordinate. We also show that the traveling wave solutions with wave speed c c(*).
Controlling mixing and segregation in time periodic granular flows
Bhattacharya, Tathagata
Segregation is a major problem for many solids processing industries. Differences in particle size or density can lead to flow-induced segregation. In the present work, we employ the discrete element method (DEM)---one type of particle dynamics (PD) technique---to investigate the mixing and segregation of granular material in some prototypical solid handling devices, such as a rotating drum and chute. In DEM, one calculates the trajectories of individual particles based on Newton's laws of motion by employing suitable contact force models and a collision detection algorithm. Recently, it has been suggested that segregation in particle mixers can be thwarted if the particle flow is inverted at a rate above a critical forcing frequency. Further, it has been hypothesized that, for a rotating drum, the effectiveness of this technique can be linked to the probability distribution of the number of times a particle passes through the flowing layer per rotation of the drum. In the first portion of this work, various configurations of solid mixers are numerically and experimentally studied to investigate the conditions for improved mixing in light of these hypotheses. Besides rotating drums, many studies of granular flow have focused on gravity driven chute flows owing to its practical importance in granular transportation and to the fact that the relative simplicity of this type of flow allows for development and testing of new theories. In this part of the work, we observe the deposition behavior of both mono-sized and polydisperse dry granular materials in an inclined chute flow. The effects of different parameters such as chute angle, particle size, falling height and charge amount on the mass fraction distribution of granular materials after deposition are investigated. The simulation results obtained using DEM are compared with the experimental findings and a high degree of agreement is observed. Tuning of the underlying contact force parameters allows the achievement
Unsettled Times, Unsettled Prices: Periodical Price Survey 1997.
Ketcham, Lee; Born, Kathleen
1997-01-01
Presents the results of the thirty-seventh annual periodical price survey conducted by "Library Journal". Highlights include canceling print subscriptions and electronic journals, cost trends by subject and by countries, prices for public and school libraries and for college and medium-sized university libraries, and budgeting for 1988. (LRW)
Long-time correlations of periodic, area-preserving maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A simple analytical decay law for correlation functions of periodic, area-preserving maps is obtained. This law is compared with numerical experiments on the standard map. The agreement between experiment and theory is good when islands are absent, but poor when islands are present. When islands are present, the correlations have a long, slowly decaying tail
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jing HUI; Lan Sun CHEN
2004-01-01
The general system of differential equations describing predator-prey dynamics with impulsive effects is modified by the assumption that the coefficients are periodic functions of time. By use of standard techniques of bifurcation theory, it is known that this system has a positive periodic solution provided the time average of the predator's net uninhibited death rate is in a suitable range.The bifurcation is from the periodic solution of the time-dependent logistic equation for the prey (which results in the absence of predator).
Using travel times to simulate multi-dimensional bioreactive transport in time-periodic flows.
Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A
2016-04-01
In travel-time models, the spatially explicit description of reactive transport is replaced by associating reactive-species concentrations with the travel time or groundwater age at all locations. These models have been shown adequate for reactive transport in river-bank filtration under steady-state flow conditions. Dynamic hydrological conditions, however, can lead to fluctuations of infiltration velocities, putting the validity of travel-time models into question. In transient flow, the local travel-time distributions change with time. We show that a modified version of travel-time based reactive transport models is valid if only the magnitude of the velocity fluctuates, whereas its spatial orientation remains constant. We simulate nonlinear, one-dimensional, bioreactive transport involving oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, considering periodic fluctuations of velocity. These fluctuations make the bioreactive system pulsate: The aerobic zone decreases at times of low velocity and increases at those of high velocity. For the case of diurnal fluctuations, the biomass concentrations cannot follow the hydrological fluctuations and a transition zone containing both aerobic and obligatory denitrifying bacteria is established, whereas a clear separation of the two types of bacteria prevails in the case of seasonal velocity fluctuations. We map the 1-D results to a heterogeneous, two-dimensional domain by means of the mean groundwater age for steady-state flow in both domains. The mapped results are compared to simulation results of spatially explicit, two-dimensional, advective-dispersive-bioreactive transport subject to the same relative fluctuations of velocity as in the one-dimensional model. The agreement between the mapped 1-D and the explicit 2-D results is excellent. We conclude that travel-time models of nonlinear bioreactive transport are adequate in systems of time-periodic flow if the flow direction does not change.
Analysis of the Mode of the Periodically Time-varying Vibration Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Sheng-ze; REN Ji-ge
2007-01-01
By Liapunov reducibility theorem, the periodically time-varying vibration system can be transformed to a linear time-invariant system. Based on the dynamic characteristics of the linear time-invariant system, the mode of the periodically time-varying vibration system has been discussed. The paper defines the mode and analyzes its characteristics. It can be found that the mode of the periodically time-varying system is periodically time-varing but has such characteristics as orthogonality. Finally, a method is given to solve the mode. By solving the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the state transition matrix in one period, the periodically time-varying mode can be obtained.
Optoelectronic timing system. Period covered: April--June 1976
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanes, L.D.
1976-01-01
An optoelectronic timing system is being developed for the measurement of detonation front arrival times in an initiation sensitivity test currently in use at Pantex. The primary goal this quarter was the design, construction, and testing of a photodiode circuit which would have a two-nanosecond rise time response proportional to light intensity and which would have an adequate voltage output for the level of light intensity encountered in the sensitivity test. The results were satisfactory.
Scheduling periodic tasks in a hard real-time environment
Eisenbrand, Friedrich; Hähnle, Nicolai; Niemeier, Martin; SKUTELLA, Martin; Verschae, Jose; Wiese, Andreas
2010-01-01
We give a rigorous account on the complexity landscape of an important real-time scheduling problem that occurs in the design of software-based aircraft control. The goal is to distribute tasks $\\tau_i=(c_i,p_i)$ on a minimum number of identical machines and to compute offsets $a_i$ for the tasks such that no collision occurs. A task $\\tau_i$ releases a job of running time $c_i$ at each time $a_i + k\\cdot p_i$, $k\\in\\setN$ and a collision occurs if two jobs are simultaneously active on the s...
Delta T: Polynomial Approximation of Time Period 1620–2013
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Khalid
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The difference between the Uniform Dynamical Time and Universal Time is referred to as ΔT (delta T. Delta T is used in numerous astronomical calculations, that is, eclipses,and length of day. It is additionally required to reduce quantified positions of minor planets to a uniform timescale for the purpose of orbital determination. Since Universal Time is established on the basis of the variable rotation of planet Earth, the quantity ΔT mirrors the unevenness of that rotation, and so it changes slowly, but rather irregularly, as time passes. We have worked on empirical formulae for estimating ΔT and have discovered a set of polynomials of the 4th order with nine intervals which is accurate within the range of ±0.6 seconds for the duration of years 1620–2013.
Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.
2010-01-01
Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation litera...
Time-Periodic Solution of a 2D Fourth-Order Nonlinear Parabolic Equation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Xiaopeng Zhao; Changchun Liu
2014-08-01
By using the Galerkin method, we study the existence and uniqueness of time-periodic generalized solutions and time-periodic classical solutions to a fourth-order nonlinear parabolic equation in 2D case.
Time-periodic Solution to a Nonlinear Parabolic Type Equation of Higher Order
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yan-ping Wang; You-lin Zhang
2008-01-01
In this paper, the existence and uniqueness of time-periodic generalized solutions and time-periodic classical solutions to a class of parabolic type equation of higher order are proved by Gaierkin method.
EXISTENCE OF TIME PERIODIC SOLUTIONS FOR A DAMPED GENERALIZED COUPLED NONLINEAR WAVE EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
房少梅; 郭柏灵
2003-01-01
The time periodic solution problem of damped generalized coupled nonlinear wave equations with periodic boundary condition was studied. By using the Galerkin method to construct the approximating sequence of time periodic solutions, a priori estimate and Laray-Schauder fixed point theorem to prove the convergence of the approximate solutions, the existence of time periodic solutions for a damped generalized coupled nonlinear wave equations can be obtained.
Compact attractors for time-periodic age-structured population models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pierre Magal
2001-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of compact attractors for time-periodic age-structured models. So doing we investigate the eventual compactness of a class of abstract non-autonomous semiflow (non necessarily periodic. We apply this result to non-autonomous age-structured models. In the time periodic case, we obtain the existence of a periodic family of compact subsets that is invariant by the semiflow, and attract the solutions of the system.
Time-periodic solutions of the Einstein’s field equations II:geometric singularities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper,we construct several kinds of new time-periodic solutions of the vacuum Einstein’s field equations whose Riemann curvature tensors vanish,keep finite or take the infinity at some points in these space-times,respectively.The singularities of these new time-periodic solutions are investigated and some new physical phenomena are discovered.
Linear Impulsive Periodic System with Time-Varying Generating Operators on Banach Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei W
2007-01-01
Full Text Available A class of the linear impulsive periodic system with time-varying generating operators on Banach space is considered. By constructing the impulsive evolution operator, the existence of -periodic -mild solution for homogeneous linear impulsive periodic system with time-varying generating operators is reduced to the existence of fixed point for a suitable operator. Further the alternative results on -periodic -mild solution for nonhomogeneous linear impulsive periodic system with time-varying generating operators are established and the relationship between the boundness of solution and the existence of -periodic -mild solution is shown. The impulsive periodic motion controllers that are robust to parameter drift are designed for a given periodic motion. An example given for demonstration.
Time-periodic solutions of the Einstein’s field equations Ⅰ:general framework
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper,we develop a new algorithm to find the exact solutions of the Einstein’s field equations.Time-periodic solutions are constructed by using the new algorithm.The singularities of the time-periodic solutions are investigated and some new physical phenomena,such as degenerate event horizon and time-periodic event horizon,are found.The applications of these solutions in modern cosmology and general relativity are expected.
19 CFR 351.204 - Time periods and persons examined; voluntary respondents; exclusions.
2010-04-01
... § 351.204 Time periods and persons examined; voluntary respondents; exclusions. (a) Introduction... fiscal quarters (or, in an investigation involving merchandise imported from a nonmarket economy...
Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions
Stothers, Richard B.
1989-01-01
Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.
Measurement of a time-periodic magnetic field by rotating coil
Marusov, V.
2012-01-01
A novel technique of the measurement data processing is developed which allows to apply the rotating coil method for measurement of a dynamic magnetic field, periodic in time. The developed technique allows to obtain time-dependent multipoles in a single measurement which takes place during one power cycle of the magnet or the coil rotation period, whichever is longer.
Scattering analysis of periodic structures using finite-difference time-domain
ElMahgoub, Khaled; Elsherbeni, Atef Z
2012-01-01
Periodic structures are of great importance in electromagnetics due to their wide range of applications such as frequency selective surfaces (FSS), electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures, periodic absorbers, meta-materials, and many others. The aim of this book is to develop efficient computational algorithms to analyze the scattering properties of various electromagnetic periodic structures using the finite-difference time-domain periodic boundary condition (FDTD/PBC) method. A new FDTD/PBC-based algorithm is introduced to analyze general skewed grid periodic structures while another algor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Wei-cheng; XU Wen-cheng
2006-01-01
Periodical polarization modulation scheme is proposed to suppress timing jitters induced by frequency fluctuations between two polarization components of solitons. In periodical polarization modulation scheme, the polarization states of the soliton are modulated to excite equally for suppressing timing jitters induced by two unequal polarization components in the soliton trapping. Moreover, polarization modulation can weaken the effect of random birefringence on the soliton pulses in each relay distance. The numerical result shows that the soliton timing jitters are suppressed by our proposed method.
Charge pumping in a quantum wire driven by a series of local time-periodic potentials
Wang, ZD; Zhu, SL
2002-01-01
We develop a method to calculate electronic transport properties through a mesoscopic scattering region in the presence of a series of time-periodic potentials. Using the method, the quantum charge pumping driven by time-periodic potentials is studied. Jumps in the pumped current are observed at the peak positions of the Wigner delay time. Our main results in both the weak pumping and strong pumping regimes are consistent with experimental results. More interestingly, we also observed the non...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang Zhenkun [Department of Mathematics, School of Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China) and School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021 (China)]. E-mail: huangdoc@tom.com; Wang Xinghua [Department of Mathematics, School of Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Gao Feng [School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021 (China)
2006-02-06
In this Letter, we discuss discrete-time analogue of a continuous-time cellular neural network. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of a unique almost periodic sequence solution which is globally attractive. Our results demonstrate dynamics of the formulated discrete-time analogue as mathematical models for the continuous-time cellular neural network in almost periodic case. Finally, a computer simulation illustrates the suitability of our discrete-time analogue as numerical algorithms in simulating the continuous-time cellular neural network conveniently.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chandra K Jaggi
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a period review inventory model with controllable lead time has been considered where shortages are partially backlogged. The backorder rate is dependent on the backorder discount and the length of the protection interval, which is sum of the review period and the lead time. Two cases have been discussed for protection interval demand which are (a Demand distribution is known (Normal Distribution (b Demand distribution is unknown (Minimax distribution. Further, algorithms have been developed which jointly optimize the backorder discount, the review period and the lead time for each case. Numerical examples are also presented to illustrate the results.
Mailey, Emily L.; Gothe, Neha P.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward
2013-01-01
The criteria one uses to reduce accelerometer data can profoundly influence the interpretation of research outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three different interruption periods (i.e., 20, 30, and 60 minutes) on the amount of data retained for analyses and estimates of sedentary time among older adults. Older adults (N=311; Mage=71.1) wore an accelerometer for seven days and reported wear time on an accelerometer log. Accelerometer data were downloaded and scored using 20, 30, and 60-minute interruption periods. Estimates of wear time derived using each interruption period were compared to self-reported wear time, and descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates of sedentary time. Results showed a longer interruption period (i.e., 60 minutes) yields the largest sample size and the closest approximation of self-reported wear time. A short interruption period (i.e., 20 minutes) is likely to underestimate sedentary time among older adults. PMID:23752299
Complete Periodic Synchronization of Memristor-Based Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays
Huaiqin Wu; Luying Zhang; Sanbo Ding; Xueqing Guo; Lingling Wang
2013-01-01
This paper investigates the complete periodic synchronization of memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays. Firstly, under the framework of Filippov solutions, by using M-matrix theory and the Mawhin-like coincidence theorem in set-valued analysis, the existence of the periodic solution for the network system is proved. Secondly, complete periodic synchronization is considered for memristor-based neural networks. According to the state-dependent switching feature of the memrist...
Existence of Almost-Periodic Solutions for Lotka-Volterra Cooperative Systems with Time Delay
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaihong Zhao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper considers the existence of positive almost-periodic solutions for almost-periodic Lotka-Volterra cooperative system with time delay. By using Mawhin’s continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions for the existence of positive almost-periodic solutions are obtained. An example and its simulation figure are given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.
Period, epoch and prediction errors of ephemeris from continuous sets of timing measurements
Deeg, Hans J
2015-01-01
Space missions such as Kepler and CoRoT have led to large numbers of eclipse or transit measurements in nearly continuous time series. This paper shows how to obtain the period error in such measurements from a basic linear least-squares fit, and how to correctly derive the timing error in the prediction of future transit or eclipse events. Assuming strict periodicity, a formula for the period error of such time series is derived: sigma_P = sigma_T (12/( N^3-N))^0.5, where sigma_P is the period error; sigma_T the timing error of a single measurement and N the number of measurements. Relative to the iterative method for period error estimation by Mighell & Plavchan (2013), this much simpler formula leads to smaller period errors, whose correctness has been verified through simulations. For the prediction of times of future periodic events, the usual linear ephemeris where epoch errors are quoted for the first time measurement, are prone to overestimation of the error of that prediction. This may be avoided...
40 CFR 93.162 - Emissions beyond the time period covered by the SIP.
2010-07-01
... covered by the SIP. 93.162 Section 93.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 93.162 Emissions beyond the time period covered by the SIP. If a Federal action would result in total... period covered by the SIP, the Federal agency can: (a) Demonstrate conformity with the last...
Time courses of myofascial temporomandibular disorder complaints during a 12-month follow-up period
M.K.A. van Selms; F. Lobbezoo; M. Naeije
2009-01-01
AIMS: To investigate the time courses of myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain and mandibular function impairment (MFI), and to identify predictive factors associated with these time courses. METHODS: During a 12-month period following conservative TMD treatment, the time courses of myofa
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
liu, weiwei; Wargocki, Pawel; Xiong, Jing
2014-01-01
The present work proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption of occupants in naturally ventilated building, based on the relationship between their neutral temperatures and running mean outdoor air temperature. Based on the data of the field investigation, the subjects’ time pe...... with the value of the subjects in this study. The comparison shows that the occupants in China had a shorter time period of thermal adaption than European occupants, which means that Chinese occupants can adapt to a new outdoor climate condition faster....... period of thermal adaption was obtained with the proposed method. The result revealed that the subjects needed to take 4.25 days to fully adapt to a step-change in outdoor air temperature. The time period of thermal adaption for the occupants in five European countries was also calculated and compared...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao Ya-Hong
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the following nonlinear first-order periodic boundary value problem on time scales: , , . Some new existence criteria of positive solutions are established by using the monotone iterative technique.
Positive Almost Periodic Solutions for a Time-Varying Fishing Model with Delay
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xia Li
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a time-varying fishing model with delay. By means of the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, we prove that it has at least one positive almost periodic solution.
Li, Yongkun; Li, Bing
2016-01-01
In this paper, we first give a new definition of almost periodic time scales, two new definitions of almost periodic functions on time scales and investigate some basic properties of them. Then, as an application, by using a fixed point theorem in Banach space and the time scale calculus theory, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence and exponential stability of positive almost periodic solutions for a class of Nicholson's blowflies models on time scales. Finally, we present an illustrative example to show the effectiveness of obtained results. Our results show that under a simple condition the continuous-time Nicholson's blowflies model and its discrete-time analogue have the same dynamical behaviors. PMID:27468397
Traveling waves and spreading speeds for time-space periodic monotone systems
Fang, Jian; Yu, Xiao; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang
2015-01-01
The theory of traveling waves and spreading speeds is developed for time-space periodic monotone semiflows with monostable structure. By using traveling waves of the associated Poincar\\'e maps in a strong sense, we establish the existence of time-space periodic traveling waves and spreading speeds. We then apply these abstract results to a two species competition reaction-advection-diffusion model. It turns out that the minimal wave speed exists and coincides with the single spreading speed f...
DETERMINATION OF THE PERIOD OF A TORSION PENDULUM BY THE FITTING METHOD IN REAL TIME
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1998-01-01
A phenomenological study on the fitting method in real time has been done, and the method was applied to process and analyze the extensive data of a long period torsion pendulum used to determine Newtonian gravitational constant G. The result shows that the fitting method in real time is effective to determine the period of a torsion pendulum with a relative precision of 10-5 orders.
Almost Periodic Solutions for Neutral-Type BAM Neural Networks with Delays on Time Scales
Yongkun Li; Li Yang
2013-01-01
Using the existence of the exponential dichotomy of linear dynamic equations on time scales, a fixed point theorem and the theory of calculus on time scales, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence and exponential stability of almost periodic solutions for a class of neutral-type BAM neural networks with delays on time scales. Finally, a numerical example illustrates the feasibility of our results and also shows that the continuous-time neural network and its dis...
Modal Vibration Control in Periodic Time-Varying Structures with Focus on Rotor Blade Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar
2004-01-01
The demands for high efficiency machines initiate a demand for monitoring and active control of vibrations to improve machinery performance and to prolong machinery lifetime. Applying active control to reduce vibrations in flexible bladed rotor-systems imply that several difficulties have...... of active modal controllers. The main aim is to reduce vibrations in periodic time-varying structures. Special emphasis is given to vibration control of coupled bladed rotor systems. A state feedback modal control law is developed based on modal analysis in periodic time-varying structures. The first step...... in the procedure is a transformation of the model into a time-invariant modal form by applying the modal matrices, which are also periodic time-variant. Due to coupled rotor and blade motions complex vibration modes occur in the modal transformed state space model. This implies that the modal transformed model...
Modal Vibration Control in Periodic Time-Varying Structures with Focus on Rotor-Blade Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar
2003-01-01
The demands for high efficiency machines initiate a demand for monitoring and active control of vibrations to improve machinery performance and to prolong machinery lifetime. Applying active control to reduce vibrations in flexible bladed rotor-systems imply that several difficulties have...... of active modal controllers. The main aim is to reduce vibrations in periodic time-varying structures. Special emphasis is given to vibration control of coupled bladed rotor systems. A state feedback modal control law is developed based on modal analysis in periodic time-varying structures. The first step...... in the procedure is a transformation of the model into a time-invariant modal form by applying the modal matrices, which are also periodic time-variant. Due to coupled rotor and blade motions complex vibration modes occur in the modal transformed state space model. This implies that the modal transformed model...
Almost Periodic Solution for Memristive Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huaiqin Wu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the dynamical stability analysis for almost periodic solution of memristive neural networks with time-varying delays. Under the framework of Filippov solutions, by applying the inequality analysis techniques, the existence and asymptotically almost periodic behavior of solutions are discussed. Based on the differential inclusions theory and Lyapunov functional approach, the stability issues of almost periodic solution are investigated, and a sufficient condition for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of the almost periodic solution is established. Moreover, as a special case, the condition which ensures the global exponential stability of a unique periodic solution is also presented for the considered memristive neural networks. Two examples are given to illustrate the validity of the theoretical results.
Mailey, Emily L; Gothe, Neha P.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward
2013-01-01
The criteria one uses to reduce accelerometer data can profoundly influence the interpretation of research outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three different interruption periods (i.e., 20, 30, and 60 minutes) on the amount of data retained for analyses and estimates of sedentary time among older adults. Older adults (N=311; Mage=71.1) wore an accelerometer for seven days and reported wear time on an accelerometer log. Accelerometer data were downloaded and sc...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In this paper, global exponential stability of almost periodic solution of cellular neural networks with time-varing delays (CNNVDs) is considered. By using the methods of the topological degree theory and generalized Halanay inequality, a few new applicable criteria are established for the existence and global exponential stability of almost periodic solution. Some previous results are improved and extended in this letter and one example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the new results.
Gap solitons in parity—time complex superlattice with dual periods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A theory is presented to investigate the existence and propagation stability of gap solitons in a parity—time (PT) complex superlattice with dual periods. In this superlattice, the real and imaginary parts are both in the form of superlattices with dual periods. In the self-focusing nonlinearity, PT solitons can exist in the semi-infinite gap. However, only those gap solitons with low powers can propagate stably, whereas the high-power solitons present periodic oscillation and simultaneously suffer energy decay. In the self-defocusing nonlinearity, PT solitons only exist in the first gap and all these solitons are stable
A diffusive Fisher-KPP equation with free boundaries and time-periodic advections
Sun, Ningkui; Lou, Bendong; Zhou, Maolin
2016-01-01
We consider a reaction-diffusion-advection equation of the form: $u_t=u_{xx}-\\beta(t)u_x+f(t,u)$ for $x\\in (g(t),h(t))$, where $\\beta(t)$ is a $T$-periodic function representing the intensity of the advection, $f(t,u)$ is a Fisher-KPP type of nonlinearity, $T$-periodic in $t$, $g(t)$ and $h(t)$ are two free boundaries satisfying Stefan conditions. This equation can be used to describe the population dynamics in time-periodic environment with advection. Its homogeneous version (that is, both $...
An EOQ Model for Phase Inventory with Induced Demand and Periodic Cycle Time
Sujit Kumar; Shib Sankar Sana; Adrijit Goswami
2014-01-01
This paper deals with a stock flow of an inventory problem over induced demand. The inventory is consumed through “core customer” or chain marketing system in an induced environment (inductance) to exhaust all the items of the stock inventory in an indefinite time. The demand rate is depicted due to induced factor which is generated from the same inventory presented nearby. The inventory cycle time is split into several periodic times due to oscillatory feature of the inventory which is calle...
Fictitious Domain Technique for the Calculation of Time-Periodic Solutions of Scattering Problem
Ling Rao; Hongquan Chen
2011-01-01
The fictitious domain technique is coupled to the improved time-explicit asymptotic method for calculating time-periodic solution of wave equation. Conventionally, the practical implementation of fictitious domain method relies on finite difference time discretizations schemes and finite element approximation. Our new method applies finite difference approximations in space instead of conventional finite element approximation. We use the Dirac delta function to transport the variational forms...
Stellar evolution in real time: Period variations in galactic RR Lyr stars
Poretti, E; Vandenbroere, J; Paschke, A; Klotz, A; Boër, M; Damerdji, Y; Martignoni, M; Acerbi, F
2007-01-01
The times of maximum brightness collected in the GEOS RR Lyr database allowed us to trace the period variations of a sample of 123 galactic RRab variables. These data span a time baseline exceeding 100 years. Clear evidence of period increases or decreases at constant rates has been found, suggesting evolutionary effects. The observed rates are slightly larger than those predicted by theoretical models; moreover, there is an unexpected large percentage of RRab stars showing a period decrease. The new possibilities offered by the use of robotic telecopes (TAROTs, REM) and of data from satellite (CoRoT) are expected to speed up the project to measure stellar evolution in real time. It is noteworthy that the outlines of this project have been sketched during several GEOS meetings, where the different knowledge of amateur and professional astronomers found a very profitable synthesis.
Dynamics and Complexity in a Time Delay Model of RNA Silencing with Periodic Forcing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Svetoslav Nikolov
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Simple periodic behavior and occurrence of complex oscillatory phenomena underlie of a large number of biochemical system models. In many cases the transition from stable to simple/complex oscillatory behavior can be connected with the appearance of abnormal process likes as cancer. In this paper we propose a time delay model of RNA silencing (also known as RNA interference with periodic forcing. In organisms with RNA silencing, each cell has a miniature "immune system" able to generate and amplify specific responses to a variety of gene transcripts. The consequences of a time delay on the dynamics of this model are analysed using Hopf's theorem. Our analytical calculations predict that time delay acts as a key bifurcation parameter. From the accomplished numerical results, it becomes clear that model has complexity oscillatory behavior when the amplitude of periodic force (i.e. the confusion in the target mRNA synthesis is large.
Ways of spending free time by alcohol addicts during periods of drinking and rehabilitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dragišić-Labaš Slađana
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In the introduction we discuss free time in the context of consequences of alcoholism on social, psychological, and especially family life, then, the changing use of free time as a significant symptom of alcoholism, and finally, the new organization of free time as an important goal of social reintegration of alcoholics’ families. In the next section, we examine ways in which members of Skela Club at the “Dr Laza Lazarević” Psychiatric Hospital spend their free time during periods of drinking, and during rehabilitation and social integration. The sample consisted of 30 subjects (25 men and 5 women, aged between 25 and 65, living in Belgrade or nearby, regularly attending Club meetings and actively participating in its work. A questionnaire with 35 questions, 32 closed and 3 open, was used. The first part referred to socio-demographic variables, the second to ways of spending free time during the period of addiction, and the third part to free time at present, in the stage of abstinence and rehabilitation. During the period of drinking, subjects were mostly spending their free time in the company of other addicts, in 80% of cases. Their leisure was not very interesting, as it consisted of very few activities: sitting in a bar (76.6%, watching TV (53.3%, reading newspapers (50%, sleeping (40%. In the period of drinking a large number of subjects, regardless of gender, felt lonely - 83%. During the period of abstinence, on the contrary, leisure is better organized, the number of activities increases, and their model changes to socializing with friends (76.6%, communication with family members (66.6%, going for walks (60%, reading books (50%, listening to music (46.6%, and sport activities (36.6%. The conclusion is that alcohol addicts spent their free time during the period of drinking significantly differently than at present, when they are undergoing treatment and rehabilitation. The difference in the quality and organization of free time
Exact Feasibility Tests for Real-Time Scheduling of Periodic Tasks upon Multiprocessor Platforms
Cucu, Liliana
2008-01-01
In this paper we study the global scheduling of periodic task systems upon multiprocessor platforms. We first show two very general properties which are well-known for uniprocessor platforms and which remain for multiprocessor platforms: (i) under few and not so restrictive assumptions, we show that feasible schedules of periodic task systems are periodic from some point with a period equal to the least common multiple of task periods and (ii) for the specific case of synchronous periodic task systems, we show that feasible schedules repeat from the origin. We then present our main result: we characterize, for task-level fixed-priority schedulers and for asynchronous constrained or arbitrary deadline periodic task models, upper bounds of the first time instant where the schedule repeats. We show that job-level fixed-priority schedulers are predictable upon unrelated multiprocessor platforms. For task-level fixed-priority schedulers, based on the upper bounds and the predictability property, we provide for asy...
Necessary N-representability Constraints from Time-reversal Symmetry for Periodic Systems
Rubin, Nicholas C
2016-01-01
The variational calculation of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) is extended to periodic molecular systems. If the 2-RDM theory is extended to the periodic case without consideration of time-reversal symmetry, however, it can yields energies that are significantly lower than the correct energies. We derive and implement linear constraints that enforce time-reversal symmetry on the 2-RDM without destroying its computationally favorable block-diagonal structure from translational invariance. Time-reversal symmetry is distinct from space-group or spin (SU(2)) symmetries which can be expressed by unitary transformations. The time-reversal symmetry constraints are demonstrated through calculations of the metallic hydrogen chain and the one-dimensional lithium hydride crystal.
Dynamics of generalized PT-symmetric dimers with time periodic gain-loss
Battelli, F; Feckan, M; Pickton, J; Pospisil, M; Susanto, H
2014-01-01
A Parity-Time (PT)-symmetric system with periodically varying-in-time gain and loss modeled by two coupled Schrodinger equations (dimer) is studied. It is shown that the problem can be reduced to a perturbed pendulum-like equation. This is done by finding two constants of motion. Firstly, a generalized problem using Melnikov type analysis and topological degree arguments is studied for showing the existence of periodic (libration), shift periodic (rotation), and chaotic solutions. Then these general results are applied to the PT-symmetric dimer. It is interestingly shown that if a sufficient condition is satisfied, then rotation modes, which do not exist in the dimer with constant gain-loss, will persist. An approximate threshold for PT-broken phase corresponding to the disappearance of bounded solutions is also presented. Numerical study is presented accompanying the analytical results.
Almost periodic solution of shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks with time-varying delay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang Xia; Cao Jinde
2003-07-28
Several sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of almost periodic solution and its attractivity of shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks with time-varying delay based on the fixed point method and Halanay inequality technique. Some previous results are improved and extended in this Letter and two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the new results.
Time averaged properties along unstable periodic orbits and chaotic orbits in two map systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Saiki
2008-08-01
Full Text Available Unstable periodic orbit (UPO recently has become a keyword in analyzing complex phenomena in geophysical fluid dynamics and space physics. In this paper, sets of UPOs in low dimensional maps are theoretically or systematically found, and time averaged properties along UPOs are studied, in relation to those of chaotic orbits.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Mishra
2008-01-01
Full Text Available A probabilistic inventory model for conditional credit period with exponential demand, non-zero lead time and multiple storage facility has been developed. The behaviour of total expected cost (TEC has been examined and the use and application of the model is demonstrated with the help of a numerical example.
Periodic Solution to BAM-type Cohen-Grossberg Neural Network with Time-varying Delays
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
An-ping Chen; Qun-hua Gu
2011-01-01
By using the continuation theorem of Mawhin's coincidence degree theory and the Liapunov functional method, some sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the existence, uniqueness and the global exponential stability of the periodic solution to the BAM-type Cohen-Grossberg neural networks involving time-varying delays.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yepeng Xing; Qiong Wang; Valery G. Romanovski
2009-01-01
We prove several new comparison results and develop the monotone iterative tech-nique to show the existence of extremal solutions to a kind of periodic boundary value problem (PBVP) for nonlinear integro-differential equation of mixed type on time scales.
Global stabilization of linear periodically time-varying switched systems via matrix inequalities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In this paper, we address the stabilization problem for linear periodically time-varying switched systems.Using discretization technique, we derive new conditions for the global stabilizability in terms of the solution of matrix inequalities. An algorithm for finding stabilizing controller and switching strategy is presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinggui Liu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, by using Mawhin's continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, we establish the existence of at least four positive periodic solutions for a discrete time Lotka-Volterra competitive system with harvesting terms. An example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.
Improving the performance of periodic real-time processes: a graph theoretical approach
Boode, Antoon H.; Broersma, Hajo; Broenink, Jan F.
2013-01-01
In this paper the performance gain obtained by combining parallel periodic real-time processes is elaborated. In certain single-core mono-processor configurations, for example embedded control systems in robotics comprising many short processes, process context switches may consume a considerable am
THE VARYING LIGHT CURVE AND TIMINGS OF THE ULTRASHORT-PERIOD CONTACT BINARY KIC 9532219
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jae Woo; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Park, Jang-Ho, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: kshong@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: koojr@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: pooh107162@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-03-20
KIC 9532219 is a W UMa-type eclipsing binary with an orbital period of 0.1981549 days that is below the short-period limit (∼0.22 days) of the period distribution for contact binaries. The Kepler light curve of the system exhibits striking changes in both eclipse depths and light maxima. Applying third-body and spot effects, the light-curve synthesis indicates that the eclipsing pair is currently in a marginal contact stage with a mass ratio of q = 1.20, an orbital inclination of i = 66.°0, a temperature difference of T{sub 1}–T{sub 2} = 172 K, and a third light of l{sub 3} = 75.9%. To understand the light variations with time, we divided up the light curve into 312 segments and analyzed them separately. The results reveal that variation of eclipse depth is primarily caused by changing amounts of contamination due to the nearby star KIC 9532228 between the Kepler Quarters and that the variable O’Connell effect originates from the starspot activity on the less massive primary component. Based on our light-curve timings, a period study of KIC 9532219 indicates that the orbital period has varied as a combination of a downward parabola and a light-travel-time (LTT) effect due to a third body, which has a period of 1196 days and a minimum mass of 0.0892 M{sub ⊙} in an orbit of eccentricity 0.150. The parabolic variation could be a small part of a second LTT orbit due to a fourth component in a wider orbit, instead of either mass transfer or angular momentum loss.
Kerr, Matthew; Johnston, Simon; Shannon, Ryan
2015-01-01
In a search for periodic variation in the arrival times of pulses from 151 young, energetic pulsars, we have identified seven cases of modulation consistent with one or two harmonics of a single fundamental with time-scale 0.5-1.5 yr. We use simulations to show that these modulations are statistically significant and of high quality (sinusoidal) even when contaminated by the strong stochastic timing noise common to young pulsars. Although planetary companions could induce such modulation, the large implied masses and 2:1 mean motion resonances challenge such an explanation. Instead, the modulation is likely to be intrinsic to the pulsar, arising from quasi-periodic switching between stable magnetospheric states, and we propose that precession of the neutron star may regulate this switching.
Hu, Jin; Wang, Jun
2015-06-01
In recent years, complex-valued recurrent neural networks have been developed and analysed in-depth in view of that they have good modelling performance for some applications involving complex-valued elements. In implementing continuous-time dynamical systems for simulation or computational purposes, it is quite necessary to utilize a discrete-time model which is an analogue of the continuous-time system. In this paper, we analyse a discrete-time complex-valued recurrent neural network model and obtain the sufficient conditions on its global exponential periodicity and exponential stability. Simulation results of several numerical examples are delineated to illustrate the theoretical results and an application on associative memory is also given.
A General Approach to Time Periodic Incompressible Viscous Fluid Flow Problems
Geissert, Matthias; Hieber, Matthias; Nguyen, Thieu Huy
2016-06-01
This article develops a general approach to time periodic incompressible fluid flow problems and semilinear evolution equations. It yields, on the one hand, a unified approach to various classical problems in incompressible fluid flow and, on the other hand, gives new results for periodic solutions to the Navier-Stokes-Oseen flow, the Navier-Stokes flow past rotating obstacles, and, in the geophysical setting, for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and various diffusion equations with rough coefficients. The method is based on a combination of interpolation and topological arguments, as well as on the smoothing properties of the linearized equation.
Storing quantum information in XXZ spin rings with periodically time-controlled interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce a general scheme to realize massive quantum memories in simple systems of interacting qubits. Such systems are described by spin rings with XXZ intersite couplings of suitably time-periodically controlled amplitudes. We show that initially localized excitations undergo perfect periodic revivals, allowing for the simultaneous storage of arbitrary sets of different local states. This novel approach to the problem of storing quantum information hints at a new way to control and suppress the effect of decoherence on a quantum computer realized in a system with nonvanishing interactions between the constituent qubits
Storing quantum information in XXZ spin rings with periodically time-controlled interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F; Mazzarella, G [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR di Salerno, INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)
2005-10-01
We introduce a general scheme to realize massive quantum memories in simple systems of interacting qubits. Such systems are described by spin rings with XXZ intersite couplings of suitably time-periodically controlled amplitudes. We show that initially localized excitations undergo perfect periodic revivals, allowing for the simultaneous storage of arbitrary sets of different local states. This novel approach to the problem of storing quantum information hints at a new way to control and suppress the effect of decoherence on a quantum computer realized in a system with nonvanishing interactions between the constituent qubits.
FREQUENT CORRELATED PERIODIC PATTERN MINING FOR LARGE VOLUME SET USING TIME SERIES DATA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. M. Karthik
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Frequent pattern mining has been a widely used in the area of discovering association and correlations among real data sets. However, discovering interesting correlation relationship among huge number of co-occurrence patterns are complicated, a majority of them are superfluous or uninformative. Mining correlations among large pile of useless information is extraordinarily useful in real-time applications. In this study, we propose a technique uses FP-tree for mining frequent correlated in periodic patterns from a transactional database. The analysis of time correlation measure tend to improvise the performance based on real time data sets and the result proves the algorithm efficiency by shifting the data sets to various domain towards time series, its correlation and noise-resilient ratio. This work addresses the time correlation factor achieved with the previous evaluated result of time series sequence of FP tree.
Plasticity of the intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank A J L Scheer
Full Text Available Human expeditions to Mars will require adaptation to the 24.65-h Martian solar day-night cycle (sol, which is outside the range of entrainment of the human circadian pacemaker under lighting intensities to which astronauts are typically exposed. Failure to entrain the circadian time-keeping system to the desired rest-activity cycle disturbs sleep and impairs cognitive function. Furthermore, differences between the intrinsic circadian period and Earth's 24-h light-dark cycle underlie human circadian rhythm sleep disorders, such as advanced sleep phase disorder and non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders. Therefore, first, we tested whether exposure to a model-based lighting regimen would entrain the human circadian pacemaker at a normal phase angle to the 24.65-h Martian sol and to the 23.5-h day length often required of astronauts during short duration space exploration. Second, we tested here whether such prior entrainment to non-24-h light-dark cycles would lead to subsequent modification of the intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system. Here we show that exposure to moderately bright light ( approximately 450 lux; approximately 1.2 W/m(2 for the second or first half of the scheduled wake episode is effective for entraining individuals to the 24.65-h Martian sol and a 23.5-h day length, respectively. Estimations of the circadian periods of plasma melatonin, plasma cortisol, and core body temperature rhythms collected under forced desynchrony protocols revealed that the intrinsic circadian period of the human circadian pacemaker was significantly longer following entrainment to the Martian sol as compared to following entrainment to the 23.5-h day. The latter finding of after-effects of entrainment reveals for the first time plasticity of the period of the human circadian timing system. Both findings have important implications for the treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders and human space exploration.
Complete Periodic Synchronization of Memristor-Based Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huaiqin Wu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the complete periodic synchronization of memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays. Firstly, under the framework of Filippov solutions, by using M-matrix theory and the Mawhin-like coincidence theorem in set-valued analysis, the existence of the periodic solution for the network system is proved. Secondly, complete periodic synchronization is considered for memristor-based neural networks. According to the state-dependent switching feature of the memristor, the error system is divided into four cases. Adaptive controller is designed such that the considered model can realize global asymptotical synchronization. Finally, an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results.
Stability and attractivity of periodic solutions of parabolic systems with time delays
Pao, C. V.
2005-04-01
This paper is concerned with the existence, stability, and global attractivity of time-periodic solutions for a class of coupled parabolic equations in a bounded domain. The problem under consideration includes coupled system of parabolic and ordinary differential equations, and time delays may appear in the nonlinear reaction functions. Our approach to the problem is by the method of upper and lower solutions and its associated monotone iterations. The existence of time-periodic solutions is for a class of locally Lipschitz continuous reaction functions without any quasimonotone requirement using Schauder fixed point theorem, while the stability and attractivity analysis is for quasimonotone nondecreasing and mixed quasimonotone reaction functions using the monotone iterative scheme. The results for the general system are applied to the standard parabolic equations without time delay and to the corresponding ordinary differential system. Applications are also given to three Lotka-Volterra reaction diffusion model problems, and in each problem a sufficient condition on the reaction rates is obtained to ensure the stability and global attractivity of positive periodic solutions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Ping-Fan; Guo, Yong, E-mail: guoy66@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)
2016-02-01
We investigate the tunneling time (dwell time) in periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB) superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. It is found that spin-dependent resonant bands form in the spectra of dwell time, which can be effectively manipulated by not only the external magnetic field but also the geometric parameters of the system. Moreover, an intuitive semiclassical delay is defined to illustrate the behavior of the dwell time, and the former one is shown to be the result of “smoothing out” the latter one. We also find that the dwell time in diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor superlattices behaves surprisingly different from the DMS/NB case, especially for spin-down electrons.
Huang, Zhu
2015-03-01
The periodic unsteady natural convection flow and heat transfer in a square enclosure containing a concentric circular cylinder is numerically studied. The temperature of the inner circular cylinder fluctuates periodically with time at higher averaged value while the temperature of the enclosure keeps lower constant, and the natural convection is driven by the temperature difference. The two-dimensional natural convection is simulated with high accuracy temporal spectral method and local radial basis functions method. The Rayleigh number is studied in the range 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106, the temperature pulsating period ranges from 0.01 to 100 and the temperature pulsating amplitudes are a = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. Numerical results reveal that the fluid flow and heat transfer is strongly dependent on the pulsating temperature of inner cylinder. Comparing with the steady state natural convection, the heat transfer is enhanced generally for the time-periodic unsteady natural convection, and the local maximum heat transfer rate is observed for Ra = 105 and 106. Moreover, the phenomenon of backward heat transfer is discussed quantitatively. Also, the influence of pulsating temperature on the unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer are discussed and analyzed.
Infrared Time Lags for the Periodic Quasar PG 1302-102
Jun, Hyunsung D; Graham, Matthew J; Djorgovski, S G; Mainzer, Amy; Cutri, Roc M; Drake, Andrew J; Mahabal, Ashish A
2015-01-01
The optical light curve of the quasar PG 1302-102 at $z = 0.278$ shows a strong, smooth 5.2 yr periodic signal, detectable over a period of $\\sim 20$ yr. Although the interpretation of this phenomenon is still uncertain, the most plausible mechanisms involve a binary system of two supermassive black holes with a subparsec separation. At this close separation, the nuclear black holes in PG 1302-102 will likely merge within $\\sim 10^{5}$ yr due to gravitational wave emission alone. Here we report the rest-frame near-infrared time lags for PG 1302-102. Compiling data from {\\it WISE} and {\\it Akari}, we confirm that the periodic behavior reported in the optical light curve from Graham et al. (2015) is reproduced at infrared wavelengths, with best-fit observed-frame 3.4 and $4.6 \\mu$m time lags of $(2219 \\pm 153, 2408 \\pm 148)$ days for a near face-on orientation of the torus, or $(4103\\pm 153, 4292 \\pm 148)$ days for an inclined system with relativistic Doppler boosting in effect. The periodicity in the infrared ...
Estimation of worst case latency of periodic tasks in a real time distributed environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
RAMESH BABU NIMMATOORI,
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Real-time computations require exact bounded response times. For relatively simple models of computation, it is possible to determine conditions under which it is theoretically possible to guarantee that an invocation of a task will complete its execution. But it is very much complicated to guarantee a response time for the periodic tasks that execute in a distributed system application. In a distributed system, the applications are aligned as a set of dependent tasks. Here, the time required for a message to pass from one task to the other is a function of the individual timelines. Each task further constitutes of subtasks related by data dependencies. Also, tightbounds are essential for the tasks because of the dynamic nature of the distributed systems. As the distributed systems have the hard real time deadlines, the task executions have to be completed before the specified deadline. Hence the estimation of the worst case latency for a task link is essential. And, as the task structure and the application system model are well known in advance, for the synthesis and verification of applicationspecific distributed systems this estimation is quite important. This paper proposes an approach to estimate the worst case latency of periodic tasks in a real time distributed system.
An EOQ Model for Phase Inventory with Induced Demand and Periodic Cycle Time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sujit Kumar De
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a stock flow of an inventory problem over induced demand. The inventory is consumed through “core customer” or chain marketing system in an induced environment (inductance to exhaust all the items of the stock inventory in an indefinite time. The demand rate is depicted due to induced factor which is generated from the same inventory presented nearby. The inventory cycle time is split into several periodic times due to oscillatory feature of the inventory which is called phase inventory. Considering uniform demand, this cycle time splits into two basic parts, namely, “first shift” (phase and “second shift” (phase. Since the process dampens over time, so the whole inventory will exhaust after few periods. A cost function consisted of inventory cost, setup cost, and loss for induced items is minimized to obtain optimal order quantity and replenishment time. The multivariate lagrange interpolation (MLI over the average values of the postsensitivity analysis is developed here. Finally, graphical illustrations are made to justify the model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Özlem Acar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether different rinsing time periods affected the wettability of polymerized elastomeric impression materials. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Panasil Contact Plus (PCP, Panasil Contact Non-Surfactant (PCNS, Panasil Initial Contact (PIC, Express (EXP and Impregum (IMP impression materials were tested. Standardized samples were rinsed with water for 10 s, 15 s or 20 s, and the wettability was determined by contact angle measurement through an evaluation period of 60 seconds (n=7. Non-rinsed groups were used as control. Measurements were made at 5 time points (at 0, 6, 15, 30 and 60 seconds. Kruskal Wallis test and Conover’s multiple comparison tests were used for all multiple comparisons. Bonferroni adjustment was applied for controlling Type I error (p0.002. CONCLUSION: Rinsing the surfactant-containing polyvinylsiloxane impression materials decreased their wettability, whereas no such effect was seen for the surfactant free polyvinylsiloxane and polyether impression materials.
Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period.
Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji
2015-08-21
Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model.
Periodic solutions of a nonautonomous predator-prey system with stage structure and time delays
Xu, Rui; Wang, Zhiqiang
2006-11-01
A nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra type predator-prey model with stage structure and time delays is investigated. It is assumed in the model that the individuals in each species may belong to one of two classes: the immatures and the matures, the age to maturity is presented by a time delay, and that the immature predators do not feed on prey and do not have the ability to reproduce. By some comparison arguments we first discuss the permanence of the model. By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of positive periodic solutions to the model. By means of a suitable Lyapunov functional, sufficient conditions are obtained for the uniqueness and global stability of the positive periodic solutions to the model.
Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period.
Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji
2015-01-01
Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model. PMID:26293488
Time functions of deep earthquakes from broadband and short-period stacks
Houston, H.; Benz, H.M.; Vidale, J.E.
1998-01-01
To constrain dynamic source properties of deep earthquakes, we have systematically constructed broadband time functions of deep earthquakes by stacking and scaling teleseismic P waves from U.S. National Seismic Network, TERRAscope, and Berkeley Digital Seismic Network broadband stations. We examined 42 earthquakes with depths from 100 to 660 km that occurred between July 1, 1992 and July 31, 1995. To directly compare time functions, or to group them by size, depth, or region, it is essential to scale them to remove the effect of moment, which varies by more than 3 orders of magnitude for these events. For each event we also computed short-period stacks of P waves recorded by west coast regional arrays. The comparison of broadband with short-period stacks yields a considerable advantage, enabling more reliable measurement of event duration. A more accurate estimate of the duration better constrains the scaling procedure to remove the effect of moment, producing scaled time functions with both correct timing and amplitude. We find only subtle differences in the broadband time-function shape with moment, indicating successful scaling and minimal effects of attenuation at the periods considered here. The average shape of the envelopes of the short-period stacks is very similar to the average broadband time function. The main variations seen with depth are (1) a mild decrease in duration with increasing depth, (2) greater asymmetry in the time functions of intermediate events compared to deep ones, and (3) unexpected complexity and late moment release for events between 350 and 550 km, with seven of the eight events in that depth interval displaying markedly more complicated time functions with more moment release late in the rupture than most events above or below. The first two results are broadly consistent with our previous studies, while the third is reported here for the first time. The greater complexity between 350 and 550 km suggests greater heterogeneity in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Saiki
2007-09-01
Full Text Available An infinite number of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs are embedded in a chaotic system which models some complex phenomenon. Several algorithms which extract UPOs numerically from continuous-time chaotic systems have been proposed. In this article the damped Newton-Raphson-Mees algorithm is reviewed, and some important techniques and remarks concerning the practical numerical computations are exemplified by employing the Lorenz system.
Sobolev type equations of time-fractional order with periodical boundary conditions
Plekhanova, Marina
2016-08-01
The existence of a unique local solution for a class of time-fractional Sobolev type partial differential equations endowed by the Cauchy initial conditions and periodical with respect to every spatial variable boundary conditions on a parallelepiped is proved. General results are applied to study of the unique solvability for the initial boundary value problem to Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers and Allair partial differential equations.
Cavitation Erosion Research for AlSi12 Alloy Tested at Different Time Periods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Chirus
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents cavitation erosion research for 2 batch of an AlSi12 alloy. The tests were made on a cavitation stand in laboratory, using the stationary specimen method. This alloy is not subject to cavitation, but the experimental research highlight the behavior of AlSi12 alloy when the time periods are different. The research results are presented through graphs and representative images.
Electron Transport in Graphene-Based Double-Barrier Structure under a Time Periodic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Wei-Tao; WANG Shun-Jin
2011-01-01
The transport property of electron through graphene-based double-barrier under a time periodic field is investigated. We study the influence of the system parameters and external field strength on the transmission probability.The results show that transmission exhibits various kinds of behavior with the change of parameters due to its angular anisotropy. One could control the values of transmission and conductivity as well as their distribution in each band by tuning the parameters.
A Coupled Far-Field Formulation for Time-Periodic Numerical Problems in Fluid Dynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Edmund Chadwick; Rabea El-Mazuzi
2012-11-01
Consider uniform flow past an oscillating body generating a time-periodic motion in an exterior domain, modelled by a numerical fluid dynamics solver in the near field around the body. A far-field formulation, based on the Oseen equations, is presented for coupling onto this domain thereby enabling the whole space to be modelled. In particular, examples for formulations by boundary elements and infinite elements are described.
Modeling the time-periodicity of in-degree distributions in scientific citation networks
Liu, Qi; Xie, Zonglin; Dong, Enming; Li, Jianping
2016-01-01
In a range of citation networks, the in-degree distributions boast time-periodicity---the distributions of citations per article published each year present similar scale-free tails. This phenomenon can be regarded as a consequence of the emergence of hot topics and the existence of the "burst" phenomenon. With this inference considered, a geometric model based on our previous study is established, in which the sizes of the influence zones of nodes follow the same power-law distribution and decrease with their ages. The model successfully reproduces the time-periodicity of the in-degree distributions of the empirical data, and accounts for the presence of citation burst as well. Moreover, a reasonable explanation for the emergence of the scale-free tails by regarding the citation behavior between articles as a "yes/no" experiment is presented. The model can also predict the time-periodicity of the local clustering coefficients, which indicates that the model is a good tool in researches on the evolutionary me...
Periodic Time-Domain Nonlocal Nonreflecting Boundary Conditions for Duct Acoustics
Watson, Willie R.; Zorumski, William E.
1996-01-01
Periodic time-domain boundary conditions are formulated for direct numerical simulation of acoustic waves in ducts without flow. Well-developed frequency-domain boundary conditions are transformed into the time domain. The formulation is presented here in one space dimension and time; however, this formulation has an advantage in that its extension to variable-area, higher dimensional, and acoustically treated ducts is rigorous and straightforward. The boundary condition simulates a nonreflecting wave field in an infinite uniform duct and is implemented by impulse-response operators that are applied at the boundary of the computational domain. These operators are generated by convolution integrals of the corresponding frequency-domain operators. The acoustic solution is obtained by advancing the Euler equations to a periodic state with the MacCormack scheme. The MacCormack scheme utilizes the boundary condition to limit the computational space and preserve the radiation boundary condition. The success of the boundary condition is attributed to the fact that it is nonreflecting to periodic acoustic waves. In addition, transient waves can pass rapidly out of the solution domain. The boundary condition is tested for a pure tone and a multitone source in a linear setting. The effects of various initial conditions are assessed. Computational solutions with the boundary condition are consistent with the known solutions for nonreflecting wave fields in an infinite uniform duct.
Time-frequency manifold correlation matching for periodic fault identification in rotating machines
He, Qingbo; Wang, Xiangxiang
2013-05-01
For rotating machines, the localized faults of key components generally represent as periodic transient impulses in vibration signals. The existence of background noise will corrupt transient impulses in practice, and will thus increase the difficulty to identify specific faults. This paper combines the concepts of time-frequency manifold (TFM) and image template matching, and proposes a novel TFM correlation matching method to enhance identification of the periodic faults. This method is to conduct correlation matching of a vibration signal in the time-frequency domain by using the TFM with a short duration as a template. By this method, the time-frequency distribution (TFD) of a vibration signal is firstly achieved by the Smoothed Pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution (SPWVD) method. Then the TFM template is learned to do correlation matching with the TFD of the analyzed signal. Finally, the ridge is extracted from the correlation matching image and the ridge coefficients are analyzed for periodic fault identification. The proposed method takes advantages of the TFM in noise suppression and template matching in object enhancement, and can enhance the fault impulses of interest in a unified scale. The novel method is verified to be superior to traditional enveloping method with providing smoother and clearer fault impulse component via applications to gearbox fault detection and bearing defect identification.
Zhang, Shangbin; Lu, Siliang; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang
2016-09-01
For rotating machines, the defective faults of bearings generally are represented as periodic transient impulses in acquired signals. The extraction of transient features from signals has been a key issue for fault diagnosis. However, the background noise reduces identification performance of periodic faults in practice. This paper proposes a time-varying singular value decomposition (TSVD) method to enhance the identification of periodic faults. The proposed method is inspired by the sliding window method. By applying singular value decomposition (SVD) to the signal under a sliding window, we can obtain a time-varying singular value matrix (TSVM). Each column in the TSVM is occupied by the singular values of the corresponding sliding window, and each row represents the intrinsic structure of the raw signal, namely time-singular-value-sequence (TSVS). Theoretical and experimental analyses show that the frequency of TSVS is exactly twice that of the corresponding intrinsic structure. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of TSVS is improved significantly in comparison with the raw signal. The proposed method takes advantages of the TSVS in noise suppression and feature extraction to enhance fault frequency for diagnosis. The effectiveness of the TSVD is verified by means of simulation studies and applications to diagnosis of bearing faults. Results indicate that the proposed method is superior to traditional methods for bearing fault diagnosis.
Passive climate control in Spanish office buildings for long periods of time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orosa, J.A.; Baalina, A. [Departamento de Energia y P, Escuela Tecnica Superior de N. y M., Universidade da Coruna, Paseo de Ronda 51, P.C.: 1501 A Coruna (Spain)
2008-12-15
Recent studies have shown that the effect of the internal wall coating on an indoor thermal environment can be seen for short periods of time [Hameury S. Moisture buffering capacity of heavy timber structures directly exposed to an indoor climate: a numerical study. Building and Environment 2005;40(10):1400-12]. However, for long periods of time this effect is hidden by the air renovation and vapour release. These passive methods are gaining popularity because they are energy conscious and environmentally friendly. However, there is little published data on mass transfer between building envelopes and indoor air [Simonson CJ, Salonvaara MH. Mass transfer between indoor air and a porous building envelope: part I - field measurements. In: Proceedings of healthy buildings, vol. 3, 2000; Simonson CJ, Tuomo O. Moisture performance of buildings envelopes with no plastic vapour retarders in cold climates. In: Proceedings of healthy buildings, vol. 3, 2000]. The main objective of this study is to show the internal wall coating effect on indoor air conditions by means of the indoor air parameters. These measurements were taken in 25 office buildings during different seasons. Our results will allow us to understand the internal coating effect for long and short periods of time and, therefore, the thermal comfort and indoor air quality conditions. (author)
EFFECT OF MAGNETIZATION OF WATER ON INDUCTION TIME AND GROWTH PERIOD OF NATURAL GAS HYDRATE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KUANG Li; FAN Shuanshi
2003-01-01
The effect of diluted solution's magnetization on induction time and growth period of natural gas hydrate (NGH) has been investigated in quiescent reaction system at pressure of 4. 5 MPa and temperature of 274 K with SDS as surfactant, by using volume fixed and pressure falling method. Experimental results show that magnetization will have effect on the induction time of NGH. After magnetization with magnetic field intensity of 0.33 T, the induction time of NGH has been reduced to 47 min (average) from 99 min (average) in which there is no magnetization. On the other hand, the induction time has been prolonged after magnetization of the diluted solution with magnetic field intensity of 0.05 T, 0. 11 T, 0.22 T, 0.44T. Especially with magnetic field intensity of 0.11 T, the induction time had even been prolonged to 431min (average). The effect of magnetization on the growth period of NGH has not been found at the experimental condition.
Theoretical Considerations on the Computation of Generalized Time-Periodic Waves
Pauly, Dirk
2011-01-01
We present both, theory and an algorithm for solving time-harmonic wave problems in a general setting. The time-harmonic solutions will be achieved by computing time-periodic solutions of the original wave equations. Thus, an exact controllability technique is proposed to solve the time-dependent wave equations. We discuss a first order Maxwell type system, which will be formulated in the framework of alternating differential forms. This enables us to investigate different kinds of classical wave problems in one fell swoop, such as acoustic, electro-magnetic or elastic wave problems. After a sufficient theory is established, we formulate our exact controllability problem and suggest a least-squares optimization procedure for its solution, which itself is solved in a natural way by a conjugate gradient algorithm operating in the canonical Hilbert space. Therefore, it might be one of the biggest advances of this approach that the proposed conjugate gradient algorithm does not need any preconditioning.
Spacecraft stability and control using new techniques for periodic and time-delayed systems
NAzari, Morad
This dissertation addresses various problems in spacecraft stability and control using specialized theoretical and numerical techniques for time-periodic and time-delayed systems. First, the effects of energy dissipation are considered in the dual-spin spacecraft, where the damper masses in the platform (?) and the rotor (?) cause energy loss in the system. Floquet theory is employed to obtain stability charts for different relative spin rates of the subsystem [special characters omitted] with respect to the subsystem [special characters omitted]. Further, the stability and bifurcation of delayed feedback spin stabilization of a rigid spacecraft is investigated. The spin is stabilized about the principal axis of the intermediate moment of inertia using a simple delayed feedback control law. In particular, linear stability is analyzed via the exponential-polynomial characteristic equations and then the method of multiple scales is used to obtain the normal form of the Hopf bifurcation. Next, the dynamics of a rigid spacecraft with nonlinear delayed multi-actuator feedback control are studied, where a nonlinear feedback controller using an inverse dynamics approach is sought for the controlled system to have the desired linear delayed closed-loop dynamics (CLD). Later, three linear state feedback control strategies based on Chebyshev spectral collocation and the Lyapunov Floquet transformation (LFT) are explored for regulation control of linear periodic time delayed systems. First , a delayed feedback control law with discrete delay is implemented and the stability of the closed-loop response is investigated in the parameter space of available control gains using infinite-dimensional Floquet theory. Second, the delay differential equation (DDE) is discretized into a large set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using the Chebyshev spectral continuous time approximation (CSCTA) and delayed feedback with distributed delay is applied. The third strategy involves
Infrared Time Lags for the Periodic Quasar PG 1302-102
Jun, Hyunsung D.; Stern, Daniel; Graham, Matthew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mainzer, Amy; Cutri, Roc M.; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.
2015-11-01
The optical light curve of the quasar PG 1302-102 at z=0.278 shows a strong, smooth 5.2 year periodic signal, detectable over a period of ∼20 years. Although the interpretation of this phenomenon is still uncertain, the most plausible mechanisms involve a binary system of two supermassive black holes with a subparsec separation. At this close separation, the nuclear black holes in PG 1302-102 will likely merge within ∼ {10}5 years due to gravitational wave emission alone. Here, we report the rest-frame near-infrared time lags for PG 1302-102. Compiling data from WISE and Akari, we confirm that the periodic behavior reported in the optical light curve from Graham et al. is reproduced at infrared wavelengths, with best-fit observed-frame 3.4 and 4.6 μ {{m}} time lags of (2219 ± 153, 2408 ± 148) days for a near face-on orientation of the torus, or (4103 ± 153, 4292 ± 148) days for an inclined system with relativistic Doppler boosting in effect. The periodicity in the infrared light curves and the light-travel time of the accretion disk photons to reach the dust glowing regions support that a source within the accretion disk is responsible for the optical variability of PG 1302-102, echoed at the farther out dusty regions. The implied distance of this dusty, assumed toroidal region is ∼1.5 pc for a near face-on geometry or ∼1.1 pc for the relativistic Doppler-boosted case.
Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray
2012-05-01
We explore, in the quantum regime, the stochastic dynamics of a time-periodic, rapidly oscillating potential (having a characteristic frequency of ω) within the framework of a time-dependent system-reservoir Hamiltonian. We invoke the idea of a quantum gauge transformation in light of the standard Floquet theorem in an attempt to construct a Langevin equation (bearing a time-independent effective potential) by employing a systematic perturbative expansion in powers of ω^{-1} using the natural time-scale separation. The time-independent effective potential (corrected to ω^{-2} in leading order) that acts on the slow motion of the driven particle can be employed for trapping. We proceed further to evaluate the rate of escape of the driven particle from the metastable state in the high-temperature limit. We also envisage a resonance phenomena, a true hallmark of the system-reservoir quantization. This development would thus serve as a model template to investigate the trapping mechanism, as well as an appropriate analog to understand the dynamics of a fluctuation-induced escape process from the trap. PMID:23004698
Detection of faults in rotating machinery using periodic time-frequency sparsity
Ding, Yin; He, Wangpeng; Chen, Binqiang; Zi, Yanyang; Selesnick, Ivan W.
2016-11-01
This paper addresses the problem of extracting periodic oscillatory features in vibration signals for detecting faults in rotating machinery. To extract the feature, we propose an approach in the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) domain where the periodic oscillatory feature manifests itself as a relatively sparse grid. To estimate the sparse grid, we formulate an optimization problem using customized binary weights in the regularizer, where the weights are formulated to promote periodicity. In order to solve the proposed optimization problem, we develop an algorithm called augmented Lagrangian majorization-minimization algorithm, which combines the split augmented Lagrangian shrinkage algorithm (SALSA) with majorization-minimization (MM), and is guaranteed to converge for both convex and non-convex formulation. As examples, the proposed approach is applied to simulated data, and used as a tool for diagnosing faults in bearings and gearboxes for real data, and compared to some state-of-the-art methods. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively detect and extract the periodical oscillatory features.
Transfer-matrix approach for finite-difference time-domain simulation of periodic structures.
Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya
2013-11-01
Optical properties of periodic structures can be calculated using the transfer-matrix approach, which establishes a relation between amplitudes of the wave incident on a structure with transmitted or reflected waves. The transfer matrix can be used to obtain transmittance and reflectance spectra of finite periodic structures as well as eigenmodes of infinite structures. Traditionally, calculation of the transfer matrix is performed in the frequency domain and involves linear algebra. In this work, we present a technique for calculation of the transfer matrix using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and show the way of its implementation in FDTD code. To illustrate the performance of our technique we calculate the transmittance spectra for opal photonic crystal slabs consisting of multiple layers of spherical scatterers. Our technique can be used for photonic band structure calculations. It can also be combined with existing FDTD methods for the analysis of periodic structures at an oblique incidence, as well as for modeling point sources in a periodic environment.
Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research
Harper, Liam D.; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark
2016-01-01
Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners’ perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: ‘importance of extra-time’, ‘rule changes’, ‘efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision’, ‘nutritional timing’, ‘future research directions’, ‘preparatory modulations’ and ‘recovery’. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses
Nezhel'skaya, L. A.
2016-09-01
A flow of physical events (photons, electrons, and other elementary particles) is studied. One of the mathematical models of such flows is the modulated MAP flow of events circulating under conditions of unextendable dead time period. It is assumed that the dead time period is an unknown fixed value. The problem of estimation of the dead time period from observations of arrival times of events is solved by the method of maximum likelihood.
Bergeot, Nicolas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bruyninx, Carine
2015-04-01
Several agencies are routinely monitoring the vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) using GNSS data. Derived maps are available with different latencies, area extents, and grid/time resolutions. However, no high-resolution maps are publically available over Europe in near real-time. In this frame, the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) developed the ROB-IONO software which takes advantage of the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN) to monitor the ionosphere. The main ROB products consist of ionospheric vTEC maps over Europe and their variability estimated in near real-time every 15 min on 0.5° x 0.5° grids using GPS observations. The maps are available online with a latency of ~3 min in the IONEX format at ftp://gnss.oma.be and as interactive web pages at www.gnss.be. During normal ionospheric activity, the ROB-TEC maps show a good agreement with widely used post-processed global products from IGS, CODE and ESA, with mean differences of 1.3 ± 0.9, 0.6 ± 0.7 and 0.4 ± 1.6 TECu respectively for the period 2012 to mid-2013. For a disturbed period, such as the 2003 Halloween ionospheric storm, the mean differences with IGS, CODE and ESA maps are respectively 0.9 ± 2.2, 0.1 ± 2.0 and 0.6 ± 6.8 TECu, with maximum differences (>38 TECu) occurring during the major phase of the storm. These differences are due to the lower resolution of global products in time and space compared to the ROB-TEC maps. A description of two recent events, on March 17, 2013 and February 27, 2014 highlights the capability of the method adopted to detect in near real-time abnormal ionospheric behaviour over Europe. The potential of the variability maps as an indicator of rapid ionospheric variations during the 15 min of observations is also highlighted. More than 30 ionospheric events associated with Space weather were detected during the period 2012-2014. The ionospheric perturbations are associated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs, ~70% of the time), active geomagnetic conditions
Impulsive Periodic Boundary Value Problems for Dynamic Equations on Time Scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric R. Kaufmann
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Let 𝕋 be a periodic time scale with period p such that 0,ti,T=mp∈𝕋, i=1,2,…,n, m∈ℕ, and 0
Kafka, K R P; Li, H; Yi, A; Cheng, J; Chowdhury, E A
2015-01-01
Time-resolved diffraction microscopy technique has been used to observe the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) from the interaction of a single femtosecond laser pulse (pump) with a nano-scale groove mechanically formed on a single-crystal Cu substrate. The interaction dynamics (0-1200 ps) was captured by diffracting a time-delayed, frequency-doubled pulse from nascent LIPSS formation induced by the pump with an infinity-conjugate microscopy setup. The LIPSS ripples are observed to form sequentially outward from the groove edge, with the first one forming after 50 ps. A 1-D analytical model of electron heating and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation induced by the interaction of incoming laser pulse with the groove edge qualitatively explains the time-evloution of LIPSS formation.
Time-headway distribution for periodic totally asymmetric exclusion process with various updates
Hrabák, P.; Krbálek, M.
2016-03-01
The totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with periodic boundaries is considered as traffic flow model. The large-L approximation of the stationary state is used for the derivation of the time-headway distribution (an important microscopic characteristic of traffic flow) for the model with generalized update (genTASEP) in both, forward- and backward-sequential representations. The usually used updates, fully-parallel and regular forward- and backward-sequential, are analyzed as special cases of the genTASEP. It is shown that only for those cases, the time-headway distribution is determined by the flow regardless to the density. The qualitative comparison of the results with traffic data demonstrates that the genTASEP with backward order and attractive interaction evinces similar properties of time-headway distribution as the real traffic sample.
Fictitious Domain Technique for the Calculation of Time-Periodic Solutions of Scattering Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ling Rao
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The fictitious domain technique is coupled to the improved time-explicit asymptotic method for calculating time-periodic solution of wave equation. Conventionally, the practical implementation of fictitious domain method relies on finite difference time discretizations schemes and finite element approximation. Our new method applies finite difference approximations in space instead of conventional finite element approximation. We use the Dirac delta function to transport the variational forms of the wave equations to the differential form and then solve it by finite difference schemes. Our method is relatively easier to code and requires fewer computational operations than conventional finite element method. The numerical experiments show that the new method performs as well as the method using conventional finite element approximation.
Timing and periodicity of paraglacial rock-slope failures in the Scottish Highlands
Ballantyne, Colin K.; Stone, John O.
2013-03-01
Many formerly-glaciated mountains exhibit a high density of postglacial rock-slope failures (RSFs) in the form of rockslides, rock avalanches or deep-seated gravitational slope deformations. Such RSFs are often termed 'paraglacial' as they reflect pre-conditioning by glaciation and deglaciation. The temporal pattern of paraglacial RSFs is unknown. We employ 47 cosmogenic isotope exposure ages obtained for 17 catastrophic RSFs in the Scottish Highlands to test models of changes in RSF frequency since deglaciation. Our results show that RSF activity spans almost the entire postglacial period from ~ 17 ka until ~ 1.5 ka, and that the periodicity of sampled postglacial RSFs is statistically indistinguishable from a pattern of uniform periodicity (~ 1 ka- 1). Our data do not conform to proposed models of declining RSF frequency with time elapsed since deglaciation, but suggest that the temporal distribution of postglacial RSFs is best described by a combination of rapid response (enhanced RSF frequency during or immediately after deglaciation) followed by approximately constant periodicity. Our findings are consistent with near-surface fracturing of rock when glacially-induced confining stresses are removed, causing some failures during or immediately after deglaciation and reducing other slopes to critical conditional stability so that failure is triggered by progressive rock-mass weakening or by transient triggering mechanisms. Neither permafrost degradation (thaw of ice in joints) nor seismic activity offers a general explanation for triggering Scottish RSFs, but could be contributory in some cases. The quasi-constant periodicity inferred for Holocene RSFs implies that the probability of RSFs in this seismically-quiescent intraplate area has not changed in the past ~ 10 ka, and that further (though infrequent) catastrophic RSFs are likely to occur in the future.
Adesanya, S. O.; Oluwadare, E. O.; Falade, J. A.; Makinde, O. D.
2015-12-01
In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow.
Exact control of parity-time symmetry in periodically modulated nonlinear optical couplers
Yang, Baiyuan; Hu, QiangLin; Yu, XiaoGuang
2016-01-01
We propose a mechanism for realization of exact control of parity-time (PT) symmetry by using a periodically modulated nonlinear optical coupler with balanced gain and loss. It is shown that for certain appropriately chosen values of the modulation parameters, we can construct a family of exact analytical solutions for the two-mode equations describing the dynamics of such nonlinear couplers. These exact solutions give explicit examples that allow us to precisely manipulate the system from nonlinearity-induced symmetry breaking to PT symmetry, thus providing an analytical approach to the all-optical signal control in nonlinear PT-symmetric structures.
The Iterative Solution to Discrete-Time H∞ Control Problems for Periodic Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan G. Ivanov
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of solving discrete-time H ∞ control problems for periodic systems. The approach for solving such a type of equations is well known in the literature. However, the focus of our research is set on the numerical computation of the stabilizing solution. In particular, two effective methods for practical realization of the known iterative processes are described. Furthermore, a new iterative approach is investigated and applied. On the basis of numerical experiments, we compare the presented methods. A major conclusion is that the new iterative approach is faster than rest of the methods and it uses less RAM memory than other methods.
Geometric tools for solving the FDI problem for linear periodic discrete-time systems
Longhi, Sauro; Monteriù, Andrea
2013-07-01
This paper studies the problem of detecting and isolating faults in linear periodic discrete-time systems. The aim is to design an observer-based residual generator where each residual is sensitive to one fault, whilst remaining insensitive to the other faults that can affect the system. Making use of the geometric tools, and in particular of the outer observable subspace notion, the Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) problem is formulated and necessary and solvability conditions are given. An algorithmic procedure is described to determine the solution of the FDI problem.
van Baalen, Guillaume; Wittwer, Peter
2011-01-01
We construct solutions for the Navier–Stokes equations in three dimensions with a time periodic force which is of compact support in a frame that moves at constant speed. These solutions are related to solutions of the problem of a body which moves within an incompressible fluid at constant speed and rotates around an axis which is aligned with the motion. In contrast to other authors who analyze stationary solutions in a frame of reference attached to the body, the analysis for the present p...
Behaviour of a thermodynamic model system under time-dependent periodic boundary conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berry, R.S. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Chemistry); D' Isep, F.; Sertorio, L. (Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy))
A finite domain D/sub 2/ is enveloped by a finite domain D/sub 1/. The domain D/sub 1/, in turn, is in contact with two thermal baths with time-dependent periodic temperatures Tsub(s)(t) and Tsub(e)(t). We search for the best way to make T/sub 2/, the temperature field belonging to D/sub 2/, as close as possible to a predetermined constant. This can be obtained with the insertion of controlled energy sources or sinks. We study the formal approach with zero energy expenditure and the maximization problem which is implied.
The Cluster Science Archive: from Time Period to Physics Based Search
Masson, A.; Escoubet, C. P.; Laakso, H. E.; Perry, C. H.
2015-12-01
Since 2000, the Cluster spacecraft relay the most detailed information on how the solar wind affects our geospace in three dimensions. Science output from Cluster is a leap forward in our knowledge of space plasma physics: the science behind space weather. It has been key in improving the modeling of the magnetosphere and understanding its various physical processes. Cluster data have enabled the publication of more than 2000 refereed papers and counting. This substantial scientific return is often attributed to the online availability of the Cluster data archive, now called the Cluster Science Archive (CSA). It is being developed by the ESAC Science Data Center (ESDC) team and maintained alongside other science ESA archives at ESAC (ESA Space Astronomy Center, Madrid, Spain). CSA is a public archive, which contains the entire set of Cluster high-resolution data, and other related products in a standard format and with a complete set of metadata. Since May 2015, it also contains data from the CNSA/ESA Double Star mission (2003-2008), a mission operated in conjunction with Cluster. The total amount of data format now exceeds 100 TB. Accessing CSA requires to be registered to enable user profiles and CSA accounts more than 1,500 users. CSA provides unique tools for visualizing its data including - on-demand particle distribution functions visualization - fast data browsing with more than 15TB of pre-generated plots - inventory plots It also offers command line capabilities (e.g. data access via Matlab or IDL softwares, data streaming). Despite its reliability, users can only request data for a specific time period while scientists often focus on specific regions or data signatures. For these reasons, a data-mining tool is being developed to do just that. It offers an interface to select data based not only on a time period but on various criteria including: key physical parameters, regions of space and spacecraft constellation geometry. The output of this tool is a
The Varying Light Curve and Timings of the Ultra-short Period Contact Binary KIC 9532219
Lee, Jae Woo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Park, Jang-Ho
2016-01-01
KIC 9532219 is a W UMa-type eclipsing binary with an orbital period of 0.1981549 d that is below the short-period limit ($\\sim$0.22 d) of the period distribution for contact binaries. The {\\it Kepler} light curve of the system exhibits striking light changes in both eclipse depths and light maxima. Applying third-body and spot effects, the light-curve synthesis indicates that the eclipsing pair is currently in a marginal contact stage with a mass ratio of $q$=1.20, an orbital inclination of $i$=66.0 deg, a temperature difference of $\\Delta$ ($T_{1}$--$T_{2}$)=172 K, and a third light of $l_3$=75.9 \\%. To understand the light variations with time, we divided up the light curve into 312 segments and separately analyzed them. The results reveal that variation of eclipse depth is primarily caused by changing amounts of contamination due to the nearby star KIC9532228 between the {\\it Kepler} Quarters and that the variable O'Connell effect originates from the starspot activity on the less massive primary component....
Dobson, Matthew
2014-11-01
This work presents a generalization of the Kraynik-Reinelt (KR) boundary conditions for nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. In the simulation of steady, homogeneous flows with periodic boundary conditions, the simulation box deforms with the flow, and it is possible for image particles to become arbitrarily close, causing a breakdown in the simulation. The KR boundary conditions avoid this problem for planar elongational flow and general planar mixed flow [T. A. Hunt, S. Bernardi, and B. D. Todd, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 154116 (2010)] through careful choice of the initial simulation box and by periodically remapping the simulation box in a way that conserves image locations. In this work, the ideas are extended to a large class of three-dimensional flows by using multiple remappings for the simulation box. The simulation box geometry is no longer time-periodic (which was shown to be impossible for uniaxial and biaxial stretching flows in the original work by Kraynik and Reinelt [Int. J. Multiphase Flow 18, 1045 (1992)]. The presented algorithm applies to all flows with nondefective flow matrices, and in particular, to uniaxial and biaxial flows.
Time-dependent Mott transition in the periodic Anderson model with nonlocal hybridization
Hofmann, Felix; Potthoff, Michael
2016-08-01
The time-dependent Mott transition in a periodic Anderson model with off-site, nearest-neighbor hybridization is studied within the framework of nonequilibrium self-energy functional theory. Using the two-site dynamical-impurity approximation, we compute the real-time dynamics of the optimal variational parameter and of different observables initiated by sudden quenches of the Hubbard-U and identify the critical interaction. The time-dependent transition is orbital selective, i.e., in the final state, reached in the long-time limit after the quench to the critical interaction, the Mott gap opens in the spectral function of the localized orbitals only. We discuss the dependence of the critical interaction and of the final-state effective temperature on the hybridization strength and point out the various similarities between the nonequilibrium and the equilibrium Mott transition. It is shown that these can also be smoothly connected to each other by increasing the duration of a U-ramp from a sudden quench to a quasi-static process. The physics found for the model with off-site hybridization is compared with the dynamical Mott transition in the single-orbital Hubbard model and with the dynamical crossover found for the real-time dynamics of the conventional Anderson lattice with on-site hybridization.
Charge pumping in monolayer graphene driven by a series of time-periodic potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhwu@semi.ac.cn [SKLSM, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, 100083, Beijing (China); CAE Team, Semiconductor R and D Center, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of); Li, J. [Department of Physics, Semiconductor Photonics Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chan, K.S., E-mail: apkschan@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)
2012-02-27
We applied the Floquet scattering-matrix formalism to studying the electronic transport properties in a mesoscopic Dirac system. Using the method, we investigate theoretically quantum pumping driven by a series of time-periodic potentials in graphene monolayer both in the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes. Our numerical results demonstrate that adding harmonic modulated potentials can break the time reversal symmetry when no voltage bias is applied to the graphene monolayer. Thus, when the system is pumped with proper dynamic parameters, these scatterers can produce a nonzero dc pumped current. We also find that the transmission is anisotropic as the incident angle is changed. -- Highlights: ► We applied the Floquet scattering-matrix formalism to Dirac-electron system. ► We investigated the quantum pumping both in adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes. ► We evaluated the pumped dc current induced by harmonic modulated potentials.
On Bifurcating Time-Periodic Flow of a Navier-Stokes Liquid Past a Cylinder
Galdi, Giovanni P.
2016-10-01
We provide general sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of branching out of a time-periodic family of solutions from steady-state solutions to the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the exterior of a cylinder. By separating the time-independent averaged component of the velocity field from its oscillatory one, we show that the problem can be formulated as a coupled elliptic-parabolic nonlinear system in appropriate and distinct function spaces, with the property that the relevant linearized operators become Fredholm of index 0. In this functional setting, the notorious difficulty of 0 being in the essential spectrum entirely disappears and, in fact, it is even meaningless. Our approach is different and, we believe, more natural and simpler than those proposed by previous authors discussing similar questions. Moreover, the latter all fail, when applied to the problem studied here.
Mixer-Duplexer-Antenna Leaky-Wave System Based on Periodic Space-Time Modulation
Taravati, Sajjad
2016-01-01
We present a mixer-duplexer-antenna leaky-wave system based on periodic space-time modulation. This system operates as a full transceiver, where the upconversion and downconversion mixing operations are accomplished via space-time transitions, the duplexing operation is induced by the nonreciprocal nature of the structure, and the radiation operation is provided by the leaky-wave nature of the wave. A rigorous electromagnetic solution is derived for the dispersion relation and field distributions. The system is implemented in the form of a spatio-temporally modulated microstrip leaky-wave structure incorporating an array of sub-wavelengthly spaced varactors modulated by a harmonic wave. In addition to the overall mixer-duplexer-antenna operation, frequency beam scanning at fixed input frequency is demonstrated as one of the interesting features of the system. A prototype is realized and demonstrated by full-wave and experimental results.
Estimating inter-event time distributions from finite observation periods in communication networks
Kivelä, Mikko
2014-01-01
A diverse variety of processes --- including recurrent disease episodes, neuron firing, and communication patterns among humans --- can be described using inter-event time (IET) distributions. Many such processes are ongoing, although event sequences are only available during a finite observation window. Because the observation time window is more likely to begin or end during long IETs than during short ones, the analysis of such data is susceptible to a bias induced by the finite observation period. In this paper, we illustrate how this length bias is born and how it can be corrected. To do this, we model event sequences using stationary renewal processes, and we formulate simple heuristics for determining the severity of the bias. To illustrate our results, we focus on the example of empirical communication networks, which are temporal networks that are constructed from communication events. The IET distributions of such systems guide efforts to build models of human behavior, and the variance of IETs is v...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matheus Melo Pithon
2010-06-01
Full Text Available As new orthodontic resin adhesives continue to be marketed, rapid and sensitive tests for examining their toxic effects at the ' cell and tissue level ' are needed because patient safety has been identifi ed as a legal concept. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and degree of monomer conversion of orthodontic adhesives over different time periods. Seven adhesives: Transbond® XT, Transbond® Color Change, Quick Cure, EagleBond, Orthobond®, Fill Mágic® and Biofix® were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in L929 fibroblastic cells and for their degree of monomer conversion over different time periods. Three control groups were also analysed: Positive control (C+, consisting of Tween 80 cell detergent; Negative control (C-, consisting of PBS; and cell control (CC, consisting of cells exposed to any material. The dye-uptake technique that involves the absorption of a neutral red dye in viable cells was used for the cytotoxicity evaluation and the degree of conversion was evaluated using spectroscopy with infrared. The results showed the cytotoxicity of the adhesives at 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours. At these times, the viability values presented for these materials were statistically different from the groups CC and C- (p 0.05. In the monomer conversions there was a percentage increase of monomer conversion from 24 to 72 hours. A direct correlation could be observed between cytotoxicity and monomer conversions. From this work it can be concluded that all adhesives evaluated are cytotoxic at the times of 24, 48 and 72 hours. Monomers continued conversion even after photopolymerization had stopped.
THE INFLUENCE OF IDEAS OF THE NEW TIME PERIOD ON THE FORMATION OF THE GENDER PSYCHOLOGY
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Veronika Olegovna Mokhova
2014-08-01
Full Text Available This Article deals with the history of gender psychology in Russia, which reflects the ideas of national publications within the New Time period (1640-1918 in a modern gender science. Since 1750 the first works on the topic of the place of a man and a woman in society started to appear in Russia, related to their possibilities and capabilities. The Article contains the analysis of the dynamics in the subject range of papers related to sex differences, issued in Russia from the 18th till the early 20th century by using method of qualitative content analysis. The Article contains the material of the two libraries: the Russian National Library and the Russian State Library from 1700 to 1918, dealing with problems of sexes and a social position of men and women. Conclusions at the end of this research are the essence of the ideas, which were critical for the emergence and development of the gender psychology.Purpose: the main goal of this Article is to present the analysis of ideas of the New Time period which are significant for modern gender psychology.Methodology: qualitative content analysis.Results: the analysis of the dynamics in the subject range of papers related to sex differences, published in Russia from the 18th till the early 20th century.Practical implications: the history of gender psychology.
时间序列周期模式挖掘的周期检测方法%Periodicity Detection Method of Periodic Pattern Mining in Time Series
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王阅; 高学东; 武森; 陈敏
2009-01-01
周期是时间序列的重要特征之一,用于精确描述时间序列并预测其发展趋势.在现有周期模式挖掘算法中,周期长度由用户事先定义,忽略了噪声的存在.在ERP度量和时间弯曲算法的基础上,提出一种新的周期长度检测方法.该方法可以在时间轴上实现弯曲,包括延伸和平移.它受噪声干扰的影响较小,实验结果表明其性能优于原有周期检测算法.%Periodicity is an important feature for time series that can be used for describing time series exactly and predicting its development trends. In existing mining algorithms for periodic patterns, the periodicity length is user-specified in andvanc, and the presence of noise is not taken into account. Based on ERP(Edit distance with Real Penalty) measurement and time warping algorithm, this paper proposes a novel algorithm for periodicity length detection, which can realize warp on the time axis including extending and translation. It is less affected by noise interference. Experimental results show that the performance of this algorithm is better than existing periodicity detection algorithms.
Longhi, S
2012-01-01
Recent works [Y.D. Chong {\\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 105}, 053901 (2010); W. Wan {\\it et al.}, Science {\\bf 331}, 889 (2011)] have shown that the time-reversed process of lasing at threshold realizes a coherent perfect absorber (CPA). In a CPA, a lossy medium in an optical cavity with a specific degree of dissipation, equal in modulus to the gain of the lasing medium, can perfectly absorb coherent optical waves at discrete frequencies that are the time-reversed counterpart of the lasing modes. Here the concepts of time-reversal of lasing and CPA are extended for optical radiation emitted by a laser operated in an arbitrary (and generally highly-nonlinear) regime, i.e. for transient, chaotic or periodic coherent optical fields. We prove that any electromagnetic signal $E(t)$ generated by a laser system \\textbf{S} operated in an arbitrary regime can be perfectly absorbed by a CPA device $\\bf{S'}$ which is simply realized by placing inside \\textbf{S} a broadband linear absorber (attenuator) of appropriat...
Padovani, Tullia; Koenig, Thomas; Eckstein, Doris; Perrig, Walter J
2013-07-01
Memory formation is commonly thought to rely on brain activity following an event. Yet, recent research has shown that even brain activity previous to an event can predict later recollection (subsequent memory effect, SME). In order to investigate the attentional sources of the SME, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by task cues preceding target words were recorded in a switched task paradigm that was followed by a surprise recognition test. Stay trials, that is, those with the same task as the previous trial, were contrasted with switch trials, which included a task switch compared to the previous trial. The underlying assumption was that sustained attention would be dominant in stay trials and that transient attentional reconfiguration processes would be dominant in switch trials. To determine the SME, local and global statistics of scalp electric fields were used to identify differences between subsequently remembered and forgotten items. Results showed that the SME in stay trials occurred in a time window from 2 to 1 sec before target onset, whereas the SME in switch trials occurred subsequently, in a time window from 1 to 0 sec before target onset. Both SMEs showed a frontal negativity resembling the topography of previously reported effects, which suggests that sustained and transient attentional processes contribute to the prestimulus SME in consecutive time periods. PMID:24381815
A first principles TDDFT framework for spin and time-resolved ARPES in periodic systems
De Giovannini, Umberto; Rubio, Angel
2016-01-01
We present a novel theoretical approach to simulate spin, time and angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) from first principles that is applicable to surfaces, thin films, few layer systems, and low-dimensional nanostructures. The method is based on a general formulation in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to describe the real time-evolution of electrons escaping from a surface under the effect of any external (arbitrary) laser field. By extending the so called t-SURFF method to periodic systems one can calculate the final photoelectron spectrum by collecting the flux of the ionization current trough an analysing surface. The resulting approach, that we named t-SURFFP, allows to describe a wide range of irradiation conditions without any assumption on the dynamics of the ionization process allowing for pump-probe simulations on an equal footing. To illustrate the wide scope of applicability of the method we present applications to graphene, mono- and bi-layer WSe$...
Multi Band Insar Analysis of Subsidence Development Based on the Long Period Time Series
Çomut, F. C.; Ustun, A.; Lazecky, M.; Aref, M. M.
2015-12-01
The SAR Interferometry (InSAR) application has shown great potential in monitoring of land terrain changes and in detection of land deformations such as subsidence. Longer time analysis can lead to understand longer trends and changes. Using different bands of SAR satellite (C- from ERS 1-2 and Envisat, L- from ALOS) over the study area, we achieve knowledge of movements in long-term and evaluation of its dynamic changes within observed period of time. Results from InSAR processing fit with the position changes in vertical direction based on GPS network established over the basin as an effective geodetic network. Time series (StaMPS PS+SB) of several points over Çumra County in eastern part of Konya City show a general trend of the deformation that is expected to be approximately between -13 to -17 mm/year. Northern part of Karaman is affected by faster subsidence, borders of the subsidence trough were identified from Envisat. Presenting InSAR results together with GIS information about locations and time of occurrence of sudden subsidence, urban/industrial growth in time and climate changes helps in better understanding of the situation. This way, the impact of natural and man-made changes will be shown for urban planning thanks to InSAR and GIS comparisons with hydrogeological modeling. In this study we present results of differential and multitemporal InSAR series using different bands and GIS conjunction associated with seasonal and temporal groundwater level changes in Konya Closed Basin.
MULTI BAND INSAR ANALYSIS OF SUBSIDENCE DEVELOPMENT BASED ON THE LONG PERIOD TIME SERIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. C. Çomut
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The SAR Interferometry (InSAR application has shown great potential in monitoring of land terrain changes and in detection of land deformations such as subsidence. Longer time analysis can lead to understand longer trends and changes. Using different bands of SAR satellite (C- from ERS 1-2 and Envisat, L- from ALOS over the study area, we achieve knowledge of movements in long-term and evaluation of its dynamic changes within observed period of time. Results from InSAR processing fit with the position changes in vertical direction based on GPS network established over the basin as an effective geodetic network. Time series (StaMPS PS+SB of several points over Çumra County in eastern part of Konya City show a general trend of the deformation that is expected to be approximately between -13 to -17 mm/year. Northern part of Karaman is affected by faster subsidence, borders of the subsidence trough were identified from Envisat. Presenting InSAR results together with GIS information about locations and time of occurrence of sudden subsidence, urban/industrial growth in time and climate changes helps in better understanding of the situation. This way, the impact of natural and man-made changes will be shown for urban planning thanks to InSAR and GIS comparisons with hydrogeological modeling. In this study we present results of differential and multitemporal InSAR series using different bands and GIS conjunction associated with seasonal and temporal groundwater level changes in Konya Closed Basin.
Reference value of long-time exercise test in the diagnosis of primary periodic paralysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ding Zeyu; Liu Mingsheng; Cui Liying
2014-01-01
Background The long-time exercise test (ET) is used to diagnose the primary periodic paralyses (PPs).However the reference values of ET are many and various.This study aimed to investigate the reference value of long-time ET in the diagnosis of PPs.Methods We recruited 108 healthy subjects,68 patients with PPs,and 72 patients with other diseases for the study.The procedure of ET was made on the basis of the McManis' method.Electrical responses were recorded from right abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle when stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the wrist.After the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was monitored,subjects were then asked to contract the muscle as strongly as possible for 5 minutes.CMAPs were recorded for 2 seconds immediately after cessation of exercise,then every 5 minutes for 10 minutes,and finally every 10 minutes for 50 minutes.In general,the CMAP amplitudes will fall below the pre-exercise levels in an hour.The largest decrease was calculated and used as results of ET.Results The CMAP amplitude decreases had no significant differences between groups when the healthy adults were grouped according to age,gender,height,weight and test time.Decreases in PPs patients (57.76％) were significantly more than in healthy subjects (15.21％) and other disease patients (18.10％,P ＜0.001).Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the best threshold is 35.50％.Conclusions In the long-time exercise test,threshold of 35.50％ for the CMAP amplitude decrease was identified for abnormal.The result is not influenced by age,gender,height,weight,and test time.About 7.4％ of healthy subjects were abnormal in ET.
Wu, Yanan; Gong, Yubing; Xu, Bo
2013-12-01
Recently, multiple coherence resonance induced by time delay has been observed in neuronal networks with constant coupling strength. In this paper, by employing Newman-Watts Hodgkin-Huxley neuron networks with time-periodic coupling strength, we study how the temporal coherence of spiking behavior and coherence resonance by time delay change when the frequency of periodic coupling strength is varied. It is found that delay induced coherence resonance is dependent on periodic coupling strength and increases when the frequency of periodic coupling strength increases. Periodic coupling strength can also induce multiple coherence resonance, and the coherence resonance occurs when the frequency of periodic coupling strength is approximately multiple of the spiking frequency. These results show that for periodic coupling strength time delay can more frequently optimize the temporal coherence of spiking activity, and periodic coupling strength can repetitively optimize the temporal coherence of spiking activity as well. Frequency locking may be the mechanism for multiple coherence resonance induced by periodic coupling strength. These findings imply that periodic coupling strength is more efficient for enhancing the temporal coherence of spiking activity of neuronal networks, and thus it could play a more important role in improving the time precision of information processing and transmission in neural networks.
A Method for Solving the Time-Periodic Electromagnetic Field Problem in Ferromagnetic Shielding
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Iosif Nemoianu
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Ferromagnetic shield is an efficient solution for shielding the static and periodic electromagnetic field. Therefore, it is also a shilding solution for an electromagnetic field having a rich contain of harmonics. Using the polarization fixed point method, the nonlinear media is replaced by a linear one having the vacuum permeability and a magnetization that is iteratively corrected by the flux density. For each harmonic of the magnetization, the electromagnetic field may be obtained by solving the sinusoidal steady-state eddy-current equation in the shield. The solution process can be started by retaining a small number of harmonics and, finaly, the acuracy of the solution may be improved with adding some more. The proposed method always yields to stable results, even when the characteristic B-H is strongly nonlinear, and has a superior computational efficiency with respect to various time-stepping techniques and to the “harmonic balance method”.
Zhou, Jun; Lu, Xinbiao; Qian, Huimin
2016-09-01
The paper reports interesting but unnoticed facts about irreducibility (resp., reducibility) of Flouqet factorisations and their harmonic implication in term of controllability in finite-dimensional linear continuous-time periodic (FDLCP) systems. Reducibility and irreducibility are attributed to matrix logarithm algorithms during computing Floquet factorisations in FDLCP systems, which are a pair of essential features but remain unnoticed in the Floquet theory so far. The study reveals that reducible Floquet factorisations may bring in harmonic waves variance into the Fourier analysis of FDLCP systems that in turn may alter our interpretation of controllability when the Floquet factors are used separately during controllability testing; namely, controllability interpretation discrepancy (or simply, controllability discrepancy) may occur and must be examined whenever reducible Floquet factorisations are involved. On the contrary, when irreducible Floquet factorisations are employed, controllability interpretation discrepancy can be avoided. Examples are included to illustrate such observations.
A Partial Backlogging Inventory Model with Time-Varying Demand During Shortage Period
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Chen Mang
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Harris’s classic square root economic order quantity (EOQ model forms the basis for many other models that relax one or more of its assumptions. A key assumption of the basic EOQ model is that stockouts are not permitted. Due to the excess demands, stock-out situations may arise occasionally. Sometimes, shortages are permitted and they are backordered and satisfied in the very next replenishment. Therefore the objective of this paper is to develop a partial backlogging inventory model, and proposes a new algorithm to minimize the total cost, at the same time also propose the prediction method and algorithm of ordering period. Finally, a practical example of the numerical analysis is given.
Observations of the April 2002 Storm Period with TIMED-TIDI
Niciejewski, R.; Killeen, T.; Wu, Q.; Skinner, W.; Solomon, S.; Ortland, D.; Kafkalidis, J.; Gell, D.; Gablehouse, D.; Johnson, R.
2002-12-01
TIDI is meeting its basic requirement, which is to measure the global wind field in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, the core study region. Since February 2002, TIDI has been in a routine science data-taking mode. During April 2002, TIMED was positioned at a high beta angle (angle between the plane of the satellite orbit and the Earth-Sun line) resulting in a series of TIDI measurements near the dusk/dawn terminator. The field of view of TIDI allows it to obtain measurements from pole to pole, while the repetition rate of the sky-scanner allows it to obtain several scans within the auroral oval region on each orbit. This paper will discuss TIDI measurements obtained during the April 2002 storm period, including OI (5577\\x8F) intensity data and neutral wind data sets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adesanya, S.O., E-mail: adesanyas@run.edu.ng [Department of Mathematical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer’s University (Nigeria); Oluwadare, E.O. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer’s University (Nigeria); Falade, J.A., E-mail: faladej@run.edu.ng [Department of Physical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer’s University (Nigeria); Makinde, O.D., E-mail: makinded@gmail.com [Faculty of Military Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X2, Saldanha 7395 (South Africa)
2015-12-15
In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow. - Highlights: • The influence of magnetic field on the free convective fluid flow is considered. • The coupled equations are solved by using Adomian decomposition method. • The Adomian series solution agreed with previously obtained result. • Magnetic field decreases the velocity maximum but enhances temperature field.
Efficiency, Power and Period of a model quantum heat engine working in a finite time
Bekele, Mulugeta; Dima, Tolasa A.; Alemye, Mekuannent; Chegeno, Warga
We take a spin-half quantum particle undergoing Carnot type cyclic process in a finite time assisted by two heat reservoirs and an external magnetic field. We find that the power of the heat engine is maximum at a particular period of the cyclic process and efficiency at the maximum power is at least half of the Carnot efficiency. We further apply the Omega-criterion for a figure of merit representing a compromise between useful power and lost power determining the corresponding efficiency for the optimization criterion to be at least three fourth of the Carnot efficiency. The authers are thankful to the International Science programme, IPS, Uppsala, Sweden for their support to our research lab.
Multiple periodic solutions for a discrete time model of plankton allelopathy
Zhang Jianbao; Fang Hui
2006-01-01
We study a discrete time model of the growth of two species of plankton with competitive and allelopathic effects on each other N1(k+1) = N1(k)exp{r1(k)-a11(k)N1(k)-a12(k)N2(k)-b1(k)N1(k)N2(k)}, N2(k+1) = N2(k)exp{r2(k)-a21(k)N2(k)-b2(k)N1(k)N1(k)N2(k)}. A set of sufficient conditions is obtained for the existence of multiple positive periodic solutions for this model. The approach is based on Mawhin's continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory as well as some a priori estimates. Some...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Allen, Matthew S.; Sracic, Michael W.; Chauhan, Shashank;
2011-01-01
Many important systems, such as wind turbines, helicopters and turbomachinery, must be modeled with linear time-periodic equations of motion to correctly predict resonance phenomena. Time periodic effects in wind turbines might arise due to blade-to-blade manufacturing variations, stratification...
Another way of deriving the ring current decay time during disturbed periods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. R. Manzano
1995-06-01
Full Text Available Coupling parameter, E, and the total energy dissipated by the magnetosphere, UT, are determined for six disturbed periods, following three known criteria for UT computation. It is observed that UT exceeds E for Dst < -90 nT, for alI models. Differences between models reside on the estimated valnes for the particles' life time il1 the equatorial ring current. The values of TR, used in the models, are small during the main phase of the di."turbance, in disagreement with the charge exchange life time of the majority species, H+ and O'-. Based on this conclusion, a different criterion to calculate TR is proposed, differentiating the different stages of the perturbation. TR is calculated, for the main phase of the storm, from the rate of energy deposition estimation, Q, in the ring current. For Dst recovery phase, the vallles are obtained from a ring current decay law computation. The UTvu calculated, physically more coherent with the processes occurring during the event, is now smaller than expected. In this sense, it is understood that the power generated by the solar wind-magnetosphere dy- namo, should also be distributed in the inner magnetosphere, auroral zones and equatorial ring current, as in the outer magnetosphere, plasmoids in the tail shot in antisolar direction. A further adjustment of E, with the Chapman-Ferraro distance, 10' variable, has been made. Although the reslllts, improve the estimation of E, they are sti!l smaller than UT, except UTNU, for some disturbed periods. This result indicates the uncertainty in the computation of the input energy, by using the many expressions proposed in the literature, which are always presented as laws proportional to a given group of parameters, with an unknown factor of proportionality, which deserves more detailed physical analysis.
Low-thrust roundtrip trajectories to Mars with one-synodic-period repeat time
Okutsu, Masataka; Landau, Damon F.; Rogers, Blake A.; Longuski, James M.
2015-05-01
Cycler trajectories-both ballistic and powered-are reported in the literature in which there are two-vehicle, three-vehicle, and four-vehicle cases. Such trajectories permit the installation of cycler vehicles which provide safe and comfortable living conditions for human space travel between Earth and Mars during every synodic opportunity. The question the present paper answers is a logical, obvious one: Does a single-vehicle, one-synodic-period cycler exist? The answer is yes: such a trajectory can be flown-but only with a high-power electric propulsion system. In our example, it is found that "stopover" trajectories that spend 30 days in orbit about Earth and 30 days about Mars, and return astronauts to Earth in one synodic period require a 90-t power generator with a power level of 11 MWe. Fortuitously, and in lieu of using chemical propulsion, the high power level of the electric propulsion system would also be effective in hauling the cargo payload via a spiral trajectory about the Earth. But because one synodic period is not enough for the cycler vehicle to fly both the interplanetary trajectories and the Earth-spiral trajectories, we suggest developing two nuclear power generators, which could alternate flying the interplanetary trajectories and the Earth-spiral trajectories. Once these power generators are launched and begin operating in space, the mass requirement in seven subsequent missions (over a period of 15 years beginning in 2022) would be modest at 250-300 metric tons to low-Earth orbit per mission. Thus two cargo launches of NASA's Space Launch System and one crew launch of the Falcon Heavy, for example, would be adequate to maintain support for each consecutive mission. Although we propose developing two sets of electric propulsion systems to account for the Earth-spiral phases, only one vehicle is flown on a heliocentric trajectory at any given time. Thus, our low-thrust stopover cycler with zero encounter velocities falls into a category of a
Borisov, A A; Bruevich, V V; Rozgacheva, I K; Shimanovskaya, E V
2015-01-01
We applied the method of continuous wavelet-transform to high-quality time-frequency analysis to the sets of observations of relative sunspot numbers. Wavelet analysis of these data reveals the following pattern: at the same time there are several activity cycles whose periods vary widely from the quasi biennial up to the centennial period. These relatively low-frequency periodic variations of the solar activity gradually change the values of periods of different cycles in time. This phenomenon can be observed in every cycle of activity.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
liu, weiwei; Huangfu, Hao; Xiong, Jing;
2014-01-01
This study proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption for occupants in naturally ventilated building, and analyzed the synergistic and separate feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes on the time period of thermal adaption. Using the method, the values...... of the time period of thermal adaption were obtained on the basis of the data from a long-term field survey conducted in two typical naturally ventilated offices located in Changsha, China. The results showed that the occupants need to take 4.25 days to fully adapt to a step-change in outdoor air temperature......, under the synergistic feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes. The time period of thermal adaption increased to 13 days, if only the feedback effect of the physical adaption mode was accounted for. The difference between the two values of the time period of thermal adaption...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu. I. Shapovalov
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Introduction. The architecture of MAOPCs functions system and examples of its application for solving the tasks of multivariate analysis of linear periodically time-variable (LPTV circuits based on the frequency symbolic method are considered in this paper. The method is based on approximation of transfer functions of LPTV circuits in the form of trigonometric polynomials of the Fourier. The MAOPCs functions system is implemented in the environment of MATLAB. Architecture and functions of the system MAOPCs. The system consists of 17 functions that are implemented in the environment of MATLAB. Each function has arguments and global variables and carries out over them identified transformation. Functions and global variables form the input data program for research LPTV circuit and should be defined (set at the time of calling the function. Conclusions. The MAOPCs functions system enables to investigate LPTV circuits, setting in program input data the algorithms for their research and to use a strong symbolic apparatus and other standard functions of the package MATLAB in full, without understanding the deep of mathematical apparatus of implemented methods.
Estimating interevent time distributions from finite observation periods in communication networks.
Kivelä, Mikko; Porter, Mason A
2015-11-01
A diverse variety of processes-including recurrent disease episodes, neuron firing, and communication patterns among humans-can be described using interevent time (IET) distributions. Many such processes are ongoing, although event sequences are only available during a finite observation window. Because the observation time window is more likely to begin or end during long IETs than during short ones, the analysis of such data is susceptible to a bias induced by the finite observation period. In this paper, we illustrate how this length bias is born and how it can be corrected without assuming any particular shape for the IET distribution. To do this, we model event sequences using stationary renewal processes, and we formulate simple heuristics for determining the severity of the bias. To illustrate our results, we focus on the example of empirical communication networks, which are temporal networks that are constructed from communication events. The IET distributions of such systems guide efforts to build models of human behavior, and the variance of IETs is very important for estimating the spreading rate of information in networks of temporal interactions. We analyze several well-known data sets from the literature, and we find that the resulting bias can lead to systematic underestimates of the variance in the IET distributions and that correcting for the bias can lead to qualitatively different results for the tails of the IET distributions.
Estimating interevent time distributions from finite observation periods in communication networks
Kivelä, Mikko; Porter, Mason A.
2015-11-01
A diverse variety of processes—including recurrent disease episodes, neuron firing, and communication patterns among humans—can be described using interevent time (IET) distributions. Many such processes are ongoing, although event sequences are only available during a finite observation window. Because the observation time window is more likely to begin or end during long IETs than during short ones, the analysis of such data is susceptible to a bias induced by the finite observation period. In this paper, we illustrate how this length bias is born and how it can be corrected without assuming any particular shape for the IET distribution. To do this, we model event sequences using stationary renewal processes, and we formulate simple heuristics for determining the severity of the bias. To illustrate our results, we focus on the example of empirical communication networks, which are temporal networks that are constructed from communication events. The IET distributions of such systems guide efforts to build models of human behavior, and the variance of IETs is very important for estimating the spreading rate of information in networks of temporal interactions. We analyze several well-known data sets from the literature, and we find that the resulting bias can lead to systematic underestimates of the variance in the IET distributions and that correcting for the bias can lead to qualitatively different results for the tails of the IET distributions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Poul Erik; Niemann, L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf
1997-01-01
pattern was observed. Mathematical analysis of the data indicated a peak at 0152 h and a periodicity index of 117.5. A periodicity equation was developed describing the average relation between mf intensity and hour of the day for the study area. Based on the observed periodicity pattern, the effect...
Jiang, Ping; Zeng, Zhigang; Chen, Jiejie
2015-08-01
In this paper, we study the existence and global exponential stability of almost periodic solution for memristor-based neural networks with leakage, time-varying and distributed delays. Using a new Lyapunov function method, we prove that this delayed neural network has a unique almost periodic solution, which is globally exponentially stable. Moreover, the obtained conclusion on the almost periodic solution is applied to prove the existence and stability of periodic solution (or equilibrium point) for this delayed neural network with periodic coefficients (or constant coefficients). PMID:25978771
Timing and return period of major palaeoseismic events in the Shillong Plateau, India
Sukhija, B. S.; Rao, M. N.; Reddy, D. V.; Nagabhushanam, P.; Hussain, Syed; Chadha, R. K.; Gupta, H. K.
1999-07-01
The close temporal occurrence of four great earthquakes in the past century, including the great Assam earthquake of 1897 in the Shillong Plateau, necessitated examination of the palaeoseismicity of the region. The results from such investigation would definitely aid in addressing the problem of the earthquake hazard evaluation more realistically. Our recent palaeoseismological study in the Shillong Plateau has led us to identify and provide geological evidence for large/major earthquakes and estimate the probable recurrence period of such violent earthquakes in parts of the Shillong Plateau and the adjoining Brahmaputra valley. Trenching along the Krishnai River, a tributary of the River Brahmaputra, has unravelled very conspicuous and significant earthquake-induced signatures in the alluvial deposits of the valley. The geological evidence includes: (1) palaeoliquefaction features, like sand dykes and sand blows; (2) deformational features, like tilted beds; (3) fractures and syndepositional deformational features, like flame structures caused by coeval seismic events. Chronological constraints of the past large/major earthquakes are provided from upper and lower radiocarbon age bounds in the case of the palaeoliquefaction features, and the coeval timing of the palaeoseismic events is obtained from the radiocarbon dating of the organic material associated with the deformed horizon as well as buried tree trunks observed wide distances apart. Our palaeoseismic measurements, which are the first from the area, indicate that the Shillong Plateau has been struck by large/major earthquakes around 500±150, 1100±150 and >1500±150 yr BP, in addition to the well-known great seismic event of 1897, thereby the 14C dates indicate a recurrence period of the order of 500 yr for large earthquakes in the Shillong Plateau.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer Tsui
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The retinotectal projection in Xenopus laevis has been shown to exhibit correlation-based refinement of both anatomical and functional connectivity during development. Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP is an appealing experimental model for correlation-based synaptic plasticity because, in contrast to plasticity induction paradigms using tetanic stimulation or sustained postsynaptic depolarization, its induction protocol more closely resembles natural physiological activity. In Xenopus tadpoles, where anatomical remodeling has been reported throughout much of the life of the animal, in vivo retinotectal STDP has only been examined under a limited set of experimental conditions. Using perforated patch recordings of retina-evoked EPSCs in tectal neurons, we confirmed that repeatedly driving a retinotectal EPSP 5-10 ms prior to inducing an action potential in the postsynaptic cell, reliably produced timing-dependent long-term potentiation (t-LTP of the retinotectal synapse in young wild type tadpoles (stages 41-44. At these stages, retinotectal timing-dependent long-term depression (t-LTD also could be induced by evoking an EPSP to arrive 5-10 ms after an action potential in the tectal cell. However, retinotectal STDP using this standard protocol was limited to a developmental sensitive period, as we were unable to induce t-LTP or t-LTD after stage 44. Surprisingly, this STDP protocol also failed to induce reliable STDP in albino tadpoles at the early ages when it was effective in wild type pigmented animals. Nonetheless, low-frequency flashes to the eye produced a robust NMDA receptor-dependent retinotectal LTD in stage 47 albino tadpoles, demonstrating that the retinotectal synapse can nonetheless be modified in these animals using different plasticity paradigms.
The last interglacial period on the Pacific Coast of North America: Timing and paleoclimate
Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.
2002-01-01
New, high-precision U-series ages of solitary corals (Balanophyllia elegans) coupled with molluscan faunal data from marine terraces on the Pacific Coast of North America yield information about the timing and warmth of the last interglacial sea-level highstand. Balanophyllia elegans takes up U in isotopic equilibrium with seawater during growth and shortly after death. Corals from the second terrace on San Clemente Island (offshore southern California), the third terrace on Punta Banda (on the Pacific Coast of northern Baja California), and the Discovery Point Formation on Isla de Guadalupe (in the Pacific Ocean offshore Baja California) date to the peak of the last interglacial period and have U-series ages ranging from ca. 123 to 114 ka. The first terrace on Punta Banda has corals with ages ranging from ca. 83 to 80 ka, which corresponds to a sea-level highstand formed in the late last interglacial period. U-series analyses of corals from the Cayucos terrace (central California) and the Nestor terrace at Point Loma (southern California) show that these fossils have evidence of open-system history, similar to what has been reported by other workers for the same localities. Nevertheless, a model of continuous, secondary U and Th uptake shows that two ages of corals are likely present at these localities, representing the ca. 105 and ca. 120 ka sea-level highstands reported elsewhere. U-series ages of last interglacial corals from the Pacific Coast overlap with, but are on average younger than the ages of corals from Barbados, the Bahamas, and Hawaii. This age difference is explained by the nature of the geomorphic response to sea-level change: fringing or barrier reefs on low-latitude coastlines have an accretionary growth style that keeps pace with rising sea level, whether on a tectonically rising or stable coastline. In contrast, midlatitude, high-energy coastlines are sites of platform cutting during the early part of a sea-level high stand and terrace
Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.
Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B
2016-01-01
Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical
Categorization of ber varieties in relation to blooming period, fruit setting and harvesting time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thirty four local Ber varieties were evaluated at Horticultural Research Institute AARI, Faisalabad, Horticultural Research Station Bahawalpur (Punjab) and Jujube Research Station, Tandojam (Sindh). Traits viz. total period of blooming (dates), peak period of blooming (dates), total period of fruit set (dates), peak period of fruit set (dates), total period of fruit harvest (dates), peak period of fruit harvest (dates), total flowering days, peak flowering days, total fruit setting days, peak fruit setting days, total harvesting days and peak harvesting days were studied. The results revealed significant differences in parameters studied except total period of blooming under Tandojam, Sindh conditions. Varieties were classified as early, mid and late season for both provinces. Local varieties had potential for further manipulation in terms of variety improvement to attract growers for extensive ber cultivations under changing global climatic scenario. (author)
Generational and time period differences in American adolescents' religious orientation, 1966-2014.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean M Twenge
Full Text Available In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million, American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976-2013, 8th and 10th graders (1991-2013, and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966-2014. Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%-40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s-70s give their religious affiliation as "none," as do 40%-50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age.
Generational and time period differences in American adolescents' religious orientation, 1966-2014.
Twenge, Jean M; Exline, Julie J; Grubbs, Joshua B; Sastry, Ramya; Campbell, W Keith
2015-01-01
In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million), American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials) were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X) at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976-2013), 8th and 10th graders (1991-2013), and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966-2014). Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%-40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s-70s) give their religious affiliation as "none," as do 40%-50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age.
Generational and time period differences in American adolescents' religious orientation, 1966-2014.
Twenge, Jean M; Exline, Julie J; Grubbs, Joshua B; Sastry, Ramya; Campbell, W Keith
2015-01-01
In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million), American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials) were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X) at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976-2013), 8th and 10th graders (1991-2013), and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966-2014). Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%-40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s-70s) give their religious affiliation as "none," as do 40%-50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age. PMID:25962174
Generational and Time Period Differences in American Adolescents’ Religious Orientation, 1966–2014
Twenge, Jean M.; Exline, Julie J.; Grubbs, Joshua B.; Sastry, Ramya; Campbell, W. Keith
2015-01-01
In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million), American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials) were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X) at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976–2013), 8th and 10th graders (1991–2013), and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966–2014). Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%–40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s–70s) give their religious affiliation as “none,” as do 40%–50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age. PMID:25962174
Resonant cyclotron acceleration of particles by a time periodic singular flux tube
Asch, Joachim; Stovicek, Pavel
2010-01-01
We study the dynamics of a classical nonrelativistic charged particle moving on a punctured plane under the influence of a homogeneous magnetic field and driven by a periodically time-dependent singular flux tube through the hole. We observe an effect of resonance of the flux and cyclotron frequencies. The particle is accelerated to arbitrarily high energies even by a flux of small field strength which is not necessarily encircled by the cyclotron orbit; the cyclotron orbits blow up and the particle oscillates between the hole and infinity. We support this observation by an analytic study of an approximation for small amplitudes of the flux which is obtained with the aid of averaging methods. This way we derive asymptotic formulas that are afterwards shown to represent a good description of the accelerated motion even for fluxes which are not necessarily small. More precisely, we argue that the leading asymptotic terms may be regarded as approximate solutions of the original system in the asymptotic domain as...
Platelet aggregation responses vary over a period of time in healthy controls.
Refaai, Majed A; Frenkel, Eugene; Sarode, Ravi
2010-01-01
Platelet aggregation study is performed to investigate platelet function abnormality. A normal healthy control sample is usually run with the patient sample as a quality control measure. At our institution, we observed variations in platelet aggregation responses in our normal repeat controls. Therefore, we analysed aggregation parameters in these controls. Whole blood aggregation studies were performed with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA), collagen and ristocetin. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion was also measured simultaneously by leuciferin-leuciferase reaction. During a 5-year period, a total of 86 studies were performed on seven controls. Aggregations were within the acceptable range in 67% of the time. Collagen was the most affected agonist in our study. On five occasions, four controls had subnormal aggregations with two agonists. All abnormal responses were hypoaggregation except for two who had hyperaggregation with collagen and AA. Only one out of seven controls was always normal. In the presence of a subnormal control result, a new control was run before releasing the patient's platelet aggregation results. These findings suggest that many physiological factors, other than medications, may affect platelet function even in normal individuals. Therefore, a repeat study at a later date to demonstrate a reproducible abnormality would be prudent before labeling a patient's platelets abnormal.
Wang, W.-M.
2008-01-01
We prove that the 1- d quantum harmonic oscillator is stable under spatially localized, time quasi-periodic perturbations on a set of Diophantine frequencies of positive measure. This proves a conjecture raised by Enss-Veselic in their 1983 paper [EV] in the general quasi-periodic setting. The motivation of the present paper also comes from construction of quasi-periodic solutions for the corresponding nonlinear equation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Márcio Mourão
Full Text Available We investigated commonly used methods (Autocorrelation, Enright, and Discrete Fourier Transform to estimate the periodicity of oscillatory data and determine which method most accurately estimated periods while being least vulnerable to the presence of noise. Both simulated and experimental data were used in the analysis performed. We determined the significance of calculated periods by applying these methods to several random permutations of the data and then calculating the probability of obtaining the period's peak in the corresponding periodograms. Our analysis suggests that the Enright method is the most accurate for estimating the period of oscillatory data. We further show that to accurately estimate the period of oscillatory data, it is necessary that at least five cycles of data are sampled, using at least four data points per cycle. These results suggest that the Enright method should be more widely applied in order to improve the analysis of oscillatory data.
It's T time: A study on the return period of multivariate problems
Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Balistrocchi, Matteo; Bacchi, Baldassare
2016-04-01
One of the most important tasks a hydrologist must face is the proper estimation of the 'design values' of a natural variable corresponding to a given Return Period, T, of failures of the hydraulic 'structure' to be designed or verified. Sometimes the 'structure' is simply the embankments, the failure of which corresponds to the outflows of flood runoff on the surrounding land. The widely adopted definition of T, in a problem regarding the maxima of hydrological variables, is "the average time elapsing between two successive occurrences of an event exceeding a certain magnitude of the natural variables". If T is referred to the minima, the symmetric definition pertains to the "average time between two periods during which the variable ranges below a given magnitude". Conventional (and the only accepted) approaches for estimation of T involve a single natural variable (i.e. flood-peak of a river at a given cross section, the daily maximum discharge, the maximum daily rainfall depth observed at a given rain-gauge). The method of estimation of T entails a frequency analysis of the variable of interest, where the design value of a given T is needed to design the structure of interest (e.g. dams, sewers). In other words, T is used as the index value to set the assigned risk level for the hydraulic works. However, a univariate approach in complex problems ignores the effect of significant variables interrelation leading to different risk levels for each quantity of interest and resulting in a completely wrong estimate of the risk. For example, if one considers the flood inflow in a lake around which cities and villages are positioned, the variable to be investigated in relation to the risk assessment is the lake water level. It is obvious that the same water level may occur from very different flood hydrographs, even when the same initial water level and the same rate curve of outflows are considered. This is a consequence of the interaction of at least three joint
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren Glud; Thorstenson, Anders
2008-01-01
We extend well-known formulae for the optimal base stock of the inventory system with continuous review and constant lead time to the case with periodic review and stochastic, sequential lead times. Our extension uses the notion of the 'extended lead time'. The derived performance measures...
Li, Fang; Liang, Xing; Shen, Wenxian
2015-01-01
In this series of papers, we investigate the spreading and vanishing dynamics of time almost periodic diffusive KPP equations with free boundaries. Such equations are used to characterize the spreading of a new species in time almost periodic environments with free boundaries representing the spreading fronts. In the first part of the series, we showed that a spreading-vanishing dichotomy occurs for such free boundary problems (see [16]). In this second part of the series, we investigate the ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xing Yin
2011-01-01
uncertain periodic switched recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays. When uncertain discrete-time recurrent neural network is a periodic system, it is expressed as switched neural network for the finite switching state. Based on the switched quadratic Lyapunov functional approach (SQLF and free-weighting matrix approach (FWM, some linear matrix inequality criteria are found to guarantee the delay-dependent asymptotical stability of these systems. Two examples illustrate the exactness of the proposed criteria.
Yongkun Li; Lei Wang; Yu Fei
2014-01-01
A class of shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks of neutral type with time-varying delays in the leakage term on time scales is proposed. Based on the exponential dichotomy of linear dynamic equations on time scales, fixed point theorems, and calculus on time scales we obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solutions for that class of neural networks. The results of this paper are completely new and complementary to the previous...
Li, Yongkun; Meng, Xiaofang; Xiong, Lianglin
2015-01-01
In this paper, a class of neutral type high-order Hopfield neural networks with mixed time-varying delays and leakage delays on time scales is proposed. Based on the exponential dichotomy of linear dynamic equations on time scales, Banach's fixed point theorem and the theory of calculus on time scales, some sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and global exponential stability of pseudo almost periodic solutions for this class of neural networks. Our results are completely new....
Magnetic Cycles and Rotation Periods of Late Type Stars from photometric time series
Mascareño, A Suárez; Hernández, J I González
2016-01-01
We investigate the photometric modulation induced by magnetic activity cycles and study the relationship between rotation period and activity cycle(s) in late-type (FGKM) stars. We analyse light-curves spanning up to 9 years of 125 nearby stars provided by the ASAS survey. The sample is mainly conformed by low-activity main sequence late A to mid M-type stars. A search is performed for short (days) and long-term (years) periodic variations in the photometry. We modelled with combinations of sinusoids the light-curves to measure the properties of these periodic signals. To provide a better statistical interpretation of our results we complement them with the results from previous similar works. We have been able to measure long-term photometric cycles of 47 stars. Rotational modulation was also detected and rotational periods measured in 36 stars. For 28 stars we have simultaneous measurements of both, activity cycles and rotational periods, being 17 of them M-type stars. From sinusoidal fits we measured both ...
Chunhong Li; Chuanzhi Bai
2010-01-01
In this paper, a Hopfield neural network with neutral time-varying delays is investigated by using the continuation theorem of Mawhin's coincidence degree theory and some analysis technique. Without assuming the continuous differentiability of time-varying delays, sufficient conditions for the existence of the periodic solutions are given. The result of this paper is new and extends previous known result.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren Glud; Thorstenson, Anders
We show that well-known textbook formulae for determining the optimal base stock of the inventory system with continuous review and constant lead time can easily be extended to the case with periodic review and stochastic, sequential lead times. The provided performance measures and conditions...
[Local fractal analysis of noise-like time series by all permutations method for 1-115 min periods].
Panchelyuga, V A; Panchelyuga, M S
2015-01-01
Results of local fractal analysis of 329-per-day time series of 239Pu alpha-decay rate fluctuations by means of all permutations method (APM) are presented. The APM-analysis reveals in the time series some steady frequency set. The coincidence of the frequency set with the Earth natural oscillations was demonstrated. A short review of works by different authors who analyzed the time series of fluctuations in processes of different nature is given. We have shown that the periods observed in those works correspond to the periods revealed in our study. It points to a common mechanism of the phenomenon observed. PMID:26016038
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yao-lin Jiang
2003-01-01
In this paper we presented a convergence condition of parallel dynamic iteration methods for a nonlinear system of differential-algebraic equations with a periodic constraint.The convergence criterion is decided by the spectral expression of a linear operator derivedfrom system partitions. Numerical experiments given here confirm the theoretical work ofthe paper.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yingwei Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The global exponential stability issues are considered for almost periodic solution of the neural networks with mixed time-varying delays and discontinuous neuron activations. Some sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of almost periodic solution are achieved in terms of certain linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, by applying differential inclusions theory, matrix inequality analysis technique, and generalized Lyapunov functional approach. In addition, the existence and asymptotically almost periodic behavior of the solution of the neural networks are also investigated under the framework of the solution in the sense of Filippov. Two simulation examples are given to illustrate the validity of the theoretical results.
Li, Fang; Liang, Xing; Shen, Wenxian
2016-08-01
In this series of papers, we investigate the spreading and vanishing dynamics of time almost periodic diffusive KPP equations with free boundaries. Such equations are used to characterize the spreading of a new species in time almost periodic environments with free boundaries representing the spreading fronts. In the first part of the series, we showed that a spreading-vanishing dichotomy occurs for such free boundary problems (see [16]). In this second part of the series, we investigate the spreading speeds of such free boundary problems in the case that the spreading occurs. We first prove the existence of a unique time almost periodic semi-wave solution associated to such a free boundary problem. Using the semi-wave solution, we then prove that the free boundary problem has a unique spreading speed.
Pelgrin, Florian; Sylvain, Arnaud; Heyer, Eric
2004-01-01
While a number of studies have demonstrated the importance of factor utilization in economic analysis, the impact of operating hours and/or hours of work in the production function remains largely unknown, particularly in terms of the capital operating time. Using French data on industrial firms for the period 1989 to 2001, we estimate a Cobb-Douglas production function that considers the stocks and both the capital operating time and the working time. We draw on the framework defined by Blun...
Formulation of a Combined Transportation and Inventory Optimization Model with Multiple Time Periods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.Krishnakumari,
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Most distribution network design models existing in the literature have focused on minimizing the costs of inventory and transportation. During the analysis of supply chain of currency management problem it is observed that the transportation of currency from various sources to various destinations and the required inventory to be maintained to meet the emerging demands requires formulation of a combined problem. This framework aims to support the coordination of inventory and transportation activities to properly manage the inventory profiles and currency flows between source locations and distribution centers. This paper considers a multi-period inventory and transportation model for a single commodity. The key contribution of this paper is, a mathematical programming formulation of transportation cum inventory problem is proposed and an algorithm for this new formulation as a multi period decision process is intended. A numerical example of currency transportation cum inventory is presented to illustrate the proposed algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN JianXing; YANG HuaZhong; WANG Hui; YAN XiaoLang; HOU ChaoHuan
2007-01-01
Phase noise analysis of an oscillator is implemented with its periodic time-varying small signal state equations by perturbing the autonomous large signal state equations of the oscillator. In this paper, the time domain steady solutions of oscillators are perturbed with traditional regular method; the periodic time-varying Jocobian modulus matrices are decomposed with Sylvester theorem, and on the resulting space spanned by periodic vectors, the conditions under which the oscillator holds periodic steady states with any perturbations are analyzed. In this paper, stochastic calculus is applied to disclose the generation process of phase noise and calculate the phase jitter of the oscillator by injecting a pseudo sinusoidal signal in frequency domain, representing the white noise, and a δ correlation signal in time domain into the oscillator. Applying the principle of frequency modulation, we learned how the power-law and the Lorentzian spectrums are formed. Their relations and the Lorentzian spectrums of harmonics are also worked out. Based on the periodic Jacobian modulus matrix, the simple algorithms for Floquet exponents and phase noise are constructed, as well as a simple case is demonstrated. The analysis difficulties and the future directions for the phase noise of oscillators are also pointed out at the end.
Kamimori, Gary H.; McLellan, Tom M.; Tate, Charmaine M.; Voss, David M.; Niro, Phil; Lieberman, Harris R.
2014-01-01
Rationale Various occupational groups are required to maintain optimal physical and cognitive function during overnight periods of wakefulness, often with less than optimal sleep. Strategies are required to help mitigate the impairments in cognitive function to help sustain workplace safety and productivity. Objectives To test the effectiveness of repeated 200 mg doses of caffeine on cognitive function and live-fire marksmanship with soldiers during three successive nights of sustained wakefu...
DOBSON, Matthew
2014-01-01
This work presents a generalization of the Kraynik-Reinelt (KR) boundary conditions for nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. In the simulation of steady, homogeneous flows with periodic boundary conditions, the simulation box moves with the flow, and it is possible for particle replicas to become arbitrarily close, causing a breakdown in the simulation. The KR boundary conditions avoid this problem for planar elongational flow and general planar mixed flow [J. Chem. Phys 133, 14116 ...
Gang FTP scheduling of periodic and parallel rigid real-time tasks
Goossens, Joël
2010-01-01
In this paper we consider the scheduling of periodic and parallel rigid tasks. We provide (and prove correct) an exact schedulability test for Fixed Task Priority (FTP) Gang scheduler sub-classes: Parallelism Monotonic, Idling, Limited Gang, and Limited Slack Reclaiming. Additionally, we study the predictability of our schedulers: we show that Gang FJP schedulers are not predictable and we identify several sub-classes which are actually predictable. Moreover, we extend the definition of rigid, moldable and malleable jobs to recurrent tasks.
Looking for granulation and periodicity imprints in the sunspot time series
Lopes, Ilidio
2015-01-01
The sunspot activity is the end result of the cyclic destruction and regeneration of magnetic fields by the dynamo action. We propose a new method to analyze the daily sunspot areas data recorded since 1874. By computing the power spectral density of daily data series using the Mexican hat wavelet, we found a power spectrum with a well-defined shape, characterized by three features. The first term is the 22 yr solar magnetic cycle, estimated in our work to be of 18.43 yr. The second term is related to the daily volatility of sunspots. This term is most likely produced by the turbulent motions linked to the solar granulation. The last term corresponds to a periodic source associated with the solar magnetic activity, for which the maximum of power spectral density occurs at 22.67 days. This value is part of the 22-27 day periodicity region that shows an above-average intensity in the power spectra. The origin of this 22.67 day periodic process is not clearly identified, and there is a possibility that it can be...
Periodic Solution of a Nonautonomous Diffusive Food Chain System of Three Species with Time Delays
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zheng-qiu Zhang; Xian-wu Zeng; Zhi-cheng Wang
2003-01-01
By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, the existence of a positive periodic solution for a nonautonomous diffusive food chain system of three species.dx1(t)/dt = xl(t)[r1(t) - a11(t)x1(t) - a12(t)x2(t)] + D1(t)[y(t) - x1(t)],dx2 (t)/dt = x2(t)[-r2(t) + a21(t)x1(t - τ1) - a22(t)x2(t) - a23(t)x3(t)],dx3 (t)/dt = x3(t)[-r3(t) + a32(t)x2(t - τ2) - a33(t)x3(t)],dy(t)/dt = y(t)[r4(t) - a44(t)y(t)] + D2(t)[x1 (t) - y(t)],is established, where ri(t), aii(t) (i= 1, 2, 3, 4), Di(t) (i = 1, 2), a12(t), a21 (t), a23(t) and a32(t) are all positive periodic continuous functions with period w ＞ 0, τi(i = 1, 2) are positive constants.
Baskaran, Santhi
2010-01-01
Energy consumption is a critical design issue in real-time systems, especially in battery- operated systems. Maintaining high performance, while extending the battery life between charges is an interesting challenge for system designers. Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) allows a processor to dynamically change speed and voltage at run time, thereby saving energy by spreading run cycles into idle time. Knowing when to use full power and when not, requires the cooperation of the operating system scheduler. Usually, higher processor voltage and frequency leads to higher system throughput while energy reduction can be obtained using lower voltage and frequency. Instead of lowering processor voltage and frequency as much as possible, energy efficient real-time scheduling adjusts voltage and frequency according to some optimization criteria, such as low energy consumption or high throughput, while it meets the timing constraints of the real-time tasks. As the quantity and functional complexity of battery powered porta...
The time-periodic diffusive competition models with a free boundary and sign-changing growth rates
Wang, Mingxin; Zhang, Yang
2016-10-01
To understand the spreading of invasive and native species, in this paper we consider the diffusive competition models with a free boundary in the heterogeneous time-periodic environments, in which the variable intrinsic growth rates of these two species change signs and may be very negative in some large regions. We study the spreading-vanishing dichotomy, long-time dynamical behavior of solution, sharp criteria for spreading and vanishing, and estimates of the asymptotic spreading speed of the free boundary. Moreover, we establish the existence of positive solutions to a T-periodic boundary value problem of the diffusive competition system with sign-changing growth rates in the half line.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongkun Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A class of shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks of neutral type with time-varying delays in the leakage term on time scales is proposed. Based on the exponential dichotomy of linear dynamic equations on time scales, fixed point theorems, and calculus on time scales we obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solutions for that class of neural networks. The results of this paper are completely new and complementary to the previously known results even if the time scale =ℝ or ℤ. Moreover, we present illustrative numerical examples to show the feasibility of our results.
THE SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN FINITE TIME PERIOD IN FULLY DISCRETE RISK MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ChengShixue; WuBiao
1999-01-01
The probabilities of the following events are first discussed in this paper: the insurance company survives to any fixed time k and the surplus at time k equals x≥1. The formulas for calculating such probabilities are deduced through analytical and probabilistic arguments respectively. Finally, other probability laws relating to risk are determined based on the probabilities mentioned above.
McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Goudie, Andrew J.
2012-01-01
Time perspective is a cognitive-motivational construct, which has been shown to be related to decision-making, motivation and adjustment. The majority of research into time perspective has been conducted in college students and/or general population samples. Focus groups were held as part of a larger investigation into the relationship between…
Steady-state time-periodic finite element analysis of a brushless DC motor drive considering motion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jagieła Mariusz
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at providing a framework for comprehensive steady-state time-domain analysis of rotating machines considering motion. The steady-state waveforms of electromagnetic and circuit quantities are computed via iterative solution of the nonlinear field-circuit-and-motion problem with constraints of time periodicity. The cases with forced speed and forced load torque are considered. A comparison of execution times with a conventional time-stepping transient model is carried out for two different machines. The numerical stability of a time-periodic model with forced speed is shown to be worse than that of traditional transient time-stepping one, although the model converges within a reasonable number of iterations. This is not the case if forced load via equation of mechanical balance is accounted for. To ensure convergence of the iterative process the physical equation of motion is replaced by the fixed-point equation. In this way the model delivers time-periodic solutions regarding not only the electromagnetic quantities but also the rotational speed.
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Santhi Baskaran
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Energy consumption is a critical design issue in real-time systems, especially in battery- operated systems. Maintaining high performance, while extending the battery life between charges is an interesting challenge for system designers. Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS allows a processor to dynamically change speed and voltage at run time, thereby saving energy by spreading run cycles into idle time.Knowing when to use full power and when not, requires the cooperation of the operating system scheduler. Usually, higher processor voltage and frequency leads to higher system throughput whileenergy reduction can be obtained using lower voltage and frequency. Instead of lowering processorvoltage and frequency as much as possible, energy efficient real-time scheduling adjusts voltage andfrequency according to some optimization criteria, such as low energy consumption or high throughput,while it meets the timing constraints of the real-time tasks. As the quantity and functional complexity ofbattery powered portable devices continues to raise, energy efficient design of such devices has becomeincreasingly important. Many real-time scheduling algorithms have been developed recently to reduceenergy consumption in the portable devices that use DVS capable processors. Extensive power awarescheduling techniques have been published for energy reduction, but most of them have been focusedsolely on reducing the processor energy consumption. While the processor is one of the major powerhungry units in the system, other peripherals such as network interface card, memory banks, disks alsoconsume significant amount of power. Dynamic Power Down (DPD technique is used to reduce energyconsumption by shutting down the processing unit and peripheral devices, when the system is idle. Threealgorithms namely Red Tasks Only (RTO, Blue When Possible (BWP and Red as Late as Possible (RLPare proposed in the literature to schedule the real-time tasks in Weakly-hard real-time
Advantages and Drawbacks of Applying Periodic Time-Variant Modal Analysis to Spur Gear Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Rune; Santos, Ilmar; Hede, Ivan Arthur
2010-01-01
A simplified torsional model with a reduced number of degrees-of-freedom is used in order to investigate the potential of the technique. A time-dependent gear mesh stiffness function is introduced and expanded in a Fourier series. The necessary number of Fourier terms is determined in order...... to ensure sufficient accuracy of the results. The method of time-variant modal analysis is applied, and the changes in the fundamental and the parametric resonance frequencies as a function of the rotational speed of the gears, are found. By obtaining the stationary and parametric parts of the time...
Space Radiation Cancer Risks and Uncertainities for Different Mission Time Periods
Kim,Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.
2012-01-01
Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons (less than several hundred MeV); and galactic cosmic ray (GCR), which includes high energy protons and high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei. For long duration missions, space radiation presents significant health risks including cancer mortality. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is essential for radiation protection of crews on long term space missions outside of the protection of the Earth s magnetic field and for optimization of mission planning and costs. For the assessment of organ dosimetric quantities and cancer risks, the particle spectra at each critical body organs must be characterized. In implementing a PRA approach, a statistical model of SPE fluence was developed, because the individual SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature while the frequency distribution of SPEs depends strongly upon the phase within the solar activity cycle. Spectral variability of SPEs was also examined, because the detailed energy spectra of protons are important especially at high energy levels for assessing the cancer risk associated with energetic particles for large events. An overall cumulative probability of a GCR environment for a specified mission period was estimated for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment represented by the deceleration potential (theta). Finally, this probabilistic approach to space radiation cancer risk was coupled with a model of the radiobiological factors and uncertainties in projecting cancer risks. Probabilities of fatal cancer risk and 95% confidence intervals will be reported for various periods of space missions.
Yasui, Takeshi; Hsieh, Yi-Da; Sakaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Hindle, Francis; Yokoyama, Shuko; Araki, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Mamoru
2014-01-01
Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) has been widely used in a variety of fields in research, industry, and medicine due to its high signal-to-noise ratio, simultaneous acquisition of signals in a broad spectrum, and versatility for different radiation sources. Further improvement of the spectroscopic performance will widen its scope of applications. Here, we demonstrate improved spectral resolution by overcoming the time window limitation using discrete Fourier transform spectroscopy (dFTS) with precisely periodic pulsed terahertz (THz) radiation. Since infinitesimal resolution can be achieved at periodically discrete frequencies when the time window size is exactly matched to the repetition period T, a combination of THz-dFTS with a spectral interleaving technique achieves a spectral resolution only limited by the spectral interleaving interval. Linewidths narrower than 1/(50T) are fully resolved allowing the attribution of rotational-transition absorption lines of low-pressure molecular gases within a 1.25...
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Chunhong Li
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a Hopfield neural network with neutral time-varying delays is investigated by using the continuation theorem of Mawhin's coincidence degree theory and some analysis technique. Without assuming the continuous differentiability of time-varying delays, sufficient conditions for the existence of the periodic solutions are given. The result of this paper is new and extends previous known result.
Pork meat matured for different periods of time in vacuum-packaging system
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Marina Avena Tarsitano
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of pork meat when matured. The treatments evaluated were: meat no maturated; meat matured for 3 days; meat matured for 6 days. The pH, water loss percentage, and liquid lost in thawing displayed a decreasing linear regression while the fluid lost in cooking showed an increasing linear regression. The L*, a*, b* and chroma showed an increasing linear effect while the tone displayed a decreasing linear regression. The mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria counts were greater for the treatments that underwent maturation. The shear force decrease linearly with the increase in the maturation period. The MFI, lipid oxidation, and sensory analyses were not affected by treatments. The maturation of the pork meat improved the color, reduced the pH and increased the tenderness. There was no change in the lipid stability of the meat, nor sensory damage.
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Nujaba Binte Kabir
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The Features of the Chinese wood frame buildings are same in character from dynasty to dynasty. The study concentrates on 9 Chinese wood frame buildings from Tang to Yuan dynasty and tries to relate these buildings with the text described in a building manual book published in Song dynasty Yingzao fashi. The features of some buildings match with the text described in the book some do not. But on the other hand Liang Sicheng, scholar of Chinese architecture in his book claimed that Chinese wood frame architecture has a unique system of characteristics (Liang, 1984. The system of wood frame Chinese architecture did not change but the proportion of the features has changed in different dynasty. The aim of the paper is to compare the features of the buildings those have been studied according to Yingzao fashi with Liang's observation on the change of building style in different periods.
Kruger, A T; Wasserman, I M; Kruger, Adam T.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Wasserman, Ira
2002-01-01
We analyze the Time-Tagged Event (TTE) data from observations of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) and soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). These data provide the best available time resolution for GRBs and SGRs. We have performed an extensive search for weak periodic signals in the frequency range 400 Hz to 2500 Hz using the burst records for 2203 GRBs and 152 SGR flares. The study employs the Rayleigh power as a test statistic to evaluate the evidence for periodic emissions. We find no evidence of periodic emissions from these events at these frequencies. In all but a very few cases the maximum power values obtained are consistent with what would be expected by chance from a non-periodic signal. In those few instances where there is marginal evidence for periodicity there are problems with the data that cast doubt on the reality of the signal. For classical GRBs, the largest Rayleigh power occurs in bursts whose TTE data appear to be corrupted. For SGRs, our largest Raylei...
A study of mandibular fractures over a 5-year period of time: A retrospective study
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Ashish Vyas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to evaluate and compare with the existing literature on the etiology, pattern, gender, and anatomical distribution of mandibular fractures. Materials and Methods: The data of 225 cases were analyzed over a period of 5 years between March 2009 and November 2013. Of this 110 were unilateral, 23 bilateral, 18 symphysis and 74 multiple fractures. Results: Males are more affected than females.The peak incidence rate is occurring in 30-35 years of age group. The most common fracture site is parasymphysis and least common site is ramus of mandible. The most common etiological factor is road traffic accident (RTA (45.3% followed by falls (42.6%, assaults (8.9%, sport injuries (2.2%, and gunshot wounds (0.89%. Conclusion: Thus, we conclude that RTA is the leading cause of mandibular fractures and males are more affected. The most common site is parasymphysis fracture in association with angle fracture. We observed that gender was significantly associated with body and angle fracture (P = 0.04 and significant relationship between etiology with multiple site fracture such as (parasymphysis-angle, (body-condyle, (body-angle, and (symphysis-condyle was observed (P ≤ 0.05.
Analysis of log-periodic power law singularity patterns in time series related to credit risk
Wosnitza, Jan Henrik; Sornette, Didier
2015-04-01
The log-periodic (super-exponential) power law singularity (LPPLS) has become a promising tool for predicting extreme behavior of self-organizing systems in natural sciences and finance. Some researchers have recently proposed to employ the LPPLS on credit risk markets. The review article at hand summarizes four papers in this field and shows how they are linked. After structuring the research questions, we collect the corresponding answers from the four articles. This eventually gives us an overall picture of the application of the LPPLS to credit risk data. Our literature review begins with grounding the view that credit default swap (CDS) spreads are hotbeds for LPPLS patterns and it ends up with drawing attention to the recently proposed alarm index for the prediction of institutional bank runs. By presenting a new field of application for the LPPLS, the reviewed strand of literature further substantiates the LPPLS hypothesis. Moreover, the results suggest that CDS spread trajectories belong to a different universality class than, for instance, stock prices.
Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system
Duffy, Jeanne F.; Cain, Sean W.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Phillips, Andrew J. K.; Münch, Mirjam Y.; Gronfier, Claude; Wyatt, James K.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Wright, Kenneth P.; Czeisler, Charles A.
2011-01-01
The circadian rhythms of melatonin and body temperature are set to an earlier hour in women than in men, even when the women and men maintain nearly identical and consistent bedtimes and wake times. Moreover, women tend to wake up earlier than men and exhibit a greater preference for morning activities than men. Although the neurobiological mechanism underlying this sex difference in circadian alignment is unknown, multiple studies in nonhuman animals have demonstrated a sex difference in cir...
FREQUENT CORRELATED PERIODIC PATTERN MINING FOR LARGE VOLUME SET USING TIME SERIES DATA
Karthik, G M; Karthik, S
2014-01-01
Frequent pattern mining has been a widely used in the area of discovering association and correlations among real data sets. However, discovering interesting correlation relationship among huge number of co-occurrence patterns are complicated, a majority of them are superfluous or uninformative. Mining correlations among large pile of useless information is extraordinarily useful in real-time applications. In this study, we propose a technique uses FP-tree for mining frequent correlated in pe...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongmei Zhang; Fawang Liu
2007-01-01
In this paper, the space-time Riesz fractional partial differential equations with periodic conditions are considered. The equations are obtained from the integral partial differential equation by replacing the time derivative with a Caputo fractional derivative and the space derivative with Riesz potential. The fundamental solutions of the space Riesz fractional partial differential equation (SRFPDE) and the space-time Riesz fractional partial differential equation (STRFPDE) are discussed, respectively. Using methods of Fourier series expansion and Laplace transform, we derive the explicit expressions of the fundamental solutions for the SRFPDE and the STRFPDE, respectively.
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Fabiana Mesquita Carvalho
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The updating of prospective internal models is necessary to accurately predict future observations. Uncertainty-driven internal model updating has been studied using a variety of perceptual paradigms, and have revealed engagement of frontal and parietal areas. In a distinct literature, studies on temporal expectations have also characterized a time-perception network, which relies on temporal orienting of attention. However, the updating of prospective internal models is highly dependent on temporal attention, since temporal attention must be reoriented according to the current environmental demands. In this study we used fMRI to evaluate to what extend the continuous manipulation of temporal prediction would recruit update-related areas and the time-perception network areas. We developed an exogenous temporal task that combines rhythm cueing and time-to-contact principles to generate implicit temporal expectation. Two patterns of motion were created: periodic (simple harmonic oscillation and non-periodic (harmonic oscillation with variable acceleration. We found that non-periodic motion engaged the exogenous temporal orienting network, which includes the ventral premotor and inferior parietal cortices, and the cerebellum, as well as the presupplementary motor area, which has previously been implicated in internal model updating, and the motion-sensitive area MT+. Interestingly, we found a right-hemisphere preponderance suggesting the engagement of explicit timing mechanisms. We also show that the periodic motion condition, when compared to the non-periodic motion, activated a particular subset of the default-mode network (DMN midline areas, including the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus. It suggests that the DMN plays a role in processing contextually expected information and supports recent evidence that the DMN may reflect the validation of prospective internal
Carvalho, Fabiana M; Chaim, Khallil T; Sanchez, Tiago A; de Araujo, Draulio B
2016-01-01
The updating of prospective internal models is necessary to accurately predict future observations. Uncertainty-driven internal model updating has been studied using a variety of perceptual paradigms, and have revealed engagement of frontal and parietal areas. In a distinct literature, studies on temporal expectations have also characterized a time-perception network, which relies on temporal orienting of attention. However, the updating of prospective internal models is highly dependent on temporal attention, since temporal attention must be reoriented according to the current environmental demands. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate to what extend the continuous manipulation of temporal prediction would recruit update-related areas and the time-perception network areas. We developed an exogenous temporal task that combines rhythm cueing and time-to-contact principles to generate implicit temporal expectation. Two patterns of motion were created: periodic (simple harmonic oscillation) and non-periodic (harmonic oscillation with variable acceleration). We found that non-periodic motion engaged the exogenous temporal orienting network, which includes the ventral premotor and inferior parietal cortices, and the cerebellum, as well as the presupplementary motor area, which has previously been implicated in internal model updating, and the motion-sensitive area MT+. Interestingly, we found a right-hemisphere preponderance suggesting the engagement of explicit timing mechanisms. We also show that the periodic motion condition, when compared to the non-periodic motion, activated a particular subset of the default-mode network (DMN) midline areas, including the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PC). It suggests that the DMN plays a role in processing contextually expected information and supports recent evidence that the DMN may
Kagei, Yoshiyuki; Oomachi, Ryouta
2016-09-01
Navier-Stokes system on the half space with periodically oscillating boundary has a time periodic solution which depends on time variable and vertical variable only. It is proved that the time periodic solution is asymptotically stable when the Reynolds number is sufficiently small; and the decay estimates of the perturbations are established in the frameworks of both strong and weak solutions.
Morena, Matthew A; Franke, John E
2012-01-01
Periodic environments may either enhance or suppress a population via resonant or attenuant cycles. We derive signature functions for predicting the responses of two competing populations to 2-periodic oscillations in six model parameters. Two of these parameters provide a non-trivial equilibrium and two provide the carrying capacities of each species in the absence of the other, but the remaining two are arbitrary and could be intrinsic growth rates. Each signature function is the sign of a weighted sum of the relative strengths of the oscillations of the perturbed parameters. Periodic environments are favourable for populations when the signature function is positive and are deleterious if the signature function is negative. We compute the signature functions of four classical, discrete-time two-species populations and determine regions in parameter space which are either favourable or detrimental to the populations. The six-parameter models include the Logistic, Ricker, Beverton-Holt, and Hassell models.
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Xiaokui Yue
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical approach for obtaining periodic orbits of satellite relative motion is proposed, based on using the time domain collocation (TDC method to search for the periodic solutions of an exact J2 nonlinear relative model. The initial conditions for periodic relative orbits of the Clohessy-Wiltshire (C-W equations or Tschauner-Hempel (T-H equations can be refined with this approach to generate nearly bounded orbits. With these orbits, a method based on the least-squares principle is then proposed to generate projected closed orbit (PCO, which is a reference for the relative motion control. Numerical simulations reveal that the presented TDC searching scheme is effective and simple, and the projected closed orbit is very fuel saving.
High-order fuzzy time-series based on multi-period adaptation model for forecasting stock markets
Chen, Tai-Liang; Cheng, Ching-Hsue; Teoh, Hia-Jong
2008-02-01
Stock investors usually make their short-term investment decisions according to recent stock information such as the late market news, technical analysis reports, and price fluctuations. To reflect these short-term factors which impact stock price, this paper proposes a comprehensive fuzzy time-series, which factors linear relationships between recent periods of stock prices and fuzzy logical relationships (nonlinear relationships) mined from time-series into forecasting processes. In empirical analysis, the TAIEX (Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index) and HSI (Heng Seng Index) are employed as experimental datasets, and four recent fuzzy time-series models, Chen’s (1996), Yu’s (2005), Cheng’s (2006) and Chen’s (2007), are used as comparison models. Besides, to compare with conventional statistic method, the method of least squares is utilized to estimate the auto-regressive models of the testing periods within the databases. From analysis results, the performance comparisons indicate that the multi-period adaptation model, proposed in this paper, can effectively improve the forecasting performance of conventional fuzzy time-series models which only factor fuzzy logical relationships in forecasting processes. From the empirical study, the traditional statistic method and the proposed model both reveal that stock price patterns in the Taiwan stock and Hong Kong stock markets are short-term.
Jiang, Tian-Yu; Li, Li-Fang; Han, Zhan-Wen; Jiang, Deng-Kai
2010-04-01
The first complete charge-coupled device (CCD) light curves in B and V passbands of a neglected contact binary system, CW Cassiopeiae (CW Cas), are presented. They were analyzed simultaneously by using the Wilson and Devinney (WD) code (1971, ApJ, 166, 605). The photometric solution indicates that CW Cas is a W-type W UMa system with a mass ratio of m2/m1 2.234, and that it is in a marginal contact state with a contact degree of ˜6.5% and a relatively large temperature difference of ˜327K between its two components. Based on the minimum times collected from the literature, together with the new ones obtained in this study, the orbital period changes of CW Cas were investigated in detail. It was found that a periodical variation overlaps with a secular period decrease in its orbital period. The long-term period decrease with a rate of dP/dt = -3.44 × 10-8d yr-1 can be interpreted either by mass transfer from the more-massive component to the less-massive with a rate of dm2/dt = -3.6 × 10-8M⊙ yr-1, or by mass and angular-momentum losses through magnetic braking due to a magnetic stellar wind. A low-amplitude cyclic variation with a period of T = 63.7 yr might be caused by the light-time effect due to the presence of a third body.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
H.Beir(a)o da Veiga
2006-01-01
The problem of the existence of time-periodic flows in infinite cylindrical pipes in correspondence to any given, time-periodic, total flux, was solved only quite recently in [1]. In this last reference we solved the above problem for flows under the non-slip boundary condition as a corollary of a more general result. Here we want to show that the abstract theorem proved in [1] applies as well to the solutions of the well known slip (or Navier) boundary condition (1.7) or to the mixed boundary condition (1.14). Actually, the argument applies for solutions of many other boundary value problems. This paper is a continuation of reference [1], to which the reader is referred for some notation and results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kritzenberger, J.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1997-06-01
Oxidation of CO over palladium/zirconia catalyst obtained from an amorphous Pd{sub 25}Zr{sub 75} precursor was investigated by time resolved FTIR spectroscopy. Sine wave shaped modulation of the reactant concentration, i.e. variation of CO or O{sub 2} partial pressure, was used to induce variations of the IR signals of product (CO{sub 2}) and unconverted reactant (CO), which were detected in a multi-pass absorption cell. The phase shift {phi} between external perturbation and variation of the CO{sub 2} signal was examined in dependence on temperature (100{sup o}C{<=}T{<=}350{sup o}C) and modulation frequency (1.39x10{sup -4}Hz{<=}{omega}{<=}6.67x10{sup -2}Hz). From the phase shift values, a simple Eley-Rideal mechanism is excluded, and the rate limiting step of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism for the CO oxidation may be identified. Adsorption and possible surface movement of CO to the actual reaction site determine the rate of the CO oxidation on the palladium/zirconia catalyst used in our study. The introduction of an external perturbation is a first step towards the application of two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to heterogeneous catalyzed reactions. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.
Mahanty, M. M.; Mohanty, P. K.; Pattnaik, A. K.; Panda, U. S.; Pradhan, S.; Samal, R. N.
2016-08-01
This paper investigated the hydrodynamics, spatio-temporal variability of temperature/salinity and the residence time of tracer concentrations in a largest brackish water coastal lagoon in Asia, namely the Chilika lagoon, India. An integrated approach combined the measurement and 2D hydrodynamic-advection/dispersion model is used to simulate circulation and temperature/salinity, and estimated the water residence time in lagoon under different forcing mechanisms, such as tide, wind and freshwater discharge during the dry and wet periods. Water circulation inside the lagoon is simulated when wind is included with the tide only forcing during dry period, and freshwater influx is included with the tide and wind forcing during wet period. Under the realistic forcing conditions, the computed temporal variability of water temperature and salinity are well correlated with the measurements in both the periods. The spatial variations of water temperature within the lagoon is influenced by the meteorological conditions, tide and freshwater influx as well as the shallowness of the lagoon, whereas the salinity is spatially controlled by the freshwater influx from the riverine system and seawater intrusion through the tidal inlets. The numerical model results show that in the Chilika lagoon tidal and river influx affect significantly the residence time spatially, and is site specific. The residence time varies from values of 4-5 days in the outer channel (OC) and 132 days at the northern sector (NS) in the main body of lagoon. The current study represents a first attempt to use a combined model approach, which is therefore, a useful tool to support the ecological implication of the lagoon ecosystem.
Duan, Lian; Huang, Lihong
2014-09-01
In this paper, we investigate a class of memristor-based neural networks with general mixed delays involving both time-varying delays and distributed delays. By using the Mawhin-like coincidence theorem, together with the differential inclusion theory, M-matrix properties and differential inequality techniques, some novel criteria are established for ensuring the periodicity and dissipativity for the addressed neural networks. Finally, two numerical examples with simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The creation of the rapid and sensitive system for the determination of the Alpha-radioactivity in the Environmental samples has been determined as the main goal of the Research Contract No. 7200RO/RB. As a result of the first stage of the research accomplished in the year 1993, the prototype of the system based on the combination of the laser photoionization mass spectrometry and many-channel alpha-spectrometer has been built and tested. To improve the sensitivity it was proposed to add one more stage to the laser photoionization mass-spectrometer. To develop the high position sensitivity of the system it was proposed to include into the alpha-radiometer SI strip-detector with submicron position sensitivity. Hardware and software for the laser-semiconductor monitoring system of alpha-radionuclides in the environment have been further developed and tested in frames of the IAEA Research Contract No. 7200/R1/RB. Optimization of the sample evaporation with one more stage of photoionization has been successfully performed in the laser photoionization mass-spectrometer. The automatization of the measurement procedure is under way by means of the IBM PC-386 and specially designed electronic units. The evaluated sensitivity of the new set-up is in the range of 1.0 Bq/kg. A bulk measurement of the alpha-radioactivity concentration in soil samples from the Chernobyl region (100 km) have been performed by means of thick samples method and built under this contract alpha-radiometer with large area SI semiconductor detectors. The lowest detectable level was in the range 100 Bq/kg without any radiochemical separation. Comparison with the data obtained for the same probes by means of the thin sample (with radiochemical separation) has shown higher Pu-concentration values obtained by means of the thick samples. For the first time the Sl-strip-detector with 128 channels has been applied for the alpha-radiometry purposes. Different read-out electronics (including the most
Sinclair, Amber Hughes; Edgerton, Eric S; Wyzga, Ron; Tolsma, Dennis
2010-02-01
Concentrations of numerous ambient air pollutants have declined in recent years across the United States. Although it can be expected that reductions in air pollutants are associated with reductions in health effects, it is unclear whether this is actually the case. The purpose of this analysis was to compare the levels of and relationships between air pollutants and acute respiratory outpatient visits for two consecutive time periods totaling 53 mo. Air pollution data were collected at a centrally located monitor in Atlanta, GA, and include 24-hr averages of particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and its components; coarse PM (PM10-2.5); PM less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10); oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs); 8-hr maximum ozone (O3); and 1-hr maximum nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In addition, several metals and fractions of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were investigated. Daily outpatient visit data were obtained from the electronic data warehouse of the Atlanta-based region of a nonprofit managed care organization. Poisson general linear modeling determined associations between daily levels of acute visits for four diagnosis groups (adult and child asthma, upper and lower respiratory infection) and air pollution measurements. Overall declining trends were observed in air pollutants and acute visits over the study period. Childhood asthma had the greatest number of significant associations with air pollutants, namely zinc and EC. The significant lag time between pollutant measurement and visit occurrence changed from 3-5 days in the first time period to 6-8 days in the later time period, but there was general consistency in several childhood asthma and pollutant associations over both time periods. The greatest evidence for a reduction in pollution being associated with an improvement in health response was for lower respiratory disease
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danita Renae Potter
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore and describe African American teen mothers’ perceptions of nurse caring behaviors during the postpartum period in a rural southern state. African Americans have unique cultural needs; thus, it is critical for the science of nursing to explore and describe African American teenage mothers’ perceptions of nurse caring behaviors during the postpartum period. By exploring and describing African American first-time teenage mothers’ perceptions of nurse caring behaviors, the researcher will help nursing science gain insight into how to facilitate and enhance postpartum care for young families. An exploratory descriptive design was used and descriptive analyses were conducted on demographic characteristics and CBA subscales to answer the research question: How do African American first-time teenage mothers describe nursing behaviors and identify the most important nursing behaviors that they received during the postpartum period? Findings indicated that there was statistical significance for the independent variable, decision making for your health, and the Caring Behaviors Assessment (CBA subscales of humanism/faith-hope/sensitivity (p = 0.050, human needs assistance (p = 0.052, and the demographic characteristics. The analysis revealed attentive to needs was a common theme.
Costa-Castelló, R.; Olm, J. M.; Ramos, G. A.
2011-07-01
This article analyses stability and performance features of different design schemes for digital repetitive control systems subject to references/disturbances that exhibit non-uniform frequency. Aiming at maintaining a constant value for the ratio T p /T s , T p being the period of the reference/disturbance signal and T s being the sampling period, two approaches are proposed. The first one deals with the real-time adaptation of T s to the actual changes of T p ; stability is studied by means of an LMI gridding method and also using robust control techniques. The second one propounds the introduction of an additional compensator that annihilates the effect of the time-varying sampling in the closed-loop system and forces its behaviour to coincide with that of an a priori selected nominal sampling period; the internal stability of the compensator-plant subsystem is checked by means of LMI gridding. The theoretical results are experimentally tested and compared through a mechatronic plant model.
Liang, Xing; Jiang, Jifa
The asymptotic behavior of discrete type-K monotone dynamical systems and reaction-diffusion equations is investigated. The studying content includes the index theory for fixed points, permanence, global stability, convergence everywhere and coexistence. It is shown that the system has a globally asymptotically stable fixed point if every fixed point is locally asymptotically stable with respect to the face it belongs to and at this point the principal eigenvalue of the diagonal partial derivative about any component not belonging to the face is not one. A nice result presented is the sufficient and necessary conditions for the system to have a globally asymptotically stable positive fixed point. It can be used to establish the sufficient conditions for the system to persist uniformly and the convergent result for all orbits. Applications are made to time-periodic Lotka-Volterra systems with diffusion, and sufficient conditions for such systems to have a unique positive periodic solution attracting all positive initial value functions are given. For more general time-periodic type-K monotone reaction-diffusion systems with spatial homogeneity, a simple condition is given to guarantee the convergence of all positive solutions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masahide Usami
Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: The questionnaire-children with difficulties (QCD is a parent-assessed questionnaire designed to evaluate a child's difficulties in functioning during specific time periods of the day. In this study, the QCD was applied to determine the time periods of the day that are concerning for the parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The results were compared with those for a community sample. METHODS: Elementary and junior high school students with ADHD (243 boys, 55 girls and a community sample of children (518 boys, 618 girls were enrolled in this study. Their behaviors were assessed by the QCD, the ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS, and the Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI. The effects of gender (boy/girl and diagnosis (ADHD/community sample on the total QCD score were analyzed across each school grade (elementary/junior high school. Correlation coefficients between QCD and ADHD-RS/ODBI scores were analyzed. RESULTS: The QCD score for the ADHD group was significantly lower than that for the community sample (P 0.41, P 0.40, P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Parents reported that children with ADHD faced greater difficulties in completing basic daily activities compared with the community controls, particularly in the evening. Furthermore, these difficulties were related to the severity of ADHD symptoms. The parents' perceptions depended on the gender, ADHD and oppositional symptoms, and the time period of the day. This study determined that children with ADHD face greater difficulties in daily functioning compared with community sample children, that these difficulties are time-dependent, and that these difficulties were particularly experienced in the evening.
Li, Hongfei; Jiang, Haijun; Hu, Cheng
2016-03-01
In this paper, we investigate a class of memristor-based BAM neural networks with time-varying delays. Under the framework of Filippov solutions, boundedness and ultimate boundedness of solutions of memristor-based BAM neural networks are guaranteed by Chain rule and inequalities technique. Moreover, a new method involving Yoshizawa-like theorem is favorably employed to acquire the existence of periodic solution. By applying the theory of set-valued maps and functional differential inclusions, an available Lyapunov functional and some new testable algebraic criteria are derived for ensuring the uniqueness and global exponential stability of periodic solution of memristor-based BAM neural networks. The obtained results expand and complement some previous work on memristor-based BAM neural networks. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the applicability and effectiveness of our theoretical results. PMID:26752438
Li, Hongfei; Jiang, Haijun; Hu, Cheng
2016-03-01
In this paper, we investigate a class of memristor-based BAM neural networks with time-varying delays. Under the framework of Filippov solutions, boundedness and ultimate boundedness of solutions of memristor-based BAM neural networks are guaranteed by Chain rule and inequalities technique. Moreover, a new method involving Yoshizawa-like theorem is favorably employed to acquire the existence of periodic solution. By applying the theory of set-valued maps and functional differential inclusions, an available Lyapunov functional and some new testable algebraic criteria are derived for ensuring the uniqueness and global exponential stability of periodic solution of memristor-based BAM neural networks. The obtained results expand and complement some previous work on memristor-based BAM neural networks. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the applicability and effectiveness of our theoretical results.
Zheng, Y; Escabí, M A
2013-08-01
Temporal sound cues are essential for sound recognition, pitch, rhythm, and timbre perception, yet how auditory neurons encode such cues is subject of ongoing debate. Rate coding theories propose that temporal sound features are represented by rate tuned modulation filters. However, overwhelming evidence also suggests that precise spike timing is an essential attribute of the neural code. Here we demonstrate that single neurons in the auditory midbrain employ a proportional code in which spike-timing precision and firing reliability covary with the sound envelope cues to provide an efficient representation of the stimulus. Spike-timing precision varied systematically with the timescale and shape of the sound envelope and yet was largely independent of the sound modulation frequency, a prominent cue for pitch. In contrast, spike-count reliability was strongly affected by the modulation frequency. Spike-timing precision extends from sub-millisecond for brief transient sounds up to tens of milliseconds for sounds with slow-varying envelope. Information theoretic analysis further confirms that spike-timing precision depends strongly on the sound envelope shape, while firing reliability was strongly affected by the sound modulation frequency. Both the information efficiency and total information were limited by the firing reliability and spike-timing precision in a manner that reflected the sound structure. This result supports a temporal coding strategy in the auditory midbrain where proportional changes in spike-timing precision and firing reliability can efficiently signal shape and periodicity temporal cues.
Willis, A P; Willis, Ashley P.; Gubbins, David
2004-01-01
Choosing a simple class of flows, with characteristics that may be present in the Earth's core, we study the ability to generate a magnetic field when the flow is permitted to oscillate periodically in time. The flow characteristics are parameterised by D, representing a differential rotation, M, a meridional circulation, and C, a component characterising convective rolls. Dynamo action is sensitive to these flow parameters and fails spectacularly for much of the parameter space where magnetic flux is concentrated into small regions. Oscillations of the flow are introduced by varying the flow parameters in time, defining a closed orbit in the space (D,M). Time-dependence appears to smooth out flux concentrations, often enhancing dynamo action. Dynamo action can be impaired, however, when flux concentrations of opposite signs occur close together as smoothing destroys the flux by cancellation. It is possible to produce geomagnetic-type reversals by making the orbit stray into a region where the steady flows ge...
Haraguchi, Atsushi; Aoki, Natsumi; Ohtsu, Teiji; Ikeda, Yuko; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu
2014-10-01
Free feeding (FF) with a high fat diet (HFD) causes excessive body weight gain, whereas restricted feeding (RF) with a HFD attenuates body weight gain. The effects of timing of feeding with a HFD (day vs. night) and feeding duration on energy homeostasis have not yet been investigated. In this study, we fed mice a HFD or a normal diet (ND) twice a day, during their active and inactive periods, on a schedule. The amount of food was regulated by feeding duration (2, 4 or 8 h). First, we investigated the effects of 4-h RF during active-inactive periods (ND-ND, HFD-HFD, ND-HFD or HFD-ND). Among all the 4-h RF groups, mice consumed almost the same amount of calories as those in the FF[ND] group, even those fed a HFD. Body weight and visceral fat in these three groups were lower than that in the FF[HFD] group. Second, we investigated the effects of RF duration. Body weight and visceral fat were higher in the 8-h groups than in the 4-h groups. Body weight and visceral fat were higher in the 2-h groups than in the 4-h groups even though the 2-h groups had less food. Third, we investigated the effects of eating a HFD during the inactive period, when RF duration was extended (2, 6 or 12 h). Mice were fed with a HFD during the inactive period for 2 h and fed with a ND during the active period for 2, 6 or 12 h. Body weight and visceral fat in these mice were comparable to those in the FF[ND] mice. The results of our first set of experiments suggest that 4-h RF was an adequate feeding duration to control the effect of a HFD on obesity. The results of our second set of experiments suggest 2-h RF (such as speed-eating) and 8-h RF, representative of eating disorders, are unhealthy feeding patterns related to obesity. The results of our third set of experiments suggest that eating a HFD for a short period during the night does not affect body weight and visceral fat. Taken together, these results indicate that consideration to feeding with a HFD during the inactive period and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Carpentier
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We present mathematical details of the construction of a topological invariant for periodically driven two-dimensional lattice systems with time-reversal symmetry and quasienergy gaps, which was proposed recently by some of us. The invariant is represented by a gap-dependent Z2-valued index that is simply related to the Kane–Mele invariants of quasienergy bands but contains an extra information. As a byproduct, we prove new expressions for the two-dimensional Kane–Mele invariant relating the latter to Wess–Zumino amplitudes and the boundary gauge anomaly.
Melodelima, David; N'Djin, William A.; Parmentier, Hubert; Chesnais, Sabrina; Rivoire, Michel; Chapelon, Jean-Yves
2007-11-01
Thermal ablation by physical agents is widely used in clinical settings, but it generally results in a small coagulated volume. Here, we report that a technologically advanced high intensity focused ultrasound transducer can significantly enlarge the coagulated volume over short periods of time. Eight ultrasound emitters were created by sectioning a single toric piezocomposite transducer. A single thermal lesion is created when the eight emitters perform alternative and consecutive 5s ultrasound exposures. This paper presents in vivo evidence that the coagulated volume obtained from a 40s total exposure in the liver was 8.6±4.8cm3.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miqdam Tariq Chaichan
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Heavy-duty diesel vehicle idling consumes fossil fuel and reduces atmospheric quality at idle period, but its restriction cannot simply be proscribed. A comprehensive tailpipe emissions database to describe idling impacts is not yet available. This paper presents a substantial data set that incorporates results from DI multi-cylinders Fiat diesel engine. Idle emissions of CO, hydrocarbon (HC, oxides of nitrogen (NOx, smoke opacity, carbon dioxide (CO2 and noise have been reported, when three EGR ratios (10, 20 and 30% were added to suction manifold. CO2 concentrations increased with increasing idle time and engine idle speed, but it didn’t show clear effect for IT advancing. CO concentrations increased for all the studied tests with adding EGR. HC concentration increased with idle time advance, but it reduced with increasing idle speed and advancing engine IT. NOx concentrations reduced with adding EGR for all the tested variables. NOx increased with increasing idle time, engine speed and advancing IT. Smoke opacity increased with increasing idle time and retarding IT. Using EGR increased opacity for all tested cases. EGR addition reduced engine noise for all tested cases. Engine noise increased with increasing idle time and retarding IT.
Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Darwent, David; Dawson, Drew
2012-03-01
Most of the research related to human fatigue in the aviation industry has focussed on long-haul pilots, but short-haul pilots also experience elevated levels of fatigue. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early start times on the amount of sleep obtained prior to duty and on fatigue levels at the start of duty. Seventy short-haul pilots collected data regarding their duty schedule and sleep/wake behaviour for at least two weeks. Data were collected using self-report duty/sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors. Mixed-effects regression analyses were used to examine the effects of duty start time (04:00-10:00 h) on (i) the total amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to the start of duty and (ii) self-rated fatigue level at the start of duty. Both analyses indicated significant main effects of duty start time. In particular, the amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to duty was lowest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h (i.e. 5.4h), and greatest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h (i.e. 6.6h). These data indicate that approximately 15 min of sleep is lost for every hour that the start of duty is advanced prior to 09:00 h. In addition, self-rated fatigue at the start of duty was highest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h, and lowest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h. Airlines should implement a fatigue risk management system (FRMS) for short-haul pilots required to work early-morning shifts. One component of the FRMS should be focussed on the production of 'fatigue-friendly' rosters. A second component of the FRMS should be focussed on training pilots to optimise sleep opportunities, to identify circumstances where the likelihood of fatigue is elevated, and to manage the risks associated with fatigue-related impairment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marușa Beca
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this article, we studied the relationship between macroeconomic factors and the observed corporate births for the Romanian economy through the Autoregressive Distributed Lags Model (ADL. We performed a time series analysis that uses monthly data for the period January 2008 – December 2013 in order to establish the impact of the fiscal and monetary policy adopted by the Romanian government in times of economic crisis on the firms’ demography. The corporate birth rate is an endogenous variable in a linear function model with five exogenous macroeconomic variables such as the CPI, the loans ratio to GDP, the FDI, the long term interest rate, tax rate to GDP and the lags of the dependent variable. The main finding is that the variance of the corporate birth rate variable is negatively correlated with the variances of CPI in the current month and the interest rate two months lagged. We also determined that the variance of the dependent variable was positively correlated with the variances of the loans rate two months lagged, tax rate four months ago and FDI two months lagged and FDI in the current period.
Fisher, Aaron J; Reeves, Jonathan W; Chi, Cyrus
2016-07-01
Expanding on recently published methods, the current study presents an approach to estimating the dynamic, regulatory effect of the parasympathetic nervous system on heart period on a moment-to-moment basis. We estimated second-to-second variation in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in order to estimate the contemporaneous and time-lagged relationships among RSA, interbeat interval (IBI), and respiration rate via vector autoregression. Moreover, we modeled these relationships at lags of 1 s to 10 s, in order to evaluate the optimal latency for estimating dynamic RSA effects. The IBI (t) on RSA (t-n) regression parameter was extracted from individual models as an operationalization of the regulatory effect of RSA on IBI-referred to as dynamic RSA (dRSA). Dynamic RSA positively correlated with standard averages of heart rate and negatively correlated with standard averages of RSA. We propose that dRSA reflects the active downregulation of heart period by the parasympathetic nervous system and thus represents a novel metric that provides incremental validity in the measurement of autonomic cardiac control-specifically, a method by which parasympathetic regulatory effects can be measured in process.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ambrose, David M.; Wilkening, Jon
2008-12-11
We classify all bifurcations from traveling waves to non-trivial time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation that are predicted by linearization. We use a spectrally accurate numerical continuation method to study several paths of non-trivial solutions beyond the realm of linear theory. These paths are found to either re-connect with a different traveling wave or to blow up. In the latter case, as the bifurcation parameter approaches a critical value, the amplitude of the initial condition grows without bound and the period approaches zero. We propose a conjecture that gives the mapping from one bifurcation to its counterpart on the other side of the path of non-trivial solutions. By experimentation with data fitting, we identify the form of the exact solutions on the path connecting two traveling waves, which represents the Fourier coefficients of the solution as power sums of a finite number of particle positions whose elementary symmetric functions execute simple orbits in the complex plane (circles or epicycles). We then solve a system of algebraic equations to express the unknown constants in the new representation in terms of the mean, a spatial phase, a temporal phase, four integers (enumerating the bifurcation at each end of the path) and one additional bifurcation parameter. We also find examples of interior bifurcations from these paths of already non-trivial solutions, but we do not attempt to analyze their algebraic structure.
Fisher, Aaron J; Reeves, Jonathan W; Chi, Cyrus
2016-07-01
Expanding on recently published methods, the current study presents an approach to estimating the dynamic, regulatory effect of the parasympathetic nervous system on heart period on a moment-to-moment basis. We estimated second-to-second variation in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in order to estimate the contemporaneous and time-lagged relationships among RSA, interbeat interval (IBI), and respiration rate via vector autoregression. Moreover, we modeled these relationships at lags of 1 s to 10 s, in order to evaluate the optimal latency for estimating dynamic RSA effects. The IBI (t) on RSA (t-n) regression parameter was extracted from individual models as an operationalization of the regulatory effect of RSA on IBI-referred to as dynamic RSA (dRSA). Dynamic RSA positively correlated with standard averages of heart rate and negatively correlated with standard averages of RSA. We propose that dRSA reflects the active downregulation of heart period by the parasympathetic nervous system and thus represents a novel metric that provides incremental validity in the measurement of autonomic cardiac control-specifically, a method by which parasympathetic regulatory effects can be measured in process. PMID:27045609
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vesna Vučinić-Nešković
2016-02-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the question of how the state policies during the later Maoist period, from the beginning of the Great Leap Forward (1958 to the introduction of the Modernization Reforms (1978, affected the organization of time in the Chinese countryside. After abandoning the initial Soviet model of modernization, based on the exclusive strengthening of heavy industry, the China’s leadership developed a strategy of parallel development of agriculture and industry, wherein the former would additionally support the modernization of the latter. The study is focused on the ways the longer term state plans and shorter term economic, social and ideological policies and campaigns jointly influenced the rhythms of life of Chinese peasants. The domains in which these influences became visible were: (1 the intensification of agricultural practices, (2 the introducing of the small-scale industry, and (3 the politicizing of the spare time. In the analysis the characteristic rhythms of work and rest within the daily, weekly, seasonal, and annual time spans are followed in detail.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The present study investigated the possible changes in the mixis potential of rotifer resting eggs produced by a single stock of Brachionus plicatilis and collected and preserved annually from 1985-1998. Several clones derived from each batch of resting eggs were cultured under the same conditions for 21 days. The percentage of clones appearing resting eggs and the average yield of resting eggs produced from each clone were recorded and statistically analyzed to find the differences between the mixis potential of those resting egg batches. Results showed that different batches of resting eggs had different mictic levels among their descendent clones; but no regular relationship was found between the mixis potential of resting eggs and their collection times/preservation periods. Several internal and external factors that might affect the mixis potential of resting eggs were discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周利; 郑严; 相建海
2001-01-01
The present study investigated the possible changes in the mixis potential of rotifer resting eggs produced by a single stock of Brachionus plicatilis and collected and preserved annually from 1985 - 1998. Several clones derived from each batch of resting eggs were cultured under the same conditions for 21 days. The percentage of clones appearing resting eggs and the average yield of resting eggs produced from each clone were recorded and statistically analyzed to find the differences between the mixis potential of those resting egg batches. Results showed that different batches of resting eggs had different mictic levels among their descendent clones; but no regular relationship was found between the mixis potential of resting eggs and their collection times/preservation periods. Several internal and external factors that might affect the mixis potential of resting eggs were discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amit kumar Mishra
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have analyzed the effect of time periodic temperature modulation on convective stability in anisotropic porous cavity. The cavity is heated from below and cooled from above. A weakly non-linear stability analysis is done to find Nusselt number governing the heat transport. The infinitely small disturbances are expanded in terms of power series of amplitude of modulation. Analytically the nonautonomous Ginzburg- landau amplitude equation is obtained for the stationary mode of convection. The effects of various parameters like Vadasz number, mechanical and thermal anisotropic parameters, amplitude of oscillations, frequency of modulation and aspect ratio of the cavity on heat transport is studied and plotted graphically. It is observed that the heat transport can also be controlled by suitably adjusting the external and internal parameters of the system.
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mostafa gholamrezaii rahimi
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Production planning is one of the most important tasks of production and operations management and decides to determine the optimum amount of production, labor and inventory levels for each period of planning horizon with regard to productive resources and limits. This research presents a multi-product and multi-objective model of production planning with fuzzy parameters and soft constraints regarding the time value of money, inventory level, labor, capacity of machines and warehouse space. The proposed model attempts to maximize profit of the sale and minimize carrying and backordering costs and changes in labor levels. Case study conducted in the aluminum factory, shows the performance of this model comparing the current situation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Lobo
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Background: Comparative studies of dementia in different time periods are quite limited in the international literature, but might be useful to test environmental hypotheses. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of "organic brain syndrome", as a measure of dementia, in the elderly living in the same community in two different time periods and using the same methods. Methods: Representative samples of the elderly in the Zaragoza Study or ZARADEMP 0 (n= 1,080, completed the past decade, and now in Wave I of the ZARADEMP Project or ZARADEMP I (n= 4,803 were interviewed. The Geriatric Mental State (GMS was the main case-finding instrument and the results were analysed using the AGECAT diagnostic package to generate diagnoses. Results: Adjusted, total prevalence of "organic brain syndrome" in individuals aged 65 years and older has not varied from the previous decade. It was 8.4% in ZARADEMP I , and 7.4% in ZARADEMP 0 (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.83; CI 0.65-1.07. Adjusted prevalence among men was lower in ZARADEMP I (3.6% when compared to ZARADEMP 0 (5.5%, although the differences do not reach statistically significance (PR= 0.65; CI 0.41-1.05. However, in support of the working hypothesis, the differences were more marked, and we consider they reach statistically significant proportions in the age group 80-84 years. Conclusions: The prevalence of "organic brain syndrome" has not increased from the previous decade. On the contrary, the prevalence tends to be lower in men, and the differences reach stastistical significance in the age group 80-84 years. New analysis using diagnostic criteria of dementia in the same sample are required to confirm these findings.
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Daniel Gachuiri Njau
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.
Espinar, B.; Blanc, P.; Wald, L.; Hoyer-Klick, C.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Wanderer, T.
2012-04-01
Meteorological data measured by ground stations are often a key element in the development and validation of methods exploiting satellite images. These data are considered as a reference against which satellite-derived estimates are compared. Long-term radiation and meteorological measurements are available from a large number of measuring stations. However, close examination of the data often reveals a lack of quality, often for extended periods of time. This lack of quality has been the reason, in many cases, of the rejection of large amount of available data. The quality data must be checked before their use in order to guarantee the inputs for the methods used in modelling, monitoring, forecast, etc. To control their quality, data should be submitted to several conditions or tests. After this checking, data that are not flagged by any of the test is released as a plausible data. In this work, it has been performed a bibliographical research of quality control tests for the common meteorological variables (ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) and for the usual solar radiometrical variables (horizontal global and diffuse components of the solar radiation and the beam normal component). The different tests have been grouped according to the variable and the average time period (sub-hourly, hourly, daily and monthly averages). The quality test may be classified as follows: • Range checks: test that verify values are within a specific range. There are two types of range checks, those based on extrema and those based on rare observations. • Step check: test aimed at detecting unrealistic jumps or stagnation in the time series. • Consistency checks: test that verify the relationship between two or more time series. The gathered quality tests are applicable for all latitudes as they have not been optimized regionally nor seasonably with the aim of being generic. They have been applied to ground measurements in several geographic locations, what
Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Young, Christopher; Cappelli, Mark
2014-10-01
We track the evolution of the Xe I 6 s '[ 1 / 2 ] 1 - 6 p '[ 3 / 2 ] 2 (834.68 nm air) transition lineshape in a plasma discharge oscillating at 60 Hz. Two time-synchronized laser induced fluorescence techniques based on phase sensitive detection of the fluorescence signal are demonstrated, yielding consistent results. One approach used previously involves a sample-and-hold procedure that collects fluorescence signal at a particular phase in the oscillation period and holds the average value until the following sample. The second method is based on fast switching of the fluorescence signal; only the signal collected inside the acquisition gate is sent to a lock-in amplifier for processing. Both methods rely on modulating the exciting laser beam and the latter permits operation at a much higher frequency range with reduced spectral noise density. The maximum observed peak fluorescence intensity occurs at low discharge currents, although the peak intensity drops to zero at zero discharge current. The peak intensity also decreases at the discharge current maximum. Time-varying properties of the xenon neutrals are extracted from a lineshape analysis. This work is sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research with Dr. Mitat Birkan as program manager. CVY acknowledges support from the DOE NNSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under Contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sjoegren, J.-U.; Andersson, S.; Olofsson, T. [Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)
2009-07-15
In order to identify buildings that have energy saving potential there is a need for further development of robust methods for evaluation of energy performance as well as reliable key energy indicators. To be able to evaluate a large database of buildings, the evaluation has to be founded on available data, since an in-depth analysis of each building would require large measurement efforts in terms of both parameters and time. In practice, data are usually available for consumed energy, water, and so on, namely consumption that the tenants or property holder has to pay for. In order to evaluate the energy saving potential and energy management, interesting key energy indicators are the total heat loss coefficient K{sub tot} (W/K), the indoor temperature (T{sub i}), and the utilisation of the available heat (solar radiation and electricity primarily used for purposes other than heating). The total heat loss coefficient, K{sub tot}, is a measure of the heat lost through the building's envelope, whereas T{sub i} and the gained energy reflect the user's behaviour and efficiency of the control system. In this study, a linear regression approach (energy signature) has been used to analyse data for 2003-2006 for nine fairly new multifamily buildings located in the Stockholm area, Sweden. The buildings are heated by district heating and the electricity used is for household equipment and the buildings' technical systems. The data consist of monthly energy used for heating and outdoor temperature together with annual water use, and for some buildings data for household electricity are also available. For domestic hot water and electricity, monthly distributions have been assumed based on data from previous studies and energy companies. The impact on K{sub tot} and T{sub i} of the time period and assumed values for the utilised energy are investigated. The results show that the obtained value of K{sub tot} is rather insensitive to the time period and utilised
Polanco Martínez, Josue M.; Medina-Elizalde, Martin; Burns, Stephen J.; Jiang, Xiuyang; Shen, Chuan-Chou
2015-04-01
It has been widely accepted by the paleoclimate and archaeology communities that extreme climate events (especially droughts) and past climate change played an important role in the cultural changes that occurred in at least some parts of the Maya Lowlands, from the Pre-Classic (2000 BC to 250 AD) to Post-Classic periods (1000 to 1521 AD) [1, 2]. In particular, a large number of studies suggest that the decline of the Maya civilization in the Terminal Classic Period was greatly influenced by prolonged severe drought events that probably triggered significant societal disruptions [1, 3, 4, 5]. Going further on these issues, the aim of this work is to detect climate regime shifts in several paleoclimate time series from the Yucatán Peninsula (México) that have been used as rainfall proxies [3, 5, 6, 7]. In order to extract information from the paleoclimate data studied, we have used a change point method [8] as implemented in the R package strucchange, as well as the RAMFIT method [9]. The preliminary results show for all the records analysed a prominent regime shift between 400 to 200 BCE (from a noticeable increase to a remarkable fall in precipitation), which is strongest in the recently obtained stalagmite (Itzamna) delta18-O precipitation record [7]. References [1] Gunn, J. D., Matheny, R. T., Folan, W. J., 2002. Climate-change studies in the Maya area. Ancient Mesoamerica, 13(01), 79-84. [2] Yaeger, J., Hodell, D. A., 2008. The collapse of Maya civilization: assessing the interaction of culture, climate, and environment. El Niño, Catastrophism, and Culture Change in Ancient America, 197-251. [3] Hodell, D. A., Curtis, J. H., Brenner, M., 1995. Possible role of climate in the collapse of Classic Maya civilization. Nature, 375(6530), 391-394. [4] Aimers, J., Hodell, D., 2011. Societal collapse: Drought and the Maya. Nature 479(7371), 44-45 (2011). [5] Medina-Elizalde, M., Rohling, E. J., 2012. Collapse of Classic Maya civilization related to modest reduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Fengyan [College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen Fujian 361021 (China)]. E-mail: wangfy68@163.com; Zeng Guangzhao [Department of Mathematics, ShaoGuan University, ShaoGuan, GuangDong 512005 (China)]. E-mail: guangzhaoz@sgu.edu.cn
2007-05-15
In this paper, we introduce and study a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system with impulsive ratio-harvesting the prey and time delays. By using Floquet theory and small amplitude perturbation skills, we discuss the boundary periodic solutions for predator-prey system under periodic pulsed conditions. The stability analysis of the boundary periodic solution yields an invasion threshold of the predator. Further, by use of the coincidence degree theorem and its related continuous theorem we prove the existence of the positive periodic solutions of the system when the value of the coefficient is large than the threshold. Finally, by comparing bifurcation diagrams with different bifurcation parameters, we show that the impulsive effect and the time delays bring to the system to be more complex, which experiences a complex process of cycles {sup {yields}} quasi-periodic oscillation {sup {yields}} periodic doubling cascade {sup {yields}} chaos.
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Rogers, J.; Porter, K.
2012-03-01
This paper updates previous work that describes time period-based and other approximation methods for estimating the capacity value of wind power and extends it to include solar power. The paper summarizes various methods presented in utility integrated resource plans, regional transmission organization methodologies, regional stakeholder initiatives, regulatory proceedings, and academic and industry studies. Time period-based approximation methods typically measure the contribution of a wind or solar plant at the time of system peak - sometimes over a period of months or the average of multiple years.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the past two years the reactor was operated 1653 hours at steady - state full power (250 kW). During the same period, July 1978 - June 1980, 680 applications for reactor use were submitted. Total reactor time utilized (6843 hours) is increased in comparison with the previous two years period. Some modernization to the equipment is also made
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the time period in which the Director must investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA? 224.116 Section 224.116 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... period in which the Director must investigate a tribe's compliance with a TERA? (a) If the...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiaoyuan CHU; Yujie WANG; Yiping XIA; Yun WU; Lin CHEN
2009-01-01
In order to provide a basis for water conservation in the restoration of vegetation for an urban water resource area, we studied the generation of runoff characteristics in four typical forests over three time periods in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City, based on the observation data of rainfall and runoff processes during the period 2002-2005. The results show that: 1) Rainfall was distributed evenly during the years 2002-2005. Annual rainfall variability was 4.46% and coefficient of variation was 0.0618. Average monthly rainfall tended towards a normal distribution N (113.8, 45972). 2) Both precipitation and runoff can be clearly divided into a dry and a wet season. The dry season was from October to March and the wet season from April to September. Most of annual runoff of the four forest stands occurred in the wet season. The surface runoff in the wet season accounted for more than 85% of the annual runoff, and more than 75% of underground runoff. 3) Both peak values of surface runoff and underground runoff occurred in June. The relation between monthly rainfall and surface/underground runoff was fitted by the model W = aP2 + bP + c. The order of annual surface runoff was as follows: Phyllostachys pub-escens forest > shrub forest > mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest > evergreen broad-leaved forest. The annual underground runoff was evergreen broad-leaved forest > mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest >Phyl-lostachys pubescens forest > shrub forest. 4) Under similar rainstorms events, the order of the surface runoff coefficient was: evergreen broad-leaved forest mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest > Phyllostachys pubescens forest > shrub forest. The relation between rainstorms and surface runoff was fitted by the linear relationship: Q = mp-n. Both mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest and evergreen broad-leaved forest have better flood regulation effects on an annual and monthly basis and per individual rainstorm. The function of Phyllostachys
Rogan, Paul J.
This research attempted to identify differences, or lack of them, in time orientation of Caucasian, Black and Chicano young male first offenders at various periods of imprisonment; beginning, middle, and end. The instrument that was chosen to measure time orientation was a combination of two questionnaires--the Time Competence scale of the…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gorceag Lilia T
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Trafficking in women is a widespread human rights violation commonly associated with poor mental health. Yet, to date, no studies have used psychiatric diagnostic assessment to identify common forms of mental distress among survivors returning to their home country. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted of women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 registered by the International Organisation for Migration as a survivor of human trafficking. Psychiatric diagnoses in women at a mean of 6 months after return (range 2-12 months were made by a trained Moldavian psychiatrist using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and compared with diagnoses recorded in the same women within 5 days of return. We described the socio-demographic characteristics of the women in the sample including both pre and post-trafficking information. We then described the distribution of mental health diagnoses recorded during the crisis intervention phase (1-5 days after return and the re-integration phase (2-12 months after return. We compared diagnoses at the patient level between the two time points by tabulating the diagnoses and carrying out a kappa test of agreement and the Stuart-Maxwell test for marginal homogeneity (an extension of the McNemar test to kxk table. Results 120/176 (68% eligible women participated. At 2-12 months after their return, 54% met criteria for at least one psychiatric diagnoses comprising post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD alone (16%; co-morbid PTSD (20%; other anxiety or mood disorder (18%. 85% of women who had been diagnosed in the crisis phase with co-morbid PTSD or with another anxiety or mood disorder sustained a diagnosis of any psychiatric disorder when followed up during rehabilitation. Conclusions Trafficked women returning to their country of origin are likely to suffer serious psychological distress that may endure well beyond the time they return. Women
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Long [College of Mathematics and System Sciences, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China)], E-mail: longzhang_xj@sohu.com; Teng Zhidong [College of Mathematics and System Sciences, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China)], E-mail: zhidong@xju.edu.cn
2008-12-15
In this paper, we study two species predator-prey Lotka-Volterra type dispersal system with periodic coefficients in two patches, in which both the prey and predator species can disperse between two patches. By utilizing analytic method, sufficient and realistic conditions on permanence and the existence of periodic solution are established. The theoretical results are confirmed by a special example and numerical simulations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;
2007-01-01
A 0.8 ps flat top pulse is generated using a long-period fibre grating and used as control pulse for the first time in a 320 Gb/s demultiplexer. The effect is an increased error-free timing tolerance...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present the results of a systematic search in ∼14 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor (ASM) data for evidence of periodicities. Two variations of the commonly used Fourier analysis search method have been employed to significantly improve upon the sensitivity achieved by Wen et al. in 2006, who also searched for periodicities in ASM data. In addition, the present search is comprehensive in terms of sources studied and frequency range covered, and has yielded the detection of the signatures of the orbital periods of eight low-mass X-ray binary systems and of ten high-mass X-ray binaries not listed in the tables of Wen et al. Orbital periods, epochs, signal amplitudes, modulation fractions, and folded light curves are given for each of these systems. Seven of the orbital periods are the most precise reported to date. In the course of this work, the 18.545 day orbital period of IGR J18483-0311 was co-discovered, and the first detections in X-rays were made of the ∼3.9 day orbital period of LMC X-1 and the ∼3.79 hr orbital period of 4U 1636-536. The results inform future searches for orbital and other periodicities in X-ray binaries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Van Greuningen Malou
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The high cost of training and the relatively long period of training for physicians make it beneficial to stimulate physicians to retire later. Therefore, a better understanding of the link between the factors influencing the decision to retire and actual turnover would benefit policies designed to encourage later retirement. This study focuses on actual GP turnover and the determining factors for this in the Netherlands. The period 2003–2007 saw fewer GPs retiring from general practice than the period 1998–2002. In addition, GPs’ retirement age was higher in 2003–2007. For these two periods, we analysed work perception, objective workload and reasons for leaving, and related these with the probability that GPs would leave general practice at an early age. Methods In 2003, a first retrospective survey was sent to 520 self-employed GPs who had retired between 1998 and 2002. In 2008, the same survey was sent to 405 GPs who had retired between 2003 and 2007. The response rates were 60% and 54%, respectively. Analyses were done to compare work perception, objective workload, external factors and personal reasons for retiring. Results For both male and female GPs, work perception was different in the periods under scrutiny: both groups reported greater job satisfaction and a lower degree of emotional exhaustion in the later period, although there was no notable difference in subjective workload. The objective workload was lower in the second period. Moreover, most external factors and personal reasons that may contribute to the decision to retire were reported as less important in the second period. There was a stronger decrease in the probability that female GPs leave general practice within one year than for male GPs. This underscores the gender differences and the need for disaggregated data collection. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the decrease in the probability of GPs leaving general practice
Tanrıver, Mehmet
2015-04-01
In this article, a period analysis of the late-type eclipsing binary VV UMa is presented. This work is based on the periodic variation of eclipse timings of the VV UMa binary. We determined the orbital properties and mass of a third orbiting body in the system by analyzing the light-travel time effect. The O-C diagram constructed for all available minima times of VV UMa exhibits a cyclic character superimposed on a linear variation. This variation includes three maxima and two minima within approximately 28,240 orbital periods of the system, which can be explained as the light-travel time effect (LITE) because of an unseen third body in a triple system that causes variations of the eclipse arrival times. New parameter values of the light-time travel effect because of the third body were computed with a period of 23.22 ± 0.17 years in the system. The cyclic-variation analysis produces a value of 0.0139 day as the semi-amplitude of the light-travel time effect and 0.35 as the orbital eccentricity of the third body. The mass of the third body that orbits the eclipsing binary stars is 0.787 ± 0.02 M⊙, and the semi-major axis of its orbit is 10.75 AU.
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does the 2-year time period in Â§ 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or...
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Yongzhi Liao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of almost periodic solution for neutral-type Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with time delays. Based on fixed point theory and Lyapunov functional, several sufficient conditions are established for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of almost periodic solution for the above system. Finally, an example and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our main results.
Yongzhi Liao; Wenquan Wu; Tianwei Zhang
2013-01-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of almost periodic solution for neutral-type Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with time delays. Based on fixed point theory and Lyapunov functional, several sufficient conditions are established for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of almost periodic solution for the above system. Finally, an example and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the feasibility...
Jha, Basant K.; Ajibade, Abiodun O.
2012-04-01
This article investigates the natural convection flow of viscous incompressible fluid in a channel formed by two infinite vertical parallel plates. Fully developed laminar flow is considered in a vertical channel with steady-periodic temperature regime on the boundaries. The effect of internal heating by viscous dissipation is taken into consideration. Separating the velocity and temperature fields into steady and periodic parts, the resulting second order ordinary differential equations are solved to obtain the expressions for velocity, and temperature. The amplitudes and phases of temperature and velocity are also obtained as well as the rate of heat transfer and the skin-friction on the plates. In presence of viscous dissipation, fluids of relatively small Prandtl number has higher temperature than the channel plates and as such, heat is being transferred from the fluid to the plate.
Ku, Po-Wen; Stevinson, Clare; Chen, Li-Jung
2012-01-01
Background Few studies have explored the relations between naturally occurring changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in later life. This study examined prospective associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in a population-based sample of Taiwanese older adults during an 11-year period. Methods Analyses were based on nationally representative data from the Taiwan Health and Living Status of the Elderly Survey collected in 1996, 1999, 2003, and...
Garde, Ainara; Giraldo Giraldo, Beatriz; Jané Campos, Raimon; Latshang, T D; Turk, A.J.; Hess, T.; Bosch, M M; Barthelmes, D.; Merz, T M; Pichler Hefti, J.; Schoch, O.D.; Bloch, Konrad E
2015-01-01
This work investigates the performance of cardiorespiratory analysis detecting periodic breathing (PB) in chest wall recordings in mountaineers climbing to extreme altitude. The breathing patterns of 34 mountaineers were monitored unobtrusively by inductance plethysmography, ECG and pulse oximetry using a portable recorder during climbs at altitudes between 4497 and 7546 m on Mt. Muztagh Ata. The minute ventilation (VE) and heart rate (HR) signals were studied, to identify visually scored ...
Wu, Yu-Tzu; Lee, Hsin-yi; Norton, Samuel; Prina, A Matthew; Fleming, Jane; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol
2014-01-01
This is the accepted version of the following article: Wu, Y.-T., Lee, H.-y., Norton, S., Prina, A. M., Fleming, J., Matthews, F. E. and Brayne, C. (2014), Period, birth cohort and prevalence of dementia in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: a meta-analysis. Int. J. Geriat. Psychiatry. doi: 10.1002/gps.4148, which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/gps.4148/abstract
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao Yu Wang
Full Text Available Different locations and study periods were used in the assessment of the relationships between heatwaves and mortality. However, little is known about the comparability and consistency of the previous effect estimates in the literature. This study assessed the heatwave-mortality relationship using different study periods in the three largest Australian cities (Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney.Daily data on climatic variables and mortality for the three cities were obtained from relevant government agencies between 1988 and 2011. A consistent definition of heatwaves was used for these cities. Poisson generalised additive model was fitted to assess the impact of heatwaves on mortality.Non-accidental and circulatory mortality significantly increased during heatwaves across the three cities even with different heatwave definitions and study periods. Using the summer data resulted in the largest increase in effect estimates compared to those using the warm season or the whole year data.The findings may have implications for developing standard approaches to evaluating the heatwave-mortality relationship and advancing heat health warning systems. It also provides an impetus to methodological advance for assessing climate change-related health consequences.
Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray
2011-06-01
We explore the Brownian dynamics in the quantum regime (by investigating the quantum Langevin and Smoluchowski equations) in terms of an effective time-independent Hamiltonian in the presence of a rapidly oscillating field. We achieve this by systematically expanding the time-dependent system-reservoir Hamiltonian in the inverse of driving frequency with a systematic time-scale separation and invoking a quantum gauge transformation within the framework of Floquet theorem. PMID:21797289
Kafka, K R P; Austin, D R; Li, H; Yi, A Y; Cheng, J; Chowdhury, E A
2015-07-27
Time-resolved diffraction microscopy technique has been used to observe the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) from the interaction of a single femtosecond laser pulse (pump) with a nano-scale groove mechanically formed on a single-crystal Cu substrate. The interaction dynamics (0-1200 ps) was captured by diffracting a time-delayed, frequency-doubled pulse (probe) from nascent LIPSS formation induced by the pump with an infinity-conjugate microscopy setup. The LIPSS ripples are observed to form asynchronously, with the first one forming after 50 ps and others forming sequentially outward from the groove edge at larger time delays. A 1-D analytical model of electron heating including both the laser pulse and surface plasmon polariton excitation at the groove edge predicts ripple period, melt spot diameter, and qualitatively explains the asynchronous time-evolution of LIPSS formation.
2010-04-01
... section 32(a)(1) regarding the time period during which a registered management investment company must... management investment company must select an independent public accountant. (a) A registered management investment company (“company”) organized in a jurisdiction that does not require it to hold regular...
Solar EUV Variability from FISM and SDO/EVE During Solar Minimum, Active, and Flaring Time Periods
Chamberlin, Phillip C.
2011-01-01
The Living With a Star (LWS) Focus Science Team has identified three periods of different solar activity levels for which they will be determining the Earth's Ionosphere and Thermosphere response. Not only will the team be comparing individual models (e.g. FLIP, T1MEGCM, GLOW) outcome driven by the various levels of solar activity, but the models themselves will also be compared. These models all rely on the input solar EUV (0.1 -190 nm) irradiance to drive the variability. The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) and the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard provide the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provide the most accurate quantification of these irradiances. Presented and discussed are how much the solar EUV irradiance changes during these three scenarios, both as a function of activity and wavelength.
Spectral self-imaging of time-periodic coherent frequency combs by parabolic cross-phase modulation.
Maram, Reza; Azaña, José
2013-11-18
Integer and fractional spectral self-imaging effects are induced on infinite-duration periodic frequency combs (probe signal) using cross-phase modulation (XPM) with a parabolic pulse train as pump signal. Free-spectral-range tuning (fractional effects) or wavelength-shifting (integer effects) of the frequency comb can be achieved by changing the parabolic pulse peak power or/and repetition rate without affecting the spectral envelope shape and bandwidth of the original comb. For design purposes, we derive the complete family of different pump signals that allow implementing a desired spectral self-imaging process. Numerical simulation results validate our theoretical analysis. We also investigate the detrimental influence of group-delay walk-off and deviations in the nominal temporal shape or power of the pump pulses on the generated output frequency combs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rehab F. Khalaf
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We study a queuing system which is equipped with a stand-by server in addition to the main server. The stand-by server provides service to customers only during the period of absence of the main server when either the main server is on a vacation or it is in the state of repairs due to a sudden failure from time to time. The service times, vacation times, and repair times are assumed to follow general arbitrary distributions while the stand-by service times follow exponential distribution. Supplementary variables technique has been used to obtain steady state results in explicit and closed form in terms of the probability generating functions for the number of customers in the queue, the average number of customers, and the average waiting time in the queue while the MathCad software has been used to illustrate the numerical results in this work.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefania Garzoli
2015-05-01
Full Text Available A comprehensive study on essential oils (EOs extracted from some Mentha suaveolens L. samples, collected in the countryside of Tarquinia, is reported. In this study, the procedure for essential oil preparation, in terms of harvesting and extraction time, was analyzed in detail for the first time. The GC/MS analysis, carried out on 18 samples, revealed that piperitenone oxide (PO, the main essential oils’ chemical constituent, is primarily responsible for the related antifungal activity. Nevertheless, EOs with lower PO content indicate that other chemicals, such as para-cymenene, may participate in exerting the EOs’ antifungal effect. Furthermore, the bacterial reverse mutation assay highlighted lack of mutagenic effect in all tested samples. Analysis of the results indicated that for higher activity, the essential oils should be produced with 3 h maximum hydrodistillation, regardless of the harvesting time. Differently, the maximum essential oil yield can be obtained in August and the highest piperitenone oxide percentage is obtainable in July.
Garzoli, Stefania; Pirolli, Adele; Vavala, Elisabetta; Di Sotto, Antonella; Sartorelli, Gianni; Božović, Mijat; Angiolella, Letizia; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Pepi, Federico; Ragno, Rino
2015-01-01
A comprehensive study on essential oils (EOs) extracted from some Mentha suaveolens L. samples, collected in the countryside of Tarquinia, is reported. In this study, the procedure for essential oil preparation, in terms of harvesting and extraction time, was analyzed in detail for the first time. The GC/MS analysis, carried out on 18 samples, revealed that piperitenone oxide (PO), the main essential oils' chemical constituent, is primarily responsible for the related antifungal activity. Nevertheless, EOs with lower PO content indicate that other chemicals, such as para-cymenene, may participate in exerting the EOs' antifungal effect. Furthermore, the bacterial reverse mutation assay highlighted lack of mutagenic effect in all tested samples. Analysis of the results indicated that for higher activity, the essential oils should be produced with 3 h maximum hydrodistillation, regardless of the harvesting time. Differently, the maximum essential oil yield can be obtained in August and the highest piperitenone oxide percentage is obtainable in July.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daryush Talei
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Germination is a key process in plants' phenological cycles. Accelerating this process could lead to improvment of the seedling growth as well as the cultivation efficiency. To achieve this, the effect of microwave frequency on the germination of rice seeds was examined. The physiological feedbacks of the MR 219 rice variety in terms of seed germination rate (GR, germination percentage (GP, and mean germination time (MGT were analyzed by exposing its seeds to 2450 MHz of microwave frequency for one, four, seven, and ten hours. It was revealed that exposing the seeds to the microwave frequency for 10 hours resulted in the highest GP. This treatment led to 100% of germination after three days with a mean germination time of 2.1 days. Although the other exposure times of microwave frequency caused the moderate effects on germination with a GPa3 ranged from 93% to 98%, they failed to reduce the MGTa3. The results showed that ten-hour exposure times of microwave frequency for six days significantly facilitated and improved the germination indices (primary shoot and root length. Therefore, the technique is expected to benefit the improvement of rice seed germination considering its simplicity and efficacy in increasing the germination percentage and rate as well as the primary shoot and root length without causing any environmental toxicity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Nonadiabatic dynamics of quantum particle under the impact of high-frequency force. • Formulation of time-independent dynamics via Floquet and Kapitza schemes. • Manipulation of external force parameters allows us to control the escape rate. • Increase of (amplitudes/frequency) causes the system to decay faster, in general. • Crossover temperature increases in the presence of the field. - Abstract: Escape under the action of the external modulation constitutes a nontrivial generalization of an conventional Kramers rate because the system is away from thermal equilibrium. A derivation of this result from the point of view of Langevin dynamics in the frame of Floquet theorem in conjunction with the Kapitza–Landau time window (that leads to an attractive description of the time-dependent quantum dynamics in terms of time-independent one) has been provided. The quantum escape rate in the intermediate-to-high and very-high damping regime so obtained analytically using the phase space formalism associated with the Wigner distribution and path-integral formalism bears a quantum correction that depends strongly on the barrier height. It is shown that an increase of (amplitude/frequency) ratio causes the system to decay faster, in general. The crossover temperature between tunneling and thermal activation increases in the presence of field so that quantum effects in the escape are relevant at higher temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shit, Anindita [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sudip, E-mail: sudip_chattopadhyay@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Ray Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim, E-mail: jprc_8@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Katwa College, Katwa, Burdwan 713130 (India)
2014-03-18
Highlights: • Nonadiabatic dynamics of quantum particle under the impact of high-frequency force. • Formulation of time-independent dynamics via Floquet and Kapitza schemes. • Manipulation of external force parameters allows us to control the escape rate. • Increase of (amplitudes/frequency) causes the system to decay faster, in general. • Crossover temperature increases in the presence of the field. - Abstract: Escape under the action of the external modulation constitutes a nontrivial generalization of an conventional Kramers rate because the system is away from thermal equilibrium. A derivation of this result from the point of view of Langevin dynamics in the frame of Floquet theorem in conjunction with the Kapitza–Landau time window (that leads to an attractive description of the time-dependent quantum dynamics in terms of time-independent one) has been provided. The quantum escape rate in the intermediate-to-high and very-high damping regime so obtained analytically using the phase space formalism associated with the Wigner distribution and path-integral formalism bears a quantum correction that depends strongly on the barrier height. It is shown that an increase of (amplitude/frequency) ratio causes the system to decay faster, in general. The crossover temperature between tunneling and thermal activation increases in the presence of field so that quantum effects in the escape are relevant at higher temperatures.
Wetstein, Matthew; Hays, Brianna; Nguyen, Alyssa
2011-01-01
This study seeks to extend the literature on higher education enrollment patterns during times of recession by examining patterns of enrollment and successful course completion in one of the world's largest higher education systems--the California Community College system. The data are drawn from publicly available data sources on the web. CCC…
Sicard, Pierre; Serra, Romain; Rossello, Philippe
2016-08-01
The hourly ozone (O3) data from 332 background monitoring stations, spread in France, were analyzed over the period 1999-2012 and short-term trends were calculated. In the current climate change context, the calculation of human health- and vegetation-relevant metrics, and of associated trends, provides a consistent method to establish proper and effective policies to reduce the adverse O3 effects. The generation of optimal O3 maps, for risk and exposure assessment, is challenging. To overcome this issue, starting from a set of stations, a hybrid regression-interpolation approach was proposed. Annual surface O3 metrics, O3 human health metrics (number of exceedances of daily maximum 8-h values greater than 60 ppb and SOMO35) and O3 vegetation impact metrics (AOT40 for vegetation and forests) were investigated at individual sites. Citizens are more exposed to high O3 levels in rural areas than people living in the cities. The annual mean concentrations decreased by -0.12ppbyear(-1) at rural stations, and the significant reduction at 67% of stations, particularly during the warm season, in the number of episodic high O3 concentrations (e.g. 98th percentile, -0.19ppbyear(-1)) can be associated with the substantial reductions in NOx and VOCs emissions in the EU-28 countries since the early 1990s Inversely, the O3 background level is rising at 76% of urban sites (+0.14ppbyear(-1)), particularly during the cold period. This rise can be attributed to increases in imported O3 by long-range transport and to a low O3 titration by NO due to the reduction in local NOx emissions. The decrease in health-related and vegetation-relevant O3 metrics, at almost all stations, is driven by decreases in regional photochemical O3 formation and in peak O3 concentrations. The short-term trends highlight that the threat to population and vegetation declined between 1999 and 2012 in France, demonstrating the success of European control strategies over the last 20 years. However, for all
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thermo convective instabilities in horizontal fluid layers are discussed with emphasis on the Rayleigh-Bernard model problem. Steady solutions and time-dependent phenomena (relaxation oscillations and transition to turbulence) are studied within the nonlinear Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation. Homogeneous steady solutions, limit cycles, and inhomogeneous (ordered) spatial structures are also studied in simple reaction-diffusion systems. Lastly, the non-periodic attractor that appears at large Rayleigh numbers in the truncated Boussinesq-Oberbeck model of Lorenz, is constructed, and a discussion of turbulent behavior is given. (Author) 105 refs
Chen, Hai Yang
2014-05-01
We have analyzed the effect of various system parameters and external time-dependent field on the transport properties of monolayer graphene-based double-barrier(well) structures under a time-periodic potential. Results indicate that the Klein tunneling still exists. Besides, the transmission probability, conductivity, shot noise, and Fano factor exhibit various types of oscillatory behavior with changes in the system parameters, and they are either improved or suppressed in the presence of the time-periodic potential. We have also discussed the reasons underlying these phenomena. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the transport properties can be controlled by manipulating the structural parameters of the system and the external field strength.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Theresa Hunter
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1 breastfeeding initiation, (2 early post-partum breastfeeding, (3 breastfeeding plan, (4 post-partum breastfeeding support and (5 breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67 of mothers received helped from their husband or partner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79 of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-partum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.
Auchincloss, Amy H; Moore, Kari A B; Moore, Latetia V; Diez Roux, Ana V
2012-11-01
Access to healthy foods has received increasing attention due to growing prevalence of obesity and diet-related health conditions yet there are major obstacles in characterizing the local food environment. This study developed a method to retrospectively characterize supermarkets for a single historic year, 2005, in 19 counties in 6 states in the USA using a supermarket chain-name list and two business databases. Data preparation, merging, overlaps, added-value amongst various approaches and differences by census tract area-level socio-demographic characteristics are described. Agreement between two food store databases was modest: 63%. Only 55% of the final list of supermarkets were identified by a single business database and selection criteria that included industry classification codes and sales revenue ≥$2 million. The added-value of using a supermarket chain-name list and second business database was identification of an additional 14% and 30% of supermarkets, respectively. These methods are particularly useful to retrospectively characterize access to supermarkets during a historic period and when field observations are not feasible and business databases are used.
Timing Spectroscopy of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the Low-Mass X-ray Neutron Star Binaries
Titarchuk, L G; Kuznetsov, S; Titarchuk, Lev; Osherovich, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, Sergey
1999-01-01
Precise simultaneous measurements of the frequencies of the two kiloHertz quasi-periodic oscillations (referred in the literature as upper and lower kHz QPOs) cast doubts on the validity of the simple beat-frequency interpretation and some of the modifications introduced to explain the results of the varying frequency difference. A new model explains the variation of the frequency difference suggesting that the upper kHz QPO,namely nu_h is an upper hybrid frequency of the Keplerian oscillator under the influence of the Coriolis force and the lower kHz QPO is the Keplerian frequency nu_K. Such an oscillator has two branches characterized by high frequency nu_h (around 1 kHz) and by low frequency nu_L (around 50 Hz). The frequency nu_L depends strongly on the angle, delta between the normal to the neutron star disk and Omega - the angular velocity of the magnetosphere surrounding the neutron star. In the lower part of the QPO spectrum (around 10 Hz), this model identifies the frequency of radial viscous oscilla...
Shafiee, Afshin
2011-01-01
We consider the evolution of a two-state quantum system (a spin 1/2 particle) in both the framework of standard quantum mechanics and under the decoherence regime. The former approach on this issue is the well-known quantum flipping process of a dichotomic system subjected to a time-dependent magnetic field. In the latter approach, utilizing the Spin-Boson model to describe the interaction of system with its environment, we derive the Born-Markov master equation to obtain the decoherence time. It is possible to show that under some legitimate conditions, one may find a potential conflict between the predictions of decoherence theory and the result observed in a typical quantum flipping experiment.
Daryush Talei; Alireza Valdiani; Mahmood Maziah; Mohammad Mohsenkhah
2013-01-01
Germination is a key process in plants' phenological cycles. Accelerating this process could lead to improvment of the seedling growth as well as the cultivation efficiency. To achieve this, the effect of microwave frequency on the germination of rice seeds was examined. The physiological feedbacks of the MR 219 rice variety in terms of seed germination rate (GR), germination percentage (GP), and mean germination time (MGT) were analyzed by exposing its seeds to 2450 MHz of microwave frequenc...
Quasi-Periodicity, Chaos and Coexistence in the Time Delay Controlled Two-Cell DC-DC Buck Converter
Koubaâ, Karama; Feki, Moez
In addition to border collision bifurcation, the time delay controlled two-cell DC/DC buck converter is shown to exhibit a chaotic behavior as well. The time delay controller adds new design parameters to the system and therefore the variation of a parameter may lead to different types of bifurcation. In this work, we present a thorough analysis of different scenarios leading to bifurcation and chaos. We show that the time delay controlled two-cell DC/DC buck converter may also exhibit a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation which for some parameter set may lead to a 2D torus that may then break yielding a chaotic behavior. Besides, the saturation of the controller can also lead to the coexistence of a stable focus and a chaotic attractor. The results are presented using numerical simulation of a discrete map of the two-cell DC/DC buck converter obtained by expressing successive crossings of Poincaré section in terms of each other.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHAN Kung-Sik; TONG Howell; STENSETH Nils Chr
2009-01-01
The study of the rodent fluctuations of the North was initiated in its modern form with Elton's pioneering work. Many scientific studies have been designed to collect yearly rodent abundance data, but the resulting time series are generally subject to at least two "problems": being short and non-linear. We explore the use of the continuous threshold autoregressive (TAR) models for analyzing such data. In the simplest case, the continuous TAR models are additive autoregressive models, being piecewise linear in one lag, and linear in all other lags. The location of the slope change is called the threshold parameter. The continuous TAR models for rodent abundance data can be derived from a general prey-predator model under some simplifying assumptions. The lag in which the threshold is located sheds important insights on the structure of the prey-predator system. We propose to assess the uncertainty on the location of the threshold via a new bootstrap called the nearest block bootstrap (NBB) which combines the methods of moving block bootstrap and the nearest neighbor bootstrap.The NBB assumes an underlying finite-order time-homogeneous Markov process. Essentially, the NBB bootstraps blocks of random block sizes, with each block being drawn from a non-parametric estimate of the future distribution given the realized past bootstrap series. We illustrate the methods by simulations and on a particular rodent abundance time series from Kilpisjarvi, Northern Finland.
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Erwin
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days, Group II (for 4 days, and Group III (for 6 days. In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHAN; Kung-Sik; TONG; Howell; STENSETH; Nils; Chr
2009-01-01
The study of the rodent fluctuations of the North was initiated in its modern form with Elton’s pioneering work.Many scientific studies have been designed to collect yearly rodent abundance data,but the resulting time series are generally subject to at least two "problems":being short and non-linear.We explore the use of the continuous threshold autoregressive(TAR) models for analyzing such data.In the simplest case,the continuous TAR models are additive autoregressive models,being piecewise linear in one lag,and linear in all other lags.The location of the slope change is called the threshold parameter.The continuous TAR models for rodent abundance data can be derived from a general prey-predator model under some simplifying assumptions.The lag in which the threshold is located sheds important insights on the structure of the prey-predator system.We propose to assess the uncertainty on the location of the threshold via a new bootstrap called the nearest block bootstrap(NBB) which combines the methods of moving block bootstrap and the nearest neighbor bootstrap.The NBB assumes an underlying finite-order time-homogeneous Markov process.Essentially,the NBB bootstraps blocks of random block sizes,with each block being drawn from a non-parametric estimate of the future distribution given the realized past bootstrap series.We illustrate the methods by simulations and on a particular rodent abundance time series from Kilpisjrvi,Northern Finland.
Existence of Time Periodic Solution of the Hasegawa-Mima Equation%Hasegawa-Mima方程时间周期解的存在性
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
金珍
2012-01-01
讨论一类带周期边界条件的二维Hasegawa-Mima方程,利用Galerkin方法和Leray-Schaude不动点定理,得到了当外力项f（x,yt,）关于时间t是周期函数时,所得到的解也是时间周期函数。%In this paper, we discuss a 2-dimension Hasegawa-Mima equation with periodic boundary condition. By applying the Galerkin method and Leray-Schauder fixed point theorem, the existence of a time-periodic solution of the Hasegawa-Mima equation is proved when the forcing term.f（ x ,y,t）is periodic function of timer.
Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray
2013-09-12
Escape from a metastable state in the presence of a high-frequency field (where the driving becomes nonadiabatic) underlies a broad range of phenomena of physics and chemistry, and thus its understanding is of paramount importance. We study the problem of intermediate-to-high-damping escape from a metastable state of a dissipative system driven by a rapidly oscillating field, one of the most important classes of nonequilibrium systems, in a broad range of field driving frequencies (ω) and amplitudes (a). We construct a Langevin equation using quantum gauge transformation in the light of Floquet theorem and exploiting a systematic perturbative expansion in powers of 1/ω using "Kapitza-Landau time window". The quantum dynamics in a high-frequency field are found to be described by an effective time-independent potential. The temperature dependence of escape rate and the change of its form with varying parameters of the field have been analyzed. It may decrease upon increasing the temperature which is contingent on the effects of intricate interplay between external modulation and dissipation. The crossover temperature between tunnelling and thermal hopping increases with an increase in external modulation so that quantum effects in the escape are relevant at higher temperatures. These observations are uncommon and counterintuitive and, therefore, of considerable interest. Our results might be valuable for the exploration of the dynamics of cold atoms in electromagnetic fields. PMID:23627350
Wang, Gang
2014-01-01
ASTROD-GW (ASTROD [Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices] optimized for Gravitational Wave detection) is a gravitational-wave mission with the aim of detecting gravitational waves from massive black holes, extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) and galactic compact binaries, together with testing relativistic gravity and probing dark energy and cosmology. Mission orbits of the 3 spacecrafts forming a nearly equilateral triangular array are chosen to be near the Sun-Earth Lagrange points L3, L4 and L5. The 3 spacecrafts range interferometrically with one another with arm length about 260 million kilometers. For 260 times longer arm length, the detection sensitivity of ASTROD-GW is 260 fold better than that of eLISA/NGO in the lower frequency region by assuming the same acceleration noise. Therefore, ASTROD-GW will be a better cosmological probe. In previous papers, we have worked out the time delay interferometry (TDI) for the ecliptic formation. To resolve the reflection ambiguity about ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Shi-ying; SHAO Yu; LI Zheng-dong; LI Li; CHEN Yuan-yuan; CHEN Yi-jiu; HUANG Ping
2012-01-01
The aim of the current study was to investigate the spectra in the different organs of the rats which died of massive hemorrhage; to explore their spectral changes 15 days postmortem and the best mathematical model with different band absorption ratio changes to postmortem interval(PMD; and to compare the spectral changes of different temperature.Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed by cutting abdominal aorta,and the cadavers were divided equally and kept at 4 ℃,20℃ and 30℃ in the control chamber.From the same rat,seven different organs were sampled at intervals of 1-15 days postmortem,and then measured by Fourier transfom infrared (FTIR) spectrometer.Six mathematical model functions were explored.The absorbance of bands and band absorbance ratios of absorption peak in each organ showed a time-dependent increase or decrease,most band absorbance ratios remaining stable for 7-15 days postmortem.Cubic model functions of the various bands absorbance ratios against PMI showed a stronger related coefficient.The absorbance bands with obvious changes at 20 ℃ showed stabilized tendencies at 4 ℃ and significant changes at 30 ℃ within 15 days postmortem.In addition,FTIR spectroscopy revealed a time-dependent metabolic process,with potential of being used to estimate PMI during 7 days postmortem,which merits further investigation.
Henjum, Michael B; Hozalski, Raymond M; Wennen, Christine R; Novak, Paige J; Arnold, William A
2010-01-01
A network of in situ sensors and nutrient analyzers was deployed to measure nitrate, specific conductance (surrogate for chloride), and turbidity (surrogate for total suspended solids (TSS)) for 28 days in two urban streams near Minneapolis, MN. The primary objectives of the study were: (1) to determine the accuracy associated with quantifying pollutant loading using periodic discrete (i.e., grab) samples in comparison to in situ near real-time monitoring and (2) to identify pollutant sources. Within a highly impervious drainage area (>35%) the majority of pollutant load (>90% for nitrate, chloride, and TSS) was observed to be discharged in a small percentage of time (<20%). Consequently, periodic sampling is prone to underestimate pollutant loads. Additionally, when compared to loads based on near real-time sampling, average errors of 19-200% were associated with sampling 1-2 times a month. There are also limitations of periodic sampling with respect to pollutant source determination. Resulting implications with regard to total maximum daily load (TMDL) assessments are discussed.
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Francesc MEZQUITA
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Anaesthesia of animals may be useful for different purposes, particularly for veterinary reasons or in experimental research, for manipulation or treatment of immobilized but alive animals. Its use in crustaceans is not uncommon, but it has never been described for Ostracoda. We provide brief and preliminary guidelines on the use of the tricaine mesylate (MS-222 on the widespread freshwater ostracod Eucypris virens and we show that this compound is an effective anaesthetic used as a bath treatment at minimum concentrations of 500 mg L-1. This value is considerably higher than that recommended for other aquatic animals like fish. Recovery time, ranging from 5 to 15 minutes, is mostly determined by anaesthetic bath concentration, while bath duration influenced to a lesser extent. Anaesthesia induced with MS-222 can prove useful for minute manipulation of living ostracods e.g. for identification, marking or image capture under the microscope.
Di Guida, Salvatore
2011-01-01
Automatic, synchronous and of course reliable population of the condition databases is critical for the correct operation of the online selection as well as of the offline reconstruction and analysis of data. In this complex infrastructure, monitoring and fast detection of errors is a very challenging task. To recover the system and to put it in a safe state requires spotting a faulty situation within strict time constraints. We will describe here the system put in place in the CMS experiment to automate the processes that populate centrally the Condition Databases and make condition data promptly available both online for the high-level trigger and offline for reconstruction. The data are automatically collected using centralized jobs or are ``dropped'' by the users in dedicate services (offline and online drop-box), which synchronize them and take care of writing them into the online database. Then they are automatically streamed to the offline database, and thus are immediately acce...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, So Yeon; Ahn, Jong Ho; Kim, Yung Il; Kim, Jin Man; Choi, Byung Ki; Pyo, Hong Ryul; Song, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Daewon University Colloge, Jecheon (Korea, Republic of)
2012-09-15
It is essential to minimize the movement of tumor due to respiratory movement at the time of respiration controlled radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer patient. Accordingly, this Study aims to evaluate the usefulness of restricted respiratory period by comparing and analyzing the treatment plans that apply free and restricted respiration period respectively. After having conducted training on 9 non-small cell lung cancer patients (tumor n=10) from April to December 2011 by using 'signal monitored-breathing (guided- breathing)' method for the 'free respiratory period' measured on the basis of the regular respiratory period of the patents and 'restricted respiratory period' that was intentionally reduced, total of 10 CT images for each of the respiration phases were acquired by carrying out 4D CT for treatment planning purpose by using RPM and 4-dimensional computed tomography simulator. Visual gross tumor volume (GTV) and internal target volume (ITV) that each of the observer 1 and observer 2 has set were measured and compared on the CT image of each respiratory interval. Moreover, the amplitude of movement of tumor was measured by measuring the center of mass (COM) at the phase of 0% which is the end-inspiration (EI) and at the phase of 50% which is the end-exhalation (EE). In addition, both observers established treatment plan that applied the 2 respiratory periods, and mean dose to normal lung (MDTNL) was compared and analyzed through dose-volume histogram (DVH). Moreover, normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of the normal lung volume was compared by using dose-volume histogram analysis program (DVH analyzer v.1) and statistical analysis was performed in order to carry out quantitative evaluation of the measured data. As the result of the analysis of the treatment plan that applied the 'restricted respiratory period' of the observer 1 and observer 2, there was reduction rate of 38.75% in the 3-dimensional
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Pengfei Lin
Full Text Available The study of uterine gene expression patterns is valuable for understanding the biological and molecular mechanisms that occur during embryo implantation. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR is an extremely sensitive technique that allows for the precise quantification of mRNA abundance; however, selecting stable reference genes suitable for the normalization of qRT-PCR data is required to avoid the misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. This study employs several mouse models, including an early pregnancy, a pseudopregnancy, a delayed implantation and activation, an artificial decidualization and a hormonal treatment model; ten candidate reference genes (PPIA, RPLP0, HPRT1, GAPDH, ACTB, TBP, B2M, 18S, UBC and TUBA that are found in uterine tissues were assessed for their suitability as internal controls for relative qRT-PCR quantification. GeNorm(PLUS, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to evaluate these candidate reference genes, and all of these methods identified RPLP0 and GAPDH as the most stable candidates and B2M and 18S as the least stable candidates. However, when the different models were analyzed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels.
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Vasile Dragan
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We consider a discrete-time periodic generalized Riccati equation. We investigate a few iterative methods for computing the stabilizing solution. The first method is the Kleinman algorithm which is a special case of the classical Newton-Kantorovich procedure, the second one is a method of consistent iterations and two new Stein iterations. The proposed methods are tested and illustrated via some numerical examples.
HERWINT SIMBOLON
2005-01-01
A plot of 150x700 m2 was established in a mixed dipterocarps of Wanariset Semboja, East Kalimantan during the periods of 1979-1981. The forest was dominated by Eusideroxylon zwageri (Lauraceae), Dipterocarpus cornutus (Dipterocarpaceae), Pholidocarpus majadum (Arecaceae), and Diospyros borneensis (Ebenaceae). Since the plot establishment, the forests then had experienced three times of forest fires, those were in 1982-1983, 1994-1995 and 1997-1998. The present paper reports the results of re-...
Garanča, Biruta
2014-01-01
There has been calculated and analysed the profitability of the branches of economy and the basic activity of Latgale in comparison with that of Latvia during the period of time from 2006 to 2012. The impact of the profitability of the economic and the basic activity has been calculated by applying the author’s worked out methodology. There have been calculated and analysed the profitability variation quotients of the branches of economy and the basic activity, which characterize the financia...
Muhs, Daniel R.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Steinke, Bree
2002-07-01
The timing and duration of the Last Interglacial period have been controversial, with some studies suggesting a relatively short duration that is orbitally forced and others suggesting a long duration that is at most only partly related to orbital forcing. New, high-precison thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) U-series ages of Last Interglacial corals from Hawaii and Bermuda test these competing hypotheses. Waimanalo Formation corals from slowly uplifting Oahu, Hawaii range in age from ˜134 to ˜113 ka, with most ages between ˜125 and ˜115 ka. Combined with published U-series ages from nearby Lanai, the data suggest a long Last Interglacial period that may have occurred from ˜136 to at least 115 ka. The results indicate that orbital forcing may not have been the only control on ice sheet growth and decay, because sea level would have been high at times of relatively low Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. On tectonically stable Bermuda, deposits from the ˜200 ka (penultimate interglacial period), ˜120 ka (peak Last Interglacial period) and ˜80 ka (late Last Interglacial period) high sea stands have been newly dated. Fossil corals on Bermuda are derived from patch reefs that likely were "catch-up" responses to sea level rise. It is expected that U-series ages of Last-Interglacial corals on Bermuda should overlap with, but not be as old as the range of corals on Oahu. Last-Interglacial corals on Bermuda give a range of ˜125-113 ka, which supports this hypothesis. A large number of emergent marine deposits on Hawaii, Bermuda and along coastal North America have now been dated to the Last Interglacial period. Both Oahu and Bermuda have marine invertebrate faunas with a number of extralimital southern species of mollusks, suggesting warmer-than-present waters during the Last Interglacial period. Warmer waters are also suggested for Last-Interglacial localities around most of North America, from Florida to Canada and Greenland and Baja California to
Maciejewski, G; Seeliger, M; Raetz, St; Bukowiecki, L; Kitze, M; Errmann, R; Nowak, G; Niedzielski, A; Popov, V; Marka, C; Gozdziewski, K; Neuhaeuser, R; Ohlert, J; Hinse, T C; Lee, J W; Lee, C -U; Yoon, J -N; Berndt, A; Gilbert, H; Ginski, Ch; Hohle, M M; Mugrauer, M; Roell, T; Schmidt, T O B; Tetzlaff, N; Mancini, L; Southworth, J; Dall'Ora, M; Ciceri, S; Zambelli, R; Corfini, G; Takahashi, H; Tachihara, K; Benko, J M; Sarneczky, K; Szabo, Gy M; Varga, T N; Vanko, M; Joshi, Y C; Chen, W P
2013-01-01
The transiting planet WASP-12 b was identified as a potential target for transit timing studies because a departure from a linear ephemeris was reported in the literature. Such deviations could be caused by an additional planet in the system. We attempt to confirm the existence of claimed variations in transit timing and interpret its origin. We organised a multi-site campaign to observe transits by WASP-12 b in three observing seasons, using 0.5-2.6-metre telescopes. We obtained 61 transit light curves, many of them with sub-millimagnitude precision. The simultaneous analysis of the best-quality datasets allowed us to obtain refined system parameters, which agree with values reported in previous studies. The residuals versus a linear ephemeris reveal a possible periodic signal that may be approximated by a sinusoid with an amplitude of 0.00068+/-0.00013 d and period of 500+/-20 orbital periods of WASP-12 b. The joint analysis of timing data and published radial velocity measurements results in a two-planet m...
Lorimer, D R; Manchester, R N; Possenti, A; Lyne, A G; McLaughlin, M A; Kramer, M; Hobbs, G; Stairs, I H; Burgay, M; Eatough, R P; Keith, M J; Faulkner, A J; D'Amico, N; Camilo, F; Corongiu, A; Crawford, F
2015-01-01
We present timing observations of four millisecond pulsars discovered in the Parkes 20-cm multibeam pulsar survey of the Galactic plane. PSRs J1552-4937 and J1843-1448 are isolated objects with spin periods of 6.28 and 5.47 ms respectively. PSR J1727-2946 is in a 40-day binary orbit and has a spin period of 27 ms. The 4.43-ms pulsar J1813-2621 is in a circular 8.16-day binary orbit around a low-mass companion star with a minimum companion mass of 0.2 solar masses. Combining these results with detections from five other Parkes multibeam surveys, gives a well-defined sample of 56 pulsars with spin periods below 20 ms. We develop a likelihood analysis to constrain the functional form which best describes the underlying distribution of spin periods for millisecond pulsars. The best results were obtained with a log-normal distribution. A gamma distribution is less favoured, but still compatible with the observations. Uniform, power-law and Gaussian distributions are found to be inconsistent with the data. Galactic...
The time narrating of prose in the Seventeen-Year Period%论十七年时期散文的时间叙事
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
颜水生
2014-01-01
十七年时期散文在时间叙事方面具有鲜明特征，主要表现为时间的意识形态化、历史决定论和历史化方法三个方面。在十七年散文中，时间具有强烈的现实指向性，负载了丰富的意识形态内涵，成为社会意识形态的符码；强调过去—现在—未来的紧密关系，遵行过去—现在—未来的线性发展规律，强调社会历史发展的必然性和规律性，忽略了社会历史发展的偶然性和曲折性；把时间放置在历史进程中进行理解和认识，或者把时间与特定历史阶段进行对比，体现出一种历史主义态度。%The Seventeen-Year Period is a brand-new historical period, which reflected a sharp time sense and history ideas. The time narrating of prose in the Seventeen-Year Period has distinctive characteristics, mainly for the time of ideology, historical determinism and historicized, etc. In the prose of the seventeen years, the time has strong practical orientation, loading rich ideological connotation, and thus becoming the social ideological codes. The works emphasize the close relationship between the past, the present and the future, walk along the past-present-future linear developmen law and emphasize the inevitability and regularity of the social historical development, while ignoring the Contingency and twists of the social and historical development. They place the time in the historical process for understanding and awareness, or compare the time with the specific historical stage so as to understand and process time with historical strategy. Marx’s time theory has important guiding significance on the prose research.
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El Aroudi A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper closed-form conditions for predicting the boundary of period-doubling (PD bifurcation or saddle-node (SN bifurcation in a class of PWM piecewise linear systems are obtained from a time-domain asymptotic approach. Examples of switched system considered in this study are switching dc-dc power electronics converters, temperature control systems and hydraulic valve control systems among others. These conditions are obtained from the steady-state discrete-time model using an asymptotic approach without resorting to frequency-domain Fourier analysis and without using the monodromy or the Jacobian matrix of the discrete-time model as it was recently reported in the existing literature on this topic. The availability of such design-oriented boundary expressions allows to understand the effect of the different parameters of the system upon its stability and its dynamical behavior.
Mahata, Gour Chandra
2015-03-01
In practice, the supplier often offers the retailers a trade credit period and the retailer in turn provides a trade credit period to her/his customer to stimulate sales and reduce inventory. From the retailer's perspective, granting trade credit not only increases sales and revenue but also increases opportunity cost (i.e., the capital opportunity loss during credit period) and default risk (i.e., the percentage that the customer will not be able to pay off his/her debt obligations). Hence, how to determine credit period is increasingly recognized as an important strategy to increase retailer's profitability. Also, the selling items such as fruits, fresh fishes, gasoline, photographic films, pharmaceuticals and volatile liquids deteriorate continuously due to evaporation, obsolescence and spoilage. In this paper, we propose an economic order quantity model for the retailer where (1) the supplier provides an up-stream trade credit and the retailer also offers a down-stream trade credit, (2) the retailer's down-stream trade credit to the buyer not only increases sales and revenue but also opportunity cost and default risk, and (3) the selling items are perishable. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a profit maximization problem to determine the retailer's optimal replenishment decisions under the supply chain management. We then show that the retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time not only exist but also are unique. We deduce some previously published results of other researchers as special cases. Finally, we use some numerical examples to illustrate the theoretical results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The pattern of carbon-14 (C-14) distribution among parts of rice growing in the vicinity of the Korean CANDU plant during the growth period was investigated. Six-time samplings of rice and air were performed in seven fields from rice planting to harvest, and the measurements of C-14 content were made by using liquid scintillation counter on the air and each of available parts of the rice such as root, stem, crust and ear. The results illustrated that C-14 showed a relatively even distribution among parts of rice during the growth period implying C-14 accumulation was more dependent on interactions among the parts such as transportation of nutrients than on photosynthesis occurring only in stem that has chlorophyll. Also it was observed that the difference of C-14 concentration between each part of rice and the air decreased with time indicating that the time was needed for C-14 to reach equilibrium between both sides. The radius within which C-14 released from the Wolsong plant could have a significant effect on the C-14 concentrations of the parts was observed to be about 5 km. (author)
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Ganesh S
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Sri Ganesh, Sheetal BrarDepartment of Phaco and Refractive Surgeries, Nethradhama Superspeciality Eye Hospital, Bangalore, IndiaPurpose: To compare the effect of two ocular viscosurgical devices (OVDs on intraocular pressure (IOP and surgical time in immediate postoperative period after bilateral implantable collamer lens (using the V4c model implantation.Methods: A total of 20 eligible patients were randomized to receive 2% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC in one eye and 1% hyaluronic acid in fellow eye. Time taken for complete removal of OVD and total surgical time were recorded. At the end of surgery, IOP was adjusted between 15 and 20 mmHg in both the eyes.Results: Mean time for complete OVD evacuation and total surgical time were significantly higher in the HPMC group (P=0.00. Four eyes in the HPMC group had IOP spike, requiring treatment. IOP values with noncontact tonometry at 1, 2, 4, 24, and 48 hours were not statistically significant (P>0.05 for both the groups.Conclusion: The study concluded that 1% hyaluronic acid significantly reduces total surgical time, and incidence of acute spikes may be lower compared to 2% HPMC when used for implantable collamer lens (V4c model.Keywords: OVD, hyaluronic acid, ICL, V4c, IOP spikes
Krainev, M B; Kalinin, M S; Svirzhevskaya, A K; Svirzhevsky, N S
2014-01-01
Using the simple model for the description of the GCR modulation in the heliosphere and the sets of parameters discussed in the accompanying paper we model some features of the time and energy behavior of the GCR intensity near the Earth observed during periods of low solar activity around three last solar minima. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying these features in the GCR behavior, we use the suggested earlier decomposition of the calculated intensity into the partial intensities corresponding to the main processes (diffusion, adiabatic losses, convection and drifts).
Pangle, L. A.; Cardoso, C.; Kim, M.; Lora, M.; Wang, Y.; Troch, P. A. A.; Harman, C. J.
2014-12-01
Water molecules traverse myriad flow paths and spend different lengths of time on or within the landscape before they are discharged into a stream channel. The transit-time distribution (TTD) is a probability distribution that represents the range and likelihood of transit times for water and conservative solutes within soils and catchments, and is useful for comparative analysis and prediction of solute transport into streams. The TTD has customarily been assumed to be time-invariant in practical applications, but is understood to vary due to unsteady flow rates, changes in water-balance partitioning, and shifting flow pathways. Recent theoretical advances have clarified how the distribution of transit times experienced by water and solutes within a stream channel at any moment in time is conditional on the specific series of precipitation events preceding that time. Observations resolving how TTDs vary during a specific sequence of precipitation events could be obtained by introducing unique and conservative tracers during each event and quantifying their distinct breakthrough curves in the stream. At present, the number of distinct and conservative tracers available for this purpose is insufficient. Harman and Kim [Harman, C.J. and Kim, M., 2014, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 1567-1575] proposed a new experimental method—based on the establishment of periodic steady-state conditions—that allows multiple overlapping breakthrough curves of non-unique tracers to be decomposed, thus enabling analysis of the distinct TTDs associated with their specific times of introduction through precipitation. We present results from one of the first physical experiments to test this methodology. Our experiment involves a sloping lysimeter (10° slope) that contains one cubic meter of crushed basalt rock (loamy sand texture), an irrigation system adaptable to controlled tracer introductions, and instruments that enable total water balance monitoring. We imposed a repeated
Tsirogiannis, George A.; Davis, Kathryn E.
2016-07-01
The proposed method connects two unstable periodic orbits by employing trajectories of their associated invariant manifolds that are perturbed in two levels. A first level of velocity perturbations is applied on the trajectories of the discretized manifolds at the points where they approach the nominal unstable periodic orbit in order to accelerate them. A second level of structured velocity perturbations is applied to trajectories that have already been subjected to first level perturbations in order to approximately meet the necessary conditions for a low Δ {V} transfer. Due to this two-level perturbation approach, the number of the trajectories obtained is significantly larger compared with approaches that employ traditional invariant manifolds. For this reason, the problem of connecting two unstable periodic orbits through perturbed trajectories of their manifolds is transformed into an equivalent discrete optimization problem that is solved with a very low computational complexity algorithm that is proposed in this paper. Finally, the method is applied to a lunar observation mission of practical interest and is found to perform considerably better in terms of Δ {V} cost and time of flight when compared with previous techniques applied to the same project.
Provost, Christine; Garcia, Omar; GarçOn, VéRonique
1992-11-01
We study the dominant periodic variations of sea surface temperature (SST) in the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence region from a satellite-derived data set compiled by Olson et al. (1988). This data set is composed of 202 sea surface temperature images with a 4 × 4 km resolution and extends over 3 years (from July 1984 to July 1987). Each image is a 5-day composite. The dominant signal, as already observed by Podesta et al. (1991), has a 1-year period. We first fit a single-frequency sinusoidal model of the annual cycle in order to estimate mean temperature, amplitude, and phase at 159 points uniformly distributed over the region. The residuals are generally small (less than 2°C). The largest departures from this cycle are located either in the Brazil-Malvinas frontal region or in the southeastern part of the region. Other periods in SST variations are identified by means of periodograms of the 159 residual time series in which the annual cycle has been substracted. The periodograms show that a semiannual frequency signal is present at almost every location. The ratio of the semiannual amplitude to the annual amplitude increases southward from 0% at 30°S to reach up to 45% at 50°S. In the south the semiannual signal creates an asymmetry, and the resulting (total) annual cycle has a cold period (winter) longer than the warm one (summer). In the frontal region the annual and semiannual signals have an important interannual variation. This semiannual frequency is associated with the semiannual wave present in the atmospheric forcing of the southern hemisphere. Differential heating over the mid-latitude oceans and the high-latitude ice-covered Antarctic Continent has been suggested as the cause of this semiannual wave (Van Loon, 1967).
Periodic functions with variable period
Pryjmak, M. V
2010-01-01
The examples of rhythmical signals with variable period are considered. The definition of periodic function with the variable period is given as a model of such signals. The examples of such functions are given and their variable periods are written in the explicit form. The system of trigonometric functions with the variable period is considered and its orthogonality is proved. The generalized system of trigonometric functions with the variable period is also suggested; some conditions of it...
Fujiwara, A.; Hirawake, T.; Suzuki, K.; Eisner, L.; Imai, I.; Nishino, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Saitoh, S.-I.
2016-01-01
The size structure and biomass of a phytoplankton community during the spring bloom period can affect the energy use of higher-trophic-level organisms through the predator-prey body size relationships. The timing of the sea ice retreat (TSR) also plays a crucial role in the seasonally ice-covered marine ecosystem, because it is tightly coupled with the timing of the spring bloom. Thus, it is important to monitor the temporal and spatial distributions of a phytoplankton community size structure. Prior to this study, an ocean colour algorithm was developed to derive phytoplankton size index FL, which is defined as the ratio of chlorophyll a (chl a) derived from cells larger than 5 µm to the total chl a, using satellite remote sensing for the Chukchi and Bering shelves. Using this method, we analysed the pixel-by-pixel relationships between FL during the marginal ice zone (MIZ) bloom period and TSR over the period of 1998-2013. The influences of the TSR on the sea surface temperature (SST) and changes in ocean heat content (ΔOHC) during the MIZ bloom period were also investigated. A significant negative relationship between FL and the TSR was widely found in the shelf region during the MIZ bloom season. However, we found a significant positive (negative) relationship between the SST (ΔOHC) and TSR. Specifically, an earlier sea ice retreat was associated with the dominance of larger phytoplankton during a colder and weakly stratified MIZ bloom season, suggesting that the duration of the nitrate supply, which is important for the growth of large-sized phytoplankton in this region (i.e. diatoms), can change according to the TSR. In addition, under-ice phytoplankton blooms are likely to occur in years with late ice retreat, because sufficient light for phytoplankton growth can pass through the ice and penetrate into the water columns as a result of an increase in solar radiation toward the summer solstice. Moreover, we found that both the length of the ice-free season
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A. Lücke
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a high resolution reconstruction of local growing season temperature (GST anomalies at Dürres Maar, Germany, spanning the last two millennia. The GST anomalies were derived from a stable carbon isotope time series of cellulose chemically extracted from Sphagnum leaves (δ13Ccellulose separated from a kettle-hole peat deposit of several metres thickness. The temperature reconstruction is based on the Sphagnum δ13Ccellulose/temperature dependency observed in calibration studies. Reconstructed GST anomalies show considerable centennial and decadal scale variability. A cold and presumably wet phase with below-average temperature is reconstructed between the 4th and 7th century AD which is in accordance with the so called European Migration Period, marking the transition from the Late Roman Period to the Early Middle Ages. At High Medieval Times, the amplitude in the reconstructed temperature variability is most likely overestimated; nevertheless, above-average temperatures are obvious during this time span, which are followed by a temperature decrease. On the contrary, a pronounced Late Roman Climate Optimum, often described as similarly warm or even warmer as medieval times, could not be detected. The temperature signal of the Little Ice Age (LIA is not preserved in Dürres Maar due to considerable peat cutting that takes place in the first half of the 19th century. The local GST anomalies show a remarkable agreement to northern hemispheric temperature reconstructions based on tree-ring datasets and are also in accordance with climate reconstructions on the basis of lake sediments, glacier advances and retreats, and historical datasets. Most notably, e.g., during the Early Middle Ages and at High Medieval Times, temperatures were neither low nor high in general. Rather high frequency temperature variability with multiple narrow intervals of below- and above-average temperatures at maximum lasting a few decades are
Aliani, Stefano; Meloni, Roberto; Dando, Paul R.
2004-05-01
Time-series data sets of total bottom pressure (tidal plus atmospheric), seawater temperature and sediment temperature from a marine shallow hydrothermal vent (Milos, Hellenic Volcanic Arc, Aegean Sea) were studied to determine factors influencing periodicity at the vents. Bottom pressure and vent temperature were mainly opposite in phase, with the main fluctuations of vent temperature occurring at tidal frequencies. Although the fluctuations in atmospheric pressure were of the same order as those due to tidal pressure, the contribution of atmospheric pressure was considerably weaker at diurnal frequencies. Some sudden discontinuities in sediment temperature were recorded, at least one of these may have been caused by seismic events. Seawater temperature changes were not reflected in the sediment temperature record. Transient loadings, such as tidal loadings, barometric pressure and earth tides, may affect the pore pressure in sediments, influencing fluid expulsion and sediment temperature as a consequence. Most of the contribution to the fluctuations in sediment temperature depends on tidal loadings. Gravitational forces, in the form of earth tides, can also be involved and barometric pressure is probably responsible for long period temperature oscillations.
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R. Moschen
2011-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a high resolution reconstruction of local growing season temperature (GST anomalies at Dürres Maar, Germany, spanning the last two millennia. The GST anomalies were derived from a stable carbon isotope time series of cellulose chemically extracted from Sphagnum leaves (δ^{13}C_{cellulose} separated from a kettle-hole peat deposit of several metres thickness. The temperature reconstruction is based on the Sphagnum δ^{13}C_{cellulose} /temperature dependency observed in calibration studies. Reconstructed GST anomalies show considerable centennial and decadal scale variability. A cold and presumably also wet phase with below-average temperature is reconstructed between the 4th and 7th century AD which is in accordance with the so called European Migration Period marking the transition from the Late Roman Period to the Early Middle Ages. At High Medieval Times above-average temperatures are obvious followed by a temperature decrease. On the contrary, a pronounced Late Roman Climate Optimum, often described as similar warm or even warmer as medieval times, could not be detected. The temperature signal of the Little Ice Age (LIA is not preserved in Dürres Maar due to considerable peat cutting that takes place in the first half of the 19th century. The local GST anomalies show a remarkable agreement to northern hemispheric temperature reconstructions based on tree-ring data sets and are also in accordance with climate reconstructions on the basis of lake sediments, glacier advances and retreats, and historical data sets. Most notably, e.g. during the Early Middle Ages and at High Medieval Times, temperatures were not low or high in general. Rather high frequency temperature variability with multiple narrow intervals of below- and above-average temperatures at maximum lasting a few decades are reconstructed. Especially the agreements between our estimated GST anomalies and the NH
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HERWINT SIMBOLON
2005-04-01
Full Text Available A plot of 150x700 m2 was established in a mixed dipterocarps of Wanariset Semboja, East Kalimantan during the periods of 1979-1981. The forest was dominated by Eusideroxylon zwageri (Lauraceae, Dipterocarpus cornutus (Dipterocarpaceae, Pholidocarpus majadum (Arecaceae, and Diospyros borneensis (Ebenaceae. Since the plot establishment, the forests then had experienced three times of forest fires, those were in 1982-1983, 1994-1995 and 1997-1998. The present paper reports the results of re-measurement of some 150x110 m2 parts of the plot in August 2003, about 23 years after plot establishment. Micro topographically, the studied plot was relatively undulating in higher parts and relatively flat in the lower parts of the plot, while the differences between lowest sub-plot and higher sub-plot of the re-measured plot was 26 m. Forest floor of the lower parts of the plot were humid to wet during rainy season and still humid during dry season. Almost all of the trees within lower parts of the plot were escaped from these three times of forest fires; hence these sub-plots were dominated by the trees of primary species that enumerated in 1980. Those sub-plots in the higher parts were burnt during the past forest fires indicated by the charcoal of standing trees and remaining felling logs in the forest floor. These burnt sub-plots were dominated by pioneer or secondary tree species, such as: Mallotus spp., Macaranga spp., Ficus spp. and Vernonia arborea. Local distribution of some indicator species (such as primary tree species: Pholidocarpus majadum, Diospyros spp., Eusideroxylon zwageri and species of Dipterocarpaceae; pioneer or secondary tree species Vernonia arborea, Macaranga spp., Mallotus spp., Ficus uncinulata, Piper aduncum, Peronema canescens within the plot were figured. Mortality, recruitment and growth rate during the period of 1980-2003 were also discussed.
O'Donoghue, James; Melin, Henrik; Stallard, Tom S.; Provan, G.; Moore, Luke; Badman, Sarah V.; Cowley, Stan W. H.; Baines, Kevin H.; Miller, Steve; Blake, James S. D.
2016-01-01
On 19-21 April 2013, the ground-based 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope was used to simultaneously measure H3+ emissions from four regions of Saturn's auroral ionosphere: (1) the northern noon region of the main auroral oval; (2) the northern midnight main oval; (3) the northern polar cap and (4) the southern noon main oval. The H3+ emission from these regions was captured in the form of high resolution spectral images as the planet rotated. The results herein contain twenty-three H3+ temperatures, column densities and total emissions located in the aforementioned regions - ninety-two data points in total, spread over timescales of both hours and days. Thermospheric temperatures in the spring-time northern main oval are found to be cooler than their autumn-time southern counterparts by tens of K, consistent with the hypothesis that the total thermospheric heating rate is inversely proportional to magnetic field strength. The main oval H3+ density and emission is lower at northern midnight than it is at noon, in agreement with a nearby peak in the electron influx in the post-dawn sector and a minimum flux at midnight. Finally, when arranging the northern main oval H3+ parameters as a function of the oscillation period seen in Saturn's magnetic field - the planetary period oscillation (PPO) phase - we see a large peak in H3+ density and emission at ∼115° northern phase, with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of ∼44°. This seems to indicate that the influx of electrons associated with the PPO phase at 90° is responsible at least in part for the behavior of all H3+ parameters. A combination of the H3+ production and loss timescales and the ±10° uncertainty in the location of a given PPO phase are likely, at least in part, to be responsible for the observed peaks in H3+ density and emission occurring at a later time than the peak precipitation expected at 90° PPO phase.
Versini, P.-A.; Petrucci, G.; de Gouvello, B.
2014-09-01
Experimental green-roof rainfall-runoff observations have shown a positive impact on stormwater management at the building scale; with a decrease in the peak discharge and a decrease in runoff volume. This efficiency of green-roofs varies from one rainfall event to another depending on precipitation characteristics and substrate antecedent conditions. Due to this variability, currently, green-roofs are rarely officially used as a regulation tool to manage stormwater. Indeed, regulation rules governing the connection to the stormwater network are usually based on absolute threshold values that always have to be respected: maximum areal flow-rate or minimum retention volume for example. In this context, the aim of this study is to illustrate how a green-roof could represent an alternative to solve stormwater management issues, if the regulation rules were further based on statistics. For this purpose, a modelling scheme has been established at the parcel scale to simulate the hydrological response of several roof configurations: impervious, strictly regulated (in terms of areal flow-rate or retention volume), and covered by different types of green-roof matter. Simulations were carried out on a long precipitation time period (23 years) that included a large and heterogeneous set of hydrometeorological conditions. Results obtained for the different roof configurations were compared. Based on the return period of the rainfall event, the probability to respect some regulation rules (defined from real situations) was assessed. They illustrate that green-roofs reduce stormwater runoff compared to an impervious roof surface and can guarantee the respect of the regulation rules in most of the cases. Moreover, their implementation can appear more realistic than that of other infrastructures strictly complying with regulations and demanding significant storage capacity.
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Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Cannabis continues to be the most commonly used illicit psychoactive substance globally. The National Survey in India conducted in the year 2004 also reported it to be the most commonly used illicit substance in the country. Furthermore, it was reported to be the second most commonly used psychoactive substance by the treatment seekers at de-addiction centers in the country. Objectives: To assess time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years. Materials and Methods: The study utilized data collected through Drug Abuse Monitoring System across India. The data of treatment seekers from de-addiction centers established under the Drug De-addiction Program, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and supported by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India (122 in number across the country were analyzed. Results: A total of 107,469 individuals sought treatment from government de-addiction centers over the 7 years (2007–2013 period. With the exception of an aberration for the year 2012, there has been a steady decline in the proportion of treatment seekers who are not current cannabis users. A significantly greater proportion (Chi-square: 586.30, df: 1, P < 0.001 of individuals with current cannabis use alone or along with tobacco (20.4% tend to have a co-morbid psychiatric disorder as compared to treatment seekers with current use of substances other than cannabis (6.1%. Conclusions: It is important to focus on cannabis in clinical service delivery and research in the country.
Fujiwara, A.; Hirawake, T.; Suzuki, K.; Eisner, L.; Imai, I.; Nishino, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Saitoh, S. I.
2015-08-01
Timing of sea ice retreat (TSR) as well as cell size of primary producers (i.e., phytoplankton) plays crucial roles in seasonally ice-covered marine ecosystem. Thus, it is important to monitor the temporal and spatial distribution of phytoplankton community size structure. Prior to this study, an ocean color algorithm has been developed to derive phytoplankton size index FL, which is defined as the ratio of chlorophyll a derived from the cells larger than 5 μm to the total chl a using satellite remote sensing for the Chukchi and Bering shelves. Using this method, we analyzed pixel-by-pixel relationships between FL during marginal ice zone (MIZ) bloom period and TSR over a period of 1998-2013. The influence of TSR on sea surface temperature (SST) and changes in ocean heat content (ΔOHC) during the MIZ bloom period were also investigated. A significant negative relationship between FL and TSR was widely found in the shelf region during MIZ bloom season. On the other hand, we found a significant positive (negative) relationship between SST (ΔOHC) and TSR. That is, earlier sea-ice retreat was associated with a dominance of larger phytoplankton during a colder and weakly stratified MIZ bloom season, suggesting that duration of nitrate supply, which is important for large-sized phytoplankton growth in this region (i.e., diatoms), can change according to TSR. In addition, under-ice phytoplankton blooms are likely to occur in years with late ice retreat, because sufficient light for phytoplankton growth can pass through the ice and penetrate into the water columns due to an increase in solar radiation toward the summer solstice. Moreover, we found not only the length of ice-free season but also annual median of FL positively correlated with annual net primary production (APP). Thus, both phytoplankton community composition and growing season are important for APP in the study area. Our findings showed quantitative relationship between the inter-annual variability of FL
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A. Fujiwara
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Timing of sea ice retreat (TSR as well as cell size of primary producers (i.e., phytoplankton plays crucial roles in seasonally ice-covered marine ecosystem. Thus, it is important to monitor the temporal and spatial distribution of phytoplankton community size structure. Prior to this study, an ocean color algorithm has been developed to derive phytoplankton size index FL, which is defined as the ratio of chlorophyll a derived from the cells larger than 5 μm to the total chl a using satellite remote sensing for the Chukchi and Bering shelves. Using this method, we analyzed pixel-by-pixel relationships between FL during marginal ice zone (MIZ bloom period and TSR over a period of 1998–2013. The influence of TSR on sea surface temperature (SST and changes in ocean heat content (ΔOHC during the MIZ bloom period were also investigated. A significant negative relationship between FL and TSR was widely found in the shelf region during MIZ bloom season. On the other hand, we found a significant positive (negative relationship between SST (ΔOHC and TSR. That is, earlier sea-ice retreat was associated with a dominance of larger phytoplankton during a colder and weakly stratified MIZ bloom season, suggesting that duration of nitrate supply, which is important for large-sized phytoplankton growth in this region (i.e., diatoms, can change according to TSR. In addition, under-ice phytoplankton blooms are likely to occur in years with late ice retreat, because sufficient light for phytoplankton growth can pass through the ice and penetrate into the water columns due to an increase in solar radiation toward the summer solstice. Moreover, we found not only the length of ice-free season but also annual median of FL positively correlated with annual net primary production (APP. Thus, both phytoplankton community composition and growing season are important for APP in the study area. Our findings showed quantitative relationship between the inter
Kaliszan, Michał
2013-09-01
This paper presents a verification of the thermodynamic model allowing an estimation of the time of death (TOD) by calculating the post mortem interval (PMI) based on a single eyeball temperature measurement at the death scene. The study was performed on 30 cases with known PMI, ranging from 1h 35min to 5h 15min, using pin probes connected to a high precision electronic thermometer (Dostmann-electronic). The measured eye temperatures ranged from 20.2 to 33.1°C. Rectal temperature was measured at the same time and ranged from 32.8 to 37.4°C. Ambient temperatures which ranged from -1 to 24°C, environmental conditions (still air to light wind) and the amount of hair on the head were also recorded every time. PMI was calculated using a formula based on Newton's law of cooling, previously derived and successfully tested in comprehensive studies on pigs and a few human cases. Thanks to both the significantly faster post mortem decrease of eye temperature and a residual or nonexistent plateau effect in the eye, as well as practically no influence of body mass, TOD in the human death cases could be estimated with good accuracy. The highest TOD estimation error during the post mortem intervals up to around 5h was 1h 16min, 1h 14min and 1h 03min, respectively in three cases among 30, while for the remaining 27 cases it was not more than 47min. The mean error for all 30 cases was ±31min. All that indicates that the proposed method is of quite good precision in the early post mortem period, with an accuracy of ±1h for a 95% confidence interval. On the basis of the presented method, TOD can be also calculated at the death scene with the use of a proposed portable electronic device (TOD-meter).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王斌
2011-01-01
Based on the theory of the time scales and topological degree theory, by using continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and some skills of integral inequalities on time scales, the sufficient condition of the existence of periodic solutions for a non-autonomous predator-prey system with time delays on time scales is obtained. The obtained result has practical significance and application value in ecological management.%在时标理论和拓扑度理论基础之上，通过应用重合度理论的连续定理和一些时标上积分不等式技巧，给出了时标上一类具有可变时滞的非自治捕食者一食饵系统周期解存在性的充分条件。取得的结果在生态管理中具有现实意义和应用价值。
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Mariana Pires Crespo
2013-10-01
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of coronal leakage on concentration of hydrogen ions (pH and calcium release of several calcium hydroxide pastes, over different periods of time. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty extracted human mandibular central incisors (n=10 were instrumented up to the F2 instrument and assigned to the following intracanal dressing: G1- Calen, G2- Calen with 0.4% chlorhexidine (CHX, G3- Calcium hydroxide with camphorated paramonochlorophenol (CPMC and glycerin, G4- Calen, but temporary filling material maintained during all test (positive control and G5- Root canal without intracanal dressing (negative control. All groups were immersed in distilled water for 7 days. In sequence, the temporary filling materials were removed, except in controls groups. All specimens were individually mounted on a specific device and only its root again immersed in distilled water. Concentration of hydrogen ions and calcium release by calcium hydroxide pastes in distilled water were evaluated in 24h, 7, 14 and 28 days. The results were submitted to ANOVA test (p = 0.05. After 28 days, root canals from experimental groups were examined in SEM. RESULTS: G1, G2, G3 and G4 presented similar pH values and calcium release and did not differ from each other (p>0.05, up to 7 days. After this time G1, G2 and G3 presented values lower values than G4 (p<0.05. In SEM analysis, calcium hydroxide residues were observed in all experimental groups. CONCLUSIONS: After 7 days, coronal leakage decreased the concentration of hydrogen ions and calcium ion release provided by all calcium hydroxide pastes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
A large earthquake (MW=7.6) occurred in Jiji (Chi-Chi), Taiwan, China on September 20, 1999, and was followed by many moderate-size shocks in the following days. Two of the largest aftershocks with the magnitudes of MW=6.1 and MW=6.2, respectively, were used as empirical Green(s functions (EGFs) to obtain the source time functions (STFs) of the main shock from long-period waveform data of the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN) including IRIS, GEOSCOPE and CDSN. For the MW=6.1 aftershock of September 22, there were 97 pairs of phases clear enough from 78 recordings of 26 stations; for the MW=6.2 aftershock of September 25, there were 81 pairs of phases clear enough from 72 recordings of 24 stations. For each station, 2 types of STFs were retrieved, which are called P-STF and S-STF due to being from P and S phases, respectively. Totally, 178 STF individuals were obtained for source-process analysis of the main shock. It was noticed that, in general, STFs from most of the stations had similarities except that those in special azimuths looked different or odd due to the mechanism difference between the main shock and the aftershocks; and in detail, the shapes of the STFs varied with azimuth. Both of them reflected the stability and reliability of the retrieved STFs. The comprehensive analysis of those STFs suggested that this event consisted of two sub-events, the total duration time was about 26 s, and on the average, the second event was about 7 s later than the first one, and the moment-rate amplitude of the first event was about 15% larger than that of the second one.
Hettinger, T; Strader, J; Bickerton, S J; Beers, T C
2015-01-01
Stellar multiplicity lies at the heart of many problems in modern astrophysics, including the physics of star formation, the observational properties of unresolved stellar populations, and the rates of interacting binaries such as cataclysmic variables, X-ray binaries, and Type Ia supernovae. However, little is known about the stellar multiplicity of field stars in the Milky Way, in particular about the differences in the multiplicity characteristics between metal-rich disk stars and metal-poor halo stars. In this study we perform a statistical analysis of ~15,000 F-type dwarf stars in the Milky Way through time-resolved spectroscopy with the sub-exposures archived in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We obtain absolute radial velocity measurements through template cross-correlation of individual sub-exposures with temporal baselines varying from minutes to years. These sparsely sampled radial velocity curves are analyzed using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques to constrain the very short-period binary fraction...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh.nasrin@gmail.com [Nuclear Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Poonak Sq. PO Box 14515-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali [Nuclear Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Poonak Sq. PO Box 14515-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Behnam [Nuclear Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Poonak Sq. PO Box 14515-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Laboratory of Basic Science and Neuroscience, Basic Science Dept, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Pardis-e-Hemmat,Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goodarzi, Samereh [Nuclear Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Poonak Sq. PO Box 14515-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2012-06-15
Distribution of {sup 10}B in different regions of rat normal brain was studied. Two groups were chosen as control and trial. Trial group received 2 ml of neutral boron compound. 2, 4 and 6 h after the injection brain removed, coronal sections of forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain were sandwiched between two pieces of polycarbonate. Autoradiography plots of {sup 10}B distribution showed significant differences in three regions with the highest {sup 10}B concentration in the forebrain during 4 h after injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Normal tissue tolerance is very important in BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study has been done to determine {sup 10}B distribution in three anatomical regions of rat normal brain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These specific regions of brain have not been studied in previous BNCT projects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found significant differences in {sup 10}B distribution between these three regions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In different time periods after neutral boron compound injection, there has been a significant difference in boron absorption.
Teymuri, Ghulam Heidar; Sadeghian, Marzieh; Kangavari, Mehdi; Asghari, Mehdi; Madrese, Elham; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Gholizadeh, Yavar
2013-01-01
Background: One of the significant dangers that threaten people’s lives is the increased risk of accidents. Annually, more than 1.3 million people die around the world as a result of accidents, and it has been estimated that approximately 300 deaths occur daily due to traffic accidents in the world with more than 50% of that number being people who were not even passengers in the cars. The aim of this study was to examine traffic accidents in Tehran and forecast the number of future accidents using a time-series model. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2011. The sample population was all traffic accidents that caused death and physical injuries in Tehran in 2010 and 2011, as registered in the Tehran Emergency ward. The present study used Minitab 15 software to provide a description of accidents in Tehran for the specified time period as well as those that occurred during April 2012. Results: The results indicated that the average number of daily traffic accidents in Tehran in 2010 was 187 with a standard deviation of 83.6. In 2011, there was an average of 180 daily traffic accidents with a standard deviation of 39.5. One-way analysis of variance indicated that the average number of accidents in the city was different for different months of the year (P < 0.05). Most of the accidents occurred in March, July, August, and September. Thus, more accidents occurred in the summer than in the other seasons. The number of accidents was predicted based on an auto-regressive, moving average (ARMA) for April 2012. The number of accidents displayed a seasonal trend. The prediction of the number of accidents in the city during April of 2012 indicated that a total of 4,459 accidents would occur with mean of 149 accidents per day during these three months. Conclusion: The number of accidents in Tehran displayed a seasonal trend, and the number of accidents was different for different seasons of the year. PMID:26120405
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Long [College of Mathematics and System Sciences, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China)], E-mail: longzhang_xj@sohu.com; Teng Zhidong [College of Mathematics and System Sciences, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China)], E-mail: zhidong@xju.edu.cn
2008-05-15
In this paper, we study two species predator-prey Lotka-Volterra type dispersal system with periodic coefficients, in which the prey species can disperse among n patches, while the density-independent predator species is confined to one of the patches and cannot disperse. Sufficient conditions on the boundedness, permanence and existence of positive periodic solution for this system are established. The theoretical results are confirmed by a special example and numerical simulations.
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Maico Roris Severino
2010-12-01
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar uma proposta para a utilização do sistema PBC (Period Batch Control, assim como de dois pré-requisitos, a saber: mudança na pol��tica de controle da qualidade e criação de uma célula virtual, para reduzir o lead time em uma empresa de bens de capital. O método de pesquisa utilizado é o estudo de caso. Resultados previstos de tal implantação indicam que a empresa estudada poderá obter vantagens significativas com a adoção do PBC como, por exemplo, redução de 46,42% no lead time do produto estudado, diminuição de custos de WIP (Work In Process em aproximadamente 50% e redução de 31% no tempo improdutivo. Esses resultados promissores podem ser alcançados também por empresas com características semelhantes que sigam a proposta apresentada neste artigo. Academicamente, o presente trabalho contribui para aumentar a divulgação do sistema PBC, assunto carente de pesquisas no Brasil.The goal of this work is to present a proposal for the use of the PBC (Period Batch Control, as well as two prerequisites, namely, to change the policy of quality control and creation of a virtual cell, to reduce the lead time in a company which produces capital goods. Case study research is the methodology used in this paper. Expected results of this implementation indicate that the company can obtain significant benefits by the adoption of PBC, such as 46.42% lead time reduction, reduction on WIP (Work In Process costs in approximately 51.56% and unproductive time in 31%. These promising results can be achieved by companies with similar characteristics. Academically, this work contribute to increase the dissemination of the PBC, a subject in need of research in Brazil.
Henderson, Calen B
2011-01-01
We have conducted a long-term, wide-field, high-cadence photometric monitoring survey of ~50,000 stars in the Lagoon Nebula \\ion{H}{2} region. This first paper presents rotation periods for 290 low-mass stars in NGC 6530, the young cluster illuminating the nebula, and for which we assemble a catalog of infrared and spectroscopic disk indicators, estimated masses and ages, and X-ray luminosities. The distribution of rotation periods we measure is broadly uniform for 0.5 < P < 10 d; the short-period cutoff corresponds to breakup. We observe no obvious bimodality in the period distribution, but we do find that stars with disk signatures rotate more slowly on average. The stars' X-ray luminosities are roughly flat with rotation period, at the saturation level ($\\log L_X / L_{\\rm bol} \\approx -3.3$). However, we find a significant positive correlation between $L_X / L_{\\rm bol}$ and co-rotation radius, suggesting that the observed X-ray luminosities are regulated by centrifugal stripping of the stellar coron...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Amirkhan
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The supply chain network design has attracted the attention of many researchers during recent years. This paper presents a new bi-objective mixed-integer linear programming (MILP model to integrate procurement, production and distribution planning under uncertainty. This model is set up for the network of a multi-echelon, multi-product, multi-channel, multi-period supply chain with regard to two conflicting objectives, which minimize the costs and minimize the sum of backorders and surpluses of products in all periods using “activity-based costing and the total cost of ownership” and “JIT” concepts, respectively. To solve the presented model, an interactive fuzzy approach is used. The associated results show the amount of purchasing of each supplier, the quantity of producing, the inventory of raw materials and products, backorder or surplus delivery of goods, the mode of transportation, the amount of goods transported between facilities and suppliers used in each period. In addition, a numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the presented model and exhibit the efficiency of the proposed interactive fuzzy approach. Finally, the results and conclusion are provided.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Slavik, R.; Galili, Michael;
2008-01-01
We report on the use of a novel all-fiber flat-top pulse shaping technique for improving performance and timing jitter tolerance of a switch made for 640–10 Gb/s signal demultiplexing. The jitter tolerance is increased to almost 30% of the one-bit time window, and an increase of the receiver sens...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI W.K.; LI GuoDong
2009-01-01
@@ The authors are to be congratulated for an innovative paper in terms of both modelling methodology and subject matter significance. The analysis of short time series is known to be difficult even for linear models.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨思林; 刘宁; 李纯
2011-01-01
[Objective ] The research aimed to provide experiences for successful breeding of Bengal Tiger. [ Method ] The time distribution of behaviors of No. 4 female Bengal tiger in reproductive period at Yunnan Wildlife Zoo was studied from December of 2005 to August of 2006 by using instantaneous scanning sampling method and all - occurrence recording method. [ Result]The daylight time distribution of behaviors of Bengal female tiger at different stages of reproductive period had obvious differences. Bengal female tiger during the mating season spent more time in resting, walking and other behaviors than that in gestation period. And Bengal female tiger during the mating season spent less time in sleeping than that in gestation period. The female tiger in the lactation period spent the most time in the suckling,more time in walking and resting, and less time in sleeping, eating, other behaviors (drinking, eliminating, grooming, sniffing, standing,etc. ). [Conclusion] AD kinds of behaviors of Bengal tiger changed at different stages of reproductive period. And the changes of behavior was related with the specific physiological mechanism of female tiger in the reproductive period.%[目的]为成功饲养孟加拉虎积累经验.[方法]2005年12月至2006年8月,采用瞬时扫描取样法和全事件取样法,对云南省野生动物园内繁殖期4号雌虎行为的时间分配进行了研究.[结果]繁殖期不同阶段雌虎白昼行为时间分配存在明显差异.发情交配期孟加拉虎的卧息、走动和其他行为多于妊娠期,发情交配期孟加拉虎的睡眠少于妊娠期；哺乳期母虎哺乳所占时间最多,其次是走动和卧息,而睡眠、摄食及其他行为(包括饮水、排尿、排粪、修饰、嗅闻、站立等)最少.[结论]繁殖期不同阶段孟加拉虎的各种行为均有所变化,而行为的变化与雌虎在繁殖期各阶段的特殊生理有关.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunxiang Zhu
Full Text Available Airway mucin secretion studies have focused on goblet cell responses to exogenous agonists almost to the exclusion of baseline mucin secretion (BLMS. In human bronchial epithelial cell cultures (HBECCs, maximal agonist-stimulated secretion exceeds baseline by ~3-fold as measured over hour-long periods, but mucin stores are discharged completely and require 24 h for full restoration. Hence, over 24 h, total baseline exceeds agonist-induced secretion by several-fold. Studies with HBECCs and mouse tracheas showed that BLMS is highly sensitive to mechanical stresses. Harvesting three consecutive 1 h baseline luminal incubations with HBECCs yielded equal rates of BLMS; however, lengthening the middle period to 72 h decreased the respective rate significantly, suggesting a stimulation of BLMS by the gentle washes of HBECC luminal surfaces. BLMS declined exponentially after washing HBECCs (t1/2 = 2.75 h, to rates approaching zero. HBECCs exposed to low perfusion rates exhibited spike-like increases in BLMS when flow was jumped 5-fold: BLMS increased >4 fold, then decreased within 5 min to a stable plateau at 1.5-2-fold over control. Higher flow jumps induced proportionally higher BLMS increases. Inducing mucous hyperplasia in HBECCs increased mucin production, BLMS and agonist-induced secretion. Mouse tracheal BLMS was ~6-fold higher during perfusion, than when flow was stopped. Munc13-2 null mouse tracheas, with their defect of accumulated cellular mucins, exhibited similar BLMS as WT, contrary to predictions of lower values. Graded mucous metaplasia induced in WT and Munc13-2 null tracheas with IL-13, caused proportional increases in BLMS, suggesting that naïve Munc13-2 mouse BLMS is elevated by increased mucin stores. We conclude that BLMS is, [i] a major component of mucin secretion in the lung, [ii] sustained by the mechanical activity of a dynamic lung, [iii] proportional to levels of mucin stores, and [iv] regulated differentially from agonist
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marietta Rottenkolber
Full Text Available Inhaled, long-acting beta-2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABA have well-established roles in asthma and/or COPD treatment. Drug utilisation patterns for LABA have been described, but few studies have directly compared LABA use in different countries. We aimed to compare the prevalence of LABA-containing prescriptions in five European countries using a standardised methodology.A common study protocol was applied to seven European healthcare record databases (Denmark, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands (2, and the UK (2 to calculate crude and age- and sex-standardised annual period prevalence rates (PPRs of LABA-containing prescriptions from 2002-2009. Annual PPRs were stratified by sex, age, and indication (asthma, COPD, asthma and COPD.From 2002-2009, age- and sex-standardised PPRs of patients with LABA-containing medications increased in all databases (58.2%-185.1%. Highest PPRs were found in men ≥ 80 years old and women 70-79 years old. Regarding the three indications, the highest age- and sex-standardised PPRs in all databases were found in patients with "asthma and COPD" but with large inter-country variation. In those with asthma or COPD, lower PPRs and smaller inter-country variations were found. For all three indications, PPRs for LABA-containing prescriptions increased with age.Using a standardised protocol that allowed direct inter-country comparisons, we found highest rates of LABA-containing prescriptions in elderly patients and distinct differences in the increased utilisation of LABA-containing prescriptions within the study period throughout the five European countries.
Mann, Andrew W.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Irwin, Jonathan; Feiden, Gregory A.; Gaidos, Eric; Mace, Gregory N.; Kraus, Adam L.; James, David J.; Ansdell, Megan; Charbonneau, David; Covey, Kevin R.; Ireland, Michael J.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Johnson, Marshall C.; Kidder, Benjamin; Vanderburg, Andrew
2016-09-01
We confirm and characterize a close-in ({P}{{orb}} = 5.425 days), super-Neptune sized ({5.04}-0.37+0.34 {R}\\oplus ) planet transiting K2-33 (2MASS J16101473-1919095), a late-type (M3) pre-main-sequence (11 Myr old) star in the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association. The host star has the kinematics of a member of the Upper Scorpius OB association, and its spectrum contains lithium absorption, an unambiguous sign of youth (\\lt 20 Myr) in late-type dwarfs. We combine photometry from K2 and the ground-based MEarth project to refine the planet’s properties and constrain the host star’s density. We determine K2-33’s bolometric flux and effective temperature from moderate-resolution spectra. By utilizing isochrones that include the effects of magnetic fields, we derive a precise radius (6%-7%) and mass (16%) for the host star, and a stellar age consistent with the established value for Upper Scorpius. Follow-up high-resolution imaging and Doppler spectroscopy confirm that the transiting object is not a stellar companion or a background eclipsing binary blended with the target. The shape of the transit, the constancy of the transit depth and periodicity over 1.5 yr, and the independence with wavelength rule out stellar variability or a dust cloud or debris disk partially occulting the star as the source of the signal; we conclude that it must instead be planetary in origin. The existence of K2-33b suggests that close-in planets can form in situ or migrate within ˜10 Myr, e.g., via interactions with a disk, and that long-timescale dynamical migration such as by Lidov-Kozai or planet-planet scattering is not responsible for all short-period planets.
Bosch, Nienke M.; Riese, Harriette; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bakker, Martin P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
2012-01-01
Objective: Altered cortisol response is a vulnerability marker for a variety of stress-related diseases and psychiatric disorders. Childhood adversity has been shown to modify this response, but evidence is inconsistent. Effects may differ depending on the timing of exposure, or due to the interplay
Roy, P.; Quiroz-Jiménez, D.; Charles-Polo, M.; Lozano-Santacruz, R.
2013-05-01
The arid northern Mexico is part of the Sonora and Chihuahua Deserts and both the deserts belong to the North American Desert system. The North American Monsoon (NAM) or Mexican Monsoon refers to the system that brings summer precipitation to arid northern Mexico and southwestern USA. It contributes ca. 70-80% of total annual precipitation along the western slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental (northern Mexico) and ca. 40-50% of total precipitation in Arizona and New Mexico (southwest USA). High-resolution geochemical data from lacustrine deposits located between 23°N and 31°N (paleolakes La Salada, Babicora and San Felipe) provide spatio-temporal and millennial-scale paleohydrological records related to the dynamics of summer precipitation as well as westerly winter storms over the last glacial period. The inverse relationship between proxy records of runoff into lacustrine basins of northern Mexico and winter precipitation over the southwestern USA indicate that the westerly winter storms had minimal influence south of 30°N and the paleohydrological changes are mainly summer precipitation controlled. The variation in summer season precipitation between 20 and 60 cal. kyr BP was driven by long term changes in summer insolation. During an interval of lower summer insolation (i.e. >60 cal. kyr BP), the higher summer precipitation could be related to the NAM expansion as a result of reduced north hemisphere ice sheets. On a millennial-scale, the region received more than average precipitation during the warm interstadials and vice versa.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
戴勇; 邢铁军; 雒志学; 杜明银; 魏平义
2011-01-01
利用重合度理论中的延拓定理讨论了一个具有三个成长阶段的自食单种群时滞模型正周期解的存在性,得到了保证周期解存在的充分条件.%By using a continuation theorem based on Ganies and Mawhin's coincidence degree, the authors study the global existence of positive periodic solution for a single species model with three life stage structure, cannibalism and time delay. Also, the sufficient conditions of the positive periodic solution are obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The results of this comparative experimental study demonstrate that is possible to use the time domain reflectometry (TDR) probe as alternative to the neutron probe for soil-moisture determination. The precision of soil-moisture measurements performed with the device TRIME-tube is sufficient to evaluate the hydrological balance, while the method TDR-SSI (TDR-Signal Spatial Inversion) is promising by its simplicity and good resolution. Some limitations of these two methods are also discussed in the report
Hamdan, Mohamed A.; Brook, George A.
2015-12-01
There is very little dated evidence on wet periods in the Eastern Desert and Sinai Peninsula of Egypt during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. To obtain such information, we have studied the petrography, isotope geochemistry and AMS radiocarbon ages of mostly relict tufas deposited by springs draining perched ground water bodies in metamorphic and volcanic rocks. The tufas unconformably overly Precambrian basic igneous rocks (basalt, diabase and gabbro). As the ages of tufa carbonate are frequently older than the true ages of the deposits because of the incorporation of old, 14C-dead carbon, we have dated both the carbonate matrix and insoluble organic material of the tufas. These ages show that the tufas were largely formed during two broad time periods, the most recent from 12,058 to 6678 cal yr BP (African Humid Period), and the other from ˜31,200-22,500 cal yr BP, with preferential growth during the coldest times of this period namely during Heinrich Events 2 and 3 (H2 and H3) and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The time span between 19,000-9000 cal yr BP, including the YD and H1, appears to have been relatively more arid than the earlier LGM or H2 periods or the later Holocene. The Late Pleistocene tufas are depleted in 18O relative to the Holocene tufas and were deposited at a lower temperature (˜14.0°-20.8 °C vs. 18.4°-23.4 °C). We believe that the Holocene tufas in the Sinai were formed by rainfall from the Mediterranean and those in the southern part of the Eastern Desert by African monsoon rainfall derived from the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean. In contrast, the moisture that fed the Late Pleistocene tufas, which are depleted in 18O relative to Holocene deposits, and progressively depleted from north to south, was probably brought by the Westerlies from the Atlantic-Mediterranean Sea when the Westerly circulation was pushed southwards during the coldest periods of the Late Pleistocene. Periods of tufa deposition correlate with major
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose. Continuous minor steps of improvement in the management of breast cancer have resulted in decreased mortality rates during the last decades. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of patients with stage I breast cancer diagnosed during two time periods that differed with respect to adjuvant systemic therapy. Material and methods. The studied population consisted of all women < 60 years of age, who were diagnosed breast cancer stage I between 1986 and 1999 in south-east Sweden, a total of 1 407 cases. The cohort was divided into two groups based on the management programmes of 1986 and 1992, hereafter referred to as Period 1 and Period 2. Before 1992 the only adjuvant systemic therapy recommended was tamoxifen for hormone receptor positive patients aged 50 years or older. During Period 2 the use of adjuvant treatment was extended to younger patients at high risk, identified by a high tumour S-phase fraction, with either hormonal or cytotoxic treatment. Results. The estimated distant recurrence-free survival rate was significantly higher during Period 2 than during Period 1 (p = 0.008). Subgroup analysis showed that the most evident reduction of distant recurrence risk was among hormone receptor-negative patients (HR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-1.09, p = 0.09) and among patients with a high tumour S-phase fraction (HR = 0.53, 0.30-0.93, p = 0.028). The risk reduction between the periods was still statistically significant in multivariate analysis when adjusting for different tumour characteristics and treatment modalities, indicating an influence of other factors not controlled for. One such factor may be the duration of tamoxifen treatment, which likely was more frequently five years during Period 2 than during Period 1. Conclusions. We conclude that the causes of the increase in distant recurrence free survival for women with breast cancer stage I are complex. The results support though that high-risk subgroups of stage I breast cancer patients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johansson, Patrik (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Div. of Oncology, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)); Fohlin, Helena (Oncologic Centre, Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Arnesson, Lars-Gunnar (Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)) (and others)
2009-05-15
Purpose. Continuous minor steps of improvement in the management of breast cancer have resulted in decreased mortality rates during the last decades. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of patients with stage I breast cancer diagnosed during two time periods that differed with respect to adjuvant systemic therapy. Material and methods. The studied population consisted of all women < 60 years of age, who were diagnosed breast cancer stage I between 1986 and 1999 in south-east Sweden, a total of 1 407 cases. The cohort was divided into two groups based on the management programmes of 1986 and 1992, hereafter referred to as Period 1 and Period 2. Before 1992 the only adjuvant systemic therapy recommended was tamoxifen for hormone receptor positive patients aged 50 years or older. During Period 2 the use of adjuvant treatment was extended to younger patients at high risk, identified by a high tumour S-phase fraction, with either hormonal or cytotoxic treatment. Results. The estimated distant recurrence-free survival rate was significantly higher during Period 2 than during Period 1 (p = 0.008). Subgroup analysis showed that the most evident reduction of distant recurrence risk was among hormone receptor-negative patients (HR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-1.09, p = 0.09) and among patients with a high tumour S-phase fraction (HR = 0.53, 0.30-0.93, p = 0.028). The risk reduction between the periods was still statistically significant in multivariate analysis when adjusting for different tumour characteristics and treatment modalities, indicating an influence of other factors not controlled for. One such factor may be the duration of tamoxifen treatment, which likely was more frequently five years during Period 2 than during Period 1. Conclusions. We conclude that the causes of the increase in distant recurrence free survival for women with breast cancer stage I are complex. The results support though that high-risk subgroups of stage I breast cancer patients
Cells anticipate periodic events
Nakagaki, Toshiyuki
2009-03-01
We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.
Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences
Sun, Ying
2012-02-01
This article proposes a nonparametric method for estimating the period and values of a periodic sequence when the data are evenly spaced in time. The period is estimated by a "leave-out-one-cycle" version of cross-validation (CV) and complements the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both theoretically and by simulation.We also propose a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that the data have constantmean against the alternative that the sequence of means is periodic. Finally, our methodology is demonstrated on three well-known time series: the sunspots and lynx trapping data, and the El Niño series of sea surface temperatures. © 2012 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Quality.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汪东树; 王全义
2012-01-01
考虑一类具时滞和脉冲的两种群周期浮游生物植化相克系统,利用一些分析技巧和重合度理论,并巧妙构造一个同伦变换,得到该系统存在周期正解新结果,推广并改进了相关结果.%In this paper, two-species nonautonomous impulsive systems that arise in plankton allelopathy with time delays and periodic environmental factors are considered. By means of coincidence degree theory and some analysis techniques, we obtain some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions to the system. Our results generalize and improve the related results.
A Periodic Lotka-Volterra System
Tsvetkov, D.
1996-01-01
In this paper periodic time-dependent Lotka-Volterra systems are considered. It is shown that such a system has positive periodic solutions. It is done without constructive conditions over the period and the parameters.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
夏永梅; 叶红晖; 李向云; 厉郡华
2013-01-01
Objective To investigate the effects of time periods and astronomical tides on the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage in Rizhao region. Methods A total of 509 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage in Rizhao region were collected from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010. Using a circular distribution method, the concentration (r) of onset time of patients was calculated first, and then the mean ā an-gle and the dispersion angle (s) were calculated. The time and peak period of the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage were predicted at different time periods and different astronomical tidal periods ( new moon, full moon, first quarter, last quarter and other periods) . Rayleigh test was used for significant difference test. Results ①Among the 509 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, 340 patients were occurred during the daytime (7:00 to 19 :00) and 169 patients during the night (19 :00 to 7:00) . The former was 2. 01 times than the later. The circular distribution analysis showed (-α) =205° ,Z = 32. 803 (P<0.001). When (-α) was at 11:00 to 13:00, it was the centralized time of the onset;s =94. 87°,(-α) ±s = 109.77° to 299.52°, the peak hours of onset were 5:00 to 19:00. ②117 patients had intracerebral hemorrhage during the new moon and full moon periods, 92 had intracerebral hemorrhage during the first quarter and last quarter periods, and 300 had intracerebral hemorrhage at the other times. The results of the circular distribution analysis showed (-α)= 53 ,27° ,Z =8. 0226 (P<0.001).(-α) in the new moon and full moon periods was the centralized time of the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage, s = 80. 16° ,(-α) ± s = -26. 89° to 133.43°, the peak hours were mainly the new moon, full moon, first quarter, and last quarter periods. Conclusion The distribution of intracerebral hemorrhage onset has circadian cycle rhythms. The onset during the daytime is higher than the night time,and associated with the changes of the astronomical tidal rhythms
一类具时滞的中立型Lotka-Volterra模型的周期解%PERIODIC SOLUTION FOR A NEUTRAL LOTKA-VOLTERRA MODEL WITH TIME DELAY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李必文; 程舰
2004-01-01
n species neutral Lotka-Volterra model with time delay is discussed. By using a new continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, a sufficient condition is obtained for the existence of a positive periodic solution of this system.%讨论了n种群时滞的中立型Lotka-Volterra生态模型.利用新的重合度理论中连续性定理,得到了该模型正周期解存在性的充分条件.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈伟
2012-01-01
In this article, Collected more than 400 cases of global earthquakes （Global earthquakes greater than 7.5 and China earthquake greater than 7.0） from the year 1201 so far, earthquake cases in the calculation of the time difference between any two data, we found two basic cycles 11 and 30,no matter what the time scale selected, such as year, month or day. This global seismic time distribution model is called ＂11 and 30 global earthquakes time periodic law＂. ARer outlining the content of this law, this article focus on revealing the hidden nature of the physical laws more ＂11/30 time two-dimensional coordinate system＂.%根据收集到的自公元1201年以来全球7．5级／中国7．O级以上强震共400余例，通过计算每个震例之间的年差、月差（如取近期发生的地震亦可计算其日差，结果完全类似），发现在不同时间尺度中均存在着两个基本周期数：11与30；根据这两个基本周期数表达出的地震时间分布规律称为“全球地震11／30周期分布律”；本文在概要介绍“11／30地震周期律”基础上，来重点揭示在这一周期律背后所隐藏的更为本质的物理规律：“11／30二维时间坐标系”。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
温明霞; 石孝均
2013-01-01
探讨钙对柑橘果实贮藏品质及衰老的影响，为合理调控柑橘钙素营养、延长果实的贮藏保鲜期提供理论和技术支撑.通过在北碚447锦橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Jincheng)生长的不同时期进行树体补钙，研究钙对果实贮藏品质及酶活性的影响.结果表明，在锦橙的生长期喷钙能提高果实钙含量，抑制果实贮藏过程中维生素C 等物质的氧化分解，提高果实可溶性固形物含量和糖酸比，改善果实品质.不同时期喷钙均能提高果实中抗氧化酶(CAT、SOD)活性，降低细胞壁水解酶(PG、CX)、过氧化物酶(POD)活性，减轻脂质过氧化程度，果胶的分解转化速度减慢，丙二醛、可溶性果胶的含量明显降低，从而维持果皮具有一定的强度，延缓了果实的衰老，降低烂果的发生率，延长了果实的贮藏保鲜期.其中以幼果期喷钙在提高果实钙含量、延长贮藏期等方面的效果较好，其次是果实膨大期喷钙，成熟期喷钙效果最差.在幼果期和果实膨大期喷钙是提高果实品质、延长采后果实贮藏保鲜期的重要措施.%Calcium (Ca), as an important nutrition, can regulate the physiological metabolic process and is closely related to fruit quality, the shelf life of fruit and physiological diseases during storage time. It is meaningful to study the relation of Ca nutrition and fruit quality and senescence for producing fruit with high quality, alleviating economic loss from rotten fruit and prolonging the fruit storage time. At present, there were some reports about Ca nutrition and fruit quality but many reported the effect of Ca on storage property of fruit by studying the respiration intensity and electric conductivity of fruits supplementing Ca solution on fruit during maturing stage or harvest time, few reported the effect of Ca on the inherent quality and the shelf life of fruits supplying Ca nutrition during fruit growing period. In
时标上两种群竞争动力系统周期解的存在性%Periodic solutions for two-species competition dynamic system on time scales
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王斌
2012-01-01
Based on the theory of the time scales and topological degree theory, by using continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and some skills of integral inequalities on time scales, the sufficient condition of the existence of periodic solutions for a non-autonomous two-species Lotka-Voherra competition system on time scales is obtained. The obtained result has practical significance and application value in ecological management.%在时标理论和拓扑度理论基础之上，通过应用重合度理论的连续定理和一些时标上积分不等式技巧，给出了时标上一类非自治两种群Lotka—Volterra竞争系统正周期解存在性的充分条件．取得的结果在生态管理中具有现实意义和应用价值．
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zahrer, Juergen
2012-07-01
The research has long been concerned with the identification of the past climatic changes. In the course of the actual public discussion on the interactions between anthropogenic activities and the environmental changes, these investigations experienced a strong revival in the past decades. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration investigates the impact of the climatic conditions on the development of the Funnel Beaker Culture and especially on the agricultural land use in this cultural period. The author tries to answer the following key questions: (a) Do the investigated sequences of sediment contain evidences for synchronous changes in connection with the climatic changes?; (b) Are there also differences in the land use of the catchment areas in view of the point in time of landscape dissemination as well as the duration and intensity of the neolithic land use?.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卢小琴; 田秀华
2011-01-01
The instantaneous scan method was used to study the time budget of breeding behaviors and activity rhythm of Great Bustards in Changchun Zoological and Botanical Gardens during April-August in 2010. The differences in time budget of behaviors of Great Bustards in the same breeding period between male and female and of the same sex between different breeding periods were analyzed by independent sample T-test. Results show that the time budget of behaviors and activity rhythm of the Great bustards are regular to some degree. Feeding mostly occurs in the middle of the morning and the afternoon, flaunting and hatching mostly in the morning and evening, and resting mostly occurs at noon. During the prophase of breeding, the Great bustards spend their time mainly in standing, lying and walking, and the male and the female spend 80.63％ and 66.34％ of their time on the three behaviors, respectively. The time budget of the male changes greatly during the anaphase of breeding. They spend 90.41％ of their time in incubating in the nest, and incubating, feeding and alerting behaviors have an obvious rhythm; however, the male still spend 59.23％ of their time mainly in standing, lying and walking. The time budget of behaviors of Great Bustards exhibits differences not only between the male and the female, but also between the prophase and anaphase of breeding.%2010年4月到8月,采用瞬时扫描法对长春动植物公园两对繁殖良好的大鸨的繁殖行为时间分配和活动节律进行了研究,并利用独立样本T检验分析了不同性别大鸨繁殖前后期行为的性别差异,以及相同性别的大鸨在繁殖的不同时期的行为差异.结果表示:大鸨繁殖期的各种行为活动具有一定的时间分配和日节律,取食行为多发生在上午和下午的中间时段,炫耀、孵化多在早晨和傍晚,而中午的大部分时间处于休息状态.繁殖前期,大鸨的行为主要表现为静立、趴卧和游走,雌雄大鸨的这3
... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods Home For Patients Search FAQs Dysmenorrhea: ... Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods FAQ046, January 2015 PDF Format Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods Gynecologic Problems What is dysmenorrhea? How ...
A highly specific test for periodicity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ansmann, Gerrit, E-mail: gansmann@uni-bonn.de [Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Physics, University of Bonn, Nussallee 14–16, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Interdisciplinary Center for Complex Systems, University of Bonn, Brühler Straße 7, 53175 Bonn (Germany)
2015-11-15
We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张雁
2014-01-01
Objective To investigation and study the impact of standing time in pregnancy period for pregnancy complications. Methods To choose 460 cases of pregnant women who make card and had delivery from January 2010 to May 2013 in maternity and children's health care centers in zhuhai as the research objects, respectively took related questionnaire in pregnancy period of early,middle and late,then collected the results of the survey and statistical analysis. Results (1) The time of pregnant women continued standing and sitting in the early stages of pregnancy time was significantly reduced,the population distribution in different age,culture level and economic income had significant differences (P < 0.05).(2)The high degree of culture for pregnant women was the protection factor in gestational hypertension;The culture degree and the family economic income of pregnant women were the protection factor in gestational anemia;Older was a risk factor for gestational diabetes.(3)The incidence of hypertension and anemia were positively correlated with women sedentary long. Conclusion Standing long time in pregnancy period can increase the danger of high blood pressure,diabetes and anemia of pregnant women.%目的：调查研究孕早期的职业站立时间以及长时间站立对妊娠并发症的影响。方法分别对我市妇幼保健院2010年1月～2013年5月间建卡并分娩的460例妊娠妇女怀孕早期、中期和晚期进行相关问卷调查并进行统计学分析。结果（1）孕妇在孕早期的持续站立和坐着的时间均较孕前显著降低，其人群分布在不同年龄、文化程度和经济收入方面具有明显差异（P＜0.05）。（2）孕妇文化程度高是妊娠期高血压的保护因素；孕妇文化程度和家庭经济收入是妊娠贫血的保护因素；年龄较大是妊娠糖尿病的危险因素。（3）妊娠高血压和贫血的发病率与孕妇久坐久站呈正相关。结论孕前久站久坐可增加孕妇病发
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蔡路昀; 马帅; 程煊茹; 曹爱玲; 冯建慧; 励建荣
2016-01-01
In order to discuss the effects of different roasting time periods on character and flavor in sardine slices,the color,texture and the variations of volatile components in sardine slices at different roasting time periods were measured.The volatile aroma compounds in sardine slices at different roasting time periods were analyzed by electronic nose and headspace solid-phase microextraction was coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The results revealed that with the increase of roasting,hardness,chewiness of sardine slices significantly increased,while springiness decreased during roasting.Electronic nose could discriminate the flavor characteristics of sardine slices at different roasting.Principal component analyses (PCA) showed that the apparent differences among samples roasted with different time periods could be well discriminated by electronic nose.The analyses of GC-MS showed that the volatile components of sardine slices at different roasting time changed obviously,the main volatile substances were alcohol,ester,aldehyde,ketone,acid,hydrocarbon,aromatic,nitrogen compounds,etc.With the increase of roasting time,43,47,47,54,46 kinds of volatile compounds were detected respectively,and the content of acids,esters,hydrocarbons,aromatic showed a trend of decline after an initial rising,while the content of alcohols,aldehydes,ketones showed a trend of rising after an initial decline.At the same time,pyrazine,pyrrole,thiazole and other aroma compounds were produced,which made a significant contribution to aroma of roasted sardine slices.%为探讨烤制时间对沙丁鱼片风味及品质的影响,以沙丁鱼为研究对象,研究经不同烤制时间处理的沙丁鱼片的色泽、质构特性及挥发性成分的变化.采用电子鼻和顶空固相微萃取—气质联用技术分析沙丁鱼片在不同烤制时间过程中挥发性成分的变化.结果表明,随着烤制时间的延长,沙丁鱼肉的硬度、咀嚼度均有提高,弹
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱胜; 孙明轩; 何熊熊
2012-01-01
An adaptive controller is designed for a class of periodically time-varying systems with input backlash,when the periodical uncertainties can be parameterized.The unknown periodical parameters are expanded into a Fourier series;the coefficients of which and the unknown parameters of the backlash dynamics are estimated by using differential adaptive algorithms.A robust method is applied to eliminate the influences of truncation errors and bounded errors in the backlash model on the system performance.The sign function is replaced by the hyperbolic function to ensure the differentiability for the controller and to avoid the chattering.The introduction of △ functions ensures the boundedness for the parameter estimates and the asymptotical convergence for the desired trajectory.The theoretical analysis and the numerical experiment show that all the signals in the closed-loop system remain bounded.%针对一类输入含齿隙非线性动态特性的周期时变系统,在周期不确定性可时变参数化的条件下设计自适应控制器.对周期时变参数进行傅里叶级数展开,并采用微分自适应律估计未知傅里叶系数和齿隙动态特性参数,通过鲁棒方法消除截断误差和齿隙模型的有界误差项对系统性能的影响.采用双曲函数替代符号函数确保控制器可微,同时能有效抑制颤振.引入△函数,避免参数估计发散,并保证系统输出渐近跟踪理想轨迹.理论分析与仿真结果表明,闭环系统所有信号有界.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡觉亮; 徐意; 韩曙光
2012-01-01
In the daily life, seasonal products attract customers through rich and colorful displays that simulate the buying desire of customers. At the same time, owing to the seasonal nature, a firm often resets its selling price in different stages to promote sales and maximize the profit. This paper considers the pricing and ordering strategy at non-periodic multi-stage with time-varying demand within a finite planning time, and develops a profit model assuming that the demand is price and stock dependent, in which the firm can reset price to spur the demand. The purpose is to maximize the profit by using the optimization to determine the optimal ordering quantity and the optimal prices. Finally some numerical examples are presented to verify the models.%日常生活中季节性产品往往通过丰富的展示来吸引顾客,以激发顾客的购买需求.同时由于其季节性,往往会在不同销售阶段需重新设定零售价来促进销售,以实现利润的最大化.为此,研究了在有限计划期内时变需求下,多阶段非等周期的定价与订货量问题,基于产品需求与产品零售价以及产品库存相关的假设,通过重置价格来带动需求,建立总利润模型,并运用优化方法,确定最优订货量和最优定价,实现总利润的最大化,最后通过数值算例对模型进行了验证.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张安慧; 陶芳标; 严双琴; 徐叶清
2009-01-01
目的 探讨不同回顾时限对儿童青少年伤害流行病学调查结果的影响.方法 对马鞍山市4523名学生进行1年的伤害主动监测,各学校由校医或健康信息员每天收集学生伤害事件,监测时间为2007年11月1日至2008年10月31日.监测对象分成3组,每组分别采用不同的间隔时限进行伤害自我回顾性报告.结果 4523名学生,全年共发生伤害事件6350人次,总伤害事件年发生率为74.2%,男生发生率(78.6%)高于女生(70.0%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).间隔3个月一次的回顾性报告伤害年发生率减低0.02%,伤害次数减少19人次;间隔6个月一次的回顾性报告伤害年发生率减低0.02%,伤害次数减少58人次;12个月回顾性调查过去一年内伤害事件发生情况,伤害年发生率减低8.8%,伤害次数减少505人次,以3～6岁组和轻度及微小伤害减低更为显著.结论 间隔3个月一次和间隔6个月一次回顾性报告的伤害年发生率只有轻微减低,对伤害信息的获得较完整;12个月的回忆期限,低估了伤害的发生风险;儿童青少年伤害的回顾时限以6个月为宜.%Objective To analyze the influence of different recall time periods on epidemiological survey of injuries among children and adolescents. Methods A study on injuries for 12 months follow-up period was actively surveyed among 4523 pupils selected by cluster sampling from 12 kindergartens, 1 elementary school, 1 junior high school, 1 senior high school and 1 college in Maanshan city in November, 2007 to November, 2008. Injury events were actively surveyed by school doctors or class health workers simultaneously. Participants were divided into three groups, the first group including self-reported injuries by 3-months interval, the second group with self-recalled injuries by 6-months interval and the third group with self-reported injuries in the past 12 months. Validity and reliability of injuries between surveillance injuries and
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于娜; 于继来; 王承民
2009-01-01
结合初期电力市场特点,从高峰期有功调度出发,提出了一种综合考虑电源侧、电网侧和需求侧多个约束的可中断负荷的优化调度模型.模型除侧重考虑网络阻断容量约束外,还考虑了可中断负荷提前通知时间、中断负荷持续时间、中断负荷位置对网损的影响.采用离散二进制粒子群优化(BPSO)与内点法相结合的方法求解优化问题.算例结果表明,该模型能够适应电力市场初期可中断负荷参与电网高峰期网络受阻约束调度的需要.%Interruptible load management (ILM) is one of the demand response incentives. It is good to the reliability of the power system. During the peak time of the power system, there are always congestion restrictions. Based on the active power dispatch, an optimal IL purchasing model including hybrid generation, network and demand side restrictions was presented. This model not only puts emphasis on the network congestion capacity restriction but considers the influence of pre-informed time and the interruption duration period and the geographical position on network loss. The binary version of the particle swarm optimization (BPSO) method was used to solve this model. The simulation result shows that the model is fit for using IL in peak load congestion restricted dispatch in developing power market.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lara-Castells, María Pilar de, E-mail: Pilar.deLara.Castells@csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental (C.S.I.C.), Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Stoll, Hermann [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Civalleri, Bartolomeo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro Interdipartimentale NIS, Universitá di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Causà, Mauro [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e delle Produzioni Industriali, Universiá di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Voloshina, Elena [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Chemie, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Pi, Martí [Department ECM, Facultat de Física, and IN" 2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2014-10-21
In this work we propose a general strategy to calculate accurate He–surface interaction potentials. It extends the dispersionless density functional approach recently developed by Pernal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] to adsorbate-surface interactions by including periodic boundary conditions. We also introduce a scheme to parametrize the dispersion interaction by calculating two- and three-body dispersion terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) level via the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)]. The performance of the composite approach is tested on {sup 4}He/graphene by determining the energies of the low-lying selective adsorption states, finding an excellent agreement with the best available theoretical data. Second, the capability of the approach to describe dispersionless correlation effects realistically is used to extract dispersion effects in time-dependent density functional simulations on the collision of {sup 4}He droplets with a single graphene sheet. It is found that dispersion effects play a key role in the fast spreading of the {sup 4}He nanodroplet, the evaporation-like process of helium atoms, and the formation of solid-like helium structures. These characteristics are expected to be quite general and highly relevant to explain experimental measurements with the newly developed helium droplet mediated deposition technique.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
段飞腾; 崔宝同
2016-01-01
Memristor is a nonlinear two-terminal passive electronic component,which is proposed in recent years and is different from the resistor,capacitor and inductor.The memristor-based recurrent neural networks,with different system parameters,show all kinds of dynamic performances.We investigated global exponential periodicity problem in regard to a class of memristor-based recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays,and considered the symmetry and asymmetry situations of connection weights in switching state.Via the studying approach of constructing two proper Lyapunov functions,the Halanay inequality and the theory of differential equations with discontinuous right-hand sides introduced by Fillippov,we presented the sufficiency condition concerning the global exponential periodicity.Finally, experimental results verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed theory.%忆阻器是近几年来提出的一种区别于电阻、电容、电感的一类非线性两端无源电子元件，而忆阻器递归神经网络由于系统参数的不同，系统表现出各种动态性能。针对一类变时滞忆阻器递归神经网络，研究全局指数周期性问题，考虑连接权值在切换状态下的对称和非对称的情况，通过构造两个 Lyapunov 函数、Halanay 不等式和由 Fillippov 给出的右端不连续微分方程理论的研究方法，提出关于全局指数周期性的充分性条件。最后，实验结果验证了所提理论的可行性和有效性。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
付俊敏; 刘宁; 楚原梦冉; 胡明宇
2014-01-01
于2012年10月至2013年9月在云南野生动物园，采用瞬时扫描法和全事件观察法对繁殖期白化孟加拉虎的行为进行了研究。结果表明：在发情交配期雌雄白化孟加拉虎的行为时间分配差异不显著（P＞0．05），均将较多的时间用于休息和运动；在妊娠期雌性白化孟加拉虎将较多的时间用于休息和运动，较少的时间用于摄食、睡眠和其它行为，对比妊娠期4只雌虎的行为，不同个体在同一种行为间差异性极显著（P＜0．01）；产仔期雌虎将更多的时间用于产仔和舔舐幼虎，其次是休息；在哺乳期雌虎将较多的时间用于休息，其次是哺乳和运动。通过单因素方差分析表明，在繁殖期不同阶段休息行为差异性极显著（P＜0．01），睡眠、运动和其它行为差异性不显著（P＞0．05）。%This study uses instantaneous scanning sampling method and all -occurrence recording method to observe the breeding behaviors of six Bengal white tigers at Yunnan Wild Animal Park from October 2012 to September 2013 . The results show that the behavior distributions of mating male and female Bengal white tigers are not significant (P>0 .05) ,all of which spend more time in rest and moving ;in gestation periods ,female Bengal white tiger spend most time in resting and moving ,less time in eating ,sleeping and other behaviors .Compared with the behaviors of four pregnant female tigers ,the study finds that different tigers have extremely remarkable differences in one behavior (P0 .05) show no significant change .
Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy
2013-01-01
The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
樊连梅; 王超; 刘更森; 原永兵
2014-01-01
苹果果实着色期基因表达水平的变化对果实品质形成具有重要影响,选择适合的内参基因是提高实时荧光定量PCR分析准确性的首要条件。本试验以‘富士’苹果着色过程中不同取样时间的果皮为材料,通过qRT-PCR分析了常用候选持家基因β-actin、EF-1α、GAPDH和18S rRNA的表达变化,借助geNorm和NormFinder程序筛选出在果实着色期qRT-PCR分析的理想内参基因。结果表明, EF-1α的表达水平高且最稳定,其次是18S rRNA,而β-actin和GAPDH的相对表达水平较低；同时,用筛选的内参基因EF-1α和18S rRNA分析苹果花青苷合成途径的二氢黄酮醇-4-还原酶基因的表达水平,其表达规律比较一致,均呈现正态分布。因此, EF-1α和18S rRNA是研究苹果着色期表达的理想的内参基因。%The change of gene expression level during coloring period is crucial for the formation of apple fruit quality. The selection of a suitable reference gene is an important factor for accurate gene expression analysis by real-time lfuorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). In this study, peels of apple (Malus domestica cv.‘Fuji’) were taken as materials sampled at different time during coloring stage. The expression level of four commonly used housekeeping genesβ-actin, EF-1α, GAPDH and 18S rRNA were studied by qRT-PCR, and reliable refer-ence gene were screened to use for gene expression during coloring stage of fruit by geNorm and NormFinder software. The results showed that the expression level of EF-1αwas highest and most stable, followed by 18S rRNA. However, the expression level ofβ-actin and GAPDH were relatively low. Meanwhile, the expression of lfavonoid-4-reductase gene (MdDFR) in the pathway of apple anthocyanin biosynthesis was analyzed, and the results indicated that the variation tendency of MdDFR was exactly consistent and presented normal distribu-tion using EF-1αand 18S rRNA as reference gene. Therefore, EF-1αand 18S r
Periodicities in Aerosol Optical Depths
Ramachandran, S; Verma, Amit; Panigrahi, Prasanta K
2011-01-01
We investigate the temporal and spatial variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD) over different geographic locations in India due to their important role in the earth-atmosphere radiation budget. The use of continuous wavelet transform pinpoints the spatio-temporal non-stationarity of the periodic variations in the AOD depending on local factors. The optimal time-frequency localization ability of Morlet wavelet accurately isolates the periodic features in the different frequency domains, to study the variations in the dominant periods due to local effects. The origin of the effects on the periodic modulations is then related to physical phenomena of regional nature, which throws considerable light on the observed variations in aerosol optical depths. We also find the phase relationship between different locations and to identify the possible correlations between different geographic locations and related environmental variations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Junge, K.; Telljohann, U.
2004-04-15
Dryers of the brick industry are constructed according to empirical findings. Measurements are available only for the first drying period, the rest is speculation. The author investigated the processes going on inside the green brick during drying. This will provide the basis for a simulation program for calculating time-dependent moisture distributions, vibrational states and green brick temperatures, from which the required dryer air conditions and heat transfer processes can be derived. Brick producers and plant constructors will be enabled to design the drying process for high-speed drying without loss of quality and with higher economic efficiency. (orig.) [German] Die Auslegung von Trocknern der Ziegelindustrie und verwandter Branchen basiert bis heute ausschliesslich auf empirischen Erkenntnissen. Diese werden durch wissenschaftliche Arbeiten lediglich zum ersten Trocknungsabschnitt gestuetzt. Eine in Betriebsablaeufe integrierte messtechnische Erfassung des Uebergangs vom ersten zum zweiten Trocknungsabschnitt ist nicht moeglich. Fachleute schaetzen, dass der Uebergang 'etwa zur halben Anfangsfeuchte' stattfindet; diese Annahme ist jedoch aeusserst ungenau. Man unterstellt ferner, dass der erste Trocknungsabschnitt ungefaehr mit dem Zeitraum uebereinstimmt, in dem sich die mit erheblichen Riss- und Verkruemmungsgefaehrdungen einhergehende Rohlingsschwindung abspielt. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird ein mathematisches Modell der Vorgaeng erstellt, die sich im Rohling waehrend der Trocknung abspielen. Es bildet die Grundlage fuer ein Simulationsprogramm zur Berechnung von zeitabhaengigen Feuchteverteilungen, Schwindungszustaenden und Rohlingstemperaturen. Daraus lassen sich dann fuer den Betrieb die notwendigen Trocknerluftzustaende und Waermeuebergaenge ermitteln. Diese Daten versetzen Ziegler und insbesondere Anlagenbauer in die Lage, den Trocknungsprozess verlaesslich so zu gestalten, dass Ziegelrohlinge ohne Qualitaetsmangel mit hoechstmoeglicher
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢永; 张仁陟; 周书灵; 赵建华; 董博
2009-01-01
对甘肃省徽县洛坝铅锌矿不同废弃时间的废渣地进行的化学分析表明,其主要污染物为重金属Pb和Zn,其 w(Pb)和 w(Zn)最大值分别为6 298和480 800 mg/kg. 重金属在废渣地中的质量分数随废弃时间的增长而减少;对废渣地恢复植被演替调查发现,Pb和Zn是影响植物自然演替的限制因子. 在现场考察的基础上对洛坝废渣地进行了植被恢复演替调查. 结果表明:从废弃时间序列上看,废渣地植物种类在增加、荒漠化在逆转,3,6和11 a的废渣地植物数分别为12,17和40种;从废渣地植被恢复演替序列上看,各时期植物都在更替,3 a废渣地以野艾蒿(Artemisia vulgaris)+升马塘(Digitaria sanguinalis)+车前草(Plantago asiatica)群落为主;6 a废渣地以野艾蒿+针叶蒿(Tripolium vulgare)+商陆(Phytolacca acinosa)+小蓬草(Erigeron annuu)群落为主;11 a废渣地又增加有固氮植物三叶草(Trifolium pratense)、苜蓿(Medicago lupulina)及紫薇(Lagerstroemia indica)、臭椿(Ailanthus altissima)的成功定居,已形成草-灌-乔简单植被结构.%Chemical analysis of Luoba lead-zinc mine wastelands after being abandoned for different times indicated that the main pollutant types were some heavy metals such as Pb, Zn and others. The soils of the wastelands contained high concentrations of Pb and Zn; the highest content of Zn was 480,800 mg/kg, and the highest content of Pb was 6,298 mg/kg. The heavy metal mass fraction in the wastelands decreased with amount of time growing after abandonment. The restoration vegetation succession investigation discovered that the phytotoxicity of Pb and Zn may be the major obstacles for plant succession on the wastelands. From the time of abandonment on, the number of species of plants was increasing, and desertification was reversing. 12, 17, and 40 species of plants were found growing on 3, 6, and 11 year wastelands, respectively. From the time of vegetation succession on, the plant species
Model selection in periodic autoregressions
Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)
1994-01-01
textabstractThis paper focuses on the issue of period autoagressive time series models (PAR) selection in practice. One aspect of model selection is the choice for the appropriate PAR order. This can be of interest for the valuation of economic models. Further, the appropriate PAR order is important
32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Franceli da Silva
2005-04-01
Full Text Available Fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is used in food, phytotherapic industry, and in traditional therapeutic, due to its essential oil content and composition. Nevertheless basil can not be kept for long periods after harvest and its quality can be reduced. This work aimed to assess the influence of the season and harvest time in the postharvest conservation of basil stored for different periods. Basil was harvested at 8 am and 4 pm both in August/1999 and January/2000. Cuttings were conditioned in PVC packages and stored for 3, 6, and 9 days. During storage, chlorophyll content, essential oil content and composition were determined as well as microbiological analyses were carried out. Harvest season and the days of storage influenced the final content of essential oil. There was a linear decrease in the content of essential oil, in the chlorophyll content and in the number of mold and yeast colonies during storage. There was no effect of cropping season or harvest hour on essential oil composition, but the eugenol and linalool content increased during storage. Coliforms were under 0.3 MPN g-1 and the number of Staphylococcus aureus was under 1.0x10² UFC g-1.O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. é empregado tanto na indústria culinária quanto fitoterápica e na medicina tradicional, devido ao teor e composição de seu óleo essencial. No entanto, o manjericão não pode ser conservado por longo período após a colheita e sua qualidade pode ser prejudicada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência da época e do horário de colheita sobre a conservação de manjericão armazenado por diferentes períodos. O manjericão foi colhido às 8h e às 16h em agosto/1999 e em janeiro/2000. Os ramos foram acondicionados em filmes de PVC e armazenados por 3, 6 e 9 dias. Durante o armazenamento, o teor de clorofila, e o teor e a composição do óleo essencial foram determinados e foram conduzidas análises microbiológicas. A época de colheita
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈素君; 谢冬梅; 廖丽梅; 黄勇华; 王艳清; 田桂敏; 黎文思; 邓启健; 朱敏捷
2016-01-01
Objective To Analysis of the changes of the effective components of MB-P fresh plasma and fresh plasma in different time in the preservation period ,provides the reference for the clinical infusion .Methods Taken 20 doses of whole blood (400 mL/copy) ,in accordance with standard operating procedures preparation fresh plasma (200 mL/copy);Split them in two parts and di-vided into virus inactivated plasma and fresh plasma group ,and divided this two kinds of plasmar in five equal parts in aseptic pack-aging each;immediately put them into a refrigerator for quick-frozen .Detected their Ⅴ factor ,Ⅷ factor ,Fib ,methylene blue resi-dues ,total protein ,pH value ,the content of K+ ,Na+ and Cl- after 0 (less than 72 h after preparation) ,3 ,6 ,9 and 12 months re-spectively .Results Two kinds of plasma with the extension of the storage period ,Ⅴ factor ,Ⅷ factor ,Fib ,total protein ,K+ ,Na+ , Cl- levels were decreased ,pH showed an upward trend ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0 .05) .Conclusion After vi-rus inactivation treatment ,the level of plasma constituents have been changed ,but to conform to the standard of blood for clinical use .Therefore ,the virus inactivation treatment could be used to improve the safety of the effective components of plasma .%目的 分析亚甲蓝光化学法(MB-P )灭活处理新鲜血浆(简称病毒灭活新鲜血浆)与未经灭活处理的新鲜血浆(简称新鲜血浆)在保存期内不同时间段有效成分的变化 ,为临床输注提供参考依据.方法 取20人份全血(每份400 m L ) ,按照标准操作规程制备成新鲜血浆(每份200 m L )后 ,将其一分为二 ,制备病毒灭活新鲜血浆和新鲜血浆 ,两种血浆每份无菌分装为5等份 ,立即放入速冻冰箱速冻 ,在0(制备后小于72 h)、3、6、9、12个月分别检测Ⅴ因子、Ⅷ因子、纤维蛋白原(Fib)、亚甲蓝残留量、总蛋白、pH值、K+ 、Na+ 、Cl-水平.结果 两种
Morre, D. James; Lawler, Juliana; Wang, Sui; Keenan, Thomas W.; Morre, Dorothy M.
2002-01-01
Entrainment in solution of an oscillating activity with a temperature compensated period of 24 min is described for a NADH oxidase (NOX) activity of the bovine milk fat globule membrane, a derivative of the mammary epithelial cell plasma membrane. The period of 24 min remained unchanged at 17 degrees C, 27 degrees C and 37 degrees C whereas the amplitude approximately doubled with each 10 degree C rise in temperature (Q(10)congruent with 2). The periodicity was observed with both intact milk fat globule membranes and with detergent-solubilized membranes, demonstrating that the oscillations did not require an association with membranes. The periodicity was not the result of instrument variation or of chemical interactions among reactants in solution. Preparations with different periodicities entrained (autosynchronized) when mixed. Upon mixing, the preparations exhibited two oscillatory patterns but eventually a single pattern representing the mean of the farthest separated maxima of the two preparations analyzed separately emerged. The cell surface NOX protein is the first reported example of an entrainable biochemical entity with a temperature-compensated periodicity potentially capable of functioning as an ultradian or circadian clock driver.
Periodic solutions of nonlinear vibrating beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Berkovits
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove new existence and multiplicity results for periodic semilinear beam equation with a nonlinear time-independent perturbation in case the period is not prescribed. Since the spectrum of the linear part varies with the period, the solvability of the equation depends crucially on the period which can be chosen as a free parameter. Since the period of the external forcing is generally unknown a priori, we consider the following natural problem. For a given time-independent nonlinearity, find periods T for which the equation is solvable for any T-periodic forcing. We will also deal with the existence of multiple solutions when the nonlinearity interacts with the spectrum of the linear part. We show that under certain conditions multiple solutions do exist for any small forcing term with suitable period T. The results are obtained via generalized Leray-Schauder degree and reductions to invariant subspaces.
Periodicity of chaotic solutions
Berezowski, Marek
2016-01-01
The scope of the paper is the analysis of the impact of flow reversal on the dynamics of cascades of reactors. Periodic and chaotic oscillations occur in the analyzed system. There is a dependence between the oscillation period of the state variable of the system without flow reversal and the recurrence period of windows of chaos in the steady-state diagram of the system with flow reversal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Koehler
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition is rapidly increasing in tropical regions. We studied the response of soil carbon dioxide (CO_{2} efflux to long-term experimental N addition (125 kg N ha^{−1} yr^{−1} in mature lowland and montane forests in Panama. In the lowland forest, on soils with high nutrient-supplying and buffering capacity, fine litterfall and stem-growth were neither N- nor phosphorus-limited. In the montane forest, on soils with low nutrient supplying capacity and an organic layer, fine litterfall and stem-growth were N-limited. Our objectives were to 1 explore the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the dynamics of soil CO_{2} efflux and 2 determine the responses of soil CO_{2} efflux from an N-rich and N-limited forest to elevated N input. Annual soil CO_{2}-C efflux was larger in the lowland (15.44 ± 1.02 Mg C ha^{−1} than in the montane forest (9.37 ± 0.28 Mg C ha^{−1}. In the lowland forest, soil moisture explained the largest fraction of the variance in soil CO_{2} efflux while soil temperature was the main explanatory variable in the montane forest. Soil CO_{2} efflux in the lowland forest did not differ between the control and 9–11 yr N-addition plots, suggesting that chronic N input to nutrient-rich tropical lowland forests on well-buffered soils may not change their C balance on a decadal time scale. In the montane forest, first year N addition did not affect soil CO_{2} efflux but annual CO_{2} efflux was reduced by 14% and 8% in the 2nd and 3rd year N-addition plots, respectively, compared to the control. This reduction was caused by a decrease in soil CO_{2} efflux during the high stem-growth period of the year, suggesting a shift in carbon partitioning from below- to aboveground in the N-addition plots in which stem diameter growth was promoted.
A new pattern of the periodic table
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brajendra Nath Tripathi
1962-07-01
Full Text Available A new pattern of the Periodic Table is described which incorporates all the points for which various models of two or three dimensional tables have been proposed from time to time.
Investigation of periodic multilayers
Bodnarchuck, V; Ignatovich, V; Veres, T; Yaradaykin, S
2009-01-01
Periodic multilayers of various periods were prepared according to an algorithm proposed by the authors. The reflectivity properties of these systems were investigated using neutron reflectometry.The obtained experimental results were compared with the theoretical expectations. In first approximation, the results proved the main features of the theoretical predictions. These promising results initiate further research of such systems.
Nahlik, Mary Schrodt
2005-01-01
To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…
Historically defined autobiographical periods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;
2012-01-01
The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...
Periodicity, the Canon and Sport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas F. Scanlon
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos A. Berenstein
1980-01-01
Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.
Jehovah's Witnesses' three periods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Åke V. Ström
1975-01-01
Full Text Available Among modern formations of religion, arisen within Christendom, there is no one that has changed its doctrine and attitude so much as Jehovah's Witnesses, so that the religious content in the three periods can be labelled as new, newer, the newest. Each period is connected with and dependent upon the three presidents Charles Taze Russel, born in 1852, president 1881-1916, Joseph Franklin Rutherford, born in 1869, president 1916-1942, and Nathan Homer Knorr, born in 1905, president from 1942. The purpose here is to clarify some important differences between the three periods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Sergey V.
2015-01-01
. In each case, special attention is paid to eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of a single periodicity cell with appropriate boundary conditions. The influence of the amount of periodicity cells in a finite compound structure on its eigenfrequency spectrum is analyzed. Several features common...... for the considered models are found and discussed in the context of the existing knowledge on the subject. Another issue addressed in the lecture is an influence of the corrugation shape and amplitude on the broadness and location of the stop- and pass-bands in an infinite periodic structure. Explicit asymptotic...
Saturnelli, Annette
1985-01-01
Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)
Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.
1995-01-01
Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)
Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)
Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...
Colonius, Fritz
1988-01-01
This research monograph deals with optimal periodic control problems for systems governed by ordinary and functional differential equations of retarded type. Particular attention is given to the problem of local properness, i.e. whether system performance can be improved by introducing periodic motions. Using either Ekeland's Variational Principle or optimization theory in Banach spaces, necessary optimality conditions are proved. In particular, complete proofs of second-order conditions are included and the result is used for various versions of the optimal periodic control problem. Furthermore a scenario for local properness (related to Hopf bifurcation) is drawn up, giving hints as to where to look for optimal periodic solutions. The book provides mathematically rigorous proofs for results which are potentially of importance in chemical engineering and aerospace engineering.
Social Research On Renaissance Period
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张蕾蕾
2009-01-01
The historical period known as the Renaissance spans the fifteenth and siXteenth centuries. ‘Renaissance'means‘re-birth'in French and during this time Europe left behind the mindset of the Midge Ages and created the beginnings of the modern world.This thesis mainly rotates on the background,the main features and significance of Renaissance,especially focuses on the discovery of man and the humanism and the detailed unfolding of the society on several aspect in Renaissance.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱文华; 李德强
2012-01-01
There was a new type of poetry theory,which tasked for propagating democratic revolution called revolutionary poetry theory,occurred in the newspapers and periodicals during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China.Its emergence and transmission was the special literary production of special period.The revolutionary poetry theory was divided into two development periods by the year of 1911 in view of its historical evolvement,and there were different poetic trends in different periods.The creation and transmission of revolutionary poetry theory resulted from not only the bidirectional development of newspapers and literature,but the thoughts of the quintessence of Chinese culture.The phenomenon had an important effect on the development of poetry theory in China,and it laid a foundation for the ＂May Fourth＂ New Culture Movement.%清末民初,近代报刊出现了以宣传民主革命为己任的新型诗话,即革命诗话。它的产生和传播是特殊历史时期的特殊文学产物。从其历史演变来看,近代报刊革命诗话以1911年为限,分为两个重要发展时期,并有着各自的诗学倾向。它的产生与传播一方面得益于报刊和文学的双向发展;另一方面也是国粹主义思潮推动的结果。这不但对中国诗学理论的发展产生了重要影响,也为五四新文化运动作了重要的文化铺垫。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高峰; 纪建伟; 田恒玖; 史洋; 潘红; 孙翔楠; 张铁楼; 胡严; 张志明
2013-01-01
2012年3～5月,采用直接瞬时扫描法和间接监控器摄像相结合的方式,对北京市野生动物救护中心顺义饲养繁育基地的一对秃鹫的繁殖行为的时间分配和活动规律进行了研究,结果显示:秃鹫在警戒、理羽、吃食、交配、孵化等行为存在着明显的节律性,警戒、理羽行为在行为比例中较高,警戒行为占绝对优势.取食行为多发生在上午的中间阶段,孵化行为不间断、并且轮流孵化幼鸟.孵化期内雌、雄个体的行为差异不大,秃鹫发情期各种行为所占的比例存在着一定的性别差异.%During the period from March to May 2012, direct instant scanning in combination with video monitoring were used to study the breeding activities of a pair of captive Cinereous Vultures during the breeding period in Shunyi breeding research base of the Beijing wildlife rescue center. The Vultures exhibited obvious behavior rhythms in warning, preparing feather, feeding, mating and hatching and other activities. There were higher proportions of warning and feather preparation among the activities. Warning was a prominent activity. Feeding was mostly done in mid morning, hatching was never discontinued with rotational duties. Little difference of behaviors was found between male and female during the hatching period. Gender differences were found in proportions of various activities during the breeding period.
Period meter output during startup transients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The time response of a period meter whose input signal comes from an ionization chamber may be calculated using a Ferranti Mercury digital computer programme. Details of the programme are given. The type of period meter considered is the one for which the input time constant is determined by the input capacity and the logarithmic element. The input excitation is a terminated ramp of reactivity. Other reactivity inputs may be treated. In particular the step change of reactivity may be used as the input excitation. Allowance is taken of the power dependent time constant associated with the logarithmic element and of the differentiating and integrating time constants in the period meter. The programme may be used by period meter designers to assess the performance of their instruments and may also be used by those carrying out safety and operations studies on reactors which use this type of period meter. An example of the use of the programme is given. (author)
Periodic solutions of periodically harvested lotka-volterra systems
Hausrath, Alan R.; Manasevich, Raul F.
2012-01-01
We study a Lotka-Volterra system with periodic harvesting, find sufficient conditions for the existence of periodic solutions with the same period, and, under certain conditions, count the number of such periodic solutions.
Spontaneous periodic hypothermia.
Kloos, R T
1995-09-01
Spontaneous periodic hypothermia is a rare syndrome of recurrent, centrally mediated hypothermia without an identifiable systemic cause or brain lesion. Most patients defend a temporarily lowered temperature "set point" during episodes of hypothermia, despite manifesting many well-known systemic consequences of core temperature hypothermia. No case of death directly attributable to an episode of spontaneous periodic hypothermia has been reported, although many of the serious systemic effects of hypothermia have been documented in these cases, so it is not unlikely that death may occur. The syndrome's cause, and that of Shapiro syndrome, remains unknown. Pharmacologic trials to date have been only modestly successful. Anticonvulsant agents, clonidine, and cyproheptadine appear the most likely to succeed, with cyproheptadine being a reasonable first choice. Given that the term "spontaneous periodic hypothermia" describes a syndrome, and not a pathophysiologic mechanism, it is likely to encompass a common eventuality, arrived at via several different pathways. One can postulate mechanisms such as structural abnormalities, trauma, infection, irritation, and degeneration involving strategic locations which create a focus for epileptic or other periodic dysfunction whose scope involves the centers for thermoregulation. The existence of 2 distinct, oppositional thermoregulatory centers would allow for speculation of similar mechanisms accounting for cases of both periodic hypo- and hyperthermia (61). Postmortem data regarding the hypothalamic and surrounding areas from future cases of Shapiro syndrome and spontaneous periodic hypothermia would be of great interest. Further, more sensitive in vivo testing methods are clearly needed. The role of PET or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium 99m-labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (Tc 99m HMPAO) performed acutely during an episode remains to be characterized (64, 103, 105). The term
Periodically kicked turbulence
Lohse
2000-10-01
Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041
Soliton Management in Periodic Systems
Malomed, Boris A
2006-01-01
During the past ten years, there has been intensive development in theoretical and experimental research of solitons in periodic media. This book provides a unique and informative account of the state-of-the-art in the field. The volume opens with a review of the existence of robust solitary pulses in systems built as a periodic concatenation of very different elements. Among the most famous examples of this type of systems are the dispersion management in fiber-optic telecommunication links, and (more recently) photonic crystals. A number of other systems belonging to the same broad class of spatially periodic strongly inhomogeneous media (such as the split-step and tandem models) have recently been identified in nonlinear optics, and transmission of solitary pulses in them was investigated in detail. Similar soliton dynamics occurs in temporal-domain counterparts of such systems, where they are subject to strong time-periodic modulation (for instance, the Feshbach-resonance management in Bose-Einstein conde...
Periodic paralysis complicating malaria.
Senanayake, N; Wimalawansa, S J
1981-01-01
Episodic muscular weakness, commonly associated with alterations of serum potassium, is the cardinal feature of periodic paralysis. The combination of transient hyperkalaemia and rigors occurring during febrile episodes of malaria is suggested as the underlying cause which precipitated the muscular paralysis. Three patients with malaria who developed a similar paralysis during the paroxysms of fever are described to illustrate this.
Johnson, Mike
1998-01-01
Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…
Treatment for periodic paralysis
Sansone, [No Value; Meola, G.; Links, T. P.; Panzeri, M.; Rose, M. R.
2008-01-01
Background Primary periodic paralyses are rare inherited muscle diseases characterised by episodes of flaccid weakness affecting one or more limbs, lasting several hours to several days, caused by mutations in skeletal muscle channel genes. Objectives The objective of this review was to systematical
Williamson, Ronald
2010-01-01
Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高巧琴; 雒志江
2011-01-01
A competitive system was studied that has a discrete delay stage-structure and cannibalism, where one of the species has two stages, an immature stage and a mature stage. By means of the continuous theorem of coincidence degree theory,a sufficient condition is obtained for the existence of a positive periodic solution of the system when cannibalism occurs.%研究了一类具有时滞和自食的非自治阶段结构竞争系统的动力学行为,其中一种群分幼年和成年两个阶段.当发生自食现象时,利用重合度理论中的延拓定理,得到该系统正周期解存在的充分条件.
Nonlinear quasimodes near elliptic periodic geodesics
Albin, Pierre; Marzuola, Jeremy L; Thomann, Laurent
2011-01-01
We consider the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation on a compact manifold near an elliptic periodic geodesic. Using a geometric optics construction, we construct quasimodes to a nonlinear stationary problem which are highly localized near the periodic geodesic. We show the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger evolution of such a quasimode remains localized near the geodesic, at least for short times.
Automatically identifying periodic social events from Twitter
Kunneman, F.A.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den
2015-01-01
Many events referred to on Twitter are of a periodic nature, characterized by roughly constant time intervals in between occurrences. Examples are annual music festivals, weekly television programs, and the full moon cycle. We propose a system that can automatically identify periodic events from Twi
The Detection of Hidden Periodicities in EEG
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YOU Rong-yi
2007-01-01
Abstract.A novel method for detecting the hidden periodicities in EEG is proposed.By using a width-varying window in the time domain, the structure function of EEG time series is defined. It is found that the minima of the structure function, within a finite window width, can be found regularly, which indicate that there are some certain periodicities associated with EEG time series. Based on the structure function, a further quadratic structure function of EEG time series is defined. By quadratic structure function, it can be seen that the periodicities of EEG become more obvious, moreover, the period of EEG can be determined accurately. These results will be meaningful for studying the neuron activity inside the human brain.
Coping with Common Period Problems (For Teens)
... and your period — is excessive exercising , usually distance running, ballet, or gymnastics, combined with a poor diet. For exercise to be excessive, it means more than just playing soccer a few times a week or working out ...
Scattering of periodic solitons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cova, R.J. [Carleton University, School of Mathematics and Statistics, 1125 Colonel by Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Zakrzewski, W.J. [University of Durham, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)]. e-mail: rcova@math.carleton.ca
2004-07-01
Through numerical simulations we study N-soliton scattering (N = 3, 4) in the (2 + 1)-dimensional CP{sup 1} model with periodic boundary conditions. Solitons colliding from symmetrical configurations scatter at {pi}/ N, as observed in the usual model with standard boundary conditions. When the initial configurations are not symmetric the angles differ from {pi}/ N. We describe our observed patterns based on a properly formulated geodesic approximation. (Author) 11 refs., 10 figs.
Permeability relation for periodic structures.
Dunn, K J; LaTorraca, G A; Bergman, D J
1998-01-01
The permeability relation for periodic porous media is studied with respect to other petrophysical parameters such as formation factor, porosity, surface-to-volume ratio, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time. All these quantities were computed for periodic structures of simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic arrays of touching and overlapping spheres. The formation factors were calculated by using a method which is based on a Fourier-space representation of an integral equation for the electric potential in a two-component composite. The nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time for the case where surface-enchanced relaxation plays a dominant role is known to be V P/rho S (VP is the pore volume, S is the pore surface, is the surface relaxation strength) when rho is not too large. Previously calculated permeabilities for these structures from the literature were used for correlation studies with other petrophysical parameters. Various correlation schemes among these quantities, such as k = aTbFc, and k = aTb phi c, were investigated, where k is permeability, T is the NMR relaxation time, phi is the porosity, and F is the formation factor. PMID:9803908
Mackay, Alan L.
1985-04-01
A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.
Pasham, Dheeraj R
2013-01-01
Using all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray (3-10 keV) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1 we searched for a correlation between its variable mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency and its hardness ratio (5-10 keV/3-5 keV), an indicator of the energy spectral power-law index. When stellar-mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibit Type-C low-frequency QPOs (~ 0.2-15 Hz) the centroid frequency of the QPO is known to correlate with the energy spectral index. The detection of such a correlation would strengthen the identification of M82 X-1's mHz QPOs as Type-C and enable a more reliable mass estimate by scaling its QPO frequencies to those of Type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass. We resolved the count rates and the hardness ratios of M82 X-1 and a nearby bright ULX (source 5/X42.3+59) through surface brightness modeling. We detected QPOs in the frequency range of 36-210 mHz during which M82 X-1's hardness ratio varied from 0.42-0.47. Our primary results are: (1) we do not detect any correlati...
Cyclical period changes in Z Chamaeleontis
Baptista, R; Oliveira, E; Vrielmann, S; Woudt, P A; Catalan, M S
2002-01-01
We report the identification of cyclical changes in the orbital period of the eclipsing dwarf nova Z Cha. We used times of mid-eclipse collected from the literature and our new eclipse timings to construct an observed-minus-calculated diagram covering 30 years of observations (1972-2002). The data present cyclical variations that can be fitted by a linear plus sinusoidal function with period 28+/-2 yr and amplitude 1.0+/-0.2 minute. The statistical significance of this period by an F-test is larger than 99.9%. The derived fractional period change, Delta P/P= 4.4 x 10^{-7}, is comparable to that of other short-period cataclysmic variables (CVs), but is one order of magnitude smaller than those of the long-period CVs. Separate fits to the first and second half of the data lead to ephemerides with quite different cycle periods and amplitudes, indicating that the variation is not sinusoidal or, most probably, is not strictly periodic. The observed cyclical period change is possibly caused by a solar-type magnetic...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nester, K. [Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung
1997-12-31
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) belong to the group of environmentally hazardous substances because of their cancerogenous effect. They occur both as gases and in particulate form and are released by man into the atmosphere as combustion products. They play a role not only in the atmosphere but also in soil. An essential process permitting these substances to penetrate into the soil is by deposition from the atmosphere.- The study had the aim of assessing atmospheric PAH deposition to the soil. The outcome is used to simulate PAH behaviour in soil, a task which also forms part of the interlaboratory project `soil`. As PAHs are regularly measured only in a few places, PAH transfer from atmosphere to soil needs to be numerically modelled. That the model can do this was first of all to be demonstrated for a short period. The result is described in the paper. Subsequently, statements regarding long-term PAH transfer are attempted. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Polycyklischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) gehoeren wegen ihrer kanzerogenen Wirkungen zu den umweltbelastenden Substanzen. Sie treten sowohl als Gase als auch als Partikel auf und werden antropogen als Verbrennungsprodukte in die Atmosphaere freigesetzt. Neben ihrer Wirkung in der Atmosphaere spielen sie im Boden eine Rolle. Ein wesentlicher Prozess, der diese Substanzen in den Boden gelangen laesst, ist die Deposition aus der Atmosphaere zum Boden. Ziel der Untersuchungen war es, den atmosphaerischen Eintrag der PAK in den Boden zu bestimmen. Dieser Eintrag dient der Simulation des Verhaltens der PAK im Boden, der ebenfalls Bestandteil des Verbundprojekts `Boden` war. Da es nur wenige Stellen gibt, an denen regelmaessig PAK`s gemessen werden, ist es notwendig, den PAK Eintrag aus der Atmosphaere zum Boden mittels Modellrechnungen abzuschaetzen. Dabei sollte zunaechst fuer eine kurze Episode gezeigt werden, dass das Modell in der Lage ist, dies zu leisten. Dieses Ergebnis wird im folgenden vorgestellt
Polysheroidal periodic functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given
Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanorice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohanty Paritosh
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO with nanorice morphology was successfully synthesized by a template assisted sol–gel method using a chain-type precursor. The PMO is composed of D and T sites in the ratio 1:2. The obtained mesoporous nanorice has a surface area of 753 m2 g−1, one-dimensional channels, and a narrow pore size distribution centered at 4.3 nm. The nanorice particles have a length of ca. 600 nm and width of ca. 200 nm.
Kudla, Stephen
2012-01-01
We consider the "occult" period maps into ball quotients which exist for the moduli spaces of cubic surfaces, cubic threefolds, non-hyperelliptic curves of genus three and four. These were constructed in the work of Allcock/Carlson/Toledo, Looijenga/Swierstra, and Kondo. We interpret these maps as morphisms into moduli spaces of polarized abelian varieties of Picard type, and show that these morphisms, whose initial construction is transcendental, are defined over the natural field of definition of the spaces involved. This paper is extracted from section 15 of our paper arXiv:0912.3758, and differs from it only in some points of exposition.
The postanesthetic period. Complications.
Malamed, S F
1987-01-01
Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.
Scattering of periodic solitons
Cova, R J
2003-01-01
With the help of numerical simulations we study N-soliton scattering (N=3,4) in the (2+1)-dimensional CP^1 model with periodic boundary conditions. When the solitons are scattered from symmetrical configurations the scattering angles observed agree with the earlier \\pi/N predictions based on the model on R_2 with standard boundary conditions. When the boundary conditions are not symmetric the angles are different from \\pi/N. We present an explanation of our observed patterns based on a properly formulated geodesic approximation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄小珊; 刘康
2011-01-01
兼职班主任是高校思想政治教育工作队伍的重要组成部分。文章从工作实际出发,阐述兼职班主任在新生入学教育中的工作重点和内容,坚持班主任＂以育人为中心＂的工作目标,处理好专业和兼职的关系,明确贴心＂保姆＂、知心朋友、实干领导等三种角色,把握工作准备期、感情培养期、学习交流期、工作小结期等四个阶段,引导新生树立责任意识、学习观念、学习方法、人际交往和生活习惯等五个目标。%Part-time class advisors weigh an important role in the ideological and political education in those top universities. This paper would like to elaborate on the key points and some details of their work from a practical perspective. Class advisors need to set their goals as ＂putting people＇s education to the first place＂,compromise their work between full-time job and part-time job,deal with their relations with students as considerate nurses,bosom friends,and capable leaders. If they take full advantage of the following four phases：working preparation,emotion cultivation,study exchanges and working summary,it will help them to guide students how to set up responsible consciousness,learning ideas,learning methods, interpersonal communication ,living habits and some more goals.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grazyna Wójcik
2008-04-01
Full Text Available To date, there has been little research examining whether short-time changes of external environmental conditions exert any effects on immune responses. The activation of metabolic changes, release of hormones responsive for immunomodulation and the action of interleukins play an important role in interaction with hormones of an anterior pituitary gland in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of a short-time change of ambient temperature (30 minutes on interleukin-6 (IL-6 and corticosterone plasma concentration of female rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal environmental parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used during the experiment. The estimation of the vaginal lavage using a microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. On the day of the experiment, animals were divided into 2 groups: the control group (ambient temperature 21 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 and the test group (ambient temperature 10 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes. The blood samples were collected before the experiment and after 30, 60, 90, 150 and 210 minutes from the beginning of the experiment. The concentrations of IL-6 and corticosterone were measured in blood plasma samples using ELISA method. There was a significant elevation of IL-6 levels after staying in 10 degrees C during the first 150 minutes from the beginning of the experiment, with the highest value occurring after 60 minutes (426.6 pg/ml; SE - 146.1 with comparison to the value at first sampling (108.5 pg/ml; SE - 29.5; p<0.05 and with comparison to the control group at the same time from the beginning of the experiment (87.6 pg/ml; SE - 2.3; p<0.05. The changed level of corticosterone in the test group in comparison to control group was observed but the differences were
Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Blazars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Alok C. Gupta
2014-09-01
Here we report our recent discoveries of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in blazars time series data in X-ray and optical electromagnetic bands. Any such detection can give important clues of the location and nature of the processes of emission mechanism. In the case of radio-quiet AGN, the detected QPOs are very likely to be associated with the accretion disk. But in the case of blazars, it may be associated with jets in the high and outburst states, and in the low-state, it is probably associated with the accretion disk. In this brief review, I summarize the recent QPO detections in blazars. There is one strong evidence of QPO detection in XMM–Newton time series data of narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396 about which we will also discuss briefly.
de Avellar, M G B; Sanna, A; Horvath, J E
2013-01-01
(abridged) We studied the energy and frequency dependence of the Fourier time lags and intrinsic coherence of the kHz QPOs in the NS LMXBs 4U 1608-52 and 4U 1636-53 using RXTE data. In both sources we confirmed energy-dependent soft lags of 10-100 \\mu s for the lower kHz QPO. We also found that the time lags of the upper kHz QPO are independent of energy and inconsistent with the soft lags of the lower kHz QPO. The intrinsic coherence of the lower kHz QPO remains constant at 0.6 from 5 to 12 keV, and then drops to zero, while for the upper kHz QPO the intrinsic coherence is consistent with zero across the full energy range. The intrinsic coherence of the upper kHz QPO is consistent with zero over the full frequency range of the QPO, except in 4U 1636-53 at ~780 Hz where it increases to 0.13. In 4U 1636-53, for the lower kHz QPO the 4-12 keV photons lag the 12-20 keV ones by 25 \\mu s in the QPO frequency range 500-850 Hz, with the lags decreasing to 15 \\mu s at higher frequencies. In 4U 1608-52 the soft lags o...
Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.
2013-01-01
Using all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray (3-10 keV) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1, we searched for a correlation between its variable mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency and its hardness ratio (5-10 keV/3-5 keV), an indicator of the energy spectral power-law index. When stellar-mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibit type-C low-frequency QPOs (0.2-15 Hz), the centroid frequency of the QPO is known to correlate with the energy spectral index. The detection of such a correlation would strengthen the identification of M82 X-1's mHz QPOs as type-C and enable a more reliable mass estimate by scaling its QPO frequencies to those of type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass.We resolved the count rates and the hardness ratios of M82 X-1 and a nearby bright ULX (source 5/X42.3+59) through surface brightness modeling.We detected QPOs in the frequency range of 36-210 mHz during which M82 X-1's hardness ratio varied from 0.42 to 0.47. Our primary results are (1) that we do not detect any correlation between the mHz QPO frequency and the hardness ratio (a substitute for the energy spectral power-law index) and (2) similar to some accreting X-ray binaries, we find that M82 X-1's mHz QPO frequency increases with its X-ray count rate (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.97). The apparent lack of a correlation between the QPO centroid frequency and the hardness ratio poses a challenge to the earlier claims that the mHz QPOs of M82 X-1 are the analogs of the type-C low-frequency QPOs of StMBHs. On the other hand, it is possible that the observed relation between the hardness ratio and the QPO frequency represents the saturated portion of the correlation seen in type-C QPOs of StMBHs-in which case M82 X-1's mHz QPOs can still be analogous to type-C QPOs.
Periods and Superstring Amplitudes
Stieberger, S
2016-01-01
Scattering amplitudes which describe the interaction of physical states play an important role in determining physical observables. In string theory the physical states are given by vibrations of open and closed strings and their interactions are described (at the leading order in perturbation theory) by a world-sheet given by the topology of a disk or sphere, respectively. Formally, for scattering of N strings this leads to N-3-dimensional iterated real integrals along the compactified real axis or N-3-dimensional complex sphere integrals, respectively. As a consequence the physical observables are described by periods on M_{0,N} - the moduli space of Riemann spheres of N ordered marked points. The mathematical structure of these string amplitudes share many recent advances in arithmetic algebraic geometry and number theory like multiple zeta values, single-valued multiple zeta values, Drinfeld, Deligne associators, Hopf algebra and Lie algebra structures related to Grothendiecks Galois theory. We review the...
Short Periodicities in Latitudinal Variation of Sunspots
Kim, Bang-Yeop; Chang, Heon-Young
2011-06-01
The latitudinal variation of sunspots appearing during the period from 1874 to 2009 has been studied in terms of centerof- latitude (COL). The butterfly diagram has been used to study the evolution of the magnetic field and the dynamics at the bottom of the solar convection zone. Short-term periodicities have been of particular interest, in that they are somehow related to the structure and dynamics of the solar interior. We thus have focused our investigation on shortterm periodicities. We first calculated COL by averaging the latitude of sunspots with the weight function in area. Then, we analyzed the time series of COL using the wavelet transform technique. We found that a periodicity of ~5 years is the most dominant feature in the time series of COL, with the exception of the ~11 year solar cycle itself. This periodicity can be easily understood by considering small humps between the minima in the area-weighted butterfly diagram. However, we find that periodicities of ~1.3 (0.064), ~1.5 (0.056), or ~1.8 (0.046) years ( 1/ month ), which have been previously suggested as evidence of links between the changing structure of the sunspot zone and the tachocline rotation rate oscillations, are insignificant and inconsistent. We therefore conclude that the only existing short-term periodicity is of ~5 years, and that periodicities of ~1.3, ~1.5, or ~1.8 years are likely to be artifacts due to random noise of small sunspots.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘学英; 廖倩; 周华; 吴娟; 邓雪雁; 唐义英; 汪丽萍; 万雨莉; 胡鸽
2016-01-01
[目的]探讨结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换的适宜时间。[方法]采取单纯随机抽样方法将156例结肠造口病人分为 A组、B 组、C 组，分别间隔3 d、5 d、7 d 更换1次造口底盘，观察其效果并比较造口周围皮肤状况、病人对造口的自我感受情况。[结果]B 组底盘浸渍宽度、渗漏、造口周围皮肤并发症及造口材料费用等均优于 C 组(P 0.05)。[结论]结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换间隔时间以5 d 为宜；标准的造口护理流程和适宜的造口底盘更换时间，能减少造口周围皮肤并发症的发生，病人感觉更舒适。%Objective:To investigate the suitable replacement time of colostomy stoma chassis during hospitaliza-tion.Methods:A total of 156 cases of colostomy patients using simple random sampling method were divided in-to A,B,C three groups,with the stoma chassis replacement interval of three days,five days,seven days respec-tively.Observation and comparison were conducted on the skin condition around the periosteal wound,DET score and the feeling of patients.Results:According to the comparison of the width of impregnated chassis,con-dition of leakage,probability of skin complications,DET score and the material expenses of these three sample groups,results of group B is better than that of group C(P 0.05).Conclusion:Under the standardized nursing procedure,the interval of five days is the most appropriate time for colostomy stoma patient to replace stoma chassis.It can reduce the probability of skin complications around stoma and make patient feel more comfortable during treatment.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘学英; 廖倩; 周华; 吴娟; 邓雪雁; 唐义英; 汪丽萍; 万雨莉; 胡鸽
2016-01-01
Objective:To investigate the suitable replacement time of colostomy stoma chassis during hospitaliza-tion.Methods:A total of 156 cases of colostomy patients using simple random sampling method were divided in-to A,B,C three groups,with the stoma chassis replacement interval of three days,five days,seven days respec-tively.Observation and comparison were conducted on the skin condition around the periosteal wound,DET score and the feeling of patients.Results:According to the comparison of the width of impregnated chassis,con-dition of leakage,probability of skin complications,DET score and the material expenses of these three sample groups,results of group B is better than that of group C(P 0.05).Conclusion:Under the standardized nursing procedure,the interval of five days is the most appropriate time for colostomy stoma patient to replace stoma chassis.It can reduce the probability of skin complications around stoma and make patient feel more comfortable during treatment.%[目的]探讨结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换的适宜时间。[方法]采取单纯随机抽样方法将156例结肠造口病人分为 A组、B 组、C 组，分别间隔3 d、5 d、7 d 更换1次造口底盘，观察其效果并比较造口周围皮肤状况、病人对造口的自我感受情况。[结果]B 组底盘浸渍宽度、渗漏、造口周围皮肤并发症及造口材料费用等均优于 C 组(P 0.05)。[结论]结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换间隔时间以5 d 为宜；标准的造口护理流程和适宜的造口底盘更换时间，能减少造口周围皮肤并发症的发生，病人感觉更舒适。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
柴燕; 赵新宇; 周杰
2012-01-01
In this paper, streptomycin and oxytetracycline were selected as the behalf of antibiotics in order to find a suitable the withdrawal time in honey, through competitive enzyme -linked immunoassay methods. The results showed that, after the treatment 33 days ,43 days, the streptomycin and oxytetracycline in honey were 5.67, 7.77μg/kg respectively. It has been in line with the European Union, Japan and the United States imported requirements （less than 10 μg/kg）.%以竞争酶联免疫分析手段，通过选择养蜂生产中常用的链霉素和土霉素作为试验代表药物，研究蜂蜜中药物残留消除情况，探讨药物的休药期，以找到合适的给药途径和休药期。试验结果显示，链霉素在给药后33d，土霉素在给药后43d，两者在蜂蜜中的残留量分别是5．67、7．77μg／kg，已经符合欧盟、日本及美国等进口方最严要求（≤10μg／kg）。
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toshihiro Yoshihara
2013-08-01
Full Text Available This article describes a gas monitoring system for detecting nitrous oxide (N2O gas using a compact mid-infrared laser source based on difference-frequency generation in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide. We obtained a stable output power of 0.62 mW from a 4.6-μm-band continuous-wave laser source operating at room temperature. This laser source enabled us to detect atmospheric N2O gas at a concentration as low as 35 parts per billion. Using this laser source, we constructed a new real-time in-situ monitoring system for detecting N2O gas emitted from potted plants. A few weeks of monitoring with the developed detection system revealed a strong relationship between nitrogen fertilization and N2O emission. This system is promising for the in-situ long-term monitoring of N2O in agricultural production, and it is also applicable to the detection of other greenhouse gases.
Geometry of Periodic Monopoles
Maldonado, Rafael
2013-01-01
BPS monopoles on $\\mathbb{R}^2\\timesS^1$ correspond, via the generalized Nahm transform, to certain solutions of the Hitchin equations on the cylinder $\\mathbb{R}\\times S^1$. The moduli space M of two monopoles with their centre-of-mass fixed is a 4-dimensional manifold with a natural hyperk\\"ahler metric, and its geodesics correspond to slow-motion monopole scattering. The purpose of this paper is to study the geometry of M in terms of the Nahm/Hitchin data, i.e. in terms of structures on $\\mathbb{R}\\times S^1$. In particular, we identify the moduli, derive the asymptotic metric on M, and discuss several geodesic surfaces and geodesics on M. The latter include novel examples of monopole dynamics.
Periodic and limit-periodic discrete Schr\\"odinger operators
Krueger, Helge
2011-01-01
The theory of discrete periodic and limit-periodic Schr\\"odinger operators is developed. In particular, the Floquet--Bloch decomposition is discussed. Furthermore, it is shown that an arbitrarily small potential can add a gap for even periods. In dimension two, it is shown that for coprime periods small potential terms don't add gaps thus proving a Bethe--Sommerfeld type statement. Furthermore limit-periodic potentials whose spectrum is an interval are constructed.
The dynamic multi-period vehicle routing problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wen, Min; Cordeau, Jean-Francois; Laporte, Gilbert;
2010-01-01
This paper considers the Dynamic Multi-Period Vehicle Routing Problem which deals with the distribution of orders from a depot to a set of customers over a multi-period time horizon. Customer orders and their feasible service periods are dynamically revealed over time. The objectives...
The Dynamic Multi-Period Vehicle Routing Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wen, Min; Cordeau, Jean-Francois; Laporte, Gilbert;
This paper considers the Dynamic Multi-Period Vehicle Routing Problem which deals with the distribution of orders from a depot to a set of customers over a multi-period time horizon. Customer orders and their feasible service periods are dynamically revealed over time. The objectives...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
乔征磊; 张洪海
2012-01-01
[目的]研究东北虎在非繁殖期和发情交配期活动节律的差异,以及其活动节律之间是否存在性别差异.[方法]采用行为取样法对7只(3雌4雄)东北虎的发情交配期和非繁殖期进行了观察.[结果]东北虎发情交配期的主要行为包括休息、运动和发情交配,其中雌虎在发情交配期和非繁殖期休息和运动时间差别不大,而雄虎发情交配期的休息时间较非繁殖期明显下降,运动差异不明显；雌雄虎在非繁殖期和发情交配期的休息、运动和发情交配时间没有明显的性别差异.[结论]结果为优化东北虎的管理及提高其繁殖成功率提供了参考.%[Objective] The research aimed to study the difference on the activity rhythms of the Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) between the anestrous season and the rut mating period and study whether the sex difference was between their activity rhythms. [ Method ] The behavioral sampling method was used to investigate on the anestrous season and the rut mating period of 7 Siberian Tiger including 3 female and 4 male. [ Result]The main behaviors of the rut mating period for the Siberian tiger included resting,moving and rut matting,in which,the resting and moving time of the female tiger between the anestrous season and the rut mating period had a little difference,while the resting time of the male tiger in the rut mating period was obviously reduced compared that in the anestrous season and its moving time had no obviously difference. There were no obviously sex differences on resting,moving and rut matting time of the male tiger between the anestrous season and the rut mating period. [ Conclusion] The study provided the reference for the optimization of the Siberian Tiger management and the increase of its success rate of the reproduction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: A head-to-head comparison of two clinical correlation models with a focus on geometrical accuracy for internal tumor motion estimation during real-time tumor tracking (RTTT). Methods and materials: Both the CyberKnife (CK) and the Vero systems perform RTTT with a correlation model that is able to describe hysteresis in the breathing motion. The CK dual-quadratic (DQ) model consists of two polynomial functions describing the trajectory of the tumor for inhale and exhale breathing motion, respectively. The Vero model is based on a two-dimensional (2D) function depending on position and speed of the external breathing signal to describe a closed-loop tumor trajectory. In this study, 20 s of internal motion data, using an 11 Hz (on average) full fluoroscopy (FF) sequence, was used for training of the CK and Vero models. Further, a subsampled set of 15 internal tumor positions (15p) equally spread over the different phases of the breathing motion was used for separate training of the CK DQ model. Also a linear model was trained using 15p and FF tumor motion data. Fifteen liver and lung cancer patients, treated on the Vero system with RTTT, were retrospectively evaluated comparing the CK FF, CK 15p and Vero FF models using an in-house developed simulator. The distance between estimated target position and the tumor position localized by X-ray imaging was measured in the beams-eye view (BEV) to calculate the 95th percentile BEV modeling errors (ME95,BEV). Additionally, the percentage of ME95,BEV smaller than 5 mm (P5mm) was determined for all correlation models. Results: In general, no significant difference (p > 0.05, paired t-test) was found between the CK FF and Vero models. Based on patient-specific evaluation of the geometrical accuracy of the linear, CK DQ and Vero correlation models, no statistical necessity (p > 0.05, two-way ANOVA) of including hysteresis in correlation models was proven, although during inhale breathing motion, the linear model resulted
New Realization of Periodic Cycled Separation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toftegard, Bjarne; Clausen, Charlotte H.; Jørgensen, Sten B.;
2016-01-01
A new realization of periodic cycled gas/liquid separation is presented. Separation factors and column efficiencies are compared for a column stripping ammonia from water with air, using three different sets of internals: conventional sieve trays, Sulzer BX gauze packings, and periodically cycled...... trays. The proposed new periodic trays are shown to be advantageous compared to their continuous alternatives. It is demonstrated experimentally that periodic tray efficiencies of up to 300% are achievable. With the proposed new tray design, a new operation form is also introduced in which the trays...... are drained sequentially rather than simultaneously, such that the vapor flow is not interrupted during the liquid drainage. For different ratios of counter-current vapor/liquid flow rates, column efficiencies for periodically cycled columns are shown experimentally to be two times greater than those...
Periodicity of the earth's magnetic reversals
Stothers, R. B.
1986-01-01
Results are presented from an attempt to perform a relatively comprehensive analysis of the evidence for a periodicity, with harmonics, of the observed regular reversals of the earth's magnetic field. The database considered covers 296 reversals over the past 165 Myr. Histograms with bins 1 Myr apart reveal only 30 Myr reversal patterns. The reversal dates are fitted to a linear periodic function and a spectrum is computed for the residuals at the adopted dates. The possible presence of multiple periodicities is evaluated and over various time intervals. The analysis shows that a recently observed 15 Myr periodicity is probably a harmonic of the 29.5-30.5 Myr period. The calculations do not confirm an inherent magnetic reversal property of the earth. The reversals may arise from tectonic events or from impacts from extraterrestrial objects.
A new method for calculating the average period of current assets turnover in the analyzed period
Kulakova Julija Nikolaevna; Kulakov Andrej Borisovich
2015-01-01
The aim of this study is to develop a new method for calculating the average period of current assets turnover during the analyzed period without using of financial results (revenue, cost, etc.). To prove the advantages of the proposed method in comparison with the traditional method of calculating turnover the example of estimating the mean residence time in the analyzed period of working capital in the form of receivables is developed.
A new method for calculating the average period of current assets turnover in the analyzed period
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kulakova Julija Nikolaevna
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a new method for calculating the average period of current assets turnover during the analyzed period without using of financial results (revenue, cost, etc.. To prove the advantages of the proposed method in comparison with the traditional method of calculating turnover the example of estimating the mean residence time in the analyzed period of working capital in the form of receivables is developed.
Global bioevents and the question of periodicity
Sepkoski, J. John
The hypothesis of periodicity in extinction is an empirical claim that extinction events, while variable in magnitude, are regular in timing and therefore are serially dependent upon some single, ultimate cause with clocklike behavior. This hypothesis is controversal, in part because of questions regarding the identity and timing of certain extinction events and because of speculations concerning possible catastrophic extraterrestrial forcing mechanisms. New data on extinctions of marine animal genera are presented that display a high degree of periodicity in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic as well as a suggestion of nonstationary periodicity in the late Paleozoic. However, no periodicity is evident among the as yet poorly documented extinction events of the early and middle Paleozoic.
Amoebae Anticipate Periodic Events
Saigusa, Tetsu; Tero, Atsushi; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Kuramoto, Yoshiki
2008-01-01
When plasmodia of the true slime mold Physarum were exposed to unfavorable conditions presented as three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, they reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When the plasmodia were subsequently subjected to favorable conditions, they spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time when the next unfavorable episode would have occurred. This implied the anticipation of impending environmental change. We explored the mechanisms underlying these types of behavior from a dynamical systems perspective.
Periodicity of extinction: A 1988 update
Sepkowski, J. John, Jr.
1988-01-01
The hypothesis that events of mass extinction recur periodically at approximately 26 my intervals is an empirical claim based on analysis of data from the fossil record. The hypothesis has become closely linked with catastrophism because several events in the periodic series are associated with evidence of extraterrestrial impacts, and terrestrial forcing mechanisms with long, periodic recurrences are not easily conceived. Astronomical mechanisms that have been hypothesized include undetected solar companions and solar oscillation about the galactic plane, which induce comet showers and result in impacts on Earth at regular intervals. Because these mechanisms are speculative, they have been the subject of considerable controversy, as has the hypothesis of periodicity of extinction. In response to criticisms and uncertainties, a data base was developed on times of extinction of marine animal genera. A time series is given and analyzed with 49 sample points for the per-genus extinction rate from the Late Permian to the Recent. An unexpected pattern in the data is the uniformity of magnitude of many of the periodic extinction events. Observations suggest that the sequence of extinction events might be the result of two sets of mechanisms: a periodic forcing that normally induces only moderate amounts of extinction, and independent incidents or catastrophes that, when coincident with the periodic forcing, amplify its signal and produce major-mass extinctions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
滕瑞涛; 刘万洋; 蒋恩耀; 徐军; 赵明亮; 王久春; 张恩仁; 肖长礼; 苏秋菊; 孙素莲; 王健辉; 赵伟光; 高嵘
2010-01-01
目的 了解和比较辽宁省碘缺乏病病区不同补碘时期出生儿童智力水平.方法 1900-2007年,在辽宁省的6个碘缺乏病病区县(市、区)各选出1个乡,其中轻中重病区乡各2个.在6个乡的10所学校中,以病区供应碘盐初期(1978-1980年)、非碘盐充销期(1981-1990年)、恢复普及碘盐期(1991-1995年)、全民食盐加碘期(1996-2000年)出生的7～14岁儿童为凋查对象,用中国联合型瑞文测验(CRT-C)和第二版农村儿童智商(intelligence quotient,IQ)常模测试(CRT-RC2)检查儿童IQ.结果 病区儿童IQ在非碘盐充销期(91.9±14.3)明显低于供应碘盐初期(95.8±14.6,q=8.60,P<0.01),恢复普及碘盐期(99.7 ±14.7)明显高于供应碘盐初期、非碘盐充销期(q值分别为9.53、18.13,P均<0.01),全民食盐加碘期(104.3±14.9)明显高于供应碘盐初期、非碘盐充销期、恢复普及碘盐期(q值分别为20.00、28.00、10.46,P均<0.01).儿童智力落后率(IQ≤69)在非碘盐充销期(6.7%,88/1314)高于供应碘盐初期(4.4%,21/471,χ2=3.85,P<0.05),恢复普及碘盐期(3.3%,48/1470)明显低于非碘盐充销期(χ2=15.37,P<0.01),全民食盐加碘期(2.7%,36/1344)低于供应碘盐初期(χ2=4.41,P<0.05)和非碘盐充销期(χ2=26.34,P<0.01).供应碘盐初期各年度出生儿童IQ及智力落后率未有明显变化;非碘盐充销期的10年间,出生儿童IQ呈"∪"形降升,智力落后率则呈"∩"形升降;恢复普及碘盐时期出生儿童IQ逐年提高,智力落后率逐年降低;全民食盐加碘期各年度儿童IQ继续上升,智力落后率降到历史最低程度.结论 碘缺乏病病区非碘盐充销时期出生儿童智力水平明显低于供应碘盐初期儿童,全民食盐加碘期病区出生儿童智力水平较供应碘盐初期和恢复普及碘盐时期出生儿童有明显提高.%objecfive To know and compare the intelligence level of children born in different time periods in regions with iodine deficiency disorders
Detecting series periodicity with horizontal visibility graphs
Núñez, Angel M; Valero, Eusebio; Gómez, Jose Patricio; Luque, Bartolo
2011-01-01
The horizontal visibility algorithm has been recently introduced as a mapping between time series and networks. The challenge lies in characterizing the structure of time series (and the processes that generated those series) using the powerful tools of graph theory. Recent works have shown that the visibility graphs inherit several degrees of correlations from their associated series, and therefore such graph theoretical characterization is in principle possible. However, both the mathematical grounding of this promising theory and its applications are on its infancy. Following this line, here we address the question of detecting hidden periodicity in series polluted with a certain amount of noise. We first put forward some generic properties of horizontal visibility graphs which allow us to define a (graph theoretical) noise reduction filter. Accordingly, we evaluate its performance for the task of calculating the period of noisy periodic signals, and compare our results with standard time domain (autocorre...
Photolysis of Periodate and Periodic Acid in Aqueous Solution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sehested, Knud; Kläning, U. K.
1978-01-01
The photochemistry of periodate and periodic acid in aqueous solution was studied (i) by quantum yield measurements at low light intensity (ii) by flash photolysis, and (iii) by photolysis of glassy samples at 77 K. The photochemical studies were supplemented with pulse radiolysis studies...... of aqueous periodate solutions and with kinetic studies using stopped-flow technique. In strongly alkaline solution the photodecomposition of periodate proceeds via formation of O– and IVI. At pH
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周淼
2014-01-01
断代是古建筑研究的基本问题，而历经多次修缮并更换构件是古代木构建筑保存的常态。现存的大量宋元明建筑中都包含多种时代特征的构件，尤其在江南地区，断代标准如何选取、年代分析方法如何建构是个重要课题。本文以虎丘二山门为案例，讨论了古代木构建筑年代与价值认知、年代研究方法、江南地区构件样本库等问题，以及对文物建筑保护实践的启示。着重讨论了类型学方法在实物年代分析方面的运用。%Time period analysis is a basic issue of ancient architecture research. However, most of the Chinese ancient timber buildings which were built during 10-17th century have been restored for many times, and a lot of original components have been renewed. Historical restoring and renewing is an essential way to conserve ancient building. The wood structure of these buildings contains many types of components that belong to dif erent time periods, especial y in south China area. This paper discusses method to divide time period, and take the middle gate in Huqiu Yunyansi temple for example. The author also introduces practical value of this research.
Dynamic Simulation over Long Time Periods with 100% Solar Generation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Concepcion, Ricky James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elliott, Ryan Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-12-01
This project aimed to identify the path forward for dynamic simulation tools to accommodate these needs by characterizing the properties of power systems (with high PV penetration), analyzing how these properties affect dynamic simulation software, and offering solutions for potential problems.
26 CFR 301.7701(b)-4 - Residency time periods.
2010-04-01
... termination date for an alien who meets the green card test is the first day during the calendar year that the... test or the green card test. (3) Special rule. If an individual meets the green card test for the... meets the substantial presence test is the first day during the calendar year on which the individual...
Short-Period Information in GPS Time Series
Bogusz, Janusz; Figurski, Mariusz
2010-01-01
This paper presents results of the Polish Active Geodetic Network (ASG-EUPOS) processing. The analyses on the GPS coordinates from sub-diurnal solutions of ASG-EUPOS and EPN data provided by Warsaw Military University of Technology were performed. The aim of this research is to find out how the tidal models used in Bernese software (solid Earth and ocean tides as well) fit to the individual conditions of GPS stations. The 1-hour solution technique of GPS data processing was utilized to obtain coordinates of above 130 Polish and foreign stations. This processing technique allowed us to recognize residual diurnal and sub-diurnal oscillations which could be next utilized for validation of the tidal models used in GPS software.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王斌
2013-01-01
在时标理论和拓扑度理论基础之上,通过应用重合度理论的连续定理和时标上积分不等式技巧,给出了时标上一类具有Holling Ⅱ型功能性反应的非自治捕食者-食饵系统周期解的存在性的充分条件.%Based on the theory of the time scales and topological degree theory, by means of continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and some skills of integral inequalities on time scales, the sufficient condition of the existence of periodic solutions for a non-autonomous predator-prey system Holling type-Ⅱ functional response on time scales has been obtained. The result is of practical significance and application value in ecological management.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eliana Henriques de Brito
1990-01-01
Full Text Available In continuing from previous papers, where we studied the existence and uniqueness of the global solution and its asymptotic behavior as time t goes to infinity, we now search for a time-periodic weak solution u(t for the equation whose weak formulation in a Hilbert space H isddt(u′,v+δ(u′,v+αb(u,v+βa(u,v+(G(u,v=(h,vwhere: ′=d/dt; (′ is the inner product in H; b(u,v, a(u,v are given forms on subspaces U⊂W, respectively, of H; δ>0, α≥0, β≥0 are constants and α+β>0; G is the Gateaux derivative of a convex functional J:V⊂H→[0,∞ for V=U, when α>0 and V=W when α=0, hence β>0; v is a test function in V; h is a given function of t with values in H.
The redoubtable ecological periodic table
Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...
A new characterization of periodic oscillations in periodic difference equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al-Salman, Ahmad [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123, Al-Khod (Oman); AlSharawi, Ziyad, E-mail: alsha1zm@alsharawi.info [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123, Al-Khod (Oman)
2011-11-15
Highlights: > A characterization of periodic solutions of periodic difference equations is given. > The periods are classified as multiples and non-multiples of the phase-period. > Non-multiples of the phase-period depend on the intersections between the maps. > A refinement of Sharkovsky's theorem for periodic difference equations is given. - Abstract: In this paper, we characterize periodic solutions of p-periodic difference equations. We classify the periods into multiples of p and nonmultiples of p. We show that the elements of the set of multiples of p follow the well-known Sharkovsky's ordering multiplied by p. On the other hand, we show that the elements of the set {Gamma}{sub p} of nonmultiples of p are independent in their existence. Moreover, we show the existence of a p-periodic difference equation with infinite {Gamma}{sub p}-set in which the maps are defined on a compact domain and agree exactly on a countable set. Based on the proposed classification, we give a refinement of Sharkovsky's theorem for periodic difference equations.
Near-periodical spin period evolution in the binary system LMC X-4
Molkov, S; Falanga, M; Tsygankov, S; Bozzo, E
2016-01-01
In this paper we investigated the long-term evolution of the pulse-period in the high-mass X-ray binary LMC X-4 by taking advantage of more than 43~yrs of measurements in the X-ray domain. Our analysis revealed for the first time that the source is displaying near-periodical variations of its spin period on a time scale of roughly 6.8~yrs, making LMC X-4 one of the known binary systems showing remarkable long term spin torque reversals. We discuss different scenarios to interpret the origin of these torque reversals.
Periods and elementary real numbers
Yoshinaga, Masahiko
2008-01-01
The periods, introduced by Kontsevich and Zagier, form a class of complex numbers which contains all algebraic numbers and several transcendental quantities. Little has been known about qualitative properties of periods. In this paper, we compare the periods with hierarchy of real numbers induced from computational complexities. In particular we prove that periods can be effectively approximated by elementary rational Cauchy sequences. As an application, we exhibit a computable real number wh...
Robinson’s Indirect Ways to Support Critical Period Hypothesis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Si-qin
2014-01-01
On the Critical Period Hypothesis, Robinson indirectly supported it in his paper Individual Differences, Cognitive Abili-ties, Aptitude Complexes and Learning Conditions in Second Language Acquisition. This paper digs out that time-boundedness and different lengths of time are important issues in his frame work, closely related with the critical period of time for language acquisi-tion. In conclusion, Robinson’s framework is convincing, with the premise of admitting the existence of the critical period hy-pothesis.
Transversally periodic solitary gravity-capillary waves.
Milewski, Paul A; Wang, Zhan
2014-01-01
When both gravity and surface tension effects are present, surface solitary water waves are known to exist in both two- and three-dimensional infinitely deep fluids. We describe here solutions bridging these two cases: travelling waves which are localized in the propagation direction and periodic in the transverse direction. These transversally periodic gravity-capillary solitary waves are found to be of either elevation or depression type, tend to plane waves below a critical transverse period and tend to solitary lumps as the transverse period tends to infinity. The waves are found numerically in a Hamiltonian system for water waves simplified by a cubic truncation of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator. This approximation has been proved to be very accurate for both two- and three-dimensional computations of fully localized gravity-capillary solitary waves. The stability properties of these waves are then investigated via the time evolution of perturbed wave profiles. PMID:24399922
Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.
Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin Wei [Laboratory of Nonlinear Mathematics Science, Institute of Mathematics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: weilin@fudan.edu.cn; Chen Tianping [Laboratory of Nonlinear Mathematics Science, Institute of Mathematics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: tchen@fudan.edu.cn
2005-01-17
In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.