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Sample records for 18th radiation biology

  1. 18th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The International Workshops on Radiation Imaging Detectors are held yearly and provide an international forum for discussing current research and developments in the area of position sensitive detectors for radiation imaging, including semiconductor detectors, gas and scintillator-based detectors. Topics include processing and characterization of detector materials, hybridization and interconnect technologies, design of counting or integrating electronics, readout and data acquisition systems, and applications in various scientific and industrial fields. The workshop will have plenary sessions with invited and contributed papers presented orally and in poster sessions. The invited talks will be chosen to review recent advances in different areas covered in the workshop.

  2. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Australia there have been reported more than 200 species of Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) including: cyanobacteria, mosses and lichens. Working at the species level of BSC poses particular difficulties for different aspects of environmental management because of the problems caused by in taxonomy, small size, lack of experts for identification and the intermixing of taxa. From the 1970s BSC classification based on the morphology has been utilised for ecological studies. This study explores the possibility of spectral classification of BSC components for ecological studies and considers the use of hyperspectral remote sensing techniques. Although, in some locations the percentage cover of BSC exceeds 70% of land cover, many previous remote sensing studies of land cover have either neglected BSC, or considered it as one group. In this study visible and near-infrared (350-1100 nm) reflectance spectra of BSC were collected with a UniSpec PPSystem spectrometer in the laboratory under a 1000 W Halogen lamp. Biological components varied in chlorophyll, physiological status, colour and other pigment contents. The measured spectra demonstrate considerable variation both within and between species. Factors contributing to spectral variation were identified by principal components analysis. Functional, taxonomic and morphological groups of BSC species were classified using discriminant analysis of the narrow-bands (3.3 nm) spectra. Both principal components and discriminant analysis showed promising results for grouping BSC variation and finally 9 groups from 21 field groups (33 species) were classified

  3. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Selenium is an environmentally relevant trace metal, recognised not only for its role as an essential trace nutrient in living systems, but also for its devastating impacts at elevated concentrations, including fish deformities and death from selenium-laden waters and sediment. There are escalating concerns that the consumption of selenium-contaminated foods (e.g. fish and bivalves) will have an impact on human health. A comprehensive understanding of organic and inorganic selenium tissue concentrations is required if we are to assess the toxic effects of selenium in marine organisms and the flow-on effects to human consumers. Currently, whole sediment bioassays measuring total metal concentration effects are being used to assess the toxicity of metal contaminated sediments. However, for most sediment-dwelling organisms, sediments particles, pore waters and overlying waters, as well as food sources (e.g. algae) may all contribute to the accumulation of metal contaminants. Furthermore, the species of metal (and not the total metal concentration) in each of these compartments will also modify metal toxicity and uptake rates. For most species routinely used in toxicity tests, the relative importance of the different contaminant exposure pathways (overlying waters, sediment, food) has not been evaluated. If we know which compartment(s) induce toxic responses in the test organisms, we can use that knowledge to more effectively manage contaminated environments. The radiotracer 75Se produced in HIFAR was used to determine the uptake routes and accumulation sites in biological organisms. Comparatively, high sensitivity of gamma counter techniques and minimal sample preparation to ICP-MS and AAS provided for a faster and more efficient method to monitor the uptake of selenium. Biodistribution studies evaluating the bioavailability of Se from water, sediment and algae in the endemic Australian marine bivalve Anadara trapezia is presently under investigation and

  4. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    was found to be ∼0.3mm. DISCUSSION and CONCLUSIONS: The use of transmitted dose maps, instead of EPID raw pixel values, is not only able to detect the slight MLC shifts and uncertainties, but also is able to predict the amount of the variation of the delivered dose to the surrounding tissues that are to be protected during the radiation course. The simplicity, accuracy, efficiency and additional information about delivered dose are the advantages of this technique

  5. Mini-Proceedings, 18th meeting of the Working Group on Radiative Corrections and MC Generators for Low Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Czyż, H; Ignatov, F; Keshavarzi, A; Kupsc, A; Lyubovitskij, V E; Masjuan, P; Nyffeler, A; Pancheri, G; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E; Venanzoni, G

    2016-01-01

    The mini-proceedings of the 18$^{\\mathrm{th}}$ Meeting of the "Working Group on Radiative Corrections and MonteCarlo Generators for Low Energies" held in Frascati, 19$^{\\mathrm{th}}$ - 20$^{\\mathrm{st}}$ May, are presented. These meetings, started in 2006, have as aim to bring together experimentalists and theoreticians working in the fields of meson transition form factors, hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the leptons, and the effective fine structure constant. The development of MonteCarlo generators and Radiative Corrections for precision $e^+e^-$ and $\\tau$-lepton physics are also covered, with emphasis on meson production. At this workshop, a documentary entitled {\\it Bruno Touschek with AdA in Orsay} commemorating the first observation of electron-positron collisions in a laboratory was also presented. With this edition, the working group reaches 10 years of continuous activities.

  6. Proceedings of the 18th technical meeting on nuclear reactor and radiation for KURRI engineers and the 9th technical official group section 5 meeting in Kyoto University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of 18th Technical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor and Radiation for KURRI Engineers in Kyoto University. This was also the 9th meeting for technical official group section 5 (nuclear and radiation) in Kyoto University. In the workshop, three special lectures held were: (1) 'On Border Between Subcritical and Supercritical', (2) 'Memories of Nuclear Power Plant Management for 40 Years', and (3) 'Introduction of Technical Office in Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University'. The technical presentations held were: (1) 'Radiation Background Study of Specialty Products in Senshu Region', (2) 'Introduction of Radioactivation Analysis at KUR', (3) 'Consideration of Critical Approach Method for KUR Low-Enrichment Fuel Reactor Core Using SRAC', (4) 'Evaluation of Temperature Coefficient of KUR Low-Enrichment Fuel Reactor Core Using SRAC'. As training for technical staffs in Technical Office, we visited the facility in Ashiu Research Forest. An introduction of this facility and the comments from the participants were included in this report. (S.K.)

  7. Highlights from the 6th International Society for Computational Biology Student Council Symposium at the 18th Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaut Magali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This meeting report gives an overview of the keynote lectures and a selection of the student oral and poster presentations at the 6th International Society for Computational Biology Student Council Symposium that was held as a precursor event to the annual international conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB. The symposium was held in Boston, MA, USA on July 9th, 2010.

  8. 18th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2014-01-01

    Cryocoolers 18 Cryocoolers 18 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 18th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Syracuse, New York, on June 9-12, 2014. The program of this conference lead to the 76 peer-reviewed papers that are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  9. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  10. Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 18th, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, July 21-24, 1981, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Single event upset phenomena are discussed, taking into account cosmic ray induced errors in IIL microprocessors and logic devices, single event upsets in NMOS microprocessors, a prediction model for bipolar RAMs in a high energy ion/proton environment, the search for neutron-induced hard errors in VLSI structures, soft errors due to protons in the radiation belt, and the use of an ion microbeam to study single event upsets in microcircuits. Basic mechanisms in materials and devices are examined, giving attention to gamma induced noise in CCD's, the annealing of MOS capacitors, an analysis of photobleaching techniques for the radiation hardening of fiber optic data links, a hardened field insulator, the simulation of radiation damage in solids, and the manufacturing of radiation resistant optical fibers. Energy deposition and dosimetry is considered along with SGEMP/IEMP, radiation effects in devices, space radiation effects and spacecraft charging, EMP/SREMP, and aspects of fabrication, testing, and hardness assurance.

  11. Introduction to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is arranged in a logical sequence, starting from radiation physics and radiation chemistry, followed by molecular, subcellular and cellular effects and going on to the level of organism. Topics covered include applied radiobiology like modifiers of radiosensitivity, predictive assay, health physics, human genetics and radiopharmaceuticals. The topics covered are : 1. Radiation Physics, 2. Detection and Measurement of Radiation, 3. Radiation Chemistry, 4. DNA Damage and Repair, 5. Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Mutations, 6. Cellular Radiobiology 7. Acute Radiation Effects, 8. Delayed Effects of Radiation, 9. Biological Basis of Radiotherapy, 10. Chemical Modifiers of Radiosensitivity, 11. Hyperthermia, 12. High LET Radiations in Cancer, Therapy, 13. Predictive Assays, 14. Radiation Effects on Embryos, 15. Human Radiation Genetics, 16. Radiolabelled Compounds in Biology and Medicine and 17. Radiological Health

  12. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  13. Radiation biology for environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution problems such as the green-house effect by increase of CO2, acid rain caused by flue gases, and contamination of chemicals and pesticides in foods and water, have become serious in the world with the rapid development of industry and agriculture. To solve some of these problems, radiation treatment has being applied for the removal of the contaminants from flue gases and waste water from industrial plants. On the other hand, the contribution of radiation biology for these environmental pollution problems is not direct but it has contributed indirectly in many fields. This paper describes the contributions of radiation biology for environment in the following two topics: 1) control of insects and microorganisms, and 2) application of radiation for agricultural wastes

  14. Integrative radiation systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group "Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer" of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology. PMID:24411063

  15. Integrative radiation systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group “Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer” of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology

  16. 18th International Conference on Electronic Publishing

    CERN Document Server

    Dobreva, Milena

    2014-01-01

    The ways in which research data is used and handled continue to capture public attention and are the focus of increasing interest. Electronic publishing is intrinsic to digital data management, and relevant to the fields of data mining, digital publishing and social networks, with their implications for scholarly communication, information services, e-learning, e-business and the cultural heritage sector. This book presents the proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Electronic Publishing (ELPUB), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, in June 2014. The conference brings together researchers and practitioners to discuss the many aspects of electronic publishing, and the theme this year is 'Let's put data to use: digital scholarship for the next generation'. As well as examining the role of cultural heritage and service organisations in the creation, accessibility, duration and long-term preservation of data, it provides a discussion forum for the appraisal, citation and licensing of research data and the n...

  17. 18th STAB/DGLR Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Gerd; Krämer, Ewald; Kreplin, Hans-Peter; Nitsche, Wolfgang; Rist, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This book presents contributions to the 18th biannual symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB). The individual chapters reflect ongoing research conducted by the STAB members in the field of numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for (but not limited to) aerospace applications, and cover both nationally and EC-funded projects. By addressing a number of essential research subjects, together with their related physical and mathematics fundamentals, the book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current research work in the field, as well as its main challenges and new directions. Current work on e.g. high aspect-ratio and low aspect-ratio wings, bluff bodies, laminar flow control and transition, active flow control, hypersonic flows, aeroelasticity, aeroacoustics and biofluid mechanics is exhaustively discussed here.  .

  18. 18th International Laser Radar Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Neuber, Roland; Rairoux, Patrick; Wandinger, Ulla

    1997-01-01

    Lidar or laser radar, the depth-resolved remote measurement of atmospheric parameters with optical means, has become an important tool in the field of atmospheric and environmental remote sensing. In this volume the latest progress in the development of lidar methods, experiments, and applications is described. The content is based on selected and thoroughly refereed papers presented at the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin, 22-26 July 1996. The book is divided into six parts which cover the topics of tropospheric aerosols and clouds, lidar in space, wind, water vapor, troposheric trace gases and plumes, and stratospheric and mesospheric profiling. As a supplement to fundamental lidar textbooks this volume may serve as a guide for scientists, engineers, and graduate students through the blossoming field of modern lidar techniques and their contribution to atmospheric and environmental research.

  19. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work examines ionizing radiations: what they are, where they come from, their actions and consequences, finally the norms and preventive measures necessary to avoid serious contamination, whether the individual or the population in general is involved. Man has always been exposed to natural irradiation, but owing to the growing use of ionizing radiations both in medicine and in industry, not to mention nuclear tests and their use as an argument of dissuasion, the irradiation of human beings is increasing daily. Radioactive contamination does remain latent, apart from acute cases, but this is where the danger lies since the consequences may not appear until long after the irradiation. Of all biological effects due to the action of radioelements the genetic risk is one of the most important, affecting the entire population and especially the generations to come. The risk of cancer and leukemia induction plays a substantial part also since a large number of people may be concerned, depending on the mode of contamination involved. All these long-term dangers do not of course exclude the various general or local effects to which the individual alone may be exposed and which sometimes constitute a threat to life. As a result the use of ionizing radiations must be limited and should only be involved if no other process can serve instead. The regulations governing radioelements must be stringent and their application strictly supervised for the better protection of man. This protection must be not only individual but also collective since pollution exists in air, water and land passes to plants and animals and finally reaches the last link in the food chain, man

  20. 18th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, Jim; Elaydi, Saber; Pinto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications cover a number of different aspects of difference equations and discrete dynamical systems, as well as the interplay between difference equations and dynamical systems. The conference was organized by the Department of Mathematics at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) under the auspices of the International Society of Difference Equations (ISDE) and held in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in July 2012. Its purpose was to bring together experts and novices in these fields to discuss the latest developments. The book gathers contributions in the field of combinatorial and topological dynamics, complex dynamics, applications of difference equations to biology, chaotic linear dynamics, economic dynamics and control and asymptotic behavior, and periodicity of difference equations. As such it is of interest to researchers and scientists engaged in the theory and applications of difference equations and discrete dy...

  1. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of devel......The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding...

  2. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review radiation produced by the nuclear industry is placed into context with other sources of radiation in our world. Human health effects of radiation, derivation of standards and risk estimates are reviewed in this document. The implications of exposing the worker and the general population to radiation generated by nuclear power are assessed. Effects of radiation are also reviewed. Finally, gaps in our knowledge concerning radiation are identified and current research on biological effects, on environmental aspects, and on dosimetry of radiation within AECL and Canada is documented in this report. (author)

  3. Biological implications of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: effects of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation on dividing cells, DNA, and blood cells; radiation sickness in relation to dose; early and late effects of radiation; effects of low dose irradiation; dose-effect curves; radioinduction of tumors in animals; and incidence of cancer in children following in utero exposure to diagnostic x rays. (HLW)

  4. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of devel...

  5. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of...

  6. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research at the Radiological Research Laboratory is a blend of physics, chemistry, and biology, involving research at the basic level with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection and/or radiotherapy. Current research topics include: oncogenic transformation assays, mutation studies involving interactions between radiation and environmental contaminants, isolation, characterization and sequencing of a human repair gene, characterization of a dominant transforming gene found in C3H 10T1/2 cells, characterize ab initio the interaction of DNA and radiation, refine estimates of the radiation quality factor Q, a new mechanistic model of oncogenesis showing the role of long-term low dose medium LET radiation, and time dependent modeling of radiation induced chromosome damage and subsequent repair or misrepair

  7. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  8. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ''biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons

  9. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent

  10. Radiation biology of mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi- field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators.

  11. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  12. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E. [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  13. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  14. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

    2005-04-15

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells.

  15. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H2O2(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H2O2)-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H2O2(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells

  16. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been emphasised the importance of DNA as the main target for ionizing radiation, that can induce damage by its direct action on this molecule or by an indirect effect mediated by free-radicals generated by water radiolysis. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are influenced not only by the dose but also by the dose-rate and the radiation quality. Radiation induced damage, mainly DNA single and double strand breaks, is detected by molecular sensors which in turn trigger signalling cascades leading to cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or programmed cell death (apoptosis). Those effects related with cell death, named deterministic, exhibits a dose-threshold below which they are not observed. Acute radiation syndrome and radiological burns are examples of this kind of effects. Other radiation induced effects, called stochastic, are the consequence of cell transformation and do not exhibit a dose-threshold. This is the case of cancer induction and hereditary effects. The aim of this presentation is briefly describe the main aspects of deterministic and stochastic effects from the point of view of radiobiology and radio pathology. (author)

  17. Biological imaging in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosu, A.L.; Wiedenmann, N.; Molls, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this study was to discuss the value of integrating biological imaging (PET, SPECT, MRS etc.) in radiation treatment planning and monitoring. Studies in patients with brain tumors have shown that, compared to CT and MRI alone, the image fusion of CT/MRI and amino acid SPECT or PET allows a more correct delineation of gross tumor volume (GTV) and planning target volume (PTV). For FDG-PET, comparable results with different techniques are reported in the literature also for bronchial carcinoma, ear-nose-and-throat tumors, and cervical carcinoma, or, in the case of MRS, for prostate cancer. Imaging of hypoxia, cell proliferation, apoptosis, tumor angiogenesis, and gene expression leads to the identification of differently aggressive areas of a biologically inhomogeneous tumor mass that can be individually and more appropriately targeted using innovative IMRT. Thus, a biological, inhomogeneous dose distribution can be generated, the so-called dose painting. In addition, the biological imaging can play a significant role in the evaluation of the therapy response after radiochemotherapy. Clinical studies in ear-nose-and-throat tumors, bronchial carcinoma, esophagus carcinoma, and cervical carcinoma suggest that the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for the therapy response are higher compared to anatomical imaging (CT and MRI). Clinical and experimental studies are required to define the real impact of these investigations in radiation treatment planning, and especially in the evaluation of therapy response. (orig.)

  18. 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibuchi, Hisao; Ong, Yew-Soon; Tan, Kay-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a collection of the papers accepted in the 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2014), which was held in Singapore from 10-12th November 2014. The papers contained in this book demonstrate notable intelligent systems with good analytical and/or empirical results.

  19. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper. PMID:20882751

  20. Weekly Report for June 18th-22nd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Zong

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the week June 18th-22nd,the Mainland stock markets showed a flat while the Hong Kong Hang Seng Index hit its new historical high. The index of Shanghai Stock decreased 1% weekly and that of Shenzhen Stock enjoyed a weekly increase of 0.2%.

  1. Biology relevant to space radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-30

    There are only very limited data on the health effects to humans from the two major components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. As a result, predictions of the accompanying effects must be based either on (1) data generated through studies of experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences higher than those in space, or (2) extrapolations from studies of gamma and x rays. Better information is needed about the doses, dose rates, and the energy and LET spectra of the radiations at the organ level that are anticipated to be encountered during extended space missions. In particular, there is a need for better estimates of the relationship between radiation quality and biological effects. In the case of deterministic effects, it is the threshold that is important. The possibility of the occurrence of a large solar particle event (SPE) requires that such effects be considered during extended space missions. Analyses suggest, however, that it is feasible to provide sufficient shielding so as to reduce such effects to acceptable levels, particularly if the dose rates can be limited. If these analyses prove correct, the primary biological risks will be the stochastic effects (latent cancer induction). The contribution of one large SPE to the risk of stochastic effects while undesirable will not be large in comparison to the potential total dose on a mission of long duration.

  2. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important event of the year was the designation of our Laboratory as a Center for Radiological Research by the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine and Vice-President for Health Sciences. Center status acknowledges the size and importance of the research efforts in this area, and allows a greater measure of independence in administrative matters. While the name has changed from a Laboratory to a Center within the Medical School, the mission and charge remain the same. The efforts of the Center are a multidisciplinary mix of physics, chemistry, and biology, mostly at a basic level, with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection or radiation therapy. About a quarter of our funding, mostly individual research awards, could be regarded as in direct support of radiotherapy, with the remainder (an NCI program project grant and DOE grants) being in support of research addressing more basic issues. An important effort currently underway concerns ab-initio calculations of the dielectric response function of condensed water. This investigation has received the coveted designation, ''Grand Challenge Project,'' awarded by DOE to research work which represents ''distinct advance on a major scientific or engineering problem that is broadly recognized as important within the mission of the Department.''

  3. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay.

  4. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay

  5. Biological studies of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.H.

    1949-11-16

    This paper discusses procedures for research on biological effects of radiation, using mouse tissue: activation trace analysis including methods and proceedures for handling samples before during and after irradiation; methods and procedures for ion exchange study; method of separation and recovery of copper, iron, zinc, cobalt, pubidium and cesium. Also included are studies of trace elements with radioactive isotopes: the distribution of cobalt 60, zinc 65, and copper 64 in the cytoplasm and nuclei of normal mice and those with tumors. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of...... development and design. The ICED series of conferences has a long tradition, which started in 1981 with the first ICED in Rome. A total of 419 papers were presented at ICED11, each double-blind reviewed by multiple reviewers. The papers included research papers and case studies on a variety of topics...... concerned with design thinking, theory, and practice, with a premium placed on evidence-based research. The papers are published in a total of ten volumes of Proceedings, in addition to electronic publication. This volume is the first of two concerned with Design Methods and Tools, and contains 45 papers on...

  7. The academician astronomers travelling in the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, S.; Débarbat, S.

    1999-04-01

    In the 18th century, astronomers of the Académie des sciences of Paris made various contributions to the improvement of navigation: terrestrial determinations of longitude which improved charts for navigators, testing of marine clocks for longitude determinations at sea. In order to resolve the Cassini-Newton controversy regarding the shape of the Earth, the Académie proposed in 1735, that two expeditions should be made with a view to measuring a meridian arc. The results concluded that the Earth was flat on the sides of the poles, as predicted by Newton. By the mid-18th century, the first purely astronomical expedition (La Caille, Cap of Good Hope) led to the creation of an austral celestial map and new parallaxes. Later, Chappe d'Auteroche, Le Gentil and Pingré travelled to observe two transits of Venus over the Sun (1761, 1769) for the improvement of the solar parallax.

  8. Biological research for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  9. Biological research for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by γ-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by γ-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate γ-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by γ-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  10. E. Biological effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report firstly summarises information on the biological hazards of radiation and their relation to radiation dose, and hence estimates the biological risks associated with nuclear power production. Secondly, it describes the basis and present status of radiation protection standards in the nuclear power industry

  11. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  12. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes

  13. Doses and biological effect of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic values and their symbols as well as units of physical dosimetry are given. The most important information about biological radiation effects is presented. Polish radiation protection standards are cited. (A.S.)

  14. Radiation biology for pediatric radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Eric J. [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The biological effects of radiation result primarily from damage to DNA. There are three effects of concern to the radiologist that determine the need for radiation protection and the dose principle of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). (1) Heritable effects. These were thought to be most important in the 1950s, but concern has declined in recent years. The current ICRP risk estimate is very small at 0.2%/Sv. (2) Effects on the developing embryo and fetus include weight retardation, congenital anomalies, microcephaly and mental retardation. During the sensitive period of 8 to 15 weeks of gestation, the risk estimate for mental retardation is very high at 40%/Sv, but because it is a deterministic effect, there is likely to be a threshold of about 200 mSv. (3) Carcinogenesis is considered to be the most important consequence of low doses of radiation, with a risk of fatal cancer of about 5%/Sv, and is therefore of most concern in radiology. Our knowledge of radiation carcinogenesis comes principally from the 60-year study of the A-bomb survivors. The use of radiation for diagnostic purposes has increased dramatically in recent years. The annual collective population dose has increased by 750% since 1980 to 930,000 person Sv. One of the principal reasons is the burgeoning use of CT scans. In 2006, more than 60 million CT scans were performed in the U.S., with about 6 million of them in children. As a rule of thumb, an abdominal CT scan in a 1-year-old child results in a life-time mortality risk of about one in a thousand. While the risk to the individual is small and acceptable when the scan is clinically justified, even a small risk when multiplied by an increasingly large number is likely to produce a significant public health concern. It is for this reason that every effort should be made to reduce the doses associated with procedures such as CT scans, particularly in children, in the spirit of ALARA. (orig.)

  15. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to verify the existence of the adaptive response phenomenon induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in living cells.A wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) was chosen as the biological target.As a parameter to quantify the sensibility of the target to radiation, the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 ) was observed. In our experimental condition a value of (60 ± 1) Gy was measured for LD50 with Dose Rate of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy/min. The method employed to show up the adaptive response phenomenon consisted in exposing the sample to low ''conditioning'' doses, which would initiate these mechanisms. Later the samples with and without conditioning were exposed to higher ''challenging'' doses (such as LD50), and the surviving fractions were compared. In order to maximize the differences, the doses and the time between irradiations were varied. The best results were obtained with both a conditioning dose of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy and a waiting time of 2 hs until the application of the challenging dose. Following this procedures the 80% of the conditioned samples has survived, after receiving the application of the LD50. The adaptive response phenomenon was also verified for a wide range of challenging doses

  16. 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  17. Roads and cities of $18^{th}$ century France

    CERN Document Server

    Perret, Julien; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the $18^{th}$ century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science.

  18. Biology responses to low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biology responses to low dose radiation is the most important problem of medical radiation and radiation protection. The especial mechanism of low dose or low dose rate induced cell responses, has been found independent with linear no-threshold model. This article emphasize to introduce low dose or low dose rate induced biology responses of adaptive response, by-effect, super-sensitivity and genomic instability. (authors)

  19. The importance of microdosimetry for radiation biology and radiation protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendsen, G.W.

    1967-01-01

    In this contribution several features will be discussed of relations between biological effects produced by ionizing radiations and the spatial distributions of energy deposition of these radiations. Effects produced by high-LET radiations are generally found to be less dependent on dose-rate, dose-

  20. Scientific Psychology in the 18th Century: A Historical Rediscovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland

    2016-05-01

    As early as 1783, the almost forgotten philosopher, metaphysicist, and psychologist Ferdinand Ueberwasser (1752-1812) designated himself "Professor für empirische Psychologie und Logik" (professor of empirical psychology and logic) at the University of Münster, Germany. His position was initiated and supported by the minister and educational reformer Franz von Fürstenberg (1729-1810), who considered psychology a core scientific discipline that should be taught at each school and university. At the end of the 18th century, then, psychology seems to have been on the verge of becoming an independent academic discipline, about 100 years before Wilhelm Wundt founded the discipline's first official laboratory. It seems surprising that Ueberwasser's writings-including a seminal textbook on empirical psychology-have been almost entirely overlooked in most historical accounts. We focus on this important founding moment of psychological science and on the circumstances that eventually brought this seminal development to a halt. PMID:27217252

  1. 18th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, José; Capuz-Rizo, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    This volume features papers from the 18th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering, held by the University of Zaragoza in collaboration with the Spanish Association of Project Management and Engineering (AEIPRO). It illustrates the state of the art in this emerging area. Readers will discover ways to increase the effectiveness of project engineering as well as the efficiency of project management. The papers, written by international researchers and professionals, cover civil engineering and urban planning, product and process engineering, environmental engineering, energy efficiency and renewable energies, rural development, safety, labor risks and ergonomics, and training in project engineering. Overall, this book contributes to the improvement of project engineering research and enhances the transfer of results to the job of project engineers and project managers around the world. It will appeal to all professionals in the field as well as researchers and teachers involved in the traini...

  2. 18th and 19th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bez, Wolfgang; Focht, Erich; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Patel, Nisarg

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. It covers trends in hardware and software development in general and the future of high-performance systems and heterogeneous architectures in particular. The application-related contributions cover computational fluid dynamics, material science, medical applications and climate research; innovative fields such as coupled multi-physics and multi-scale simulations are highlighted. All papers were chosen from presentations given at the 18th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance held at the HLRS, University of Stuttgart, Germany in October 2013 and subsequent Workshop of the same name held at Tohoku University in March 2014.  

  3. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains a summary of our current research. Some highlights include: experimental microdosimetry, track structure, extension of the Dual Radiation Action model to be time dependent, experiments showing that the reverse dose-rate effect for onogenic transformation, first rated for neutrons, has also been observed for charged particles of intermediate LET, an analysis of low dose-rate, research in hyperthermia, studies in molecular cloning, low dose rate studies, experimental studies on high LET, and molecular studies on DNA. 42 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Biological effects of high LET radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masami [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1997-03-01

    Biological effect of radiation is different by a kind of it greatly. Heavy ions were generally more effective in cell inactivation, chromosome aberration induction, mutation induction and neoplastic cell transformation induction than {gamma}-rays in SHE cells. (author)

  5. Radiation sterilization of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After years of neglect, the value of sterile non-viable (allograft) tissue grafts in transplant surgery is now being recognised. Sterilization using γ-radiation is now becoming the method of choice for a wide range of tissues in a spectrum of Human Tissues banks throughout the world. The radiation treatment can initiate physical and chemical damage in the tissues. Where necessary methods of protection have been developed. Examples are given of the successful utilization of radiation for tissue sterilization and use. (author)

  6. Radiation biology of medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kelsey, Charles A; Sandoval, Daniel J; Chambers, Gregory D; Adolphi, Natalie L; Paffett, Kimberly S

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a thorough yet concise introduction to quantitative radiobiology and radiation physics, particularly the practical and medical application. Beginning with a discussion of the basic science of radiobiology, the book explains the fast processes that initiate damage in irradiated tissue and the kinetic patterns in which such damage is expressed at the cellular level. The final section is presented in a highly practical handbook style and offers application-based discussions in radiation oncology, fractionated radiotherapy, and protracted radiation among others. The text is also supplemented by a Web site.

  7. Biological radiation effects and radioprotection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, after recalling the mode of action of ionizing radiations, the notions of dose, dose equivalents and the values of natural irradiation, the author describes the biological radiation effects. Then he presents the ICRP recommendations and their applications to the french radioprotection system

  8. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G. [SENES Oak Ridge Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Theodorakis, C.W.; Shugart, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    1996-12-31

    Natural populations have always been exposed to background levels of ionizing radiation; however, with the event of the nuclear age, studies about the effects of higher-than-background levels of ionizing radiation on individuals or populations of organisms became important. Originally, concern was focused on survival after large, acute radiation doses, and numerous studies document the somatic and genetic effects of acute ionizing radiation. However, there is a growing realization that chronic long-term exposure to higher-than-background levels of environmental radiation is more likely than is large acute exposure. Less than 10% of the literature on ionizing radiation effects deals with chronic long-term effects, and very few studies involve natural populations. In 1977, mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis, were experimentally introduced into a 0,45 ha, decommissioned, radioactive waste pond where the measured dose at the sediment-water interface was 1,150 rad/year. One year later, the fecundity of the population had not changed significantly. Eighteen years later, studies of the fish showed an inverse correlation between DNA strand breakage and fecundity in the contaminated pond. More recent studies have provided evidence that genetic diversity of the fish has increased in the contaminated site. These fish also have a greater prevalence of certain DNA banding patterns. Individuals displaying these banding patterns have a higher fecundity and lower degree of DNA strand breakage than individuals with less common banding patterns. Gambusia affinis has apparently adapted to the high background radiation, successfully surviving for approximately 50 generations. 31 refs, 5 figs.

  9. 18th Stage of the 2004 Tour de France

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Hosts States Service

    2004-01-01

    Haute-Savoie / Pays de Gex 23 July 2004 On Friday 23 July 2004, the 18th stage of the Tour de France cycle race will be departing from Annemasse (Haute-Savoie) and heading for Lons-le-Saunier (Jura), passing through Archamps, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Collonges, Farges, Saint-Jean-de-Gonville, Thoiry, Sergy, Saint-Genis-Pouilly, Chevry, Gex et Mijoux, inter alia (a detailed itinerary with approximate passage times can be found on http://www.letour.fr/2004/us/index.html). This event is likely to cause numerous disruptions to local traffic, as the roads used by the race will be closed to all vehicles except those bearing the official race insignia: 90 minutes before the first rider comes through; up to 15 minutes after the police vehicle bearing the ' fin de course ' sign has driven through. Furthermore, there will be no access to the centre of Saint-Genis-Pouilly from about 12.30 p.m. to 2.30 p.m. As a result, you are strongly advised to take these difficulties into account when making any car journeys ...

  10. Impact of Radiation Biology on Fundamental Insights in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, Richard B.

    1982-07-27

    Research supported by OHER [Office of Health and Environmental Research] and its predecessors has as one of its major goals an understanding of the effects of radiation at low doses and dose rates on biological systems, so as to predict their effects on humans. It is not possible to measure such effects directly. They must be predicted from basic knowledge on how radiation affects cellular components such as DNA and membranes and how cells react to such changes. What is the probability of radiation producing human mutations and what are the probabilities of radiation producing cancer? The end results of such studies are radiation exposure standards for workers and for the general population. An extension of these goals is setting standards for exposure to chemicals involved in various energy technologies. This latter problem is much more difficult because chemical dosimetry is a primitive state compared to radiation dosimetry.

  11. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  12. Studies about space radiation promote new fields in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astronauts are constantly exposed to space radiation of various types of energy with a low dose-rate during long-term stays in space. Therefore, it is important to determine correctly the biological effects of space radiation on human health. Studies about biological the effects at a low dose and a low dose-rate include various aspects of microbeams, bystander effects, radioadaptive responses and hormesis which are important fields in radiation biology. In addition, space radiations contain high linear energy transfer (LET) particles. In particular, neutrons may cause reverse effectiveness at a low dose-rate in comparison to ionizing radiation. We are also interested in p53-centered signal transduction pathways involved in the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis induced by space radiations. We must also study whether the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space radiation is affected by microgravity which is another typical component in space. To confirm this, we must prepare centrifuge systems in an International Space Station (ISS). In addition, we must prepare many types of equipment for space experiments in an ISS, because we cannot use conventional equipment from our laboratories. Furthermore, the research for space radiation might give us valuable information about the birth and evolution of life on the Earth. We can also realize the importance of preventing the ozone layer from depletion by the use of exposure equipment to sunlight in an ISS. For these reasons, we desire to educate space researchers of the next generation based on the consideration of the preservation of the Earth from research about space radiation. (author)

  13. Radiation biology in Canada 1962-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the research projects in radiation biology being carried out in Canada during the fiscal year 1962-63. The report includes the names of the investigators, their location, a brief description of the projects and information on the financial support being provided. A classification of the projects into areas of specific interest is also included. (author)

  14. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Jonathan [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Small, William [Loyola Univ. Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine, Cardianl Bernardin Cancer Center; Woloschak, Gayle E. (ed.) [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg, Chicago, IL (United States). School of Medicine

    2015-10-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  15. Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

    2014-05-01

    The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26

  16. Radon and radiation biology of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main papers presented at the meeting dealt with the behaviour of radon and the indoor environment, radiation biology of the lung, lung dosis and the possible cancer risk caused by radon in homes, contamination of the room air. A series of special papers treated the radon problem in detail: sources and transport mechanisms of radon, geological aspects of the radon radiation burden in Switzerland, radon in homes, search for radon sources, and the Swiss radon-programme RAPROS. 67 figs., 13 tabs., 75 refs

  17. Biological effects of synchrotron radiation on crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐掌雄; 董保中; 等

    1996-01-01

    The sensitivity of germinating seeds of barley,winter wheat and spring one to synchrotron ultraviolet radiation is barley>winter wheat and spring one.But when dry seeds of the three crops are irradiated by 3.5-22keV X-rays,the sequence of their sensitivity to radiation can be changed.for irradiation of 0.6-3keV ultra soft X-rays,0.40-0.90 of the seedlings of the first generation appear mutation of striped chlorophyll defect.This biological effect has never been found for irradiation of other rays.

  18. PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

    2013-11-01

    YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of

  19. Biological Sensors for Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André P. Schuch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is widely known as a genotoxic environmental agent that affects Earth ecosystems and the human population. As a primary consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion observed over the last decades, the increasing UV incidence levels have heightened the concern regarding deleterious consequences affecting both the biosphere and humans, thereby leading to an increase in scientific efforts to understand the role of sunlight in the induction of DNA damage, mutagenesis, and cell death. In fact, the various UV-wavelengths evoke characteristic biological impacts that greatly depend on light absorption of biomolecules, especially DNA, in living organisms, thereby justifying the increasing importance of developing biological sensors for monitoring the harmful impact of solar UV radiation under various environmental conditions. In this review, several types of biosensors proposed for laboratory and field application, that measure the biological effects of the UV component of sunlight, are described. Basically, the applicability of sensors based on DNA, bacteria or even mammalian cells are presented and compared. Data are also presented showing that on using DNA-based sensors, the various types of damage produced differ when this molecule is exposed in either an aqueous buffer or a dry solution. Apart from the data thus generated, the development of novel biosensors could help in evaluating the biological effects of sunlight on the environment. They also emerge as alternative tools for using live animals in the search for protective sunscreen products.

  20. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was

  1. Biological research for the radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H2O2 and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H2O2)- induced apoptosis, we utilized α-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H2O2, ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H2O2 because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H2O2(or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death

  2. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the year 2000 we completed our study of the genotoxic influence of occupational exposure to pesticides on human cells, and their susceptibility to radiation in particular. Examining blood samples from four countries: Greece, Hungary, Poland and Spain we found that exposure to pesticides usually resulted in an increased susceptibility to the UV-C radiation, although statistical significance could only be concluded for inhabitants of Poland. In Spain, exposure to pesticides was proved to impair the lymphocyte DNA repair capability, while for the Polish group this repair capability appeared enhanced in people exposed to pesticides (see the research reports below). The possible influence of lifestyle or particular diet on the observed national differences would probably be worth analyzing. We also investigate the biological effectiveness of therapeutic beams (neutrons and X-rays). Experimental part of such study, concerning neutrons of different mean energies, is over and the results are now being processed. Our work covers hot issues of environmental and radiation biology making us research partners to many domestic and foreign scientific institutions. Our proficiency in the field is also reflected by membership in various expert boards (e.g. evaluating research applications for the Fifth EU Framework Programme for RTD and Demonstration Activities in the field 'Environment and Health', lecturing in the 2000 NATO IOS Life Science Books). We have entered the 5th EU Programme Scheme within the EXPAH project starting January 1, 2001. (author)

  3. II. Biological studies of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.H.

    1948-05-24

    With the completion of the 184 inch cyclotron in Berkeley and the successful construction of a deflector system, it was possible to bring the 190 Mev deuteron and the 380 Mev alpha beams out into the air and to begin a study of the effects of high-energy deuteron beams by direct irradiation of biological specimens. The direct biological use of deuteron beams was attempted earlier in Berkeley by Marshak, MacLeish, and Walker in 1940. These and other investigators have been aware for some time of the potential usefulness of high energy particle beams for radio-biological studies and their suitability for biological investigations. R.R. Wilson advanced the idea of using fast proton beams to deliver radiation and intervening tissues. R.E. Zirkle pointed out that such particle beams may be focused or screened until a cross-section of the beam is small enough to study effects of irradiation under the microscope on single cells or on parts of single cells. This article gives an overview of the radiological use of high energy deuteron beams, including the following topics: potential uses of high energy particle beams; experiments on the physical properties of the beam; lethal effect of the deuteron beam on mice.

  4. The late biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The principal objective of the symposium was to review the current status of understanding of the late biological effects of ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. A second objective was to critically evaluate information obtained from epidemiological studies of human population groups as well as from animal experimentation in order to provide a solid scientific basis upon which problems of current concern, such as radiation protection standards and risk-benefit analysis, could be deliberated. Eighty-one papers were presented in 10 sessions which covered epidemiological studies of late effects in human populations exposed to internal and/or external ionizing radiation; quantitative and qualitative data from animal experimentation of late effects; methodological problems and modern approaches; factors influencing susceptibility or expression of late radiation injury; comparative evaluation of late effects induced by radiation and other environmental pollutants, and problems of risk assessment. In addition, there were two evening sessions for free discussion of problems of interpreting animal data, and of the epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed populations. Reports on atomic bomb survivors showed that these epidemiological studies are providing dependable data, such as dose-related excess infant mortality. The reports also revealed the need for consensus in the method employed in the interpretation of data. That was also the case with studies on occupationally exposed populations at Hanford plant, where disparate results were presented on radiation-induced neoplasia among radiation workers. These data are, however, considered not so significant in relative terms when compared to risks involved in other industries. It was recommended that national registry systems for the dosimetry and medical records of radiation workers be established and co-ordinated internationally in order to facilitate reliable epidemiological

  5. Decontamination of biological ferment by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabundjian, Ingrid T.; Salum, Debora C.; Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Duarte, Renato; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Biological ferment is a product obtained from pure yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture by a suitable technological process and employed to increase the size and porosity of the baker's products. Foods containing high microorganisms count indicate that Good Manufacturing Practices were not applied. The aim of this study was to observe the viability of Dry Biological Ferment after the radiation process using different doses of {sup 60}Co gamma rays and different storage times. Dry baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae samples were purchased from a local supermarket in Sao Paulo (Brazil) and irradiated at IPEN in a Gammacell source at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy doses (dose-rate of 3.51 kGy/h) at room temperature (25 deg C). The fluorescent method was performed to observe the viability of yeast cells. The viability decrease with the increase of the radiation dose, as shown: the amount of the viable cell found in the non-irradiated samples (control) at 0 day was 87.2%; 30 days 67.7%; 60 days 77.4% and 90 days 60.1%. With 1.0 kGy at 0 day was 61.4%; 30 days 22.7%; 60 days 56.9% and 90 days 24.2%. With 3.0 kGy at 0 day was 57.00%; at the next periods the most of the cells become not viable. (author)

  6. Biological aspects of radiation in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy with unsealed radionuclides differs from external radiotherapy with regard to the radiation quality and energy range, the regional dose uniformity and the time course of irradiation regimen. External radiotherapy is planned precisely and can be applied to a target volume independently from blood flow during a course of irradiation fractions. In contrary, administered radiopharmaceuticals distribute according to their pharmacokinetic properties and generate a continuous irradiation corresponding to the effective halflife. The resulting dose rates are approximately 1 Gy/min and 1 Gy/h, respectively. The bio-kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals involves cellular accumulation and retention with highly variable affinity to specific organs that can be modulated as well. A remarkable dose gradient is found at the edge of volumes with enhanced uptake. The biological effect of an irradiation with decreasing intensity can be compared with the radiation effect caused by conventional fractionation with 2 Gy a day in external beam therapy by means of the linear-quadratic model. However, the experimental validation of this translation is still under investigation. Radionuclide therapy is usually performed in several cycles some month apart. This procedure fails to meet external radiotherapy. The vision of a combined external-internal radiotherapy requires efforts for a common dosimetry approach both in vitro and in vivo with a physical and biological verification of the results. (orig.)

  7. Microwave radiation: biological effects and exposure standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, I.R.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal effects of microwave radiation are well recognized and are discussed with particular reference to cataractogenesis; the possibility of an association cannot be questioned. Postulated nonthermal effects comprise an asthenic syndrome, and for the most part the disturbances lie within clinical norms and tolerances, and are reversible. World opinion on safe exposure levels for microwave radiation is varied, and this had led to national standards disparate by three to four orders of magnitude. The US and UK exposure standard of 10 mW/cm/sup 2/ was determined over two decades ago; the possibility of a change to a more restrictive level, in line with other countries, in the near future is examined. It is concluded that such a change, without scientific rationale, is not justified. Some biological implications of the microwave radiation from the solar power satellite are considered in terms of precautions to be taken by personnel working in the vicinity of the rectenna, effects on cardiac pacemakers, and any potential effects on birds. 14 references.

  8. Proceedings of the symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection was organized in sessions with the following titles: Radiation protection and the human genome; Molecular changes in DNA induced by radiation; Incidence of genetic changes - pre-existing, spontaneous and radiation-induced; Research directions and ethical implications. The ten papers in the symposium have been abstracted individually

  9. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of

  10. European Society for Radiation Biology 21. annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume contains about 100 abstracts of lectures presented to the conference covering a large variety of topics like: Radiobiology as a base for radiotherapy, radiation carcinogenesis and cellular effects, late and secondary effects of radiotherapy, radioprotection and radiosensitization, heavy ions in radiobiology and space research, microdosimetry and biological dosimetry, radiation effects on the mature and the developing central nervous system, DNA damage and repair and cellular mutations, the imact of radiation on the environment, free radicals in radiation biology

  11. Comparison of bone lead in pre-Hispanic, 18th century and modern population of Tenerife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnay-De-La-Rosa, M; Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vazquez, J; Galindo-Martin, L; Delgado-Ureta, E; Santolaria-Fernandez, F; Barros-Lopez, N

    1998-01-19

    The present study has been performed in order to determine concentrations of lead in the bone of 14 individuals who were interred towards the beginning of the 18th century at the church 'La Concepción' (Santa Cruz de Tenerife) of 15 Pre-Hispanic individuals of Tenerife and a modern sample for Tenerife, composed of 25 individuals. We have observed higher bone lead values in the modern population than in the ancient one (P = 0.0022), although Pre-Hispanic individuals and those of the 18th century showed similar bone lead values.

  12. On the Social Background for the Rise of the Novel in the 18th Century Britain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    剡科斗

    2013-01-01

    England experienced a period of transition from the 16th century to the 18th century. After a series of furious social and economic reformation and revolution, England went into a time of relative stable development. New businesses sprung up and thrived in England, literary genres found their suitable fertile soil to develop. English people had a prosperous economy and tolerat⁃ed multiculturalism. Just in this kind of environment, a new literary genre, novel suddenly emerged and became the most dazzling and noticeable treasure in the 18th century.

  13. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-05-15

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  14. Proceedings of the 18th Irish Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science

    OpenAIRE

    Delany, Sarah Jane; Madden, Michael

    2009-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers that were accepted for publication at AICS-2007, the 18th Annual Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science, which was held in the Dublin Institute of Technology; Dublin, Ireland; on the 29th to the 31st August 2007. AICS is the annual conference of the Artificial Intelligence Association of Ireland (AIAI).

  15. A Note on the 18th Party Congress of the CCP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2012-01-01

    The 18th Party Congress was more dramatic than anticipated due to the completely non-transparent process of selecting new leaders as well as a number of scandals involving leaders competing for the top posts. This contrasts with 2002 when Hu Jintao became secretary general in a comprehensive chan...

  16. Flags of the Ukrainian Cossacks in the 16th – 18th centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Babkova Nadiya Vyacheslavivna

    2015-01-01

    The present article is devoted to creation and development of flags of the Ukrainian Cossacks in the 16th – 18th centuries. Several preserved documentations show the key motives of the Cossack flags. In the process of analyzing the Cossack flags we can highlight both autochthonous and borrowed heraldic elements.

  17. 18th National Economics Symposium: Savings, Sustainable Growth and Technological Development

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİREL, Selim Koray

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In this study, the evaluation of the 18th National Economics Symposium: Savings, Sustainable Growth and Technological Development held in Konya will be mentioned.Keywords. Sustainable growth, Technological development, Economic confidence, National Economics Symposium, Konya.JEL. E21, O30, O40.

  18. Ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reviews the deliberations of the International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation for Sterilization of Medical Products and Biological Tissues which was held during 9-13 December 1974 under the auspices of the IAEA at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. 42 papers were presented in the following broad subject areas: (1) Microbiological Control aspects of radiation sterilization, (2) Dosimetry aspects of radiation sterilization practices, (3) Effects of sterilizing radiation dose on the constituents of medical products, (4) Application of radiation sterilization of medical products of biological origin, (5) Technological aspects of radiation sterilization facilities, (6) Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical substances, (7) Reports on current status of radiation sterilization of medical products in IAEA member states and (8) Working group discussion on the revision of the IAEA recommended code of practice for radiation sterilization of medical products. (S.K.K.)

  19. “CURING” PYRRHONIAN DOUBT: ANTI-SKEPTICAL RHETORIC IN THE EARLY 18TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton MATYTSIN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available By examining the analogies of sickness and disease used by severalopponents of philosophical skepticism (Pyrrhonism in the early 18th century, this articlewill shed light on the rhetorical strategies used in attempts to undermine the revival ofthis ancient school of philosophy. It will look at the ways in which anti-skeptics discussedthe repercussions of the spread of Pyrrhonism for society and describe how theyproposed to “cure” this so-called disease. A consideration of the strategies will bothreveal some of the assumptions commonly shared by authors of apologetic literature inthe first half of the 18th century and explain why they saw skepticism as such a dangerousphilosophical position.

  20. Socioeconomic background of hysteria's metamorphosis from the 18th Century to World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Nicole; Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The many changes in the etiopathogenic theories of hysteria, developed from the end of the 18th century to the end of World War I, can only be understood by studying the social, political, economic, and cultural transformations of the Western world during the same period. These transformations, presented below along with concurrent medical discoveries, make it possible to explain the ongoing metamorphosis of both hysteria and the image of the hysteric patient.

  1. AINSE conference on radiation biology and chemistry. Conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference handbook contains 60 oral and poster presentations dealing with recent advances in radiation chemistry applied to biological studies, radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers as well as to solid state chemical physics

  2. AINSE conference on radiation biology and chemistry. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The conference handbook contains 60 oral and poster presentations dealing with recent advances in radiation chemistry applied to biological studies, radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers as well as to solid state chemical physics.

  3. Current research in Canada on biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of current research in Canada on the biological effects of ionizing radiation has been compiled. The list of projects has been classified according to structure (organizational state of the test system) as well as according to the type of effects. Using several assumptions, ballpark estimates of expenditures on these activities have been made. Agencies funding these research activities have been tabulated and the break-down of research in government laboratories and in academic institutions has been designated. Wherever possible, comparisons have been made outlining differences or similarities that exist between the United States and Canada concerning biological radiation research. It has been concluded that relevant research in this area in Canada is inadequate. Wherever possible, strengths and weaknesses in radiation biology programs have been indicated. The most promising course for Canada to follow is to support adequately fundamental studies of the biological effects of radiation. (auth)

  4. Human · mouse genome analysis and radiation biology. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented at the 25th NIRS symposium on Human, Mouse Genome Analysis and Radiation Biology. The 14 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. Current research in Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay has been engaged in research in the frontier areas of (i) radiation biology related to tumour therapy and injury caused by free radicals; (ii) molecular basis of diseases of physiological origin; (iii) molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and (iv) structure of genome and genome related functions. The gist of research and development activities carried out in the Division during the last two years are documented

  6. Biological effect of radiation on human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Adaptive response when 0.01 Gy was preirradiated before high challenging dose is induced in normal cell types such normal lymphocytes, primary keratinocytes, and L929 fibroblast cells but not in neoplastic cells such as L5178Y lymphoma cells, EL-4 lymphoma cells and 308 papilloma cells. 2. Heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and inducible HSP70 is responsible for the induction of adaptive response and radioresistance - cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic molecule and PKC activation were involved. 3. Apoptosis was induced at most 5. hrs after irradiation in primary keratinocytes, in v-rasHa transformed keratinocytes, the maximum interval was 16 hrs, and in 308 papilloma cells, the maximum was 48 hrs. 4. PKC response by radiation is correlated with induction of apoptosis. 5. Rapid induction PKCdelta in primary keratinocytes and no response of PKC epsilon may involved in radiation induced apoptosis. 6. The rate of resorption was increased when radiation was given at 2.5 days after gestation. Early death including foetal death were highly expressed when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. There are no difference in incidence of late death including embryonic death. 7. 2 Gy is the most effective dose in radiation induced teratogenesis in mouse model. 8. Growth retardation and small head was present when radiation was given at 5.5, 7.5, 11.5 and 15.5 days after gestation and small head showed high incidence at 11.5 days after gestation. 9. External malformation, internal malformation and skeletal malformation was induced when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. 10. OGG1-mutated cells induced radiosensitive by G2/M cell cycle arrest. 11. Radiation induced G2/M phase cell cycle and correlated with radiosensitivity. 12. PKCalpha induced differentiation. 13. Radiation exposed cells showed carcinogenic effect. 14. Organ specific radiosensitivity was shown and protein expression was involved

  7. Biological effect of radiation on human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae [and others

    2000-04-01

    1. Adaptive response when 0.01 Gy was preirradiated before high challenging dose is induced in normal cell types such normal lymphocytes, primary keratinocytes, and L929 fibroblast cells but not in neoplastic cells such as L5178Y lymphoma cells, EL-4 lymphoma cells and 308 papilloma cells. 2. Heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and inducible HSP70 is responsible for the induction of adaptive response and radioresistance - cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic molecule and PKC activation were involved. 3. Apoptosis was induced at most 5. hrs after irradiation in primary keratinocytes, in v-rasHa transformed keratinocytes, the maximum interval was 16 hrs, and in 308 papilloma cells, the maximum was 48 hrs. 4. PKC response by radiation is correlated with induction of apoptosis. 5. Rapid induction PKCdelta in primary keratinocytes and no response of PKC epsilon may involved in radiation induced apoptosis. 6. The rate of resorption was increased when radiation was given at 2.5 days after gestation. Early death including foetal death were highly expressed when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. There are no difference in incidence of late death including embryonic death. 7. 2 Gy is the most effective dose in radiation induced teratogenesis in mouse model. 8. Growth retardation and small head was present when radiation was given at 5.5, 7.5, 11.5 and 15.5 days after gestation and small head showed high incidence at 11.5 days after gestation. 9. External malformation, internal malformation and skeletal malformation was induced when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. 10. OGG1-mutated cells induced radiosensitive by G2/M cell cycle arrest. 11. Radiation induced G2/M phase cell cycle and correlated with radiosensitivity. 12. PKCalpha induced differentiation. 13. Radiation exposed cells showed carcinogenic effect. 14. Organ specific radiosensitivity was shown and protein expression was involved.

  8. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horneck, G. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  9. Biophysical interpretation on the biological actions of radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that nuclear radiations such as alpha, beta, gamma, x-rays and neutron, proton and other heavy ion beams have many different actions on living cells; as killing, delaying growth, abnormal cell divisions and various genetical mutations and chromosomal aberrations. This document describes the mechanisms and kinetics of biological effects of ionizing radiation

  10. Biological effects and hazards of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risk to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. This risk effects can be at least qualitatively understood by considering the effects of radiation on cell DNA. Whilst exposure to high levels of radiation results in a number of identifiable effects, exposure to low levels of radiation may result in effects which only manifest themselves after many years. Risk estimates for low levels of radiation have been derived on the basis of a number of assumptions. In the case of uranium mine workers a major hazard arises from the inhalation of radon daughters. Whilst the correlation between radon daughter exposure and lung cancer incidence is well established, the numerical value of the risk factor is the subject of controversy. ICRP 50 gives a value of 10 cases per 106 person-years at risk per WLM (range 5-15 x 10-6 PYR-1 WLM-1). The effect of smoking on lung cancer incidence rates amongst miners is also controversial. Nevertheless, smoking by miners should be discouraged

  11. Radiation chemistry of biologically compatible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Poly (2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] and poly (2-ethoxy ethyl methacrylate) [PEEMA] are of biomedical and industrial interest due to their biocompatibility with living tissue. In this paper the effect of high energy radiation on these polymers is reported. PHEMA and PEEMA have similar molecular structures to poly (methyl methacrylate)[PMMA], and the γ irradiation of this polymer is well understood. Hence the radiation chemistry of PMMA is used as model system for the the analysis of the radiation chemistry of these polymers. The mechanism of the radiation induced chemistry of the polymers has been investigated using a range of techniques including electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to establish free radical pathways, GC to identify small molecule volatile products, NMR to identify small molecule radiation products and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) to determine molecular weight changes. Whilst much of the major part of the radiation chemistry can be attributed to similar reactions which can be observed in PMMA, there are a number of new radicals which are present as a result of the influence of the side chain interactions which reduces the mobility of the polymer chain

  12. Radiation chemistry of biologically compatible polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.J. T.; Pomery, P.J.; Saadat, G.; Whittaker, A.K. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    Full text: Poly (2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] and poly (2-ethoxy ethyl methacrylate) [PEEMA] are of biomedical and industrial interest due to their biocompatibility with living tissue. In this paper the effect of high energy radiation on these polymers is reported. PHEMA and PEEMA have similar molecular structures to poly (methyl methacrylate)[PMMA], and the {gamma} irradiation of this polymer is well understood. Hence the radiation chemistry of PMMA is used as model system for the the analysis of the radiation chemistry of these polymers. The mechanism of the radiation induced chemistry of the polymers has been investigated using a range of techniques including electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to establish free radical pathways, GC to identify small molecule volatile products, NMR to identify small molecule radiation products and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) to determine molecular weight changes. Whilst much of the major part of the radiation chemistry can be attributed to similar reactions which can be observed in PMMA, there are a number of new radicals which are present as a result of the influence of the side chain interactions which reduces the mobility of the polymer chain.

  13. Biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Press breakfast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 29 june 2000 on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and provides inquiries on the NDA operating to introduce the NDA damages by ionizing radiations, the possible repairs and the repair efficiency facing the carcinogenesis. Those researches allow the scientists to define laws on radiation protection. (A.L.B.)

  14. Biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few weeks ago, when the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) submitted to the U.N. General Assembly the UNSCEAR 1994 report, the international community had at its disposal a broad view of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. The 1994 report (272 pages) specifically addressed the epidemiological studies of radiation carcinogenesis and the adaptive responses to radiation in cells and organisms. The report was aimed to supplement the UNSCEAR 1993 report to the U.N. General Assembly- an extensive document of 928 pages-which addressed the global levels of radiation exposing the world population, as well as some issues on the effects of ionizing radiation, including: mechanisms of radiation oncogenesis due to radiation exposure, influence of the level of dose and dose rate on stochastic effects of radiation, hereditary effects of radiation effects on the developing human brain, and the late deterministic effects in children. Those two UNSCEAR reports taken together provide an impressive overview of current knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This article summarizes the essential issues of both reports, although it cannot cover all available information. (Author)

  15. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a blend of physics, chemistry and biology and epitomizes the multidisciplinary approach towards understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. To an increasing extent, the focus of attention is on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights from the past year are briefly described

  16. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1994-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a blend of physics, chemistry and biology and epitomizes the multidisciplinary approach towards understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. To an increasing extent, the focus of attention is on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights from the past year are briefly described.

  17. Adaptation hypothesis of biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudritsky, Yu.K.; Georgievsky, A.B.; Karpov, V.I.

    1993-12-31

    The adoptation hypothesis of biological effectiveness of ionizing radiations is based on the recognition of the invariability of general biological laws for radiobiology and on the comprehension of life evolution regularities and axiomatic principles of environment and biota unity. The ionizing radiation factor is essential for life which could not exist beyond the radiation field. The possibility of future development of the adaptation hypothesis serves as a basis for it`s transformation into the theoretical foundation of radiobiology. This report discusses the aspects of the adaptation theory.

  18. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, Ki Jung; Lim, Yong Tak

    1998-06-01

    KAERI and INP(Poland) have been carried out parallel study and joint experiments on the major topics according to MOU about their cooperative project. The experimental materials were T-4430 clones. Main results of the cooperative project were made on {sup r}esponse of TSH mutation to low LET radiation, response of TSH mutation to neutrons, response of TSH to mixed irradiation with different radiations and synergism between radiation and environmental factors such as photo period and diurnal temperature difference. Both institutes have established wide variety of research techniques applicable to tradescantia study through the cooperation. These result of research can make the role of fundamental basis for the better relationship between Korea and Poland. (author). 46 refs., 11 tabs., 31 figs.

  19. Request for Travel Funds for Systems Radiation Biology Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen [NYU School of Medicine

    2014-03-22

    The 3rd International Systems Radiation Biology Workshop brought together the major European, US and Japanese research programs on radiation risk as well as selected experts representing systems biological approaches to discuss how the new methodologies could be best exploited for low dose research. A significant part of the workshop was devoted to discussions organised as breakout group sessions. To facilitate discussions number of participants was limited to 60 persons. To achieve the goals of this symposium in this international conference, support from DOE is vital. Hence, this proposal requested support in the amount of $15,000 to cover the travel expenses of international experts and radiation biology scientists from the United States. This supporting mechanism was clearly identified to the selected US participants as a conference support award from the DOE (See attached PDF). The workshop was an outstanding opportunity to strengthen interactions between leading experts in the emerging areas of radiation sciences, and will also provide opportunities for younger scientists to meet with experts and discuss their results. This workshop was designed to endorse active engagement in international collaboration. A major objective of this conference was to effectively communicate research results, in order to ensure that current thinking reflects sound science of radiation biology. Further, this international event addressed the use and success of scientific initiatives in radiation biology for policymakers, standard-setters, and the general public.

  20. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  1. Radiation biology: Major advances and perspectives for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of the 21. century, radiation biology is at a major turning point in its history. It must meet the expectations of the radiation oncologists, radiologists and the general public, but its purpose remains the same: to understand the molecular, cellular and tissue levels of lethal and carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation in order to better protect healthy tissues and to develop treatments more effective against tumours. Four major aspects of radiobiology that marked this decade will be discussed: technological developments, the importance of signalling and repair of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, the impact of individual factor in the response to radiation and the contribution of radiobiology to better choose innovative therapies such as proton-therapy or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). A translational radiobiology should emerge with the help of radiotherapists and radiation physicists and by facilitating access to the new radio and/or chemotherapy modalities. (authors)

  2. 18th-century Al Zubarah and the genesis of the modern Gulf region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan; Al Na'imi, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    regional player; a busy conduit in which peoples from diverse backgrounds lived fully and communally, and soon attracted the direct intervention of neighbouring empires. In the study of the vibrant historical events that marked the subsequent emergence of a post-colonial Gulf from the 18th century onwards...... significant than the foundation and development of the modern emirate states along the south coast. The yoke of imperial control – real or threatened – was cast off and replaced with an indigenous political, cultural and economic independence; a transforming achievement, attained through astute leadership...

  3. Zach, Gotha and the Venus transits of the 18th and 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Zach was a child and a secondary school boy when the Venus transits of the 18th century occurred, and we try to elucidate the somewhat garbled note given in Lalande' Bibliographie (1803). Zach - like many others - was interested in seeing a definitive result emerge from the observations. Encke, one of the first serious analysts of the observations, was supplied with information by Zach. We will briefly describe the attempts of Euler, du Séjour, Encke, Powalky and Newcomb to determine a reliable value of the solar parallax (the last one being finished only after the next pair of Venus transits had occurred!), and outline Zach's role in this field.

  4. William and Caroline Herschel pioneers in late 18th-century astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This beautifully structured book presents the essentials of William and Caroline Herschel's pioneering achievements in late 18th-century astronomy. Michael Hoskin shows that William Herschel was the first observational cosmologist and one of the first observers to attack the sidereal universe beyond the solar system:Herschel built instruments far better than any being used at the royal observatory. Aided by his sister Caroline, he commenced a great systematic survey that led to his discovery of Uranus in 1781.Unlike observers before him, whose telescopes did not reveal them as astronomical obj

  5. Various administrative services and AIS applications unavailable on Friday 18th May 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    Administrative Information Services

    2007-01-01

    Due to a major upgrade Oracle HR application won't be available from Wednesday 16th May evening until Sunday 20th May. For that reason, various administrative services won't offer full service or will even be closed on Friday 18th May 2007. These services include: Users Office Registration Office (building 55) Records Office (HR) ...and others (full list available on http://ais.cern.ch website) We thank you for your understanding. AIS Administrative Information Services ais.support@cern.ch

  6. Various administrative services and AIS applications unavailable on Friday 18th May 2007

    CERN Document Server

    AIS Administrative Information Services

    2007-01-01

    Due to a major upgrade the Oracle HR application will not be available from Wednesday 16th May in the evening until Sunday 20th May. For that reason, various administrative services won't offer full service or will even be closed on Friday 18th May 2007. These services include: Users' Office Registration Office (building 55) Records Office (HR) ... and others (full list available on http://ais.cern.ch website) We thank you for your understanding. AIS Administrative Information Services ais.support@cern.ch

  7. Pathology and biology of radiation-induced cardiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    2016-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading global cause of death. The risk for this disease is significantly increased in populations exposed to ionizing radiation, but the mechanisms are not fully elucidated yet. This review aims to gather and discuss the latest data about pathological and biological consequences in the radiation-exposed heart in a comprehensive manner. A better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying radiation-induced damage in heart tissue and cardiac vasculature will provide novel targets for therapeutic interventions. These may be valuable for individuals clinically or occupationally exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation. PMID:27422929

  8. Radiation biology of human tumour xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation response of human tumour xenografts can be measured with sufficient accuracy using cell survival in vitro and tumour growth delay in vivo as endpoints. There is evidence that radiation response of xenografts mirrors clinical radioresponsiveness of corresponding tumours in patients. Thus xenografts may have a significant potential in experimental radiotherapeutic research, e.g. in development of in vitro and in vivo predictive assays of clinical radioresponsiveness. There are at least three main disadvantages with xenografts as models for human cancer. Firstly, volume doubling time is usually shorter for xenografts than for tumours in patients. Secondly, the haematological system and vascular network of xenografts originate from the host. Thirdly, host defence mechanisms may be active against xenografts. These disadvantages may limit the usefulness of xenografts as models for human cancer in some types of radiobiological studies. (author)

  9. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how

  10. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, C [Wayne State University, Grosse Pointe, MI (United States); Borras, C [Radiological Physics and Health Services, Washington, DC (United States); Carlson, D [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how

  11. Chapter 9: understanding the nervous system in the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher U M

    2010-01-01

    The 18th century was an age of transition. The time-honored neuropsychology of classical and medieval times, mechanized in Descartes' hydraulic neurophysiology, was undermined by microscopical observations and careful physiological experimentation. Yet it was not until the very end of the century, when work on electric fish and amphibia began to suggest an acceptable successor to "animal spirit," that the old understanding of human neurophysiology began to fade. This chapter traces this slow retreat from the iatrophysics of the early part of the century, with its hollow nerves and animal spirits, through a number of stop-gap explanations involving mysterious subtle fluids or forces described variously as irritability, élan vital, vis viva, vis insita, the spirit of animation etc., or perhaps involving vibrations and vibratiuncles and mysterious magnetic effluvia, to the dawning electrophysiology of the end of the century and the beginning of the next. This developing understanding filtered slowly through to affect medical education, and the 18th century saw the development of strong medical schools at Leiden, Edinburgh, Paris, Bologna and London. Associated with these developments there was a great increase, as a well-known physician looking back at the beginning of the following century noted, in a class of diseases that had little concerned physicians in the preceding century - "nervous disorders." PMID:19892112

  12. From Flamsteed to Piazzi and Lalande: new standards in 18th century astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequeux, James

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The present high accuracy of stellar positions and proper motions allows us to determine the positional accuracy of old stellar catalogues. This has already been done for the most important catalogues from before the 18th century. Our aim is to extend this study to several 18th century catalogues. Methods: To do this, I studied ten catalogues: those of Flamsteed and Rømer, four catalogues of La Caille, and catalogues of Tobias Mayer, Bradley, Piazzi, and Lalande. A comparison with modern data, mostly from Hipparcos, compiled in the Simbad database of the CDS allowed me to determine the position errors of these catalogues. I also compared the stellar visual magnitudes given in eight of these catalogues with photometric V magnitudes. Results: Thanks to novel instruments, the rms positional accuracy improved from thousands to hundreds of arcsec in older catalogues to less than one minute in that of Flamsteed, and to 2-6 arcsec in the other catalogues I examined. These improvements allowed for the first time relatively accurate proper motions to be determined by 19th century astronomers. The catalogues with some corrections are available in digital form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A26

  13. Chapter 9: understanding the nervous system in the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher U M

    2010-01-01

    The 18th century was an age of transition. The time-honored neuropsychology of classical and medieval times, mechanized in Descartes' hydraulic neurophysiology, was undermined by microscopical observations and careful physiological experimentation. Yet it was not until the very end of the century, when work on electric fish and amphibia began to suggest an acceptable successor to "animal spirit," that the old understanding of human neurophysiology began to fade. This chapter traces this slow retreat from the iatrophysics of the early part of the century, with its hollow nerves and animal spirits, through a number of stop-gap explanations involving mysterious subtle fluids or forces described variously as irritability, élan vital, vis viva, vis insita, the spirit of animation etc., or perhaps involving vibrations and vibratiuncles and mysterious magnetic effluvia, to the dawning electrophysiology of the end of the century and the beginning of the next. This developing understanding filtered slowly through to affect medical education, and the 18th century saw the development of strong medical schools at Leiden, Edinburgh, Paris, Bologna and London. Associated with these developments there was a great increase, as a well-known physician looking back at the beginning of the following century noted, in a class of diseases that had little concerned physicians in the preceding century - "nervous disorders."

  14. The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha GUZMÁN RIVERÓN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the article in sentences like la casa en (la que vivo, among other variations, is today less frequently used in Hispanoamerica. Although we know that this structure, documented as early as the 13th century, became more wide-spread in the 18th century, little is known about its evolution at the time in American sources. I study the evolution of this phenomenon, basing myself exclusively on 18th century American texts. I also explore which factors are apparently related to this linguistic development and if the pace of its spread was determined by the preceding prepositions. Aiming at a panoramic view of the spread of the article in the period in question, I also trace the appearance of these relative clauses, with and without article, in the texts collected in the CORDE, and provide detailed analyses of texts from both halves of the century, in order to evaluate the factors that may have influenced this change.

  15. Decorative 18th Century Blue-and-White Portuguese Tile Panels: A Type-Case of Environmental Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa P. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decorated glazed ceramic tiles are used as an ornamental art, constituting an important cultural heritage whose preservation is mandatory. Environmental conditions are responsible for the degradation of exposed ancient tile panels originating various pathologies, related to the development of microorganisms. This is the case of a valuable 18th century blue-and-white Portuguese tile panel called “Cura do Cego,” belonging to the collection of the National Tile Museum (MNAz, where green stains are nowadays observable in the glaze. A prospective diagnosis of this green tarnishing was the aim of the present work. Small tile fragments were directly irradiated using nondestructive techniques: X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with a wavelength-dispersive system (WDXRF for chemical characterization of the tile glaze and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD to assess the phase constitution of both the glaze and the ceramic body. A destructive technique (scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive system (SEM/EDS was applied to tentatively infer the chemical changes induced in the glaze by the green staining and also to characterize the morphology of the microorganisms associated to this staining. The obtained results are reported and discussed, as a preliminary step for testing an innovative nondestructive decontamination technique applying gamma radiation, particularly suitable for overcoming such tile pathologies.

  16. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Hao, Yan-Hui; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed. PMID:25722878

  17. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhao; Yan-Hui Hao; Rui-Yun Peng

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed.

  18. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 29 papers in this progress report which deal with radiobiological physics, the biological effects of ionizing radiations, and the modification of these effects by chemical and pharmacological agents

  19. Biological indicators for radiation absorbed dose: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry has an important role to play in assessing the cumulative radiation exposure of persons working with radiation and also in estimating the true dose received during accidents involving external and internal exposure. Various biodosimetric methods have been tried to estimate radiation dose for the above purposes. Biodosimetric methods include cytogenetic, immunological and mutational assays. Each technique has certain advantages and disadvantages. We present here a review of each technique, the actual method used for detection of dose, the sensitivity of detection and its use in long term studies. (author)

  20. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1984-November 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual progress report for the Radiological Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Columbia University. The report consists of 17 individual reports plus an overall summary. Reports survey research results in neutron dosimetry, microdosimetry of electron beams and x-radiation, development of theoretical models for biological radiation effects and induction of oncogenic transformations. Individual abstracts were also prepared for each paper

  1. Spatial interpolation of biologically effective UV radiation over Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walawender, J.; Ustrnul, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The ultraviolet(UV) radiation plays an important role in the Earth-Atmosphere System. It has a positive influence on both human health and natural environment but it may also be very harmful if UV exposure exceeds "safe" limits. For that reason knowledge about spatial distribution of biologically effective UV doses seems to be crucial in minimization or complete elimination of the negative UV effects. The main purpose of this study is to find the most appropriate interpolation method in order to create reliable maps of the biologically effective UV radiation over Poland. As the broadband UV measurement network in Poland is very sparse, erythemaly weighted UV radiation data reconstructed from homogeneous global solar radiation records were used. UV reconstruction model was developed in Centre of Aerology (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management) within COST Action 726 - ‘Long term changes and climatology of UV radiation over Europe'. The model made it possible to reconstruct daily erythemal UV doses for 21 solar radiation measurement stations in the period 1985 - 2008. Mapping methodology included the following processing steps: exploratory spatial data analysis, verification of additional variables, selection and parameterization of interpolation model, accuracy assessment and cartographic visualization. Several different stochastic and deterministic interpolation methods along with various empirical semivariogram models were tested. Multiple regression analysis was performed in order to examine statistical relationship between UV radiation and additional environmental variables such as: elevation, latitude, stratospheric ozone content and cloud cover. The data were integrated, processed and visualized within GIS environment.

  2. Biological radiation effects of Radon in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to contribute to the knowledge on the effects of radon and its decay products, the aim of this investigation is to study the biological effects of radon using Drosophila melanogaster throught the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) and the analysis of some adaptative factors exposing larvaes to controlled radon atmosphers, considering that this insect could be used as biological monitor. Using the somatic mutation test a mutagenic effect was observed proportional to radon concentration, into an interval of 1 ± 0.3 to 111 ± 7.4 KBq/m3 equivalent to doses under 0.0106 Gy. The correlation analysis gives a linear (r=0.80) relationship with a positive slope of 0.2217. The same happens when gamma rays are used in the interval of 1 to 20 Gy, given a linear dose-dependent effect (r=0.878) is obtained; nevetheless the slop is smaller (m=0.003) than for radon. Analysing the results of adaptative factors of the nine exposed generations, it was found that probably radon exposition induced dominant lethals during gametogenesis or/and a selection of the more component gamets of the treated individuals in larval state. It was reflected in the significant decrease on fecundity of the generation exposed. Nevertheless the laying eggs had an increase in egg-to-adult viability and the develop velocity was higher than in control for 3 KBq/m3, this suggest that radon concentrations used were able to induce repair mechanisms. These data agree with the Hormesis hypothesis that says: low doses have positive effects on health. It was not possible to obtain a dose-effect relationship except with the develop velocity where it was found a dose-effect inverse proportion. In conclusion, Drosophila melanogaster could be a good system to obtain in vivo damaged induction concentration dependent of radon and its decay products, as well as to study the effects in an exposed population by the analysis of adaptative factors. (Author)

  3. Gilding Techniques in Religious Art Between East and West, 14th -18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.A. Sandu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a short review on gilding techniques and materials from artifacts of religious heritage between 14th and 18th centuries, mainly gilt wood and gilded panel paintings. The study underlines the main aspects related to the use of certain materials and application techniques in different countries and époques, between Eastern and Western Europe, exemplifying with case studies of real gilded objects from Romanian, Greek, Russian and Portuguese ecclesiastic heritage. The contribution of some analytical techniques, such as optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopies (OM, SEM, AFM, XRF and EDX spectroscopic analysis to the study of these objects is emphasized as well as the peculiarities of the obtained information.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in 17th-18th century remains from Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maca-Meyer, Nicole; Cabrera, Vicente M; Arnay, Matilde; Flores, Carlos; Fregel, Rosa; González, Ana M; Larruga, José M

    2005-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphisms were retrieved (with >80% efficiency) from a 17th-18th century sample of 213 teeth from Tenerife. The genetic composition of this population reveals an important ethnic heterogeneity. Although the majority of detected haplotypes are of European origin, the high frequency of sub-Saharan African haplotypes (15.63%), compared to that of the present-day population (6.6%), confirms the importance of the Canary Islands in the black slave trade of that epoch. The aboriginal substrate, inferred from the U6b1 haplotypes (8.59%), has also decreased due to European input. Finally, the presence of Amerindian lineages (1.5%) reveals that the Canary Islands have also received genetic flow from America.

  5. 18th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanovic, Mirjana; Kon-Popovska, Margita; Manolopoulos, Yannis; Palpanas, Themis; Trajcevski, Goce; Vakali, Athena

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the papers of 3 workshops and the doctoral consortium, which are organized in the framework of the 18th East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS’2014). The 3rd International Workshop on GPUs in Databases (GID’2014) is devoted to subjects related to utilization of Graphics Processing Units in database environments. The use of GPUs in databases has not yet received enough attention from the database community. The intention of the GID workshop is to provide a discussion on popularizing the GPUs and providing a forum for discussion with respect to the GID’s research ideas and their potential to achieve high speedups in many database applications. The 3rd International Workshop on Ontologies Meet Advanced Information Systems (OAIS’2014) has a twofold objective to present: new and challenging issues in the contribution of ontologies for designing high quality information systems, and new research and technological developments which use ontologie...

  6. Early 18th century cosmic ray flux inferred from 44Ti in Agen meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taricco, C.; Sinha, N.; Bhandari, N.; Colombetti, P.; Mancuso, S.; Rubinetti, S.; Barghini, D.

    2016-10-01

    We report the measurement of radioactivity of cosmogenic 44Ti in Agen meteorite, a H5 chondrite that fell in 1814. The 44Ti activity in meteorites is related to centennial-scale changes in cosmic ray intensity caused by heliospheric magnetic field modulation in the interplanetary space between heliocentric distances of 1 and 3 AU. The measured low 44Ti activity in Agen suggests a strong modulation of galactic cosmic rays at the turn of the 18th century, resulting in a low cosmic ray flux and is consistent with the linearly decreasing trend of GCR flux, modulated by the Gleissberg solar cycle during the past 250 years, as previously suggested by us.

  7. [Vitalism and mechanism: their meanings in the milieu of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S I

    1993-01-01

    The views on the life in the early modern period (the 17th and 18th centuries) with their socio-cultural backgrounds and their meanings at that time were discussed in this paper. Those views discussed here were the dualistic, mechanistic one of Rene Descartes (1596-1650), the animistic, vitalistic one of Georg Ernst Stahl (1660-1734), and the monistic, mechanistic one of Julien Offray de la Mettrie (1709-1751). Author stressed that the processes of their view formation were influenced by the wide range of the various political and religious factors as well as the scientific, medical facts and opinions at that time, and that not only the contents of the views but also their historical contexts should be pursued in the study on the medical thoughts.

  8. A GIS Approach to Urban History: Rome in the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keti Lelo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the integration of GIS technology with urban historical studies, focusing on one case study from the 18th century, the project Historical atlas of the modern Rome. The methodology employed in this project allows for effectiveness and accuracy in historical data acquisition and integration, which enables refined analyses of socioeconomic and environmental phenomena. The approach outlined in this article allowed researchers from different disciplines—city historians, archaeologists, demographists, economists, and so on—to interpret urban phenomenologies according to different thematic keys. These interpretations were derived from archival sources that complement each other and offer diversified insights into the urban context. The techniques described in the article are based on methods of data acquisition and spatial analysis developed in a GIS environment by exploiting the effectiveness of this technology in the quantitative treatment of cartographic and documentary sources.

  9. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, RR

    2004-11-02

    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  10. Sterilization of biological tissues with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 1994, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the South Central Hospital for High Specialty of PEMEX (HCSAE) began a joint work with the finality to obtain radio sterilized amniotic membranes for to be used as cover (biological bandage) in burnt patients. Subsequently the Chemistry Faculty of UNAM and the National Institute of Cardiology began to collaborate this last with interest on cardiac valves for graft. Starting from 1997, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports this project (MEX/7/008) whose main objective is to set up the basis to establish in Mexico a Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (amniotic membranes, skin, bones, tendons, cardiac valves, etc.) to be used with therapeutic purposes (grafts). The IAEA support has consisted in the equipment acquisition which is fundamental for the Tissue Bank performance such as an experimental irradiator, laminar flow bell, lyophilizer, vacuum sealer and special knives for tissues. Also visits to Mexico of experts have been authorized with the aim of advising to the personnel which participate in the project and scientific visits of this personnel to another tissue banks (Sri Lanka and Argentine). The establishment in Mexico of a Tissue bank will be a great benefit because it will have availability of distinct tissues for grafts and it will reduce the synthetic materials importation which is very expensive. (Author)

  11. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The year 1998 might again be called as the ''Comet Year''. The rain of bolides expected in the sky resembles pictures of DNA damages in shapes, numbers, mysterious processes and sometimes challenges to detect them. It was in this year that we detected, in a fluorescent light under the microscope, another ''shinning star'' a long time expected translocation induced by neutrons and then transferred to its glitter through fluorescence in situ hybridization technic. The year was filled in with measurements and brought plenty of scientific events that are partly reflected in the following pages; strong will and hard work to maintain research standards equal to technologically advanced partners in Europe and in other parts of the World; the USA, Sth Korea. We mainly devoted the year 1998 to the activities concerning our basic research, and requirements and expectations of various Committees in the issues of three research projects. We gather results on genotoxicity of pesticides, occupational exposures, and also the importance of life styles as factors affecting the levels of damage induced in human cells. We have also succeeded to go faster with modernization of our methodology by transferring the single cell ''Comet Assay'' to the routine work for the analysis of DNA damage induced by UV and X-rays radiation and for the studies on individual variability in the damage repair capacity. On January 13th we installed a new powerful RTG machine. Polish Atomic Energy supported this investment. And this was really the meaningful celebration of 100 anniversary of the discovery of POLONIUM and RADIUM. So, now, before a new therapeutic tool will be used in routine applications for radiotherapy, we with our new beautiful and powerful roentgen machine are deeply involved in the exploration of the strength of radiotherapeutic efficiency of sources and schedules. With the use of gene mutations in TSH-assay, we have finally established good dose response curves for

  12. Head injuries in the 18th century: the management of the damaged brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2013-07-01

    The 18th century was the time when trauma neurosurgery began to develop into the modern discipline. Before this, the management had, for the most part, changed little from the days of Hippocrates, Celsus, and Galen. Attention was directed to skull injuries, and the brain was treated as the seat of the rational soul but without other function. Symptoms after trauma were attributed to injuries to the bone and meninges. Following the lead of the Royal Academy of Surgery in Paris, it was accepted from the 1730s that the brain was the seat of symptoms after cranial trauma. During the 18th century, at least 12 surgeons published articles on cranial injury, 6 describing significant clinical series on this topic. They were Henri-François Le Dran (1685-1770) of Paris, Percival Pott (1714-1788) of London, James Hill (1703-1776) from Dumfries, Sylvester O'Halloran (1728-1807) of Limerick (Ireland), William Dease (1750-1798) of Dublin, and John Abernethy (1764-1831) of London. This article analyzes these series. Each individual made a different contribution. It is suggested that the relatively lesser-known James Hill in Scotland demonstrated the greatest understanding of the management of brain trauma and achieved the best results. A product of the Scottish Enlightenment, he adapted his management to his own experience and was not tied to the accepted authorities of his day, but he improved the management of each case following his experience with previous patients. He deserves to be remembered.

  13. The participation of the Spanish soldiers in the 18th century press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel-Reyes GARCÍA HURTADO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Spanish soldiers intervene in the 18th century, fundamentally in the second half, in a way determined in the Republic of Letters. With this study we attempt to suggest that authors from the army and the navy collaborated with 18th century publications in an assiduous or sporadic way, in particular since the last third of the century as well as to carry out an analysis of the themes that worried them and on which they wrote articles. We will obtain thus data about a direct intervention channel of the militia in a society that nothing has to do with the military phenomenon.

  14. Biological effects of space radiation and development of effective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-04-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronauts' exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronauts' health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronauts' vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation.

  15. Thermal effects of laser radiation in biological tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, L; Nauenberg, M.

    1983-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented that simulates the thermal effects of laser radiation incident on biological tissue. The multiple scattering and absorption of the laser beam and the thermal diffusion process in the tissue are evaluated by a numerical technique that is well suited for microcomputers. Results are compared with recent empirical observations.

  16. Further approaches to biological indicators of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite of the decades-long investigations, the search for proper biological indicator of radiation injuries did not result in techniques fulfilling all the requirements. So far, the most reliable assay is the dicentric chromosome aberration analysis. New developments have been made recently on a cytogenetic technique, the micronucleus assay, and for local injuries on the application of thermography

  17. DEGRO 2009. Radiation oncology - medical physics - radiation biology. Abstracts; DEGRO 2009. Radioonkologie - Medizinische Physik - Strahlenbiologie. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The special volume of the journal covers the abstracts of the DEGRO 2009 meeting on radiation oncology, medical physics, and radiation biology, covering the following topics: seldom diseases, gastrointestinal tumors, radiation reactions and radiation protection, medical care and science, central nervous system, medical physics, the non-parvicellular lung carcinomas, ear-nose-and throat, target-oriented radiotherapy plus ''X'', radio-oncology - young academics, lymphomas, mammary glands, modern radiotherapy, life quality and palliative radiotherapy, radiotherapy of the prostate carcinoma, imaging for planning and therapy, the digital documentation in clinics and practical experiences, NMR imaging and tomography, hadrons - actual status in Germany, urinal tract oncology, radiotoxicity.

  18. Advances in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors. Proceedings of a Symposium on New Developments in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dosimetry is a fundamental part of all radiation protection work. The measurements are made with a variety of instruments, and health physicists, after professional interpretation of the data, can assess the levels of exposure which might be encountered in a given area or the individual doses received by workers, visitors and others at places where the possibility of radiation exposure exists. The types of radiation concerned here are photon radiations, ranging from soft X-rays to gamma rays, and particulate radiations such as β-rays, α-particles, protons, neutrons and fission fragments. The type of technique used depends not only on the type of radiation but also on such factors as whether the radiation is from a source internal or external to the body. Radiation dosimetry is not only used at nuclear facilities; it has diverse applications, for example in determining doses when radiation sources are employed for medical diagnostics and therapy, in safeguarding workers in any industry where isotopes are used, and in assessing the effect of both naturally occurring and man-made radiations on the general public and the environment. The advances of modern technology have increased the variety of sources; an example can be given from colour television, where the high potential necessary in certain colour cathode-ray tubes generates a non-negligible amount of X-rays. The Symposium on New Developments in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors was one of a continuing series of meetings in which the International Atomic Energy Agency furthers the exchange of information on all aspects of personnel and area dosimetry. The Symposium was devoted in particular to a study of the dose meters themselves - their radiation-sensitive elements (both physical and biological),their instrumentation, and calibration and standardization. Several speakers suggested that the situation in the standardization and calibration of measuring equipment and sources was

  19. 5. Conference cycle. The radiations and the Biological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear technologies and their development have influenced many aspects of modern life. Besides used for electricity production nuclear technologies are applied in many other fields, especially in biological sciences. In genetics and molecular biology they enable research resulting in increased food production and better food preservation. Usage in material sciences lead to new varieties of plastics or improved characteristics. Nuclear applications are used in pe troleum industries and in forecasting geothermic power. Radiobiology and radiotherapy enable diagnosis and therapy of several diseases, e.g. cancer. Nuclear technologies also contribute to preserve the environment. They offer methods to analyse as well as decrease the environmental impacts. The 5. conference cyle entitled 'The Radiations and the Biological Sciences' aims to inform students of biological sciences about new nuclear technologies applied in their field of interest

  20. Radiation Biology: A Handbook for Teachers and Students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the radiobiology of normal tissues and tumours is a core prerequisite for the practice of radiation oncology. As such the study of radiobiology is mandatory for gaining qualification as a radiation oncologist in most countries. Teaching is done partly by qualified radiobiologists in some countries, and this is supplemented by teaching from knowledgeable radiation oncologists. In low and middle income (LMI) countries the teachers are often radiation oncologists and/or medical physicists. In Europe, a master's course on radiobiology is taught jointly by a consortium of five European Universities. This is aimed at young scientists from both Western and Eastern Europe, training in this discipline. Recently the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) initiated the launch of a radiobiology teaching course outside Europe (Beijing, 2007; Shanghai, 2009). Radiation protection activities are governed by many regulations and recommendations. These are based on knowledge gained from epidemiological studies of health effects from low as well as from high dose radiation exposures. Organizations like the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have put a lot of effort into reviewing and evaluating the biological basis to radiological protection practices. Personnel being trained as future radiation protection personnel should have a basic understanding of the biological and clinical basis to the exposure limitations that they are subject to and that they implement for industrial workers and the public at large. It is for these reasons that aspects of Radiobiology related to protection issues are included in this teaching syllabus. In LMI countries, many more teachers are needed in radiobiology, and the establishment of regional training centres or special regional training courses in radiobiology, are really the only options to solve the obvious deficit in knowledge of radiobiology in such countries. Radiobiology teaching

  1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INTRODUCTION OF MODERN SCIENCE TO PORTUGAL DURING THE 18th CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TERESA CASTELÃO-LAWLESS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the role played by members of the Society of Jesus, the Order of the Oratorians, and the Jewish community in the introduction of Modern science in Portugal during the 18th century. The record of their publications prove, contrary to common stereotypes on the permanent conflict between science and religion, that they all embraced Modern, anti-Aristotelian, natural philosophy fairly equally and unreservedly. The rhetoric they used in manuscript Dedications to prospective patrons also show that they were actively engaged in shifting Modern science from a context of private consumption to one of public circulation. I acknowledgethat the dissemination of Modern science in Portugal during the 1700’s was slow and protracted. This phenomenon, however, was not, as typically argued, caused by scientific conservatism on the part of the religious Orders, or the ill will of patrons of the sciences, but by the political motives of enlightened despots João V, José I and his Prime-Minister the Marquis of Pombal.

  2. Grey cast iron as construction material of bridges from the 18th and 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rabiega

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many bridges and railroad viaducts, which have been operated at the western and southern regions of Poland, were erected at the end ofthe 18th or beginning of the 19th century. In recent years they undergo overhauls and renovations requiring familiarity with the construction materials they have been made of. It is necessary for estimation of their load capacity (possible reinforcements and determining their suitability for further utilisation. Among the materials in the old bridges the puddled steels and cast irons predominate. Aim of the work is identification and documentation of microstructure and selected properties of the cast irons used for production of parts for the bridge in Łażany, the Old Mieszczański Bridge in Wrocław, the hanging bridge in Ozimek, as well as the columnar piers of the railroad viaduct in Wrocław. Using the methods of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as the results of hardness measurements and chemical analysis, it has been shown that the objects have been built of grey cast iron with flake graphite having the ferritic-pearlitic or pearlitic matrix. The diversification of their chemical analysis resulting from the type, size and geometry of the cast parts was indicated.The tested materials fulfil requirements of the contemporary standards related to grey cast irons of the EN-GJL-100 and EN-GJL-150grades.

  3. Training links and transmission of knowledge in 18th Century botany: a social network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Sigrist

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution develops a social network approach to the training of European botanists in the 18th century. In a period when the study of plants increasingly became an autonomous field of research, the practice of botany and related sciences mobilized a very diverse group of actors. For many of them, initiation to the science of plants was part of their medical studies. Others were trained as collaborators with an outstanding scholar in the context of a royal garden or elsewhere, sometimes also in philosophy colleges or faculties. Still others were self-taught. To the extent that biographical data were available, we made a systematic census of the masters and disciples of a set of 928 Western botanists active between 1700 and 1830. Three subsets were thus identified, each of them showing distinct characteristics and developmental patterns. The specific features of these subsets are discussed in a historical perspective, with a particular attention to the various institutional contexts which produced them. The data analysis basically shows the growing autonomy of botany with regard to medical training, as well as the increasingly national character of the dominant schools, at least in France.

  4. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  5. Linguistic contact in the 18th Century in America: Spanish and Portuguese in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis RAMÍREZ LUENGO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Spanish and Portuguese coexist in several areas of America, almost all studies have focused on the contact situation in the North of Uruguay, and this contact has been hardly considered from a historical point of view. This work tries to mitigate this lack of knowledge in presenting several texts from Paraguay in the 18th century, which show a clear influence from Portuguese. A philological edition of such documents is provided here and a study of linguistic characteristics possibly due to Portuguese influence is made. Our aim is twofold: 1 to describe the linguistic variety used in these written texts in comparison with the synchronic and diachronic data which are already available regarding the Portuguese Dialects in Uruguay (DPU and some other areas; 2 to provide data which could be helpful to understand the idiosyncratic characteristics of the linguistic contact of these two Romance languages and the significance of Portuguese in the shaping (of some linguistic varieties of American Spanish.

  6. METHODS USED FOR MUDARRIS APPOINTMENT IN THE 18th CENTURY OTTOMAN MADRASAHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü YANCI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methods used in the appointment of mudarris, who make up the backbone of the madrasah system in the Ottoman Empire, have been examined. For historical scope of the study, the 18th century when the Ottoman State started to westernize, was chosen. In this century, the system is different in some aspects compared to the system in the foundation and rise periods. In this study, these differences are mentioned, and determinations made with regard to appointment methods are presented. In this context, changes in the inauguration and promotion of mudarrises are discussed. When the documents in this period are examined, it is seen that with regard to the appointment of the mudarrises, the expressions of “tevcih”, or “tevcih buyuruldu” were used to mean appointed. Mudarris appointments can be classified as appointments made with offers, appointment with the recommendations of Shaykh al-Islam, appointments with kadi’asker’s decree and the Sultan’s edicts. Mudarris appointments were made with such reasons as legitimacy, escheated, novation, eternalization and grace.

  7. IAEA activities related to radiation biology and health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA is involved in capacity building with regard to the radiobiological sciences in its member states through its technical cooperation programme. Research projects/programmes are normally carried out within the framework of coordinated research projects (CRPs). Under this programme, two CRPs have been approved which are relevant to nuclear/radiation accidents: (1) stem cell therapeutics to modify radiation-induced damage to normal tissue, and (2) strengthening biological dosimetry in IAEA member states. (note)

  8. New Scientific Pearl about Biologic Effect of Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Alamdaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Soon after the discovery of X-ray by Rontgen in 1895, it became evident that radiation can cause some somatic damage to tissues. The hazards of X-ray exposure were clearly known when many large hospitals had radiology departments. The greatest increased in knowledge about X-ray risks had accrued from the dropping of the two atomic bombs in Japan in 1945 and some other atomic accident. For example, among the Japanese bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there have been about 400 extra cancer deaths. These were the origin of radiology personnel and people fear from radiation exposure and resistant in against simple X-ray exam (radiophobia. However, new scientific data on the effects radiation on survivors, especially about biologic effect of ionizing rays, background radiation exposure, amount of endogenous radiation, hormosis phenomenon and comparison radiation risk with other risk over lifetime are still being continuously revised and risk estimates updated. Fundamentally, this risk is much"nlower than whatever already estimated and it is insignificant in diagnostic domain. Better perception of physician from these instances help to prevent of false radiophobia and to make proper use of diagnostic and therapeutic advantages of ionizing beam.

  9. Biological effects of low-intensity millimetric radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betskiy, O.V.; Putvinskiy, A.V.

    1986-10-01

    The authors discuss a possible role of strong absorption of millimetric (MM) waves by water molecules in the primary mechanism of the reaction of biological systems to MM irradiation. Data are given on the interaction of MM radiation with simple aqueous systems. Primary attention is given to the phenomenon of convective mixing of aqueous solutions under the effect of low-intensity MM waves (1 ... 10 mW/cm/sup 2/). 12 references, 6 figures.

  10. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author)

  11. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Part 2. Physical radiations and biological significance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report comprises a teaching text, encompassing all physical radiations likely to be of biological interest, and the relevant biological effects and their significance. Topics include human radiobiology, delayed effects, radiation absorption in organisms, aqueous radiation chemistry, cell radiobiology, mutagenesis, and photobiology

  12. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ``biological fingerprint`` of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  13. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

  14. Complex systems of biological interest stability under ionising radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PhD work presents the study of stability of molecular systems of biological interest in the gas phase after interaction with ionising radiations. The use of ionising radiation can probe the physical chemistry of complex systems at the molecular scale and thus consider their intrinsic properties. Beyond the fundamental aspect, this work is part of the overall understanding of radiation effects on living organisms and in particular the use of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy. Specifically, this study focused on the use of low-energy multiply charged ions (tens of keV) provided by the GANIL (Caen), which includes most of the experiments presented. In addition, experiments using VUV photons were also conducted at synchrotron ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy). The bio-molecular systems studied are amino acids and nucleic acid constituents. Using an experimental crossed beams device allows interaction between biomolecules and ionising radiation leads mainly to the ionization and fragmentation of the system. The study of its relaxation dynamics is by time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled to a coincidences measurements method. It is shown that an approach combining experiment and theory allows a detailed study of the fragmentation dynamics of complex systems. The results indicate that fragmentation is generally governed by the Coulomb repulsion but the intramolecular rearrangements involve specific relaxation mechanisms. (author)

  15. Migrations in Serbia during the 18th century and patriarchal society institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirčević Miroslav M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the Turks penetrated the Balkans from Asia Minor, migrations and ethnic composition changes occurred very frequently in Serbia and the Balkan Peninsula in general. These migrations and ethnic composition changes especially characterized the 18th century period, when initial conditions were set for subsequent liberation wars against the Turks in the 19th century. The reasons bringing about these mass migrations could be divided into three groups: 1, a military-political reason, 2, an economic-geographical reason, and 3, an hygienic-health reason. All of them operated simultaneously, causing mass migrations and changes in the demography of Serbia and the Balkans in general. Because of these migrations, a new population group of Serbs was created in the jurisdiction of pasha in Belgrade, that created in turn, a few very important establishments based on patriarchal culture and civilization. These are the new bodies: family co-operative associations (family committee, master of the house, lady of the house, members of the co-operative associations village and village headman self-management (village assembly, village headman, villein, headman assembly, principality headman. All of these establishments have the same origin and functioned in a very similar manner based on ancient common law rules. The similarities between these bodies could be recognized in a twofold way, based on a correlation with 1, family committee - village assembly - headman assembly, and 2, master of the house - villein - principality headman. There are no real differences among them. The difference is visible only in their personal and territorial range.

  16. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  17. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. Methods and Materials: In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results: The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. Conclusions: A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  18. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation in the high dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report reviews briefly methods of dose evaluation after exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation. Validation of two methods also is described: micronucleus (Mn) frequency estimation according Muller and Rode and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) combined with painting of 3 pairs of chromosomes in human lymphocytes. According to Muller and Rode, micronucleus frequency per binucleated cells with at least one Mn linearly increases with dose up to 15 Gy and is suitable end-point for biological dosimetry. These authors, however, examined cells from only one donor. The data reported below were obtained for 5 donors; they point to a considerable individual variation of thus measured response to irradiation. Due to the high degree of inter-donor variability, there is no possibility to apply this approach in biological dosimetry in the dose range 5 - 20 Gy gamma 60Co radiation. A linear response up to 10 Gy was observed only in the case of certain donors. In contrast, determination of the dose-effect relationship with the PCC method gave good results (small inter-individual variation, no plateau effect up to dose 10 Gy), so that with a calibration curve it could be used for dose estimation after exposure to doses up to 10 Gy of X or gamma 60Co radiation. (author)

  19. Biological effects of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1990 a group of scientists representing several federal agencies, the International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, the private sector, and academia met to develop a strategy to encourage the study of the biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE) to chemical agents and radioactivity. A workshop was held in 1991 with seven invited speakers focusing on the toxicological implications of biological adaptations. The selection of topics and speakers was designed to consider critically the concept of hormesis, not only in a broad, conceptual manner, but also at the molecular and biochemical levels. These presentations offered a complementary perspective on the diverse range of molecular mechanisms that can become activated at low levels of toxicant exposure. In addition to chemical toxicology research, an overview of current research on 'Effects of low-dose radiation on the immune response' was presented as well as 'Cellular adaptation as an important response during chemical carcinogenesis'. The final presentation was devoted to biostatistical considerations when designing studies that address issues associated with the biological responses to low doses of chemicals and radiation, as well as issues in interpretation of the findings from such studies

  20. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  1. Stochastic Effects in Computational Biology of Space Radiation Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janis; Harper, Jane; O'Neill, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Estimating risk from space radiation poses important questions on the radiobiology of protons and heavy ions. We are considering systems biology models to study radiation induced repair foci (RIRF) at low doses, in which less than one-track on average transverses the cell, and the subsequent DNA damage processing and signal transduction events. Computational approaches for describing protein regulatory networks coupled to DNA and oxidative damage sites include systems of differential equations, stochastic equations, and Monte-Carlo simulations. We review recent developments in the mathematical description of protein regulatory networks and possible approaches to radiation effects simulation. These include robustness, which states that regulatory networks maintain their functions against external and internal perturbations due to compensating properties of redundancy and molecular feedback controls, and modularity, which leads to general theorems for considering molecules that interact through a regulatory mechanism without exchange of matter leading to a block diagonal reduction of the connecting pathways. Identifying rate-limiting steps, robustness, and modularity in pathways perturbed by radiation damage are shown to be valid techniques for reducing large molecular systems to realistic computer simulations. Other techniques studied are the use of steady-state analysis, and the introduction of composite molecules or rate-constants to represent small collections of reactants. Applications of these techniques to describe spatial and temporal distributions of RIRF and cell populations following low dose irradiation are described.

  2. Biological efficiency of interaction between various radiation and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project has been carried out jointly with INP (Poland) to develop technologies to assess the biological efficiency of interaction between radiation and chemicals. Through the cooperative project, KAERI and INP have established wide variety of bioassay techniques applicable to radiation bioscience, human monitoring, molecular epidemiology and environmental science. The joint experiment, in special, made it possible to utilize the merits of both institutes and to upgrade and verify KAERI's current technology level. All results of the cooperative research will be jointly published in high standard scientific journals listed in the Science Citation Index (SCI), which can make the role of fundamental basis for improving relationship between Korea and Poland. Research skills such as Trad-MCN assay, SCGE assay, immunohistochemical assay and molecular assay developed through joint research will be further elaborated and will be continuously used for the collaboration between two institutes

  3. Radiation exposure and the woman worker: biological and legal parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interpretation of federal and state legislation and regulations concerning the radiation protection of women in the workplace has not been a clear and straightforward procedure. On one hand, the safety of all workers, independent of sex, imposes a specific directive for the enforcement of working standards in general. On the other hand, must allowance be made in setting radiation standards for the particular biological characteristics of workers, some of whom are women. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act provides equal employment opportunity for women and is now being enforced. All legal questions aside, men and women are decidedly different in one aspect; only women can conceive and carry a fetus and studies have shown that, in humans, the most radiosensitive stage of the fetus is during the first trimester of pregnancy. Possible legal and socio-economic aspects of questions posed by the employment of women by the nuclear industry are considered

  4. Towards Space Exploration of Moon, Mars Neos: Radiation Biological Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther

    2016-07-01

    Radiation has emerged as the most critical issue to be resolved for long-term missions both orbital and interplanetary. Astronauts are constantly exposed to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) of various energies with a low dose rate. Primarily late tissue sequels like genetic alterations, cancer and non-cancer effects, i.e. cataracts and degenerative diseases of e.g. the central nervous system or the cardiovascular system, are the potential risks. Cataracts were observed to occur earlier and more often in astronauts exposed to higher proportions of galactic ions (Cucinotta et al., 2001). Predictions of cancer risk and acceptable radiation exposure in space are subject to many uncertainties including the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space radiation especially heavy ions, dose-rate effects and possible interaction with microgravity and other spaceflight environmental factors. The initial cellular response to radiation exposure paves the way to late sequelae and starts with damage to the DNA which complexity depends on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. Repair of such complex DNA damage is more challenging and requires more time than the repair of simple DNA double strand breaks (DSB) which can be visualized by immunofluorescence staining of the phosphorylated histone 2AX (γH2AX) and might explain the observed prolonged cell cycle arrests induced by high-LET in comparison to low-LET irradiation. Unrepaired or mis-repaired DNA DSB are proposed to be responsible for cell death, mutations, chromosomal aberrations and oncogenic cell transformation. Cell killing and mutation induction are most efficient in an LET range of 90-200 keV/µm. Also the activation of transcription factors such as Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) and gene expression shaping the cellular radiation response depend on the LET with a peak RBE between 90 and 300 keV/µm. Such LET-RBE relationships were observed for cataract and cancer induction by heavy ions in laboratory animals

  5. Alternative statistical methods for cytogenetic radiation biological dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents alternative statistical methods for biological dosimetry, such as the Bayesian and Monte Carlo method. The classical Gaussian and robust Bayesian fit algorithms for the linear, linear-quadratic as well as saturated and critical calibration curves are described. The Bayesian model selection algorithm for those curves is also presented. In addition, five methods of dose estimation for a mixed neutron and gamma irradiation field were described: two classical methods, two Bayesian methods and one Monte Carlo method. Bayesian methods were also enhanced and generalized for situations with many types of mixed radiation. All algorithms were presented in easy-to-use form, which can be applied to any computational programming language. The presented algorithm is universal, although it was originally dedicated to cytogenetic biological dosimetry of victims of a nuclear reactor accident.

  6. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study ol chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y =α + β1D + β2D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 14 refs

  7. Biological rhythms for rehabilitation of radiation damage of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable disturbances in biological eurhythmycal structure of redoracu were discovered for people living in Borodulikha area of the Semipalatinsk test site. The deep desynchronise may result in a development of the cardiovascular, bronco-pulmonary, endocrine, oncologic, neuro psychic diseases. A method to correct the biological eurhythmycal structure was developed. Homeopathic doses of melatonin ('rhythm driver' managing the most regenerating and immune systems) and uthynol (promoting production of dehydroepiandrosterone of maternal prehormone of 27 hormones) were used to provide the general correction. The endocrine diseases are not practically subjected to the homeopathic correction. The sub correction was sometimes carried out after 5 months. The developed methods of rehabilitation of the radiation damages are unique, since they allow performing the homeopathic correction using the acupuncture monitoring

  8. Cerenkov Radiation: A Multi-functional Approach for Biological Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei eMa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerenkov radiation (CR has been used in various biological research fields, which has aroused lots of attention in recent years. Combining optical imaging instruments and most of nuclear medicine imaging or radiotherapy probes, the CR was developed as a new imaging modality for biology studies, called Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI. On the other hand, it was novelly used as an internal excitation source to activate some fluorophores for energy transfer imaging. However, it also has some shortages such as relatively weak luminescence intensity and low penetration in tissue. Thus some scientific groups demonstrated to optimize the CLI and demonstrated it to three-dimension tomography. In this article, we elaborate on its principle, history, and applications and discuss a number of directions for technical improvements. Then concluded some advantages and shortages of CR and discuss some prospects of it.

  9. Comparing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques in 18th-century yard spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Christiane M.

    Yards surrounding historical homesteads are the liminal space between private houses and public space, and contain artifactural and structural remains that help us understand how the residents interfaced with the world. Comparing different yards means collecting reliable evidence, and what is missing is just as important as what is found. Excavations can rely on randomly placed 50-cm shovel test pits to locate features, but this can miss important features. Shallow geophysics, in particular ground-penetrating radar (GPR), can be used to identify features and reliably and efficiently collect evidence. GPR is becoming more integrated into archaeological investigations due to the potential to quickly and nondestructively identify archaeological features and to recent advancements in processing software that make these methods more user-friendly. The most efficacious GPR surveys must take into consideration what is expected to be below the surface, what features look like in GPR outputs, the best methods for detecting features, and the limitations of GPR surveys. Man-made landscape features are expected to have existed within yard spaces, and the alteration of these features shows how the domestic economy of the residence changed through time. This study creates an inventory of these features. By producing a standardized sampling method for GPR in yard spaces, archaeologists can quickly map subsurface features and carry out broad comparisons between yards. To determine the most effective sampling method, several GPR surveys were conducted at the 18th-century Durant-Kenrick House in Newton, Massachusetts, using varied line spacing, line direction, and bin size. Examples of the GPR signatures of features, obtained using GPR-Slice software, from the Durant-Kenrick House and similar sites were analyzed. The efficacy of each method was determined based on the number of features distinguished, clarity of the results, and the time involved. The survey at Newton showed that

  10. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using {sup 48}V and {sup 62}Zn. (author)

  11. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48V and 62Zn. (author)

  12. Physical and biological characterization of a seawater ultraviolet radiation sterilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentera, Laura; Uribe, Roberto M.; Rodríguez, Romana R.; Carrillo, Ricardo E.

    1994-03-01

    The physical and biological characterization of a seawater ultraviolet (UV) sterilizer is described. The physical characterization was performed using radiochromic dye films by evaluating the uniformity of the radiant exposure along each lamp, the effect of the radiation from one lamp on the array of adjacent lamps, and by measuring the UV radiation absorption of seawater with respect to distilled water. The biological characterization was performed by measuring the amount of reduction of bacteria in stored seawater after different filtration and UV treatments. Among the filtration methods tested, differential filtration (5, 3 and 0.45 μm filters connected in series) caused the highest bacterial reduction factor of 60%. UV radiant exposures of 212, 424, 636 and 848 J m -2 yielded bacteria reduction factors of 99.86, 99.969, 99.997 and 100%, respectively, for populations of Vibrio and Pseudomonas bacteria present in stored seawater. It is concluded that the system is useful for water disinfection when 1, 2 or 3 lamps are on; when 4 lamps are used the treated water becomes sterile.

  13. Physical and biological characterization of a seawater ultraviolet radiation sterilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrentera, L.; Rodriguez, R.R. (Unidad Merida (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV)); Uribe, R.M. (Kent State Univ., OH (United States)); Carrillo, R.E. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Medical Physics)

    1994-03-01

    The physical and biological characterization of a seawater ultraviolet (UV) sterilizer is described. The physical characterization was performed using radiochromic dye films by evaluating the uniformity of the radiant exposure along each lamp, the effect of the radiation from one lamp on the array of adjacent lamps, and by measuring the UV radiation absorption of seawater with respect to distilled water. The biological characterization was performed by measuring the amount of reduction of bacteria in stored seawater after different filtration and UV treatments. Among the filtration methods tested, differential filtration (5, 3 and 0.45 [mu]m filters connected in series) caused the highest bacterial reduction factor of 60%. UV radiant exposures of 212, 424, 636 and 848 J m[sup -2] yielded bacteria reduction factors of 99.86, 99.969, 99.997 and 100%, respectively, for populations of Vibrio and Pseudomonas bacteria present in stored seawater. It is concluded that the system is useful for water disinfection when 1, 2 or 3 lamps are on; when 4 lamps are used the treated water becomes sterile. (author).

  14. Party’s Control over the State: An Interpretation of the Keynote Political Report to the 18th Party Congress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANTAO; REN

    2013-01-01

    Hu Jintao’s political report to the 18thNational Congress of the Communist Party of China(CPC)shows that China,a particular type of party-state different from any kind of Western political system,is undergoing a tremendous and difficult transition.On one hand,the 18thNational Congress of the CPC reinforced the party-state morphology,and,on the other,we notice that the Party’s state-building has actually developed to an unprecedented level.However,it is believed that the CPC is facing fateful challenges in governing the country.It is therefore extremely important to make adjustments in the political ideas,institutional arrangements and practical measures if the CPC wants to ensure a long-term success.In contrast to the overall political arrangements,specific procedures need to be implemented to achieve the goal of good governance of the CPC.

  15. A Novel Biological Dosimetry Method for Monitoring Occupational Radiation Exposure in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Wards: From Radiation Dosimetry to Biological Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Heydarheydari, S.; Haghparast, A.; Eivazi, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Professional radiation workers are occupationally exposed to long-term low levels of ionizing radiation. Occupational health hazards from radiation exposure, in a large occupational segment of the population, are of special concern. Biological dosimetry can be performed in addition to physical dosimetry with the aim of individual dose assessment and biological effects. Methods In this biodosimetry study, some hematological parameters have been examined in 40 exposed a...

  16. ANALYSIS OF AN UNPUBLISHED TREATISE OF AN 18TH CENTURY ENGINEER, ANTOINE D’ALLEMAN (1679-1760)

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury, François; Duprat, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Military culture has occupied a central place in the constitution of constructive knowledge amongst the French intellectual elite since the beginning of the 17th century. The royal engineers , whose trade is rapidly institutionalized and developing in the 17th and 18th centuries, are important agents and vectors of this complex of practical knowledge backed by geometry, mathematics and the new physics. Despite the recent scientific advances in structural mechanics and strength of materials, i...

  17. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1985-November 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report of the Radiological Research Laboratory of the Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University. The bulk of the research of the Laboratory involves basic and fundamental aims, not confined to radiotherapy. Research carried out in the Laboratory covers the determination of microdosimetry quantities, computer simulation of particle tracks, determination of oncogenic transformation, and the transfection of DNA into cells. The Hallmark of the Laboratory is the interaction between physics and biology

  18. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, October 1, 1982-November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of research is carried out at the Radiological Research Laboratory, from computer simulation of particle tracks to the determination of oncogenic transformation in mammalian cells. Mechanistic studies remain the central mission in an attempt to understand the biological action of ionizing radiations. Collaborative research is carried out on the use of radiosensitizers on chemosensitizers on the effect of hormones on oncogenic transformation and on cataractogenesis

  19. Health and biological effects of non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day on the biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations. Sixteen presentations out of 17 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - NMR: biological effects and implications of Directive 2004/40 on electromagnetic fields (S. Lehericy); 2 - impact of RF frequencies from mobile telephone antennas on body homeostasis (A. Pelletier); 3 - expression of stress markers in the brain and blood of rats exposed in-utero to a Wi-Fi signal (I. Lagroye); 4 - people exposure to electromagnetic waves: the challenge of variability and the contribution of statistics to dosimetry (J. Wiart); 5 - status of knowledge about electromagnetic fields hyper-sensitivity (J.P. Marc-Vergnes; 6 - geno-toxicity of UV radiation: respective impact of UVB and UVA (T. Douki); 7 - National day of prevention and screening for skin cancers (F. Guibal); 8 - UV tan devices: status of knowledge about cancer risks (I. Tordjman, and J. Gaillot de Saintignon); 9 - modulation of brain activity during a tapping task after exposure to a 3000 μT magnetic field at 60 Hz (M. Souques and A. Legros); 10 - calculation of ELF electromagnetic fields in the human body by the finite elements method (R. Scoretti); 11 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field (I. Magne); 12 - LF and static fields, new ICNIRP recommendations: what has changed, what remains (B. Veyret); 13 - risk assessment of low energy lighting systems - DELs and CFLs (J.P. Cesarini); 14 - biological effects to the rat of a chronic exposure to high power microwaves (R. De Seze); 15 - theoretical and experimental electromagnetic compatibility approaches of active medical implants in the 10-50 Hz frequency range: the case of implantable cardiac defibrillators (J. Katrib); French physicians and electromagnetic fields (M. Souques). (J.S.)

  20. Potential of biological images for radiation therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent technical advances in 3D conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy (3DCRT and IMRT) based, on patient-specific CT and MRI images, have the potential of delivering exquisitely conformal dose distributions to the target volume while avoiding critical structures. Emerging clinical results in terms of reducing treatment-related morbidity and increasing local control appear promising. Recent developments in imaging have suggested that biological images may further positively impact cancer diagnosis, characterization and therapy. While in the past radiological images are largely anatomical, the new types of images can provide metabolic, biochemical, physiological, functional and molecular (genotypic and phenotypic) information. For radiation therapy, images that give information about factors (e.g. tumor hypoxia, Tpot) that influence radiosensitivity and treatment outcome can be regarded as radiobiological images. The ability of IMRT to 'paint' (in 2D) or 'sculpt' (in 3D) the dose, and produce exquisitely conformal dose distributions begs the '64 million dollar question' as to how to paint or sculpt, and whether biological imaging may provide the pertinent information. Can this new approach provide 'radiobiological phenotypes' non-invasively, and incrementally improve upon the predictive assays of radiobiological characteristics such as proliferative activity (Tpot - the potential doubling time), radiosensitivity (SF2 - the surviving fraction at a dose of 2 Gy), energy status (relative to sublethal damage repair), pH (a possible surrogate of hypoxia), tumor hypoxia, etc. as prognosticator(s) of radiation treatment outcome. Important for IMRT, the spatial (geometrical) distribution of the radiobiological phenotypes provide the basis for dose distribution design to conform to both the physical (geometrical) and the biological attributes. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  1. Radioprotection, biological effects of the radiations and security in the handling of radioactive material

    CERN Document Server

    Teran, M

    2000-01-01

    The development of the philosophy of the radioprotection is dependent on the understanding of the effects of the radiation in the man. Behind the fact that the radiation is able to produce biological damages there are certain factors with regard to the biological effects of the radiations that determine the boarding of the radioprotection topics.

  2. Shapes and geometries underlying the religious architecture in the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Giuliano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern Sicily , the 18th century was deeply characterized by an artistic renovation linked to the rebuilding fervor following  the catastrophic events which hit the NOTO VALLEY at the end of the 17th century. It was also characterized by the new needs of the counterreformation spirit.As far as this period is concerned, the research work tends to develop a new methodology of critical review on the works that, both on small and big scales, have characterized the inner and outer spaces of religious buildings, their altars and their facades.These works testify the circulation of cultural shapes and models, in both regional and national areas, in a dimension which widely overflows the local area and all its limited elaborations.It is difficult to diachronically read these works which are apart from important cultural centres, because there are very few historical documents which can testify the architectural design.The research work is based on a double analysis which, taking into account the deeply symbolic elements of the religious architectural expression, traces, on one hand the possible references to the literature of that period in order to identify its models; on the other hand it tries to find out connections among the typical elements of the surveyed area through a geometrical investigation.The aim is to promote a more and more effective preserving and developing action  of a less famous religious heritage. Thanks to the collection of cultural information, it is possible to gather valuable elements, on both small and big scales, in less famous areas which are apart from the most popular tracks.For this reason the first part of this study focuses its attention on the development of an analysis system which makes it possible to read in a syncretic way, the inevitable contaminations with the literature dating back to the Renaissance, which can be found in the religious architecture of the Noto Valley during that peculiar, cultural period

  3. 13th AINSE radiation biology conference: conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forty one papers presented at this conference covered the areas of radiation induced lesions, apoptosis, genetics and radiobiological consequences of low level radiation exposure, clinical applications of radiation, mammalian cells radiosensitivity and radiation-activated proteins

  4. Biological dose assessment of 15 victims in Haerbin radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: a) On July 5 and 8, 2005, Two patients with bone marrow suppression were successively hospitalized by the First Affiliated Hospital of Haerbin Medical University. Examination results showed that the patients seemed to get suspicious radiation disease. On July 13, 2005, a radioactive source was found in the patients' dwelling. The radiation source is Iridium-192 with 0.5 Ci(1.85 x 1010Bq) radioactivity. The radiation source is a metal bar which is a kind of radioactive industrial detection source for welding. The source is currently stored in the urban radioactive waste storehouse of Heilongjiang province. After finding the radioactive source on July 13, The Haerbin municipal government initiated an emergency response plan and developed medical rescue, radioactive source examination and case detection through organizing ministries involving health, environmental protection and public security. After receiving a report at 17:00 on July 14, 2005, Chinese Ministry of Health immediately sent experts to the spot for investigation, dose estimation and direction of patients' rescue. Health authority carried out physical examination twice on 113 residents within 30 meters to the source, among which 4 got radiation sickness, 5 showed abnormal hemotogram, and others showed no abnormal response. Of 4 patients with radiation sickness, one 81 year old patient has died of severe bone marrow form of sub acute radiation sickness coupled with lung infection and prostrate apparatus at 13:00 on Oct., 20. Two children have been treated in Beitaiping Road Hospital in Beijing, another patient has been treated in local hospital. b) Biological dosimetry using conventional chromosome aberration analysis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes has been shown as a reliable and useful tool in medical management of radiation accident victims. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of the victims were cultured using conventional culture medium with colchicine added at the beginning. Chromosome

  5. Low Level Laser Therapy: laser radiation absorption in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Orlando, Stefano; Dell'Ariccia, Marco; Brandimarte, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experimental study in which we have measured the transmitted laser radiation through dead biological tissues of various animals (chicken, adult and young bovine, pig) in order to evaluate the maximum thickness through which the power density could still produce a reparative cellular effect. In our experiments we have utilized a pulsed laser IRL1 ISO model (based on an infrared diode GaAs, λ=904 nm) produced by BIOMEDICA s.r.l. commonly used in Low Level Laser Therapy. Some of the laser characteristics have been accurately studied and reported in this paper. The transmission results suggest that even with tissue thicknesses of several centimeters the power density is still sufficient to produce a cell reparative effect.

  6. Radiation effects on biological molecules: Influence of the local environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because it crystallizes with several different molecular environments (e.g. hydrated, anhydrous, and HCl), and in several slightly modified molecular forms, the amino acid proline has been chosen as a probe of possible local effects on the radiation chemistry of biological molecules. In all systems studied so far (proline, proline/sup ./H/sub 2/O, proline /sup ./HCl, hydroxyl-proline, thioproline, and oxoproline), evidence for the ''deamination'' radical has been detected. This product, shown to arise from the primary carboxyl anion in hydroxyproline, is probably the result of electron attack in the other cases, also from the α-carbon. Evidence for the other products is currently under analysis and is discussed along with a summary of the results

  7. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem

  8. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem.

  9. Synchrotron radiation and structure biology. From the instrumentation view point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakabe, N. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Applied Biochemistry

    1996-12-31

    Structure Biology is based on a three dimensional macromolecule structures, the most of which are studied by x-ray crystal structure analysis. Synchrotron radiation X-rays are quite strong, tunable, very parallel and pico-second order bunch and are very suitable for diffraction data collection of macromolecular crystals. To collect accurate data at high resolution from large unit cell protein crystals using SR, we made screenless large Weissenberg cameras with imaging plates at the PF. 146 research projects using this data collection system were running in 1995. They include 51 projects from 11 overseas countries. Recently we have developed user-friendly type Weissenberg camera for the structure biology project of TARA (Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance), and installed it at BL6B of the PF. Cylindrical cassette radius of this new camera is 575.7mm and two large format (400x800mm) imaging plates (IP) can be fixed into the cassette by suction from back side. However, the system is not automatic and manual tasks to be performed are heavy. Therefore an automation of the system is very urgent to maintain accuracy and resolution. We are now developing a high accuracy, high resolution and high speed automated data collection system. This fully automated system consists of a camera, an IP reader equipped with 8 reading heads, an IP eraser, and a cassette transportation mechanism. In the new system, one imaging plate is fixed inside of a movable cylindrical cassette. The cassette presenting 16 rectangular holes, direct beam injection of i.e. 1.0A X-rays would produce 8 images of data at 2.6A resolutions. As 2 cassettes can be used simultaneously on the cassette transportation system, one cassette is being read while the other one is being exposed, therefore completely removing the reading bottleneck problem. This system therefore permits to use the radiation with the maximum of efficiency, and reduce the manpower necessary for data recording. (author)

  10. Radiation biology – An important science for an advanced nuclear nation like South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Alistair Hunter

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability of radiation biology (radiobiology) is under threat in South Africa because of underdevelopment in the discipline, despite the fact that South Africa has been a user of radiation since radioactivity and X-rays were discovered. The widespread use of radiation in medicine, nuclear reactors, particle accelerators and other sophisticated nuclear facilities in South Africa makes it imperative that the interaction of radiation with biological systems is understood. For example, r...

  11. Scientific projection paper on biologic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is widespread knowledge about the effects of radiation in human populations but the studies have had some limitations which have left gaps in our knowledge. Most populations have had exposure to high doses with little information on the effect of dose rate. The characteristics of the populations have been restricted by the location of the disaster, the occupational limitations, or the basic risks associated with the under-lying disease for which radiation was given. All doses have been estimated and such values are subject to marked variability particularly when they rely on sources of data such as hospital records. The biological data although extensive have several deficits in information. Which are the sites in which cancer is produced by irradiation and what are the cell types which are produced. The sensitivity of various tissues and organs are not similar and it is important to rank them according to susceptibility. This has been done in the past but the results are not complete for all cell types and organs. The temporal patterns for tumor development, the latent period, the period of expressed excess, the life-time risks need to be defined more precisely for the cancers. Many populations have not been followed long enough to express the complete risk

  12. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of Therapeutic Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation proposes a hypothesis to use therapeutic gases in space to enhance the biological protection for astronauts from space radiation. The fundamental role in how radiation causes biological damage appears to be radiolysis, the dissociation of water by radiation. A chain of events appears to cause molecular and biological transformations that ultimately manifest into medical diseases. The hypothesis of this work is that applying medical gases may increase resistance to radiation, by possessing the chemical properties that effectively improve the radical scavenging and enhance bond repair and to induce biological processes which enhance and support natural resistance and repair mechanisms.

  13. Study on the radiation-induced biological responses based on the analysis of metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sungkee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Haeran; Roh, Changhyun; Shin, Heejune; Ryu, Dongkyoung

    2013-01-15

    1. Objectives □ Establishment of basis of biological radiation response study by metabolite analysis 2. Project results □ Establishment of analytical basis of radiation-responsive metabolites in biological samples - Large scale collection of tissue samples from irradiated animal for radiation metabolomics research - Establishment of mass spectromety (GC MS, LC MS-MS) analysis methods of biological samples - 3 Standard Operation Protocols (SOP) for ultra high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS, Q-TOF MS) analysis of metabolites from biological samples - Establishment of database for radiation metabolites □ Basic research on radiation-responsive metabolites and the interpretation of their functions - Validation of spermidine as a candidate biomarker of acute radiation response in mouse blood - Verification of 5 radiation-responsive steroid hormones and alteration of their metabolic enzyme activities in mouse blood - Verification of 13 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain -Verification of 10 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain - Verification of 74 radiation-responsive metabolites in whole rat brain by ultra high resolution FT-ICR MS and Q-TOF MS analysis 3. Expected benefits and plan of application □ Establishment of research basis of radiation metabolomics in Korea □ Provision of core technology in radiation bioscience and safety field by application of radiation metabolomics results to the technology development in radiation biodosimetry, and radiation response evaluation and modulation.

  14. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay

  15. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil [and others

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay.

  16. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report

  17. Current status and recommendations for the future of research, teaching, and testing in the biological sciences of radiation oncology: report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Paul E; Anscher, Mitchell S; Barker, Christopher A; Bassetti, Michael; Bristow, Robert G; Cha, Yong I; Dicker, Adam P; Formenti, Silvia C; Graves, Edward E; Hahn, Stephen M; Hei, Tom K; Kimmelman, Alec C; Kirsch, David G; Kozak, Kevin R; Lawrence, Theodore S; Marples, Brian; McBride, William H; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Park, Catherine C; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Zietman, Anthony L; Steinberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  18. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  19. Review on 18th Revision of 'Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) has established a guideline and continued to revise it in accordance with ever-changing international situation and developing technology. The Part 1 of guideline, 'Guidelines of Nuclear Transfers' covers the Trigger List items which triggers safeguards as a condition of supply. Currently NSG has published the 12th revised guideline (INFCIRC/254/Rev.12/Part1) in November 2013. Korean government fully reflected the guideline to its national legislation to implement in accordance with internationally agreed standard. The export control of nuclear strategic items in Korea is responsibility of Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), which entrusted the technical review of the work to Korea Institute of Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC). The specific guidelines for the technical review are stipulated in Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items with other strategic items usable to other Weapons of Mass Destruction. The Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy approved the 18th revision of Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items on 31 January 2014 as Notice no. 2014-15, which strictly follows the NSG guideline. The 18th revision of the notice reflects the final proposals agreed from the last Dedicated Meeting of Technical Experts (DMTE) of NSG's Consultative Group (CG) in April 2013. The 3-year-DMTE offered the 'fundamental, holistic approach to the technical review' within the international framework of NSG, rather than sporadic endeavors by individual states in the past. The 18th version itself has meaning in that the final products of the international technical review were reflected in the Korean national legislation of nuclear export control. It addressed various changes in control text in technical, contextual, and editorial aspects. The revision is analyzed herein concentrating only on technical and semantic changes in control text

  20. Bone trace element pattern in an 18th century population sample of Tenerife (Canary Islands): comparison with a prehistoric one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vazquez, J; Barros-Lopez, N; Galindo-Martin, L

    1998-10-01

    We have determined bone strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), and zinc (Zn) content in 24 samples belonging to adult individuals who died toward the end of the 18th century and were interred in a church's floor on the island of Tenerife, comparing the results with those obtained in 14 prehistoric samples of the same island and also with those of 7 modern controls. No differences were observed between the two ancient groups, which showed higher bone strontium and barium than the modern sample, and a slightly lower Ba/Sr ratio, thus pointing to consumption of marine sources.

  1. On the Borders of the Adventure Novel: Narratives of 18th-Century Travel in Indian Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert SAYRE

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available I will attempt here to discuss and illustrate an instance, in the literature of travel, of the fluid, and overlapping relations that often exist between genres, and more particularly between fictional and non-fictional genres. The particular body of travel literature that I will be dealing with involves accounts of Anglo-American travel in territories still controlled (at least partially by Indians in the 18th century. I will suggest that some of this material would qualify as a kind of “adv...

  2. Management accounting and rationalisation in the Army: The case of Spanish Military Hospitals in the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Baños Sánchez-Matamoros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with one of the most neglected areas of research in accounting, that of the Army. In spite of the literature on industries related to the Army, not too much has been extended on the Army per se. For this reason, this paper analyses the process of rationalization developed in the 18th century in Spanish Army Hospitals, as a result of the bankruptcy of the Royal Finances. Due to this process, the Military Hospitals were the most developed in the country, and it led to the emergence of the Contralor (Controller within the hospital, and thus accounting was considered as an essential matter.

  3. Foreword to the Special Issue: Selected papers from the 18th Nuclear Physics Workshop "Marie and Pierre Curie"

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 18th edition of the Nuclear Physics Workshop "Marie and Pierre Curie" was organized by the Department of Theoretical Physics of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (UMCS), Lublin, in collaboration with the Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), Strasbourg. The general theme of the workshop was: Nuclear Collective Phenomena, are the most fascinating and most difficult problems of Nuclear Physics. A list of topics which were discussed at the conference included: nuclear vibrations and rotations, large amplitude collective motions, symmetries in nuclear collective models, algebraic description of collective motions, microscopic approaches to collective motion, collective phenomena in nuclear reactions, and collective states and nuclear deformations

  4. Savor the old flavor at CHICHAHAI and recall the sincere cordial of SCITECH Tower CELEBRATE THE 18TH ANNIVERSARY!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It came to the 18th anniversary of the opening of SCITECH TOWER on September 1,2005,and 18 years ago, during the early years of the reform, the SCITECH TOWER opened its business for foreign companies. The building was the first joint-venture office building of international standard. From that time, the SCITECH TOWER became well known for her first-class service and facilities. 18 years passed, though there is a sharp competition in the office building field, the SCITECH TOWER is still very popular and keeps a very low vacant rate.

  5. Savor the old flavor at CHICHAHAI and recall the sincere cordial of SCITECH Tower CELEBRATE THE 18TH ANNIVERSARY!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      It came to the 18th anniversary of the opening of SCITECH TOWER on September 1,2005,and 18 years ago, during the early years of the reform, the SCITECH TOWER opened its business for foreign companies. The building was the first joint-venture office building of international standard. From that time, the SCITECH TOWER became well known for her first-class service and facilities. 18 years passed, though there is a sharp competition in the office building field, the SCITECH TOWER is still very popular and keeps a very low vacant rate.……

  6. Biological and sanitary effects of non ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this day was to encourage the collaborations, especially multidisciplinary, on the biological, clinical, epidemiological and dosimetry aspects. The different presentations are as follow: the magneto reception among animals; the health and radio frequencies foundation; expo-metry to radio frequency fields: dosemeters evaluation; the electro-optical probes as tool of hyper frequency dosimetry; characterisation of emissions produced by the low consumption fluo-compact lamps in the perspective of persons exposure; strong and weak points of epidemiology; numerical dosimetry in low frequency magnetic and/or electric field; exposure of the French population to the 50 Hz magnetic field: first results for the Ile-de-france and Rhone alpes areas; characterisation of the exposure to the very low frequency magnetic fields in the town of Champlan; measurement of the residential exposure of children to the extremely low frequency, very low frequency and radiofrequency (E.L.F., V.L.F. and R.F.) fields and modeling of the high voltage magnetic field face to the child leukemia; effects of radiofrequency signals of wireless communications on the young animals; study of combined effects of 2.45 GHz microwaves and a known mutagen on DNA by two different approaches; effects on the oxidizing stress of nervous cells exposure to an (enhanced data rates for GSM evolution) E.D.G.E. signal; is environmental epidemiology still a science; cardiac implants and exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields in occupational environment; the tanning by artificial UV radiation: norms and legislation; mobiles phones, Wi Fi and other wireless communications; effects on health of 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields; natural and artificial ultraviolet radiations: a proved risk. (N.C.)

  7. The problems of national history in the school literature of the 18th - beginning of the 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramkin O. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of historical literature allows to consider profoundly the development of national culture and science of the 18th-first half of the 20th centuries and the formation and change of different historical concepts. With the analysis of historical periods that are highlighted in the research, general trends in the changing of paradigms about Russian historical development were concluded, which were translated to mass historical consciousness from the beginning of the 18th century up to 1917. The periods were closely connected with the specific political, historical and economic changes in Russian Empire and with the dominance of certain textbooks during this time. The books were selected because of a number of factors: their inclusion to the school curriculum, the number of publications (10 and more, the equal number of textbooks devoted to different historical periods. For the analysis were used 19 textbooks, schoolbooks for different courses of secondary schools and primary schools. All the sources of educational literature were grouped into two concepts - officially-state (patriotic and the liberal. Each publication was highlighted the dominant concept as a base for the whole textbook. There is also a characteristic of the concepts that are presented chronologically. The analysis represents school history books as an important source for the formation of state policy in the representing of Russian history, and, that is more important, for creation of the concept of the state of Russian history.

  8. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Feldman

    Full Text Available Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution.

  9. THE COLORFUL WORLD OF PUBLIC HOUSES. OWNERSHIP, CLIENTELE AND LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES IN 18th CENTURY TIMIŞOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hirsch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Timişoara became a rightful provincial capital of an Austrian domain during the 18th Century. In this period an important number of citizens chose to build and run inns or taverns as landlords or just as leaseholders. The archive documents from Timişoara put together the puzzle pieces that recreate the stories of old public houses; they also contain information regarding all sorts of activities connected to the microcosm of taverns. Therefore the aim of this paper is to discover who the owners of inns were, why did they choose this trade and what was their place in Timişoara’s society. The clientele, less highlighted in documents, also plays a role through the choices of spending their leisure time in such places, through activities they fancied: music, gambling, billiards, bowling and the products they ordered for consumption. All these aspects enable us to shed light one of the most vivid parts of 18th century urban life

  10. Molecular biology in radiation oncology. Radiation oncology perspective of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are used to illustrate the application of molecular biology to clinical radiation oncology. Identified by linkage analysis and cloned, the structure of the genes and the numerous mutations are determined by molecular biology techniques that examine the structure of the DNA and the proteins made by the normal and mutant alleles. Mutations in the non-transcribed portion of the gene will not be found in protein structure assays and may be important in gene function. In addition to potential deleterious mutations, normal polymorphisms of the gene will also be detected, therefore not all differences in gene sequence may represent important mutations, a finding that complicates genetic screening and counseling. The localization of the protein in the nucleus, the expression in relation to cell cycle and the association with RAD51 led to the discovery that the two BRCA genes may be involved in transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. The defect in DNA repair can increase radiosensitivity which might improve local control using breast-conserving treatment in a tumor which is homozygous for the loss of the gene (i.e., BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes). This is supported by the early reports of a high rate of local control with breast-conserving therapy. Nonetheless, this radiosensitivity theoretically may also lead to increased susceptibility to carcinogenic effects in surviving cells, a finding that might not be observed for decades. The susceptibility to radiation-induced DNA damage appears also to make the cells more sensitive to chemotherapy. Understanding the role of the normal BRCA genes in DNA repair might help define a novel mechanism for radiation sensitization by interfering with the normal gene function using a variety of molecular or biochemical therapies

  11. Molecular biology in radiation oncology. Radiation oncology perspective of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C.N. [Harvard Medical School (United States). Joint Center for Radiation Therapy

    1999-07-01

    The breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are used to illustrate the application of molecular biology to clinical radiation oncology. Identified by linkage analysis and cloned, the structure of the genes and the numerous mutations are determined by molecular biology techniques that examine the structure of the DNA and the proteins made by the normal and mutant alleles. Mutations in the non-transcribed portion of the gene will not be found in protein structure assays and may be important in gene function. In addition to potential deleterious mutations, normal polymorphisms of the gene will also be detected, therefore not all differences in gene sequence may represent important mutations, a finding that complicates genetic screening and counseling. The localization of the protein in the nucleus, the expression in relation to cell cycle and the association with RAD51 led to the discovery that the two BRCA genes may be involved in transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. The defect in DNA repair can increase radiosensitivity which might improve local control using breast-conserving treatment in a tumor which is homozygous for the loss of the gene (i.e., BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes). This is supported by the early reports of a high rate of local control with breast-conserving therapy. Nonetheless, this radiosensitivity theoretically may also lead to increased susceptibility to carcinogenic effects in surviving cells, a finding that might not be observed for decades. The susceptibility to radiation-induced DNA damage appears also to make the cells more sensitive to chemotherapy. Understanding the role of the normal BRCA genes in DNA repair might help define a novel mechanism for radiation sensitization by interfering with the normal gene function using a variety of molecular or biochemical therapies.

  12. Functional proteomic analysis revealed ground-base ion radiations cannot reflect biological effects of space radiations of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Sun, Yeqing; Zhao, Qian; Han, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects. Radiobiological studies during space flights are unrepeatable due to the variable space radiation environment, ground-base ion radiations are usually performed to simulate of the space biological effect. Spaceflights present a low-dose rate (0.1˜~0.3mGy/day) radiation environment inside aerocrafts while ground-base ion radiations present a much higher dose rate (100˜~500mGy/min). Whether ground-base ion radiation can reflect effects of space radiation is worth of evaluation. In this research, we compared the functional proteomic profiles of rice plants between on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and spaceflight treatments. Three independent ground-base seed ionizing radiation experiments with different cumulative doses (dose range: 2˜~20000mGy) and different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3˜~500keV/μμm) and two independent seed spaceflight experiments onboard Chinese 20th satellite and SZ-6 spacecraft were carried out. Alterations in the proteome were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry identifications. 45 and 59 proteins showed significant (price causing oxidation and metabolism stresses, but space radiation was a kind of direct effect leading to macromolecule (DNA and protein) damage and signal pathway disorders. This functional proteomic analysis work might provide a new evaluation method for further on-ground simulated HZE radiation experiments.

  13. Gene Expression Profiling of Biological Pathway Alterations by Radiation Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kuei-Fang; Weng, Julia Tzu-Ya; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Chi, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Ching-Kai; Liu, Ingrid Y.; CHEN, YI-CHENG; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Though damage caused by radiation has been the focus of rigorous research, the mechanisms through which radiation exerts harmful effects on cells are complex and not well-understood. In particular, the influence of low dose radiation exposure on the regulation of genes and pathways remains unclear. In an attempt to investigate the molecular alterations induced by varying doses of radiation, a genome-wide expression analysis was conducted. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from...

  14. The need for and the importance of biological indicators of radiation effects with special reference to injuries in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for further research on the existing and new biological indicators of radiation injury has been expressed. The studies on the radiation-induced alterations of membrane structure and function stimulated investigations aiming to develop an indicator based on membrane-phenomena. The co-ordinated research programme on ''Cell Membrane Probes as Biological Indicators of Radiation Injury in Radiation Accidents'' was initiated in mid 1977 and terminated in 1980. Within this programme many basic observations were made in connection with altered features of various animal and human cell membranes. Molecular, biophysical, biochemical and cell biological approaches were performed. The rapid reaction within minutes or hours of membranes against relatively low doses of various types of irradiations were described and the effects proved to be transitory, i.e. membrane regeneration occurred within hours. These dose- and timedependent alterations suggest the possibility of developing a biological indicator which would give signals at the earliest period after radiation injury when no other biological informations are available. The importance of a system of biological indicators is emphasized. (author)

  15. Radiation biology: Major advances and perspectives for radiotherapy; Biologie des radiations: avancees majeures et perspectives pour la radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, A. [Societe Magelis, lotissement Bel-Air, 6, rue Frederic-Mistral, 84160 Cadenet (France); Vogin, G.; Granzotto, A. [CR-U1052, centre de recherche en cancerologie de Lyon, Inserm, batiment Cheney A, 28, rue Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Centre d' hadrontherapie etoile, 60, avenue Rockfeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Devic, C.; Viau, M.; Thomas, C.; Foray, N. [CR-U1052, centre de recherche en cancerologie de Lyon, Inserm, batiment Cheney A, 28, rue Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Maalouf, M. [CR-U1052, centre de recherche en cancerologie de Lyon, Inserm, batiment Cheney A, 28, rue Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Centre national d' etudes spatiales, 2, place Maurice-Quentin, 75039 Paris cedex 01 (France); Colin, C. [EA3738, faculte de medecine Lyon-Sud, 69921 Oullins (France); Service de radiologie, centre hospitalo-universitaire Lyon-Sud, chemin du Grand-Revoyet, 69495 Pierre-Benite (France)

    2011-08-15

    At the beginning of the 21. century, radiation biology is at a major turning point in its history. It must meet the expectations of the radiation oncologists, radiologists and the general public, but its purpose remains the same: to understand the molecular, cellular and tissue levels of lethal and carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation in order to better protect healthy tissues and to develop treatments more effective against tumours. Four major aspects of radiobiology that marked this decade will be discussed: technological developments, the importance of signalling and repair of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, the impact of individual factor in the response to radiation and the contribution of radiobiology to better choose innovative therapies such as proton-therapy or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). A translational radiobiology should emerge with the help of radiotherapists and radiation physicists and by facilitating access to the new radio and/or chemotherapy modalities. (authors)

  16. Functional proteomic analysis revealed ground-base ion radiations cannot reflect biological effects of space radiations of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Sun, Yeqing; Zhao, Qian; Han, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects. Radiobiological studies during space flights are unrepeatable due to the variable space radiation environment, ground-base ion radiations are usually performed to simulate of the space biological effect. Spaceflights present a low-dose rate (0.1˜~0.3mGy/day) radiation environment inside aerocrafts while ground-base ion radiations present a much higher dose rate (100˜~500mGy/min). Whether ground-base ion radiation can reflect effects of space radiation is worth of evaluation. In this research, we compared the functional proteomic profiles of rice plants between on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and spaceflight treatments. Three independent ground-base seed ionizing radiation experiments with different cumulative doses (dose range: 2˜~20000mGy) and different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3˜~500keV/μμm) and two independent seed spaceflight experiments onboard Chinese 20th satellite and SZ-6 spacecraft were carried out. Alterations in the proteome were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry identifications. 45 and 59 proteins showed significant (pmetabolic process, protein folding and phosphorylation. The results implied that ground-base radiations cannot truly reflect effects of spaceflight radiations, ground-base radiation was a kind of indirect effect to rice causing oxidation and metabolism stresses, but space radiation was a kind of direct effect leading to macromolecule (DNA and protein) damage and signal pathway disorders. This functional proteomic analysis work might provide a new evaluation method for further on-ground simulated HZE radiation experiments.

  17. Metallographic study of articles of the Kamensk iron foundry and iron works produced in the 18th-20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gizhevski, B. A.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Naumov, S. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Results have been presented for studies of the microstructure and chemical composition of a number of articles made of iron and cast iron at the Kamensk plant, which cover the period from the start of the production of iron on the territory of the city of Kamensk-Ural'skii at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries to the beginning of the 20th century. Differences in the composition of the Kamensk cast iron and modern grades of foundry cast iron have been established. Possible sources of technological difficulties and production waste at the Kamensk plant have been revealed. The potential of metallographic studies for the attribution of historical articles made of ferrous metals are shown.

  18. Gene Expression Profiling of Biological Pathway Alterations by Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Fang Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though damage caused by radiation has been the focus of rigorous research, the mechanisms through which radiation exerts harmful effects on cells are complex and not well-understood. In particular, the influence of low dose radiation exposure on the regulation of genes and pathways remains unclear. In an attempt to investigate the molecular alterations induced by varying doses of radiation, a genome-wide expression analysis was conducted. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from five participants and each sample was subjected to 0.5 Gy, 1 Gy, 2.5 Gy, and 5 Gy of cobalt 60 radiation, followed by array-based expression profiling. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that the immune system and cancer development pathways appeared to be the major affected targets by radiation exposure. Therefore, 1 Gy radioactive exposure seemed to be a critical threshold dosage. In fact, after 1 Gy radiation exposure, expression levels of several genes including FADD, TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF8, TNFRSF10A, TNFSF10, TNFSF8, CASP1, and CASP4 that are associated with carcinogenesis and metabolic disorders showed significant alterations. Our results suggest that exposure to low-dose radiation may elicit changes in metabolic and immune pathways, potentially increasing the risk of immune dysfunctions and metabolic disorders.

  19. Influence of low intensity laser radiation on different biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tsivunchyk, Olga S.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract There are a lot of examples and contradictory results concerning influence of low intensity laser irradiation (LILI) on biological objects. In this work with a number of experiments the influence of LILI on different biological systems was investigated. For the carried out experiments the following biological objects and systems were used: * different enzymes of anti-oxidant system of animals (i.e. catalase, superoxide-di...

  20. Radiation physics and biology: Progress report for period December 1, 1986-November 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes progress made on 14 individual research projects. These projects fall naturally into theoretical biophysics, experimental microdosimetry and radiation biology. Each project has been separately abstracted for the Energy Data Base

  1. Geschlechtermodelle im spanischen Roman des 18. Jahrhunderts Constructions of Gender in the 18th Century Spanish Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gronemann

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Während Spanien lange Zeit als „Land ohne Aufklärung“ galt und das 18. Jahrhundert auch in der deutschen Hispanistik ein Randgebiet gegenüber der Masse an Studien etwa zum Siglo de Oro darstellte, wandelt sich diese Tendenz zunehmend. Beinahe zeitgleich erschienen jetzt zwei Dissertationen zum spanischen 18. Jahrhundert, die sich auf der Basis von Korpus und Fragestellung sehr gut vergleichen lassen. Wenn dieses Jahrhundert im Anschluss an die Brüder Goncourt (La femme au XVIIIe siècle, 1852 wiederholt als das der Frau apostrophiert wurde, scheint es kein Zufall, dass sich beide mit „Geschlechterentwürfen“ (Kilian bzw. dem „Bild der Frau“ (Hertel-Mesenhöller im spanischen Roman befassen. Spanien hat nicht nur Anteil an der europäischen Aufklärung, auch wenn sich diese als patriotische und christliche Ilustración „von oben“ erweist, sondern ebenso an einem übergreifenden Wandel der Geschlechterkonstellation, welcher unter dem Begriff der Naturalisierung des Geschlechtsunterschieds in die Gender Studies eingegangen ist. Beide Verfasserinnen untersuchen die diskursiven Manifestationen dieses Wandels im Roman und problematisieren, ob und inwiefern die jeweiligen Weiblichkeitsentwürfe einem spezifischen Aufklärungsprogramm entsprechen. Dabei greifen sie gegenwärtige Theorieentwicklungen ganz unterschiedlich auf.For the longest time, Spain used to be considered the “country without enlightenment”, and the 18th century was only assigned a marginal position in Hispanic Studies in Germany, compared to the large number of studies on the Siglo de Oro darstellte. However, this tendency has recently changed. Two dissertations on 18th century Spain have just been published; both works are comparable in terms of their corpus and the research questions they investigate. If, following the Goncourt brothers (La femme au XVIIIe siècle, 1852, the 18th century has repeatedly been called the century of the woman, it does not seem

  2. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Li; Hao, Yan-Hui; Rui-yun PENG

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies o...

  3. Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Richard L.; Björn, Lars Olof; Bais, Alkiviadis; Ilyasd, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    Since publication of the 1998 UNEP Assessment, there has been continued rapid expansion of the literature on UV-B radiation. Many measurements have demonstrated the inverse relationship between column ozone amount and UV radiation, and in a few cases long-term increases due to ozone decreases have been identified. The quantity, quality and availability of ground-based UV measurements relevant to assessing the environmental impacts of ozone changes continue to improve. Recent studies have cont...

  4. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

    2011-01-01

    Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson s and Alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging.

  5. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, in cooperation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, organized an international conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, held in seville, Spain, from 17 to 21 November 1997. This technical document contains concise papers submitted to the conference

  6. Biological fingerprint of high LET radiation. Brenner hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yoshiaki; Awa, Akio; Nakamura, Nori [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    Hypothesis by Brenner et al. (1994) that in chromosome aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes induced by radiation exposure, F value (dicentrics/rings) differs dependently on the LET and can be a biomarker of high LET radiation like neutron and {alpha}-ray was reviewed and evaluated as follows. Radiation and chromosome aberrations; in this section, unstable aberrations like dicentric and rings (r) and stable ones like translocation and pericentric inversions were described. F value. Brenner hypothesis. Bauchinger`s refutation. F value determined by FISH method; here, FISH is fluorescence in situ hybridization. F value in studies by author`s Radiation Effect Research Facility. Frequency of chromosome aberration in A-bomb survivors and ESR (ESR: electron spin resonance). The cause for fluctuation of F values. The Brenner hypothesis could not be supported by studies by author`s facility, suggesting that the rate of inter-chromosomal and intra-chromosomal exchange abnormalities can not be distinguishable by the radiation LET. This might be derived from the difference in detection technology of r rather than in LET. (K.H.)

  7. Laser device for the protection of biological objects from the damaging action of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for ideal protective agents for use in radiotherapy or post-exposure treatment of victims of radiation accidents is one of the actual problems of radiation protection. Laser irradiation device for the protection of biological objects from the action of ionizing radiation to be used in practice has been manufactured (invention patent RU 2 428 228 C2). This device is used to study the action of various doses of laser radiation and combined irradiation with laser and gamma-radiation, on peripheral blood parameters and number of bone marrow karyocytes of the experimental mice line C57BL/6. The mice were irradiated with ionizing and laser radiation, separately one by one in a special bench. The time interval between two types of irradiation did not exceed 30 min. First, the mice were exposed to γ-radiation then to laser radiation. It was shown that laser radiation can be applied to improve the recovery of hemato genesis after the action of ionizing radiation on biological objects. Then, experiments were conducted to study the action of γ- rays and the combined action of laser radiation and γ -rays on survival, weight and skin of experimental mice. The authors investigated also the action of gamma-rays and combined effects of 650 nm laser radiation and gamma-rays on general mitotic index of bone marrow cells of mice. The method of the laser radiation-protection of biological objects contributes to an increase in the viability of mice, prevents the damages of skin and also increases the mitotic activity of mice bone marrow cells. (authors)

  8. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  9. [The creation of hospitals by charities in Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 18th to 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-01-01

    This article is the fruit of research into the cultural heritage of healthcare in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and explores the construction of hospitals supported by Catholic charities from the 18th to 20th century. Catholicism has always been strong in Minas Gerais, partly because the Portuguese Crown prohibited the free travel of priests, who were suspected of illegally trading in gold from the mines. A brotherhood was responsible for creating the first Santa Casa, in Vila Rica. Another very important religious group in Brazil, the Vincentians, was also devoted to charitable works and propagated the ideas on charity of Frederico Ozanan, based on the work of St. Vincent de Paul. This group comprised both a lay movement, supported by conferences organized by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and a religious order, the Vincentian priests and nuns. Catholic physicians make up the third group studied here, organized in a professional association promoted by the Catholic Church. The brotherhoods, Vincentians, and associations, with their Santa Casas, represent a movement that is recognized worldwide. The enormous Catholic participation in these charitable works brought in the physicians, who would often make no charge and exerted efforts to create hospitals that served the population. Although the capital of Minas Gerais was the creation of republicans and positivists in the 20th century, with their ideas of modernity, it remained dependent on Christian charity for the treatment of the poor. PMID:21936227

  10. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Bianucci

    Full Text Available The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers' village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated "recipes", whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification.

  11. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers' village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated "recipes", whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification.

  12. Investigation upon the radiofrequency radiation impact in the biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation with the frequency of 400 MHz was generated within a transverse electromagnetic cell having adequate geometry and sizes. Exposures of different time durations were applied to samples of liver, muscle and bone - characterized by different contents of water, protein and lipids. The extraction of DNA and RNA biomolecules was carried out in adequate selective solvents. Spectrophotometric device type Metertek was used to assay the levels of nucleic acids in the exposed samples in comparison to the control ones. The main results concern the slight stimulatory effect of low radiation doses in contrast with the disruptive effect of high doses. (authors)

  13. Spinal cord biological safety of image-guided radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanlong Xu; Xilinbaoleri; Hao Liu; Ruozheng Wang; Jingping Bai

    2012-01-01

    Tumor models were simulated in purebred Beagles at the T9-10 levels of the spinal cord and treated with spinal image-guided radiation therapy or conventional radiation therapy with 50 or 70 Gy total radiation. Three months after radiation, neuronal injury at the T9-10 levels was observed, including reversible injury induced by spinal image-guided radiation therapy and apoptosis induced by conventional radiation therapy. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of the proapoptotic protein Fas were significantly reduced, but expression of the anti-apoptotic protein heat shock protein 70 was significantly increased after image-guided radiation therapy compared with the conventional method of the same radiation dose. Moreover, the spinal cord cell apoptotic index positively correlated with the ratio of Fas/heat shock protein 70. These findings indicate that 3 months of radiation therapy can induce a late response in the spinal cord to radiation therapy; image-guided radiation therapy is safer and results in less neuronal injury compared with conventional radiation therapy.

  14. 14. annual meeting of the European Society of Radiation Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the aspect of clinical application, findings of fundamental experiments on animals and cells are reported in which highly different radiation sources and doses were used. Novel and interesting results were obtained, in particular, with the application of pions and fast neutrons in the irradiation of tumour cells. (AJ)

  15. 4. Berder Meeting - Biology of ionizing radiation - Booklet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference has been organized around 5 sessions: 1) radioimmunotherapy and signaling, 2) external radiotherapy and signaling, 3) dosimetry and radiobiology, 4) early events induced by radiation, and 5) radiotherapy and tumor response. This document gathers 50 short papers the 2 first are dedicated respectively to the presentation of the 'Canceropole Grand Ouest' and the story of radioimmunotherapy

  16. Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Richard L; Björn, Lars Olof; Bais, Alkiviadis; Ilyasad, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    Since publication of the 1998 UNEP Assessment, there has been continued rapid expansion of the literature on UV-B radiation. Many measurements have demonstrated the inverse relationship between column ozone amount and UV radiation, and in a few cases long-term increases due to ozone decreases have been identified. The quantity, quality and availability of ground-based UV measurements relevant to assessing the environmental impacts of ozone changes continue to improve. Recent studies have contributed to delineating regional and temporal differences due to aerosols, clouds, and ozone. Improvements in radiative transfer modelling capability now enable more accurate characterization of clouds, snow-cover, and topographical effects. A standardized scale for reporting UV to the public has gained wide acceptance. There has been increased use of satellite data to estimate geographic variability and trends in UV. Progress has been made in assessing the utility of satellite retrievals of UV radiation by comparison with measurements at the Earth's surface. Global climatologies of UV radiation are now available on the Internet. Anthropogenic aerosols play a more important role in attenuating UV irradiances than has been assumed previously, and this will have implications for the accuracy of UV retrievals from satellite data. Progress has been made inferring historical levels of UV radiation using measurements of ozone (from satellites or from ground-based networks) in conjunction with measurements of total solar radiation obtained from extensive meteorological networks. We cannot yet be sure whether global ozone has reached a minimum. Atmospheric chlorine concentrations are beginning to decrease. However, bromine concentrations are still increasing. While these halogen concentrations remain high, the ozone layer remains vulnerable to further depletion from events such as volcanic eruptions that inject material into the stratosphere. Interactions between global warming and

  17. Relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors in the context of animals and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation weighting factors have long been employed to modify absorbed dose as part of the process of evaluating radiological impact to humans. Their use represents an acknowledgement of the fundamental difference in energy deposition patterns of charged and uncharged particles, and how this can translate into varying degrees of biological impact. Weighting factors used in human radiation protection are derived from a variety of endpoints taken from in-vitro experiments that include human and animal cell lines, as well as in-vivo experiments with animals. Nonetheless, the application of radiation weighting factors in the context of dose assessment of animals and plants is not without some controversy. Specifically, radiation protection of biota has largely focused on limiting deterministic effects, such as reduced reproductive fitness. Consequently, the application of conventional stochastic-based radiation weighting factors (when used for human protection) appears inappropriate. While based on research, radiation weighting factors represent the parsing of extensive laboratory studies on relative biological effectiveness. These studies demonstrate that the magnitude of a biological effect depends not just on dose, but also on other factors including the rate at which the dose is delivered, the type and energy of the radiation delivering the dose, and, most importantly, the endpoint under consideration. This article discusses the efforts taken to develop a logical, transparent, and defensible approach to establishing radiation weighting factors for use in assessing impact to non-human biota, and the challenges found in differentiating stochastic from deterministic impacts.

  18. Radiation and cancer in Wales. The biological consequences of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    recent developments have made necessary the revision of the original booklet. Chapter 1 of this second edition is an updating of the first edition. Chapter 2 covers in more detail the effects of low-level radiation in Wales, including discussion of the increases in bone cancer and the effects of Chernobyl. The second-event theory is reproduced as Chapter 3, which also includes a copy of the original paper to the International Journal of Radiation Biology and some of the responses which have been made to it, both by the referees for this journal and other authorities in the field

  19. Biological Effectiveness and Application of Heavy Ions in Radiation Therapy Described by a Physical and Biological Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kjeld J.; Hansen, Johnny W.

    A description is given of the physical basis for applying track structure theory in the determination of the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation of single- and multi-hit target systems. It will be shown that for applying the theory to biological systems the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation...... is inadequately described by an RBE-factor, whereas the complete formulation of the probability of survival must be used, as survival depends on both radiation quality and dose. The theoretical model of track structure can be used in dose-effect calculations for neutron-, high-LET, and low-LET radiation applied...

  20. Issues in Low Dose Radiation Biology: The Controversy Continues. A Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, William F.; Bair, William J.

    2013-05-01

    Both natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation contribute to human exposure and consequently pose a risk to human health. Much of this is unavoidable, e.g., natural background radiation, and as the use of radiation in modern medicine and industry increases so does the potential health risk. This perspective reflects the author’s view of current issues in low dose radiation biology research, highlights some of the controversies therein, and suggests areas of future research to address these issues. The views expressed here are the authors own and do not represent any institution, organization or funding body.

  1. Space radiation-induced bystander effect: kinetics of biologic responses, mechanisms, and significance of secondary radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widespread evidence indicates that exposure of cell cultures to a particles results in significant biological changes in both the irradiated and non-irradiated bystander cells in the population. The induction of non-targeted biological responses in cell cultures exposed to low fluences of high charge (Z) and high energy (E) particles is relevant to estimates of the health risks of space radiation and to radiotherapy. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the induction of stressful effects in confluent normal human fibroblast cultures exposed to low fluences of 1000 MeV/u iron ions (linear energy transfer (LET) 151 keV/μm), 600 MeV/u silicon ions (LET 50 keV/μm) or 290 MeV/u carbon ions (LET 13 keV/μm). We compared the results with those obtained in cell cultures exposed, in parallel, to low fluences of 0.92 MeV/u a particles (LET 109 keV/μm). Induction of DNA damage, changes in gene expression, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation during 24 h after exposure of confluent cultures to mean doses as low as 0.2 cGy of iron or silicon ions strongly supported the propagation of stressful effects from irradiated to bystander cells. At a mean dose of 0.2 cGy, only 1 and 3 % of the cells would be targeted through the nucleus by an iron or silicon ion, respectively. Within 24 h post-irradiation, immunoblot analyses revealed significant increases in the levels of phospho-TP53 (serine 15), p21Waf1 (also known as CDKN1A), HDM2, phospho-ERK1/2, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation. The magnitude of the responses suggested participation of non-targeted cells in the response. Furthermore, when the irradiated cell populations were subcultured in fresh medium shortly after irradiation, greater than expected increases in the levels of these markers were also observed during 24 h. Together, the results imply a rapidly propagated and persistent bystander effect. In situ analyses in confluent cultures showed 53BP1 foci formation, a marker of DNA damage, in

  2. Preface to the 18th workshop "What comes beyond the standard models", Bled July 11--19, 2015, and links to the talks in the proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    Borstnik, N S Mankoc; Khlopov, M Y; Lukman, D

    2016-01-01

    The contribution contains the preface to the Proceedings to the 18th Workshop "What Comes Beyond the Standard Models", Bled, July 11 - 19, 2015, published in Bled workshops in physics, Vol.16, No. 2, DMFA-Zaloznistvo, Ljubljana, Dec. 2015, links to (most of) the published contributions and section (by M.Yu. Khlopov) on VIA at Bled 2015.

  3. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

  4. Study on biological response to space radiation and its countermeasure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose is to develop the core technologies for the advanced life supporting system based on radiation technology by 2015 and to be a member of G7 in the space technology research field. And it is the final aim that contribution for establishment of the self-supporting technology and national strength by 2020. To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, denervation model was established in Gamma Phytotron. The changes in microflora population in animal model was shown. The effect of simulated microgravity and long-term exposure to irradiation was investigated. In the experiment of MARS 500, crews for expedition to Mars had been served by Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground

  5. Ozone depletion - Ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton biology in Antarctic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. C.; Prezelin, B. B.; Baker, K. S.; Bidigare, R. R.; Boucher, N. P.; Coley, T.; Karentz, D.; Macintyre, S.; Matlick, H. A.; Menzies, D.

    1992-01-01

    The near-50-percent thinning of the stratospheric ozone layer over the Antarctic, with increased passage of mid-UV radiation to the surface of the Southern Ocean, has prompted concern over possible radiation damage to the near-surface phytoplankton communities that are the bases of Antarctic marine ecosystems. As the ozone layer thinned, a 6-week study of the marginal ice zone of the Bellingshousen Sea in the austral spring of 1990 noted sea-surface and depth-dependent ratios of mid-UV irradiance to total irradiance increased, and mid-UV inhibition of photosynthesis increased. A 6-12 percent reduction in primary production associated with ozone depletion was estimated to have occurred over the course of the present study.

  6. Study on biological response to space radiation and its countermeasure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Jong Heum; Kim, Jin Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose is to develop the core technologies for the advanced life supporting system based on radiation technology by 2015 and to be a member of G7 in the space technology research field. And it is the final aim that contribution for establishment of the self-supporting technology and national strength by 2020. To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, denervation model was established in Gamma Phytotron. The changes in microflora population in animal model was shown. The effect of simulated microgravity and long-term exposure to irradiation was investigated. In the experiment of MARS 500, crews for expedition to Mars had been served by Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground.

  7. Cytogenetic effects of low ionising radiation doses and biological dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Gricienė, Birutė

    2010-01-01

    The intensive use of ionising radiation (IR) sources and development of IR technology is related to increased exposure and adverse health risk to workers and public. The unstable chromosome aberration analysis in the group of nuclear energy workers (N=84) has shown that doses below annual dose limit (50 mSv) can induce chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Significantly higher frequencies of the total chromosome aberrations were determened in the study group when compa...

  8. Some progress on radiation chemistry of substances of biological interests and biological applications of radiation technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies in China on the detection method of irradiated food, mechanism of DNA damage induced by peroxidation, radiolysis of natural products and herbs are reviewed on the update open literature, and some progress on applications of radiation technology is summarized. (author)

  9. Ionizing radiation - one of the most important link of the energetic chain in biological cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraczko, W. [Technical Univ. Poznan, Radio- and Photochemistry Dept., Poznan (Poland)

    1999-09-01

    High (large) and low (small) doses of ionizing radiation consistently induce opposite physiologic effects in biological systems. The effects of low doses cannot be inferred by interpolation between the result from groups exposed to high doses and controls irradiated only by Natural Background Radiation. Stimulation ('bio-positive') effects by low-level doses of ionizing radiation are called radiation hormesis. It is still controversial idea, however it was found that some biological objects (yeast, seeds, animals) after gamma irradiation by low-level doses (10-50 times more NBR) can increase their development. The result of present researches demonstrate that the excitation of living system by gamma quanta (high energy) initiates prolonged secondary emission that influences biota and activates many important processes in biological systems. According to the excitation theory of bio-molecules the author suggests that gamma irradiation in low-level doses excites such molecules as DNA and proteins, and this being followed by a long-termed secondary coherent radiation. The spectral analysis of this secondary emission confirmed the contribution of the UV component to the total emission. The data obtaining by using SPC method (single photon counting) make possible a partial understanding of the radiation hormesis phenomenon and suggest closer relationship to UV emission from biological systems during mitotic processes. The experiments with humic acid (high doses) and glycine (low doses) confirm the author hypothesis that gamma-irradiated organic compounds are capable to emit secondary radiation. This secondary radiation probably plays very significant role in the intercellular communication inside the living systems. In conclusion the author proposed de-excitation processes in bio-molecules as a common denominator of UV and ionizing radiation interacting with living cells. Finally he refers to the Cerenkov radiation which is created inside the biological cells

  10. Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science.

  11. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  12. Analysis on the Orientation of Marriage Value in the 18th-19th Century of England through Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiu-ji

    2013-01-01

    “It is truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.” Almost two centuries later, the deep impression on readers left by the opening sentence of Pride and Prejudice has not decreased because of their changing literary taste. Jane Austin, the author of Pride and Prejudice, was one of the famous realistic writers in English literature in the nineteenth century. Pride and Prejudice is Austin’s representative work. There were no earthshaking events, no dreadful disasters, no sharp contradictions and no romantic legends in Authin’s novels. Time and space were small in her novels. She wrote how a marriageable woman could find a satisfactory husband. She described many kinds of love and marriage of different women. She expressed her own original views of marriage in her works.In Pride and Prejudice Austin wrote four marriage types: ideal Elizabeth and Darcy, realistic Charlotte and Collins, felicitous Jane and Bingley, unhappy Lydiard Wickham. She pointed out emphatically economic consideration is the bonds of wedlock and love. She said marriage is not determined by property and family status. It is unwise to marry without money, but it is wrong to marry for money; the marriage settled by love is happy and ideal. The thesis explicates that Austin’s view of marriage was progressive, advocated by her focus on the equality between men and women. She emphasized marriage should be of equal importance both by love and by economic consideration, but love plays the guiding role. She revealed the connotation of marriage. She also analyses the marriage value in the 18th-19th century .Her exposure is of great realistic significance to the society today.

  13. Manchuria Railway Corporation And September 18th Incident%满铁与“九·一八”事变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武向平

    2014-01-01

    The Manchuria Railway Corporation is the largest modern“state corporation”which set up by Japan in China. From its establishment to collapse, it plays an important role in aggression and expansion in the mainland policy. It completely torn off the business signs and support the Kwantung Army after the September 18th Incident, plays an irreplaceable role in the Japanese invasion war. It acts as the Kwantung Army’s general logistics department, depot base, intelligence department, and plays a very important role in the whole process.%满铁是近代日本设在中国最大的“国策会社”。从其成立到解体,满铁始终在日本对华进行侵略和大陆扩张政策中发挥着重要作用。“九·一八”事变爆发后,满铁彻底撕下了企业的招牌,自动投入到关东军的麾下,成为关东军的左膀右臂,在日本对华侵略战中发挥着不可替代的作用。“九·一八”事变中,满铁充当了关东军的总后勤部、兵站基地、情报部,整个事变过程中起到了极为重要的作用。

  14. The effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Report of the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the summer of 1970, the Federal Radiation Council (whose activities have since been transferred to the Radiation Office of the EPA) asked the National Academy of Sciences for information relevant to an evaluation of present radiation protection guides. This report is in response to that request. It presents a summary and analysis, by members of the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations and its subcommittees, of current knowledge relating to risks from exposure to ionizing radiation. In many respects, the report is a sequel to the reports of the Committee on the Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation, published by the NAS-NRC from 1956 to 1961

  15. New Scientific Pearl about Biologic Effect of Ionizing Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Alamdaran

    2008-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of X-ray by Rontgen in 1895, it became evident that radiation can cause some somatic damage to tissues. The hazards of X-ray exposure were clearly known when many large hospitals had radiology departments. The greatest increased in knowledge about X-ray risks had accrued from the dropping of the two atomic bombs in Japan in 1945 and some other atomic accident. For example, among the Japanese bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there have been about 400 extra c...

  16. Review of relative biological effectiveness dependence on linear energy transfer for low-LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to gamma radiation has been used to estimate cancer risks for the whole range of photon (x-rays) and electron energies which are commonly encountered by radiation workers in the work place or by patients and workers in diagnostic radiology. However, there is some uncertainty regarding the radiation effectiveness of various low-linear energy transfer (low-LET) radiations (x-rays, gamma radiation and electrons). In this paper we review information on the effectiveness of low-LET radiations on the basis of epidemiological and in vitro radiobiological studies. Data from various experimental studies for chromosome aberrations and cell transformation in human lymphocytes and from epidemiological studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors, patients medically exposed to radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and occupational exposures of nuclear workers are considered. On the basis of in vitro cellular radiobiology, there is considerable evidence that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-energy low-LET radiation (gamma radiation, electrons) is less than that of low-energy low-LET radiation (x-rays, betas). This is a factor of about 3 to 4 for 29 kVp x-rays (e.g. as in diagnostic radiation exposures of the female breast) and for tritium beta-rays (encountered in parts of the nuclear industry) relative to Co-60 gamma radiation and 2-5 MeV gamma-rays (as received by the Japanese A-bomb survivors). In epidemiological studies, although for thyroid and breast cancer there appears to be a small tendency for the excess relative risks to decrease as the radiation energy increases for low-LET radiations, it is not statistically feasible to draw any conclusion regarding an underlying dependence of cancer risk on LET for the nominally low-LET radiations. (review)

  17. Infrared synchrotron radiation: from condensed matter to biology researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infrared spectroscopy is probably the oldest spectroscopic method applied to investigate materials and physico-chemical phenomena. Nowadays, infrared spectroscopy represents the characterization technique most applied in the industry and in many technological processes. In the last decades a significant progress has been achieved in the use of intense and brillant infrared emission from electron storage rings previously used only as VUV and X-ray sources. In the infrared range the low energy of the electron beam does not affect the synchrotron radiation spectral distribution, while high current will make storage rings the most brillant infrared sources to be used for infrared spectroscopy and micro-spectroscopy. Infrared micro-spectroscopy is a unique technique that combines microscopy and spectroscopy for purposes of micro-analysis. Spatial resolution, within a microscopic field of view, is the goal of the modern infrared micro-spectroscopy applied to condensed matter physics, material science, biophysics, and now to medicine. Although limited in spatial resolution, infrared is able to resolve chemistry using the contrast of the absorption lines. Fourier transform-infrared micro-spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation is now able to collect data with 2-4 cm-1 resolution on the scale of 10-100 seconds up to an area of a few microns opening a new scenario: infrared spectroscopy of entire the cells and tissue. Moreover, distributions of functional groups such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids can be achieved inside a single living cell with a spatial resolution of a few microns. (author)

  18. Advances in dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Y

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yang Yu,1 Hui Guan,1 Yuanli Dong,1 Ligang Xing,2 Xiaolin Li2 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, University of Jinan, Jinan, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Objective: To summarize the research progress about the dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis.Methods: We performed a systematic literature review addressing radiation esophagitis in the treatment of lung cancer published between January 2009 and May 2015 in the PubMed full-text database index systems.Results: Twenty-eight eligible documents were included in the final analysis. Many clinical factors were related to the risk of radiation esophagitis, such as elder patients, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and the intense radiotherapy regimen (hyperfractionated radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiotherapy. The parameters including Dmax, Dmean, V20, V30, V50, and V55 may be valuable in predicting the occurrence of radiation esophagitis in patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Genetic variants in inflammation-related genes are also associated with radiation-induced toxicity.Conclusion: Dosimetry and biological factors of radiation-induced esophagitis provide clinical information to decrease its occurrence and grade during radiotherapy. More prospective studies are warranted to confirm their prediction efficacy. Keywords: lung cancer, esophagitis, radiation injuries, predictors

  19. Irradiation of 135 MeV/u carbon and neon beams for studies of radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heavy ion irradiation system was designed and constructed at RIKEN ring cyclotron facility for studies of radiation physics and radiation biology. Carbon and neon beams of 135 MeV/u were firstly used for the experiments. A pair of wobbler magnets and a scatterer were used for obtaining the uniform radiation field of about 10 cm in diameter. A parallel plate ionization chamber was used for dose monitoring. A range shifter was used for degrading the initial energy of the heavy ions. Precise depth dose distributions were measured by a small parallel plate ionization chamber and a variable length water column. LET (linear energy transfer) of the heavy ion radiation fields were measured by a parallel plate proportional chamber. From these basic measurements, biological experiments using these heavy ions are now carried out at this facility. (author)

  20. Biologically motivated tumor-models used for risk estimates at low doses of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biologically motivated tumour models are necessary for estimating the radiation risk at low doses, as epidemiological studies cannot give significant results for sufficiently small risks as a matter of principle. The tumour models combine knowledge about the mechanisms of tumour development with epidemiological data and results of animal experiments. The are usefuls for testing hypothesis on radiation carcinogenesis. In the framework of EU-projects European partners work on the difficult task of quantifying the relevant biological parameters, and the radiation risk at low doses. Various data sets are described well by assuming an initiating and a promoting action of radiation. As an example a new analysis of radon-induced lung tumours in the Colorado plateau miners is discussed. The estimated lifetime relative risk extrapolated to exposures as they hold in indoor situations is substantially lower than estimated in the BEIR VI report. (orig.)

  1. The influence of low doses of ionizing radiation on biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results concerning possible beneficial effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on biological systems are summarized. It is also pointed out on the basis of existing evidence that harmful effects on living organisms take place not only in the case of excess but also in the case of deficiency of ionizing radiation. Possibility of using radio-enhanced ultralow luminescence for studying hormesis phenomena is discussed. 24 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  2. Information on biological health effects of ionizing radiation and radionuclides: the rule of a web site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to provide a source of information on biological and health effects of radionuclides and ionizing radiation in an easy to use format. Reported work is made up of two distinct parts: data sheets for selected radionuclides and a web file. Data sheets: Specific radiation data sheets provide an overview of the properties, the environmental behaviour, the different pathways of human exposure and the biological and health consequences of selected radionuclides. Radionuclides that have been selected are those commonly dealt with in nuclear industry (and in other areas such as medicine) and released to the environment or naturally occurring (plutonium, tritium, carbon 14). Data sheets corresponding to the different radionuclides are based on the main sources of scientific information in dosimetry, epidemiology, radiobiology and radiation protection. These data sheets are intended for radiation protection specialists and physicians. They include: main physical and chemical characteristics, main radiation protection data: dose coefficients (public, workers), dose limits sources, total released estimate (nuclear industry, atmospheric tests, main pathway of human exposure and biological behaviour, biological and health effects, medical supervision, treatment a list of the main references, appendix providing accurate information. Web file: http://www-dsv.cea.fr/doc/carmin_ext/fond.php This web file provides a source of information on biological and health effects of ionizing radiation and biological basic knowledge of radiation protection. Available for consultation via Internet, compiled information provides, in a same file, subjects as varied as biological mechanisms, ionizing radiations action, biological and health effects, risk assessment This file is mainly intended to assist in informing and training of non-specialist readership (students, teaching on radiation protection basic knowledge. This electronic document is divided in three

  3. Clinical, biological, histological features and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oral mucositis is a main side effect of radiotherapy on head and neck, initiating two weeks after the beginning of the treatment. It is characterized by sensation of local burning to intense pain, leading in several cases, to the interruption of the treatment. The purpose of this work is to review the main published studies that discuss the clinical, biological and histopathological features of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and to describe the main approaches recommended to prevent or to treat it. Although the clinical features of mucositis are intensively described in the literature, few studies address the histopathological alterations in oral mucositis and only recently, its biological processes have been investigated. The biological mechanisms involved in the radiation tissue damage have been only recently discussed and there is no consensus among treatment modalities. Yet, the progressive knowledge in the histopathology and biological characteristics of oral mucositis probably will lead to more effective in prevention and control strategies. (author)

  4. Ablation of biological tissues by radiation of strontium vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-stage laser system consisting of a master oscillator and a power amplifier based on sources of self- contained transitions in pairs SrI and SrII has been developed. The radiation spectrum contains 8 laser lines generating in the range of 1 – 6.45 μm, with a generation pulse length of 50 – 150 ns, and pulse energy of ∼ 2.5 mJ. The divergence of the output beam was close to the diffraction and did not exceed 0.5 mrad. The control range of the laser pulse repetition rate varied from 10 to 15 000 Hz. The given laser system has allowed to perform ablation of bone tissue samples without visible thermal damage

  5. Ablation of biological tissues by radiation of strontium vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A. N.; Vasilieva, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    A two-stage laser system consisting of a master oscillator and a power amplifier based on sources of self- contained transitions in pairs SrI and SrII has been developed. The radiation spectrum contains 8 laser lines generating in the range of 1 - 6.45 μm, with a generation pulse length of 50 - 150 ns, and pulse energy of ˜ 2.5 mJ. The divergence of the output beam was close to the diffraction and did not exceed 0.5 mrad. The control range of the laser pulse repetition rate varied from 10 to 15 000 Hz. The given laser system has allowed to perform ablation of bone tissue samples without visible thermal damage.

  6. Radiation degradation of biological residues (Aflatoxins) produced in food laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Aquino, Simone; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (brazil)]. E-mails: vladrogo@yahoo.com.br; villavic@ipen.br; Zorzete, Patricia; Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas]. E-mail: correabe@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Some molds have the capacity to produce substances that are toxic and generally cancer-causing agents, such as aflatoxins, that stand between the most important carcinogenic substances (class one of the agents which are certainly carcinogenous for human people according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer). Aspergillus spp. is present in world-wide distribution, with predominance in tropical and subtropical regions growing in any substratum. The aim of this work is establish a minimum dose of radiation that degrades aflatoxins produced by fungi Aspergillus spp. The Aspergillus spp. colonies will be cultivated in coconut agar medium and the samples will be conditioned in appropriate bags for irradiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Gammacell 220 with dose of 20 kGy. (author)

  7. Radiation cytogenetic in vitro studies on human donors in the development of a suitable biological dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final report is on the work carried out under the Agency research contract 3173/RB entitled ''Radiation cytogenetic in vitro studies on human donors in the development of a suitable biological dosimeter'', at the Clinical Hospital Centre ''Zvezdara'' in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In co-operation and co-ordination dissemination with an international team of cytogeneticists under the IAEA CRP, the development of a suitable biological dosimetry system has been accomplished at the national institute to assist reliably in the absorbed radiation-dose assessment of accidentally-over-exposed personnel. The quantitative yield of asymmetrical chromosomal aberrations, such as dicentrics, rings and fragments consequent to exposure(s) to radiation overdose, help in such estimation of vital prognostic and radiation protection significance. This biological dosimeter system is particularly essential where the exposed person was not wearing any physical dosemeter during the accident. Prerequisite for implementation of an effective biological dosimetry is the availability of a reliable standard dose-response curve and an adherence to a protocol for lymphocytic chromosome analysis in first division phase of lymphocytes. The validation of the reported biological dosimeter is established through its successful analysis of a simulated over-exposure incident, with the associated error of less than 10%. Analytical cytogenetic methods for whole- and part-body acute exposures have been discussed. Part of the results have been reported in the publications under the CRP concerned

  8. Radiation degradation of biological waste (aflatoxins) produced in food laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many filamentous fungi can produce secondary metabolites, called mycotoxins, which can be found in food and agricultural products. One of the main genera of myco toxigenic fungi related to the food chain is the Aspergillus spp. There are over 400 mycotoxins described in the literature, the most common the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The mycotoxins are commonly found in foods and are considered one of the most dangerous contaminants. The aflatoxin B1 is classified in group one by the International Agency of Research on Cancer. Aflatoxins resisting for more than one hour in autoclave making it necessary to other means of degradation of these toxins. This work aimed to observe the effects of gamma radiation of 60Co and electron beams in the degradation of aflatoxins and compare the damage caused on the morphology of the Aspergillus flavus. The fungus was grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 10 days and was subsequently transferred to coconut agar medium, and maintained for 14 days at 25 degree C. After this step the coconut agar was ground to become a homogeneous pasty and was irradiated with doses of 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 kGy. The samples used in scanning electron microscopy were irradiated with doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 kGy with sources of 60Co and electron beams. Irradiation with electron accelerator showed a slightly higher degradation to gamma radiation, reducing 29.93 %, 34.50 %, 52.63 % and 72.30 % for doses of 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 kGy, respectively. The Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that doses of 2.5 to 10 kGy did not cause damage to the fungus, but with a dose of 20 kGy it can be observed fungal damage to structures. (author)

  9. Biological impact of high-dose and dose-rate radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental anti-radiation vaccine is a power tool of immune - prophylaxis of the acute radiation disease. Existing principles of treatment of the acute radiation dis ease are based on a correction of developing patho-physiological and biochemical processes within the first days after irradiation. Protection from radiation is built on the general principles of immunology and has two main forms - active and passive immunization. Active immunization by the essential radiation toxins of specific radiation determinant (S.D.R.) group allows significantly reduce the lethality and increase duration of life among animals that are irradiated by lethal and sub-lethal doses of gamma radiation.The radiation toxins of S.D.R. group have antigenic properties that are specific for different forms of acute radiation disease. Development of the specific and active immune reaction after intramuscular injection of radiation toxins allows optimize a manifestation of a clinical picture and stabilize laboratory parameters of the acute radiation syndromes. Passive immunization by the anti-radiation serum or preparations of immune-globulins gives a manifestation of the radioprotection effects immediately after this kind of preparation are injected into organisms of mammals. Providing passive immunization by preparations of anti-radiations immune-globulins is possible in different periods of time after radiation. Providing active immunization by preparations of S.D.R. group is possible only to achieve a prophylaxis goal and form the protection effects that start to work in 18 - 35 days after an injection of biological active S.D.R. substance has been administrated. However active and passive immunizations by essential anti-radiation toxins and preparations of gamma-globulins extracted from a hyper-immune serum of a horse have significantly different medical prescriptions for application and depend on many factors like a type of radiation, a power of radiation, absorption doses, a time of

  10. Biological impact of high-dose and dose-rate radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliev, V.; Popov, D. [Russian Academy of Science, Vladicaucas (Russian Federation); Jones, J.; Gonda, S. [NASA -Johnson Space Center, Houston (United States); Prasad, K.; Viliam, C.; Haase, G. [Antioxida nt Research Institute, Premier Micronutrient Corporation, Novato (United States); Kirchin, V. [Moscow State Veterinary and Biotechnology Acade my, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rachael, C. [University Space Research Association, Colorado (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Experimental anti-radiation vaccine is a power tool of immune - prophylaxis of the acute radiation disease. Existing principles of treatment of the acute radiation dis ease are based on a correction of developing patho-physiological and biochemical processes within the first days after irradiation. Protection from radiation is built on the general principles of immunology and has two main forms - active and passive immunization. Active immunization by the essential radiation toxins of specific radiation determinant (S.D.R.) group allows significantly reduce the lethality and increase duration of life among animals that are irradiated by lethal and sub-lethal doses of gamma radiation.The radiation toxins of S.D.R. group have antigenic properties that are specific for different forms of acute radiation disease. Development of the specific and active immune reaction after intramuscular injection of radiation toxins allows optimize a manifestation of a clinical picture and stabilize laboratory parameters of the acute radiation syndromes. Passive immunization by the anti-radiation serum or preparations of immune-globulins gives a manifestation of the radioprotection effects immediately after this kind of preparation are injected into organisms of mammals. Providing passive immunization by preparations of anti-radiations immune-globulins is possible in different periods of time after radiation. Providing active immunization by preparations of S.D.R. group is possible only to achieve a prophylaxis goal and form the protection effects that start to work in 18 - 35 days after an injection of biological active S.D.R. substance has been administrated. However active and passive immunizations by essential anti-radiation toxins and preparations of gamma-globulins extracted from a hyper-immune serum of a horse have significantly different medical prescriptions for application and depend on many factors like a type of radiation, a power of radiation, absorption doses, a time of

  11. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides and induced biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi Keizo; Kume Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-01

    Relationship between irradiation effect of polysaccharides and induced biological activity for plants has been investigated. Sodium alginate was irradiated by gamma-rays from a Co-60 source in liquid state (aqueous solution) and in solid state (powder form). Measurement of molecular weight and analysis of UV spectra of irradiated sodium alginate have been carried out. The molecular weight was decreased by irradiation in both conditions. New absorbance peak derived from double bond or/and carbonyl group was appeared at close to 267 nm by irradiation in UV spectra. It was found that alginate having molecular weight about 10,000 is most suitable to used as growth promoter in plants. To obtain the molecular weight of 10,000 by irradiation, the necessary doses are 100 kGy in liquid state and 500 kGy in solid state, respectively. (author)

  12. Book of Abstracts of 18th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: Quo Vadis- Energy in Time of Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 18th Forum of the Croatian Energy Society, titled Quo Vadis Energy in Times of Climate Change, is focused on analysis and thinking about energy sector development in the conditions of dramatically reducing the CO2 and greenhouse gases emissions and in the eve of the Copenhagen Climate Summit. The commitments to radically down size CO2 emissions will change the approach to planning and development of the energy sector. There is high probability that in the time frame of 20 to 30 years a new technology platform will have been introduced through the whole technological cycle, from generation to consumption of energy. It is expected that breakthroughs will be made towards clean and more efficient technologies, but with significantly higher price levels. The changes in the energy sector will affect everyone, from general public to energy buying companies, and most of all it will affect the companies in the energy sector. The changes in the energy sector, which are to contribute to climate preservation, are a realistic and achievable goal, but they come with a price. We can expect to see the doubling of the prices, not in the near future of course, but undoubtedly in the times of great changes in the energy sector. The realisation of these changes requires a great deal of political determination in the international context, as well as fair solutions which will enable the advancement of the underdeveloped and less developed nations. Also, a strong support to the technological development is needed. The climate preservation can be a powerful generator of the international cooperation, especially as a synergy in the technological development. Technological development can be the most important asset in solving the problems of climate preservation, with the condition, of course, that the resources for research are increased and that the developed countries join efforts in using the knowledge they have, and that a non-discriminatory transfer of knowledge to the

  13. Spatial trends in S and Cl in ash leachates of the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt. St Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayris, Paul M.; Delmelle, Pierre; Durant, Adam J.; Damby, David E.; Maters, Elena C.

    2014-05-01

    It has long been known that surficial deposits of salts and acids on volcanic ash particles derive from interactions of ash with sulphur and halide species within the eruption plume and volcanic cloud. These compounds are mobilised as ash particles are wetted, and beneficial or detrimental environmental and health impacts may be induced where the most concentrated solutions are produced. However, limited mechanistic understanding of gas-ash interactions currently precludes prediction of the spatial distribution or variation in leachate chemistry and concentration following an eruption. Sampling and leachate analysis of freshly-fallen ash therefore offers the sole method by which such variations can be observed. Previous ash leachate studies often involve a limited number of ash samples, and utilise a 'one-dimensional' analysis that considers variation in terms of absolute distance from the source volcano. Here, we demonstrate that extensive sampling and a 'two-dimensional' analysis can uncover more complex spatial trends. We compiled over 358 leachate compositions from the May 18th 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Of the water-extracted leachates, only 95 compositions from ash sampled at 45 localities between 35 and 1129 km from the volcano are sufficiently documented to be retrospectively comparable. To consider the effects of intra-deposit variability, we calculated average concentrations of leachate data within 11×22 km grid cells across the region, and defined a data quality parameter to reflect confidence in the derived values. To investigate any dependence of leachate composition on the grain size distribution, we generated an interpolated map of geometric specific surface area variation across the deposit, normalising ash leachate data to the calculated specific surface area at the corresponding sampling location. The data treatment identifies S and Cl enrichments in proximal blast deposits; relatively constant Cl concentrations across the ashfall deposits

  14. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C{sup -0.68}, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  15. Laboratory of Radiation Biology progress report, August 15, 1975--August 14, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on action of inorganic radiation sensitizers included the following: roles of e-aq.OH and H2O2; metal ions and biological radiation sensitivity; iron as a sensitizer; and cellular uptake of solutes. Studies on organic sensitizers and protectors included the following: anoxic protection; anoxic desensitization when PNAP is present; effects of additives in air; and oxygen-dependent sensitization. Studies were also conducted on radioinduced mutations in spores of Bacillus megaterium and effects of radiation on inactivation of DNA in Bacillus Subtilis

  16. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C-0.68, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  17. Radiation biology of Caenorhabditis elegans. Germ cell response, aging and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of radiation effect in Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans has been carried out over three decades and now allow for understanding at the molecular, cellular and individual levels. This review describes the current knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing irradiation with a scope of the germ line, aging and behavior. In germ cells, ionizing radiation induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. Lots of molecules involved in these responses and functions have been identified in C. elegans, which are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes. Radiosensitivity and the effect of heavy-ion microbeam irradiation on germ cells with relationship between initiation of meiotic recombination and DNA lesions are discussed. In addition to DNA damage, ionizing radiation produces free radicals, and the free radical theory is the most popular aging theory. A first signal transduction pathway of aging has been discovered in C. elegans, and radiation-induced metabolic oxidative stress is recently noted for an inducible factor of hormetic response and genetic instability. The hormetic response in C. elegans exposed to oxidative stress is discussed with genetic pathways of aging. Moreover, C. elegans is well known as a model organism for behavior. The recent work reported the radiation effects via specific neurons on learning behavior, and radiation and hydrogen peroxide affect the locomotory rate similarly. These findings are discussed in relation to the evidence obtained with other organisms. Altogether, C. elegans may be a good 'in vivo' model system in the field of radiation biology. (author)

  18. Study of structural model of biological membranes by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalcanti, L P

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to study, from the structural point of view, the process of incorporation of various types of hydrophobic compounds into the lamellar phase of liposomes and multilayers of the zwitterionic phospholipid DPPC. X-ray diffraction and scattering techniques using synchrotron radiation, have been used to monitor changes of several bilayer systems. Thermotropic phase transitions as well as the order of the lamellar packing were studied in situ experiments. The behavior of the L beta' and L alpha phases was followed as a function of the water content in dispersions of DPPC multi lamellar vesicles with the addition of the alkaloid Ellipticine in several concentrations. The results showed a decrease in the temperature of the pre-transition as well as that of the main transition (P beta' ->L alpha). The decrease of the lamellar spacing as a function of temperature in the liquid crystalline phase leads to the description of the thermal compression coefficient in the L alpha phase. It wa...

  19. Biological effects of radiation in combination with other physical, chemical or biological agents. Annex L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annex considers the combined action of radiation with potentially important environmental conditions. Since there is a scarcity of systematic data on which an analysis of combined effects can be based, this Annex will be more hypothetical and will attempt to suggest definitions, to identify suitable methods of analysis, to select from a large amount of diffuse information the conditions and the data of importance for further consideration and to provide suggestions for future research. For humans in environmental circumstances the UNSCEAR Committee has been unable to document any clear case of synergistic interaction between radiation and other agents, which could lead to substantial modifications of the risk estimates for significant sections of the population

  20. Biological indicators for radiation exposure. Thymidine concentration in human serum as 'biological dosemeter'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vivo test of blood from partial and whole-body irradiated patients revealed no strict differences in radiosensitivity in correlation to the dose, only tendencies for radiation-effects. The serum thymidine concentration appeared to be also dependent on non-investigated factors, such as diseases and previous therapies. Therefore, the suitability of thymidine concentration in blood as a 'biochemical dosimeter' could not be demonstrated. (orig.)

  1. Radiation protection and secondary cancer prevention using biological radioprotectors in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abdollahi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is the feasible treatment approach for many malignant diseases and cancers. New radiotherapy techniques such as ion therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and intensity modulated radiation therapy deliver higher low dose radiation to large volume of normal tissues and are in debating as more secondary cancers inducers. A secondary cancer after radiotherapy is an important issue that reduces treatment efficiency and should be decreased. Radioprotective compounds are of importance in clinical radiation therapy for saving normal tissues. In the present study, we are so interest to introduce, suggest and review the application of biological radioprotectors in radiotherapy. We propose probiotics, prebiotics, gas, vitamin and nanoparticle producing microorganisms as new biological systems based radioprotectors to protect normal tissues. Also, we reviewed the main biological pathways, molecules and also radioadaptive response that act as radioprotectors. In this review we tried to address the secondary cancer induction by radiotherapy and also main biological radiation protection approaches, although there is a wealth of data in this subject.  

  2. Structure of physics and the chemical or biological action of ionizing radiations - rarely employed ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fact is pointed out that phenomena in radiochemistry and micro-scale radiobiology are non-linear similarly to phenomena in modern theoretical physics. A comparison is made of the conceptual development of theoretical physics and of theoretical radiation biology. The use of Bose-Einstein's exciton condensation is suggested for expressing the non-linearity of radiochemical and radiobiological processes. (Ha)

  3. Radiation oncology--linking technology and biology in the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, C Norman

    2002-01-01

    Technical advances in radiation oncology including CT-simulation, 3D- conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques, and brachytherapy have allowed greater treatment precision and dose escalation. The ability to intensify treatment requires the identification of the critical targets within the treatment field, recognizing the unique biology of tumor, stroma and normal tissue. Precision is technology based while accuracy is biologically based. Therefore, the intensity of IMRT will undoubtedly mean an increase in both irradiation dose and the use of biological agents, the latter considered in the broadest sense. Radiation oncology has the potential and the opportunity to provide major contributions to the linkage between molecular and functional imaging, molecular profiling and novel therapeutics for the emerging molecular targets for cancer treatment. This process of 'credentialing' of molecular targets will require multi disciplinary imaging teams, clinicians and basic scientists. Future advances will depend on the appropriate integration of biology into the training of residents, continuing post graduate education, participation in innovative clinical research and commitment to the support of basic research as an essential component of the practice of radiation oncology.

  4. The effect of green tea on radiation-induced late biological effect in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to determine the effect of Green tea on the late biological effect of mice irradiated with 3 Gy of gamma-radiation. There were various findings including hematopoietic and lymphoid tumor, lung cancer, ovarian cancer and cancer of other lesions. Further studies are needed to characterize better the protective nature of active compounds

  5. MEASUREMENT OF MICROWAVE RADIATION ABSORBED BY BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS, 2, ANALYSIS BY DEWAR-FLASK CALORIMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-field power density has long been used as an index of energy dosing in studies of biological effects of microwave radiation. However, this method of quantifying dose can lead to considerable error if it is used as an index of the rate of energy actually being absorbed by a s...

  6. In vitro cultured cells as probes for space radiation effects on biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meli, A.; Perrella, G.; Curcio, F.; Ambesi-Impiombato, F.S. [Dipartimento di Patologia e Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica, Universita di Udine, P.le S. Maria della Misericordia, 33100 Udine (Italy)

    1999-12-06

    Near future scenarios of long-term and far-reaching manned space missions, require more extensive knowledge of all possible biological consequences of space radiation, particularly in humans, on both a long-term and a short-term basis. In vitro cultured cells have significantly contributed to the tremendous advancement of biomedical research. It is therefore to be expected that simple biological systems such as cultured cells, will contribute to space biomedical sciences. Space represents a novel environment, to which life has not been previously exposed. Both microgravity and space radiation are the two relevant components of such an environment, but biological adaptive mechanisms and efficient countermeasures can significantly minimize microgravity effects. On the other hand, it is felt that space radiation risks may be more relevant and that defensive strategies can only stem from our deeper knowledge of biological effects and of cellular repair mechanisms. Cultured cells may play a key role in such studies. Particularly, thyroid cells may be relevant because of the exquisite sensitivity of the thyroid gland to radiation. In addition, a clone of differentiated, normal thyroid follicular cells (FRTL5 cells) is available in culture, which is well characterized and particularly fit for space research.

  7. The Pigment Analysis of 18th Century Pastel Paintings by Maurice-Quentin de La Tour (1704-1788) and Jean Valade (1710-1787)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gombaud, Cecile; Buti, David; Nielsen, Johanne Marie;

    Pastel paintings are rarely studied unless they are unframed [1-3]. The conservation treatment of three French pastel portraits by Maurice-Quentin de La Tour (1704-1788) and Jean Valade (1710-1787) at the paper conservation studio of the National Museum of Sweden gave the opportunity to study...... the materials, with a particular focus on pigments, used by the artists in the 18th century. The artworks analysed consisted of a preparatory drawing and two finished pastels. The pastel pigments can also be found on the backboard of one pastel. The aim of the analysis was to learn about the materials used...... coloured areas, invasive analyses were conducted on a number of selected micro-samples through Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. 18th century pastels often consist of several layers of paper or parchment, canvas and a strainer or a backing board. As a result, the interpretation...

  8. Art history: formation of the academic discipline in Europe, and related developments in Greece (18th-19th c. Rethymnon (3-4 October, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Malama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Academic Forum with the title Art history: formation of the academic discipline in Europe and related developments in Greece (18th-19th centuries, co-organised by the Association of Greek Art Historians and the Institute for Mediterranean Studies – FORTH, took place at the Institute’s premises in Rethymnon, Crete on Friday, 3rd and Saturday, 4th October 2014. Its central aim was to explore the ways in which the academic and research fields of art history had been formed from the late 18th century and continued to develop up to the beginning of the 20th century; the meeting actually functioned as a workshop charting the current status of art historiography research in Greece and the rest of Europe.

  9. CULTURAL LANDSCAPES AND LOCAL IDENTITIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EASTERN SIBERIAN CITIES (FROM LATE 18TH TO EARLY 19TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mihailovna Plotnikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the interaction of geographical and cultural landscape in identity formation of the East-Siberian cities of Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, and Kirensk in the late 18th century and early 19th century. The comparative analysis of the European city of Valga with the East-Siberian city of Kirensk revealed that, while most of the citizens of the European city were artisans, the military personnel played a significant role in the outskirts of the Russian Empire. At the end of 18th century and during the early 19th century, the Eastern Siberian cities collected taxes as revenue for the city, using the advantage of their geographical position. The author concludes that the study into the essence of the "genius loci" of a city gives insight into the origins of the local identity formation.

  10. A historical study and evaluation of the form of church government practised by the Particular Baptists in the 17th and 18th centuries / Boon-Sing Poh

    OpenAIRE

    Poh, Boon-Sing

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a historical study and evaluation of the form of church government practised by the Particular Baptists of the 17th and 18th centuries, from the years 1650 to 1750. This study is based on confessional statements, the ecclesiological literature, and the extant church books of the Particular Baptists. It is shown that the Particular Baptists practised a definitive form of church government known traditionally as Independency, similar to that expounded by John Owen,...

  11. Security and cross-border political crime: the formation of transnational security regimes in 18th and 19th century Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Härter, Karl

    2013-01-01

    "This contribution proposes to observe Foucault's concept of the security dispositive from the angle of transnational security and criminal law regimes. Since the late 18th century security and securitization became not only a prime category and field of national policies and discourses but were increasingly influenced by transnational issues and cross-border security threats (or narratives) such as international crime, transnational political violence and international conspiracies. This was...

  12. 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2008-09-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

  13. Variations on a religious theme : Jews and Muslims from the Eastern Mediterranean converting to Christianity, 17th and 18th Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    LAPPA, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Defence date: 24 April 2015 Examining Board: Emeritus Professor Anthony Molho, European University Institute; Professor Luca Molà, European University Institute; Professor Nikolaos Karapidakis, Ionian University; Associate Professor Eric Dursteler, Brigham Young University. This study explores the religious conversion of Jews and Muslims to Christianity from the mid-17th to the 18th centuries in the international city of Venice and the port-city of Corfu. It does not focu...

  14. The PUR Experiment on the EXPOSE-R facility: biological dosimetry of solar extraterrestrial UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérces, A.; Egyeki, M.; Fekete, A.; Horneck, G.; Kovács, G.; Panitz, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our experiment Phage and Uracil Response was to extend the use of bacteriophage T7 and uracil biological dosimeters for measuring the biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) dose in the harsh extraterrestrial radiation conditions. The biological detectors were exposed in vacuum-tightly cases in the European Space Agency (ESA) astrobiological exposure facility attached to the external platform of Zvezda (EXPOSE-R). EXPOSE-R took off to the International Space Station (ISS) in November 2008 and was installed on the External platform of the Russian module Zvezda of the ISS in March 2009. Our goal was to determine the dose-effect relation for the formation of photoproducts (i.e. damage to phage DNA and uracil, respectively). The extraterrestrial solar UV radiation ranges over the whole spectrum from vacuum-UV (λcomponents either by photoionization or excitation. However, these wavelengths cause not only photolesions but in a wavelength-dependent efficiency the reversion of some photolesions, too. Our biological detectors measured in situ conditions the resultant of both reactions induced by the extraterrestrial UV radiation. From this aspect the role of the photoreversion in the extension of the biological UV dosimetry are discussed.

  15. 'K' contribution to the biological effect of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to determine the importance of 'K' ionizations on DNA as critical physical events initiating the biological effects of ionizing radiation, in particular in human cells. Ultra-soft X-rays are used as a probe of core ionization events. A decisive test consists in comparing the biological effects at 250 eV and 350 eV (before and after the carbon K - threshold). The results show a sharp increase of the biological efficiency for both cellular inactivation and chromosomal exchange aberration above the carbon K-threshold, correlated with the one of core events occurring in DNA atoms. The heavy ion irradiation displays again the paradoxical behaviour of cellular inactivation cross sections as a function of LET. Finally, the 'K' event contribution to cellular inactivation of usual low LET radiation is estimated to be about 75%. (author)

  16. Advances in dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Guan, Hui; Dong, Yuanli; Xing, Ligang; Li, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize the research progress about the dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis. Methods We performed a systematic literature review addressing radiation esophagitis in the treatment of lung cancer published between January 2009 and May 2015 in the PubMed full-text database index systems. Results Twenty-eight eligible documents were included in the final analysis. Many clinical factors were related to the risk of radiation esophagitis, such as elder patients, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and the intense radiotherapy regimen (hyperfractionated radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiotherapy). The parameters including Dmax, Dmean, V20, V30, V50, and V55 may be valuable in predicting the occurrence of radiation esophagitis in patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Genetic variants in inflammation-related genes are also associated with radiation-induced toxicity. Conclusion Dosimetry and biological factors of radiation-induced esophagitis provide clinical information to decrease its occurrence and grade during radiotherapy. More prospective studies are warranted to confirm their prediction efficacy. PMID:26869804

  17. [Biological effects of laser radiation and methylene blue on a strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA 100) (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquetto, N; Curci, E; De Rinaldis, P; Giordano, D

    1983-01-01

    In this second note, the AA. have studied biological effect of laser radiation and methylene blue on Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 strain with greatest susceptibility for mutagenetic agents. Their results show a biological effect of laser radiation, of methylene blue like to those obtained for TA 1538 strain, nevertheless greatest susceptibility of TA 100 strain because carrier of plasmid.

  18. Carbon Heavy-ion Radiation Induced Biological effects on Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Xishan; Gong, Ning; Meng, Qingmei; Liu, Jiawei; Wang, Ting

    2016-07-01

    Large number of researches on rice after spaceflights indicated that rice was a favorable model organism to study biological effects induced by space radiation. The stimulative effect could often be found on rice seedlings after irradiation by low-dose energetic heavy-ion radiation. Spaceflight also could induce stimulative effect on kinds of seeds. To further understand the mechanism of low-dose radiation biological effects and the dose range, the germinated rice seeds which were irradiated by different doses of carbon heavy-ion (0, 0.02, 0.1, 0.2, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20Gy, LET=27.3keV/µm) were used as materials to study. By investigating the variation of rice phenotype under different doses, we found that 2Gy radiation dose was a dividing point of the phenotypic variation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the variation of mitochondria, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome and nucleus in mesophyll cell of rice apical meristem at 24 hours after radiation with different doses. The cells were not apparently physiologically damaged when the dose of radiation was less than 2Gy. The number of chloroplast did not change significantly, but the number of mitochondria was significantly increased, and gathered around in the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum; the obvious lesion of chloroplast and mitochondria were found at the mesophyll cells when radiation dose was higher than 2Gy. The mitochondria were swelling and appearing blurred crest. The chloroplast and mitochondrial mutation rate increased significantly (pplant. Keywords: Heavy-ion radiation; Low dose; Stimulation effect; Inhibition effect; Rice.

  19. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  20. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database

  1. Response of biological uv dosimeters to the simulated extraterrestrial uv radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérces, A.; Rontó, G.; Kerékgyártó, T.; Kovács, G.; Lammer, H.

    In the Laboratory polycrystalline uracil thin layer and bacteriophage T7 detectors have been developed for UV dosimetry on the EarthSs surface. Exponential response of the uracil polycrystal has been detected both by absorption spectroscopy and measurements of the refractive index under the influence of terrestrial solar radiation or using UV-C sources. In UV biological dosimetry the UV dose scale is additive starting at a value of zero according to the definition of CIE (Technical Report TC-6-18). The biological dose can be defined by a measured end-effect. In our dosimeters (phage T7 and uracil dosimeter) exposed to natural (terrestrial) UV radiation the proportion of pyrimidin photoproducts among the total photoproducts is smaller than 0.1 and the linear correlation between the biological and physical dose is higher than 0.9. According to the experimental data this linear relationship is often not valid. We observed that UV radiation did not only induce dimerisation but shorter wavelengths caused monomerisation of pyrimidin dimers. Performing the irradiation in oxygen free environment and using a Deuterium lamp as UV source, we could increase monomerisation against dimerisation thus the DNA-based dosimetrySs additivity rule is not fulfilled in these conditions. In this study we will demonstrate those non-linear experiments which constitute the basis of our biological experiments on the International Space Station.

  2. Biological Effects of Sunlight, Ultraviolet Radiation, Visible Light, Infrared Radiation and Vitamin D for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Humans evolved in sunlight and had depended on sunlight for its life giving properties that was appreciated by our early ancestors. However, for more than 40 years the lay press and various medical and dermatology associations have denounced sun exposure because of its association with increased risk for skin cancer. The goal of this review is to put into perspective the many health benefits that have been associated with exposure to sunlight, ultraviolet A (UVA) ultraviolet B (UVB), visible and infrared radiation. PMID:26977036

  3. Biological effects of electromagnetic radiations - 7. International Conference, La Valette, Malta, 8-12 October 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a synthesis of a conference on the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations. With reference to epidemiological studies, different issues have been addressed: pathological effects (either of static fields, or of extremely low frequencies, or of radio-frequencies), biological effects (methodological issues, case of extremely low frequencies and of radio-frequencies), medical applications of electromagnetic fields (tumour removal, neurological disorders, consolidation, wound healing and recovery), assessment of electromagnetic fields (existing directives and regulations, case of electric lines and of radio-frequencies), exposure to electromagnetic fields (occupational exposure in medical or industrial applications, specific devices such as telephones, regulation)

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biological imaging in radiation therapy: role of positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Ursula; Weber, Wolfgang; Hentschel, Michael; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    2009-01-01

    In radiation therapy (RT), staging, treatment planning, monitoring and evaluation of response are traditionally based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These radiological investigations have the significant advantage to show the anatomy with a high resolution, being also called anatomical imaging. In recent years, so called biological imaging methods which visualize metabolic pathways have been developed. These methods offer complementary imaging of various aspects of tumour biology. To date, the most prominent biological imaging system in use is positron emission tomography (PET), whose diagnostic properties have clinically been evaluated for years. The aim of this review is to discuss the valences and implications of PET in RT. We will focus our evaluation on the following topics: the role of biological imaging for tumour tissue detection/delineation of the gross tumour volume (GTV) and for the visualization of heterogeneous tumour biology. We will discuss the role of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET in lung and head and neck cancer and the impact of amino acids (AA)-PET in target volume delineation of brain gliomas. Furthermore, we summarize the data of the literature about tumour hypoxia and proliferation visualized by PET. We conclude that, regarding treatment planning in radiotherapy, PET offers advantages in terms of tumour delineation and the description of biological processes. However, to define the real impact of biological imaging on clinical outcome after radiotherapy, further experimental, clinical and cost/benefit analyses are required.

  5. Correction of radiation absorption on biological samples using Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marcelo O.; Conti, Claudio de Carvalho; dos Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to correct the absorbed radiation (the mass attenuation coefficient curve) in low energy (E gamma-ray source of 241Am (59.54 keV) also applied to certified biological samples of milk powder, hay powder and bovine liver (NIST 1557B). In addition, six methods of effective atomic number determination were used as described in literature to determinate the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C), in order to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained using the transmission method. The experimental results were in good agreement with transmission values suggesting that the method to correct radiation absorption presented in this paper is adequate for biological samples.

  6. A new model for biological effects of radiation and the driven force of molecular evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takahiro; Manabe, Yuichiro; Nakajima, Hiroo; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Bando, Masako

    We proposed a new mathematical model to estimate biological effects of radiation, which we call Whack-A-Mole (WAM) model. A special feature of WAM model is that it involves the dose rate of radiation as a key ingredient. We succeeded to reproduce the experimental data of various species concerning the radiation induced mutation frequencies. From the analysis of the mega-mouse experiments, we obtained the mutation rate per base-pair per year for mice which is consistent with the so-called molecular clock in evolution genetics, 10-9 mutation/base-pair/year. Another important quantity is the equivalent dose rate for the whole spontaneous mutation, deff. The value of deff for mice is 1.1*10-3 Gy/hour which is much larger than the dose rate of natural radiation (10- (6 - 7) Gy/hour) by several orders of magnitude. We also analyzed Drosophila data and obtained essentially the same numbers. This clearly indicates that the natural radiation is not the dominant driving force of the molecular evolution, but we should look for other factors, such as miscopy of DNA in duplication process. We believe this is the first quantitative proof of the small contribution of the natural radiation in the molecular evolution.

  7. Modeling marrow damage from response data: evolution from radiation biology to benzene toxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D T; Morris, M D; Hasan, J S

    1996-01-01

    Consensus principles from radiation biology were used to describe a generic set of nonlinear, first-order differential equations for modeling toxicity-induced compensatory cell kinetics in terms of sublethal injury, repair, direct killing, killing of cells with unrepaired sublethal injury, and repopulation. This cellular model was linked to a probit model of hematopoietic mortality that describes death from infection and/or hemorrhage between 5 and 30 days. Mortality data from 27 experiments ...

  8. Green algae in alpine biological soil crust communities: acclimation strategies against ultraviolet radiation and dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten, Ulf; Holzinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Green algae are major components of biological soil crusts in alpine habitats. Together with cyanobacteria, fungi and lichens, green algae form a pioneer community important for the organisms that will succeed them. In their high altitudinal habitat these algae are exposed to harsh and strongly fluctuating environmental conditions, mainly intense irradiation, including ultraviolet radiation, and lack of water leading to desiccation. Therefore, green algae surviving in these environments must ...

  9. [Biological, chemical, and radiation factors in the classification of medical waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Kadyrov, D E

    2011-01-01

    The current classification of medical waste does not consider the sanitary-and-chemical hazard of epidemiologically dangerous and extremely dangerous medical waste (classes B and C). According to the results of the studies performed, the authors propose the improved classification of medical waste, which makes it possible to take into account not only infectious, radiation, and toxicological, but also sanitary-and-chemical hazards (toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and biological activity) of medical waste. PMID:21901883

  10. Biological effects and physics of solar and galactic cosmic radiation, Part B; Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Biological Effects and Physics of Solar and Galactic Cosmic Radiation, Algarve, Portugal, Oct. 13-23, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenberg, Charles E. (Editor); Horneck, Gerda (Editor); Stassinopoulos, E. G. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Since there is an increasing interest in establishing lunar bases and exploring Mars by manned missions, it is important to develop appropriate risk estimates and radiation protection guidelines. The biological effects and physics of solar and galactic cosmic radiation are examined with respect to the following: the radiation environment of interplanetary space, the biological responses to radiation in space, and the risk estimates for deep space missions. There is a need for a long-term program where ground-based studies can be augmented by flight experiments and an international standardization with respect to data collection, protocol comparison, and formulation of guidelines for future missions.

  11. Correction of radiation absorption on biological samples using Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcelo O., E-mail: marcelocefetrj@gmail.com [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, PEN/COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Basic Disciplines Department, CEFET-RJ Uned Nova Iguacu, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Conti, Claudio de Carvalho [Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Institute, CNEN/IRD, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Anjos, Marcelino J. dos [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, PEN/COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, PEN/COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to correct the absorbed radiation (the mass attenuation coefficient curve) in low energy (E < 30 keV) applied to a biological matrix based on the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio and the effective atomic number. For calibration, scattering measurements were performed on standard samples of radiation produced by a gamma-ray source of {sup 241}Am (59.54 keV) also applied to certified biological samples of milk powder, hay powder and bovine liver (NIST 1557B). In addition, six methods of effective atomic number determination were used as described in literature to determinate the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C), in order to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained using the transmission method. The experimental results were in good agreement with transmission values suggesting that the method to correct radiation absorption presented in this paper is adequate for biological samples.

  12. Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucinotta, F.A.; Wilson, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Dicello, J.F

    2000-06-01

    We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/{mu}m. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm{sup 2} of material is used.

  13. Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W; Williams, J R; Dicello, J F

    2000-06-01

    We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/micrometers. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm 2 of material is used. PMID:11543368

  14. Radiation effects analysis in a group of interventional radiologists using biological and physical dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M., E-mail: WEMLmirapas@iqn.upv.e [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Tortosa, R. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, P. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Barrios, L.L. [Department of Physiology and Cellular Biology, Unit of Cellular Biology (UAB) (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Interventional radiologists and staff members are frequently exposed to protracted and fractionated low doses of ionizing radiation, which extend during all their professional activities. These exposures can derive, due to the effects of direct and scattered radiation, in deterministic effects (radiodermitis, aged skin, cataracts, telangiectasia in nasal region, vasocellular epitelioms, hands depilation) and/or stochastic ones (cancer incidence). A methodology has been proposed for estimating the radiation risk or detriment from a group of six exposed interventional radiologists of the Hospital Universitario La Fe (Valencia, Spain), which had developed general exposition symptoms attributable to deterministic effects of ionizing radiation. Equivalent doses have been periodically registered using TLD's and wrist dosimeters, H{sub p}(10) and H{sub p}(0.07), respectively, and estimated through the observation of translocations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood (biological methods), by extrapolating the yield of translocations to their respective dose-effect curves. The software RADRISK has been applied for estimating radiation risks in these occupational radiation exposures. This software is based on transport models from epidemiological studies of population exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation, such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors [UNSCEAR, Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: 2006 report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes. New York: United Nations; 2006]. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for skin cancer has been, using wrist physical doses, of [1.03x10{sup -3}, 5.06x10{sup -2}], concluding that there is not an increased risk of skin cancer incidence. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for leukemia has been, using TLD physical doses, of [7.84x10{sup -2}, 3.36x10{sup -1}], and using biological doses, of [1.40x10{sup -1}, 1.51], which is considerably higher than incidence rates, showing an

  15. Whack-A-Mole Model: Towards unified description of biological effect caused by radiation-exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel model to estimate biological effects caused by artificial radiation exposure, Whack-a-mole (WAM) model. It is important to take account of the recovery effects during the time course of the cellular reactions. The inclusion of the dose-rate dependence is essential in the risk estimation of low dose radiation, while nearly all the existing theoretical models relies on the total dose dependence only. By analyzing the experimental data of the relation between the radiation dose and the induced mutation frequency of 5 organisms, mouse, drosophila, chrysanthemum, maize and tradescantia, we found that all the data can be reproduced by WAM model. Most remarkably, a scaling function, which is derived from WAM model, consistently accounts for the observed mutation frequencies of 5 organisms. This is the first rationale to account for the dose rate dependence as well as to give a unified understanding of a general feature of organisms.

  16. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation Micro Beams in Cell Micro Biology and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari

    2007-01-01

    This book demonstrates the applications of synchrotron radiation in certain aspects of cell microbiology, specifically non-destructive elemental analyses, chemical-state analyses and imaging (distribution) of the elements within a cell. The basics for understanding and applications of synchrotron radiation are also described to make the contents easier to be understood for a wide group of researchers in medical and biological sciences who might not be familiar with the physics of synchrotron radiation. The two main techniques that are discussed in this book are the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and the x-ray fine structure analysis (XAFS). Application of these techniques in investigations of several important scientific fields, such as neurodegeneration and other diseases related to cell malfunctioning, are demonstrated in this book.

  17. Applications of synchrotron radiation. Micro beams in cell micro biology and medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide-Ektessabi, A. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Bio System Electronics

    2007-07-01

    This book demonstrates the applications of synchrotron radiation in certain aspects of cell microbiology, specifically non-destructive elemental analyses, chemical-state analyses and imaging (distribution) of the elements within a cell. The basics for understanding and applications of synchrotron radiation are also described to make the contents easier to be understood for a wide group of researchers in medical and biological sciences who might not be familiar with the physics of synchrotron radiation. The two main techniques that are discussed in this book are the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and the x-ray fine structure analysis (XAFS). Application of these techniques in investigations of several important scientific fields, such as neurodegeneration and other diseases related to cell malfunctioning, are demonstrated in this book. (orig.)

  18. X-ray imaging and the skin: Radiation biology, patient dosimetry and observed effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of radiation-induced deterministic skin effects have been observed after X-ray guided interventions ranging from mild effects, such as transient erythema or temporary epilation, to severe effects, such as desquamation and necrosis. Radiation biologists have identified, in addition to absorbed dose to the skin, other factors that strongly influence the type and severity of a skin reaction, including exposure-related factors (dose rate, fractionation, the size of the exposed area and its site), biological factors (age, oxygen status, capillary density, hormonal status and genetic factors) and ethnic differences. A peak entrance skin dose of 2 Gy is an arbitrary, but pragmatic, threshold for radiation-induced skin effects after X-ray guided interventions. Transient skin injury originating in the epidermis is not expected in the average patient population at peak entrance skin doses up to 6 Gy. Serious skin effects are not likely to occur in clinical practice when optimised X-ray equipment is used in combination with good techniques for fluoroscopy and imaging. However, this might not be true for patients with biological factors that are associated with an increased sensitivity for radiation-induced skin reactions. (authors)

  19. Traditional costume as a migration phenomenon on the part of the Adriatic coast in the 17th and 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Dragana S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrations from Herzegovina and Montenegro to the Herceg Novi region, during the period from the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries, were the reasons for investigation (thanks to the preserved archive material of female "traditional costumes" involved in these migrations. Clothing retained the influence of Balkan, Slav, Oriental and Mediterranean cultures. The function of clothing (for work and ceremonial occasions was studied, as well as changes within the generation, regardless of whether the individual items were in constant use or only used on one occasion.

  20. Self-portrait of a city. City and Architecture in Bologna in the maps between the 18th and 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Bitelli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The plan, being project tool and representation at the same time, allows an understanding, by means of ancient cartography, of the ancient city as an entity with its own identity connotation, whose definition derives mainly from the clarity of the construction rule which permitted its realization. The present study analyzes the main theoretical and technical questions which concern the urban architecture of Bologna between the 18th and 19th centuries, by means of historical maps and in particular the Gregorian Cadastre.

  1. The Reception of Horace in the Courses of Poetics at the Kyiv Mohyla Academy: 17th-First Half of the 18th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Siedina, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, the reception of the poetic legacy of the Latin poet Horace (65 B.C.-8 B.C.) in the poetics courses taught at the Kyiv Mohyla Academy (17th-first half of the 18th century) has become the subject of a wide-ranging research project presented in this dissertation. Quotations from Horace and references to his oeuvre have been divided according to the function they perform in the poetics manuals, the aim of which was to teach pupils how to compose Latin poetry. Three main aspec...

  2. Essays on the history of brazilian dipterology: III. Three remarkable notices from the 18th century, mainly related to myiasis-producing flies (Cochliomyia and Dermatobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper registers reports about dipterans made by three Portuguese who lived in Brazil during the 18th century. Luiz Gomes Ferreira, in his book "Erário mineral" ["Mineral revenue"], wrote curious passages related with myiasis-causing flies of the genus Cochliomyia. José Rodrigues de Mello registered, in Latin verses, the folklore for curing myiases caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in cattle. Luiz dos Santos Vilhena, in the last of his twenty letters dealing with several aspects of life in Brazil, made reference to horseflies, human bot flies and mosquitos.

  3. Dr. Anna G. Jonasdottir: Acceptance Speech for Honorary Doctorate from Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland. Given 18th of June, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Anna G. Jónasdóttir

    2016-01-01

    On June 18th the Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, celebrated 100 years of women’s‘ voting rights in Iceland with a special conference, Power and democracy 100 years later. In association with the conference Dr. Anna Guðrún Jónasdóttir, Professor emerita at the University of Örebro, Sweden, was awarded an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science. Anna Guðrún was the first Icelandic woman to complete a doctorate in political science, in 1991, and also the first...

  4. Biological effects of in vitro THz radiation exposure in human foetal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Amicis, Andrea; Sanctis, Stefania De; Cristofaro, Sara Di; Franchini, Valeria; Lista, Florigio; Regalbuto, Elisa; Giovenale, Emilio; Gallerano, Gian Piero; Nenzi, Paolo; Bei, Roberto; Fantini, Massimo; Benvenuto, Monica; Masuelli, Laura; Coluzzi, Elisa; Cicia, Cristina; Sgura, Antonella

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, terahertz (THz) radiation has been widely used in a variety of applications: medical, security, telecommunications and military areas. However, few data are available on the biological effects of this type of electromagnetic radiation and the reported results, using different genetic or cellular assays, are quite discordant. This multidisciplinary study focuses on potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, evaluated by several end-points, associated with THz radiation. For this purpose, in vitro exposure of human foetal fibroblasts to low frequency THz radiation (0.1-0.15THz) was performed using a Compact Free Electron Laser. We did not observe an induction of DNA damage evaluated by Comet assay, phosphorylation of H2AX histone or telomere length modulation. In addiction, no induction of apoptosis or changes in pro-survival signalling proteins were detected. Moreover, our results indicated an increase in the total number of micronuclei and centromere positive micronuclei induction evaluated by CREST analysis, indicating that THz radiation could induce aneugenic rather than clastogenic effects, probably leading to chromosome loss. Furthermore, an increase of actin polymerization observed by ultrastructural analysis after THz irradiation, supports the hypothesis that an abnormal assembly of spindle proteins could lead to the observed chromosomal malsegregation.

  5. Transient impedance changes in venous endothelial monolayers as a biological radiation dosimetry response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Fossum Young

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In March of 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent 14 m-high tsunami caused major damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan.  While cancer incidence in the radiation-exposed population is a logical concern, the complex effects of radiation on the heart and cardiovascular system are also of interest.  Immediate and early vascular radiation effects could be exploited as a dosimetry modality.  To test whether non-coronary vasculature exhibited transient perturbation in barrier function, video microscopy studies and Electric Cell Substrate Impedance Sensing technology were used to probe very subtle changes in primary human vascular endothelium.  Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers exhibit a transient, statistically significant decrease (P = 0.017 in monolayer resistance 3 h after irradiation with 5.0 Gy of g rays.  Radiation induced perturbations in HUVEC monolayer permeability are similar in magnitude and kinetics to those observed in coronary arterial endothelium.  Therefore, at least two types of vasculature respond to radiation on ECIS arrays with an early transient disruption in permeability.  The finding supports the use of early passage HUVECs for use in bioelectric dosimetry studies of vasculature and suggests that permeability of vessels could potentially serve as a biological dosimetry tool.

  6. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is part 11 of a database constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on authors, key words, title, year, journal name, or publication number. Photocopies of the publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by our publication acquisition numbers. This volume contains 1048 additional entries, which are listed in alphabetical order by author. The computer software used for the database is a simple but sophisticated relational database program that permits quick information access, high flexibility, and the creation of customized reports. This program is inexpensive and is commercially available for the Macintosh and the IBM PC. Although the database entries were made using a Macintosh computer, we have the capability to convert the files into the IBM PC version. As of this date, the database cites 2260 publications. Citations in the database are from 200 different scientific journals. There are also references to 80 books and published symposia, and 158 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed within the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly predominate. The journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, with a total of 242 citations in the database, and Mutation Research, with 185 citations. Other journals with over 100 citations in the database, are Radiation Research, with 136, and International Journal of Radiation Biology, with 132

  7. The impacts of land use, radiative forcing, and biological changes on regional climate in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairaku, K.; Pielke, R. A., Sr.

    2013-12-01

    Because regional responses of surface hydrological and biogeochemical changes are particularly complex, it is necessary to develop assessment tools for regional scale adaptation to climate. We developed a dynamical downscaling method using the regional climate model (NIED-RAMS) over Japan. The NIED-RAMS model includes a plant model that considers biological processes, the General Energy and Mass Transfer Model (GEMTM) which adds spatial resolution to accurately assess critical interactions within the regional climate system for vulnerability assessments to climate change. We digitalized a potential vegetation map that formerly existed only on paper into Geographic Information System data. It quantified information on the reduction of green spaces and the expansion of urban and agricultural areas in Japan. We conducted regional climate sensitivity experiments of land use and land cover (LULC) change, radiative forcing, and biological effects by using the NIED-RAMS with horizontal grid spacing of 20 km. We investigated regional climate responses in Japan for three experimental scenarios: 1. land use and land cover is changed from current to potential vegetation; 2. radiative forcing is changed from 1 x CO2 to 2 x CO2; and 3. biological CO2 partial pressures in plants are doubled. The experiments show good accuracy in reproducing the surface air temperature and precipitation. The experiments indicate the distinct change of hydrological cycles in various aspects due to anthropogenic LULC change, radiative forcing, and biological effects. The relative impacts of those changes are discussed and compared. Acknowledgments This study was conducted as part of the research subject "Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Water Hazard Assessed Using Regional Climate Scenarios in the Tokyo Region' (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention; PI: Koji Dairaku) of Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA), and was supported by the

  8. 18th May 2011 - Chinese State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (SAFEA) Deputy Director-General M. LU (State Council of China) in the ATLAS visitors centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford and Collaboration member Z. Ren.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    18th May 2011 - Chinese State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (SAFEA) Deputy Director-General M. LU (State Council of China) in the ATLAS visitors centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford and Collaboration member Z. Ren.

  9. His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

  10. [Genealogy of the Books of Practica medicinae in Europe before the End of 18th Century: From the Origin to the Disappearance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2015-09-01

    The Practica medicinae represented the books written in Europe before the end of 18th century that dealt with individual deseases. In total, 100 Practica books, written by 95 authors, were collected and divided into four periods from the early 11th to the end of 18th century. The first Practica book was written at the Salernitan medical school on the basis of ancient medical books in the basic style, dealing with regional deseases arranged in "a capite ad calcem" manner, as well as with the fevers. The basic style comprised a majority in the first period and decreased gradually, becoming a minority in the 3rd and 4th periods. Sennert's practica was the largest and it elaborated with precise construction. The additional categories, such as female, children, and surgical deseases increased in the later periods. Those written in non-basic style based on pathogenesis or in alphabetical order also increased in the later periods. The practica books changed slightly and gradually, indicating the essential consistency of the concepts of diseases in these periods.

  11. Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in royal Egyptian mummies of 18th -20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies.

  12. A perspective on dose limits and biological effects of radiation on the foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential biological effects of radiation doses to pregnant workers consistent with Canadian regulations and ICRP recommendations are reviewed. These hazards are in general very small compared to the normal hazards associated with human development. Potential carcinogenic effects may well be the major biological problem associated with foetal exposures. Radiation hazards to the embryo are essentially zero for exposures occurring during the first four weeks after conception. The new ICRP recommendations on exposures of pregnant women suggest a number of problems to be solved. These include (a) improvements in current methods of measuring both external radiation doses and intakes of certain radionuclides in Canada, (b) further research on the metabolism of radionuclides in pregnant women, including concentrations of certain radionuclides in foetal/embryonic tissues and also in adjacent tissues of the mother; and (c) socio-economic problems that may be involved in the implementation of the recommendations on exposures of pregnant workers, particularly in small facilities such as nuclear medicine departments in hospitals. (Author) 3 tabs., 21 refs

  13. Biological dosimetry: the potential use of radiation-induced apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assay for biological dosimetry based on the induction of apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes is described. Radiation-induced apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometric identification of cells displaying apoptosis-associated DNA condensation. CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes were analysed. They were recognized on the basis of their cell-surface antigens. Four parameters were measured for both cell types: cell size, granularity, antigen immunofluorescence and DNA content. Apoptosis was quantified as the fraction of CD4-, or CD8-positive cells with a characteristic reduction of cell size and DNA content. At doses below 1 Gy, levels of radiation-induced apoptosis increased for up to 5 days after irradiation. Optimal dose discrimination was observed 4 days after irradiation, at which time the dose-response curves were linear, with a slope of 8% ± 0.5% per 0.1 Gy. In controlled, dose-response experiments the lowest dose level at which the radiation-induced apoptosis frequency was still significantly above control was 0.05 Gy. After 5 days post-irradiation incubation, intra- and interdonor variations were measured and found to be similar; thus, apoptotic levels depend more on the dose than on the donor. The results demonstrate the potential of this assay as a biological dosimeter. (orig.)

  14. The effect of radiation on bioluminescent bacteria: possible use of luminescent bacteria as a biological dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the response of the bioluminescent Photobacterium phosphoreum to radiation, and the possible use of the bacteria as a biological radiation dosemeter, i.e. a water-equivalent biological system that will compare beams not merely on the basis of absorbed dose, but also have intrinsic RBE values for different radiation beams. Samples were irradiated by a 12 MeV electron beam at a dose rate of 3.0 Gy min-1, by 60Co gamma rays at 2.85 Gy min-1, and by 100 kVsub(p) x-rays at a dose rate of 2.13 Gy min-1. To study dose-rate dependence, the survival fraction was obtained for a 12 MeV electron beam at 0.50 and 12 Gy min-1 for 20.0 Gy. The survival fraction proved to be independent of dose rate in this range. The results presented in this work indicate that by using bioluminescent bacteria, RBE measurements can be markedly simplified and the results interpreted unequivocally. (U.K.)

  15. Evaluation of the processing of dry biological ferment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developed work had with objectives to demonstrate if it had alteration in the growth of UFC in plate and in the viability of yeasts and total bacteria when dry biological ferment was dealt with by different doses to gamma radiation and under different times storage, to determine the D10 dose for total bacteria and yeasts in this product and to analyzed the processing of this product it promoted some benefit without causing unfeasibility of exactly. The different samples of dry biological ferment had been irradiated at IPEN in a Gammacell - 220 source at 0.5; 1; 2 and 3 kGy doses (dose rate of 3.51 kGy/h). This procedure referring samples to each dose of radiation had been after destined to the microbiological analysis and the test of viability while excessively the samples had been stored the ambient temperature (23 degree C). The increase of the dose of radiation caused a reduction in the counting of yeasts growth, of total bacteria growth and also in the frequency of viable yeast cells, demonstrated by FDA-EB fluorescent method. Beyond of radiation the storage time also it influenced in counting reduction of total bacteria and reduction of frequency of viable cells. According with the analysis of simple linear regression, the dose of radiation necessary to eliminate 90% of the yeast population was between 1.10 and 2.23 kGy and for the bacterial population varied between 2.31 and 2.95 kGy. These results demonstrated clearly the negative points of the application of ionizing radiation in dry biological ferment; therefore the interval of D10 found for total bacteria is superior to found for yeasts. Being thus, the use of this resource for the improvement of the product quality becomes impracticable, since to reduce significantly the bacterial population necessarily we have that to diminish the population of yeasts. With yeasts reduction of we will go significantly to modify the quality and the viability of product. (author)

  16. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases as Medical Counter Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson s and Alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging.

  17. Effects of gamma radiations on some aspects of the biology of salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed at the study of the effect of gamma radiation on certain aspects of the biology of Salmonella, few works joined this type and gamma radiations. The lethal effect of ionizing radiations was associated at other bacterial types, to an oxidative stress due to the presence of reactive spices of oxygen and leading to deteriorations of membrane cells, proteins and nucleic acids.Thus, we proceeded to an analysis of the viability of four Salmonella serovars subject to different radiation doses going from 0.5 to 2 KGy. The results showed a viability reduction dose dependent with a differential behavior, statistically significant. In order to detect possible radio induced changes at the restriction site of the enzymes XbaI and BlnI usually used for the typing of Salmonella, we carried out a DNA restriction profile analyse of the four serovars by pulsed filed gel electrophoresis. The results showed that no change appeared on the level of these restriction sites for the used enzymes following an irradiation of 2KGy. The study of the sensitivity of Salmonella to antibiotics after a gamma radiation showed that gamma radiation has increased the sensitivity of Salmonella isolates to porin associated antibiotics. Statistical analyses showed that the effect of different irradiation dose treatment on the antibiotic sensitivity is increasingly significant. The irradiation didn't induce modifications of the sensitivity to other antibiotics, probably because of their nature, of their penetration mode inside the cell or their action way. To tray to explain the differential behavior of different serovars to irradiation. We analyzed by Quantitative real time PCR (RT- PCR), the expression level of the ARNm of the genes KATN (catalase non-hemique), DNAK (protein of thermal shock), RNA polymerase as well as of the 16S rRNA. The results showed either a repression or an induction of certain genes under the effect of an irradiation of 2 KGy. (Author)

  18. Biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Press breakfast; Effets biologiques des rayonnements ionisants. Petit dejeuner de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flury-Herard, A. [CEA, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 75 - Paris (France); Boiteux, S.; Dutrillaux, B. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 92 (France); Toledano, M. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2000-06-01

    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 29 june 2000 on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and provides inquiries on the NDA operating to introduce the NDA damages by ionizing radiations, the possible repairs and the repair efficiency facing the carcinogenesis. Those researches allow the scientists to define laws on radiation protection. (A.L.B.)

  19. Comparative Study on Human Risk by Ionizing Radiation and Pesticide as Biological Information about Environmental Disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental risk factors such as ionizing radiations, heavy metals, and pesticides can cause environmental disasters when they exist in excess. The increases in use of ionizing radiation and agricultural pesticide are somewhat related to the possibility of the disaster. The risk of radiation and pesticide was evaluated by means of the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) assay on the human blood lymphocytes. The lymphocytes were irradiated with 0∼2.0 Gy of 60Co gamma ray. Another groups of lymphocytes were exposed to various concentrations of parathion. Significantly increased tail moment, which was a marker of DNA strand breaks in SCGE assay, showed a clear dose- or concentration-response relationship. Parathion of a recommended concentration for agricultural use ( 1 mg l-1) has a strong cytotoxic effect on lymphocytes, which is equivalent to damage induced by 0.1 Gy of γ-ray. Furthermore, 2 mg l-1 of parathion can give rise to DNA damage equivalent to that induced by 0.25 Gy at which the radiation-induced damage can start to develop into clinical symptoms. The comparative results of this study can provide an experimental basis and biological information for the prevention of environmental disaster

  20. Relative biological efficiency of powerful 252Cf mixed α-neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive radiobiological studies of the relative biological and genetic efficacy (RBE and RGE) of powerful 252Cf radiation (the ANET-B unit) were conducted using research tools of various radiosensitivity (bacteria, Drosophila, Chinese hamster cells, murine thymocytes, human and murine bone marrow stem cells, human peripheral blood lymphocytes, Lewis lung carcinoma cells). It was shown in the tests of reproductive or interphase death and chromosome aberrations that the RBE and the RGE values of a sup(252)Cf new source varied within the same limits from 1.3 to 3.0 whereas in the tests of gene mutations the RGE of the source did not exceed the efficacy of 60Co γ-radiation and in some cases it was much lower. Thus the RBE of the new source in induced lethal and chromosome demages was 2-4 times lower than the efficacy of a low-activity sup(252)Cf source used now in radiotherapy

  1. Early biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effectiveness of different radiation types for variety organisms requires further study. For fundamental studies of this problem it is worthwhile to use the most thoroughly investigated biological objects, for example, yeasts. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as the test eukaryotic organism which gives the experimenter complete control over its chemical and physical environment. The aim of the study consisted in comparative analysis of early effects induced by low doses of low LET (60Co and 137Cs) and high LET ( α-particles 239Pu, neutrons) radiation on eukaryotic cells (cell survival about 100%). Biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation were studied by two criteria: 1.delay of cell division and kinetics of yeast cells micro-colonies formation; 2.morphology of micro-colonies at different temperature. The results have shown that only small part of irradiated cell population (∼10%) divided at the same rate as unirradiated cells. Other part of cells had a delayed division. Unirradiated control cells formed typical micro-colonies at the solid nutrient media (YEPD) after 10 15 h of incubation. The fraction of cells population (20- 25%) exposed to low doses of?-particles or neutrons formed spectrum of untypical micro-colonies for the same incubation time, which consisted of small number of larger and more elongated cells. Some of these micro-colonies had 10 50 cells were of exotic forms ('spider'), differed from other micro-colonies in population. Using this method we can reveal an early response of cells at very low doses (survival about 100%) and determine the number non-lethally damaged cells. (author)

  2. [Experience of the development special medical technical laboratory for studies of effects caused by potent electromagnetic radiation in biologic objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetsky, B N; Kalyada, T V; Petrov, S V

    2015-01-01

    This article covers topics of creating special medical technical laboratory for medial and biologic studies concerning influence of potent high-frequency elecromagnetic radiation on various biologic objects. The authors gave example of such laboratory, described its construction features, purpose and main characteristics of the included devices.

  3. Surgery and radiation therapy of triple-negative breast cancers: From biology to clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Jacques; Poortmans, Philip M P

    2016-08-01

    Triple negative breast cancer refers to tumours lacking the expression of the three most used tumour markers, namely oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These cancers are known to carry a more dismal prognosis than the other molecular subtypes. Whether a more aggressive local-regional treatment is warranted or not in patients with triple-negative breast cancer is still a matter of debate. Indeed there remain a number of grey zones with respect to the optimization of the extent and the timing of surgery and radiation therapy (RT) in this patient population, also in consideration of the significant heterogeneity in biological behaviour and response to treatment identified for these tumours. The objective of this review is to provide an insight into the biological and clinical behaviour of triple-negative breast cancers and revisit the most recent advances in their management, focussing on local-regional treatments. PMID:27318170

  4. In Silico Nanodosimetry: New Insights into Nontargeted Biological Responses to Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Kuncic

    2012-01-01

    nontargeted responses cannot be understood in the framework of DNA-centric radiobiological models; what is needed are new physically motivated models that address the damage-sensing signalling pathways triggered by the production of reactive free radicals. To this end, we have conducted a series of in silico experiments aimed at elucidating the underlying physical processes responsible for nontargeted biological responses to radiation. Our simulation studies implement new results on very low-energy electromagnetic interactions in liquid water (applicable down to nanoscales and we also consider a realistic simulation of extranuclear microbeam irradiation of a cell. Our results support the idea that organelles with important functional roles, such as mitochondria and lysosomes, as well as membranes, are viable targets for ionizations and excitations, and their chemical composition and density are critical to determining the free radical yield and ensuing biological responses.

  5. Biological stress responses induced by alpha radiation exposure in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, A.; Horemans, N.; Van Hees, M.; Nauts, R. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Knapen, D.; Blust, R. [University of Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    To enhance the robustness of radiation protection criteria for biota, additional information on the biological impact of radionuclides on non-human biota is needed. In particular the effects of alpha emitting isotopes have been poorly studied within a radioecological contextual though they exhibit a high linear energy transfer which can cause significant biological damage when taken up by organisms. Therefore, it is not only essential to measure alpha radiation toxicity, but also try to understand the underlying mechanisms of this stressor. The current study aimed to contribute to a better knowledge of the fundamental processes regulating alpha radiation stress response mechanisms in higher plants. {sup 241}Am was primarily selected as it is an almost pure alpha emitter and, as a daughter nuclide of {sup 241}Pu, it will become one of the dominant pollutants in plutonium affected areas. The aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor has proven its value in eco-toxicological research as representative of higher aquatic plants (OECD guideline nr. 221) and will be used to analyze alpha radiation stress in plant systems. An individual growth inhibition test was set up by means of single dose-response curve in order to identify the Effective Dose Rates (EDR-values) for frond size and biomass. As the mean path length is small for alpha particles, the accumulation of the radionuclide inside species represents almost exclusively the dosimetry. Therefore, quantification of {sup 241}Am uptake and {sup 241}Am distribution were evaluated separately for roots and fronds taking the activity concentrations of growth medium into account. Taken together with the respective dose conversion coefficients from the ERICA tool, this allowed to construct an accurate dosimetric model to determine internal and external dose rates. Different standard media were tested on growth rate and biomass to analyse the amount of {sup 241}Am taken up by the plants exposed from 2.5 to 100 kBq/L. From these

  6. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Invited papers and discussions. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels and biological effects resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation are continuously reviewed by the United Nations Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Since its creation in 1928, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has issued recommendations on protection against ionizing radiation. The UNSCEAR estimates and the ICRP recommendations have served as the basis for national and international safety standards on radiation safety, including those developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Concerning health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, the international standards are based on the plausible assumption that, above the unavoidable background radiation dose, the probability of effects increases linearly with dose, i.e. on a 'linear, no threshold' (LNT) assumption. However, in recent years the biological estimates of health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation and the regulatory approach to the control of low level radiation exposure have been much debated. To foster information exchange on the relevant issues, an International Conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and WHO in co-operation with UNSCEAR, was held from 17-21 November 1997 at Seville, Spain. These Proceedings contain the invited special reports, keynote papers, summaries of discussions, session summaries and addresses presented at the opening and closing of the Conference

  7. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation, Book I, Agricultural, Animal and Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the 10th Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  8. Health and biological effects of non-ionizing radiations. Meeting of the non-ionizing radiation section of the French radiation protection society (SFRP). Meeting review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document makes a review of this conference day on biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations. The program comprised three sessions with a total of 17 presentations dealing with: 1 - NMR: biological effects and implications of Directive 2004/40 on electromagnetic fields (S. Lehericy); 2 - impact of RF frequencies from mobile telephone antennas on body homeostasis (A. Pelletier); 3 - expression of stress markers in the brain and blood of rats exposed in-utero to a Wi-Fi signal (I. Lagroye); 4 - people exposure to electromagnetic waves: the challenge of variability and the contribution of statistics to dosimetry (J. Wiart); 5 - status of knowledge about electromagnetic fields hyper-sensitivity (J.P. Marc-Vergnes); 6 - geno-toxicity of UV radiation: respective impact of UVB and UVA (T. Douki); 7 - National day of prevention and screening for skin cancers (F. Guibal); 8 - UV tan devices: status of knowledge about cancer risks (I. Tordjman, and J. Gaillot de Saintignon); 9 - In vitro study of the extremely low frequencies (ELF) effect on genes expression (J.F. Collard); 10 - modulation of brain activity during a tapping task after exposure to a 3000 μT magnetic field at 60 Hz (M. Souques and A. Legros); 11 - calculation of ELF electromagnetic fields in the human body by the finite elements method (R. Scoretti); 12 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field (I. Magne); 13 - LF and static fields, new ICNIRP recommendations: what has changed, what remains (B. Vey. Veyret); 14 - risk assessment of low energy lighting systems - DELs and CFLs (J.P. Cesarini); 15 - biological effects to the rat of a chronic exposure to high power microwaves (R. De Seze); 16 - theoretical and experimental electromagnetic compatibility approaches of active medical implants in the 10-50 Hz frequency range: the case of implantable cardiac defibrillators (J. Katrib); 17 - French physicians and electromagnetic fields (M. Souques). (J.S.)

  9. A study of Neoclassical and Romantic features in the poetry of André Chénier, French poet of the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    امینی امینی

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available André Chénier (1762-1794 is the greatest and the best known French poet of the 18th century. He is famous especially for his courageous opposition to the power of the Terror in the early years of the French Revolution which caused finally his death by guillotine. The study of his poetical works can clarify the literary transition between neoclassicism and romanticism. This paper, by describing the poetry, the ideas and the time of Chénier, tries to demonstrate why it is impossible to limit his works merely to classicism. In fact he goes beyond the limits of classicism and toward romanticism, the literary school whose great followers call him their own precursor. Keywords: André Chénier, French poetry, neoclassicism, romanticism, literary schools.

  10. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna. PMID:26946818

  11. Algunas propuestas didácticas sobre el teatro español del siglo XVIII / Some didactic studies on the Spanish theatre of the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malén Álvarez Franco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Nuestro trabajo pretende analizar las propuestas didácticas reales llevadas a cabo en distintos institutos de la comunidad extremeña y madrileña en torno al teatro del siglo XVIII. Desde este punto de partida, es nuestra intención proponer nuevas vías de trabajo que no se recogen en los manuales de aula al uso, amplificando de este modo la cultura teatral del alumnado para estos niveles.Abstract: This essay aims to analyze the actual didactic strategies carried out in different secondary schools within the Extremadura and Madrid areas concerning the 18th century theatre. Under these premises, it is our intention to propose new learning and teaching methodologies, which are not gathered in regular classroom textbooks . By so doing we aim to enhance student´s theatrical knowledge and background at those levels.

  12. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine

  13. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  14. Social and Health Care of Children in Central Europe : The Italian Hospital in Prague in the 17th–18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Svobodný

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of the Italian Hospital in Prague from the end of the 16th to the end of the 18th century is a notable example of the formalisation, professionalisation and medicalisation of care for children: from the provision of a refuge for the most helpless members of society (abandoned newborns and orphans who were completely bereft of the protection of the family, to progressively organisationally and professionally improving care offered by a lay religious congregation, to the ever more stringent supervision and finally the complete transfer of the social-health institution created in this way (a foundling hospital and maternity hospital into a sphere entirely controlled by the authorities of the “State” (Bohemian provincial health institutions and the “Academy” (the Medical Faculty in Prague.

  15. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  16. Heavy ion radiation biology research facility and ongoing activities at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy Ion Radiation Biology is an interdisciplinary science involving use of charged particle accelerator in the study of molecular biology. It is the study of the interaction of a beam of swift heavy ions with a biological system. In contrast to the sparsely ionizing photon or electron radiation, the high velocity charged heavy ions leave a track of densely populated ionization sites resulting in clustered DNA damage. The growing interest in this field encompasses the studies in gene expression, mechanisms of cell death, DNA damage and repair, signal transduction etc. induced because of this unique assault on the genetic material. IUAC radiation biology programme is focused on the in-vitro studies of different effects of heavy ion irradiation on eukaryotic cells. The facility provides a laboratory for pre and post irradiation treatment of samples. The irradiation system called ASPIRE (Automatic Sample Positioning for Irradiation in Radiation Biology Experiments) is installed at the dedicated Radiation Biology Beam line. It produces a nearly uniform flux distribution over a irradiation field of 40 mm diameter. The particle doses can be preselected and repeated within inherent statistical accuracy. The particle energy can also be measured. The facility is at present utilized by the University researchers of India. A few results obtained by the investigators would be presented. The outcome of the research in heavy ion radiation biology would be of immense use in augmenting the efficacy of Hadron therapy of cancer. The results would also contribute to the field of space radiation protection. It would also help in understanding the phenomena subsequent to complex DNA damage. (author)

  17. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  18. Histopathological And Biological Studies On The Role Of Soybean And Broad Bean AgainstRadiation Induce Damage In Rat Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Fathy Waer, **Abdel El ­ Rahman Mohamed Attia

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the physiological and histological activities in the animal body are disturbed after exposure to ionizing radiation. These disturbances are either due to direct harmful effect of radiation on the biological systems or to the indirect effect of free radicals formed in the body after irradiation. There is growing evidence that the type of food plays an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The biological disturbance due to ionizing radiation makes search for ways of protecting living organisms essential for controlling the radiation hazards. Much of the world population relies on legumes, as a stable food. Legumes can affectively protect cells and tissues against damage. Our present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of single dose !"#$%#&f the possible protective effect of feeding beans (broad beans and soybeans against radiation exposure. Histopathological, and biological changes of kidney function in irradiated, and bean fed animals were carried out. Animals were weighted and daily food intake was determined. The result obtained revealed that soybean is an extremely rich source of protein and fat as compared to faba bean. Radiations cause a reduction in food intake and weight gain. It causes great changes in the kidney glomeruli and collecting tubules. The recovery of the cells depend on the type of feeding so, feeding soybean gives a significant radiation protection and decreases the extent of changes induced by radiation

  19. Space experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CellRad)": Hardware and biological system tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E; Dilruba, Shahana; Adrian, Astrid; Feles, Sebastian; Schmitz, Claudia; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Briganti, Luca; Franz, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Spitta, Luis F; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Konda, Bikash; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Günther

    2015-11-01

    One factor contributing to the high uncertainty in radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions is the insufficient knowledge about possible interactions of radiation with other spaceflight environmental factors. Such factors, e.g. microgravity, have to be considered as possibly additive or even synergistic factors in cancerogenesis. Regarding the effects of microgravity on signal transduction, it cannot be excluded that microgravity alters the cellular response to cosmic radiation, which comprises a complex network of signaling pathways. The purpose of the experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space" (CellRad, formerly CERASP) is to study the effects of combined exposure to microgravity, radiation and general space flight conditions on mammalian cells, in particular Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells that are stably transfected with different plasmids allowing monitoring of proliferation and the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway by means of fluorescent proteins. The cells will be seeded on ground in multiwell plate units (MPUs), transported to the ISS, and irradiated by an artificial radiation source after an adaptation period at 0 × g and 1 × g. After different incubation periods, the cells will be fixed by pumping a formaldehyde solution into the MPUs. Ground control samples will be treated in the same way. For implementation of CellRad in the Biolab on the International Space Station (ISS), tests of the hardware and the biological systems were performed. The sequence of different steps in MPU fabrication (cutting, drilling, cleaning, growth surface coating, and sterilization) was optimized in order to reach full biocompatibility. Different coatings of the foil used as growth surface revealed that coating with 0.1 mg/ml poly-D-lysine supports cell attachment better than collagen type I. The tests of prototype hardware (Science Model) proved its full functionality for automated medium change, irradiation and fixation of cells. Exposure of

  20. Space experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CELLRAD)": Hardware and biological system tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Dilruba, Shahana; Adrian, Astrid; Feles, Sebastian; Schmitz, Claudia; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Briganti, Luca; Franz, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Spitta, Luis F.; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Konda, Bikash; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Günther

    2015-11-01

    One factor contributing to the high uncertainty in radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions is the insufficient knowledge about possible interactions of radiation with other spaceflight environmental factors. Such factors, e.g. microgravity, have to be considered as possibly additive or even synergistic factors in cancerogenesis. Regarding the effects of microgravity on signal transduction, it cannot be excluded that microgravity alters the cellular response to cosmic radiation, which comprises a complex network of signaling pathways. The purpose of the experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space" (CELLRAD, formerly CERASP) is to study the effects of combined exposure to microgravity, radiation and general space flight conditions on mammalian cells, in particular Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells that are stably transfected with different plasmids allowing monitoring of proliferation and the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway by means of fluorescent proteins. The cells will be seeded on ground in multiwell plate units (MPUs), transported to the ISS, and irradiated by an artificial radiation source after an adaptation period at 0 × g and 1 × g. After different incubation periods, the cells will be fixed by pumping a formaldehyde solution into the MPUs. Ground control samples will be treated in the same way. For implementation of CELLRAD in the Biolab on the International Space Station (ISS), tests of the hardware and the biological systems were performed. The sequence of different steps in MPU fabrication (cutting, drilling, cleaning, growth surface coating, and sterilization) was optimized in order to reach full biocompatibility. Different coatings of the foil used as growth surface revealed that coating with 0.1 mg/ml poly-D-lysine supports cell attachment better than collagen type I. The tests of prototype hardware (Science Model) proved its full functionality for automated medium change, irradiation and fixation of cells. Exposure of

  1. Assessment of occupational exposure and individual radiosensitivity in people exposed to radiation using methods of physical and biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examined people professionally in contact with sources of ionizing radiation.The incidence of chromosomal aberrations, the radionuclide content in the urine of the radiochemical method and calculation of internal doses based on the results of direct measurement of the concentration of incorporated radionuclides 137Cs and 241Am using human radiation spectrometer (HRS). According to the results of physical and biological dosimetry identified individual cumulative doses and the ratio defined cohort surveyed by radiosensitivity Key words: chromosomal aberrations, physical methods of dosimetry, radiation sensitivity, ionizing radiation, biodosimetry

  2. Biological modelling of the radiation dose escalation effect of regional hyperthermia in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locoregional hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy significantly improves locoregional control and overall survival for cervical tumors compared to radiotherapy alone. In this study biological modelling is applied to quantify the effect of radiosensitization for three cervical cancer patients to evaluate the improvement in equivalent dose for the combination treatment with radiotherapy and hyperthermia. The Linear-Quadratic (LQ) model extended with temperature-dependent LQ-parameters α and β was used to model radiosensitization by hyperthermia and to calculate the conventional radiation dose that is equivalent in biological effect to the combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia treatment. External beam radiotherapy planning was performed based on a prescription dose of 46Gy in 23 fractions of 2Gy. Hyperthermia treatment using the AMC-4 system was simulated based on the actual optimized system settings used during treatment. The simulated hyperthermia treatments for the 3 patients yielded a T50 of 40.1 °C, 40.5 °C, 41.1 °C and a T90 of 39.2 °C, 39.7 °C, 40.4 °C, respectively. The combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia treatment resulted in a D95 of 52.5Gy, 55.5Gy, 56.9Gy in the GTV, a dose escalation of 7.3–11.9Gy compared to radiotherapy alone (D95 = 45.0–45.5Gy). This study applied biological modelling to evaluate radiosensitization by hyperthermia as a radiation-dose escalation for cervical cancer patients. This model is very useful to compare the effectiveness of different treatment schedules for combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia treatments and to guide the design of clinical studies on dose escalation using hyperthermia in a multi-modality setting

  3. Novel biological approaches for testing the contributions of single-DSBs and DSB-clusters to the biological effects of high-LET-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika eMladenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The adverse biological effects of ionizing radiation (IR are commonly attributed to the generation of DNA double-strand-breaks (DSBs. IR-induced DSBs are generated by clusters of ionizations, bear damaged terminal nucleotides and frequently comprise base damages and single strand breaks in the vicinity generating a unique DNA damage-clustering effect that increases DSB complexity. The number of ionizations in clusters of different radiation modalities increases with increasing linear-energy-transfer (LET, and is thought to determine the long-known LET-dependence of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE. Multiple ionizations may also lead to the formation of DSB-clusters comprising two or more DSBs that destabilize chromatin further and compromise overall processing. DSB complexity and DSB-cluster formation are increasingly considered in the development of mathematical models of radiation action, which are then tested by fitting available experimental data. Despite a plethora of such mathematical models the ultimate goal, i.e. the a-priori prediction of the radiation effect, has not yet been achieved. The difficulty partly arises from unsurmountable difficulties in testing the fundamental assumptions of such mathematical models in defined biological model systems capable of providing conclusive answers. Recently, revolutionary advances in methods allowing the generation of enzymatic DSBs at random or in well-defined locations in the genome, generate unique testing opportunities for several key assumptions frequently fed into mathematical modeling – including the role of DSB-clusters in the overall effect. Here, we review the problematic of DSB-cluster formation in radiation action and present novel biological technologies that promise to revolutionize the way we address the biological consequences of such lesions. We describe new ways of exploiting the I-SceI endonuclease to generate DSB-clusters at random locations in the genome and

  4. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms and remission of vital oxidative injury by low dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, K. [Okayama University Medical School, Okayama (Japan); Nomura, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Kojima, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Excessive active oxygen produced in vivo by various causes is toxic. Accumulation of oxidation injuries due to excessive active causes cell and tissue injuries, inducing various pathologic conditions such as aging and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, there are chemical defense mechanisms in the body that eliminate active oxygen or repair damaged molecules, defending against resultant injury. It is interesting reports that appropriate oxidation stress activate the chemical biological defense mechanisms. In this study, to elucidate these phenomena and its mechanism by low dose radiation, we studied on the below subjects. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms by low dose radiation: (1) The effects radiation on lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in the organs, membrane fluidity and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined in rats and rabbits. Rats were irradiated with low dose X-ray over their entire bodies, and rabbits inhaled vaporized radon spring water, which primarily emitted {alpha}-ray. The following results were obtained. Unlike high dose X-ray, low dose X-ray and radon inhalation both reduced LPO levels and made the state of the SH-group on membrane-bound proteins closer to that of juvenile animals, although the sensitivity to radioactivity varied depending on the age of the animals and among different organs and tissues. The SOD activity was elevated, suggesting that low dose X-ray and radon both activate the host defensive function. Those changes were particularly marked in the organs related to immune functions of the animals which received low dose X-ray, while they were particularly marked in the brain after radon inhalation. It was also found that those changes continued for longer periods after low dose X-irradiation. (2) Since SOD is an enzyme that mediates the dismutation of O{sub 2}- to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the question as to whether the resultant H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is further detoxicated into H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} or not must

  5. Nanoparticle-aided Radiation Therapy: Micro-dosimetry and Evaluation of the Mediators Producing Biological Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Nava Raj

    Radiation therapy has been established as a standard technique for cancer treatment. Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the application of many new approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Achievement of selective enhancement in radiation dose deposition within a targeted tumor, while sparing surrounding normal structures, remains a challenge and one of the major objectives of cancer-related research. This objective can be realized by the insertion of high atomic number (Z) materials in the tumor site. Due to their high atomic number (Z=79) and favorable biological compatibility, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been found very promising in this respect. Another candidate material, platinum (Z=78), offering very similar radiation interaction properties to gold and exhibiting additional cytotoxic effects, has been exploited in chemotherapeutic agents for a long time. We explore the radiation effects near the interface of gold and platinum with tissue under a wide range of energies with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Our studies show that AuNPs and PtNPs (platinum nanoparticles) can offer a useful dose enhancement effect even in high energy radiotherapy beams, which can be important when critical structures are located close to the tumor. Our MC calculated dose enhancement increase of about 50% due to the removal of the flattening filter from the path of the photon beam of Varian TrueBeam accelerator suggests that flattening-filter-free beams are better suited for nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy. Also, the increase in dose enhancement with the tumor depth suggests that nanopartcle-aided radiation therapy can yield a better outcome while treating deep-seated tumors. Experimental microdosimetry is a non-trivial task, demanding detectors with small sensitive volumes to achieve a high spatial resolution. We have developed a microdosimetry technique utilizing an inexpensive in-house-built photodetector for the measurement of dose in a narrow high dose

  6. Fundamental studies on the radiation chemical dose-response with use of thymine. Is activation of the surface between radiation biology and radiation chemistry possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review described the importance and difficulty of radiation chemical assessment of dose-response. The assessment has the tasks of the unit, low dose region evaluation and direct/indirect effects in biology. The authors' vacuum evaporated thymine for G-value determination is appropriate for XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structures) measurement with monochromic ultrasoft X-rays (-550 eV photon) generated by SPring-8. However, the data of yielded thymine derivatives as well as those yielded after 60Co γ-ray (1.5 MeV photon) irradiation are not suitable for direct application in DNA damage evaluation of living cells due to trans-scientific uncertainty. Efforts are required for reducing the uncertainty present in dose-response assessment. (K.H.)

  7. Mechanism of Action for Anti-radiation Vaccine in Reducing the Biological Impact of High-dose Gamma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Vladislav; Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Casey, Rachael C.

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then collected and circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naive animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. Initial analysis of the biochemical characteristics indicated that the SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which the mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation.

  8. Proceedings of the colloquium on the biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This colloquium was organized by the 'non-ionizing radiations section' of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP). Its goal is to review the works carried out in France regarding the electromagnetic fields risk, the wave-matter interactions and the medical applications. This conference day is the occasion for the scientific actors of the domain to exchange and encourage the pluri-disciplinary collaborations on the biological, clinical, epidemiological, dosimetric and regulatory aspects of the exposure to non-ionizing radiations. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) together with their corresponding abstracts (in French) and dealing with: 1 - Retinal risk in blue light: standard requirements for LED lighting systems (S. Point); 2 - RETINALED: in-vivo study of blue light-related risk - towards a better understanding of retinal pathologies and a better risk assessment (P. Boulenguez); 3 - Can solar UV radiations have a beneficial effect for some cancers? The HeLME-UV project: domestic exposure to solar UV light and malignant lymphoid homeopathies of the child (J.F. Dore); 4 - A major public health problem: UV tanning devices should be prohibited (J.F. Dore); 5 - Is electro-hypersensitivity the result of a nocebo effect? (M. Dieudonne); 6 - Effects of repeated Wi-Fi signal exposure on glial and micro-glial activation in the mouse (I. Lagroye); 7 - RF residential exposure measurements in the French program of the Operative Committee (R. De Seze); 8 - Real-time study of RF fields global cellular effects (Y. Percherencier); 9 - Electromagnetic fields and neuro-degenerative diseases (I. Lagroye); 10 - Example of direct biophysical effect in the domain of ultra-low frequencies: the perception of magnetic phosphenes (A. Legros); 11 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field: update of the Expers study (I. Magne); 12 - Cardiac implants immunity with respect to 50/60 Hz electric fields (C. Gercek); 13 - Cardiac implants and

  9. Biological effect produced by ionizing radiations on occupational workers in Carlos Andrade Marin Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to establish the biological effects on occupational workers. In this study, have made a bibliographic review of the changes on skin of 217 professionals; between 21 and 70 years radiologists, X-ray technicians, radioisotope workers, nurses and others, which were exposed to ionizing radiation, in the departments of Diagnosis and Treatment of the Hospital Carlos Andrade Marin of the Quito city. From this universe 133 workers were excluded of the analysis. From the totality of lesions produced on the skin; the depilation constituted 40.18%, hyper pigmentation 19.34%, hypo pigmentation 9 %, capillary fragility 13.39%, erythema 13.39%, alopecia 5.37%. From the totality of lesions produced in blood: the leukopenia constituted 20.23% between all workers. The percentage method was used for statical calculation. A bibliographic update is done and the most relevant clinical aspects are reviewed. (The author)

  10. Methods of automated cell analysis and their application in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present review is concerned with the methods of automated analysis of biological microobjects and covers two groups into which all the systems of automated analysis can be divided-systems of flow ( flow cytometry) and scanning (image analysis systems) type. Particular emphasis has been placed on their use in radiobiological studies, namely, in the micronucleus test, a cytogenetic assay for monitoring the clastogenic action of ionizing radiation commonly used at present. Examples of suing methods described and actual setups in other biomedical researches are given. Analysis of advantages and disadvantages of the methods of automated cell analysis enables to choose more thoroughly between the systems of flow and scanning type to use them in particular research

  11. Status of human chromosome aberrations as a biological radiation dosimeter in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It seems that the determination of peripheral lymphocyte chriomosome aberration levels is now firmly established as a means of biological dosimetry of great value in many phases of the nuclear industry. In the case of large external exposure it can provide valuable quantitative estimates, as well as information on dose distribution and radiation quality. In the case of routine occupational exposures the technique is more qualitative, but is of value particularly in resolving uncertainties as to whether suspected overexposures did in fact occur. Where workers accumulate burdens of internal emitters, aberration analysis provides a valuable, though at present quite qualitative indicator. In spite of the expense of cytogenetic analyses, they are of sufficient value to justify much more widespread application, particularly in high risk situations

  12. Status of human chromosome aberrations as a biological radiation dosimeter in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    It seems that the determination of peripheral lymphocyte chriomosome aberration levels is now firmly established as a means of biological dosimetry of great value in many phases of the nuclear industry. In the case of large external exposure it can provide valuable quantitative estimates, as well as information on dose distribution and radiation quality. In the case of routine occupational exposures the technique is more qualitative, but is of value particularly in resolving uncertainties as to whether suspected overexposures did in fact occur. Where workers accumulate burdens of internal emitters, aberration analysis provides a valuable, though at present quite qualitative indicator. In spite of the expense of cytogenetic analyses, they are of sufficient value to justify much more widespread application, particularly in high risk situations.

  13. Investigation of the effect of ionizing radiation on gene expression variation by the 'DNA chips': feasibility of a biological dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having described the different biological effects of ionizing radiation and the different approaches to biological dosimetry, and introduced 'DNA chips' or DNA micro-arrays, the author reports the characterization of gene expression variations in the response of cells to a gamma irradiation. Both main aspects of the use DNA chips are investigated: fundamental research and diagnosis. This research thesis thus proposes an analysis of the effect of ionizing radiation using DNA chips, notably by comparing gene expression modifications measured in mouse irradiated lung, heart and kidney. It reports a feasibility study of bio-dosimeter based on expression profiles

  14. Dependence of biologically active UV radiation on the atmospheric ozone in 2000 - 2001 over Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates how the changes in simultaneously measured ozone columns influence the biologically active UV irradiance. Spectral ground-based measurements of direct solar ultraviolet radiation performed at Stara Zagora (42oN, 25oE), Bulgaria in 2000 - 2001 are used in conjunction with the total ozone content to investigate the relation to the biologically active UV radiation, depending on the solar zenith angle (SZA) and the ozone. The device measures the direct solar radiation in the range 290 - 360 nm at 1 nm resolution. The direct sun UV doses for some specific biological effects (erythema and eyes) are obtained as the integral in the wavelength interval between 290 and 330 nm of the UV solar spectrum weighted with an action spectrum, typical of each effect. For estimation of the sensitivity of biological doses to the atmospheric ozone we calculate the radiation amplification factor (RAF) defined as the percentage increase in the column amount of the atmospheric ozone. The biological doses increase significantly with the decrease of the SZA. The doses of SZA=20o are about three times larger than doses at SZA=50o. The RAF derived from our spectral measurements shows an increase of RAF along with the decreasing ozone. For example, the ozone reduction by 1% increases the erythemal dose by about 2%. (authors)

  15. Simulated studies on the biological effects of space radiation on quiescent human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nan; Pei, Hailong; He, Jinpeng; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Liu, Cuihua; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Li, He; Hu, Wentao; Li, Yinghui; Wang, Jufang; Wang, Tieshan; Zhou, Guangming

    2013-10-01

    High charge and energy (HZE) particles are severe risk to manned long-term outer space exploration. Studies on the biological effects of space HZE particles and the underlying mechanisms are essential to the accurate risk assessment and the development of efficient countermeasure. Since majority of the cells in human body stay quiescent (G0 phase), in this study, we established G0 cell and G1 cell models by releasing human normal embryonic lung fibroblast cells from contact inhibition and studied the radiation toxicity of various kinds of HZE particles. Results showed that all of the particles were dose-dependently lethal and G0 cells were more radioresistant than G1 cells. We also found that 53BP1 foci were induced in a LET- and fluence-dependent manner and fewer foci were induced in G0 cells than G1 cells, however, the decrease of foci in 24 h after irradiation was highly relevant to the type of particles. These results imply that even though health risk of space radiation is probably overestimated by the data obtained with exponentially growing cells, whose radiosensitivity is similar to G1 cells, the risk of space HZE particles is un-ignorable and accurate assessment and mechanistic studies should be deepened. The diverse abilities of G0 cells and G1 cells in repairing DNA damages induced by HZE particles emphasize the importance in studying the impact of HZE particles on DNA damage repair pathways.

  16. Biological significance of the focus on DNA damage checkpoint factors remained after irradiation of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews recent reports on the focus formation and participation to checkpoint of (such phosphorylated (P-d) as below) ATM and H2AX, MDC1, 53BP1 and NBS1, and discusses their role in DNA damage checkpoint induction mainly around authors' studies. When the cell is irradiated by ionizing radiation, the subtype histone like H2AX is P-d and the formed focus', seen in the nucleus on immuno-fluorographic observation, represents the P-d H2AX at the damaged site of DNA. The role of P-d ATM (the product of causative gene of ataxia-telangiectasia mutation, a protein kinase) has been first shown by laser beam irradiation. Described are discussions on the roles and functions after irradiation in focus formation and DNA damage checkpoint of P-d H2AX (a specific histone product by the radiation like γ-ray as above), P-d ATM, MDC1 (a mediator of DNA damage check point protein 1), 53BP1, (a p53 binding protein) and NBS1 (the product of the causative gene of Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome). Authors have come to point out the remained focal size increase as implications of the efficient repair of damaged DNA, and the second cycled p53 accumulation, of tumor suppression. Thus evaluation of biological significance of these aspects, scarcely noted hitherto, is concluded important. (S.I.)

  17. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remec, Igor; Rosseel, Thomas M.; Field, Kevin G.; Le Pape, Yann

    2016-02-01

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete, with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV) in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoff value are necessary to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC0500OR22725 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  18. 18世纪英国关于犬类税的争论%Debates on a Dog Tax in the 18 th Century England

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕富渊

    2015-01-01

    在近代英国,针对过多犬类对于公共健康、财产安全、狩猎法维护与济贫等造成的问题,民众与政府在犬类管理上经历一个由屠杀到征税的过程。对犬类征税旨在限制其数量,但是也引发了持续整个18世纪的争论。在国家权力限度、狩猎法改革、公共道德改革等方面的争论反映出养犬长期成为英国社会问题的归因指向。直到18世纪下半期,动物主体权利的主张开始出现,犬类地位上升,养犬才由多余成为必需。1796年《犬类税法》的通过以立法的形式肯定了这种变化,从而保障了英国普通民众养犬的权利。%In modern England,faced with the problems of public health,property security,game laws maintenance and poor relief caused by dogs,English people and government managed dogs through killing to taxing. Taxing of dogs with the aim at limiting their number,however,caused debates through out the whole 18th century. Concerning the range of state power,game laws reform,public moral reform,debates on the dog tax reflect dogs being the blame for social problems. Until the late half of 18th century,the rights of dogs did not occur and their status rise,holding dogs being failure to become necessity from waste. The Dogs Tax Act of 1796 affirmed such change,guaranteeing English men’s rights to hold dogs.

  19. Biological radiation dose from secondary particles in a Milky Way gamma ray burst

    CERN Document Server

    Atri, Dimitra; Karam, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Gamma ray bursts (GBRs) are a class of highly energetic explosions emitting radiation in a very short timescale of a few seconds and with a very narrow opening angle. Although, all GRBs observed so far are extragalactic in origin, there is a high probability of a GRB of galactic origin beaming towards the Earth in the past ~ 0.5 Gyr. Such an intense burst of gamma rays would ionize the atmosphere and deplete the ozone layer. With depleted ozone, there will be an increased flux of solar UVB on the Earth\\~Os surface with harmful biological effects. In addition to the atmospheric damage, secondary particles produced by gamma ray-induced showers will reach the surface. Amongst all secondary particles, muons dominate the ground-level secondary particle flux (99% of the total number of particles) and are potentially of biological significance. Using the Monte Carlo simulation code CORSIKA, we modeled the air showers produced by gamma ray primaries up to 100 GeV. We found that the number of muons produced by hypothe...

  20. Radiation-induced apoptosis in human lymphocytes: Potential as a biological dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have tested the possibility of using apoptosis (programmed cell death) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes as a short-term biological dosimeter. Lymphocytes isolated from whole blood were irradiated in culture with 250 kVp x-rays or 60Co gamma rays. Two assays were used to measure apoptosis in lymphocytes after irradiation: in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase assay and fluorescence analysis of DNA unwinding assay. Similar qualitative and quantitative results were produced by the assays, supporting the notion that the fluorescence analysis of DNA unwinding assay measured DNA fragmentation associated with apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis in lymphocytes irradiated in vitro was proportional to dose and could be detected following exposures as low as 0.05 Gy. Lymphocytes irradiated in vitro was proportional to dose and could be detected following exposures as low as 0.05 Gy. Lymphocytes from individual donors had reproducible dose responses. There was, however, variation between donors. X-ray and gamma-ray exposures induced similar levels of apoptosis at similar doses. The induction kinetics of apoptosis in vitro indicate a maximum is reached about 72 h after irradiation. In conclusion, the in vitro experimental evidence indicates that radiation-induced apoptosis in human lymphocytes has the kinetics, sensitivity, and reproductibility to be a potential biological dosimeter. 29 refs., 5 figs

  1. Enhancing the biological degradability of sulfamethoxazole by ionizing radiation treatment in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sági, Gyuri; Kovács, Krisztina; Bezsenyi, Anikó; Csay, Tamás; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2016-07-01

    Changes of biodegradability and toxicity were followed up on aqueous solutions of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), during ionizing radiation treatment. The biodegradability of SMX (0.1 mmol dm-3) was specified by five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5), using municipal activated sludge, and the results showed an improvement with applying only 0.4 kGy dose. BOD5 further increased with prolonged irradiation, indicating a conversion of SMX, a non-biodegradable compound, to biologically treatable substances. At 2.5 kGy dose, the BOD5/COD ratio increased from 0 to 0.16. The total organic carbon (TOC) content showed a decrease of only 15% at this point, thus high degree of mineralization is not necessary to make SMX digestible for the low concentrations of microorganisms used during BOD5 measurements. Increment in respiration inhibition of municipal activated sludge was observed with increasing the dose. The EC50 values showed a decrease of one order of magnitude when changing the dose from 0.4 kGy to 2.5 kGy. The increase of inhibition and formation of H2O2 showed a strong correlation.

  2. Probing droplets with biological colloidal suspensions on smart surfaces by synchrotron radiation micro- and nano-beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaro, G.; Accardo, A.; Benseny-Cases, N.; Burghammer, M.; Castillo-Michel, H.; Cotte, M.; Dante, S.; De Angelis, F.; Di Cola, E.; Di Fabrizio, E.; Hauser, C.; Riekel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Droplets with colloidal biological suspensions evaporating on substrates with defined wetting properties generate confined environments for initiating aggregation and self-assembly processes. We describe smart micro- and nanostructured surfaces, optimized for probing single droplets and residues by synchrotron radiation micro- and nanobeam diffraction techniques. Applications are presented for Ac-IVD and β-amyloid (1-42) peptides capable of forming cross-β sheet structures. Complementary synchrotron radiation FTIR microspectroscopy addresses secondary structure formation. The high synchrotron radiation source brilliance enables fast raster-scan experiments.

  3. Probing droplets with biological colloidal suspensions on smart surfaces by synchrotron radiation micro- and nano-beams

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Droplets with colloidal biological suspensions evaporating on substrates with defined wetting properties generate confined environments for initiating aggregation and self-assembly processes. We describe smart micro- and nanostructured surfaces, optimized for probing single droplets and residues by synchrotron radiation micro- and nanobeam diffraction techniques. Applications are presented for Ac-IVD and β-amyloid (1-42) peptides capable of forming cross-β sheet structures. Complementary synchrotron radiation FTIR microspectroscopy addresses secondary structure formation. The high synchrotron radiation source brilliance enables fast raster-scan experiments. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Comment on a mathematical model for estimating biological damage caused by radiation. Whack-A-Mole model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a mathematical model, Whack-A-Mole (WAM) model which can estimate the biological effect caused by radiation. The WAM model assumes that the basic element is a cell and the number of cells increases or decreases due to response to stimulus, damage and recovery, cause by radiation and so on. WAM takes into account dose rate as an important physical quantity, which marks a fundamental difference from target theory or LQ model. WAM model reproduces various experimental data of mutation frequency induced by radiation, for example, mega-mouse project. Furthermore, we can predict unknown experimental results. From WAM model, it is learnt that the mutation frequency caused by radiation is not proportional to dose but also have saturation value. There is some possibility that the WAM model will drastically change risk estimation of radiation as it brings us different results from those of target theory or LQ model. (author)

  5. Long-term variability and impact on human health of biologically active UV radiation in Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Chubarova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of erythemally weighted UV irradiance (Qer) have been performed at the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University since 1999 with the UVB-1 YES pyranometers. These types of devices are broadband with a spectral sensitivity curve close to the action spectrum of erythema. Main uncertainties of UVB-1 YES measurements include the difference in spectral curves of the instrument and the action spectrum of erythema, as well as the deviation from the cosine law. These uncertainties were taken into account in the database of Qer measurements (Chubarova, 2008. Additional corrections of UVB-1 measurements at low ambient temperatures have been made. We analyze interannual, seasonal and diurnal Qer changes over the time period 1999-2012. In addition, the comparisons with the results of UV reconstruction model (Chubarova, 2008) are made. This model allows us to evaluate relative changes in Qer due to variations in total ozone, effective cloud amount transmission, aerosol and cloud optical thickness since 1968. It is important to note that the main reason for UV irradiance monitoring development is the strong influence of UV irradiance on the biosphere and especially on human health mainly on human skin (CIE, 1993, CIE, 2006) and eyes (Oriowo, M. et al., 2001). Based on the detailed studies we have shown the possibility of utilizing UVB-1 pyranometers for measuring the eye-damage UV radiation. Parallel measurements by the Bentham DTM-300 spectrometer and the UVB-1 YES pyranometer at the Innsbruck Medical University (Austria) have provided us the calibration factor in eye-damage units for this broadband instrument. Influence of main geophysical factors on different types of UV irradiance is estimated by means the RAF ideology (Booth, Madronich, 1994). We discuss the responses of different types of biologically active UV radiation to the impact of various atmospheric factors. The UV conditions (deficiency, optimum, excess for human) are analyzed according to

  6. The inquisitorial trial of a cross-dressing lesbian: reactions and responses to female homosexuality in 18th-century portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, François

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso in Portugal. Maria Duran was arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile. She was suspected of having made a pact with the Devil and was accused by many female witnesses of possessing a "secret penis" that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the 18th-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty that men (in this case, churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate among historians of the history of sexuality. PMID:25022623

  7. Trusteeship and Cooperation in the Flemish merchants community in Cadiz: The brotherhood of “San Andrés de los Flamencos” (17th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr Ana Crespo Solana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available  This article presents information on the development, over the centuries, of a little known aspect of the communities of foreign Merchants who settled in Spanish cities during the Modern Age. Using previously unpublished documents, relating to the “Ilustre y Antigua Nación Flamenca” of Seville and Cádiz, the article aims to give a description of the charitable activities carried out by the colony of merchants in Seville and, especially, in Cádiz, who were natives of the Southern Low Countries and the Dutch Republic. This merchant community had assigned the administration of a “Patronato” to their brotherhood, which included the control of numerous items of furniture and properties of great value. The description of this religious and benevolent activity gives a no less interesting view, when compared with the purely economic one, of its importance on the integration of these communities into the Spanish society of the 17th and 18th centuries. This research has been made with historical documents from Spanish Archives (Cádiz, Madrid and Alcalá de Henares.

  8. 18世纪巴黎的咖啡馆文化特点%The cultural characteristics of Paris cafés in the 18th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林煜堃

    2014-01-01

    18世纪巴黎人的日常生活中,咖啡馆扮演了重要角色。历史地理因素和文化环境造就其独特的风格,同时也孕育了颇具特色的社交文化。巴黎咖啡馆逐渐从下层走向上层,成为奢华的法国式精英文化的特点。同时咖啡馆的娱乐性,为大众化的政治活动提供人员基础和社交模式,一定程度上推动了法国大革命的诞生。%The café played an important role in the Parisian daily life during the 18th century. Historical, geographic and cultural sectors contributed to the social culture with unique features. In the initial stage, being from lower class to upper class, cafés became the representation of elite culture with luxurious feature. The recreation of cafés, providing a basis for popular political activities, partly provoked the French Revolution.

  9. "Diarium patris ministri", a Jesuit view of social structures at the break of 18th century in south-west Bohemian town of Klatovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerný, Karel

    2009-01-01

    The Jesuit college in the Czech town of Klatovy was founded in 1636 and canceled in 1773. It had its own grammar school and numerous contacts with local nobility and church dignitaries. The college was the most important house of a catholic order in the area and baroque festivities organised by the jesuits were visited (or it would be better to say taken part in) by a wide spectrum of members of the local society. The Jesuits concerned not only on careful arrangement of their ecclesiastical celebrations, but also on presence of the important guests. They recorded numbers of the guests who visited the college and their social status in the college manuscripts. The records were then used for an internal need of the order. Till the present day three manuscripts related to the college in Klatovy have been preserved. The most interesting records of the guests are in the diary of father "minister" of the college. The article focuses on a reconstruction of a not very conventional view of social structure in an average Czech town in the beginnig of 18th century. I'm trying to describe the social situation from the jesuit point of view using internal records of the order. PMID:20063670

  10. The inquisitorial trial of a cross-dressing lesbian: reactions and responses to female homosexuality in 18th-century portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, François

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso in Portugal. Maria Duran was arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile. She was suspected of having made a pact with the Devil and was accused by many female witnesses of possessing a "secret penis" that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the 18th-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty that men (in this case, churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate among historians of the history of sexuality.

  11. Physics fundamentals and biological effects of synchrotron radiation therapy; Fundamentos fisicos y efectos biologicos de la radioterapia con radiacion sincrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prezado, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of radiation therapy is to deposit a curative dose in the tumor without exceeding the tolerances in the nearby healthy tissues. For some radioresistant tumors, like gliomas, requiring high doses for complete sterilization, the major obstacle for curative treatment with ionizing radiation remains the limited tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissue. This limitation is particularly severe for brain tumors and, especially important in children, due to the high risk of complications in the development of the central nervous system. In addition, the treatment of tumors close to an organ at risk, like the spinal cord, is also restricted. One possible solution is the development of new radiation therapy techniques exploiting radically different irradiation modes and modifying, in this way, the biological equivalent doses. This is the case of synchrotron radiation therapy (SR T). In this work the three new radiation therapy techniques under development at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESR F), in Grenoble (France) will be described, namely: synchrotron stereotactic radiation therapy (Ssr), microbeam radiation therapy (MR T) and mini beam radiation therapy. The promising results in the treatment of the high grade brain tumors obtained in preclinical studies have paved the way to the clinical trials. The first patients are expected in the fall of 2010. (Author).

  12. The study of biological effects of electromagnetic mobile phone radiation on experimental animals by combining numerical modeling and experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Krstić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study biological effects of electromagneticradiation, it is essential to know the real values of field componentsthat penetrated the tissue. The study of biological effects is usuallyperformed on experimental animals. The biological effects observedon experimental animals should be linked with penetrating field inthe tissue. The penetrating electromagnetic field is almost impossibleto measure; therefore, modeling process must be carried out and thefield components in models of experimental animals could becalculated. This paper presents an approach to modeling of fieldpenetration and gives contribution to understanding the real effects of the fields and the sensitivity of tissues to electromagnetic radiation generated by mobile phone.

  13. Prognostic cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuis, Maartje G; Eijsink, Jasper J H; Roossink, Frank; de Graeff, Pauline; Pras, Elisabeth; Schuuring, Ed; Wisman, G Bea A; de Bock, Geertruida H; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the prognostic and predictive significance of cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation. A PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane literature search was performed. Studies describing a relation between a cell b

  14. The impact of biology on risk assessment -- Workshop of the National Research Council's board on radiation effects research. Meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear, nonthreshold extrapolation from a dose-response relationship for ionizing radiation derived at higher doses to doses for which regulatory standards are proposed is being challenged by some scientists and defended by others. It appears that the risks associated with exposures to doses of interest are below the risks that can be measured with epidemiologic studies. Therefore, many have looked to biology to provide information relevant to risk assessment. The workshop reported here, ''The Impact of biology on Risk Assessment,'' was planned to address the need for further information by bringing together scientists who have been working in key fields of biology and others who have been contemplating the issues associated specifically with this question. The goals of the workshop were to summarize and review the status of the relevant biology, to determine how the reported biologic data might influence risk assessment, and to identify subjects on which more data is needed

  15. Effects of low power microwave radiation on biological activity of Collagenase enzyme and growth rate of S. Cerevisiae yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuhaim, Hamad S.; Vojisavljevic, Vuk; Pirogova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, microwave radiation, a type/subset of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been widely used in industry, medicine, as well as food technology and mobile communication. Use of mobile phones is rapidly growing. Four years from now, 5.1 billion people will be mobile phone users around the globe - almost 1 billion more mobile users than the 4.3 billion people worldwide using them now. Consequently, exposure to weak radiofrequency/microwave radiation generated by these devices is markedly increasing. Accordingly, public concern about potential hazards on human health is mounting [1]. Thermal effects of radiofrequency/microwave radiation are very well-known and extensively studied. Of particular interest are non-thermal effects of microwave exposures on biological systems. Nonthermal effects are described as changes in cellular metabolism caused by both resonance absorption and induced EMR and are often accompanied by a specific biological response. Non-thermal biological effects are measurable changes in biological systems that may or may not be associated with adverse health effects. In this study we studied non-thermal effects of low power microwave exposures on kinetics of L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme and growth rate of yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae strains type II. The selected model systems were continuously exposed to microwave radiation at the frequency of 968MHz and power of 10dBm using the designed and constructed (custom made) Transverse Electro-Magnetic (TEM) cell [2]. The findings reveal that microwave radiation at 968MHz and power of 10dBm inhibits L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity by 26% and increases significantly (15%) the proliferation rate of yeast cells.

  16. Amylase and blood cell-count hematological radiation-injury biomarkers in a rhesus monkey radiation model-use of multiparameter and integrated biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective medical management of suspected radiation exposure incidents requires the recording of dynamic medical data (clinical signs and symptoms), biological assessments of radiation exposure, and physical dosimetry in order to provide diagnostic information to the treating physician and dose assessment for personnel radiation protection records. The need to rapidly assess radiation dose in mass-casualty and population-monitoring scenarios prompted an evaluation of suitable biomarkers that can provide early diagnostic information after exposure. We investigated the utility of serum amylase and hematological blood-cell count biomarkers to provide early assessment of severe radiation exposures in a non-human primate model (i.e., rhesus macaques; n=8) exposed to whole-body radiation of 60Co-gamma rays (6.5 Gy, 40cGymin-1). Serum amylase activity was significantly elevated (12.3±3.27- and 2.6±0.058-fold of day zero samples) at 1 and 2-days, respectively, after radiation. Lymphocyte cell counts decreased (≤15% of day zero samples) 1 and 2 days after radiation exposure. Neutrophil cell counts increased at day one by 1.9(±0.38)-fold compared with levels before irradiation. The ratios of neutrophil to lymphocyte cell counts increased by 13(±2.66)- and 4.23(±0.95)-fold at 1 and 2 days, respectively, after irradiation. These results demonstrate that increases in serum amylase activity along with decreases of lymphocyte counts, increases in neutrophil cell counts, and increases in the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte counts 1 day after irradiation can provide enhanced early triage discrimination of individuals with severe radiation exposure and injury. Use of the biodosimetry assessment tool (BAT) application is encouraged to permit dynamic recording of medical data in the management of a suspected radiological casualty

  17. The Register of Slovenian-Language Manuscripts from the 17th and 18th Centuries: Repository, Digital Library and Research Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Ogrin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper gives a thorough examination of the Register of Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries from different points of view: it is presented as a digital repository in humanities disciplines available for searching (digital library and as a methodological framework of further scholarly research and discoveries in the field. Manuscripts, especially the manuscripts of Slovenian literature, have not been sufficiently taken into consideration so far. They have always been given but a sketchy treatment serving merely to illustrate the general outlines of the nation’s literary and cultural development. They have rarely been dealt with in specialised studies or scientific publications. This is the reason why they have not been registered and recorded in archival and library collections. Different guides to manuscripts offer only basic and limited information from which it is often impossible to identify the language, the content, and the history of a manuscript. With regard to the state-of-the- art of Slovenian manuscript research in the field of Slavic studies, archival studies and codicology, it was indispensable to thoroughly record and research the preserved manuscripts by the use of a uniform, rational and consistent method. In reference to these premises a new research project has been started resulting in accurate, thorough and rigorously structured descriptions of manuscripts. The idea of Slovenian manuscript register was developed comprising manuscript descriptions complemented by digital images or facsimiles thus visually presenting the manuscripts and facilitating further research in the field.The 3-year work resulted in the portal: Unknown Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18 th centuries. The main project result was the register of Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries. To date, it contains detailed descriptions of the first 100 manuscripts and over 7

  18. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  19. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  20. Future of radiation therapy for malignant melanoma in an era of newer, more effective biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan MK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad K Khan1, Niloufer Khan2, Alex Almasan1,2, Roger Macklis11Taussig Cancer Institute, Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: The incidence of melanoma is rising. The primary initial treatment for melanoma continues to be wide local excision of the primary tumor and affected lymph nodes. Exceptions to wide local excision include cases where surgical excision may be cosmetically disfiguring or associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The role of definitive or adjuvant radiotherapy has largely been relegated to palliative measures because melanoma has been viewed as a prototypical radiotherapy-resistant cancer. However, the emerging clinical and radiobiological data summarized here suggests that many types of effective radiation therapy, such as radiosurgery for melanoma brain metastases, plaque brachytherapy for uveal melanoma, intensity modulated radiotherapy for melanoma of the head and neck, and adjuvant radiotherapy for selected high-risk, node-positive patients can improve outcomes. Similarly, although certain chemotherapeutic agents and biologics have shown limited responses, long-term control for unresectable tumors or disseminated metastatic disease has been rather disappointing. Recently, several powerful new biologics and treatment combinations have yielded new hope for this patient group. The recent identification of several clinically linked melanoma gene mutations involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway such as BRAF, NRAS, and cKIT has breathed new life into the drive to develop more effective therapies. Some of these new therapeutic approaches relate to DNA damage repair inhibitors, cellular immune system activation, and pharmacological cell cycle checkpoint manipulation. Others relate to the investigation of more effective targeting and dosing schedules for underutilized therapeutics, such as

  1. Dr. Anna G. Jonasdottir: Acceptance Speech for Honorary Doctorate from Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland. Given 18th of June, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G. Jónasdóttir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On June 18th the Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, celebrated 100 years of women’s‘ voting rights in Iceland with a special conference, Power and democracy 100 years later. In association with the conference Dr. Anna Guðrún Jónasdóttir, Professor emerita at the University of Örebro, Sweden, was awarded an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science. Anna Guðrún was the first Icelandic woman to complete a doctorate in political science, in 1991, and also the first to embark on an advanced academic career in political science and gender studies. It is therefore highly appropriate that Anna Guðrún should be awarded the first honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science, where these disciplines are located. Her research covers a broad spectrum, including political science, sociology, economic history, psychology and gender studies. She was among the first to deal in a theoretical manner with gender, power and politics, which was considered rather provocative at the start of her academic career in the early 1970s. She is a pioneer in intertwining political research and gender studies and her most important research is in the field of power and personal gender relations. Anna Guðrún moved to Sweden at an early age but has kept in touch with the Icelandic research community. Below we publish her acceptance speech on the occasion when the honorary doctorate was awarded. It reflects clearly how her ideas have developed and her intimate sense for how personal and political factors bring politics and gender studies closer at the same time as she deepens and broadens both of their subjects.

  2. Modeling marrow damage from response data: Morphallaxis from radiation biology to benzene toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Hasan, J.S.

    1995-12-01

    Consensus principles from radiation biology were used to describe a generic set of nonlinear, first-order differential equations for modeling of toxicity-induced compensatory cell kinetics in terms of sublethal injury, repair, direct killing, killing of cells with unrepaired sublethal injury, and repopulation. This cellular model was linked to a probit model of hematopoietic mortality that describes death from infection and/or hemorrhage between {approximately} 5 and 30 days. Mortality data from 27 experiments with 851 doseresponse groups, in which doses were protracted by rate and/or fractionation, were used to simultaneously estimate all rate constants by maximum-likelihood methods. Data used represented 18,940 test animals distributed according to: (mice, 12,827); (rats, 2,925); (sheep, 1,676); (swine, 829); (dogs, 479); and (burros, 204). Although a long-term, repopulating hematopoietic stem cell is ancestral to all lineages needed to restore normal homeostasis, the dose-response data from the protracted irradiations indicate clearly that the particular lineage that is ``critical`` to hematopoietic recovery does not resemble stem-like cells with regard to radiosensitivity and repopulation rates. Instead, the weakest link in the chain of hematopoiesis was found to have an intrinsic radioresistance equal to or greater than stromal cells and to repopulate at the same rates. Model validation has been achieved by predicting the LD{sub 50} and/or fractional group mortality in 38 protracted-dose experiments (rats and mice) that were not used in the fitting of model coefficients.

  3. Green algae in alpine biological soil crust communities: acclimation strategies against ultraviolet radiation and dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Ulf; Holzinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Green algae are major components of biological soil crusts in alpine habitats. Together with cyanobacteria, fungi and lichens, green algae form a pioneer community important for the organisms that will succeed them. In their high altitudinal habitat these algae are exposed to harsh and strongly fluctuating environmental conditions, mainly intense irradiation, including ultraviolet radiation, and lack of water leading to desiccation. Therefore, green algae surviving in these environments must have evolved with either avoidance or protective strategies, as well as repair mechanisms for damage. In this review we have highlighted these mechanisms, which include photoprotection, photochemical quenching, and high osmotic values to avoid water loss, and in some groups flexibility of secondary cell walls to maintain turgor pressure even in water-limited situations. These highly specialized green algae will serve as good model organisms to study desiccation tolerance or photoprotective mechanisms, due to their natural capacity to withstand unfavorable conditions. We point out the urgent need for modern phylogenetic approaches in characterizing these organisms, and molecular methods for analyzing the metabolic changes involved in their adaptive strategies. PMID:24954980

  4. Biological stress responses to radio frequency electromagnetic radiation: are mobile phones really so (heat) shocking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotgreave, Ian A

    2005-03-01

    Cells phenotypically adapt to alterations in their intra- and extracellular environment via organised alterations to gene and protein expression. Many chemical and physical stimuli are known to drive such responses, including the induction of oxidative stress and heat shock. Increasing use of mobile telephones in our society, has brought focus on the potential for radio frequency (microwave) electromagnetic radiation to elicit biological stress responses, in association with potentially detrimental effects of this to human health. Here we review evidence suggesting altered gene and protein expression in response to such emissions, with particular focus on heat shock proteins. Non-thermal induction of heat shock proteins has been claimed by a number of investigations in in vitro cellular systems, and appears pleiotropic for many other regulatory events. However, many of these studies are flawed by inconsistencies in exposure models, cell types used and the independent reproducibility of the findings. Further, the paucity of evidence from in vivo experimentation is largely contradictory. Therefore, the validity of these effects in human health risk assessment remain unsubstantiated. Where possible, suggestions for further experimental clarification have been provided.

  5. A review of projection radiography of plasma and biological objects in X-Pinch radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Hammer, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    A review of studies on the X-pinch as a radiation source for X-ray projection shadow radiography (XPSR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is presented. The ultimate capabilities of the techniques and ways of their achievement are considered. XPSR has been successfully used to study high-energy-density plasma objects, in particular, exploding wires and wire arrays. Using XPSR, the internal structure and dynamics of a wire explosion and wire array implosion have been investigated for the first time, which has made it possible to develop an adequate consistent theory of the processes occurring in the wire loads of generators with currents from several units of kiloamperes to a few tens of megamperes. The use of XAS for diagnostics of wire loads has allowed one for the first time to measure the parameters of matter in the wire core and plasma corona of the load. X-ray images of various biological objects have obtained, including those with the use of the phase contrast method. This review is a logical continuation of the review "X-Pinch" [Plasma Phys. Rep. 41, 319, 493 (2015)], in which the X-pinch as a physical object was considered.

  6. Modeling marrow damage from response data: Morphallaxis from radiation biology to benzene toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consensus principles from radiation biology were used to describe a generic set of nonlinear, first-order differential equations for modeling of toxicity-induced compensatory cell kinetics in terms of sublethal injury, repair, direct killing, killing of cells with unrepaired sublethal injury, and repopulation. This cellular model was linked to a probit model of hematopoietic mortality that describes death from infection and/or hemorrhage between ∼ 5 and 30 days. Mortality data from 27 experiments with 851 doseresponse groups, in which doses were protracted by rate and/or fractionation, were used to simultaneously estimate all rate constants by maximum-likelihood methods. Data used represented 18,940 test animals distributed according to: (mice, 12,827); (rats, 2,925); (sheep, 1,676); (swine, 829); (dogs, 479); and (burros, 204). Although a long-term, repopulating hematopoietic stem cell is ancestral to all lineages needed to restore normal homeostasis, the dose-response data from the protracted irradiations indicate clearly that the particular lineage that is ''critical'' to hematopoietic recovery does not resemble stem-like cells with regard to radiosensitivity and repopulation rates. Instead, the weakest link in the chain of hematopoiesis was found to have an intrinsic radioresistance equal to or greater than stromal cells and to repopulate at the same rates. Model validation has been achieved by predicting the LD50 and/or fractional group mortality in 38 protracted-dose experiments (rats and mice) that were not used in the fitting of model coefficients

  7. WORKSHOP REPORT: MOLECULAR & CELLULAR BIOLOGY OF MODERATE DOSE (1-10 GY) RADIATION & POTENTIAL MECHANISMS OF RADIATION PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARYNormal tissue response and injury after exposure to ionizing radiation are of great importance to patients with cancer, populations potentially subjected to military, accidental or intentional exposure including bioterrorism, and workers in the nuclear po...

  8. Microbeam radiation therapy. Physical and biological aspects of a new cancer therapy and development of a treatment planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzsch, Stefan

    2014-11-05

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) is a novel treatment strategy against cancer. Highly brilliant synchrotron radiation is collimated to parallel, a few micrometre wide, planar beams and used to irradiate malignant tissues with high doses. The applied peak doses are considerably higher than in conventional radiotherapy, but valley doses between the beams remain underneath the established tissue tolerance. Previous research has shown that these beam geometries spare normal tissue, while being effective in tumour ablation. In this work physical and biological aspects of the therapy were investigated. A therapy planning system was developed for the first clinical treatments at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble (France) and a dosimetry method based on radiochromic films was created to validate planned doses with measurements on a micrometre scale. Finally, experiments were carried out on a cellular level in order to correlate the physically planned doses with the biological damage caused in the tissue. The differences between Monte Carlo dose and dosimetry are less than 10% in the valley and 5% in the peak regions. Developed alternative faster dose calculation methods deviate from the computational intensive MC simulations by less than 15% and are able to determine the dose within a few minutes. The experiments in cell biology revealed an significant influence of intercellular signalling on the survival of cells close to radiation boundaries. These observations may not only be important for MRT but also for conventional radiotherapy.

  9. Outcome of radiation biology in radiotherapy. Past and future directions; Applications cliniques des recherches en radiobiologie. Etat des lieux et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, C. [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Favaudon, V. [Centre Universitaire d' Orsay, Institut Curie, Section de Recherche, Lab. Raymond-Latarjet, Unite 350 Inserm, 91 (France)

    2000-10-01

    Over the last ten years the impact of fundamental radiation biology into daily radiotherapy has been of concern chiefly to fractionation, prediction of radiation response, tumour oxygenation, intrinsic radiosensitivity including genetic approaches, and the determinants of the outcome of chemoradiotherapy combinations. Future goals will rely on sophisticated approaches, based on the progress of molecular and cellular biology and the characterization of new targets for radiation. Some of these novel advances will be discussed. (authors)

  10. 5. Conference cycle. The radiations and the Biological Sciences; 5. Ciclo de conferencias. Las radiaciones y las Ciencias Biologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar G, M.; Chavez B, A

    1991-06-15

    Nuclear technologies and their development have influenced many aspects of modern life. Besides used for electricity production nuclear technologies are applied in many other fields, especially in biological sciences. In genetics and molecular biology they enable research resulting in increased food production and better food preservation. Usage in material sciences lead to new varieties of plastics or improved characteristics. Nuclear applications are used in pe troleum industries and in forecasting geothermic power. Radiobiology and radiotherapy enable diagnosis and therapy of several diseases, e.g. cancer. Nuclear technologies also contribute to preserve the environment. They offer methods to analyse as well as decrease the environmental impacts. The 5. conference cyle entitled 'The Radiations and the Biological Sciences' aims to inform students of biological sciences about new nuclear technologies applied in their field of interest.

  11. Backscatter radiation at tissue-titanium interfaces; Biological effects from diagnostic 65 kVp X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosengren, B. (Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University (Sweden) Dept. of Oncology, University Hospital, Bergen (Norway)); Wulff, L. (Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Central Hospital, Boden (Sweden)); Carlsson, E. (Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University (Sweden)); Carlsson, J. (Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University (Sweden)); Strid, K.G. (Dept. of Handicap Research, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)); Montelius, A. (Dept. of Hospital Physics, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    The induced secondary electrons from a metal surface by diagnostic X-rays are thought to contribute to cell damage near the tissue-metal boundaries of metal implants. Titanium implants are becoming increasingly more popular for tissue reconstructions and it is rather often desirable to take radiographs of the operated area. In this study we compared the biological effects of radiation on cultured mammalian test cells grown on titanium plates with the radiation effects on cells that were grown on plastic control plates. In order to study the acute radiation effects on cell growth it was necessary to work with rather high radiation doses (0.7-5 Gy). Photon energies, suitable for diagnostic radiography in odontology, 65 kV, were applied. We found that the cells grown on titanium plates were, in terms of the applied dose in the surrounding culture medium, more sensitive to the irradiations than the cells growing on plastic plates. The survival curve for the cells on titanium had a steeper slope, showed no shoulder in the low-dose region and looked like curves normally obtained for high LET radiation. It was not possible to resolve to what degree the titanium-dependent changes were due to an increased dose near the titanium surface or to a change in the radiobiological effectiveness. Although there was a significant decrease in cellular survival near the metal, postoperative intraoral radiography after titanium implantations need not be excluded. The maximal doses given in odontological X-ray examinations are less than 1 mGy and, if the results in this study are applied, the biological effects near the titanium implant will correspond to biological effects in soft tissue of doses less than 20 mGy which is lower than the doses that give acute effects. The risk of acute healing disturbances are significant only at much higher radiation doses. (orig.).

  12. Multi-mutational model for cancer based on age-time patterns of radiation effects: 2. Biological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.; Pierce, P.A.

    1997-09-04

    Biological properties of relevance when modeling cancers induced in the atom bomb survivors include the wide distribution of the induced cancers across all organs, their biological indistinguishability from background cancers, their rates being proportional to background cancer rates, their rates steadily increasing over at least 50 years as the survivors age, and their radiation dose response being linear. We have successfully described this array of properties with a modified Armitage-Doll model using 5 to 6 somatic mutations, no intermediate growth, and the dose-related replacement of any one of these time-driven mutations by a radiation-induced mutation. Such a model is contrasted to prevailing models that use fewer mutations combined with intervening growth. While the rationale and effectiveness of our model is compelling for carcinogenesis in the atom bomb survivors, the lack of a promotional component may limit the generality of the model for other types of human carcinogenesis.

  13. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  14. ITC18: 18th international Toki conference. Development of physics and technology of stellarators/heliotrons 'en route to DEMO'. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18th International Toki Conference (ITC18) was held in Toki (Japan) December 9-12 2008 organized by the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). More than 150 experts in fusion research, especially in stellarator/heliotron research from Australia, Belgium, China, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Korea, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America gathered at the conference. The International Organizing Committee (IOC) chaired by O. Motojima, the International Program Committee (IPC) chaired by Y. Ogawa and the Local Organizing Committee (LOC) chaired by T. Mutoh have played the leading role in the elaboration of the scientific program of the conference. NIFS has organized the ITC as an annual meeting for fusion related sciences since its establishment in 1989. The IPC arranged 2 plenary talks, 1 review talk, 34 invited talks in addition to 109 contributed presentations including 6 oral talks. Recent developments in the experimental, theoretical and technical research show the clear route to the realization of a stellarator/heliotron type demo fusion reactor. ITC18 was devoted to review the recent developments and to discuss the next steps forward to the demo reactor realization of stellarator/heliotron type. In the conference, recent experimental results from both tokamak and stellarator/heliotron devices are reviewed and the experimental and theoretical physics of plasma confinement in toroidal devices are also discussed and confirmed that the physical base of the fusion reactor is well developed. The development of steady state operation, heating, fueling, divertors, plasma wall interaction and wall materials, advanced diagnostics for reactor relevant plasma, blanket materials as well as super conducting magnets are discussed as inevitable key physics and technologies for the DEMO reactor. Slides of all oral presentations as well as the proceedings are available at http://itc.nifs.ac.jp/. Extended papers of major

  15. Overview of research in radiation biology and protective measures in the Manhattan Project during the war years, 1942-1946

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objecitve was to present a cohesive view of the general biological research program associated with the Manhattan Project. The material is arrangd in chronological order. Each of the major research sites is identified and the general nature of their research program indicated. A section is devoted to the question of the various radiation limits which were used in the operational approach to hazard controls

  16. Mathematical model of biological order state or syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine: based on electromagnetic radiation within the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinxiang; Huang, Jinzhao

    2012-03-01

    In this study, based on the resonator model and exciplex model of electromagnetic radiation within the human body, mathematical model of biological order state, also referred to as syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine, was established and expressed as: "Sy = v/ 1n(6I + 1)". This model provides the theoretical foundation for experimental research addressing the order state of living system, especially the quantitative research syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine.

  17. [The present state of atomic bomb survivors, with special reference to biological late-effects of radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Nanao

    2004-03-01

    Atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. Within a few months, the bomb blast, heat and radiation emitted by the atomic explosions led to approximately 114,000 fatalities in Hiroshima and about 70,000 in Nagasaki. The radiation in particular continued to exert effects on the human body over a long period of time, resulting in the development of tumors and functional abnormalities in various organs. This paper briefly outlines the diseases caused by radiation as well as the biological late-effects on the survivors without any specific diseases, and stresses the necessity of our enthusiastic opposition to the use of any kind of nuclear weapons. PMID:15137319

  18. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  19. The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts El artículo en las relativas oblicuas [prep. + (art. definido + que] en textos americanos del siglo XVIII = The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha GUZMÁN RIVERÓN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the article in sentences like la casa en (la que vivo, among other variations, is today less frequently used in Hispanoamerica. Although we know that this structure, documented as early as the 13th century, became more wide-spread in the 18th century, little is known about its evolution at the time in American sources. I study the evolution of this phenomenon, basing myself exclusively on 18th century American texts. I also explore which factors are apparently related to this linguistic development and if the pace of its spread was determined by the preceding prepositions. Aiming at a panoramic view of the spread of the article in the period in question, I also trace the appearance of these relative clauses, with and without article, in the texts collected in the CORDE, and provide detailed analyses of texts from both halves of the century, in order to evaluate the factors that may have influenced this change.El uso del artículo en estructuras como la casa en (la que vivo presenta hoy en día, entre otras variaciones, una frecuencia de uso menor en Hispanoamérica que en España. Aunque sabemos que este uso, documentado desde el siglo XIII, comienza realmente a extenderse justo en el XVIII, poco conocemos de su evolución en la época en fuentes americanas. En este trabajo, basándonos exclusivamente en textos americanos del XVIII, perseguimos investigar cómo evoluciona este fenómeno en documentación de esta procedencia. También intentaremos explorar qué factores están aparentemente en relación con este cambio e investigar si, en diferentes preposiciones, diverge el ritmo de difusión de su uso. Con vistas a obtener una idea general sobre la extensión del artículo en la época, rastrearemos las apariciones de dichas relativas —con y sin artículo— en los textos americanos recogidos en el CORDE. Para evaluar los factores que pueden incidir en él estudiaremos en detalle determinados textos de ambas mitades del siglo.

  20. Cancer and non-cancer risk at low doses of radiation: biological basis of radiation-environment interplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer and non-cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined due to ambiguity at low doses caused by limitations in statistical power and information available on interplay with environment. To deal with these problems, a novel non-parametric statistics was developed based on artificial neural networks theorem and applied to cancer and non-cancer risk in A-bomb survivors. The analysis revealed several unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal radiation dose alone. They include (1) threshold that varies with organ, gender and age, including cardiovascular diseases, (2) prevalence of infectious diseases, and (3) suppression of pathogenesis of HTLV1. The threshold is unique as it is manifested as negative excess relative risk, a reduction of spontaneous rate at low doses. The response is consistent with currently emerging laboratory data on DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway choice and its sustainability as epigenetic memory in accordance with histone code theory. In response to DSB, of radiation or DNA replication arrest origin, distinct and competitively operating repair pathways are instigated. Activation by low doses of restitution-directed canonical non-homologous end-joining (C-NHEJ) suppresses both error-prone alternative end-joining (Alt-NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). The latter two present major pathways to mutagenesis at stalled replication folk associated with endogenous and exogenous genotoxin such as tobacco smoke metabolites and AID-associated somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in Ig gene. Suppression of these error-prone pathways by low doses of low LET radiation is consistent with the reduction of cancer occurrence by environmental genotoxin, immunodiversity and stable integration of retrovirus DNA, providing a significant modulator of dose linearity at low doses. Whole picture may bring about a new landscape of cancer and non-cancer molecular epidemiology which

  1. Comments on the theory of radiation risk II Experiments in biology and the assessment of radiation risk

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, J

    1974-01-01

    For pt. I see ibid., vol. 26, no.3, 229-37 (March 1974). An experimental program and a computational program are outlined for obtaining a relationship between transfer, L. Q and linear energy using biological data for critical effects and sets of linear equations can be obtained in which the coefficients are the doses delivered in intervals of L, and the unknowns are 'biological weighting factors', lambda . From these equations one can derive lambda 's for various L's as they relate to critical effects in animals. Using value judgment and combining the calculated results with data observed on men, one can obtain a Q-L relationship which is more directly based on experimental evidence than that which is currently used. (36 refs).

  2. Quantification of ultraviolet photon emission from interaction of charged particles in materials of interest in radiation biology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Syed Bilal, E-mail: ahmadsb@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan); McNeill, Fiona E., E-mail: fmcneill@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Prestwich, William V., E-mail: prestwic@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Byun, Soo Hyun, E-mail: soohyun@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Seymour, Colin, E-mail: seymouc@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Mothersill, Carmel E., E-mail: mothers@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    In radiation biology experiments often cells are irradiated using charged particles with the intention that only a specified number of cells are hit by the primary ion track. However, in doing so several other materials such as the cell container and the growth media etc. are also irradiated, and UV radiation emitted from these materials can potentially interact with the cells. We have hypothesized that some “bystander effects” that are thought to be chemically mediated, may be, in fact, a physical effect, where UV is interacting with non-targeted cells. Based upon our hypothesis we quantified the emission of UV from Polypropylene, Mylar, Teflon, and Cellophane which are all commonly used materials in radiation biology experiments. Additionally we measured the NIST standard materials of Oyster tissue and Citrus leaves as these powdered materials are derived from living cells. Protons accelerated up to an energy of 2.2 MeV, in a 3 MV Van de Graff accelerator, were used for irradiation. Beam current was kept to 10 nA, which corresponds to a proton fluence rate of 2.7 × 10{sup 10} protons mm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. All the materials were found to emit light at UV frequencies and intensities that were significant enough to conduct a further investigation for their biological consequences. Mylar and polypropylene are commonly used in radiation induced bystander effect studies and are considered to be non-fluorescent. However our study showed that this is not the case. Significant luminescence observed from the irradiated NIST standard reference materials for Oyster tissue and Citrus leaves verified that the luminescence emission is not restricted only to the polymeric materials that are used to contain cells. It can also occur from ion interactions within the cells as well.

  3. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure in Portuguese airline pilots: study of a possible correlation with oxidative biological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodrigo; Folgosa, Filipe; Soares, Paulo; Pereira, Alice S; Garcia, Raquel; Gestal-Otero, Juan Jesus; Tavares, Pedro; Gomes da Silva, Marco D R

    2013-05-01

    Several studies have sought to understand the health effects of occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. However, only few biologic markers or associations with disease outcomes have so far been identified. In the present study, 22 long- and 26 medium-haul male Portuguese airline pilots and 36 factory workers who did not fly regularly were investigated. The two groups were comparable in age and diet, were non-smokers, never treated with ionizing radiation and other factors. Cosmic radiation exposure in pilots was quantified based on direct monitoring of 51 flights within Europe, and from Europe to North and South America, and to Africa. Indirect dose estimates in pilots were performed based on the SIEVERT (Système informatisé d'évaluation par vol de l'exposition au rayonnement cosmique dans les transports aériens) software for 6,039 medium- and 1,366 long-haul flights. Medium-haul pilots had a higher cosmic radiation dose rate than long-haul pilots, that is, 3.3 ± 0.2 μSv/h and 2.7 ± 0.3 μSv/h, respectively. Biological tests for oxidative stress on blood and urine, as appropriate, at two time periods separated by 1 year, included measurements of antioxidant capacity, total protein, ferritin, hemoglobin, creatinine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). Principal components analysis was used to discriminate between the exposed and unexposed groups based on all the biological tests. According to this analysis, creatinine and 8OHdG levels were different for the pilots and the unexposed group, but no distinctions could be made among the medium- and the long-haul pilots. While hemoglobin levels seem to be comparable between the studied groups, they were directly correlated with ferritin values, which were lower for the airline pilots.

  4. Evaluation of DNA dosimetry to assess ozone-mediated variability of biologically harmful radiation in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, AL; Peat, HJ; Buma, AGJ

    2002-01-01

    In this study we investigated the use of a DNA dosimeter to accurately measure changes in ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR; 280-315 nm) under Antarctic ozone hole conditions. Naked DNA solution in quartz tubes was exposed to ambient solar radiation at Rothera Research Station, Antarctica, between Octob

  5. Metformin: A Novel Biological Modifier of Tumor Response to Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritzinsky, Marianne, E-mail: mkoritzi@uhnresearch.ca

    2015-10-01

    Over the last decade, evidence has emerged to support a role for the antidiabetic drug metformin in the prevention and treatment of cancer. In particular, recent studies demonstrate that metformin enhances tumor response to radiation in experimental models, and retrospective analyses have shown that diabetic cancer patients treated with radiation therapy have improved outcomes if they take metformin to control their diabetes. Metformin may therefore be of utility for nondiabetic cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. The purpose of this review is to examine the data pertaining to an interaction between metformin and radiation, highlighting the essential steps needed to advance our current knowledge. There is also a focus on key biomarkers that should accompany prospective clinical trials in which metformin is being examined as a modifying agent with radiation therapy. Existing evidence supports that the mechanism underlying the ability of metformin to enhance radiation response is multifaceted, and includes direct radiosensitization as well as a reduction in tumor stem cell fraction, proliferation, and tumor hypoxia. Interestingly, metformin may enhance radiation response specifically in certain genetic backgrounds, such as in cells with loss of the tumor suppressors p53 and LKB1, giving rise to a therapeutic ratio and potential predictive biomarkers.

  6. Paradigm Shift in Radiation Biology/Radiation Oncology—Exploitation of the “H2O2 Effect” for Radiotherapy Using Low-LET (Linear Energy Transfer Radiation such as X-rays and High-Energy Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ogawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most radiation biologists/radiation oncologists have long accepted the concept that the biologic effects of radiation principally involve damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, which is the critical target, as described in “Radiobiology for the Radiologist”, by E.J. Hall and A.J. Giaccia [1]. Although the concepts of direct and indirect effects of radiation are fully applicable to low-LET (linear energy transfer radioresistant tumor cells/normal tissues such as osteosarcoma cells and chondrocytes, it is believed that radiation-associated damage to DNA does not play a major role in the mechanism of cell death in low-LET radiosensitive tumors/normal tissues such as malignant lymphoma cells and lymphocytes. Hall and Giaccia describe lymphocytes as very radiosensitive, based largely on apoptosis subsequent to irradiation. As described in this review, apoptosis of lymphocytes and lymphoma cells is actually induced by the “hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 effect”, which I propose in this review article for the first time. The mechanism of lymphocyte death via the H2O2 effect represents an ideal model to develop the enhancement method of radiosensitivity for radiation therapy of malignant neoplasms. In terms of imitating the high radiosensitivity of lymphocytes, osteosarcoma cells (representative of low-LET radioresistant cells might be the ideal model for indicating the conversion of cells from radioresistant to radiosensitive utilizing the H2O2 effect. External beam radiation such as X-rays and high-energy electrons for use in modern radiotherapy are generally produced using a linear accelerator. We theorized that when tumors are irradiated in the presence of H2O2, the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes such as peroxidases and catalase are blocked and oxygen molecules are produced at the same time via the H2O2 effect, resulting in oxidative damage to low-LET radioresistant tumor cells, thereby rendering them highly sensitive to irradiation. In this

  7. Paradigm Shift in Radiation Biology/Radiation Oncology-Exploitation of the "H₂O₂ Effect" for Radiotherapy Using Low-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) Radiation such as X-rays and High-Energy Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Most radiation biologists/radiation oncologists have long accepted the concept that the biologic effects of radiation principally involve damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is the critical target, as described in "Radiobiology for the Radiologist", by E.J. Hall and A.J. Giaccia [1]. Although the concepts of direct and indirect effects of radiation are fully applicable to low-LET (linear energy transfer) radioresistant tumor cells/normal tissues such as osteosarcoma cells and chondrocytes, it is believed that radiation-associated damage to DNA does not play a major role in the mechanism of cell death in low-LET radiosensitive tumors/normal tissues such as malignant lymphoma cells and lymphocytes. Hall and Giaccia describe lymphocytes as very radiosensitive, based largely on apoptosis subsequent to irradiation. As described in this review, apoptosis of lymphocytes and lymphoma cells is actually induced by the "hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) effect", which I propose in this review article for the first time. The mechanism of lymphocyte death via the H₂O₂ effect represents an ideal model to develop the enhancement method of radiosensitivity for radiation therapy of malignant neoplasms. In terms of imitating the high radiosensitivity of lymphocytes, osteosarcoma cells (representative of low-LET radioresistant cells) might be the ideal model for indicating the conversion of cells from radioresistant to radiosensitive utilizing the H₂O₂ effect. External beam radiation such as X-rays and high-energy electrons for use in modern radiotherapy are generally produced using a linear accelerator. We theorized that when tumors are irradiated in the presence of H₂O₂, the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes such as peroxidases and catalase are blocked and oxygen molecules are produced at the same time via the H₂O₂ effect, resulting in oxidative damage to low-LET radioresistant tumor cells, thereby rendering them highly sensitive to irradiation. In this

  8. Paradigm Shift in Radiation Biology/Radiation Oncology—Exploitation of the “H2O2 Effect” for Radiotherapy Using Low-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) Radiation such as X-rays and High-Energy Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Most radiation biologists/radiation oncologists have long accepted the concept that the biologic effects of radiation principally involve damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is the critical target, as described in “Radiobiology for the Radiologist”, by E.J. Hall and A.J. Giaccia [1]. Although the concepts of direct and indirect effects of radiation are fully applicable to low-LET (linear energy transfer) radioresistant tumor cells/normal tissues such as osteosarcoma cells and chondrocytes, it is believed that radiation-associated damage to DNA does not play a major role in the mechanism of cell death in low-LET radiosensitive tumors/normal tissues such as malignant lymphoma cells and lymphocytes. Hall and Giaccia describe lymphocytes as very radiosensitive, based largely on apoptosis subsequent to irradiation. As described in this review, apoptosis of lymphocytes and lymphoma cells is actually induced by the “hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) effect”, which I propose in this review article for the first time. The mechanism of lymphocyte death via the H2O2 effect represents an ideal model to develop the enhancement method of radiosensitivity for radiation therapy of malignant neoplasms. In terms of imitating the high radiosensitivity of lymphocytes, osteosarcoma cells (representative of low-LET radioresistant cells) might be the ideal model for indicating the conversion of cells from radioresistant to radiosensitive utilizing the H2O2 effect. External beam radiation such as X-rays and high-energy electrons for use in modern radiotherapy are generally produced using a linear accelerator. We theorized that when tumors are irradiated in the presence of H2O2, the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes such as peroxidases and catalase are blocked and oxygen molecules are produced at the same time via the H2O2 effect, resulting in oxidative damage to low-LET radioresistant tumor cells, thereby rendering them highly sensitive to irradiation. In this review, this

  9. Comparative study on biological effects of gamma-radiation and volatile organic compound with the plant bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research examined the presence of hazardous materials in chemical workplace field by means of an integrated biological monitoring. The pollen mother cells (PMC) of Tradescantia are very sensitive to chemical toxicants or ionizing radiation, and thus can be used as a biological end- point as sessing their effect. A parallel series of experiment using five increasing doses of gamma- ray at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 cGy was conducted. The MCN frequencies showed a good dose-response relationship in the range of radiation applied and yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.95. On the other hand, the MCN frequency resulted in a good response to exposure time in the workplace field. In case of in situ monitoring with the Tradescantia micronucleus assay, the frequencies were 6.2± 0.5, 8.2±1.0, and 15.7± 0.8 MCN/ 100 tetrads for 2, 6, and 9 hours exposure, respectively. Inhalation of the workplace air by workers may result in chronic damage to their health as proven by micronucleus formations in Tradescantia pollen mother cells. The combination of chemical/ biological monitoring is very effective to evaluate hazardous materials in workplace field and can be alternatively used for screening hazardous materials

  10. The use of apoptosis in human lymphocytes peripheral as alternative methods in biological dosimetry of radiation effects from cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma rays affect cells in dose-response manner, resulting in cell death, as in cancer radiotherapy. The ionizing radiation acts by transferring energy, mainly by free radicals from water radiolysis that result in nucleic acid damage and other effects in lipids and proteins, The level of exposure is indirectly estimated by physical dosimetry, but the biological dosimetry can measure the direct radiation effect, mainly in post-dividing cells by classical cytogenetic approach. Recently, it was reported that irradiated cells develop an induced programmed death or apoptosis. With a biological dosimetric technique, we measured apoptotic cell fraction in 60Co in vitro irradiated blood cells from voluntary healthy donors. The agarose gel electrophoresis showed a low sensitivity, because cell DNA presented the characteristic pattern only when the cells were exposed to 100 c Gy or more. Using a terminal DNA labeling technique we observed that the apoptotic cell fraction proportionally increases with irradiation. Similar sensitivity was observed when compared to classical cytogenetics (3 c Gy minimum detection level). These techniques are easier to perform, do not need cell culture and all cells, including interphase ones, can be analyzed, providing a good tool in biological dosimetry. (author)

  11. Biological effects of low doses of radiation at low dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report was to examine available scientific data and models relevant to the hypothesis that induction of genetic changes and cancers by low doses of ionizing radiation at low dose rate is a stochastic process with no threshold or apparent threshold. Assessment of the effects of higher doses of radiation is based on a wealth of data from both humans and other organisms. 234 refs., 26 figs., 14 tabs

  12. Ground-level ozone following astrophysical ionizing radiation events: an additional biological hazard?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Brian C.; Goracke, Byron D.

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to-date is the potential impact of ozon...

  13. Are biological effects of space radiation really altered under the microgravity environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, Fumio; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2014-10-01

    Two major factors of space environment are space radiation and microgravity. It is generally considered that a high level of ionizing radiation (IR) in space has an influence on living organisms including humans; therefore, the possible alteration of space-radiation influences by the microgravity environment is of great concern. In fact, examination of such a possibility has been extensively conducted since the early days of space experiments, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity in some experiments but a negative observation in others. Because these complicated results remain not well understood, we propose a solution to this problem. Gene expression analysis is one of the solutions to the problem. In fact, gene expression may be changed by microgravity, and further modification may be possible through IR. This result could reveal an interactive effect of both factors on the cellular responses, which could in turn reveal whether the human-health abnormalities expected under the microgravity environment can be altered by space radiation. We believe that this is a new aspect in the study of the interactive effect of radiation and microgravity. However, further improvements in space experimental technologies are required for future studies.

  14. Radiation biology and inherited sterility in false codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    False codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick), male and female mature pupae and newly emerged adults were treated with increasing doses of gamma radiation, and the moths were either inbred or out-crossed with fertile counterparts. For newly emerged adults, there was no significant relationship between dose of radiation and insect fecundity when untreated females were mated to treated males. However, fecundity of treated females mated to either untreated or treated males declined as the dose of radiation increased. A similar trend was observed when mature pupae were treated. The dose at which 100% sterility was achieved in treated females mated to untreated males for both adults and pupae was 200 Gy, while fertility in crosses involving treated males declined linearly with increasing doses of radiation. In newly emerged adults, 350 Gy treated males had a residual fertility of 5.2% when mated to untreated females while in pupal experiments the residual fertility in 350 Gy treated males was 3.3%. Inherited effects resulting from irradiation of parental (P1) males with selected doses of radiation were recorded for the F1 generation. Decreased F1 fecundity and fertility increased F1 mortality during development, and a significant shift in the F1 sex ratio in favour of males was observed when increasing doses of radiation were applied to the P1 males

  15. Prostate radiation in non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer provides an interesting insight into biology of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe Abigail C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer is unknown and treatment options are limited. We present a retrospective review of 13 patients with locally advanced or high risk prostate cancer, initially treated with hormone monotherapy and then treated with prostate radiation after becoming castration refractory. Findings Median PSA response following prostate radiation was 67.4%. Median time to biochemical progression following radiotherapy was 15 months and to detection of metastatic disease was 18.5 months. Median survival from castration resistance (to date of death or November 2011 was 60 months, with median survival from RT 42 months. Conclusion Prostate radiation appears to be beneficial even in patients with potential micrometastatic disease, which supports the hypothesis that the primary tumour is important in the progression of prostate cancer. These results are an interesting addition to the literature on the biology of prostate cancer especially as this data is unlikely to be available in the future due to combined prostate radiation and androgen deprivation therapy now being the standard of care.

  16. Determination of biological specimen optimal thickness for small-angle X-ray experiments by use polychromatic synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is put forward the mode of evaluation of biological specimen optimal thickness for small-angle specimen thickness on various synchrotron radiation spectra are calculated. The curves allow to optimize an experiment by selecting either optimal specimen thickness for an available synchrotron radiation spectrum, or the disposition of the short-wave boundary for given specimen thickness (fibers, tissues and so on). The method gives the possibility apart from increasing both of the precision and reproducibility of X-ray experiments, either or both increase of the statistical precision upon given recording time of an X-ray pattern and decrease recording time upon retention of the same statistical precision. The 15-20 % deviation in the specimen thickness from that of optimal one is shown to lead to decrease in the scattering intensity less than 2 %. 15 refs.; 3 figs

  17. Review of low dose-rate epidemiological studies and biological mechanisms of dose-rate effects on radiation induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection system adopts the linear non-threshold model with using dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF). The dose-rate range where DDREF is applied is below 100 mGy per hour, and it is regarded that there are no dose-rate effects at very low dose rate, less than of the order of 10 mGy per year, even from the biological risk evaluation model based on cellular and molecular level mechanisms for maintenance of genetic integrity. Among low dose-rate epidemiological studies, studies of residents in high natural background areas showed no increase of cancer risks at less than about 10 mGy per year. On the other hand, some studies include a study of the Techa River cohort suggested the increase of cancer risks to the similar degree of Atomic bomb survivor data. The difference of those results was supposed due to the difference of dose rate. In 2014, International Commission on Radiological Protection opened a draft report on stem cell biology for public consultations. The report proposed a hypothesis based on the new idea of stem cell competition as a tissue level quality control mechanism, and suggested that it could explain the dose-rate effects around a few milligray per year. To verify this hypothesis, it would be needed to clarify the existence and the lowest dose of radiation-induced stem cell competition, and to elucidate the rate of stem cell turnover and radiation effects on it. As for the turnover, replenishment of damaged stem cells would be the important biological process. It would be meaningful to collect the information to show the difference of dose rates where the competition and the replenishment would be the predominant processes. (author)

  18. Optimal schedules of fractionated radiation therapy by way of the greedy principle: biologically-based adaptive boosting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We revisit a long-standing problem of optimization of fractionated radiotherapy and solve it in considerable generality under the following three assumptions only: (1) repopulation of clonogenic cancer cells between radiation exposures follows linear birth-and-death Markov process; (2) clonogenic cancer cells do not interact with each other; and (3) the dose response function s(D) is decreasing and logarithmically concave. Optimal schedules of fractionated radiation identified in this work can be described by the following ‘greedy’ principle: give the maximum possible dose as soon as possible. This means that upper bounds on the total dose and the dose per fraction reflecting limitations on the damage to normal tissue, along with a lower bound on the time between successive fractions of radiation, determine the optimal radiation schedules completely. Results of this work lead to a new paradigm of dose delivery which we term optimal biologically-based adaptive boosting (OBBAB). It amounts to (a) subdividing the target into regions that are homogeneous with respect to the maximum total dose and maximum dose per fraction allowed by the anatomy and biological properties of the normal tissue within (or adjacent to) the region in question and (b) treating each region with an individual optimal schedule determined by these constraints. The fact that different regions may be treated to different total dose and dose per fraction mean that the number of fractions may also vary between regions. Numerical evidence suggests that OBBAB produces significantly larger tumor control probability than the corresponding conventional treatments. (paper)

  19. Radiation-induced cardiac damage in early left breast cancer patients: Risk factors, biological mechanisms, radiobiology, and dosimetric constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today there is general awareness of the potential damage to the heart in left-sided (more than in right-sided) breast cancer radiotherapy (RT). Historical changes in tumor and heart doses are presented here along with the impact of different RT techniques and volumes. Individual and pharmacological risk factors are also examined with respect to radiation damage. The biological mechanisms of harm are only partially understood, such as the radiobiology of heart damage due to the presence of various radiosensitive structures and their topographic heterogeneity. Furthermore, individual variability may expose patients to higher or lower risks of late cardiac damage or death. Damage mechanisms and radiobiological characteristics in heart irradiation are presented in relation to dosimetric and biological parameters.

  20. [Ecological and biological characteristics of Drosophila melanogaster features depending on the dose of electromagnetic radiation of various types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkina, V V; Chernova, G V; Allenova, E A; Endebera, O P; Naumkina, E N

    2013-01-01

    Biological effects of exposure to red light (lambda = 660 +/- 10 nm) on the viability and morphophysiological characteristics of Drosophila melanogaster have been studied. The ability of this physical agent to modify these features is shown. The degree of expression and impact of biological effects depend on the dose, functional and genetic status of the organism. The study of the life expectancy of the exposed to EHF and white light D. melanogaster has revealed that expression of the features depends on the radiation doses, genotype, sex, the nature of the position of wings and lighting conditions. It has been found that the dark mode (24 h-night) is more favorable than the artificial lighting. Individuals with the left wing at the top are more sensitive to the external factors.

  1. Radiobiological impact of dose calculation algorithms on biologically optimized IMRT lung stereotactic body radiation therapy plans

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, X.; Penagaricano, J.; Zheng, D.; Morrill, S.; Zhang, X; Corry, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Han, E. Y.; Hardee, M.; Ratanatharathom, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the radiobiological impact of Acuros XB (AXB) vs. Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA) dose calculation algorithms in combined dose-volume and biological optimized IMRT plans of SBRT treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods Twenty eight patients with NSCLC previously treated SBRT were re-planned using Varian Eclipse (V11) with combined dose-volume and biological optimization IMRT sliding window technique. The total dos...

  2. Eesti autobiograafilise kirjutuse kujunemisest 18. sajandist Teise maailmasõjani. The Development of Estonian Autobiographical Writing from the 18th Century to the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutt Hinrikus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the development of Estonian autobiographical writing from its first manifestations to published memoirs, and the development of life writing and its diversification. The beginnings of life writing can be traced back to Estonian folk song and Estonian incidental poetry. The Moravian Brethren movement in Estonia in the 18th century promoted the spread of canonical autobiography. The Moravian Brethren offered alternative opportunities for self-realisation for Estonians who were serfs, and were therefore popular with the people. The practice of the Moravian Brethren made use of retelling and writing about the life of the congregation members, which sometimes became suitable biographies in print, especially stories of awakening. Several manuscript biographies have survived from the Brethren times, such as the biographies of Mäletu Jaan and Mihkel Sarapuu. In addition to the history of the Moravian Brethren movement, these biographies give information about the educational situation and living conditions of the people of the time. The Estonian life writing tradition emerged within the reigning Baltic German cultural space thanks to the Estophiles among the Baltic Germans (J. H. Rosenplänter and the first Estonian men of letters; from the early 19th century we have the diary by Rosenplänter, an estophile pastor from Pärnu, and the diary by the Estonian poet, the then-student Kristjan Jaak Peterson, both in the Estonian language. Johann Voldemar Jannsen, the founder of Estonian-language journalism, kept a diary in the German language for a longer period of time; it was usual that the first Estonian intellectuals (Lilli Suburg, and others in the late 19th century wrote in German. Admittedly, the first Estonian-language life history was written by a forward-looking 19th century peasant named Märt Mitt (1833-1912, who was conscious of himself as a historical subject and gave his memoirs, begun in the 1880s, a memorable title

  3. Evaluation of the protective and curative role of curcumin and venoruton against biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) and venoruton [O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides] are powerful antioxidants and are important in protecting the cells from damage. The present study aims to evaluate the role of curcumin alone and curcumin with venoruton on radiation-induced changes in male rats exposed to a dose of 5 Gy gamma irradiation. Experimental analyses were performed 1, 7 and 14 days post-irradiation in all animal groups. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in decrease in glutathione content and SOD, G6PD and CPK activities and increase in lactate dehydrogenase and GOT activities and creatinine level. The results obtained showed that treatment of rats with olive oil pre and post-irradiation has significantly minimized radiation-induced changes. Curcumin dissolved in olive oil pre and post-irradiation significantly improved the radiation-induced changes while administration of venoruton with curcumin in olive oil provided a better amelioration. It could be concluded that, curcumin in olive oil plus venoruton showed an obvious protective and curative role against the hazards of gamma radiation in male rats

  4. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  5. Biological indicators of radiation exposure - serum amylase increase following irradiation of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an isoenzyme test is described which enables the proteins of pancreas to be differentiated from those of the salivary glands. This isoenzyme test, in combination with an antibody lipase test which inturn is sensitive to the pancreatic enzyme triacylglycerinlipase, has been used to examine a total of the 42 patients under radiation therapy. 25 of these patients had been subjected to partial body exposure of the head region and 17 to whole body exposure. The results show that the amount of activity increase depends upon the dose to the salivary glands and that almost exclusively the isoenzymes of these organs are responsible for the radiation-induced activity increase in the serum. The isoenzyme test proved to be a good approach in cases where pathogenic variations in the serum α-amylase activity concerning primarily the pancreatic glands had to be differentiated from radiation-induced variations. (orig./MG)

  6. Biological indicators of radiation exposure - increase of blood serum amylase following irradiation of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an isoenzyme test is described which enables the proteins of pancreas to be differentiated from those of the salivary glands. This isoenzyme test, in combination with an antibody lipase test which in turn is sensitive to the pancreatic enzyme triacylglycerinlipase, has been used to examine a total of the 42 patients under radiation therapy. 25 of these patients had been subjected to partial body exposure of the head region and 17 to whole body exposure. The results show that the amount of activity increase depends upon the dose to the salivary glands and that almost exclusively the isoenzymes of these organs are responsible for the radiation-induced activity increase in the serum. The isoenzyme test proved to be a good approach in cases where pathogenic variations in the serum α-amylase activity concerning primarily the pancreatic glands had to be differentiated from radiation-induced variations. (orig./MG)

  7. Effect of column ozone on the variability of biologically effective UV radiation at high southern latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, I

    2000-12-01

    Solar irradiance measurements from Ushuaia (Argentina) and Palmer and McMurdo Stations in Antarctica covering four seasons from mid-1993 through early 1997 have been analyzed and their variations compared with column ozone changes. UV irradiances were weighted for biological effectiveness using a published biological weighting function for dose-dependent inhibition of photosynthesis by phytoplankton from the Weddell Sea. All calculations involved integrated daily UV doses and visible exposures (weighted UV and unweighted visible irradiances, respectively). The results show that daily biologically effective total UV doses underwent large short-term variations at all three sites, with day-to-day increases up to 236% at Ushuaia, 285% at Palmer and 99% at McMurdo. Parallel changes in visible exposure indicated that the total UV changes were preponderantly due to variations in cloudiness. On a 12-month basis, daily biologically effective UV doses correlated strongly with visible exposures (R > or = 0.99). Anticorrelations of total UV with ozone, on the other hand, were poor (R > -0.11). The largest daily biologically effective UV doses, and their day-to-day increases, occurred as part of the normal variability related to cloud cover and were seldom associated with significant ozone depletion. UV dose/visible exposure ratios tended to reflect ozone depletion events somewhat more consistently than UV doses alone. With the Weddell Sea phytoplankton weighting function used in this study, antarctic ozone hole events were seldom readily discernible in the biologically effective UV record. The results suggest that, where the UV sensitivity of organisms was similar to that of the Weddell Sea phytoplankton, seasonal ozone depletion had no appreciable effect on annual primary productivity during the 1993-1997 period. Additional data on the geographical and seasonal variation of biological weighting functions are desirable for more comprehensive assessments of ozone depletion

  8. Evaluation of NF-kappaB Pathway Inhibition for Space Radiation Biology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kristina; Hellweg, Christine; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Schmitz, Claudia; Lau, Patrick; Testard, Isabelle; Reitz, Guenther

    Radiation is a potentially limiting factor for long term orbital and interplanetary missions. To improve risk estimation and to allow development of appropriate countermeasures, the study of the cellular radiation response is necessary. The anti-apoptotic factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) was identified as important modulating factor in the cellular response to heavy ions (Radiat. Res. 164: 527-530, 2005). This transcription factor could improve cellular survival after exposure to high radiation doses and influence the cancer risk of astronauts exposed to low doses of cosmic radiation. Therefore, the inhibition of selected NF-κB pathway compo-nents might help to identify possible pharmacological targets. It is supposed that the ATM kinase mediates the signal from damaged DNA in the nucleus to kinases in the cytoplasm. For liberation of NF-κB and its nuclear translocation, the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) has to be degraded in the proteasom. In this work, the efficacy and cytotoxicity of ATM, NF-κB and the proteasome inhibitors were analyzed using recombinant HEK-pNF-κB-d2EGFP/Neo cells. In the recommended concentration range, only the NF-κB inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) displayed considerable cytotoxicity, while the others were not toxic. The inhibition of ATM by KU-55933 suppresses the X-ray and heavy ion (13 C, 35 MeV/u, LET 70 keV/m) induced activation of NF-κB dependent gene expression, indicating the central position of ATM in radiation induced NF-κB activation. CAPE and capsaicin partially inhibited NF-κB acti-vation by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor α. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 completely abolished the activation and was therefore used for short-term incubation experiments with X-rays. MG-132 suppressed the X-ray induced NF-κB activation in HEK-pNF-κB-d2EGFP/Neo cells entirely. The results lead to the conclusion that ATM and the proteasomal degradation of IκB are essential prerequisites for radiation induced NF

  9. DNA double-strand breaks as potential indicators for the biological effects of ionising radiation exposure from cardiac CT and conventional coronary angiography: a randomised, controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisel, Dominik; Zimmermann, Elke; Rief, Matthias; Greupner, Johannes; Hamm, Bernd [Charite Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Laule, Michael; Knebel, Fabian [Charite Medical School, Department of Cardiology, Berlin (Germany); Dewey, Marc [Charite Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite, Institut fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To prospectively compare induced DNA double-strand breaks by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and conventional coronary angiography (CCA). 56 patients with suspected coronary artery disease were randomised to undergo either CCA or cardiac CT. DNA double-strand breaks were assessed in fluorescence microscopy of blood lymphocytes as indicators of the biological effects of radiation exposure. Radiation doses were estimated using dose-length product (DLP) and dose-area product (DAP) with conversion factors for CT and CCA, respectively. On average there were 0.12 {+-} 0.06 induced double-strand breaks per lymphocyte for CT and 0.29 {+-} 0.18 for diagnostic CCA (P < 0.001). This relative biological effect of ionising radiation from CCA was 1.9 times higher (P < 0.001) than the effective dose estimated by conversion factors would have suggested. The correlation between the biological effects and the estimated radiation doses was excellent for CT (r = 0.951, P < 0.001) and moderate to good for CCA (r = 0.862, P < 0.001). One day after radiation, a complete repair of double-strand breaks to background levels was found in both groups. Conversion factors may underestimate the relative biological effects of ionising radiation from CCA. DNA double-strand break assessment may provide a strategy for individualised assessments of radiation. (orig.)

  10. DNA double-strand breaks as potential indicators for the biological effects of ionising radiation exposure from cardiac CT and conventional coronary angiography: a randomised, controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prospectively compare induced DNA double-strand breaks by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and conventional coronary angiography (CCA). 56 patients with suspected coronary artery disease were randomised to undergo either CCA or cardiac CT. DNA double-strand breaks were assessed in fluorescence microscopy of blood lymphocytes as indicators of the biological effects of radiation exposure. Radiation doses were estimated using dose-length product (DLP) and dose-area product (DAP) with conversion factors for CT and CCA, respectively. On average there were 0.12 ± 0.06 induced double-strand breaks per lymphocyte for CT and 0.29 ± 0.18 for diagnostic CCA (P < 0.001). This relative biological effect of ionising radiation from CCA was 1.9 times higher (P < 0.001) than the effective dose estimated by conversion factors would have suggested. The correlation between the biological effects and the estimated radiation doses was excellent for CT (r = 0.951, P < 0.001) and moderate to good for CCA (r = 0.862, P < 0.001). One day after radiation, a complete repair of double-strand breaks to background levels was found in both groups. Conversion factors may underestimate the relative biological effects of ionising radiation from CCA. DNA double-strand break assessment may provide a strategy for individualised assessments of radiation. (orig.)

  11. Research into the biological effects of ionizing radiation somatic effects II: non-cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatic effects of radiation can be considered in two categories: low and high level effects. In the low level exposure region (defined here arbitrarily as a single dose of the order of 10 rads or less, or higher doses at very low dose rates), the only somatic effects other than cancer known definitely at present to have health significance are those on fertiltiy and on the developing individual from conception to near birth. Knowledge of these effects is inadequate at present, and the bulk of this report will be devoted to discussing the types of additional investigations required. With respect to non-cancer somatic effects of radiation at intermediate to high doses and dose rates, enough is known to describe in general the course of early (over the first days to perhaps six weeks) effects, following different doses of external radiation. In particular, the non-cancer late effects of intermediate to high doses of internal and external radiation need better definition. The distinction between non-cancer and cancer-related somatic effects is blurred, at least at high dose levels

  12. Ground-level ozone following astrophysical ionizing radiation events: an additional biological hazard?

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to-date is the potential impact of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere following an ionizing radiation event. Ozone is a known irritant to organisms on land and in water and therefore may be a significant additional hazard. Using previously completed atmospheric chemistry modeling we have examined the amount of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere for the case of a gamma-ray burst and find that the values are too small to pose a significant additional threat to the biosphere. These results may be extended to other ionizing radiation events, including supe...

  13. Biological changes in Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera:Muscidae), induced by gamma radiation (60 Co)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out in the Entomology Section of the Centre of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The objective of the present research work was to investigate some effects of gamma radiation on the various stages of M. domestica life cycle. (author)

  14. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    Depletion of the ozone layer and the consequent increase in solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) may impact living conditions for arctic plants significantly. In order to evaluate how the prevailing UV-B fluxes affect the heath ecosystem at Zackenberg (74°30'N, 20°30'W) and other high...

  15. Ground-Level Ozone Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events: An Additional Biological Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian C; Goracke, Byron D

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to date is the potential impact of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere following an ionizing radiation event. Ozone is a known irritant to organisms on land and in water and therefore may be a significant additional hazard. Using previously completed atmospheric chemistry modeling, we examined the amount of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere for the case of a gamma-ray burst and found that the values are too small to pose a significant additional threat to the biosphere. These results may be extended to other ionizing radiation events, including supernovae and extreme solar proton events. PMID:26745353

  16. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics. Focus on collaboration and diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2012-10-15

    Background and purpose: Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Methods: Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Results: Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with {>=} 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. Conclusion: A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. (orig.)

  17. Transient absorption spectroscopy in biology using the Super-ACO storage ring FEL and the synchrotron radiation combination

    CERN Document Server

    Renault, E; De Ninno, G; Garzella, D; Hirsch, M; Nahon, L; Nutarelli, D

    2001-01-01

    The Super-ACO storage ring FEL, covering the UV range down to 300 nm with a high average power (300 mW at 350 nm) together with a high stability and long lifetime, is a unique tool for the performance of users applications. We present here the first pump-probe two color experiments on biological species using a storage ring FEL coupled to the synchrotron radiation. The intense UV pulse of the Super-ACO FEL is used to prepare a high initial concentration of chromophores in their first singlet electronic excited state. The nearby bending magnet synchrotron radiation provides, on the other hand a pulsed, white light continuum (UV-IR), naturally synchronized with the FEL pulses and used to probe the photochemical subsequent events and the associated transient species. We have demonstrated the feasibility with a dye molecule (POPOP) observing a two-color effect, signature of excited state absorption and a temporal signature with Acridine. Applications on various chromophores of biological interest are carried out,...

  18. Sensor structure concepts for the analysis or local radiation exposure of biological samples at terahertz and millimeter wave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornuf, Fabian; Dörr, Roland; Lämmle, David; Schlaak, Helmut F.; Krozer, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    We have studied several sensor concepts for biomedical applications operating in the millimeter wave and terahertz range. On one hand, rectangular waveguide structure were designed and extended with microfluidic channels. In this way a simple analysis of aqueous solutions at various waveguide bands is possible. In our case, we focused on the frequency range between 75 GHz and 110 GHz. On the other hand, planar sensor structures for aqueous solutions have been developed based on coplanar waveguides. With these planar sensors it is possible to concentrate the interaction volume on small sensor areas, which achieve a local exposure of the radiation to the sample. When equipping the sensor with microfluidic structures the sample volume could be reduced significantly and enabled a localized interaction with the sensor areas. The sensors are designed to exhibit a broadband behavior up to 300 GHz. Narrow-band operation can also be achieved for potentially increased sensitivity by using resonant structures. Several tests with Glucose dissolved in water show promising results for the distinction of different glucose levels at millimeter wave frequencies. The planar structures can also be used for the exposure of biological cells or cell model systems like liposomes with electromagnetic radiation. Several studies are planned to distinguish on one hand the influence of millimeter wave exposure on biological systems and also to have a spectroscopic method which enables the analysis of cell processes, like membrane transport processes, with millimeter wave and terahertz frequencies by focusing the electric field directly on the analyzing sample.

  19. Biological Effect of Ganoderma lucidum in Mice Suffering from Ehrlich Carcinoma and Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The popular edible mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been widely used for the general promotion of health and longevity in oriental countries. The present study was performed to investigate the antitumor effect of G. lucidum on Ehrlich carcinoma (EC) cells and/or gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress, kidney dysfunction and histopathological changes in the albino mouse. G. lucidum was orally administered via gavages to mice for a period of 3 weeks at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight begins on the 10th day of tumor inoculation. Animals were exposed to 4 Gy whole body γ radiation after 2 weeks of tumor inoculation. The antitumor effect of G. lucidum was evident in terms of a reduction in tumor viable cells count, inhibited both weight loss and tumor growth rate of EC-tumor bearing mice alone and in combination with gamma-radiation. Inoculation of mice with EC cells resulted in biochemical and histopathological changes leading to kidney damage. Oral administration of G. lucidum improved kidney functions through a recovery of the elevated levels of serum urea, creatinine, uric acid and increased albumin level and decreased the levels of tumor markers. Also, treatment of mice with G. lucidum induced a reduction of lipid peroxidation (MDA) level, improvement in glutathione content (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the kidney compared with those EC and /or irradiated damaged mice. On the other hand, treatment EC bearing mice with gamma radiation or G. lucidum combined showed increase in MDA level and decrease in GSH content and SOD activity, as compared to EC bearing mice. Histopathological studies showed that suffering from EC caused fatty degeneration, presence of necrosis and enlargement of kidney cells nuclei. Furthermore, an elevation of tail DNA % was recorded in the tumor tissue of mice treated with G. lucidum and/or γ radiation compared to EC control group. Treatment of EC bearing mice with G. lucidum and/or γ radiation exhibited

  20. Application of TSH bioindicator for studying the biological efficiency of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose response relationships for various endpoints (gene and lethal mutations, cell cycle alterations) in somatic cells of Tradescantia clone 4430 were established for X-rays and for mixed fast and thermal neutrons from Cf-252 source of KAERI and from U-120 cyclotron of INP. This was a pilot experiment to check if it is possible to establish the relative biological effectiveness values for Cf-252 irradiated TSH cells, with and without boron ion pretreatment, in conditions of mutual KAERI-INP experiment. When T-4430 was pretreated with boron ion, there was and enhancement in biological efficacy of neutron form Cf-252 source. 2 tabs., 7 figs., 7 refs. (Author)

  1. Biological aspects of the potential interaction between androgen suppression and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a basic axiom of radiotherapy that the radiation dose required for tumor eradication increases with increasing tumor volume. These Patterns of Care Studies and prospective studies using rebiopsy have shown that this holds true for prostate cancer as well. Despite our best endeavors with conventional dose, there remains a substantial element of local failure following radiotherapy, and this is T-stage related. Unlikely many other solid tumors, a convenient method of volume reduction exists for prostate carcinoma. Approximately 90% demonstrate shrinkage following androgen suppression, an effect that is more pronounced at the primary site than metastatic sites. Transrectal ultrasound studies have shown a median of 40% prostatic tumor volume reduction after 3-4 months of androgen suppression. With more protracted androgen suppression the shrinkage progresses and a small minority of patients may actually have a complete response determined pathologically. Animal models demonstrate clearly that the TCD50 of androgen dependent tumors may be decreased by prior androgen depression. This effect is most pronounced if radiation is deferred until the time of maximal tumor regression. The advantage is lost if the tumor is allowed to regrow in an androgen independent fashion to its original volume. It is not clear whether this benefit of neoadjuvant androgen suppression results solely from volume shrinkage. The potential for synergy exists as both radiation and androgen suppression have an element of apoptosis as a common pathway of cell death. Although apoptosis is certainly the major cause of cell death from androgen suppression its' contribution to radiation cell kill in prostatic adenocarcinomas is yet to be evaluated. If the two effects are additive and not synergistic, then sequence should be unimportant. Animal models, however, demonstrate that the TCD50 of androgen dependent tumors is not significantly reduced by adjuvant androgen suppression. Human data is still

  2. Magias de cozinha: escravas e feitiços em Portugal - Séculos XVII e XVIII Kitchen spells: female slaves and magic spells in Portugal - 17th and 18th Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Buono Calainho

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar algumas considerações acerca das manifestações mágico-religiosas da população feminina de origem africana em Portugal entre os séculos XVII e XVIII, relacionadas ao uso de ervas, alimentos e outros ingredientes que compunham os feitiços.With this work I intend to present some considerations on the religious-magical practices of African female populations in Portugal during the 17th and 18th centuries, related to the use of herbs, food and other ingred...

  3. Magias de cozinha: escravas e feitiços em Portugal - Séculos XVII e XVIII Kitchen spells: female slaves and magic spells in Portugal - 17th and 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Buono Calainho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar algumas considerações acerca das manifestações mágico-religiosas da população feminina de origem africana em Portugal entre os séculos XVII e XVIII, relacionadas ao uso de ervas, alimentos e outros ingredientes que compunham os feitiços.With this work I intend to present some considerations on the religious-magical practices of African female populations in Portugal during the 17th and 18th centuries, related to the use of herbs, food and other ingredients which were used in magic spells.

  4. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Nuclear Science Symposium, 18th, and Nuclear Power Systems Symposium, 3rd, San Francisco, Calif., November 3-5, 1971, Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Potential advantages of fusion power reactors are discussed together with the protection of the public from radioactivity produced in nuclear power reactors, and the significance of tritium releases to the environment. Other subjects considered are biomedical instrumentation, radiation damage problems, low level environmental radionuclide analysis systems, nuclear techniques in environmental research, nuclear instrumentation, and space and plasma instrumentation. Individual items are abstracted in this issue.

  5. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation: Evaluation of the dose with cytogenetic methodologies by the construction of calibration curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafiropoulos, Demetre; Facco, E.; Sarchiapone, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    In case of a radiation accident, it is well known that in the absence of physical dosimetry biological dosimetry based on cytogenetic methods is a unique tool to estimate individual absorbed dose. Moreover, even when physical dosimetry indicates an overexposure, scoring chromosome aberrations (dicentrics and rings) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) at metaphase is presently the most widely used method to confirm dose assessment. The analysis of dicentrics and rings in PBLs after Giemsa staining of metaphase cells is considered the most valid assay for radiation injury. This work shows that applying the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using telomeric/centromeric peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes in metaphase chromosomes for radiation dosimetry, could become a fast scoring, reliable and precise method for biological dosimetry after accidental radiation exposures. In both in vitro methods described above, lymphocyte stimulation is needed, and this limits the application in radiation emergency medicine where speed is considered to be a high priority. Using premature chromosome condensation (PCC), irradiated human PBLs (non-stimulated) were fused with mitotic CHO cells, and the yield of excess PCC fragments in Giemsa stained cells was scored. To score dicentrics and rings under PCC conditions, the necessary centromere and telomere detection of the chromosomes was obtained using FISH and specific PNA probes. Of course, a prerequisite for dose assessment in all cases is a dose-effect calibration curve. This work illustrates the various methods used; dose response calibration curves, with 95% confidence limits used to estimate dose uncertainties, have been constructed for conventional metaphase analysis and FISH. We also compare the dose-response curve constructed after scoring of dicentrics and rings using PCC combined with FISH and PNA probes. Also reported are dose response curves showing scored dicentrics and rings per cell, combining

  6. Sensitization and protection in the radiation chemistry of biologically active DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are reported of a study of the effects of the well-known sensitizers paranitroacetophenone (PNAP), triacetone-amine-N-oxyl (TAN) and oxygen, and of the protector cysteamine on the radiosensitivity of purified biologically active DNA of bacteriophages. Irradiation conditions are stated. The results are discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Health and biological effects of non-ionizing radiations; Effets biologiques et sanitaires des rayonnements non ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Seze, R.; Souques, M.; Aurengo, A.; Bach, V.; Burais, N.; Cesarini, J.P.; Cherin, A.; Decobert, V.; Dubois, G.; Hours, M.; Lagroye, I.; Leveque, Ph.; Libert, J.P.; Lombard, J.; Loos, N.; Mir, L.; Perrin, A.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Thuroczy, G.; Wiart, J.; Lehericy, St.; Pelletier, A.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Douki, Th.; Guibal, F.; Tordjman, I.; Gaillot de Saintignon, J.; Collard, J.F.; Scoretti, R.; Magne, I.; Veyret, B.; Katrib, J.

    2011-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day on the biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations. Sixteen presentations out of 17 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - NMR: biological effects and implications of Directive 2004/40 on electromagnetic fields (S. Lehericy); 2 - impact of RF frequencies from mobile telephone antennas on body homeostasis (A. Pelletier); 3 - expression of stress markers in the brain and blood of rats exposed in-utero to a Wi-Fi signal (I. Lagroye); 4 - people exposure to electromagnetic waves: the challenge of variability and the contribution of statistics to dosimetry (J. Wiart); 5 - status of knowledge about electromagnetic fields hyper-sensitivity (J.P. Marc-Vergnes; 6 - geno-toxicity of UV radiation: respective impact of UVB and UVA (T. Douki); 7 - National day of prevention and screening for skin cancers (F. Guibal); 8 - UV tan devices: status of knowledge about cancer risks (I. Tordjman, and J. Gaillot de Saintignon); 9 - modulation of brain activity during a tapping task after exposure to a 3000 {mu}T magnetic field at 60 Hz (M. Souques and A. Legros); 10 - calculation of ELF electromagnetic fields in the human body by the finite elements method (R. Scoretti); 11 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field (I. Magne); 12 - LF and static fields, new ICNIRP recommendations: what has changed, what remains (B. Veyret); 13 - risk assessment of low energy lighting systems - DELs and CFLs (J.P. Cesarini); 14 - biological effects to the rat of a chronic exposure to high power microwaves (R. De Seze); 15 - theoretical and experimental electromagnetic compatibility approaches of active medical implants in the 10-50 Hz frequency range: the case of implantable cardiac defibrillators (J. Katrib); French physicians and electromagnetic fields (M. Souques). (J.S.)

  8. Influence of gamma-radiation on the biological activity of snake venoms in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of Co-60 gamma radiation on enzymatic, haemorragic and necrotic activities of Lachesis muta and Bothrops atrox venoms was studied at several ranges of irradiation lower than 1.0 Mrad. The radiation produced changes on its enzymatic activities. Irradiation at 0.1 Mrad resulted in the partial or complete inactivation of the following enzymes that are listed in order of increasing sensitivity: exonuclease, phospholipase A, caseinolytic enzyme, thrombinolytic enzyme, fibrinolytic enzyme, 5'-nucleotidase and endonuclease. The enzymatic inactivation was increased with 0.5 and 1.0 Mrad although not in a linear manner. Exonuclease was found to be the most radioresistant. The haemorragic activity was decreased to a greater extent than the necrotic activity. The probable mechanism for the changes in the enzymatic, haemorragic and necrotic activities are discussed

  9. Biological consequences of increased natural radiation background for Microtus oeconomus Pall. populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudyasheva, Alevtina G. [Radioecology Department, Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 28 Kommunisticheskaya ul., Syktyvkar 167982, Komi Republic (Russian Federation); Shishkina, Ludmila N. [Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics RAS, Kosygina 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Shevchenko, Oksana G. [Radioecology Department, Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 28 Kommunisticheskaya ul., Syktyvkar 167982, Komi Republic (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shevchenko@ib.komisc.ru; Bashlykova, Ludmila A.; Zagorskaya, Nadezhda G. [Radioecology Department, Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 28 Kommunisticheskaya ul., Syktyvkar 167982, Komi Republic (Russian Federation)

    2007-09-15

    The results of long-term investigations (1981-1999) on the state of Microtus oeconomus Pall. (tundra vole) population, living under the increased natural radiation background for a long time (for more than 100 generations), are presented. Population density dynamics, morphophysiological parameters, state of the lipid peroxidation regulatory system in different tissues and the cytogenetic effects in bone marrow cells of animals have been analyzed. It is shown that tundra voles from the studied radioactively contaminated areas differ from those on natural radiation background area for the parameters measured. The results of this long-term investigation show that qualitatively new sub-populations of tundra vole on these areas have evolved, which are able to survive in radioactively contaminated environment.

  10. The effects of radiation on the biology and reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiating male Helicoverpa armigera with a substerilizing dose (100 Gy) of gamma radiation on the growth, development and reproduction of subsequent generations was studied in the laboratory. This dose of gamma radiation had no significant detrimental effects on larval and pupal weights or on the duration of the pupal period in the F1 progeny. However, it lengthened the duration of the larval period by two days. In the F2 generation, the progeny of the Tf1FxTf1M cross had significantly lighter pupae. The effects of this substerilizing dose of radiation and of the resulting inherited sterility on the reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera were similar to those described for other species of Lepidoptera. No detrimental effects on P1 and F1 female fecundity were recorded. Crosses involving Tf1 females laid only about one half the number of eggs laid by the controls, however the range in the number of eggs laid by these females fell within the normal range for Helicoverpa armigera. Fertility of crosses involving P1 males was greatly affected; fertility in these females was only 61% of that exhibited by the controls. This deleterious effect was inherited in the F1 and F2 generations and was maximally expressed when F1 progeny of the NFxTM cross were inbred. Egg hatch was almost completely inhibited in sibling crosses while outcrosses of the F1 progeny showed a 64-70% reduction in egg hatch when compared to controls. (author)

  11. A study on the radiation and environment safety -Development of technology for biological dosimetry-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, In Kyoo; Kim, Jin Kyoo; Chun Kee Jung; Park, Hyo Kook; Kim, Sang Bok; Park Sun Yung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Adult rats were treated a single, whole body exposure to a dose of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 Gy. The animals were sacrificed 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours following exposure. The amount of serum acute phase proteins(haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, alpha-1 antitrypsin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, transferrin) were measured by competitive ELISA. In the 0.1 Gy irradiated rats, serum haptoglobin, C-reactive protein and alpha-1 antitrypsin were 400% higher and serum transferrin was 50% lower as compared to controls, 96 hours after irradiation. Ceruloplasmin increased by 400%, 24 hours after irradiation, but 96 hours after irradiation, the concentration of this protein in rat returned to normal level. On the other hand, no changes were observed in the case of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. In the group of the 3.0 Gy irradiated rats, transferrin increased by 200%, 96 hours after irradiation. These biochemical responses to radiation did not show dose-dependent relation, but the sensitivity of the indicators was high enough to detect absorbed dose of 0.1 Gy. The above results can be applied to the measurements of acute phase reactants in human serum for the assessment of exposure doses in radiation workers and patients under radiation therapy. 39 figs, 72 refs. (Author).

  12. A biological approach to the interspecies prediction of radiation-induced mortality risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolutionary explanations for why sexually reproducing organisms grow old suggest that the forces of natural selection affect the ages when diseases occur that are subject to a genetic influence (referred to here as intrinsic diseases). When extended to the population level for a species, this logic leads to the general prediction that age-specific death rates from intrinsic causes should begin to rise as the force of selection wanes once the characteristic age of sexual maturity is attained. Results consistent with these predictions have been found for laboratory mice, beagles, and humans where, after adjusting for differences in life span, it was demonstrated that these species share a common age pattern of mortality for intrinsic causes of death. In quantitative models used to predict radiation-induced mortality, risks are often expressed as multiples of those observed in a control population. A control population, however, is an aging population. As such, mortality risks related to exposure must be interpreted relative to the age-specific risk of death associated with aging. Given the previous success in making interspecies predictions of age-related mortality, the purpose of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced mortality observed in one species could also be predicted quantitatively from a model used to describe the mortality consequences of exposure to radiation in a different species. Mortality data for B6CF1 mice and beagles exposed to 60Co γ-rays for the duration of life were used for analysis

  13. WE-E-BRE-03: Biological Validation of a Novel High-Throughput Irradiator for Predictive Radiation Sensitivity Bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, TL; Martin, JA; Shepard, AJ; Bailey, AM; Nickel, KP; Kimple, RJ; Bednarz, BP [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The large dose-response variation in both tumor and normal cells between individual patients has led to the recent implementation of predictive bioassays of patient-specific radiation sensitivity in order to personalize radiation therapy. This exciting new clinical paradigm has led us to develop a novel high-throughput, variable dose-rate irradiator to accompany these efforts. Here we present the biological validation of this irradiator through the use of human cells as a relative dosimeter assessed by two metrics, DNA double-strand break repair pathway modulation and intercellular reactive oxygen species production. Methods: Immortalized human tonsilar epithelial cells were cultured in 96-well micro titer plates and irradiated in groups of eight wells to absorbed doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 Gy. High-throughput immunofluorescent microscopy was used to detect γH2AX, a DNA double-strand break repair mechanism recruiter. The same analysis was performed with the cells stained with CM-H2DCFDA that produces a fluorescent adduct when exposed to reactive oxygen species during the irradiation cycle. Results: Irradiations of the immortalized human tonsilar epithelial cells at absorbed doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 Gy produced excellent linearity in γH2AX and CM-H2DCFDA with R2 values of 0.9939 and 0.9595 respectively. Single cell gel electrophoresis experimentation for the detection of physical DNA double-strand breaks in ongoing. Conclusions: This work indicates significant potential for our high-throughput variable dose rate irradiator for patient-specific predictive radiation sensitivity bioassays. This irradiator provides a powerful tool by increasing the efficiency and number of assay techniques available to help personalize radiation therapy.

  14. Molecular biology methods in assessing radiation-induced hereditary risks in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuru, A. [University of Helsinki, Department of Biosciences, Division of Genetics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-12-01

    Effort to predict the genetic consequences for humans of exposure to ionising radiation has been one of the most important issues of human genetics over the past 60 years. To date, there has been little experimental knowledge on the genetic risks of human exposure to ionising radiation. Radiation-induced deleterious hereditary effects have not been detected in human populations - not even among the offspring of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This does not mean deleterious hereditary effects do not exist in humans, but rather that they are small and/or difficult to detect because the normal incidence of inherited abnormalities is quite high in the human population. Thus, assessment of radiation-induced hereditary risks in humans has been based on the common knowledge of human heredity and on animal experiments. However, recent data have suggested that hyper-variable tandem repeat minisatellite loci provide a useful and sensitive experimental approach for monitoring radiation-induced germline mutations in humans. In order to investigate the feasibility of the minisatellite mutation screening system in assessing radiation-induced hereditary risks in humans, we examined the amount of hereditary minisatellite mutations among the offspring of Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers. The men studied received a median radiation dose of 109 mSv while working on the cleanup activities after the Chernobyl accident. We compared the minisatellite mutation rates of 155 children born to 147 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers after the accident to those of their 148 siblings born prior to it. In addition, 44 Estonian families, where the father had not been exposed to radiation, composed an additional control group. In all of these families, the paternity of the children was ascertained by using 5 minisatellite loci (APOB, HRAS, MCOB19, MCT118, and YNZ-22) in PCR-based analyses. Other 8 minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, and MS32) were used

  15. Distinct Characteristics in the Struggle of Anti-corruption Since the 18th NCCPC%十八大以来中央反腐败斗争的鲜明特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宜胜

    2015-01-01

    十八大以来中央反腐败斗争呈现出六大鲜明特点:一是直面难题,高度重视;二是旗帜鲜明,立场坚定;三是真抓实干,注重实效;四是重点突破,抓常抓细;五是依托制度,标本兼治;六是依靠群众,凝聚共识。总结归纳十八大以来中央反腐败斗争的特点,便于我们对中央的执政思路与策略有一个更深刻的把握和全面的认识。%It has presented six distinct characteristics in struggle of anti-corruption since the 18th NCCPC . First, confronting and paying high attention to the problem;Second, a clear-cut and firm standing;Third, working diligently and focusing on actual effect;Fourth, the key breakthrough and normalization keeping;Fifth, relying on the system and seeking both temporary and permanent solutions; Sixth, Relying on the masses and building consensus. Summing up the characteristics of the struggle of anti-corruption since the 18th NCCPC helps us get a more profound grasp and comprehensive understanding on it.

  16. 十八大精神融入“概论”课程教学中的实践探索%On the 18th National Congress into the“Introduction” Course Teching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳意

    2015-01-01

    By studying the 18th National Congress ,seizing the main content of 18th National Congress in “Introduction” course , and research the content of development of the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics by XI Jin - ping General Secre‐tary ,trying best in search “Introduction” course .Using “talking ,reading ,debating ,acting and writing”teaching methods to integrate into the course ,and using elaborate course ,micro – class and MOOCs to integrate into the network ,those are effec‐tive ways .%通过学习钻研掌握十八大报告、全面把握“概论”教材中十八大的内容、及时研究把握习近平总书记丰富发展中国特色社会主义理论体系的内容、刻苦钻研把握“概论”教材以融入教案;采用“讲读辩行写”五字教学法以融入课堂,运用精品课、微课、慕课等方式以融入网络,是行之有效的做法。

  17. Spatio-temporal radiation biology with conventionally or laser-accelerated particles for ELIMED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristić-Fira, A.; Bulat, T.; Keta, O.; Petrović, I. [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Romano, F.; Cirrone, P.; Cuttone, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, Catania (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior of radio-resistant human malignant cells, thus enabling better understanding of radiobiological effects of ions in such a case. Radiation sources such as accelerated continuous ion beams and laser technology-based ultra short radiation sources with energy of around 10 MeV will be used. The HTB140 melanoma cells are chosen since it has been shown that they represent the limit case of cellular radio-resistance among the studied tumor cell lines. These cells are particularly interesting as they provide data on the very edge of inactivation capacity of each beam line that is tested. After exposing the cell monolayers to continuous radiations of low (γ-rays) and high (protons) linear energy transfer, the kinetics of disappearance of the phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci per cell will be determined. The same procedure will be performed with the pulsed high dose rate protons. Detection and quantification of γ-H2AX foci will be performed by immunohistochemical 3D time-dependent imaging analyses using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Immunoblotting will enable the follow-up of the relation between γ-H2AX and cell cycle arrest via the p53/p21 pathway. In such a way the spatio-temporal changes on sub-cellular level will be visualized, quantified and compared. These results will show whether there is a difference in the effects on cells between continuous and pulsed irradiation mode. Therefore, they will contribute to the data base that might promote pulsed sources for medical treatments of malignant growths.

  18. SU-E-T-253: Open-Source Automatic Software for Quantifying Biological Assays of Radiation Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detappe, A [University of Lyon (France); Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Korideck, H [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Makrigiorgos, G; Berbeco, R [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Clonogenic cell survival is a common assay for quantifying the effect of drugs and radiation. Manual counting of surviving colonies can take 30–90seconds per plate, a major limitation for large studies. Currently available automatic counting tools are not easily modified for radiation oncology research. Our goal is to provide an open-source toolkit for precise, accurate and fast analysis of biological assays in radiation oncology. Methods: As an example analysis, we used HeLa cells incubated with gadolinium nanoparticles prior to irradiation. After treatment, the cells are grown for 14days to allow for colony formation. To analyze the colony growth, we capture images of each dish for archiving and automatic computer-based analysis. A FujifilmX20 camera is placed at the top of a box setup, 20cm above the sample, which is backlit by a LED lamp placed at the bottom of the box. We use a Gaussian filter (width=1.3mm) and color threshold (19–255). The minimum size for a colony to be counted is 1mm. For this example, 20 dishes with a large range of colonies were analyzed. Each dish was counted 3 times manually by 3 different users and then compared to our counter. Results: Automatic counting of cell colonies takes an average of 7seconds, enabling the analysis process to be accelerated 4–12 times. The average precision of the automatic counter was 1.7%. The Student t-test demonstrated the non-significant differences between the two counting methods (p=0.64). The ICC demonstrated the reliability of each method with ICC>0.999 (automatic) and ICC=0.95 (manual). Conclusion: We developed an open-source automatic toolkit for the analysis of biological assays in radiation oncology and demonstrated the accuracy, precision and effort savings for clonogenic cell survival quantification. This toolkit is currently being used in two laboratories for routine experimental analysis and will be made freely available on our departmental website.

  19. Biological responses to current UV-B radiation in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian; N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    -B was demonstrated to decrease photosynthesis and shift carbon allocation from shoots to roots. Moreover, ambient UV-B increased plant stress with detrimental effects on electron processing in the photosynthetic apparatus. Plant responses did not lead to clear changes in the amount of fungal root symbionts...... on high-arctic vegetation. They supplement previous investigations from the Arctic focussing on other variables like growth etc., which have reported no or minor plant responses to UV-B, and clearly indicates that UV-B radiation is an important factor affecting plant life at high-arctic Zackenberg...

  20. Age-dependent change in biological characteristics of stem cells in radiation-induced mammary carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Yoshiya; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa, Chiba (Japan); Yasukawa-Barnes, Jane; Gould, Michael N.; Clifton, Kelly H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2003-07-01

    If you ask what types of cells are the targets for carcinogenesis, a popular answer would be that cancer arises from stem cells. Stem cells are cells that are capable of both self-renewal and generation of differentiated progenies. If the hypothesis of 'cancer as stem cell disease' is correct, the risk of carcinogenesis should be a function of the number of stem cells and their responsiveness of carcinogen-induced damage. In the present study, we addressed the feasibility of this hypothesis using the rat mammary carcinogenesis model. One of the important conclusions emerging from studies on atomic bomb survivors concerns age-related changes in the susceptibility to breast cancer. The relative risk of breast cancer is very high among women exposed to ionizing radiation before or during puberty, and it decreases thereafter. Little information is available, however, on age-related changes in the radiobiological nature of mammary stem cells. We examined age-associated changes in the number of mammary stem-like cells (clonogens) and their susceptibility to radiation in terms of cell death and carcinogenic initiation frequency. The results were as follows. (1) During the prepubertal period, the total number of mammary clonogens per rat increased exponentially with a population doubling time of {approx}4 days. After puberty, the doubling time lengthened to {approx}30 days. The total number of clonogens in abdominal and inguinal mammary glands was {approx}200 in 2-week-old rats, while it was {approx}5600 in 8-week-old rats. (2) The survival curves of clonogenic cells after irradiation indicated that radiation sensitivity of the cells before and during puberty was much higher than after puberty. (3) The initiation frequency of the clonogens from prepubertal rats after 5 Gy irradiation was four times higher than that of the clonogens from post-pubertal rats. These results suggest that changes in the number of stem cells and their radiobiological characteristics