WorldWideScience

Sample records for 18th century

  1. [Evaluation of vital constants. 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez González, Natividad; Ortega Martínez, Carmen

    2002-05-01

    The evaluation of patients' vital statistics is part of health care and in many cases this is the first step in knowing what is the health status of a patient. Therefore, we are interested in analysing what knowledge nurses had regarding these vital statistics during the 18th century, how they evaluated these statistics and what treatment they applied in order to maintain or balance them whenever they became unstable. A manual written by a nurse in the 18th century in order to aid her colleagues in their treatment of patients is the source of the authors' research material.

  2. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  3. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper.

  4. The power of mathematics education in the 18th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krüger, J.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the Dutch Republic in the 18th century mathematics was considered very important for many professions. However there were hardly any national or regional educational institutes which provided mathematics education. Three orphanages in different towns received a large inheritance under condition

  5. Research on 18th Century Music in Poland. An Introduction

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    Paczkowski Szymon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on 18th-century music has been one of the key areas of interest for musicologists ever since the beginnings of musicological studies in Poland. It initially developed along two distinct lines: general music history (with publications mostly in foreign languages and local history (mostly in Polish. In the last three decades the dominant tendency among Polish researchers has been, however, to relate problems of 18th-century Polish musical culture to the political history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and more generally – to the political history of Central Europe at large. The most important subjects taken up in research on 18th-century music include: the musical cultures of the royal court in 18th-century Warsaw (primarily in the works of Alina Żórawska-Witkowska as well as Polish aristocratic residences (e.g. studies by Szymon Paczkowski and Irena Bieńkowska, the ecclesiastical and monastic circles (publications by Alina Mądry, Paweł Podejko, Remigiusz Pośpiech and Tomasz Jeż; problems of musical style (texts by Szymon Paczkowski; research on sources containing music by European composers (e.g. by Johann Adolf Hasse; the musical culture of cities (of Gdańsk, first and foremost; studies concerning the transfer of music and music-related materials, the musical centres and peripheries, etc.

  6. Roads and cities of $18^{th}$ century France

    CERN Document Server

    Perret, Julien; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the $18^{th}$ century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science.

  7. Scientific Psychology in the 18th Century: A Historical Rediscovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland

    2016-05-01

    As early as 1783, the almost forgotten philosopher, metaphysicist, and psychologist Ferdinand Ueberwasser (1752-1812) designated himself "Professor für empirische Psychologie und Logik" (professor of empirical psychology and logic) at the University of Münster, Germany. His position was initiated and supported by the minister and educational reformer Franz von Fürstenberg (1729-1810), who considered psychology a core scientific discipline that should be taught at each school and university. At the end of the 18th century, then, psychology seems to have been on the verge of becoming an independent academic discipline, about 100 years before Wilhelm Wundt founded the discipline's first official laboratory. It seems surprising that Ueberwasser's writings-including a seminal textbook on empirical psychology-have been almost entirely overlooked in most historical accounts. We focus on this important founding moment of psychological science and on the circumstances that eventually brought this seminal development to a halt.

  8. Illegal acts at Yabanabad district in the 18th century

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    Mustafa Kaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Just as they do everywhere, illegal acts disturbing the peace and order of the social life also took place frequently in the Ottoman society. They occured in all residential areas ranging from the villages to the cities, and were committed either by individuals or people banded together. The state administration, taking the public complaints seriously and seeking solutions for the sake of communal peace, always stood against those involved personally or collectively in cases of cruelty, especially in those of seizure of goods and usurping of money, encroachment of estate or mansion, and aggressions against one’s life. In this study, we investigated the illegal acts that took place at Yabanabad district of Ankara in the 18th century, with regard to the information and related regulations contained in the archival records and the law registers, so as to see into which events of this period were considered unlawful, how the victimized people reacted to illegal assaults, how the state treated those involved in such crimes, and what sort of judicial proceedings were implemented in preventing these problems.

  9. The idea of time among 18th century missionaries

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    Mirjana Polić Bobić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores with the notion of time among the missionaries in 17th and 18th century Spanish America. First, we provide a brief introduction to the nature of the missions, and highlight the aspects of the mission relevant for the present analysis, focusing on the two basic ideas of time that coexisted in parallel in the missions and among missionaries during the almost two centuries life of the Jesuit missionary project. On the one hand, there was the medieval idea of time as a repetition of the accustomed models of life, work and prayer, best expressed in the Benedictine ora et labora, which resisted the element of progress. On the other, there was the modern, Renaissance idea of time in which the world outside the mission walls emphasized progress. Colonial ways of life outside the mission never really showed strong dynamics of change and progress in comparison with European societies. The missionaries had to take part in all the models of behaviour imposed by the outside world in order to be able to take all necessary measures in the social, economic, political and diplomatic milieus of the outside world, thus ensuring the continued existence of the mission. This meant that they actually shared the other (Renaissance idea and experience of time with the world outside the mission walls. They therefore lived a sort of “double life”, as far as time was concerned. In the conclusion, the importance of the insight into the life of the mission from the perspective of time is justifi ed because it enables a clearer view of the bases of the missionary idea as a whole.

  10. [Clinical medicine of the western medicine in the 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, C

    2001-07-01

    The 18th century is an important turning point not only in human history, but also in medical history. G. B. Morgagni was an Italian who founded the organic pathology in the 18th century, which was a bridge between basic medicine and clinical medicine of western medicine. H. Boerhaave called for "paying attention to the development of clinical medicine", and under this situation, western clinical medicine was attached importance and developed again in the 18th century. However, at the same time, the mechanical materialism was also infiltrated into western clinical medicine.

  11. An 18th Century Jesuit “Refutation of Metempsychosis” in Sanskrit

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    Gérard Colas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Punarjanmākṣepa, a work in Sanskrit from the 17th–18th century Jesuit milieu, aims at refuting the notion of reincarnation as believed by the Hindus in India. It discloses an interesting historical perspective of missionary comprehension and criticism of the belief. This paper briefly examines the context, purpose and the rhetorical strategies of the work and incidentally situates the subject of reincarnation in the 18th century European intellectual ideologies.

  12. John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael G.

    Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

  13. The furniture trade in Catalonia during the 18th century

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    Piera Miquel, Mónica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Through various types of documentation it is possible to determine the different methods of sale and consumption used in the internal furniture trade in Catalonia during the 18th century. The author offers information concerning the construction and commerce of pieces —new as well as second-hand ones— from the workshops of carpenters, and their prices. She also studies the major business of rentals offered by carpenters and secondhand dealers.

    A partir de documentación de distinta índole conocemos los diferentes sistemas de venta y consumo utilizados en el comercio interno de muebles en Cataluña durante el siglo XVIII. Ofrecemos informaciones sobre la construcción de piezas y sobre su comercio desde los talleres de carpinteros, tanto de obras nuevas como de segunda mano y sus precios. Igualmente, estudiamos el importante negocio de muebles de alquiler ofrecido por carpinteros y por ropavejeros.

  14. An unknown destructive earthquake in 18th century Sicily

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    D. Mariotti

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The current Italian seismic catalogues are generally considered complete, as regards the destructive seismic events which occurred from the 17th century onwards. In fact, research performed using target methodologies still reveal earthquakes of high intensity, not yet known to the seismological tradition. This is the case of an earthquake which occurred on 14 September 1780, which caused serious damage and victims in some towns of the Tyrrhenian coast of North-eastern Sicily (I0, = VIII MCS. The information reported in an anonymous printed account was verified in the administrative records; this allowed a reconstruction of a macroseismic outline of great interest, which may make more precise the seismic hazard assessment in an area at high environmental risk due to the presence in Milazzo of an important chemico-industrial complex.

  15. On the Social Background for the Rise of the Novel in the 18th Century Britain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    剡科斗

    2013-01-01

    England experienced a period of transition from the 16th century to the 18th century. After a series of furious social and economic reformation and revolution, England went into a time of relative stable development. New businesses sprung up and thrived in England, literary genres found their suitable fertile soil to develop. English people had a prosperous economy and tolerat⁃ed multiculturalism. Just in this kind of environment, a new literary genre, novel suddenly emerged and became the most dazzling and noticeable treasure in the 18th century.

  16. [Almeria faced by contagion: health practice in the 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Diaz, Donato; Gómez Diaz, Maria José

    2003-01-01

    Epidemics in Almeria during the 18th century and the beginnings of the 19th century are described, as well as the measures adopted to avoid them, regarding both internal contagion and the need for surveillance of incoming ships. The economic consequences of the prophylactic measures taken are also considered. Finally, the role of the Church in extreme situations is analyzed.

  17. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Fredalene B.; Gehring, Thom

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles on famous correctional educators. The first article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issue for the first article) This article focuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of…

  18. Comparison of bone lead in pre-Hispanic, 18th century and modern population of Tenerife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnay-De-La-Rosa, M; Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vazquez, J; Galindo-Martin, L; Delgado-Ureta, E; Santolaria-Fernandez, F; Barros-Lopez, N

    1998-01-19

    The present study has been performed in order to determine concentrations of lead in the bone of 14 individuals who were interred towards the beginning of the 18th century at the church 'La Concepción' (Santa Cruz de Tenerife) of 15 Pre-Hispanic individuals of Tenerife and a modern sample for Tenerife, composed of 25 individuals. We have observed higher bone lead values in the modern population than in the ancient one (P = 0.0022), although Pre-Hispanic individuals and those of the 18th century showed similar bone lead values.

  19. Medical semiotics in the 18th century: a theory of practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, V

    1998-06-01

    Medical semiotics in the 18th century was more than a premodern form of diagnosis. Its structure allowed for the combination of empirically proven rules of instruction with the theoretical knowledge of the new sciences, employing the relation between the sign and the signified.

  20. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  1. Level of income and income distribution in mid-18th century France, according to Francois Quesnay

    OpenAIRE

    Milanovic, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The paper uses the data from Francois Quesnay's writings to derive a social table for pre-revolutionary France, estimate country's mean income and income distribution. These Quesnay-based estimates are compared with more recent estimates of 18th century French incomes and inequality.

  2. [Pharmacopea of the Farmacia Esteva of Llivia in the 18th century and his use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarelle, Charles

    2011-02-01

    A dispensary register from 1725 and contemporaneous container subscriptions allows an approach of 18th century pharmacopea different from the treatises' in a Catalonian farmacy. The drugs panel shows comparisons with regional scheme and the role of local flora. The prescription register--exceptional document--exhibits differences between pharmacopea and daily use through medical prescription, and influences of local conditions and Lights Century's scientific contribution.

  3. Care of the insane in Lübeck during the 17th and 18th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, Horst; Thomsen, Hans Peter; Hohagen, Fritz

    2010-12-01

    Only selected aspects of the history of the House of the Poor Insane in the Hanseatic Free City of Lübeck have been studied to date.This article presents the results of an entire source study of this small institution in the 17th and 18th centuries, and briefly also during the next 40 years after the opening of a new building. In addition to the minute-book of the Governors, now kept in the Lübeck Municipal Archives, the results are based primarily on the account-books,which illustrate the institution's social history and activities. Examples are given. During most of the 17th century, the House was generally rather like a prison for the insane, but at the end of this century and in the early 18th there was a reform phase.This was followed by phases of repression and 'containment' at the end of the 18th century and in the early 19th century, before a renewed reform by the medical profession.The findings for Lübeck are compared with the development of inpatient care in institutions elsewhere, and the decisive factors in Lübeck are discussed.

  4. The coarse painter and his position in 17th- and 18th-century Dutch decorative painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.; van Eikema Hommes, M.H.; Keune, K.; Evans, H.; Muir, K.

    2015-01-01

    In modern studies of Dutch art, the makers of decorative paintings in the 17th and 18th centuries are usually referred to as ‘decorative painters’ or ‘interior painters’, as if this was a profession in its own right. However, neither name existed at the time. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the

  5. 18th-century Al Zubarah and the genesis of the modern Gulf region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan; Al Na'imi, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    The deeply etched tracks of human achievement in the Gulf region since prehistory reflect a dynamic interplay between local, neighbouring and inter-regional agencies. Geography, resources, the exchange of commodities and the transfer of ideas elevated the status of the Gulf to that of a major...... regional player; a busy conduit in which peoples from diverse backgrounds lived fully and communally, and soon attracted the direct intervention of neighbouring empires. In the study of the vibrant historical events that marked the subsequent emergence of a post-colonial Gulf from the 18th century onwards......, archaeology is now making a significant contribution to documenting and explaining the principle social, political and economic factors that came to shape that period of fundamental change. Of the many social transformations that occurred between the later 18th and mid-20th centuries, none was more...

  6. “CURING” PYRRHONIAN DOUBT: ANTI-SKEPTICAL RHETORIC IN THE EARLY 18TH CENTURY

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    Anton MATYTSIN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available By examining the analogies of sickness and disease used by severalopponents of philosophical skepticism (Pyrrhonism in the early 18th century, this articlewill shed light on the rhetorical strategies used in attempts to undermine the revival ofthis ancient school of philosophy. It will look at the ways in which anti-skeptics discussedthe repercussions of the spread of Pyrrhonism for society and describe how theyproposed to “cure” this so-called disease. A consideration of the strategies will bothreveal some of the assumptions commonly shared by authors of apologetic literature inthe first half of the 18th century and explain why they saw skepticism as such a dangerousphilosophical position.

  7. Socioeconomic background of hysteria's metamorphosis from the 18th Century to World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Nicole; Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The many changes in the etiopathogenic theories of hysteria, developed from the end of the 18th century to the end of World War I, can only be understood by studying the social, political, economic, and cultural transformations of the Western world during the same period. These transformations, presented below along with concurrent medical discoveries, make it possible to explain the ongoing metamorphosis of both hysteria and the image of the hysteric patient.

  8. Chapter 9: understanding the nervous system in the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher U M

    2010-01-01

    The 18th century was an age of transition. The time-honored neuropsychology of classical and medieval times, mechanized in Descartes' hydraulic neurophysiology, was undermined by microscopical observations and careful physiological experimentation. Yet it was not until the very end of the century, when work on electric fish and amphibia began to suggest an acceptable successor to "animal spirit," that the old understanding of human neurophysiology began to fade. This chapter traces this slow retreat from the iatrophysics of the early part of the century, with its hollow nerves and animal spirits, through a number of stop-gap explanations involving mysterious subtle fluids or forces described variously as irritability, élan vital, vis viva, vis insita, the spirit of animation etc., or perhaps involving vibrations and vibratiuncles and mysterious magnetic effluvia, to the dawning electrophysiology of the end of the century and the beginning of the next. This developing understanding filtered slowly through to affect medical education, and the 18th century saw the development of strong medical schools at Leiden, Edinburgh, Paris, Bologna and London. Associated with these developments there was a great increase, as a well-known physician looking back at the beginning of the following century noted, in a class of diseases that had little concerned physicians in the preceding century - "nervous disorders."

  9. Moulds and profiles of the building facades of St. Petersburg of the 18th century

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    Voznyak Ekaterina Ryurikovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author underlines the importance of details (moulds and profiles for the architects of previous times. The architects of the 17th-19th centuries expressed their creative and filosofic position choosing some concrete example of the great theorists of the past when constructing moulds and orders. We should note that the negative attitude to Classicism theory reasoned in the lack of investigations of the architectural details of the buildings of the 18th-19th centuries, in particular the ones in Saint Petersburg. At the present moment the interest to studying the architectural theories and forms is reappearing both in Russia and in Europe. The article considers the architectural moulds of the eighteenth century buildings of St. Petersburg, examples of their construction in each stylistic period. The analysis shows the significant differences of the Russian moulds drawings from the recommendations of classical treatises of the Renaissance and educational counterparts. The author offers the basic analysis of the characteristic features and data elements for each stylistic period in the architecture of St. Petersburg of the 18th century, as well as a unique handwriting of the architects who worked in that era.

  10. The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts

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    Martha GUZMÁN RIVERÓN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the article in sentences like la casa en (la que vivo, among other variations, is today less frequently used in Hispanoamerica. Although we know that this structure, documented as early as the 13th century, became more wide-spread in the 18th century, little is known about its evolution at the time in American sources. I study the evolution of this phenomenon, basing myself exclusively on 18th century American texts. I also explore which factors are apparently related to this linguistic development and if the pace of its spread was determined by the preceding prepositions. Aiming at a panoramic view of the spread of the article in the period in question, I also trace the appearance of these relative clauses, with and without article, in the texts collected in the CORDE, and provide detailed analyses of texts from both halves of the century, in order to evaluate the factors that may have influenced this change.

  11. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

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    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  12. Processes and changes in Minas Gerais’ 18th century abbreviations: regularity and rupture

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    Aléxia Teles Duchowny

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed 18th century abbreviations from documents written in Arraial do Tijuco, today Diamantina, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Brachygraphic resources used in religious brotherhoods’ commitments from different social strata were compared to test two hypotheses: (i abbreviations reflect differences between strata and therefore (ii they allow identifying the degree of literacy of writing subjects. The analysis undertaken do not attest the correctness of assumptions, but the generalizations reached indicate that abbreviations, as any other linguistic phenomenon, suffer systematic, organized and multiple change processes, a different result from those that the meagre literature on the subject provides.

  13. Debate on sublime in the end of 18th century: Burke, Kant, Schiller

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    Jeremić-Molnar Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors are examining three positions within the 18th Century aesthetic discussion on the sublime - Edmund Burke's, Immanuel Kant's and Friedrich Schiller's. They are also trying to reconstruct the political backgrounds of each of this theoretical positions: old regime conservatism (Burke, republican liberalism (Schiller and romantic longing for the 'third way' (Kant. The most sophisticated and mature theory of sublime is found in Schiller's aesthetic works, especially in those following his disappointment in French Revolution, in which the relationship between sublime and paradoxes of historical violence is most thoroughly reflected.

  14. William and Caroline Herschel pioneers in late 18th-century astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This beautifully structured book presents the essentials of William and Caroline Herschel's pioneering achievements in late 18th-century astronomy. Michael Hoskin shows that William Herschel was the first observational cosmologist and one of the first observers to attack the sidereal universe beyond the solar system:Herschel built instruments far better than any being used at the royal observatory. Aided by his sister Caroline, he commenced a great systematic survey that led to his discovery of Uranus in 1781.Unlike observers before him, whose telescopes did not reveal them as astronomical obj

  15. [Inventing the audience in the 18(th) century. Art and its use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugère, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    18(th) century philosophers analyzed art through the aesthetic experience of the audience. By contrast, Adam Smith was interested in the moral judgment that an impartial audience may formulate. How can art and morality, the beautiful and the good, be combined into one analytical framework? Art and morality convey non-transcendental values that are intrinsic to human experience. With the aesthetic experience of the audience, art is used, and ultimately depends on the ways that humans relate to works or art and to the beautiful.

  16. Processes Prior and during the Early 18th Century Irish Famines—Weather Extremes and Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Engler; Johannes P. Werner

    2015-01-01

    This paper advances the current debates on famine and famine history, with a focus on the first half of the 18th century in Ireland. Ireland was often hit by severe famines and two of them, specifically the famines of 1728–1729 and 1740–1741, are at the center of this article. The analysis of those famines will show the relevance of weather extremes as one driver in the functional chain of famines. Analyzing the linkage between weather extremes and social, political and economic vulnerabiliti...

  17. Plants from Abroad: Botanical Terminology in 18th-century British Encyclopaedias

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    Elisabetta Lonati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the 18th century British encyclopaedias included in their lemmata an increasing number of botanical lexis, that is the terminology pertaining to “that branch of natural history which treats of the uses, characters, classes, orders, genera, and species of plants. […] and what useful and ornamental purposes may be expected from the cultivation of it [i.e. botany]” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1768-1771, s.v. Botany. More often than not, these terms represented migrating plants coming from exotic places, new geographical areas, whether eastwards or westwards. The general aim of this survey is to investigate the representation of the botanical science in 18th-century universal and specialized encyclopaedias, starting from prefaces and going on with the micro-texts of the single entries s.v. Botany. The starting point is thus theoretical botany. A further point in the analysis focuses on applied botany and discusses those plants such as Camellia Sinensis, Coffea Arabica, Theobroma Cacao, Saccharum Officinarum and Cinchona Officinalis which were mostly exploited for commercial and/or medical reasons. The individual entries include the most tiny details on the single headwords-topics and also display an acceptable plurality of beliefs, viewpoints and perspectives, focussing on botanical descriptions, historical information, socio-cultural issues, legal, political and commercial considerations.

  18. Gilding Techniques in Religious Art Between East and West, 14th -18th Centuries

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    I.C.A. Sandu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a short review on gilding techniques and materials from artifacts of religious heritage between 14th and 18th centuries, mainly gilt wood and gilded panel paintings. The study underlines the main aspects related to the use of certain materials and application techniques in different countries and époques, between Eastern and Western Europe, exemplifying with case studies of real gilded objects from Romanian, Greek, Russian and Portuguese ecclesiastic heritage. The contribution of some analytical techniques, such as optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopies (OM, SEM, AFM, XRF and EDX spectroscopic analysis to the study of these objects is emphasized as well as the peculiarities of the obtained information.

  19. Personality Traits Characterized by Adjectives in a Famous Chinese Novel of the 18th Century

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    Junpeng Zhu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The personality-descriptive adjectives used in a famous Chinese novel of the 18th century, A Dream of Red Mansions, which is thought to broadly reflect Chinese culture, might help depict personality structure. Four hundred ninety-three personality-descriptive adjectives from the first 80 chapters of the novel were administered to 732 Chinese university students. After factor analyses, the one- to seven-factor solutions were extracted, and the five-factor one was relatively clearer. The five factors of personality titled Wicked, Intelligent, Amiable, Conscientious, and Frank, were intercorrelated. Men scored higher on Wicked and Conscientious but lower on Amiable compared with women. As a preliminary trial, our study demonstrates that personality-descriptive adjectives in a famous Chinese novel characterize the personality structure.

  20. Auroras Observed in Portugal in Late 18th Century Obtained from Printed and Manuscript Meteorological Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, José M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2005-09-01

    We present a new catalogue of observations of the aurora borealis at Lisbon, i.e., at low-latitudes, in the late 18th century by Jacob Præ torius and Henrique Schulze, two German artillery officers. Dates of 18 auroras compiled by Præ torius and Schulze are compared with those published in other catalogues for that period. The number of annual auroras observed by the two Germans is then compared with two indices of solar activity showing a very good level of consistency between all time series. Finally, we have assessed the number of auroras observed taking into consideration the phase of the lunar cycle and the geomagnetic latitude of Lisbon.

  1. [Vitalism and mechanism: their meanings in the milieu of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S I

    1993-01-01

    The views on the life in the early modern period (the 17th and 18th centuries) with their socio-cultural backgrounds and their meanings at that time were discussed in this paper. Those views discussed here were the dualistic, mechanistic one of Rene Descartes (1596-1650), the animistic, vitalistic one of Georg Ernst Stahl (1660-1734), and the monistic, mechanistic one of Julien Offray de la Mettrie (1709-1751). Author stressed that the processes of their view formation were influenced by the wide range of the various political and religious factors as well as the scientific, medical facts and opinions at that time, and that not only the contents of the views but also their historical contexts should be pursued in the study on the medical thoughts.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in 17th-18th century remains from Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maca-Meyer, Nicole; Cabrera, Vicente M; Arnay, Matilde; Flores, Carlos; Fregel, Rosa; González, Ana M; Larruga, José M

    2005-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphisms were retrieved (with >80% efficiency) from a 17th-18th century sample of 213 teeth from Tenerife. The genetic composition of this population reveals an important ethnic heterogeneity. Although the majority of detected haplotypes are of European origin, the high frequency of sub-Saharan African haplotypes (15.63%), compared to that of the present-day population (6.6%), confirms the importance of the Canary Islands in the black slave trade of that epoch. The aboriginal substrate, inferred from the U6b1 haplotypes (8.59%), has also decreased due to European input. Finally, the presence of Amerindian lineages (1.5%) reveals that the Canary Islands have also received genetic flow from America.

  3. John Wesley's Primitive Physick: An 18th-century Health Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malony, H N

    1996-04-01

    John Wesley was an 18th- century Anglican priest whose evangelistic efforts led to the establishment of Methodist Societies in England, Ireland and America. He became greatly concerned for the spiritual and physical health of the poor. Wesley wrote a book entitled Primitive Physick: Or, an Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases. He was deeply impressed with the few physicians who called for the prevention of disease through healthy living and who recommended time-honored, inexpensive methods of cure. This article reviews Wesley's ideas and prescriptions for healthy living. The discussion reflects on his contribution to the development of a psychology of health and credits Wesley with being ahead of his time in his dietetic and hygienic recommendations. Using Matarazzo's (1982) definition the article shows that over 200 years ago Wesley dealt with each of the major concerns of health psychology and behavioral medicine.

  4. Processes Prior and during the Early 18th Century Irish Famines—Weather Extremes and Migration

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    Steven Engler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances the current debates on famine and famine history, with a focus on the first half of the 18th century in Ireland. Ireland was often hit by severe famines and two of them, specifically the famines of 1728–1729 and 1740–1741, are at the center of this article. The analysis of those famines will show the relevance of weather extremes as one driver in the functional chain of famines. Analyzing the linkage between weather extremes and social, political and economic vulnerabilities of the society further enhances the debate on past famines. Additionally, this paper focuses on the migration flows in the context of both Irish famines. These migration flows lay the foundation for the migration patterns during the “Great Irish Famine” of 1845–1852.

  5. Reflection terahertz time-domain imaging for analysis of an 18th century neoclassical easel painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Filtenborg, Troels; Fukunaga, Kaori;

    2015-01-01

    , a real hidden portraiton an easel painting has been imaged by THz-TDI, with an unexpected richness of detail. THz C- andB-scans have been compared with images obtained by x-ray radiography and invasive cross-sectional imaging,leading to a deeper understanding of the strengths and limitations......Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) has been applied for imaging a hidden portrait and other subsurfacecomposition layers of an 18th century (18C) easel painting by Nicolai Abildgaard, the most important 18CDanish neoclassical painter of historical and mythological subjects. For the first time...... in practical applications of the technique. Interfaces between layers ofthe painting have been successfully imaged, contributing substantially to the understanding of the structure of the painting....

  6. Early 18th century cosmic ray flux inferred from 44Ti in Agen meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taricco, C.; Sinha, N.; Bhandari, N.; Colombetti, P.; Mancuso, S.; Rubinetti, S.; Barghini, D.

    2016-10-01

    We report the measurement of radioactivity of cosmogenic 44Ti in Agen meteorite, a H5 chondrite that fell in 1814. The 44Ti activity in meteorites is related to centennial-scale changes in cosmic ray intensity caused by heliospheric magnetic field modulation in the interplanetary space between heliocentric distances of 1 and 3 AU. The measured low 44Ti activity in Agen suggests a strong modulation of galactic cosmic rays at the turn of the 18th century, resulting in a low cosmic ray flux and is consistent with the linearly decreasing trend of GCR flux, modulated by the Gleissberg solar cycle during the past 250 years, as previously suggested by us.

  7. A GIS Approach to Urban History: Rome in the 18th Century

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    Keti Lelo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the integration of GIS technology with urban historical studies, focusing on one case study from the 18th century, the project Historical atlas of the modern Rome. The methodology employed in this project allows for effectiveness and accuracy in historical data acquisition and integration, which enables refined analyses of socioeconomic and environmental phenomena. The approach outlined in this article allowed researchers from different disciplines—city historians, archaeologists, demographists, economists, and so on—to interpret urban phenomenologies according to different thematic keys. These interpretations were derived from archival sources that complement each other and offer diversified insights into the urban context. The techniques described in the article are based on methods of data acquisition and spatial analysis developed in a GIS environment by exploiting the effectiveness of this technology in the quantitative treatment of cartographic and documentary sources.

  8. Head injuries in the 18th century: the management of the damaged brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2013-07-01

    The 18th century was the time when trauma neurosurgery began to develop into the modern discipline. Before this, the management had, for the most part, changed little from the days of Hippocrates, Celsus, and Galen. Attention was directed to skull injuries, and the brain was treated as the seat of the rational soul but without other function. Symptoms after trauma were attributed to injuries to the bone and meninges. Following the lead of the Royal Academy of Surgery in Paris, it was accepted from the 1730s that the brain was the seat of symptoms after cranial trauma. During the 18th century, at least 12 surgeons published articles on cranial injury, 6 describing significant clinical series on this topic. They were Henri-François Le Dran (1685-1770) of Paris, Percival Pott (1714-1788) of London, James Hill (1703-1776) from Dumfries, Sylvester O'Halloran (1728-1807) of Limerick (Ireland), William Dease (1750-1798) of Dublin, and John Abernethy (1764-1831) of London. This article analyzes these series. Each individual made a different contribution. It is suggested that the relatively lesser-known James Hill in Scotland demonstrated the greatest understanding of the management of brain trauma and achieved the best results. A product of the Scottish Enlightenment, he adapted his management to his own experience and was not tied to the accepted authorities of his day, but he improved the management of each case following his experience with previous patients. He deserves to be remembered.

  9. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  10. The Science Behind Moravian Meteorological Observations for Late-18th Century Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Dianne; Lüdecke, Cornelia; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    From the time they established their first shelter among the Inuit population of the northern coast of Labrador in 1771, the brethren of the Moravian Church began producing series of daily instrumental and qualitative meteorological observations of significance to science networks of the day (Macpherson, 1987, Demarée & Ogilvie, 2008). Contrary to what is understood, missionaries did not make these observations for their own purposes. Rather, they responded to requests from scientists who commissioned the data. Scientists also equipped these undertakings. The enlightened observers provided handwritten copies that were publicized in England and continental Europe by individuals and their philosophical and scientific institutions. This pattern of producing reliable records specifically for scientists was true for the 15-year span of Moravian meteorological observations for all 3 Labrador stations in the late 18th century; the 40-year span of records for 10 Moravian stations in Labrador and Greenland in the mid-19th century; and the observations from 5 Labrador stations commissioned for the 1st international Polar Year, 1882, and continuing for several decades afterward, and longer in the case of Nain. When Nain data is combined with that from the Canadian meteorological service, we have a relatively straight run from 1882 to 2015. In this paper, we examine the late-18th century Moravian meteorological observations for qualitative information of interest to modern scientific research. The daily entries comprise not only measurements of temperature and air pressure, but also other weather observations, such as wind direction, estimated wind speed, cloudiness, information which has already allowed us to begin tracking polar lows travelling from Labrador to Greenland across the Labrador Sea. The annual missionary reports of Moravians provide critical supplementary data identifying recurring local phenological events in nature, which offer an integrated signal of weather

  11. METHODS USED FOR MUDARRIS APPOINTMENT IN THE 18th CENTURY OTTOMAN MADRASAHS

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    Ülkü YANCI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methods used in the appointment of mudarris, who make up the backbone of the madrasah system in the Ottoman Empire, have been examined. For historical scope of the study, the 18th century when the Ottoman State started to westernize, was chosen. In this century, the system is different in some aspects compared to the system in the foundation and rise periods. In this study, these differences are mentioned, and determinations made with regard to appointment methods are presented. In this context, changes in the inauguration and promotion of mudarrises are discussed. When the documents in this period are examined, it is seen that with regard to the appointment of the mudarrises, the expressions of “tevcih”, or “tevcih buyuruldu” were used to mean appointed. Mudarris appointments can be classified as appointments made with offers, appointment with the recommendations of Shaykh al-Islam, appointments with kadi’asker’s decree and the Sultan’s edicts. Mudarris appointments were made with such reasons as legitimacy, escheated, novation, eternalization and grace.

  12. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  13. Two positive tuberculosis cases in the late Nigrovits family, 18th century, Vác, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikossy, Ildikó; Pálfi, György; Molnár, Erika; Karlinger, Kinga; Kovács, Balázs K; Korom, Csaba; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H; Spigelman, Mark; Donoghue, Helen D; Kustár, Ágnes; Pap, Ildikó

    2015-06-01

    Two mummies of the Hungarian mummy collection from Vác were the subjects of anthropological, paleopathological, radiological, paleomicrobiological, paleohistological and paleoproteomic studies. Both individuals belonged to the same family. The father, József Nigrovits (No 29), died at the age of 55 on the 11th of November 1793; his son, Antal Nigrovits (No 54), died on the 16th of July 1803, at the age of 22. They lived in the 18th century in Vác, a small town in northern Hungary. The macroscopic examination of the son showed a severely deformed neck and back region; the father has no visible mark of any illnesses. As earlier researches showed that tuberculosis was widespread in the community, the etiology of these deformities was examined. The paleomicrobiological results found that both individuals were infected with tuberculosis. Although they suffered from TB, the CT scan data of the bodies and their 3D reconstructions showed no skeletal evidence of tuberculosis. The deformity of the son turned to be a developmental abnormality of unknown origin, but no Pott's gibbus was present.

  14. Portrait historié: Ladies as goddesses in the 18th century European art

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    Sibel Almelek İşman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Portrait historié is a term that describes portrayals of known individuals in different roles such as characters taken from the bible, mythology or literature. These portraits were especially widespread in the 18th century French and English art. In the hierarchy of genres established by the Academy, history painting was at the top and portraiture came next. Artists aspired to elevate the importance of portraits by combining it with history. This article will focus on goddesses selected by history portrait artists. Ladies of the nobility and female members of the royal families have been depicted as goddesses in many paintings. French artists Nicolas de Largillière, Jean Marc Nattier and Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun; English artists George Romney and Sir Joshua Reynolds can be counted among the artists working in this genre. Mythological figures such as Diana, Minerva, Venus, Hebe, Iris, Ariadne, Circe, Medea, Cassandra, Muses, Graces, Nymphs and Bacchantes inspired the artists and their sitters. Ladies were picturised with the attributes of these divine beings.

  15. REGIONAL DOCUMENTS OF THE 18th CENTURY IN TERMS OF THE TEMPORALITY CATEGORY

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    Gorban Oksana Anatolyevna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of actualizing the category of temporality in the document texts of the 18th century, made up in the offices of the Don Army Land and kept in the State Archive of Volgograd region. The author highlights the lexical, morphological and syntactic means of text time expression. They include the names of time units, months, designations of reference to a particular moment or to the length of time, the sequence of events, etc. The special place in the texts is occupied by the specific dates which record the facts of reality and define the text time of document as objective period. The date of drawing up the document is the starting time point of the entire text. The morphological tools include verbal forms which are grouped into content units. They describe the correlation between events and the time of document creation and perform the text-forming function. The model of such temporal organization of the army charters is presented in this paper. The syntactic means are expressed by prepositional-case structures, complex sentences with temporary conjunctions, adverbial participles expressing different temporal relations. The compositional and speech structure of the documents demonstrates the interaction of the old and new traditions of their design and the actualization of temporality in them.

  16. Linguistic contact in the 18th Century in America: Spanish and Portuguese in Paraguay

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    José Luis RAMÍREZ LUENGO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Spanish and Portuguese coexist in several areas of America, almost all studies have focused on the contact situation in the North of Uruguay, and this contact has been hardly considered from a historical point of view. This work tries to mitigate this lack of knowledge in presenting several texts from Paraguay in the 18th century, which show a clear influence from Portuguese. A philological edition of such documents is provided here and a study of linguistic characteristics possibly due to Portuguese influence is made. Our aim is twofold: 1 to describe the linguistic variety used in these written texts in comparison with the synchronic and diachronic data which are already available regarding the Portuguese Dialects in Uruguay (DPU and some other areas; 2 to provide data which could be helpful to understand the idiosyncratic characteristics of the linguistic contact of these two Romance languages and the significance of Portuguese in the shaping (of some linguistic varieties of American Spanish.

  17. Beginnings and Importance of Romantic Wandering in mid-18th Century

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    Aleksandar Molnar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the author is discussing the importance of the wandering experiences for the emergence of Romanticism in the mid-18th century. His point of view is that without such experiences the rising culture of novels would not be able to trigger the correspondent take off in romantic arts and philosophy. Only during wanderings in the unknown nature it was possible not only to contemplate the alternative universes reveled by novels, but also to feel the possibility of their existence. And the most precious experiences wanderings could offer were the experiences of the possibility that the golden age was not only part of a mythic past but could be re-established again. Romantic wanderings were always part of the search for such golden age and source of the urge to re-invent the alternative to the oppressive bourgeois society. Such a view on the importance of romantic wanderings the author tries to demonstrate on examples of Jean-Jacques Rousseau in France and Johann Gottfried Herder in Germany. He considers them as first Romantics (along with Johann Georg Hamann in Germany whose early wandering experiences shaped to a great extent their intellectual development and enabled them to engage passionately in battle with the ideals of Enlightenment.

  18. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INTRODUCTION OF MODERN SCIENCE TO PORTUGAL DURING THE 18th CENTURY

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    TERESA CASTELÃO-LAWLESS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the role played by members of the Society of Jesus, the Order of the Oratorians, and the Jewish community in the introduction of Modern science in Portugal during the 18th century. The record of their publications prove, contrary to common stereotypes on the permanent conflict between science and religion, that they all embraced Modern, anti-Aristotelian, natural philosophy fairly equally and unreservedly. The rhetoric they used in manuscript Dedications to prospective patrons also show that they were actively engaged in shifting Modern science from a context of private consumption to one of public circulation. I acknowledgethat the dissemination of Modern science in Portugal during the 1700’s was slow and protracted. This phenomenon, however, was not, as typically argued, caused by scientific conservatism on the part of the religious Orders, or the ill will of patrons of the sciences, but by the political motives of enlightened despots João V, José I and his Prime-Minister the Marquis of Pombal.

  19. The development of forensic medicine in the United Kingdom from the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, W

    1992-06-01

    Forensic medicine in the United Kingdom includes both forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine on the living. It began at the end of the 18th century, long after its development in Germany, Italy, France, and other countries in Europe. Initial beginnings were in Scotland, where a program began at the University of Edinburgh with the establishment of a chair in Forensic Medicine by Prof. Andrew Duncan Sr. The development in England began in London's Kings College Medical School with a chair held by Prof. William A. Guy. Later chairs in Forensic Medicine were established in Glasgow, Aberdeen, and in London, where Forensic Medicine was taught at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Guy's Hospital Medical School, London Hospital Medical School, Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, St. Thomas Hospital Medical School, and St. George's Hospital Medical School. In other cities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, departments were founded in Leeds, Manchester, Cardiff, and Belfast. Many textbooks were prepared during this time by professors from these medical schools and by others working in nonacademic areas. The development of coroner activities and those of the police surgeons is also part of the study of forensic medicine.

  20. Reading, writing, drawing and making in the 18th-century instrument trade

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    Dr Florence Grant

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When George Adams assembled a large collection of philosophical instruments for King George III in the early 1760s, he drew on a variety of printed books as sources of experiments and instrument designs. Most important of these was Mathematical Elements of Natural Philosophy by the Dutch mathematician and philosopher Willem ’s Gravesande, whose own collection of instruments is now in the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden. Papers in the Science Museum archives reveal the specific practices through which Adams used books such as Mathematical Elements in the course of his business. These techniques included commonplacing, a widespread method for organising information in the early-modern period; and physically cutting and pasting fragments from engraved illustrations into new drawings, as part of the process of design. These practices connected mobile print with local networks of production. They fundamentally shaped the group of instruments Adams made for George III, and constitute a material link between two important collections of 18th-century instruments: those of ’s Gravesande in Leiden, and those of George III at the Science Museum in London.

  1. Animals and medicine in 18th century Catalonia: a plural medical practice

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    Zarzoso, Alfons

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a framework in order to understand the animal medical world in 18th century Catalonia. By focusing in that historical context, we try to reveal the Bourbon policy on the matter of animal health. Through an anthropological lens we can observe a real complex and plural world of medical resources available to those individual interested in the health of animals.

    El artículo desarrolla un marco de trabajo para comprender el mundo de la medicina de los animales en la Cataluña del siglo XVIII. El análisis del contexto histórico permite conocer las actuaciones de las autoridades borbónicas en materia de fomento y control del ejercicio de aquella medicina. Una aproximación antropológica ofrece la posibilidad de acceder a un complejo entramado plural de recursos médicos disponibles, al alcance de aquellos individuos interesados en la salud de los animales.

  2. Migrations in Serbia during the 18th century and patriarchal society institutions

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    Svirčević Miroslav M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the Turks penetrated the Balkans from Asia Minor, migrations and ethnic composition changes occurred very frequently in Serbia and the Balkan Peninsula in general. These migrations and ethnic composition changes especially characterized the 18th century period, when initial conditions were set for subsequent liberation wars against the Turks in the 19th century. The reasons bringing about these mass migrations could be divided into three groups: 1, a military-political reason, 2, an economic-geographical reason, and 3, an hygienic-health reason. All of them operated simultaneously, causing mass migrations and changes in the demography of Serbia and the Balkans in general. Because of these migrations, a new population group of Serbs was created in the jurisdiction of pasha in Belgrade, that created in turn, a few very important establishments based on patriarchal culture and civilization. These are the new bodies: family co-operative associations (family committee, master of the house, lady of the house, members of the co-operative associations village and village headman self-management (village assembly, village headman, villein, headman assembly, principality headman. All of these establishments have the same origin and functioned in a very similar manner based on ancient common law rules. The similarities between these bodies could be recognized in a twofold way, based on a correlation with 1, family committee - village assembly - headman assembly, and 2, master of the house - villein - principality headman. There are no real differences among them. The difference is visible only in their personal and territorial range.

  3. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

  4. Investigation of a possible 18th century Dutch shipwreck on Christmas Island or the Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of an unidentified 18th century Dutch shipwreck emerges periodically in books, letters and conversations about Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. An investigation of these sources indicated that different ships may be responsible for these rumours, but it is equally poss

  5. A comparison of large 18th-century floods on Danube: Vienna - Bratislava - Budapest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea; Parajka, Juraj

    2013-04-01

    The documentation of historic floods can help in better understanding of factors that might cause and contribute to large and extreme flood events. In particular, the analysis of historic floods provides information about flood seasonality, its changes and anthropogenic impacts on river flood regime which in some cases strongly influenced flood behaviour. The main objective of the present contribution is to document large and medium size flood events on Danube in Vienna, Bratislava and Budapest in the 18th century. In the present study, based on contemporary documentary evidence, for each of the three towns a five-scaled flood index series is developed to describe the magnitude and intensity of flood events. According to this classification, the 100-year flood event was characterised by the index value 5, while great destructive floods - depending on their extension, destructivity and further impacts - received the values 4 and 3, respectively. Less significant but still harmful flood events were classified as No. 2, and floods without further specification remained in the lowest category (No. 1). Beside classification issues, seasonality and flood frequency differences between the three towns are as well discussed. The results indicate that a greater number of flood events took place in the last decades of the century, but only a few flood events of the same magnitude are documented simultaneously in all three towns. And whereas in 1775 no winter flood event was reported in Vienna, an important ice jam flood was documented in Bratislava, and a catastrophic ice jam flood event, greatest of the century, occurred in Budapest. In 1787 autumn the greatest flood event of the century occurred in Vienna, while hardly any flood waves were observed at Budapest. While in Vienna, summer (and partly autumn) floods had great importance, in Budapest a large number of ice jam floods were documented. In some cases the differences are likely caused by different hydrometeorological

  6. THE RUSSIAN LITERATURE OF THE 18th CENTURY: BETWEEN THE RATIO OF ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE ORTHODOX TRADITION

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    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the relationship between the rationalism, inherent in the Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century, and the Russian Orthodox traditon. The author raises the question whether it is true that in the Russian literature of the 18th century the Old Testament’s God (and, therefore, the Law prevails, as it was postulated by Y. Lotman and other researchers, or whether the Old Testament texts were seen by Russian writers through the perspective of New Testament’s Grace due to such dominant concepts of the Russian culture as sobornost, paskhalnost, and Christocentrism. Thus, in the Russian Orthodox tradition the Psalter does not represent the God of the Old Testament, rather it shows the Christianized understanding of the God in the New Testament. In the cultural unconscious mind of a Russian person, which had a strong influence on the individual creative work of our poets, the Psalter is an integral part of the very Orthodox Сhurch, the Orthodox divine service. When analyzing the versification of psalms by Russian poets of the 18th century, one should not ignore this situation. This article demonstrates the influence of the Orthodox tradition on the poetics of a fable as one of the most ancient genres. The author reconstructs the cultural context of the last decade of the 20th century and outlines new perspectives in the study of a transition period between the Russian Middle Ages and the early modern period.

  7. Some Notes About Medical Vocabulary in 18th Century New Spain: Technical and Colloquial Words for the Denomination of Illnesses

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    José Luis RAMÍREZ LUENGO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the 18th Century medical vocabulary is something that has been studied during recent years in Spain, the situation is very different in Latin America, where papers on this subject are very limited. In this case, this paper aims to study the denominations for illnesses that were discovered in a 18th Century New Spain document corpus: to do so, the corpus will be described and then the vocabulary used in the documents will be analysed; the paper will pay special attention to questions such as neologisms, fluctuating words and the presence of colloquial vocabulary. Thus, the purposes of the paper are three: 1 to demonstrate the importance of official documents for the study of medical vocabulary; 2 to provide some data for writing the history of this vocabulary; and 3 to note some analyses that should be done in the future. 

  8. [Medical education in the Chilean colonial period during 18th century: Professor Domingo Nevin and his disciple Pedro Manuel Chaparro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique; Duarte, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines the beginning of the medical studies at the Universidad de San Felipe de Santiago de Chile on the second half of the 18th century. Dr Domingo Nevin was the first professor of Prima Medicina and Proto-medico. Dr. Pedro Manuel Chaparro was the first Chilean student who complete his studies and got his degree at the same university. Both of them had remarkable achievements during the colonial Chilean Medicine.

  9. Shapes and geometries underlying the religious architecture in the 18th century

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    Sebastiano Giuliano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern Sicily , the 18th century was deeply characterized by an artistic renovation linked to the rebuilding fervor following  the catastrophic events which hit the NOTO VALLEY at the end of the 17th century. It was also characterized by the new needs of the counterreformation spirit.As far as this period is concerned, the research work tends to develop a new methodology of critical review on the works that, both on small and big scales, have characterized the inner and outer spaces of religious buildings, their altars and their facades.These works testify the circulation of cultural shapes and models, in both regional and national areas, in a dimension which widely overflows the local area and all its limited elaborations.It is difficult to diachronically read these works which are apart from important cultural centres, because there are very few historical documents which can testify the architectural design.The research work is based on a double analysis which, taking into account the deeply symbolic elements of the religious architectural expression, traces, on one hand the possible references to the literature of that period in order to identify its models; on the other hand it tries to find out connections among the typical elements of the surveyed area through a geometrical investigation.The aim is to promote a more and more effective preserving and developing action  of a less famous religious heritage. Thanks to the collection of cultural information, it is possible to gather valuable elements, on both small and big scales, in less famous areas which are apart from the most popular tracks.For this reason the first part of this study focuses its attention on the development of an analysis system which makes it possible to read in a syncretic way, the inevitable contaminations with the literature dating back to the Renaissance, which can be found in the religious architecture of the Noto Valley during that peculiar, cultural period

  10. Management accounting and rationalisation in the Army: The case of Spanish Military Hospitals in the 18th century

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    Juan Baños Sánchez-Matamoros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with one of the most neglected areas of research in accounting, that of the Army. In spite of the literature on industries related to the Army, not too much has been extended on the Army per se. For this reason, this paper analyses the process of rationalization developed in the 18th century in Spanish Army Hospitals, as a result of the bankruptcy of the Royal Finances. Due to this process, the Military Hospitals were the most developed in the country, and it led to the emergence of the Contralor (Controller within the hospital, and thus accounting was considered as an essential matter.

  11. [The « techno-aesthetics » of smithian economy the value and function of objects in 18(th) Century England].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilaire-Pérez, Liliane

    2012-01-01

    From The Theory of Moral Sentiments to his essay on The Nature of that Imitation Which Takes Place in What Are Called the Imitative Arts, Adam Smith offered a vision of aesthetics combining beauty and utility. An echo of exchange value as the "ability to buy other goods" - the "power" to organize and achieve one's goals - his definition of beauty was premised on the "aptness" of things, that is, the fact that they were also useful. Sustained by the commodification of products, a kind of "techno-aesthetics" thus emerged in England in the 18(th) century, one that implied designing, adapting, reducing and showcasing the means of production.

  12. Analysis of 18th-19th century's historical samples of Iranian ink and paper belonging to the Qajar dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha-Aligol, D.; Khosravi, F.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Baghizadeh, A.; Oliaiy, P.; Shokouhi, F.

    2007-11-01

    Thirteen historical Iranian manuscripts belonging to the Qajar dynasty (18th-19th Century BC) were investigated by micro-PIXE technique using Van de Graaff accelerator in the Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute in Iran. The aim of the present work has mainly been to determine the elemental composition of different inks and papers. In addition, the effects due to the variation of thickness and texture of the paper were simultaneously measured with the off-axis STIM technique. Elemental maps by micro-PIXE were compared to photographs taken in visible light.

  13. Bone trace element pattern in an 18th century population sample of Tenerife (Canary Islands): comparison with a prehistoric one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vazquez, J; Barros-Lopez, N; Galindo-Martin, L

    1998-10-01

    We have determined bone strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), and zinc (Zn) content in 24 samples belonging to adult individuals who died toward the end of the 18th century and were interred in a church's floor on the island of Tenerife, comparing the results with those obtained in 14 prehistoric samples of the same island and also with those of 7 modern controls. No differences were observed between the two ancient groups, which showed higher bone strontium and barium than the modern sample, and a slightly lower Ba/Sr ratio, thus pointing to consumption of marine sources.

  14. On the Borders of the Adventure Novel: Narratives of 18th-Century Travel in Indian Territory

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    Robert SAYRE

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available I will attempt here to discuss and illustrate an instance, in the literature of travel, of the fluid, and overlapping relations that often exist between genres, and more particularly between fictional and non-fictional genres. The particular body of travel literature that I will be dealing with involves accounts of Anglo-American travel in territories still controlled (at least partially by Indians in the 18th century. I will suggest that some of this material would qualify as a kind of “adv...

  15. Observations of planetary transits made in Ireland in the 18th Century and the development of astronomy in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. J.

    2005-04-01

    We review the small number of known observations of planetary transits made in Ireland in the 18th century with particular reference to the 1769 observations of Venus by Charles Mason. Though inconclusive, there is evidence to suggest that planetary transits were instrumental in the foundation of at least one of the principal observatories in Ireland. In addition, we note the close personal involvement and the contributions of Nevil Maskelyne, the prime mover of the UK 1769 Transit observations, in the design and equipment of these observatories.

  16. Anthropometric comparison of portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Ho

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study is to elaborate comparative portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Six portraits of beauty in the Korean Joseon Dynasty (early 19th century) and 5 in Japanese Edo Dynasty (late 18th century) were analyzed. Twenty anthropometric items were applied to the measure of the features on each portrait and 18 proportional indices of the face were calculated. Among the 18 indices, Korean and Japanese beauty did not show any significant differences in 13, but in 5: 1) the ratio of eye fissure to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 2) eye inclination was greater in Japanese beauty; 3) the ratio of nasal width to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 4) the ratio of nasal and facial width was greater in Korean beauty; and 5) the ratio of vermilion size to mouth width was greater in Japanese beauty. It is assumed that Korean had narrower eye fissure, lower eye inclination, wider nasal ala, and thinner lip than what Japanese craved during that era.

  17. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Michal; Hershkovitz, Israel; Sklan, Ella H; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Pap, Ildikó; Szikossy, Ildikó; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution.

  18. The problems of national history in the school literature of the 18th - beginning of the 20th centuries

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    Abramkin O. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of historical literature allows to consider profoundly the development of national culture and science of the 18th-first half of the 20th centuries and the formation and change of different historical concepts. With the analysis of historical periods that are highlighted in the research, general trends in the changing of paradigms about Russian historical development were concluded, which were translated to mass historical consciousness from the beginning of the 18th century up to 1917. The periods were closely connected with the specific political, historical and economic changes in Russian Empire and with the dominance of certain textbooks during this time. The books were selected because of a number of factors: their inclusion to the school curriculum, the number of publications (10 and more, the equal number of textbooks devoted to different historical periods. For the analysis were used 19 textbooks, schoolbooks for different courses of secondary schools and primary schools. All the sources of educational literature were grouped into two concepts - officially-state (patriotic and the liberal. Each publication was highlighted the dominant concept as a base for the whole textbook. There is also a characteristic of the concepts that are presented chronologically. The analysis represents school history books as an important source for the formation of state policy in the representing of Russian history, and, that is more important, for creation of the concept of the state of Russian history.

  19. On One Type of Decoration of the Mari Costume in the 16th – 18th Centuries

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    Nikitina Tatyana B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors use materials of 12 funerary complexes from Kartukovo, Vyzhum and Vazhnanger burial grounds to study one element of the Mari costume in the 16th – 18th centuries: collars or neckline trimmings (1.5–2.5 cm wide ribbons decorated with fl ounce of golden threads. Thermal and visual methods applied to the samples established that the item was crocheted of silk threads. All studied burials are dated by 16th – 18th centuries and are the earliest complexes containing crocheted items. Artefacts of crocheting were also found in the Mordva burial grounds. The raw silk for the fabric and the fl ounce of golden thread were bought in the trade centers located in the Volga region. The materials published in this article offer new data for the study of the Finno-Ugric household (Mari and Mordovians in the Middle Ages and the New Time, as well as history of appearance and dissemination of crocheting techniques.

  20. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy.

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    Michal Feldman

    Full Text Available Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution.

  1. Don Cossack Army Charters of the Mid 18th Century Via the Category of Modality

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    Elena Mihaylovna Sheptukhina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the language means of modality in the texts of military charters of the mid 18th cent. from the "Mikhailovsky stanitza hetman" archive (State Achieve of Volgograd Region. Military charters used to be major documents of legislation within Don Cossack Host, as being at that time an administrative unit in the territory of Russian Empire. The results of the contextual analysis verify the following facts: the charter texts are mainly characterized by an imperative tone of regulation that is caused by coordination between dominant meanings of a propositional (situational modality of necessity and pragmatic modality of volition, that are thought to be interrelated in utterances. The modal meaning of necessity is marked by the verbal construction with an independent infinitive or the combinations of modal verbs (imet' / possess; nadlezhat' / be to, modal predicatives with a dependent infinitive (dolzhen, nadobno, etc. / must (have to. Modality of volition is presented with a set of lexical units that possess the meanings of ordering, permission, offers, verbal forms that are used as performatives, or point to the status of a subject, etc. The texts under study represent some other modal meanings: possibility (with the words moch' / be able to; mozhno / could / may combined with an infinitive, in subordinate clauses with a particle li (if / wether, etc. in an interrogative clauses. In complex sentences with subordination combinations of various modal meanings are observed.

  2. Metallographic study of articles of the Kamensk iron foundry and iron works produced in the 18th-20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gizhevski, B. A.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Naumov, S. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Results have been presented for studies of the microstructure and chemical composition of a number of articles made of iron and cast iron at the Kamensk plant, which cover the period from the start of the production of iron on the territory of the city of Kamensk-Ural'skii at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries to the beginning of the 20th century. Differences in the composition of the Kamensk cast iron and modern grades of foundry cast iron have been established. Possible sources of technological difficulties and production waste at the Kamensk plant have been revealed. The potential of metallographic studies for the attribution of historical articles made of ferrous metals are shown.

  3. Recent historiographical trends of the British Studies (17th-18th centuries

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    Mario Caricchio and Giovanni Tarantino (editors

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Seminar index :1. Radicalism and the English revolution Mario CaricchioGlenn BurgessAriel HessayonNicholas McDowell2. Britain 1660-1714: competing historiographiesGiovanni Tarantino Mark Knights3. The Church of England in the eighteenth centuryGuglielmo SannaWilliam GibsonRobert G. IngramRobert D. Cornwall 4. Non-British readings of the English revolutionStefano VillaniGabi MahlbergPietro Messina5. Rediscovering radicalism in the British Isles and Ireland in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth centuries(Selected papers from the Goldsmiths Conference, ed. by Ariel Hessayon

  4. Electrical treatment of spinal cord injuries in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, John R; Weiner, M-F

    2013-05-01

    Two centuries ago, electricity was being used for the treatment of paraplegia and trials were taking place in France. This study aims to identify cases of traumatic paraplegia treated with electricity in the 19th century in order to assess the therapeutic benefit. Only four such cases were identified, none with a complete transection of the spinal cord since these patients would have died from pressure sores and urinary tract infections. The personalities involved, William Gull, William Erb, Guillaume Duchenne and Cyril Henry Golding Bird are portrayed and contemporaneous views on electrotherapy analysed. While the four patients apparently benefited from the treatment, the lack of follow-up and the incomplete data prevented a definitive conclusion on the therapeutic value of electrical treatment in traumatic paraplegia.

  5. Malthus, the 18(th) century European explorers and the principle of population in Africa.

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    Reniers, Georges

    2011-01-01

    In the second edition of his Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus included twelve chapters that offer a remarkable description of population dynamics from all corners of the world. His discussion of (sub-Saharan) Africa was almost entirely based on the travel accounts of James Bruce and Mungo Park, two late eighteenth century British explorers. In this essay, I introduce these sources and discuss the insights that Malthus did, or perhaps should have, derived from both.

  6. The Armory Chamber and Armed Forces of Russia in the Second Half of 17th - Early 18th Century

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    Orlenko Sergey P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the insufficiently studied aspect of the activities of the Armory chamber in the second half of 17th - beginning of 18th centuries – supplying the needs of the Russian armed forces. Political and military realities of the first half of the seventeenth century revealed the need for the modernization and transformation of the armed forces of Russia. Military reform required a massive amount of combat weapons and equipment made by Western European standard. The middle of the 17th century was the times of a search for an optimal algorithm which would provide the armed forces with weapons and equipment. The integration in this process of the court gunsmith and Armory was an effective solution. The content of the Inventory of the Armory Chamber in 1647 can be divided into two parts: 1 parade and ceremonial weapons and armor, designed for the sovereign and court 2 a huge number of combat weapons deposed in a different storages. The research is based on the complex of archival documents showing the role of the Armory chamber officials in organizing the purchase of combat weapons, its testing, preserving, repairing and transfer to the troops. The author also observed the changes in the activities of the institution in the last quarter of the century – when craftspeople of the court Armory workshop participated in the manufacturing of some special types of combat arms and service as a military gunsmith directly in troops and provincial armories.

  7. [German-Hungarian medical relationships during the Enlightenment; including an 18th century work on inoculation against plague].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheisz, E

    2001-09-01

    The influence of German science and medicine on the development of Hungarian medicine in the age of Enlightenment has been extraordinary strong. Many Hungarian medical students stayed in German medical faculties. The medical interrelationships between Germany and Hungary in the 18th century are discussed in an overview according to the following dimensions: education of protestant Hungarian medical students at German >Aufklaerungs-Universitaeten<, practical and theoretical resonance, membership of scientific societies, personal contacts and correspondence. Outstanding personalities of this area were Daniel Fischer, István Weszprémi, Abraham Vater. Special attention is given to a new idea: inoculation against plague was first described by A. Vater in his work Blattern-Beltzen (1721). Thirty years later I. Weszprémi published his original conception - independently from Vater - in the Tentamen de inoculanda peste (1755).

  8. Unveiling the private life of the 18th Century (a divorce act of 1795

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    Lilia Zabolotnaia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper exploits the content of a very important document, found in the National Archives of the Republic of Moldova. Its valuable information enhances the insight into the private life of the late eighteenth century. The case study – which is the subject of the article - is based on a divorce act of 1795. It shows not only the law of the time, but also the particularities of the social and legal position held by women. In other words, this article identifies new aspects of private life, which can be analyzed both in terms of mentalities and that of gender relations.

  9. [The historian's competence tested by authority: on an academic debate of the 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schandeler, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The debate which took place in the 1720s at the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Letters on the possibility or impossibility of understanding the history of the first centuries of Rome is generally interpreted to be less of a debate than an important epistemological clarification. A contextualization which takes into account the political stakes of the debate allows one to understand that the debate was the beginning of a larger process of the autonomisation of the field of historical studies, not only from the perspective of disciplinary divides, but also in relation to monarchal power.

  10. Inheritance, Honour and Familiar Feuds in the Aragon of the 18th Century

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    Encarna JARQUE MARTÍNEZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Family conflict was a common experience in past families close as it is today. This study is based on the reason that led to family breaking in the XVIII Century Aragon and the lines society prescribed to avoid a total dissolution of a family kin. The most common causes annalyzed for these breakdowns were marriage plans, inheritances and domestic violence, all gathered in different lawsuits. Aragonese law affects to these situations in a different way that Castilian law did. The particular interpretations of Aragonese lawyers printed in the lawsuits their perception of human condition.

  11. Verbal Descriptions and Portraits of People in the Crimean Court Books of the 17th–18th centuries »

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    O.D. Rustemov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents current issues of the style of Crimean legal documents (sidzhils of the 17th–18th centuries. The subject of research is the traditions of making verbal portraits of people, who appear in the court decisions of the Crimean Khanate. The describing of people in the legal practice of the Crimean Khanate wore a traditional character and was not applied to all participants of the process. It also spoke about class inequality in this Muslim country. Such inequality was reflected in similes and metaphors, which were used in the preparation of verbal portrait. Typically, the compilation of some conditional descriptions of people was applied to the slaves who, for various reasons, appeared in court. Usually it would be the case, considering the slave’s redemption or another way of their release.Another way to identify people in the legal documents of the Crimean Khanate was a posting of their name, father’s name and place of residence. For more precise information, sometimes their position was reported in terms that existed in the Crimea in the specified period. As we know, it was time of the Ottoman language and Ottoman terminology. This article contains some examples of judicial decisions for the first time translated into Russian. The author considers the problem of official style in the Crimean Turkic language, which reflected the process of forming and fixing the style of legal chancery in the Crimean court registries of the 17th–18th centuries. Characteristically, the Ottoman written tradition replaced that of the Golden Horde during this period of the Crimean Khanate’s history.

  12. Ophthalmologic wax models as an educational tool for 18th-century vision scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Fabio; Comacchio, Francesco; Zanatta, Alberto

    2017-02-16

    The Medical Faculties of the University of Padua (Italy) and the University of Vienna (Austria) preserved two series of wax models, made by the Austrian Johann Nepomuk Hoffmayr at the beginning of the 19th century. These models were created in a period of evolution of both medical specialties and organ pathology, which brought morbid organs at the centre of medical investigation. Ceroplastic was considered a useful tool for didactic and research, as it provided a three-dimensional realistically coloured reproduction of organic lesions. The models represent the typical eye diseases of the period, in particular those affecting external parts, which could be investigated without the need for specific instruments devised for the observation of the inner and posterior anatomy of the eye, at that time not yet available. Even if the nosological categories then employed by Hoffmayr were different from those currently used, it has been possible to find a correspondence thanks to the ophthalmological literature of his period. Ceroplastic started to decline at the end of 19th century, substituted by the much less expensive method of preservation of morbid organs in formalin and by new techniques of investigation of the inner body, such as X-ray. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Mortality differentials in France during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, A; Houdaille, J; Lamouche, M

    1990-01-01

    "The very high quality of a set of marriage records for Paris during the 1860s made it possible to apply indirect methods to estimate adult mortality differentials by certain geographical and social criteria of the 19th century. The largest differences between groups were observed to be social, geographical origin apparently having little impact.... It is interesting that social differences in adult mortality are similar in magnitude to those observed today. Perhaps the principal factor of differentiation is then the level of child mortality.... It is by no means necessary to have a set of data as complete as ours. The indirect methods we have used proved largely adequate for estimating mortality differentials."

  14. Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duner, David

    2013-05-01

    In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

  15. Complexes of Gunfl ints of the 18th – 19th Centuries from the Crimea

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    Kolesnik Alexander V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors address the problem of identification of the gunflints in the Modern Time complexes. Gunflints are a specific type of historical and archaeological sources. Distribution of these products is entirely connected with distribution of firearms with flintlock ignition mechanisms. The typology of gunflints is essentially similar to the typology of Stone Age microlith inserts. In both cases fragments of blades and lamellar flakes served as workpieces. The authors describe three small complexes of gunflints from the Crimea. Flints have been found on the eighteenth-century Russian military camps in Bakhchisarai and Belogorsk, also in Sevastopol. The complex from Sevastopol is connected with the Eastern War (1853–1856. The published gunflint inserts fully meet the standards of West European gunflints. A large share of flints has a lead shell which was intended to fix the flint in the hammer of ignition mechanism. Parameters of flints suggest application of guns of various calibers in the Russian army. The place of production of gunflints is still uncertain.

  16. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

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    A Paolo Masucci

    Full Text Available We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  17. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  18. Geschlechtermodelle im spanischen Roman des 18. Jahrhunderts Constructions of Gender in the 18th Century Spanish Novel

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    Claudia Gronemann

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Während Spanien lange Zeit als „Land ohne Aufklärung“ galt und das 18. Jahrhundert auch in der deutschen Hispanistik ein Randgebiet gegenüber der Masse an Studien etwa zum Siglo de Oro darstellte, wandelt sich diese Tendenz zunehmend. Beinahe zeitgleich erschienen jetzt zwei Dissertationen zum spanischen 18. Jahrhundert, die sich auf der Basis von Korpus und Fragestellung sehr gut vergleichen lassen. Wenn dieses Jahrhundert im Anschluss an die Brüder Goncourt (La femme au XVIIIe siècle, 1852 wiederholt als das der Frau apostrophiert wurde, scheint es kein Zufall, dass sich beide mit „Geschlechterentwürfen“ (Kilian bzw. dem „Bild der Frau“ (Hertel-Mesenhöller im spanischen Roman befassen. Spanien hat nicht nur Anteil an der europäischen Aufklärung, auch wenn sich diese als patriotische und christliche Ilustración „von oben“ erweist, sondern ebenso an einem übergreifenden Wandel der Geschlechterkonstellation, welcher unter dem Begriff der Naturalisierung des Geschlechtsunterschieds in die Gender Studies eingegangen ist. Beide Verfasserinnen untersuchen die diskursiven Manifestationen dieses Wandels im Roman und problematisieren, ob und inwiefern die jeweiligen Weiblichkeitsentwürfe einem spezifischen Aufklärungsprogramm entsprechen. Dabei greifen sie gegenwärtige Theorieentwicklungen ganz unterschiedlich auf.For the longest time, Spain used to be considered the “country without enlightenment”, and the 18th century was only assigned a marginal position in Hispanic Studies in Germany, compared to the large number of studies on the Siglo de Oro darstellte. However, this tendency has recently changed. Two dissertations on 18th century Spain have just been published; both works are comparable in terms of their corpus and the research questions they investigate. If, following the Goncourt brothers (La femme au XVIIIe siècle, 1852, the 18th century has repeatedly been called the century of the woman, it does not seem

  19. Analysis on the Orientation of Marriage Value in the 18th-19th Century of England through Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiu-ji

    2013-01-01

    “It is truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.” Almost two centuries later, the deep impression on readers left by the opening sentence of Pride and Prejudice has not decreased because of their changing literary taste. Jane Austin, the author of Pride and Prejudice, was one of the famous realistic writers in English literature in the nineteenth century. Pride and Prejudice is Austin’s representative work. There were no earthshaking events, no dreadful disasters, no sharp contradictions and no romantic legends in Authin’s novels. Time and space were small in her novels. She wrote how a marriageable woman could find a satisfactory husband. She described many kinds of love and marriage of different women. She expressed her own original views of marriage in her works.In Pride and Prejudice Austin wrote four marriage types: ideal Elizabeth and Darcy, realistic Charlotte and Collins, felicitous Jane and Bingley, unhappy Lydiard Wickham. She pointed out emphatically economic consideration is the bonds of wedlock and love. She said marriage is not determined by property and family status. It is unwise to marry without money, but it is wrong to marry for money; the marriage settled by love is happy and ideal. The thesis explicates that Austin’s view of marriage was progressive, advocated by her focus on the equality between men and women. She emphasized marriage should be of equal importance both by love and by economic consideration, but love plays the guiding role. She revealed the connotation of marriage. She also analyses the marriage value in the 18th-19th century .Her exposure is of great realistic significance to the society today.

  20. Decorative 18th Century Blue-and-White Portuguese Tile Panels: A Type-Case of Environmental Degradation

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    Teresa P. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decorated glazed ceramic tiles are used as an ornamental art, constituting an important cultural heritage whose preservation is mandatory. Environmental conditions are responsible for the degradation of exposed ancient tile panels originating various pathologies, related to the development of microorganisms. This is the case of a valuable 18th century blue-and-white Portuguese tile panel called “Cura do Cego,” belonging to the collection of the National Tile Museum (MNAz, where green stains are nowadays observable in the glaze. A prospective diagnosis of this green tarnishing was the aim of the present work. Small tile fragments were directly irradiated using nondestructive techniques: X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with a wavelength-dispersive system (WDXRF for chemical characterization of the tile glaze and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD to assess the phase constitution of both the glaze and the ceramic body. A destructive technique (scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive system (SEM/EDS was applied to tentatively infer the chemical changes induced in the glaze by the green staining and also to characterize the morphology of the microorganisms associated to this staining. The obtained results are reported and discussed, as a preliminary step for testing an innovative nondestructive decontamination technique applying gamma radiation, particularly suitable for overcoming such tile pathologies.

  1. Problems in the Study of the Crimean Court Registries of the 17th–18th centuries »

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    O.D. Rustemov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first mention of the Crimean court registries – sijils – belong to the 1800s. At that time, translations of some texts were made, the content of these monuments was relatively minutely described and their historical and philological significance was evaluated. However, separate volumes of presented documents still have not been published. Neither comprehensive linguistic study nor description of terminology and style of these texts have not been made. Research objectives: study of the Crimean court registries of the 17th–18th centuries. One of the problems lying on the surface of this field of study of the Crimean Tatar language history and the right is the question about the compilers of these judicial materials. Whom we can consider the author or scribe of a court registry? How competent is an assertion that these books are kadiaskers books? Research materials: the court registries, kadylyk, kadiasker defters. The paper also raised the question of authenticity of the Crimean law and the two sources of the entire justice system of this Eastern European Turkic state: Sharia and actual Turkic law – Töre implemented subsequently in various legislative compilations, such as the Yasa of Chinggis Khan. Another issue of research of these monuments is the question of their content. Fedor Lashkov identified the Crimean records of Sharia courts as a sort of land records’ acts. Research results and novelty: As a result of a detailed study, the author found that its own jurisdiction and its own laws, which did not always coincide with the laws of the Ottoman Empire, functioned in the Crimean Khanate. Despite their historical and philological value as well as more than a century of study, Crimean court registries still contain many blank spots. This again points to the need for their early reading, translation into modern Turkish language and publication, which should be carried out in the Crimean Tatar and Russian languages.

  2. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

  3. CULTURAL LANDSCAPES AND LOCAL IDENTITIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EASTERN SIBERIAN CITIES (FROM LATE 18TH TO EARLY 19TH CENTURY

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    Maria Mihailovna Plotnikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the interaction of geographical and cultural landscape in identity formation of the East-Siberian cities of Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, and Kirensk in the late 18th century and early 19th century. The comparative analysis of the European city of Valga with the East-Siberian city of Kirensk revealed that, while most of the citizens of the European city were artisans, the military personnel played a significant role in the outskirts of the Russian Empire. At the end of 18th century and during the early 19th century, the Eastern Siberian cities collected taxes as revenue for the city, using the advantage of their geographical position. The author concludes that the study into the essence of the "genius loci" of a city gives insight into the origins of the local identity formation.

  4. Exotic but Useful: The Royal Camels of Aranjuez during the 18th Century Exóticos pero útiles: los camellos reales de Aranjuez durante el siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos GÓMEZ-CENTURIÓN JIMÉNEZ

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the evolution of exotic animal collecting by the Spanish Court during the 18th Century. It focuses on camels and dromedaries raised in the Aranjuez Palace. In addition to providing details about the roles —symbolic, recreational, practical— they played there, the article examines their living conditions at the Royal Site, their sudden extinction around the middle of the century, and the countless problems that arose from that moment on to acquire new specimens and ensu...

  5. [Were the Turks in the 18th century variolated against smallpox? the analysis of a typical example of misconception in medical cross-cultural transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Alicia

    2009-07-01

    There has been a continuing misconception for almost three centuries since the transmission of variolation from Turkey (actually the Ottoman Empire) to England that this was a practice of the Turkish Muslims. There are many sources of cogent evidence that variolation in the 18th century in the Ottoman Empire was opposed by Muslims due to their religious beliefs. This article uses cultural anthropology in its analysis of the reasons for the misconception.

  6. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  7. a Webgis for the Knowledge and Conservation of the Historical Wall Structures of the 13TH-18TH Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, G.; Pili, D.; Fiorino, D. R.; Pintus, V.

    2017-05-01

    The presented work is part of the research project, titled "Tecniche murarie tradizionali: conoscenza per la conservazione ed il miglioramento prestazionale" (Traditional building techniques: from knowledge to conservation and performance improvement), with the purpose of studying the building techniques of the 13th-18th centuries in the Sardinia Region (Italy) for their knowledge, conservation, and promotion. The end purpose of the entire study is to improve the performance of the examined structures. In particular, the task of the authors within the research project was to build a WebGIS to manage the data collected during the examination and study phases. This infrastructure was entirely built using Open Source software. The work consisted of designing a database built in PostgreSQL and its spatial extension PostGIS, which allows to store and manage feature geometries and spatial data. The data input is performed via a form built in HTML and PHP. The HTML part is based on Bootstrap, an open tools library for websites and web applications. The implementation of this template used both PHP and Javascript code. The PHP code manages the reading and writing of data to the database, using embedded SQL queries. As of today, we surveyed and archived more than 300 buildings, belonging to three main macro categories: fortification architectures, religious architectures, residential architectures. The masonry samples investigated in relation to the construction techniques are more than 150. The database is published on the Internet as a WebGIS built using the Leaflet Javascript open libraries, which allows creating map sites with background maps and navigation, input and query tools. This too uses an interaction of HTML, Javascript, PHP and SQL code.

  8. Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science.

  9. A WEBGIS FOR THE KNOWLEDGE AND CONSERVATION OF THE HISTORICAL WALL STRUCTURES OF THE 13TH–18TH CENTURIES

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    G. Vacca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is part of the research project, titled "Tecniche murarie tradizionali: conoscenza per la conservazione ed il miglioramento prestazionale" (Traditional building techniques: from knowledge to conservation and performance improvement, with the purpose of studying the building techniques of the 13th–18th centuries in the Sardinia Region (Italy for their knowledge, conservation, and promotion. The end purpose of the entire study is to improve the performance of the examined structures. In particular, the task of the authors within the research project was to build a WebGIS to manage the data collected during the examination and study phases. This infrastructure was entirely built using Open Source software. The work consisted of designing a database built in PostgreSQL and its spatial extension PostGIS, which allows to store and manage feature geometries and spatial data. The data input is performed via a form built in HTML and PHP. The HTML part is based on Bootstrap, an open tools library for websites and web applications. The implementation of this template used both PHP and Javascript code. The PHP code manages the reading and writing of data to the database, using embedded SQL queries. As of today, we surveyed and archived more than 300 buildings, belonging to three main macro categories: fortification architectures, religious architectures, residential architectures. The masonry samples investigated in relation to the construction techniques are more than 150. The database is published on the Internet as a WebGIS built using the Leaflet Javascript open libraries, which allows creating map sites with background maps and navigation, input and query tools. This too uses an interaction of HTML, Javascript, PHP and SQL code.

  10. A brief conceptual history of Einfühlung: 18th-century Germany to post-World War II U.S. psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Laura Hyatt

    2013-11-01

    This brief conceptual history, modeled on Koselleck's Begriffsgeschichte, adds to earlier histories of empathy. It showed that Johann Gottfried Herder, not Robert Vischer, invented Einfühlung as an objective scholarly method during 18th-century absolutist-relativist disputes. Original 18th-, 19th-, and 20th-century scholarly texts demonstrated that continued attempts to redress these disputes drove many of Einfühlung's conceptual transformations. Empathy first appeared in U.S. scientific psychology as a personal characteristic when relativists sought to redress the absolutist-relativist methodological dispute that began between John Watson and Edward Titchener. The conclusion notes limitations to this Begriffsgeschichte. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Charles Richard de Beauregard and the treatment of blennorrhagic urethral stenosis in Madrid in the 18th century: Advertising, secrecy and deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómiz, J J; Galindo, I

    2015-12-01

    Describe the introduction of the treatment for blennorrhagic urethral stenosis in the city of Madrid in the 18th century by the French surgeon Charles de Beauregard, the formulations employed in the preparation of his personal «bougies», the advertising in the press, their marketing and distribution. Nonsystematic review of the Madrid newspaper Gaceta de Madrid y Diario curioso, erudito, económico y comercial (Madrid Gazette, curious, erudite, financial and commercial) between 1759 and 1790. Review of the medical literature of the 18th century preserved in the Fondo Antiguo of the Biblioteca Histórica of Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Historical Resource of the Historical Library of the Complutense University of Madrid). A Google search of «Charles Richard de Beauregard». Charles de Beauregard focused his professional work mainly on the treatment of the urethral sequela of blennorrhagia, phimosis and paraphimosis. He introduced to 18th century Spanish society (with purported originality and clear commercial interests) therapeutic methods based on lead acetate that had already been developed in France by Thomas Goulard. The urethral sequela of diseases such as blennorrhagic urethritis, stenotic phimosis and paraphimosis were highly prevalent in 18th century Madrid and required complex solutions for the practice of urology of that era. Charles de Beauregard introduced innovative but not original treatments that were invasive but not bloody and that provided him with fame and social prestige. He advertised his professional activity and marketed his therapeutic products through advertisements submitted to the daily press (Madrid Gazette, Gaceta de Madrid). Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century

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    Kozma Ahačič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century Summary The paper provides a sociolinguistic survey of the use of Slovenian in education, the church, and early theatre performances in the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century. The extant studies and primary sources serve to identify the occasions for, and forms of, its use. The practice of elementary education shows no significant changes between the 16th and 17th centuries; there are, however, some changes at the ideological level. There is no explicit request for elementary education in Slovenian, either in the period of the Catholic reformation or later, while the demand for the use of Slovenian in education is primarily limited to catechesis: in catechesis, however, the emphasis was not on reading texts but on listening and on spoken reproduction. Some sources do suggest the use of Slovenian in elementary education at certain “non-Slovenian” schools, but it was not systematic. The same applies to the Ljubljana Jesuit gymnasium, where the use of Slovenian is likely – especially at the early stages – but lacks immediate evidence. On the other hand, the presence of Slovenian can be proved for the theological seminary adjoining the Ljubljana Cathedral, as well as for the educational centre at Gornji Grad. Moreover, the great number of Jesuit gymnasia significantly improved the general language knowledge in their localities as compared to the previous periods. The use of Slovenian in church was concentrated in preaching. All Slovenian priests were encouraged by the bishops to preach, and there were ecclesiastical orders that particularly fostered this activity. Sources testify to the delivery of Slovenian sermons by the Capuchin Friars, Jesuits, and Franciscans, while the role of Slovenian in the sermons by the Dominicans, Augustinians and Cistercians has received less attention. Of

  13. Traditional costume as a migration phenomenon on the part of the Adriatic coast in the 17th and 18th century

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    Radojičić Dragana S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrations from Herzegovina and Montenegro to the Herceg Novi region, during the period from the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries, were the reasons for investigation (thanks to the preserved archive material of female "traditional costumes" involved in these migrations. Clothing retained the influence of Balkan, Slav, Oriental and Mediterranean cultures. The function of clothing (for work and ceremonial occasions was studied, as well as changes within the generation, regardless of whether the individual items were in constant use or only used on one occasion.

  14. Essays on the history of brazilian dipterology: III. Three remarkable notices from the 18th century, mainly related to myiasis-producing flies (Cochliomyia and Dermatobia

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    Nelson Papavero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper registers reports about dipterans made by three Portuguese who lived in Brazil during the 18th century. Luiz Gomes Ferreira, in his book "Erário mineral" ["Mineral revenue"], wrote curious passages related with myiasis-causing flies of the genus Cochliomyia. José Rodrigues de Mello registered, in Latin verses, the folklore for curing myiases caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in cattle. Luiz dos Santos Vilhena, in the last of his twenty letters dealing with several aspects of life in Brazil, made reference to horseflies, human bot flies and mosquitos.

  15. [The promotional dissertation of Joseph von Quarin as a mirror of the status of medical entomology in the middle of the 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehne, T

    1997-01-01

    Joseph von Quarin (1733-1814), court physician to the Emperor of Austria at the end of the 18th century, had studied medicine in Vienna and Freiburg im Breisgau. His Freiburg doctoral dissertation is still of great interest today. In a first chapter it defines the term "insect", in a second it describes diseases insects can cause, and a final chapter discusses medical uses of insects. Quarin tried to unite traditional knowledge with new findings. His brief work is a survey of the knowledge of medical entomology in his time.

  16. Tungsten/wolfram: A little-known connection between the 18th century Basque Country and SOFT 2014 in Donostia/San Sebastián

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Román, Pascual [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ascasíbar, Enrique, E-mail: enrique.ascasibar@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • SOFT 2014 has taken place in Donostia/San Sebastián. • Tungsten/wolfram (W) is a strategic material for the development of fusion. • W was isolated very close to Donostia in the late 18th century as a result of a combination of fortunate circumstances. • This fact is largely unknown even to the fusion materials experts working with W. • We describe this story with some detail. - Abstract: This paper is intended as a preface of the special issue that Fusion Engineering and Design will devote to the best papers presented in the Symposium on Fusion Technology, 2014 (SOFT 2014) that took place in Donostia/San Sebastián. It is a historical note dwelling on the largely unknown story of the isolation of tungsten/wolfram in Spain, more precisely, in the Basque Country, very close to Donostia/San Sebastián, in the late 18th century. Given the current strategic importance of tungsten in the development of fusion as a viable energy source we think it is timely to recall the protagonists and the circumstances involved in the isolation of this metal.

  17. [Genealogy of the Books of Practica medicinae in Europe before the End of 18th Century: From the Origin to the Disappearance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2015-09-01

    The Practica medicinae represented the books written in Europe before the end of 18th century that dealt with individual deseases. In total, 100 Practica books, written by 95 authors, were collected and divided into four periods from the early 11th to the end of 18th century. The first Practica book was written at the Salernitan medical school on the basis of ancient medical books in the basic style, dealing with regional deseases arranged in "a capite ad calcem" manner, as well as with the fevers. The basic style comprised a majority in the first period and decreased gradually, becoming a minority in the 3rd and 4th periods. Sennert's practica was the largest and it elaborated with precise construction. The additional categories, such as female, children, and surgical deseases increased in the later periods. Those written in non-basic style based on pathogenesis or in alphabetical order also increased in the later periods. The practica books changed slightly and gradually, indicating the essential consistency of the concepts of diseases in these periods.

  18. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna.

  19. Figurative lights: Images of Techno-Scientific slides and Secularization in Spain during the 18th Century

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    Germán LABRADOR MÉNDEZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper asembles and studies a set of iconological representations linked to technical and scientific transformations during the eighteenth Century in Spain, reading them in a dialectic between modern science, Enlightenment policies and popular culture. After analyzing the emergence of representations both of science and scientists according to the process of institutionalizing science as a socio-professional language, two specific eighteenth century technologies are studied: magic lanterns and aerostats. By interpreting their first images and their infiltration into popular and official speeches and the imagination of the moment, it is argued that in those images a tale of demo-Enlightenment is expressed, a tale about secularization and progress as a collective aesthetic experience.

  20. The Ballet-Pantomime Technique of Passions: Constructing Knowledge of Dance during the 17th and 18th Centuries

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    Juan Ignacio VALLEJOS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the fundamentals of the pantomime-ballet dance technique, which was characteristic of the eighteenth century. In particular, it explores how knowledge developed with regard to the representation of passions and expressive gestures. Our hypothesis proposes the existence of a correlation between the regulation of the theatrical practice of dance in the seventeenth century, during the reign of Louis XIV, and the discourses on the dancing-body that accompanied the zenith of the pantomime-ballet project between 1760 and 1776. In this way, we show that the passage from baroque ballet to pantomimeballet represents a breakthrough in body encoding as well as a development of the aesthetic framework for the theatrical expression of the dancer.

  1. South-Eastern Policy of Russia in the Middle of the 18th Century in the Light of Orientalist Discourse

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    Aznabaev B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The correctness of application of orientalist discourse of E. Said to the colonial policy of the Russian Empire is analyzed in the article on the example of P. I. Rychkov research. By studying integration of Bashkirs in the structure of the Russian state, the author came to the conclusion that Russia's policy in the East was based on the experience of the management of non-Russian peoples, which was developed in the 16-17th centuries. The establishment of “cultural distance” is typical only for a small group of educated administrators of past-Petrine era. Most of the officials of the region, as in the preceding period, and during the time of Rychkov and Tatishchev preferred to rely on traditional methods of Bashkir management, which was developed in the period of their voluntary accession. Managerial stereotypes of 16-17th centuries, had significant influence on policy towards South-Eastern peoples of Russia even in the 19th century. The Russian administration inherent in the desire to integrate the non-Russian peoples in the General class structure of the state on the basis of analogies or correspondences, the objective of which was social and cultural rapprochement of the two societies.

  2. The Orchestras of the Príncipe and Cruz Coliseums in Madrid during the Second Half of the 18th Century

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    Marina BARBA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There were no stable orchestras in Madrid’s public theatres during the first half of the Eighteenth Century, and a variable number of instrumentalists were used on each occasion. This paper discusses the development of the two town-owned theatres in the second half of the century, when the orchestra was considered an important element and a new way of hiring musicians developed, based on sources kept at the Archivo de Villa de Madrid, Sección de Secretaría.René Andioc and Mireille Coulon in their Cartelera teatral madrileña del siglo XVIII: (1708-1808 refer to the companies that worked in both theatres in the second half of the 18th Century, those of de Josef de Parra, María Hidalgo, José Martínez Gálvez, Juan Ángel, Águeda de la Calle, María Ladvenant, Nicolás de la Calle, Juan Ponce, Manuel Martínez, Eusebio Ribera, Joaquín Palomino, Luis Navarro and Francisco Ramo, although they do not study the orchestral musicians. The first study on this issue is that by José Máximo Leza «Las orquestas de ópera en Madrid entre los siglos XVIII-XIX», although it does not discuss the theatres of La Cruz and El Príncipe in the second half of the century

  3. In naming the dead: Autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR typing on human skeletal remains from an 18th/19th century aristocratic crypt in Gallspach, Upper Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Reinhard; Renhart, Silvia; Gruber, Heinz; Kli Mesch, Wolfgang; Neuhuber, Franz; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA analyses have shown to be a powerful tool in the joint transdisciplinary assessment of archaeological records involving human remains. In this study we set out to identify single inhumations by synoptically evaluating the historical, archaeological, anthropological and molecular records on human remains from the crypt of the aristocratic family of Hoheneck (or: Hohenegg) dating to the 18(th) and 19(th) century AD. A total of 11 individuals were under investigation, yielding complete autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR profiles for 5 persons clearly showing a family group. DNA results, anthropological data and archaeological records taken together resulted in (almost) unambiguous correlation to historical records on the persons entombed in the crypt.

  4. A study of Neoclassical and Romantic features in the poetry of André Chénier, French poet of the 18th Century

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    امینی امینی

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available André Chénier (1762-1794 is the greatest and the best known French poet of the 18th century. He is famous especially for his courageous opposition to the power of the Terror in the early years of the French Revolution which caused finally his death by guillotine. The study of his poetical works can clarify the literary transition between neoclassicism and romanticism. This paper, by describing the poetry, the ideas and the time of Chénier, tries to demonstrate why it is impossible to limit his works merely to classicism. In fact he goes beyond the limits of classicism and toward romanticism, the literary school whose great followers call him their own precursor. Keywords: André Chénier, French poetry, neoclassicism, romanticism, literary schools.

  5. [Military, sailors and the sick poor: contribution to the history of the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Cartagena de Indias (18th century)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri, Adriana María Alzate

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the history of the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Cartagena de Indias, at the end of the 18th century. Its activities and evolution cannot be understood unless they are analyzed within the context of the Bourbon sanitary reforms. it was precisely at that time when these reforms were being implemented in Nueva Granada. One of the goals of the reforms was to improve the health of the population in order to discipline the vassals, to promote the growth of the workforce and to increase the Crown's wealth. The text reviews different aspects of the institution, and how it operated. It examines the budget, its expenses, and the dynamics of the hospital population and of its employees. In doing so, it intends to explain what the hospital offered to the city's various social groups.

  6. [An ethnographic study of an Ottoman city at the end of the 18th century. Viage a Esmirna by Pedro María González].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagüe de Ros, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 1796, Pedro María González, a surgeon trained at the College of Cadiz, took part in an expedition commissioned by the Cadiz Consulate with the aim of initiating trading relationships with Smyrna, the most important commercial centre in the Ottoman Empire. On his return, he wrote a document to facilitate future business ventures by Spaniards, describing in detail the customs and traditions of the various social and ethnic groups that inhabited the city of Smyrna. In this paper, I analyse the view of the Turks held by Europeans in the 17th and 18th centuries and the ideological and conceptual factors underlying their negative opinions. I then describe the viewpoint of González himself, especially in relation to Jews, the ethnic group he studied in greatest depth. The fact that they shared a common language, Spanish, undoubtedly facilitated his relationships and his close analysis.

  7. [Records of the invisible: Visa reperta in 18th- and 19th-century forensic medicine and their role as promoters of pathological-anatomical knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Irmgard; Fangerau, Heiner

    2010-01-01

    Case reports in medicine serve as a tool to collect and to transfer knowledge. A special kind of case report in forensic medicine during the 18th and 19th centuries was the so-called Visum repertum. This format of note-taking and of rendering an expert opinion without presuppositions has rarely investigated in the history of medicine. Analyzing Visa reperta the authors argue that due to their special structure and mode of representation Visa reperta not only shaped the practice of forensic medicine but also the standardized examination and documentation in pathological anatomy. Based on previous studies on medical case reports, medical expert witnesses in court and traditions in pathological anatomy the authors examine two examples from the 18th and 19th centuries in order to show how semiological, classifying methods of presenting forensic examinations were replaced by the material aspect of the observation of examination results itself. The examples are a forensic case report by Michael Alberti (1682-1757) from 1728 and a Visum repertum by Joseph Bernt (1770-1842) from 1827. The authors argue that Visa reperta transcended their original forensic purpose and served as a guideline for pathology leading to an understanding of the origin of diseases in organs. They served as a promoter of scientific medicine, and their persuasiveness was backed by factors such as (a) the extreme conditions of forensic practice, (b) the claim to act as a tool for the sound and precise recording of facts and c) the awareness that they documented objects that were destroyed during the process of documentation.

  8. Changes in annual precipitation over the Earth's land mass excluding Antarctica from the 18th century to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, W. A.; Syed, A.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation measurements made at nearly 1000 stations located in 114 countries were studied. Each station had at least 100 years of observations resulting in a dataset comprising over 1½ million monthly precipitation amounts. Data for some stations extend back to the 1700s although most of the data exist for the period after 1850. The total annual precipitation was found if all monthly data in a given year were present. The percentage annual precipitation change relative to 1961-90 was plotted for 6 continents; as well as for stations at different latitudes and those experiencing low, moderate and high annual precipitation totals. The trends for precipitation change together with their 95% confidence intervals were found for various periods of time. Most trends exhibited no clear precipitation change. The global changes in precipitation over the Earth's land mass excluding Antarctica relative to 1961-90 were estimated to be: -1.2 ± 1.7, 2.6 ± 2.5 and -5.4 ± 8.1% per century for the periods 1850-2000, 1900-2000 and 1950-2000, respectively. A change of 1% per century corresponds to a precipitation change of 0.09 mm/year.

  9. The Professional Careers of Judges on the Criminal Court of Catalonia in the First Third of the 18th Century

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    Miguel Ángel MARTÍNEZ RODRÍGUEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia underwent profound changes at the beginning at the eighteenth century. the Succession War put and end to the typical Catalan institutions under the Austria. At the end of this political conflict, the main royal institution, that’s to say the Real Audiencia, was awarded a new structure in 1716. this new one bears no resemblance to the previous period. And one of the major changes was the new sala penal. As a result of this fact, we’ve been interested in knowing their social background. We have been able to find useful data on their university studies, and the jobs they were offered before being well-known judges. These data have been intertwined with their family origins because in this way we can appreciate better why they had such interesting careers.

  10. Evidences of architecture made with perishable materials at Buenos Aires, Argentina (16th to 18th centuries

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    Daniel Schávelzon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous population occupying the place where Buenos Aires was founded in 1580 has always been seen as nomadic or semi-nomadic. This has been interpreted as having no form of architecture, or what used left no traces that archeology could recover. A review of studies already done in the city shows at least two cases in which a series of postholes located in lines could indicate the likely presence of so-called indigenous awnings. That is evidence of having been made constructions with vertical posts and closed with branches, straw or hides of cows or horses as recorded in historical documentation, which subsisted in others regions until the nineteenth century. But it also may have been some kind of very modest timber of the poor Creole architecture, although cultural materiality has to confirm the first hypothesis.

  11. Laura Bassi and science in 18th century Europe the extraordinary life and role of Italy's pioneering female professor

    CERN Document Server

    Frize, Monique

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the extraordinary story of a Bolognese woman of the settecento. Laura Maria Caterina Bassi (1711-1778) defended 49 Theses at the University of Bologna on April 17, 1732 and was awarded a doctoral degree on May 12 of the same year. Three weeks before her defense, she was made a member of the Academy of Sciences in Bologna. On June 27 she defended 12 additional Theses. Several of the 61 Theses were on physics and other science topics. Laura was drawn by the philosophy of Newton at a time when most scientists in Europe were still focused on Descartes and Galen. This last set of Theses was to encourage the University of Bologna to provide a lectureship to Laura, which they did on October 29, 1732. Although quite famous in her day, Laura Bassi is unfortunately not remembered much today. This book presents Bassi within the context of the century when she lived and worked, an era where no women could attend university anywhere in the world, and even less become a professor or a member of an academ...

  12. Trusteeship and Cooperation in the Flemish merchants community in Cadiz: The brotherhood of “San Andrés de los Flamencos” (17th-18th centuries

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    Prof. Dr Ana Crespo Solana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents information on the development, over the centuries, of a little known aspect of the communities of foreign Merchants who settled in Spanish cities during the Modern Age. Using previously unpublished documents, relating to the “Ilustre y Antigua Nación Flamenca” of Seville and Cádiz, the article aims to give a description of the charitable activities carried out by the colony of merchants in Seville and, especially, in Cádiz, who were natives of the Southern Low Countries and the Dutch Republic. This merchant community had assigned the administration of a “Patronato” to their brotherhood, which included the control of numerous items of furniture and properties of great value. The description of this religious and benevolent activity gives a no less interesting view, when compared with the purely economic one, of its importance on the integration of these communities into the Spanish society of the 17th and 18th centuries. This research has been made with historical documents from Spanish Archives (Cádiz, Madrid and Alcalá de Henares.

  13. Trusteeship and Cooperation in the Flemish merchants community in Cadiz: The brotherhood of “San Andrés de los Flamencos” (17th-18th centuries

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    Prof. Dr Ana Crespo Solana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available  This article presents information on the development, over the centuries, of a little known aspect of the communities of foreign Merchants who settled in Spanish cities during the Modern Age. Using previously unpublished documents, relating to the “Ilustre y Antigua Nación Flamenca” of Seville and Cádiz, the article aims to give a description of the charitable activities carried out by the colony of merchants in Seville and, especially, in Cádiz, who were natives of the Southern Low Countries and the Dutch Republic. This merchant community had assigned the administration of a “Patronato” to their brotherhood, which included the control of numerous items of furniture and properties of great value. The description of this religious and benevolent activity gives a no less interesting view, when compared with the purely economic one, of its importance on the integration of these communities into the Spanish society of the 17th and 18th centuries. This research has been made with historical documents from Spanish Archives (Cádiz, Madrid and Alcalá de Henares.

  14. Viajando sobre hojas volanderas: representaciones del viaje en pliegos sueltos del siglo XVIII = Travelling on broadsides: representations of travels in 18th-century Spanish chapbooks

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    Juan Gomis Coloma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl tema que aborda este trabajo son las representaciones del viaje y de los viajeros en los romances del siglo XVIII. Los objetivos son, en primer lugar, dar a conocer una fuente “popular” en relación a un tema, el viaje, que para el siglo XVIII ha sido generalmente estudiado desde la perspectiva de la alta cultura, como ingrediente clave para la formación e instrucción de cualquier espíritu ilustrado. Rastreando los aspectos asociados al viaje que, numerosos, asoman en los pliegos sueltos, se muestran otras representaciones de viajes y viajeros, que contribuyan a enriquecer nuestra comprensión sobre la diversidad de concepciones que el tema pudo suscitar en la época. En segundo lugar, a partir de una muestra representativa de romances publicados en el siglo XVIII, se analizan distintos rasgos de los relatos de viajes: periplos, lugares de destino, tipos de viajes, identidad de los viajeros, causas para emprender el itinerario, descripción de espacios, éxito o fracaso de la empresa, etc. Finalmente, se seleccionan algunos textos representativos para indagar los valores asociados al viaje y al encuentro con “el otro”, con el fin de explorar los miedos e ilusiones que, según los relatos, llevaba aparejado aventurarse hacia lo desconocido.AbstractThis paper focuses on 18th century romances’ representations of travels and travellers. Its aims are: firstly, to shed light on a «popular» source about a topic like travels, which has been studied traditionally from the perspective of high culture, as an element linked to the education of enlightened people. Through the analysis of different features about travels which are found in «pliegos sueltos», another representations of travels and travellers are shown, which can enrich our understanding about this topic. Secondly, different features of travelling stories published as popular prints in the 18th century are analysed: journeys, destinations, travellers and their aims

  15. Disagreements among the bourgeoisie of Gipuzkoa about free trade and the transfer of customs from 18th to 19th centuries

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    Álvaro Aragón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate and to analyse the disagreements and the variety of opinions among the core of the bourgeoisie in Gipuzkoa, throughout the Ancient Regime, about the faculty of Basque ports to trade directly with American colonies and the transfer of the customs from the interior to the coast. So that, we will turn to the vast historiography focused on the issue and we will make a critical analysis of several reports sent by dissident merchants, to deepen into the debate about both topics, which developed from the beginning of the 18th century to decree of 1841. Despite the univocal approach that Basque historiography has carried out, according to what only two blocks, perfectly different from each other, took part, the archival sources show a bigger diversity of the standpoints. Consequently, some disagreements and divisions can be notice inside the bourgeoisie. Although it is true that at the beginning of the debate these two blocks had a belligerent discourse, and despite there were some common agreements, as time went on, as a result of new political and economical circumstances of within Basque history, their positions became more radical and diverse, building a major diversity.

  16. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Bites, nibbles, sips and puffs: new exotic goods in Norway in the 18th and the first half of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Ragnhild

    2011-01-01

    The slow but significant changes in the material culture of European households that took place in the pre-industrial period are visible in several ways, such as in the changing patterns of housing, furnishing and clothing which have been illustrated in several studies. However, most of these studies focus on the pre-industrial economic leaders, often ignoring the changes taking place on the margins of the economic growth centres. This article seeks to rectify this by looking at changes in the material culture in one such 'marginal' country, namely Norway. The goods focused upon in this case are sugar, tobacco and coffee, which are often termed as exotic goods. These were new commodities in the 18th century and precisely because of their novelty and foreign origin, it is in many cases possible to trace how they spread in rural society, as well as how they impacted it. The emphasis has been put on rural areas for the simple reason that this was where the overall majority of Norwegians lived at the time.

  18. 18世纪巴黎的咖啡馆文化特点%The cultural characteristics of Paris cafés in the 18th century

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    林煜堃

    2014-01-01

    18世纪巴黎人的日常生活中,咖啡馆扮演了重要角色。历史地理因素和文化环境造就其独特的风格,同时也孕育了颇具特色的社交文化。巴黎咖啡馆逐渐从下层走向上层,成为奢华的法国式精英文化的特点。同时咖啡馆的娱乐性,为大众化的政治活动提供人员基础和社交模式,一定程度上推动了法国大革命的诞生。%The café played an important role in the Parisian daily life during the 18th century. Historical, geographic and cultural sectors contributed to the social culture with unique features. In the initial stage, being from lower class to upper class, cafés became the representation of elite culture with luxurious feature. The recreation of cafés, providing a basis for popular political activities, partly provoked the French Revolution.

  19. The inquisitorial trial of a cross-dressing lesbian: reactions and responses to female homosexuality in 18th-century portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, François

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso in Portugal. Maria Duran was arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile. She was suspected of having made a pact with the Devil and was accused by many female witnesses of possessing a "secret penis" that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the 18th-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty that men (in this case, churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate among historians of the history of sexuality.

  20. Structural and behavioural changes in the short term preventive check in the northwest Balkans in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, E A; Galloway, P R

    2000-03-01

    Fertility responded negatively to grain insufficiency (proxied by grain price increases), and mortality responded positively in Croatia-Slavonia-Srem in the 18th and 19th centuries, as in most of Europe. Shifts in the intensity and timing of these responses occurred over time as social and economic structures changed. Shifts in the elasticity of fertility with respect to grain supply inversely mimic and lag changes in the elasticity of mortality. Both appear to be induced by increasing land shortage, the collapse of feudalism, and differences in the patterns of adjustment to post-feudal conditions among former civil and military serfs. Generally, responses are stronger for civil and former civil serfs, who may have been in less favorable economic circumstances than the military. Fertility responses in the year of a price shock come to dominate those in the year following, suggesting a shift from contraception to abortion as economic and social conditions apparently worsened and strategies of control intensified. Analysis of monthly responses supports the conjecture based on the annual responses. The shift to the preventive check and strength of the preventive check in the same year as the price shock is unusual in Europe and beyond. Analysis is based on 25 parishes and employs lagged annual and monthly time series analysis with corrections for autocorrelation, in combination with ethnographic and historical data.

  1. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  2. The Problem of Longitude in the 18th Century: Jorge Juan, Antonio de Ulloa and the Expedition of the Paris Academy of Sciences to the Kingdom of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, naval officers of the Spanish Navy in the Midshipmen's Royal Academy were appointed to take part in one of the most important scientific expeditions of the 18th century. The question of the shape of the Earth, of vital importance for navigation, was solved by the Paris Academy of Sciences by request of Louis XV of France in 1735. The aim was to determine the form of the ellipsoid that Newton had described in the 17th century for any spherical and homogeneous body in rotation about an axis. Two expeditions were prepared for the geodetic measures of meridian arc both in high latitudes (Lapland, Finland) and in the equatorial zone (the Kingdom of Peru); Pierre Louis Maupertuis took charge of the northern expedition whereas the second one was charged to La Condamine, along with Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. The results obtained by the Spaniards were gathered in a publication: Observaciones astronómicas y físicas hechas en los Reinos del Perú. In it, they dedicate a chapter to the determination of astronomic longitude with the only technology that was providing certain precision at the moment: the simultaneous observation of the same astronomic phenomenon in two different places. Specifically, they explain in detail in Book III: Las Observaciones de la Inmersiones y Emersiones de los satélites de Júpiter, como asimismo de los eclipses de Luna; de las cuales de deduce la Longitud de los Lugares, incluyendo las correcciones a efectuar por la variación de la declinación diaria del Sol.

  3. Blue pigment colors from wall painting churches in danger (Portugal 15th to 18th century): identification, diagnosis, and color evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Milene; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Longelin, Stephane; Ribeiro, Isabel; Valadas, Sara; Mirão, José; Candeias, António Estevão

    2011-07-01

    Samples of blue wall paint layers from selected 15th to 18th century religious mural paintings from southern Portugal (Alentejo) have been analyzed using a multi-analytical methodology involving the combination of in situ visible spectro-colorimetry with microanalytical techniques such as optical and scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In situ analyses and micro-sampling were carried out in nine different churches, many in an advanced state of deterioration. The objectives of this study were: (a) to identify and compare the pigments that were used in the blue paint layers across the Alentejo region and through time by analysis of the elemental and mineralogical composition and pictorial techniques, and (b) to correlate the data between the actual color of the paint layer and the state of conservation of the pigments. For the paintings dated from the 16th century forward, the results show a generalized use of smalt blue. To a lesser extent, natural azurite was used despite the geological richness of the region in copper and pyrite ores. In only one painting was an optical blue made of carbon black and lime found. The pigments, pure or mixed with red and yellow ochres, were coarsely ground and used in different concentrations to create three-dimensional effects. These parameters as well as the presence of iron oxides in underlayer paints influence the colorimetric coordinates in the more transparent smalt blue paint layers. The state of conservation of the pigments plays an important role in the alteration of the paint color. A clear example of this is the fading of the smalt blue in several paintings due to lixiviation processes.

  4. The Register of Slovenian-Language Manuscripts from the 17th and 18th Centuries: Repository, Digital Library and Research Environment

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    Matija Ogrin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper gives a thorough examination of the Register of Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries from different points of view: it is presented as a digital repository in humanities disciplines available for searching (digital library and as a methodological framework of further scholarly research and discoveries in the field. Manuscripts, especially the manuscripts of Slovenian literature, have not been sufficiently taken into consideration so far. They have always been given but a sketchy treatment serving merely to illustrate the general outlines of the nation’s literary and cultural development. They have rarely been dealt with in specialised studies or scientific publications. This is the reason why they have not been registered and recorded in archival and library collections. Different guides to manuscripts offer only basic and limited information from which it is often impossible to identify the language, the content, and the history of a manuscript. With regard to the state-of-the- art of Slovenian manuscript research in the field of Slavic studies, archival studies and codicology, it was indispensable to thoroughly record and research the preserved manuscripts by the use of a uniform, rational and consistent method. In reference to these premises a new research project has been started resulting in accurate, thorough and rigorously structured descriptions of manuscripts. The idea of Slovenian manuscript register was developed comprising manuscript descriptions complemented by digital images or facsimiles thus visually presenting the manuscripts and facilitating further research in the field.The 3-year work resulted in the portal: Unknown Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18 th centuries. The main project result was the register of Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries. To date, it contains detailed descriptions of the first 100 manuscripts and over 7

  5. Adamantios Korais and the Greek Language Policy at the Turn of the 18th to the 19th Centuries (translated by Jerneja Kavčič

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    Predrag Mutavdžić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study outlines and examines the attempts at a standardisation of the Modern Greek language made during the crucial period of national formation, which coincided with the Greek Enlightenment (Νεοελληνικός Διαφωτισμός. The turn of the 18th to the 19th centuries was the period when the Greek language question (το ελληνικό γλωσσικό ζήτημα first appeared in Greek society. Marked by the complicated diglossia situation, this question itself and the suggested solutions were strongly influenced by four different socio-political visions of an independent Greek society, as well as by the conflicting opinions on, and calls for, language codification and standardisation. Although several proposals for a language reform were put forward, none of them was found satisfactory or widely accepted, since they were unable to solve the diglossia and offer a good language basis for the education of the generations to come. In terms of language policy and language planning, the proposal of the first modern Greek linguist, Adamantios Korais, represented a so-called ‘middle way’ (μέση οδός. Korais neither fully accepted common vernacular Greek nor rejected Ancient Greek, which was impossible to neglect with its weight of ancient heritage. While his proposal initially seemed likely to solve the Greek diglossic situation, it unfortunately failed to do so and in fact exacerbated the situation.

  6. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  7. Lifting and transport by sea of great stone columns: evidence of traditional methods used in 18th and 19th century building programs as a clue to reconstructing Roman marble transport processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Barresi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to investigate the traditional technologies of lifting and sea transport of large stone blocks (time spent for sea transport, ways of charging and stewing large stone pieces, number of people engaged with evidence from 18th and 19th century Italy, as a key to understand ancient Roman practices. I shall use data from reconstruction of the 5th century Christian basilica of St. Paul at Rome, burnt in 1823, where new granite shafts, mainly from Italian quarries, replaced the Roman ones. Other documentary sources help to understand some details related to heavy transport, otherwise unknown for Roman period. It should be obviously dangerous to induce directly that the same technologies used for lifting and transport of columns in 18th or 19th century were in use also in Roman Imperial age, but the study of such processes can help us to put in the right view our reconstruction of ancient reality.

  8. The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts El artículo en las relativas oblicuas [prep. + (art. definido + que] en textos americanos del siglo XVIII = The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha GUZMÁN RIVERÓN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the article in sentences like la casa en (la que vivo, among other variations, is today less frequently used in Hispanoamerica. Although we know that this structure, documented as early as the 13th century, became more wide-spread in the 18th century, little is known about its evolution at the time in American sources. I study the evolution of this phenomenon, basing myself exclusively on 18th century American texts. I also explore which factors are apparently related to this linguistic development and if the pace of its spread was determined by the preceding prepositions. Aiming at a panoramic view of the spread of the article in the period in question, I also trace the appearance of these relative clauses, with and without article, in the texts collected in the CORDE, and provide detailed analyses of texts from both halves of the century, in order to evaluate the factors that may have influenced this change.El uso del artículo en estructuras como la casa en (la que vivo presenta hoy en día, entre otras variaciones, una frecuencia de uso menor en Hispanoamérica que en España. Aunque sabemos que este uso, documentado desde el siglo XIII, comienza realmente a extenderse justo en el XVIII, poco conocemos de su evolución en la época en fuentes americanas. En este trabajo, basándonos exclusivamente en textos americanos del XVIII, perseguimos investigar cómo evoluciona este fenómeno en documentación de esta procedencia. También intentaremos explorar qué factores están aparentemente en relación con este cambio e investigar si, en diferentes preposiciones, diverge el ritmo de difusión de su uso. Con vistas a obtener una idea general sobre la extensión del artículo en la época, rastrearemos las apariciones de dichas relativas —con y sin artículo— en los textos americanos recogidos en el CORDE. Para evaluar los factores que pueden incidir en él estudiaremos en detalle determinados textos de ambas mitades del siglo.

  9. The popular religiosity of the Valladolid people in the 18th Century: The 1773 report on the religious guilds of the Valladolid province

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    Fernando MANZANO LEDESMA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Stvdia histórica: Historia Moderna, 2007, vol. 29, pp.279-305 José Ignacio RUIZ-RODRÍGUEZ confesionalización; historiografía; edad moderna=Confessionalization; Historiography; Modern Age 14.00 Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} In 1773 the Intendant of Valladolid, Mr Angel de Bustamante, sent to the Castilian Council a Report about the different guilds and brotherhoods operating in the capital and in other towns of the province. By so doing, he was meeting the requirements of the President of the Council of Castile, who in September 1769 had demanded «a list of all the brotherhoods, guilds, congregations, and similar societies which celebrate one or more festivities a year» In this article I intend to make a qualitative and quantitative approach to the «guild geography» of the province in the second half of the 18th century, making use of the 1773 Report. As it is known, the gestation, processing, and results of the so-called «Expediente General de Cofradías» have been thoroughly studied by scholars, who have also paid attention to the religious and political context of the period. The 1773 Report, however, has not been fully analysed, in spite of being one of the longest and most detailed existing documents. The historical picture provided by the Report will

  10. Polar lows in the Labrador Sea based on the Moravian historical collection of meteorological data in Labrador and Greenland since the mid-18th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiu, Michael; Lüdecke, Cornelia; Newell, Dianne; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Systematically recorded daily instrumental meteorological data from the Moravian Brethern mission stations located on the east coast of Labrador and southwest coast of Greenland during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries provide a most valuable source of historical climatological data in the Subarctic region. Although the collections of original data themselves are both scattered in physical location and fragmented in their coverage of time and place, and large amounts still need to be digitized, this data provides large potential for studying climate extreme events in this remote region. In this paper, we study polar lows (PLs). They are high-latitude intense maritime cyclones with only 200 to 1000 km in diameter, a short life-time of only two days, mostly occurring in wintertime, e.g. in the Norwegian, Barents, but also Labrador and Greenland seas. Due to high wind speeds exceeding 30 m s-1, high ocean waves and heavy snow showers, they constitute a major hazard risk difficult to forecast. Published papers indicate that with future climate warming, the frequency of PLs is predicted to decrease; however, climatologies of PLs for the last 7 decades (1948-2009) based on reanalysis data and satellite remote sensing products did not indicate any change in their mean annual frequency. In our digitized long-term dataset (1846-2015) for one Moravian station at Nain, Labrador, we identified PLs as follows: If there was a drop in air pressure of at least 30hPa during 48 hours, we marked it as a preliminary event. Then, each preliminary event was checked manually to see whether additional changes in air pressure, air temperature, wind direction and wind speed matched the known textbook example. If more than two variables showed the required pattern, the preliminary event was identified as PL. Our analysis revealed an average frequency of 5.6 PLs yr-1 for 1846-1853, 5.2 PLs yr-1(1882-1913), and 4.4 PLs yr-1 (1926-1939), largely confirming long-term averages for the more recent

  11. Eesti autobiograafilise kirjutuse kujunemisest 18. sajandist Teise maailmasõjani. The Development of Estonian Autobiographical Writing from the 18th Century to the Second World War

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    Rutt Hinrikus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the development of Estonian autobiographical writing from its first manifestations to published memoirs, and the development of life writing and its diversification. The beginnings of life writing can be traced back to Estonian folk song and Estonian incidental poetry. The Moravian Brethren movement in Estonia in the 18th century promoted the spread of canonical autobiography. The Moravian Brethren offered alternative opportunities for self-realisation for Estonians who were serfs, and were therefore popular with the people. The practice of the Moravian Brethren made use of retelling and writing about the life of the congregation members, which sometimes became suitable biographies in print, especially stories of awakening. Several manuscript biographies have survived from the Brethren times, such as the biographies of Mäletu Jaan and Mihkel Sarapuu. In addition to the history of the Moravian Brethren movement, these biographies give information about the educational situation and living conditions of the people of the time. The Estonian life writing tradition emerged within the reigning Baltic German cultural space thanks to the Estophiles among the Baltic Germans (J. H. Rosenplänter and the first Estonian men of letters; from the early 19th century we have the diary by Rosenplänter, an estophile pastor from Pärnu, and the diary by the Estonian poet, the then-student Kristjan Jaak Peterson, both in the Estonian language. Johann Voldemar Jannsen, the founder of Estonian-language journalism, kept a diary in the German language for a longer period of time; it was usual that the first Estonian intellectuals (Lilli Suburg, and others in the late 19th century wrote in German. Admittedly, the first Estonian-language life history was written by a forward-looking 19th century peasant named Märt Mitt (1833-1912, who was conscious of himself as a historical subject and gave his memoirs, begun in the 1880s, a memorable title

  12. 18. YY.'da İstanbul Esnafının Sorunları The Problems Of The Merchants In The 18th Century

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    Aslıhan NAKİBOĞLU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Provisioning denotates feeding, nourishing, nursing. When theworld history is taken into account, providing food and raw material tothe cities has been a crucial problem for the states and pre-capitalistcommunities. The increase in the population in the cities had made theproblems of provisioning even worse which caused crises ofprovisioning.Provisioning of İstanbul has always been essential to the OttomanEmpire. The economic view of the Empire leaned on to three principlesÇProvisioning, traditionalism and fiscalism in which provisioning wasseen as the key among the others.Provisioning in Ottoman Empire was based on the consumer,therefore the Empire followed a economic policy which has protected theconsumer and the producer against prices. State intervened the marketfrom the production of the good until it hasreached the consumer. Thepurpose was to control the market. Fixed price system was alsoemerged because of the provisioning. The provisioning policy of theEmpire was to put export prohibition to the wheat, to monitor thedistribution of food to hte whosalers and merchants, to determine thethe fix price to prevent the price speculations and to ban the stockpilingİstanbul was very crucial to the Empire as the capital and theregulator of the social order. Therefore the empire had undertaken the provisioning of İstanbul. Since, provisioning was important economical and political stances, empire did not leave the market alone but intervene it which means, Empire had worked full force with its all units related to production and distrıbution to prevent its people from famine, poverty and expensiveness. This had continued untill the 18th century. In the 18th century, provisioning problems, smuggled good, hardships to control the fixed price policy and the disagreements between the merchants of İstanbul and its surrounding region had become the agendaIn this study, the problems related to the topics such as the commerce between the merchants of

  13. « On the Commercial Activities of an 18th-Century New Julfa Merchant: Sarhad Bandurean in Amsterdam ». Iran and the Caucasus, 6 (2001), pp. 101-104.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthee, Rudi

    2005-01-01

    This short article, drawing attention to the importance of the accounts-books of Iran’s Julfa merchants and the fact that only two have thus far been published, considers the transactions of the Bandurean family in their transit trade with Holland via Russia in the early years of the 18th century. The author discusses the make-up of goods transported, mostly raw silk at a total of 132 bale between 1712-17, 123 of which were sold in Amsterdam, and the return good, mostly consisting of cloth, w...

  14. Constelación de cambios en torno a la categoría objeto indirecto en el español del siglo XVIII Triggering changes in the grammaticalization of the Indirect Object in 18th century Spanish

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    Concepción COMPANY COMPANY

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es arrojar nueva luz sobre diversos cambios interrelacionados en la lengua española especialmente activos durante el siglo XVIII concentrados todos ellos alrededor del objeto indirecto. El corpus se basa en el español del Virreinato de la Nueva España. Tras analizar diacrónicamente la duplicación del objeto indirecto, se aborda su relación con la pérdida en el siglo XVIII novohispano de vosotros en favor de ustedes y la significativa activación en ese siglo de la marcación prepositiva de objetos directos inanimados, así como con algunas innovaciones conexas como la pérdida de concordancia de número del clítico dativo les, la expansión funcional de la preposición a a zonas que no son la categoría objeto y la generalización de los clíticos de dativo y de acusativo a zonas no etimológicas y no referenciales. Todos estos cambios se pueden analizar mediante el concepto de «cadena de cambios» de Martinet y revelan la importancia del español del siglo XVIII como germen del español moderno.The aim of this paper is to shed new light on several intertwined changes in the Spanish language which were especially active during the 18th century in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. After a diachronical analysis of the indirect object clitic doubling, it addresses its relationship with the loss of vosotros in favour of ustedes in the 18th century in New Spain and the significant activation of the prepositional marking of inanimate direct objects in that same century. Certain other connected innovations are also studied, such as the loss of number concordance in the dative clitic les, the functional extension of the preposition a to contexts other than object and the generalization of dative and accusative clitics to non-etymological and non-referential contexts. All these changes can be analyzed under Martinet’s concept of «chain of changes» and show the importance of 18th century Spanish as the seed of Modern

  15. The Orchestras of the Príncipe and Cruz Coliseums in Madrid during the Second Half of the 18th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Barba, Marina

    2015-01-01

    There were no stable orchestras in Madrid’s public theatres during the first half of the Eighteenth Century, and a variable number of instrumentalists were used on each occasion. This paper discusses the development of the two town-owned theatres in the second half of the century, when the orchestra was considered an important element and a new way of hiring musicians developed, based on sources kept at the Archivo de Villa de Madrid, Sección de Secretaría./nRené Andioc and Mireille Coulon in...

  16. Beyond denial and exclusion: The history of relations between Christians and Muslims in the Cape Colony during the 17th–18th centuries with lessons for a post-colonial theology of religions

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    Jaco Beyers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning from the past prepares one for being able to cope with the future. History is made up of strings of relationships. This article follows a historical line from colonialism, through apartheid to post-colonialism in order to illustrate inter-religious relations in South-Africa and how each context determines these relations. Social cohesion is enhanced by a post-colonial theology of religions based on the current context. By describing the relationship between Christians and Muslims during the 17th–18th centuries in the Cape Colony, lessons can be deduced to guide inter-religious relations in a post-colonial era in South Africa. One of the most prominent Muslim leaders during the 17th century in the Cape Colony was Sheik Yusuf al-Makassari. His influence determined the future face of Islam in the Cape Colony and here, during the 18th century, ethics started playing a crucial role in determining the relationship between Christians and Muslims. The ethical guidance of the Imams formed the Muslim communities whilst ethical decline was apparent amongst the Christian colonists during the same period. The place of ethics as determinative of future inter-religious dialogue is emphasised. Denial and exclusion characterised relationships between Christians and Muslims. According to a post-colonial understanding of inter-religious contact the equality and dignity of non-Christian religions are to be acknowledged. In the postcolonial and postapartheid struggle for equality, also of religions, prof Graham Duncan, to whom this article is dedicated, contributed to the process of acknowledging the plurality of the religious reality in South Africa.

  17. The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2011-01-01

    The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon…

  18. Girls' Secondary Education in the Western World: From the 18th to the 20th Century. Secondary Education in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albisetti, James C.; Goodman, Joyce; Rogers, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited synthesis approaches the past three centuries with an eye to highlighting the importance of significant schools, as well as important women educators in the emergence of secondary education for girls. At the same time, each contributor pays careful attention to the specific political, cultural, and socio-economic factors that…

  19. Becoming a Woman in the Dutch Republic : Advice Literature for Young Adult Women of the 17th and 18th Centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, Marja; Reeves, Margaret; Cohen, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    In the Dutch republic seventeenth-century authors of marriage manuals and conduct books for women did not distinguish the young, nubile ones from married adults. Marriage was the core teaching, and all were admonished not merely to obey their husbands but also to identify with them. In stressing the

  20. Evolution of progradation/erosion along the French Guiana mangrove coast: comparison of mapped shorelines since the 18th century with Holocene data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaziat, J.C.; Augustinus, P.G.E.F.

    2004-01-01

    The problem in mapping the mangrove shoreline of French Guiana are reviewed. The present variability of the coastline due to the shifting mudbank with Allicellllia mangroves on their shoreface-attached upper fringe is extended to the historical period two and a half centuries ago, by mean of ancient

  1. The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2011-01-01

    The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon…

  2. [Gutiérrez Bueno (1745-1822), textbooks and a new public for chemistry in the last third of the 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Belmar, A; Bertomeu Sánchez, J R

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a part of a general research project on the role that chemistry played in the transition of materia medica to experimental pharmacology during 19th century Spain. Within this general framework, the paper deals with the main characteristics of Spanish textbooks aimed at pharmaceutical and medical students. In a former study, published in this journal, we outlined the institutional context in which these books were read, written and published. Some of these issues are developed in the present paper through analysis of the "Curso de química" written by Pedro Gutiérrez Bueno. New light is shed on the public for chemistry during the late XVIII century Spain and their role in shaping the contents and organisation of chemistry textbooks.

  3. Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch and astronomy in Nuremberg in the second half of the 18th century. (German Title: Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch und die Astronomie in Nürnberg in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaab, Hans

    In the second half of the 18th century, Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch (1731 - 1802) was the best-known living mathematician and astronomer in Nuremberg. Being a physician by training, he obtained, in 1769, the post of lecturer in mathematics and physics at the Egidien secondary school. Subsequently, he tried in vain to re-erect the observatory, torn down in 1751. In the early 1770s, he became famous for preparing the second edition of Johann Leonhard Rost's Astronomisches Handbuch that was, in its first edition of 1718, the first compendium of astronomy written in German, and which had a wide circulation. In 1790, Kordenbusch was raised to the nobility for his achievements.

  4. State Policy on the Formation of a Network of Stationary Settlements on Kalmyk Lands in the Lower Volga Region and Steppe Ciscausia (the Second Half of the 18th-19th centuries

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    Sergey S. Belousov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Russian government’s state policy on the formation of a network of stationary settlements on Kalmyk lands in the second half of the 18th-19th centuries. The author explores its aims, character, and results. In the end, the author comes to the conclusion that the settlers did not have a major impact on the economic scheme of life of the Kalmyk people, its lifeway and culture and that the Kalmyks, likewise, had little impact on them as well. The events in Kalmykia once again substantiated the axiom that it is impossible to achieve changes in the scheme of life of nomads through just settling with them sedentary landowners or via incentive, much less administrative, measures.

  5. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied.

  6. Les regalia au crible de la caricature du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle Regalia as seen in caricatures from the 16th to 18th century

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    Annie Duprat

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objet de montrer comment les attributs de la monarchie, les regalia, sont employés de façon dépréciative dans les images polémiques et les caricatures depuis le xvie siècle. À travers l’exemple de trois rois de France (Henri III, Louis XIV et Louis XVI s’ébauche une histoire de la propagande en images.The purpose of this article is to show how the attributes of the monarchy, also named regalia, are used in a negative way in polemical images and caricatures since the sixteenth century. These engravings represent an important part of the history of propaganda in France. They will be discussed through the analysis of three examples: Henry III, Louis XIV and Louis XVI.

  7. New information on earthquake history of the Aksehir-Afyon Graben System, Turkey, since the second half of 18th century

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    N. Ozer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches aimed at enriching the number of available documentary sources on earthquakes have an important role in seismology. To this end, this paper documents the history of prominent earthquakes associated with the NW-SE trending Sultandag-Aksehir Fault and Aksehir-Afyon graben system in Western-Central Anatolia since the historical times through 1766. This work also combines the earthquake data for both historical and instrumental periods, previously listed in various catalogues and resources, for the studied area. Documents from the Ottoman archives and libraries as well as the Ottoman and Turkish newspapers were scrutinized, and eight previously unreported earthquakes in the latter half of the nineteenth century and four new earthquakes in the period 1900–1931 were revealed. For the period from 1766 to 1931, the total number of known earthquakes for the area under investigation increased from eighteen to thirty thanks to the document search. Furthermore, the existing information on eleven previously reported earthquakes is updated for the period from 1862 to 1946. Earthquakes from 1946 to 1964 are compiled from the catalogues for data completeness.

  8. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

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    Krista Mits

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations

  9. 17-18世纪荷兰人从日本运出小判分析%Koban Trade between Japan and Duth in 17-18th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰星

    2015-01-01

    16世纪欧洲人抵日经商,发现这里盛产金银,但在日本锁国前(1640年),欧洲人只能运走白银,日本方面不但禁止黄金被运出,还让欧洲人运来黄金。锁国后,荷兰人成为唯一留在日本的西方人,幕府为了缓解日本白银的过多外流,遂允许荷兰人运走日本小判(金币)。以金代银是日本外贸政策的重要变化,预示着日兰贸易即将走向衰落。持续近百年的小判贸易,是日兰商贸交流的重要内容,亦是世界海洋贸易史及世界经济发展史的组成部分。%From the 16th century, the Europeans began to trade with Japan. Before Japan’ s seclu⁃sion in 1640, although Japan at that time was rich in gold and silver, it allowed the silver export to Euro⁃peans only. Gold was only imported from Europe as gold export to Europe was prohibited. Nevertheless, after Japan’ s seclusion in 1640, the Dutch was the only European country that was allowed to have trade with Japan. In order to avoid the excessive export of silver, Shogunate allowed the export of Koban, namely, gold, to Dutch. The export of gold instead of silver is a milestone to show the declining of trade between Japan and the Netherland. Koban trade is not only a major part in the trade between those two countries, but also an integral part of the history of world marine trade and the history of world economic development.

  10. Prantsuse rännumees Aubry de La Motraye ja tema 18. sajandi I poole Balti provintside kirjeldused / French traveller Aubry de La Motraye and his descriptions of Baltic provinces from the first half of the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGE RENNIT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces Aubry de La Motraye (La Mottraye, a French traveller and author of travel books, who was one of the few to publish his travel accounts from among those who went to Russia through the Baltic region in the first half of the 18th century, and analyses his descriptions of the Baltic provinces.La Motraye was born into a family of French Huguenots in 1674 and died in Paris in 1743. In 1696 he left France, and decades of journeys took him to all European countries as well as to Asia and North Africa. In the years 1699–1714 he mainly stayed in Turkey, first in Constantinople and beginning from 1711 in King Charles XII’s field camp in Bender. In 1715 La Motraye followed Charles XII to Sweden and from there left for England in 1720. London became his main stop. In 1725 and 1728 he travelled in France, and in 1726 undertook a journey to Russia. La Motraye’s published travelogues finish with his tour of England in 1728, and this also puts an end to reliable data about his life. As his main motive for travelling, La Motraye mentioned his curiosity. However, more concealed reasons could have been related to fulfilling diplomatic tasks and gathering political information.The first and second parts of La Motraye’s travelogues were published in English translation in London in 1723 and in French in The Hague in 1727. The third part appeared in print in both languages in 1732. The most valuable parts of La Motraye’s descriptions of Baltic provinces are his overviews of the surroundings and his journey, which most explicitly reflect the author’s immediate experience and judgments. Surveys of local people’s poor living conditions and deliberations about the reasons behind it are also interesting. The descriptions of towns are rather superficial and fragmentary. It is difficult to distinguish the information collected by the author himself from that obtained from other publications. The author persistence in describing places of

  11. La predicación dominicana del Rosario. El Rosario de la aurora de Zafra en el siglo XVIII (Dominican preaching of the rosary: The dawn rosary of Zafra in 18 th Century

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    Carlos José Romero Mensaque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El Rosario, signo de identidad misional de la Orden de Predicadores, desborda los cauces conventuales ya desde el siglo XVI al universalizarse el rezo y devoción. Los dominicos predican el Rosario en sendas misiones y fundan numerosas hermandades adscritas a la Orden en parroquias e iglesias diocesanas, pero ya en el siglo XVII el rezo avemariano rebasa incluso los espacios sagrados para ser predicado en las calles. El proceso culmina en el siglo XVIII con un protagonismo del pueblo en la predicación del rosario, asumiendo en gran parte la responsabilidad de la misión que comenzaran los dominicos. En el extremo de la Provincia Bética, Zafra se convierte en escenario de esta Misión Popular con el Rosario de la Aurora y su hermandad, una corporación claramente misional y asistencial, que no duda en dar mayoría de edad a la mujer en su gobierno.Abstract: The rosary is an important sign of missionary identity for the Dominican Order, whose use has not been limited to the convent since the 16th century when preach and devotion became universal. Dominic monks preach the rosary in all their missions and found several brotherhoods affiliated with the Order in parishes and diocesans churches, but in the 17th century the Hail Mary can be found outside sacred places, it is preached even in the streets. This process end up in the 18th century when common people take a bigger responsibility and continue with the mission started by Dominic monks. Zafra, situated at the limit of the Baetica Province, becomes the stage of this Popular Mission thanks to the dawn rosary and its brotherhood, which clearly was a corporation dedicated to the mission and the assistant of people in need. This brotherhood does not hesitate before giving majority of age to the women in their government, even though they faced a strong social exclusion.

  12. Two 18th Century Observatories of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambleton, Robert

    A visit to the two major observatories of Ireland, Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland, and Dunsink Observatory in Dublin. Mentioned are Herschel, Thomas Grubb, Thomas Jones transit instrument, Howard Grubb, Kew Observatory, John Arnold & Sons clocks, Birr Castle, and the Earl of Rosse.

  13. Situación económica y financiera del Monasterio de Oseira en el siglo XVIII = Financial and economic situation of the Monastery of Oseira in the 18th century

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    Elena Gallego Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la actividad económica y financiera de uno de los cenobios más representativos de la orden cisterciense en Galicia: El Monasterio de Oseira(Ourense. El periodo temporal analizado ha sido seleccionado en base a la documentación conocida de este monasterio, siendo la relativa al S.XVIII la más abundante y completa. Losresultados del trabajo ponen de manifiesto la época de gran esplendor económico que vive elmonasterio y que se manifiesta en las substanciales cantidades de productos y dinero recaudadas, que le permiten abordar importantes obras y realizar una gran labor social.The objective of this paper is to analyse the economic and financial activity of one of the most representative monasteries of the Cistercian Order in Galicia: the Monastery of Oseira(Ourense. The period analysed has been selected based on the documents which mention this monastery, being the 18th century the most bountiful and complete period. The results obtained in this paper state the great economic splendour the monastery lives during thiscentury as is shown in the substantial amount of products and money collected, which allowthem to confront important works and execute a great social labour.

  14. Territorialidad y reproducción social: Los tinogasta en Belén, Catamarca, durante el siglo XVIII Territoriality and social reproduction: The tinogasta in Belen, Catamarca. 18th century

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    Federico Ignacio Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar las prácticas de territorialización desplegadas por los Tinogasta en Belén durante el siglo XVIII. Se analizaran los mecanismos jurídicos coloniales a partir de los cuales los Tinogasta buscaron "reterritorializar" su espacio, para recomponer sus condiciones de reproducción social. En este sentido, se observará cómo, frente a diversas prácticas de dominación, algunas poblaciones indígenas implementaron estrategias de resistencia, negociación y/o alianza para reinterpretar la realidad colonial y operar sobre ella. Así, lejos de ser meros espectadores pasivos de su dominio se transformaron en agentes de su reproducción social en un contexto de asimetría.This paper analyzes the practices of territorialization deployed by the Tinogasta in Belen through the 18th century. It will analyze how, through colonial legal mechanisms, the Tinogasta looked for "re-territorialize" their space in order to rebuild their conditions of social reproduction. We intend to observe how some Indian populations implemented multiple resistance, negotiation and/or alliance strategies against diverse domination practices in order to reinterpret -and operate on- the colonial reality. Then, far from being mere passive spectators of their dominance they became agents of their own social reproduction in an asymmetrical context.

  15. The Chinese Architecture and Garden Images in France in the 18th century and its Impact%中国建筑园林影像在十八世纪的法国及其影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春彦; 邱治平

    2016-01-01

    在中西建筑园林文化交流背景下,重点围绕18世纪启蒙时期在法国传播、散布的有关中国建筑、园林的资料,包括文字、影像及建筑物等,研究讨论了这些资料和建筑物的来源、分布以及对法国相关艺术的影响,从而补充完善中、西建筑园林文化交流的历史研究。%In the context of cultural exchanges in architecture and garden, this paper focuses on the Chinese architecture and garden materials including written materials, photographs and buildings spread and scattered in France in the 18th century. The paper discusses the origin and layout of these materials and their impact on the French art, so as to complement the historic research of the Chinese and western architecture and garden cultural exchanges.

  16. Comparing two maps by Geographer Robert de Vaugondy that represent the Kingdom of Portugal in the 18th century (1751 with the current mapping of the country as regards its topography, hydrography, shoreline definition and settlements

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    Marco Pais Neves Dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In our paper “Estudo de dois Mapas do Geografo Robert de Vaugondy relativos ao Reino de Portugal do Século XVIII (1751” (Study on two maps by Geographer Robert de Vaugondy representing the Kingdom of Portugal in the 18th century, published in Revista Semina: Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Vol. 34, Issue No 1, 2013, we tried to give an explanation for the administrative divisions that appear in those maps. After having studied a number of texts dedicated to the period in question and other related documents, we came to the conclusion that the most logic explanation for those divisions is that they represent ecclesiastical divisions. In this paper, we go further in our analysis and compare these two maps with some current maps of Portugal, taking into account its topography, hydrography, shoreline definition and settlements. Although there are some errors in his maps, we can conclude that Robert de Vaugondy’s work, in terms of his knowledge and geographic representation of Portugal, was the best anyone could do at the time, and we restate the idea that the two maps represent ecclesiastical divisions.

  17. Small forest parcels, management diversity and valuable coppice habitats: an 18th century political compromise in the Osnabrück region (NW Germany and its long-lasting legacy

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    Mölder A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study underlines the often under-estimated importance of forest ownership and land tenure in European forest biodiversity studies which are crucial for the management, structure, and tree species composition of woodland. In particular it is assumed that, in regions with both state-owned forests and smaller private forests, the latter contain more relict habitats shaped by historical woodland management practices. A government decree of 1721, a political compromise, was crucial to the present-day woodland ownership pattern and distribution of woodland habitats in the Osnabrück region (northwest Germany. It resulted in the privatization of woodlands held in common for centuries and created a huge number of small, private forest parcels in the 18th century. These developments are discussed in relation to Europe-wide processes in forest affairs. Mainly due to the low economic importance of these forest parcels, as well as the individualism of the forest owners, coppice structures providing valuable habitats have persisted until today. For instance, over-aged coppice stands provide important habitat conditions for saproxylic species and unique herbaceous layers. These valuable habitats must be protected while creating new coppice stands to eventually take their place in future decades. Management plans for Natura 2000 sites in the Osnabrück region should address this problem while reconciling any conflict of interests between private owners and nature conservation organizations. Researchers are encouraged to give more consideration to the important relationship between current woodland biodiversity and the history of forest ownership patterns.

  18. 18th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2014-01-01

    Cryocoolers 18 Cryocoolers 18 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 18th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Syracuse, New York, on June 9-12, 2014. The program of this conference lead to the 76 peer-reviewed papers that are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  19. The trip as formation: examples from the European literature of the 18th century El viaje como formación: ejemplos de la literatura europea del siglo XVIII

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    Nicolás BAS MARTÍN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance that the literature of trips acquired in the 18th century is one of the reasons that they have led us to investigating in the instructive facet that these works had in the society of the moment. Adopting the premise of «travelling to know», the trip turned not only into an exercise of individual formation but into an instrument of formation and information of the first magnitude. Governments, institutions and individuals did of the trips some of his more important sources of information. Expeditions that were taken soon to the press, completing the pedagogic and didactic character of the same ones, on never having been accompanied of engravings places, men and customs till now known. This end, of learning to instruct, we cross some of the emblematic works of the literature of trips of the Enlightenment.La importancia que la literatura de viajes adquirió en el siglo XVIII es una de las razones que nos han llevado a indagar en la faceta instructiva que estas obras tuvieron en la sociedad del momento. Adoptando la premisa de «viajar para saber», el viaje se convirtió no sólo en un ejercicio de formación individual, sino en un instrumento de formación e información de primera magnitud. Gobiernos, instituciones e individuos hicieron de los viajes unas de sus fuentes de información más importantes. Expediciones que fueron llevadas pronto a la imprenta, completando el carácter pedagógico y didáctico de las mismas, al ir acompañadas de grabados de lugares, hombres y costumbres nunca hasta ahora conocidas. Con ese fin, de instruirse para instruir, recorremos algunas de las obras emblemáticas de la literatura de viajes de la Ilustración.

  20. History of individuals of the 18th/19th centuries stored in bones, teeth, and hair analyzed by LA-ICP-MS--a step in attempts to confirm the authenticity of Mozart's skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Christina; Reiter, Christian; Patzak, Beatrix; Stingeder, Gerhard; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    A cranium stored in the Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg/Austria which is believed to be that of Mozart, and skeletal remains of suspected relatives which have been excavated from the Mozart family grave in the cemetery in Salzburg, have been subjected to scientific investigations to determine whether or not the skull is authentic. A film project by the Austrian television ORF in collaboration with Interspot Film on this issue was broadcast at the beginning of the "Mozart year 2006". DNA analysis could not clarify relationships among the remains and, therefore, assignment of the samples was not really possible. In our work this skull and excavated skeletal remains have been quantified for Pb, Cr, Hg, As, and Sb content by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain information about the living conditions of these individuals. A small splinter of enamel (less than 1 mm(3)) from a tooth of the "Mozart cranium" was also available for investigation. Quantification was performed by using spiked hydroxyapatite standards. Single hair samples which are recorded to originate from Mozart have also been investigated by LA-ICP-MS and compared with hair samples of contemporary citizens stored in the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Vienna. In general, Pb concentrations up to approximately 16 mug g(-1) were found in the bone samples of 18th century individuals (a factor of 7 to 8 higher than in recent samples) reflecting elevated Pb levels in food or beverages. Elevated Pb levels were also found in hair samples. The amount of Sb in the enamel sample of the "Mozart cranium" (approx. 3 mug g(-1)) was significantly higher than in all the other tooth samples investigated, indicating possible Sb ingestion in early childhood. Elevated concentrations of elements in single hair samples gave additional information about possible exposure of the individuals to heavy metals at a particular point in their life.

  1. “Strange Beasts… in taste Chinese” : Le goût chinois dans l’Angleterre du XVIIIe siècle ou l’esthétique de l’étrange “Strange Beasts… in taste Chinese” The Chinese taste in 18th-century England or the aesthetics of the strange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Alayrac

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The wonders and riches of China brought back to England by the East Indiamen at the end of the 17th century and in the 18th century triggered a deep interest for things Chinese. Indeed, England was hit by the Chinese taste in the decorative arts, emblematised by the playful chinoiserie style. This taste nonetheless evolved during the 18th century, and although it remained very popular throughout the period, it underwent some sharp criticisms. What was the nature of the English reception of this style? Why was it so welcomed, and at the same time seen so suspicious? This paper explores the ambivalence which lay in the reception of the Chinese style, and examines what was perceived as the lure and threat of Chinese exoticism through the concepts of strangeness and foreignness.

  2. The Printing of Yiddish Books in Frankfurt-on-the-Main (17th and 18th Centuries L’impression de livres yiddish à Frankfort aux xviie et xviiie siècles

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    Jean Baumgarten

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the development of books and reading in Europe during the 18th century, we have chosen to analyze three representative works of books printed in Frankfurt: an edifying treatise containing many mystical sources, Kav ha-yashar by Tsvi Hirsh Koidanover published in 1709 by Matthaüs Andreae; a Yiddish adaptation of narrative and ethical portions of the Zohar, Nahalat Tsvi by Tsvi Hirsh ben Yerahmiel Chotsch, printed in 1711 by Anton Heinscheidt; and an ethical treatise, Derekh ha-yashar le-olam ha-ba by Yehiel Mikhl ben Abraham Epstein, printed in 1717 by Anton Kellner. The study of the preparatory printing phase, the analysis of the books’ visual spaces, page layouts, technical choices, and the reception of the works provide important testimony on the cultural habits of traditional Jewish society and on the religious mutations that accompanied the process of printing.Afin de mesurer l’évolution du livre et de la lecture en Europe au xviiie siècle, nous analyserons trois ouvrages représentatifs de la production imprimée à Francfort : un traité éthique contenant des sources mystiques, le Kav ha-yashar, de Tsvi Hirsh Koidanover, imprimé en 1709 chez Matthaüs Andreae ; une adaptation en yiddish des parties narratives et éthiques du Zohar, le Nahalat Tsvi par Tsvi Hirsh ben Yerahmiel Chotsch, imprimée en 1711 chez Anton Heinscheidt ; un ouvrage édifiant le Derekh ha-yashar le-olam ha-ba de Yehiel Mikhl ben Abraham Epstein, imprimé en 1717 chez Anton Kellner. L’étude de la phase préparatoire à l’impression, l’analyse de l’espace visuel du livre, entre autres, la mise en textes, les choix techniques, et de la réception des ouvrages permet, en fait, de collecter de précieux témoignages sur les habitudes culturelles propres à la société juive traditionnelle et sur les mutations religieuses qui accompagnèrent la diffusion de l’imprimerie.

  3. Contacto de lenguas en la América dieciochesca: español y portugués en el Paraguay Linguistic contact in the 18th Century in America: Spanish and Portuguese in Paraguay

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    José Luis RAMÍREZ LUENGO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que en varias zonas de América el español y el portugués conviven, casi todos los estudios se han centrado en la situación del norte del Uruguay, y apenas han tratado ese contacto en su vertiente histórica. Este trabajo trata de paliar en parte ese desconocimiento al presentar varios textos paraguayos del siglo XVIII con claro influjo del portugués. Se realiza aquí una edición filológica de tales documentos y un estudio sobre las características de cada nivel lingüístico achacables a la influencia lusa, con un doble propósito: 1 describir la variedad usada en los escritos y compararla con los datos —sincrónicos y diacrónicos— que se poseen sobre los Dialectos portugueses del Uruguay (DPU y otras zonas; 2 aportar datos que ayuden a comprender las características propias del contacto entre estas dos lenguas románicas, y la trascendencia del portugués en la configuración (de determinadas variedades del español de América.Although Spanish and Portuguese coexist in several areas of America, almost all studies have focused on the contact situation in the North of Uruguay, and this contact has been hardly considered from a historical point of view. This work tries to mitigate this lack of knowledge in presenting several texts from Paraguay in the 18th century, which show a clear influence from Portuguese. A philological edition of such documents is provided here and a study of linguistic characteristics possibly due to Portuguese influence is made. Our aim is twofold: 1 to describe the linguistic variety used in these written texts in comparison with the synchronic and diachronic data which are already available regarding the Portuguese Dialects in Uruguay (DPU and some other areas; 2 to provide data which could be helpful to understand the idiosyncratic characteristics of the linguistic contact of these two Romance languages and the significance of Portuguese in the shaping (of some linguistic varieties of American

  4. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

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    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and later natural sciences at the Archiginnasio. During his stay in Bologna at the end of the 18th century, the Jesuit community continued to play an important role in the teaching of the sciences in spite of the Napoleonic occupation. In Bologna, as early as the 16th century, Ulisse Aldrovandi was developing new concepts in geology with his study and systematic collection of fossils. At the beginning of the 18th century, the naturalist and oceanographer L.F. Marsili and one of the fathers of paleontology, G. Monti, built of Aldrovandi's work and contributed to the growth of the Science Institute and the Natural History Museum in the city. It was in this cultural context that in 1782 Molina published in Italian language the Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile. The book was divided into four chapters, the first two of which dealt with the earth sciences. In this work Molina repeatedly compares the north-south stretched landscapes, the volcanic activity and the geology of Italy and Chile. His next work, Memorie di storia naturale, was published in 1821 and was based on several lectures given by him at the Bologna Academy of Sciences. It contained fourteen Memoria -lectures- referred to different aspects of the natural sciences and six covered geological topics. In 1815, one of Molina's lectures -later Memoria XIV-, was published under the title Less noticed analogies in three kingdom of nature. In this lecture Molina discussed the similarities between minerals

  5. A kora újkori szerb ortodoxia és a nyugat-ukrán kultúrközpontok kapcsolatai a liturgikuskönyv-kereskedelem tükrében - The Serbian Ortodox Elite in the 18th Century Austro-Hungarian Kingdom and the West Ukrainian Cultural Centres – through the Trade of Liturgical Books

    OpenAIRE

    FÖLDVÁRI, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    It is a false concept that the ideas of the Enlightenment and national awakening were transferred to the Slavic peoples of the Habsburg Empire solely by the Viennese artists and scientists whose activity was prompted and supported by the royal court itself in the 18th century. This statement is partially true, but not entirely. Vienna was one route of the transmission of Western European cultural and political influences, but its role should not to be overvalued in the examination of cultu...

  6. XVIII amžiaus antrosios pusės Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės universalieji laikmačiai: Vilniaus ir Gardino kalendoriai. Universal Time counters of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the second half of the 18th century: Vilnius and Grodno Calendars

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    Jurgita Žąsinaitė-Gedminienė

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the calendars of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL which were published in the second half of the 18th century. Emphasizing the fact that in the Age of Enlightenment calendars as well as other periodicals underwent significant developments in terms of form, content, and audi­ence, Vilnius Calendar (pl. Kalendarz Wileński and Grodno Calendar (Kalędarz Grodzieński are being analysed.Vilnius and Grodno Calendars included news from the whole world and from the area of the GDL. The information concerning astronomy, medicine, and prophesies also used to be published there.The calendars dealt with social and moral issues of the time and were considered to be peculiar in­structors of the society. Apart from that they enabled their readers to express themselves by proclaiming openly society’s interests and needs. In this way a specific communication medium between this uni­versal form of press and its audience was created. From the publications of Vilnius and Grodno Calendars the history of Lithuanian post could be traced. There is also much information of the state management in the GDL in the last decades of the 18th century.In general Vilnius and Grodno Calendars could be regarded as some ABC books of politics, econo­my, and culture that were dedicated to the inquisitive and demanding society of the second half of the 18th century.

  7. Alteraçoes das práticas contabilísticas na Casa da Moeda de Lisboa no século XVIII = Changes in accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint in the 18th century

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    Rita Martins De Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se explica el cambio de prácticas contables en la Casa da Moeda de Lisboa encuadrándolas en la política de difusión de la contabilidad por partida doble en el ámbito público en Portugal durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII.La necesidad del Estado de ejercer un mayor control sobre sus fuentes de ingresos justificó la transformación ocurrida demostrando la adaptación de las prácticas contables a las características de cada organización. En la Casa da Moeda, lo específico de su misión acuñación de monedas originó una legislación propia fechada en 1773. La periodización de estas prácticas contables en la Casa da Moeda de Lisboa se organizó en tres fases: la primera entre 1686 y 1761, la segunda entre 1761 y 1773 y por último desde 1773 a 1797, período final de este estudio.This article explains the changes made to accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint within the context of the introduction of double-entry bookkeeping into the public sphere in Portugal during the second half of the 18th century.The State’s requirement to exercise greater control over its sources of income justified the changes that took place, with accounting practices being adapted to the features of each organisation. The Mint's specific function –the minting of metallic money– gave rise to the creation of its own particular legislation, in 1773. The study of these accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint will be divided into three separate periods: firstly from 1686 to 1761, secondly from 1761 to 1773, and finally from 1773 to 1797. Neste artigo explica-se a alteração das práticas contabilísticas na Casa da Moeda de Lisboa enquadrando-as na política de difusão da contabilidade por partidas dobradas na esfera pública, em Portugal, na segunda metade do século XVIII.A necessidade de um maior controlo exercido pelo Estado sobre as suas fontes de receita justificarão as transformações ocorridas, demonstrando estas a

  8. La vente des biens nationaux à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, nouvelle donne pour la ville The sale of national assets at the end of the 18th century – a gift to the city

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    François Antoine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available À la fin de l’Ancien Régime, les villes des Pays-Bas gardaient les traits de villes médiévales sans ordre et faites d’entrelacs de rues et de ruelles. Le caractère corporatif de la production limitait la présence de grands ensembles industriels et les couvents et leurs jardins occupaient une grande partie de la superficie intra et extra muros des cités. Par ailleurs, l’Église était propriétaire d’un important parc immobilier de petites demeures adossées à des églises jusqu’aux importants refuges d’abbayes dominant dans les campagnes de vastes espaces fonciers. Durant la deuxième moitié du xviiie, les autorités habsbourgeoises menèrent une politique tendant à moderniser les villes en faisant, en autres, tomber les enceintes et en donnant une nouvelle affectation aux couvents contemplatifs supprimés. La Révolution française bouleversa ces ensembles urbains en libérant d’un coup une masse très importante de biens immobiliers qui appartenait à l’Église et en modifiant radicalement les modes de production par la suppression des corporations de métiers. La bourgeoisie principalement négociante réussi habilement tirer tous les profits de cette nouvelle donne. Cet effet d’aubaine contribua grandement à faire passer nos régions dans un nouveau stade de leur démarrage industriel.At the end of the Ancien Régime, the towns of the Netherlands retained the characteristics of medieval towns, without any order and consisting of warrens of streets and alleys. The corporative nature of production limited the presence of major industrial complexes and the monasteries and convents, together with their gardens, covered a large part of the urban areas both within and outside city walls. In addition, the church had important property holdings, ranging from small residential properties attached to churches to major abbey residences dominating vast countryside estates. During the second half of the 18th century, the

  9. [Of the Hôtel des invalides at the imperial court. Careers of Maloet father and son, doctors regents of the Medical College of Paris at the 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquillard, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Although the names of the 18 Century's doctors of Medicine are not unknown, no essay was really written about them and this paper tends to attract attention to the Parisian medical elite of the Ancient System. Pierre Maloet is the example of the doctor of the Monarchical system who as a doctor from Montpellier registered in the Paris Faculty at the beginning of the Century and thanks to his relations with the Guyard-Duchenne managed to be introduced into the Court and the military world. Maloets' careers are good illustrations of penetration into the society and onto the domain of the great varieties of medical exercises. Never they publicly claimed the new ideas of the Century of Enlightment but they embodied its contradictions into the attachment to old structures and the will of innovation.

  10. 18th STAB/DGLR Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Gerd; Krämer, Ewald; Kreplin, Hans-Peter; Nitsche, Wolfgang; Rist, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This book presents contributions to the 18th biannual symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB). The individual chapters reflect ongoing research conducted by the STAB members in the field of numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for (but not limited to) aerospace applications, and cover both nationally and EC-funded projects. By addressing a number of essential research subjects, together with their related physical and mathematics fundamentals, the book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current research work in the field, as well as its main challenges and new directions. Current work on e.g. high aspect-ratio and low aspect-ratio wings, bluff bodies, laminar flow control and transition, active flow control, hypersonic flows, aeroelasticity, aeroacoustics and biofluid mechanics is exhaustively discussed here.  .

  11. 18th International Laser Radar Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Neuber, Roland; Rairoux, Patrick; Wandinger, Ulla

    1997-01-01

    Lidar or laser radar, the depth-resolved remote measurement of atmospheric parameters with optical means, has become an important tool in the field of atmospheric and environmental remote sensing. In this volume the latest progress in the development of lidar methods, experiments, and applications is described. The content is based on selected and thoroughly refereed papers presented at the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin, 22-26 July 1996. The book is divided into six parts which cover the topics of tropospheric aerosols and clouds, lidar in space, wind, water vapor, troposheric trace gases and plumes, and stratospheric and mesospheric profiling. As a supplement to fundamental lidar textbooks this volume may serve as a guide for scientists, engineers, and graduate students through the blossoming field of modern lidar techniques and their contribution to atmospheric and environmental research.

  12. 18th International Conference on Electronic Publishing

    CERN Document Server

    Dobreva, Milena

    2014-01-01

    The ways in which research data is used and handled continue to capture public attention and are the focus of increasing interest. Electronic publishing is intrinsic to digital data management, and relevant to the fields of data mining, digital publishing and social networks, with their implications for scholarly communication, information services, e-learning, e-business and the cultural heritage sector. This book presents the proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Electronic Publishing (ELPUB), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, in June 2014. The conference brings together researchers and practitioners to discuss the many aspects of electronic publishing, and the theme this year is 'Let's put data to use: digital scholarship for the next generation'. As well as examining the role of cultural heritage and service organisations in the creation, accessibility, duration and long-term preservation of data, it provides a discussion forum for the appraisal, citation and licensing of research data and the n...

  13. ACCORDING TO THE RECORDS OF NICOSIA CADI’S COURT, THE MONEY FOUNDATIONS FOUNDED IN CYPRUS IN THE FIRST PERIOD OF 18th CENTURY KIBRIS ŞER’İYE SİCİLLERİNE GÖRE XVIII. YÜZYILIN İLK YARISINDA KIBRIS’TA KURULAN PARA VAKIFLARI (VAKF-I NÜKÛD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet DEMİRYÜREK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vakf-ı Nükûd (money foundations were established in the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century. But these foundations were legalised by Şeyhülislam Ebüssuud Efendi in the 16th century.These foundations were founded in Cyprus in the 18th century but we have not seen any detailed researches concerning these foundations. There are not any researches or knowledge about these foundations.Acccording to the records of the Nicosia Cadi’s Court, these foundations were founded in the early of 18th century, too. These foundations were set up by men or women. These persons determined the conditions of working of the vaqf and they were registered in the records of the Nicosia Cadi’s Court. The aim of this study is to reveal the money foundations founded in the earyl of 18th century, their legal statutes, the conditions of foundations, the goals of foundations and their methods of working. We will, also compare these foundations with the other money foundations founded in the Ottoman Empire and avaluate our findings. In this present study it will be used the records of the Nicosia Cadi’s Court. İslâm medeniyetinin vakıf kurumu dâhilinde mütalaa edilen ve Osmanlı öncesi dönemde kurulmaya başlanan nakit para vakıfları (vakf-ı nükûd Osmanlı Devleti’nin farklı coğrafyalarında tatbik edilmiş uygulamalardan biridir. Kıbrıs’ın Osmanlı toprakları arasına katılmasının üzerinden yarım asır geçmeden, XVII. yüzyıl başlarında Kıbrıs’ta da para vakıflarının kurulmuş olduğu anlaşılmaktadır. Kıbrıs’taki ilk örnekleri XVII. yüzyıl başlarında görülen para vakıfları XVIII. ve XIX. yüzyıllarda da kurum olarak varlığını sürdürmüş ve birçok para vakfı kurulmuştur. Hem kadınlar hem de erkekler tarafından kurulan nakit para vakıfları genel olarak “muamele-i şer‘iyye” yoluyla işletilmişlerdir. Çalışmamızın amacı, XVIII. yüzyılın ilk yarısında Kıbrıs’ta kurulmuş olan

  14. The Professional Careers of Judges on the Criminal Court of Catalonia in the First Third of the 18th Century Trayectoria profesional de los magistrados de la Sala Penal de la Real Audiencia Catalana en el primer tercio del setecientos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel MARTÍNEZ RODRÍGUEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia underwent profound changes at the beginning at the eighteenth century. the Succession War put and end to the typical Catalan institutions under the Austria. At the end of this political conflict, the main royal institution, that’s to say the Real Audiencia, was awarded a new structure in 1716. this new one bears no resemblance to the previous period. And one of the major changes was the new sala penal. As a result of this fact, we’ve been interested in knowing their social background. We have been able to find useful data on their university studies, and the jobs they were offered before being well-known judges. These data have been intertwined with their family origins because in this way we can appreciate better why they had such interesting careers.La Guerra de Sucesión representó un dramático punto y final a las instituciones propias del Principado durante la etapa foral. incluso certificó la defunción del proyecto que tenía el Archiduque Carlos para la Audiencia catalana. Las esperanzas que puso la clase dirigente catalana en las cortes de 1705-1706 no se concretaron en el inmediato futuro. el decreto de nueva Planta afectó de lleno a la Real Audiencia catalana, ya que la corona aprobó un nuevo organigrama para el alto tribunal de justicia catalán. en este sentido, la reaparición de la sala penal significó homologar la praxis judicial catalana con la del resto de España. Para calibrar en su justa medida este hecho hemos prestado especial atención a la trayectoria profesional y familiar de los magistrados que dieron vida a la misma. Información imprescindible para conocer a fondo el papel que tuvieron los mismos en estos momentos iniciales de la etapa borbónica.

  15. 17至18世纪欧人舆图上的苏岩海域及其名称%Suyan Sea Area and Its Name on Europeans' Maps from the 17th to the 18th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘显洁

    2016-01-01

    随着被世界贸易和跨洋殖民推动的大航海时代的到来,进入远东的欧洲人凭借先进的航海和测绘技术,逐渐认识和描绘了苏岩海域.17世纪后,欧人地图上的苏岩海域内容日益丰富,周边的地理特征也渐次准确.他们绘制的地图记录了他们对苏岩海域的观察和认知.欧人地图中所记载的苏岩海域名称,反映了当时东亚海域的人文地理与政治地理,为今日的海洋文化史研究和海疆分划等提供了重要的文献学实证.%With the advent of the Age of Discovery impelled by world trade and transoceanic colonization, by means of advanced navigation and mapping technology, Europeans who reached the Far East, gradually recognized and depicted Suyan sea area. After the 17th century, the content of Suyan sea area on Europeans' maps was increasingly rich, and its surrounding geographical features were also gradually accurate. The maps they drew recorded their observation and knowledge of Suyan sea area. The name of Suyan sea area recorded in Europeans' maps reflected the cultural geography and political geography of the East Asian seas at that time, having provided an important empirical philolo-gy for today's research of ocean culture and history and coastal division.

  16. An Edutainment of Botany and Its Reflection of Science Popularization during the 18th and 19th Centuries%从一款植物学游戏看18、19世纪的科学传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜虹

    2015-01-01

    ,published at the beginning of the nineteenth century,was an edutainment of botany,which adopted the catechism as a means of science education. The botanical knowledge and illustrations of this edutainment were mainly borrowed from , written by Priscilla Wakefield. It aimed to make participators learn Linnaean Botany, which was fashionable during that time. From the innovator Linnaeus and the botanizer Rousseau to Wakefield,there are two directions of science communication, namely the one from elite botanists to popularizers and the other among popularizers. Different from traditional books,this edutainment was a creative try of popular science publication. It was also a new way of public science consumption.%《植物学消遣》(Botanical Pastime )是19世纪初一款寓教于乐的问答游戏,这款游戏的植物学知识和插图主要参考了韦克菲尔德的《植物学入门》,让参与者了解当时盛行的林奈植物学。从知识的原创者林奈和植物学实践者卢梭的《植物学通信》到游戏的参考源《植物学入门》,植物学知识经过了科学家到科普作家和科普作家之间的两种传播方向。这款游戏是当时科学传播的新尝试,也是公众消费科学的一种方式。

  17. Peterburgskaya akademiya nauk v XVIII v. i ee pol' v rasprostranenii N'yutonianstva na kontinente Evropy %t Petersburg Academy of Sciences of 18th century and its role in the dissemination of Newtonianism in teh continental Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevskaya, N. I.

    "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" by I. Newton were published and immediately recognized in England in 1687. However in countries of the continental Europe up to 1744 dominated the Cartesianism. Few newtonians were exposed to persecutions. Under such circumstances in 1724 Peter The Great decided to found an Academy of sciences in Russia. Since in this country there were no scientists, it was decided to invite them from the continental Europe. Two scientists arrived to Russia were newtonians. Other just were graduated from universities and had no hope for scientific work in their native lands. This situation turned out to be rather happy. The newtonians - J. N. Delisle and J. Hermann - trained the youth (D. Bernoulli, L. Euler, F. Ch. Mayer, G. W. Krafft, A. D. Kantemir, G. W. Richmann, M. V. Lomonosov, N. I. Popov, V. K. Trediakovskij, A. D. Krasilnikov etc.). They created the science of Russia and enhanced the doctrine of Newton. Their scientific works were printed in "Commentarii" in Latin. The newspaper "St.-Petersburg sheets" and its appendix, the magazine "Notes on the Sheet" (issued in Russian and German) - published the works of Petersburg Academy of sciences and promoted the Newtonianism. Everyone, who could read in German, used these materials. One of the readers was I. Kant. He relied upon these publications in preparing his lectures at Königsberg University, and then later, in working out the cosmogony theory. The works of J. N. Delisle, L. Euler and A. C. Clairaut on the theory of comets' and planets' movement justified Newtons doctrine. They also forced J. Cassini to accept the doctrine as well. Delisle's papers on the history of astronomy published there are helpful for understanding of the history of development the astronomy. The books of J. F. Weidler "A history of astronomy" (1741) and "Astronomical bibliography" (1755) formed the basis for all histories of astronomy in the XVIII-XIX centuries.

  18. XVIII-XIX. Y��zyılın İlk Yarısında Gebze Menzilhanesi Gebze Range Area (Menzilhane During First Half Of The 18th-19th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar BAŞ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To meet communication and accommodation needs, variousfacilities and organizations were created in the past times. One of themis range organizations and range areas. This organization played animportant role in such matters as communication, transportation,lodging, recreation and pet supplies. During the Ottoman Period,especially the vizier of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, Lutfi Pasha,developed the organization and ascribed it to certain principles.Towards the end of 17th century, the structure of the sameorganization, administration and operation were harmonized withconditions of the day. Accordingly, besides the existing range areas ofAnatolia and Rumelia side, new range areas were periodically opened.Among the centers concerned, those united the intersection of the mainroads and centrally located at the intersections and close to the bigcities gained importance. In this regard, Gebze Range Area had been themost important institution of its kind in Anatolia. Due to its centrallocation, it served as a messenger, pilgrimage and excursion range. Butits feature of being a range area of messenger came to the fore. It is alsofeatured to be a place used by civilians. In this capacity, besides servingas a range service, its foundation is supposedly estimated to be at theend of the 17th century. Taking into consideration the need of the newsystem and period of Tanzimat Reforms of Administration, it began tobe administered in the form of post office given in trust or lease fromthis period of time. However, it partly maintained its old system and thegovernment shape. From its establishment till its closure, it welcomed alarge group of charge and visitors. Plenty of registration documents andfiles about it were reached so far. Because of the importance ofmessenger, pilgrimage and excursion, they were worth being checkedout. It was abolished on 27 October 1862 and was transferred to thetreasury income by inventory stock sale. Haberleşme ve konaklama

  19. The Metaphor of Body: Racial Discourse about "Chinese" by Europeans during 16-18th Centuries%身体的隐喻:16-18世纪欧洲社会关于“中国人”的种族话语

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先清

    2011-01-01

    16—18世纪欧洲社会关于中国人的种族知识来源主要集中于伊比利亚旅行者、耶稣会定居者和新教国家入华使节三个方面。16-18世纪上半叶,在伊比利亚旅行者与入华耶稣会士笔下,中国人被当作是欧洲之外所有“新发现”人种中的佼佼者,甚至一度还高踞过欧洲通过海外探索而构建的世界人种金字塔的顶端。然而,进入18世纪下半叶,随着欧洲通过殖民扩张而迅速增强自身的力量后,欧洲关于“文明”与“野蛮”的认知也发生了相应的变化,欧洲在人种分类上已开始将中国人排挤出文明民族的序列。这一时期欧洲关于中国人的种族话语的演变,与其时欧洲关于欧洲之外人民的态度转变是同步的,并且与欧洲人类学的发展密切联系。从16至18世纪欧洲社会关于中国人的种族话语变迁的案例,我们可以清楚地看到大航海时期的欧洲殖民探索与人类学知识发展之间的互动关系。%The racial knowledge about Chinese for European society during 16-18th centuries mainly came from the Iberian travelers, Jesuits and diplomat missions sent to China by the Protestant British and the Protestant Dutch. Among the racial lists of the "new discovery" world, Chinese people were described as the excellent one by the Iberian travelers as well as the Jesuits, and even once had also been putted to the top place of the "world racial pyramid" which Europeans built through overseas exploration. However, enter the second half of the 18th century, as Europe rapidly increasing its own strength by colonial expansion, the European cognizance about "civilization" and "barbaric" has also undergone a corresponding change, Europe has started to push Chinese people out of the civilized nations. The evolution of European discourse on Chinese race during this period is synchronized the change of Europe's attitude towards people outside Europe

  20. A Brief History of Linguistics before 18th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亦松

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction Linguistics can be simply defined as the scientific study of language.Therefore,a history of linguistics is closely related to the origin of human language.This paper,in a rough way,classifies history of linguistics into three periods:Linguistics in Ancient Times;Linguistics in the Middle Ages;and Linguistics in the

  1. Lightning and Gunpowder in the 18th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krider, E. P.

    2006-12-01

    On or before June, 1751, Benjamin Franklin and co-workers showed that gunpowder could be ignited by a small electric spark, and subsequently people used gunpowder to enhance the explosions of "thunder houses" to demonstrate that grounded metallic rods would protect model structures against lightning damage. Even before the sentry box and kite experiments proved that thunderclouds are electrified and that lightning is an electrical discharge in 1752, Franklin had hypothesized that a tall, well-grounded conductor might reduce or prevent lightning damage by silently discharging the cloud, and if a discharge did occur, then the tall rod would offer a preferred place for the lightning to strike, and the grounding conductors would guide the current into the ground in a harmless fashion. Over the next 10 years, experience gained through practice showed that grounded rods did indeed protect ordinary structures from lightning damage, but a question remained about the best way to protect gunpowder magazines. In 1762, Franklin recommended a tall "mast not far from it, which may reach 15 or 20 feet above the top of it, with a thick iron rod in one piece fastened to it, pointed at the highest end, and reaching down through the earth till it comes to water," and in 1772 he made a similar recommendation for protecting the British powder magazine at Purfleet. In 1780, Jan Ingenhousz asked Franklin to "communicate to me some short hints, which may occur to you about the most convenient manner of constructing gun powder magazines, the manner of preserving the powder from moisture and securing the building in the best manner from the effects of lightning." In his reply, Franklin detailed a method of protection that is almost perfect, "they should be constructed in the Ground; that the Walls should be lin'd with Lead, the Floor Lead, all 1/4 Inch thick & the Joints well solder'd; the Cover Copper; with a little Scuttle to enter, the whole in the Form of a Canister for Tea. If the Edges of the Cover scuttle fall into a Copper Channel containing Mercury, not the smallest Particle of Air or Moisture can enter to the Powder, even tho' the Walls stood in Water, or the whole was under Water." In 1876, the Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, made almost exactly the same recommendation for protecting against lightning, a method known today as a "Faraday cage."

  2. The butterfly diagram in the 18th century

    CERN Document Server

    Arlt, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Digitized images of the drawings by J.C. Staudacher were used to determine sunspot positions for the period of 1749-1796. From the entire set of drawings, 6285 sunspot positions were obtained for a total of 999 days. Various methods have been applied to find the orientation of the solar disk which is not given for the vast majority of the drawings by Staudacher. Heliographic latitudes and longitudes in the Carrington rotation frame were determined. The resulting butterfly diagram shows a highly populated equator during the first two cycles (Cycles 0 and 1 in the usual counting since 1749). An intermediate period is Cycle 2, whereas Cycles 3 and 4 show a typical butterfly shape. A tentative explanation may be the transient dominance of a quadrupolar magnetic field during the first two cycles.

  3. Liotard's pastels: techniques of an 18th-century pastellist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauvage, L.L.F.; Gombaud, C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007 the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam initiated a conservation and research project on framed pastels by the Swiss artist Jean-Etienne Liotard. For the first time, 21 pastels were unframed and available for documentation, examination and technological analysis. In order to reconstruct both his workshop

  4. Were the Turks in the 18th century variolated against smallpox?——the analysis of a typical exam-ple of misconception in medical cross-cultural transmission%18世纪土耳其人接种人痘吗?——医学跨文化传通错位典例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alicia Grant; 马伯英

    2009-01-01

    variolation in the 18th century in the Otto-man Empire was opposed by Muslims due to their religious beliefs. This article uses cultural anthropology in its analysis of the reasons for the misconception.%长期以来,人们将玛丽·蒙塔古夫人从奥斯曼帝国时代的君士坦丁堡传人痘接种法到英国的史事,误读为是18世纪土耳其穆斯林开始种痘而基督教徒反对种痘.恰恰相反,蒙塔古夫人是从居住在君士坦丁堡的基督徒那儿获得种痘方法,而土耳其穆斯林因其宿命论信条,迷信天命而拒绝种痘.这一医学跨文化传通过程中出现的概念性错位,是由各种原因造成的,本文引用原始文献和从文化人类学的角度进行分析,希望纠正这一错误.

  5. As metamorfoses do império e os problemas da monarquia portuguesa na primeira metade do século XVIII The empire’s metamorphoses and the problems of the Portuguese monarchy in the first half of 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante a primeira metade do século XVIII, em diversas dimensões do mundo português, operou-se um significativo processo de metamorfose, tanto no âmbito interno do reino quanto na própria configuração mais geral do Império. Lisboa, consolidada como caput regne, começou a viver significativa transformação. No pensamento de diversos personagens ligados à administração da monarquia havia a certeza de que o eixo do Império situava-se definitivamente no complexo atlântico, nas duas margens do oceano. Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir algumas questões relativas a esses fenômenos.During the first half of the 18th century, in various dimensions of the Portuguese world, operated a significant process of metamorphosis, both within the kingdom itself as the more general setting of the Empire. Lisbon, consolidated as caput regne, began to live a significant transformation. In the mind of several characters related to the administration of the monarchy was not certain that the axis of the Empire was located permanently in the complex Atlantic, on both sides of the ocean. This article aims to discuss some issues related to this phenomenon.

  6. 18世纪朝鲜实学派“北学”及重商思想论析--以朴齐家《北学议》为中心%Mercantilist and Learning from China on North Ideas of Korea’ s Practical School in 18th Century:with Pak Je-ga’ s On Northward Learning as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋健

    2015-01-01

    朴齐家(1750—1805),号楚亭,朝鲜实学派思想家和社会改革论者,是18世纪后半期朝鲜实学流派———北学派的重要代表人物之一。本文围绕其代表作《北学议》等著述,对其中所包含的“北学论”及重商思想试作粗浅探析。%Pak Je-ga (1750-1805), a famous ideologist and progressive of Korean practical school, was one of the important representatives of Korean“learning from China on the north school” in the second half of the 18th century.In this study, Pak’s thoughts and theories regarding“learning from China on the north” and mercan-tilism are discussed with his On Northward Learning.

  7. Limites e fronteiras das políticas assistenciais entre os séculos XVI e XVIII: continuidades e alteridades Limits and frontiers of the poor relief and health care policies between the 16th and 18th centuries: continuities and alterities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurinda Abreu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir dos conceitos de ação coletiva e de atores com interesses e do pressuposto de que o campo da caridade, assistência e saúde foi politicamente definido desde o início do período moderno, este texto tem dois objetivos principais: por um lado, analisar a construção do sistema assistencial português, identificando as suas linhas de continuidade durante todo o Antigo Regime. Por outro, avaliar as razões da maior eficácia da Coroa de quinhentos quando comparada com os governos da segunda metade de Setecentos, em termos de reforma das estruturas de apoio social e implementação de um novo paradigma assistencial. Em ambos os casos obviamente tendo em conta as diferenças entre os contextos políticos e sociais dos dois momentos em análise.Using the concepts of the collective action and actors with interests and the assumption that the poor relief and health care field was politically defined since the early modern period, this paper has two main purposes: on the one hand, to analyze the construction of the Portuguese assistance system, identifying its lines of continuity during the Ancient Regime. On the other hand, to evaluate the reasons why the Crown of the 16th century was more efficient when compared with the governments of the second half of the 18th century, in terms of reform of the social structures and implementation of a new paradigm of assistance. In both cases, taking into account the differences between the political and social contexts of those two moments.

  8. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of devel...

  9. La enseñanza de la perspectiva como parte de la fortificación en el siglo XVIII: el caso de la Real Academia de Matemáticas de Barcelona Teachings on perspective as part of fortifications in the 18th century: the case of the Royal Academy of Mathematics of Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Galindo Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende demostrar la manera en que durante buena parte del siglo XVIII, la enseñanza de la perspectiva que se llevó a cabo al interior de las academias de ingenieros militares, tuvo que despojarse del carácter simbólico que tuvo durante años para arquitectos, pintores y escultores. A través del estudio de caso de la Real Academia de Matemáticas de Barcelona se pone en evidencia la manera en que esta disciplina pasó a engrosar, junto con la estática, la mecánica y otras ciencias matemáticas, un universo de saberes alcanzable para los ingenieros de la modernidad.Este artigo pretende demonstrar o modo em que, durante boa parte do século XVIII, o ensino da perspectiva que se levou a cabo nas Academias de engenheiros militares despojando-se do caráter simbólico que teve durante anos para arquitetos, pintores e escultores. Através do estudo do caso da Real Academia de Matemática de Barcelona coloca-se em evidência o modo em que esta disciplina passou a compor, junto com a estática, a mecânica e outras ciências matemáticas, um universo de saberes alcançáveis para os engenheiros da modernidade.This article seeks to show how during much of 18th century teachings on perspective taking place at the academies of military engineers had to rid itself of the symbolic character it bore during many years for/ architects, painters, and sculptors. Through the case study of the Royal Academy of Mathematics of Barcelona, it is evident that this discipline became - along with statistics, mechanics, and other mathematical sciences - a reachable universe of knowledge for engineers in modern times.

  10. Infancia, familia y educación en la Edad Moderna española: un recorrido a través de las fuentes pedagógicas (siglos XVI-XVIII / Childhood, family and education in the Spanish Modern Age: Going through the pedagogical sources (16th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfín Ortega Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Tomando como punto de partida el pionero y poco conocido De liberis educandis libellus (1509 de Nebrija, en el presente estudio realizamos un recorrido por la Historia de la Familia y de la Educación desde diversos conceptos: la individualidad del niño, su evolución y conquista final en el siglo XVIII, su proceso educativo entorno a roles parentales adquiridos, la preceptiva educativa impuesta desde la moral católica y desde su aval normativo estatal, y la patria potestad. Asimismo, estudiamos brevemente la trascendencia social de uno de los pilares pedagógicos del Humanismo, la natura, que junto a su significación didáctica dentro del ámbito académico, proyectó su influencia en la “educación doméstica”, liderada por la figura del preceptor-padre. Summary: This study analyzes one of the less known works of Nebrija, De liberis educandis libellus (1509, to go through both the History of Family and Education from diverse concepts: child´s individuality, his evolution and final conquest in the 18th century, the educational process around parental roles purchased, the educational regulations imposed from the Catholic morals and from the state normative guarantee, and patria potestad. The second part of this work is a study of the social transcendence of one of the pedagogical pillars of Humanism, nature, which together with its methodological significance in the academic area added a great influence in the “domestic education”, led by the figure of the tutor-father.

  11. A kora újkori szerb ortodoxia és a nyugat-ukrán kultúrközpontok kapcsolatai a liturgikuskönyv-kereskedelem tükrében - The Serbian Ortodox Elite in the 18th Century Austro-Hungarian Kingdom and the West Ukrainian Cultural Centres – through the Trade of Liturgical Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÖLDVÁRI, Sándor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is a false concept that the ideas of the Enlightenment and national awakening were transferred to the Slavic peoples of the Habsburg Empire solely by the Viennese artists and scientists whose activity was prompted and supported by the royal court itself in the 18th century. This statement is partially true, but not entirely. Vienna was one route of the transmission of Western European cultural and political influences, but its role should not to be overvalued in the examination of cultural relations between Slavic peoples and the Habsburg Empire. The Krypiakevich Institute of Ukrainian Studies in Lviv has carried out several significant researches in the last decades. Iaroslav Dmitrovich Isaievich has led the institute for fourteen years, he is also a member of the Academy of Sciences and his findings on the topic are of primary importance. His work on the history of typography and book trade made it inevitable to reconsider the contacts of the Western territories of the present-day Ukraine with the Slavic peoples of the Austro-Hungarian Kingdom. The author of this paper, who is an expert of the old printed liturgical books of the Byzantine rite, has also come to the conclusion that book trade played a crucial part in the transmission of the Enlightenment. Apparently, the new ideas spread from Poland across Ukraine to the Serbs who lived in Hungary and on the Balkans. Serbian Ortodox Church as a determining factor in the national awakening was not taken into consideration either. As far as Ortodoxy is concerned, it is essential to make a distinction between the Greek and Serb churches and between the Russian and Balkan Ortodoxy as well. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to describe the contacts between the Serbs and the Ukrainian territories, to present the book trade between these peoples and areas, and to give a new insight into the ecclesiastical and national relations on the Balkans.

  12. A criança e o seu desenvolvimento em discursos médicos e pedagógicos que circularam no contexto português (séculos XVIII a XX Child and their development through medical and pedagogical literature currently available in the portuguese language (18th to 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Gomes Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir do advento da modernidade, dinâmicas tecnológicas, científicas, econômicas, sociais e culturais propiciaram crescente interesse pela quantidade e pela qualidade das pessoas e, consequentemente, por uma maior atenção ao crescimento e ao desenvolvimento da criança. A confluência dessas condições levaram a que se elaborasse uma racionalidade que, partindo do ancestral saber sobre o crescimento das pessoas, concedesse maior atenção às condições que o condicionavam, bem como às características que o podiam explicitar. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar dados provenientes da literatura médica e da literatura pedagógica impressa em Portugal, com vista a possibilitar uma compreensão sobre como foi perspectivado o desenvolvimento da criança entre os finais do século XVIII e o primeiro terço de Novecentos. É nosso propósito incidir tanto sobre dados de natureza somática como psicológica apresentados nas referidas literaturas, bem como sobre as concepções de desenvolvimento aí expressas.Since the advent of modernity, technological, scientific, economic, social and cultural dynamics have fostered a growing interest in the quantity and quality of people, and consequently in child's growth and development. The confluence of these conditions gave rise to a kind of rationality that, starting from the ancestral knowledge of people's growth, focused on the issues that influenced growth, as well as on the characteristics that could explain it. The aim of this work is to present data from medical and pedagogical literature printed in Portugal, with a view to promote an understanding of how child's development was perceived since the end of the 18th century up to the first third of the 20th century. It is our goal to focus on somatic and psychological data available on the aforementioned literature, as well as on the perceptions of development.

  13. The Triangle Trade and the Pluralistic Cultural Exchange Among Holland, Indonesia and China in the 17-18th Centuries%17-18世纪的荷兰-印尼-中国贸易与多元文化交流

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺圣达

    2015-01-01

    欧亚新航线在16世纪开辟以后,传统的海上丝绸之路延伸到了西欧,给东西方贸易与多元文化交流带来了新的活力和内容.在17—18世纪的东西方贸易与多元文化交流中,欧洲新兴的资本主义国家荷兰发挥了重要作用,其中一个重要的方面是荷兰东印度公司立足印尼的爪哇尤其是巴达维亚(雅加达)与中国开展贸易,巴达维亚(雅加达)在17—18世纪的荷兰—印尼—中国贸易与多元文化交流中具有重要地位.在当时的历史条件下,这种贸易承载了文化交流的内容,开启了荷兰—印尼—中国贸易与多元文化交流尤其是荷兰与中国之间文化交流的进程.17世纪到18世纪上半叶,荷兰人在促进中国与西欧的物质文化交流、把大量茶叶和瓷器输入西欧、影响西欧人的社会生活以及介绍当时的中国国情方面,都发挥了重要的作用.另一方面,由于交往性质和方式的局限以及制度、文化、语言等方面的差异与隔阂,当时荷兰与中国的文化交流受到多种因素制约,精神文化的交流相当有限,尽管荷兰人对中国已有比较多的了解,荷兰在文化上对于中国人来说还是一个陌生的国度.%Since the Europe-Asia Sea Route had been opened up,the traditional Maritime Silk Road extended to Western Europe, which brought new energy and contents to the East-West trade and pluralistic cultural exchange.In the communication of business and pluralistic cultural exchange between the East and West from 17th to 18th century,Holland,an emerging capitalist country,played a special and important role,one important aspect of which was that Holland took the Dutch East India Company as a base located in Java,Indonesia,and conducted trade with China,especially Batavia,which played an important part in promoting the multicultural exchange among Holland,Java (Indonesia)and China.The Dutch played important roles in exporting a

  14. Weekly Report for June 18th-22nd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Zong

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the week June 18th-22nd,the Mainland stock markets showed a flat while the Hong Kong Hang Seng Index hit its new historical high. The index of Shanghai Stock decreased 1% weekly and that of Shenzhen Stock enjoyed a weekly increase of 0.2%.

  15. 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibuchi, Hisao; Ong, Yew-Soon; Tan, Kay-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a collection of the papers accepted in the 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2014), which was held in Singapore from 10-12th November 2014. The papers contained in this book demonstrate notable intelligent systems with good analytical and/or empirical results.

  16. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of devel......The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding...... concerned with design thinking, theory, and practice, with a premium placed on evidence-based research. The papers are published in a total of ten volumes of Proceedings, in addition to electronic publication. This volume is the first of two concerned with Design Methods and Tools, and contains 45 papers...... on topics relating to tools and methods for design application including modelling, representation, selection, analysis, evaluation, optimisation and other related topics....

  17. XVIII. Yüzyıl Divan Şâirlerinin Gözüyle Padişahlar ve Saltanat Dönemleri The Sultans and Their Periods of Royal from the Viewpoints of 18th Century Ottoman Poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Bayram DÜZENLİ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Named after a 6-century- old literature and harboring many poems of the poets especially the kasîde and the gazel (odes, the divan meets us not only as a work of art but also as an important source which reflects community and active political life of the period. Especially, it seems possible that being historical documents, the historical stanzas in the divan which was written because of an event and on that sense can be the witness of the period, contains significant information thatwe can’t face in history books.Witnessing to ages, divan poems aren’t objective like historicalsources therefore the poets can’t be expected to behave like achronicler. Because circumstances of the poet would affect and changehis view towards people and events. Regarding that the poets asmembers of the society have both personal and social aspects in theirapproaches and evaluations of their poems and except from somehistorical approaches, reflecting the mentality of the people in thatperiod constructs the essence of this study.In this article, belonging to 18th century and representing thesense of politics of the period, 50 divan poems will be viewed; theevaluation of the sultans of the age and their reigns by poets will bepresented as a whole by refering to the poet and protector relationshipas the occasion arises. Besides, proving whether poets acted in parellelwith some historical facts while evaluating sultans and theirgovernership and whether different poets acted in similar or differentmanner towards the particular politician is another aim of this study. İsmini altı asırlık bir edebiyata veren ve şâirlerin başta kasîde ve gazelleri olmak üzere pek çok manzûmesini barındıran divanlar, birer sanat eseri olmalarının yanı sıra, dönemlerinin siyâsî ve toplumsal hayatını yansıtmaları bakımından da çok önemli kaynaklar olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Özellikle, divanlardaki herhangi bir hâdise vesilesiyle yazılmış olan

  18. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of devel...... on topics relating to tools and methods for design application including modelling, representation, selection, analysis, evaluation, optimisation and other related topics....... concerned with design thinking, theory, and practice, with a premium placed on evidence-based research. The papers are published in a total of ten volumes of Proceedings, in addition to electronic publication. This volume is the first of two concerned with Design Methods and Tools, and contains 45 papers...

  19. Proceedings 18th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency

    CERN Document Server

    Luttik, Bas; 10.4204/EPTCS.64

    2011-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 18th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency (EXPRESS 2011), which took place on 5th September 2011 in Aachen, as a satellite workshop of CONCUR 2011. The EXPRESS workshop series aim at bringing together researchers who are interested in the expressiveness and comparison of formal models that broadly relate to concurrency. In particular, this also includes emergent fields such as logic and interaction, game-theoretic models, and service-oriented computing.

  20. Le roman anglais du XVIIIe siècle à l’opéra : la sentimentalité, Pamela et The Maid of the Mill The 18th-century Novel as Opera: Sentimentality, Pamela and The Maid of the Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Burden

    2011-12-01

    late 18th-century culture that it has been used as a means to define it as an ‘age’. Among the most important formative work in this ‘sentimental’ style is Richardson’s novel, Pamela, that came to the attention of the writer Isaac Bickerstaffe (1733?-1808 who re-worked it as an English opera, remarking that the piece ‘however trifling in other circumstances, was the first sentimental drama that had appeared on the English stage for forty years’. The work set to music by Samuel Arnold (1740-1802, was representative of a new musical genre, the pastiche opera that incorporated the music of others. From a musical point of view, the opera is not hugely important; in modern day terms, the lack of a single identifiable composer or compositional aesthetic makes it a problematical artistic object to assess today. And yet the very simplicity of the music was the defining attribute that allowed the ‘sentimentality’ of the story to shine through, and did herald a new genre in English opera, the pastiche. This article will argue that the very particular circumstances of an English performance played a vital role in the development of sentimental opera in London.

  1. Essays on the history of brazilian dipterology: III. Three remarkable notices from the 18th century, mainly related to myiasis-producing flies (Cochliomyia and Dermatobia Ensaios sobre a história da dipterologia brasileira: III. Três notáveis notícias do século XVIII, principalmente relacionadas a moscas produtoras de miíases (Cochliomyia e Dermatobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper registers reports about dipterans made by three Portuguese who lived in Brazil during the 18th century. Luiz Gomes Ferreira, in his book "Erário mineral" ["Mineral revenue"], wrote curious passages related with myiasis-causing flies of the genus Cochliomyia. José Rodrigues de Mello registered, in Latin verses, the folklore for curing myiases caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in cattle. Luiz dos Santos Vilhena, in the last of his twenty letters dealing with several aspects of life in Brazil, made reference to horseflies, human bot flies and mosquitos.Este trabalho registra notícias sobre dípteros feitas por três portugueses que moraram no Brasil durante o século XVIII. Luiz Gomes Ferreyra, em seu livro "Erário mineral", escreveu curiosas passagens principalmente relacionadas com moscas causadoras de miíases do gênero Cochliomyia. José Rodrigues de Mello registrou, em versos em Latim, o folclore para curar bicheiras causadas por Cochliomyia hominivorax no gado. Luiz dos Santos Vilhena, na última de suas vinte cartas sobre vários aspectos da vida no Brasil, fez referência a mutucas, bernes e mosquitos.

  2. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was

  3. 18th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, Jim; Elaydi, Saber; Pinto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications cover a number of different aspects of difference equations and discrete dynamical systems, as well as the interplay between difference equations and dynamical systems. The conference was organized by the Department of Mathematics at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) under the auspices of the International Society of Difference Equations (ISDE) and held in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in July 2012. Its purpose was to bring together experts and novices in these fields to discuss the latest developments. The book gathers contributions in the field of combinatorial and topological dynamics, complex dynamics, applications of difference equations to biology, chaotic linear dynamics, economic dynamics and control and asymptotic behavior, and periodicity of difference equations. As such it is of interest to researchers and scientists engaged in the theory and applications of difference equations and discrete dy...

  4. 18th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, José; Capuz-Rizo, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    This volume features papers from the 18th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering, held by the University of Zaragoza in collaboration with the Spanish Association of Project Management and Engineering (AEIPRO). It illustrates the state of the art in this emerging area. Readers will discover ways to increase the effectiveness of project engineering as well as the efficiency of project management. The papers, written by international researchers and professionals, cover civil engineering and urban planning, product and process engineering, environmental engineering, energy efficiency and renewable energies, rural development, safety, labor risks and ergonomics, and training in project engineering. Overall, this book contributes to the improvement of project engineering research and enhances the transfer of results to the job of project engineers and project managers around the world. It will appeal to all professionals in the field as well as researchers and teachers involved in the traini...

  5. 18th and 19th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bez, Wolfgang; Focht, Erich; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Patel, Nisarg

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. It covers trends in hardware and software development in general and the future of high-performance systems and heterogeneous architectures in particular. The application-related contributions cover computational fluid dynamics, material science, medical applications and climate research; innovative fields such as coupled multi-physics and multi-scale simulations are highlighted. All papers were chosen from presentations given at the 18th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance held at the HLRS, University of Stuttgart, Germany in October 2013 and subsequent Workshop of the same name held at Tohoku University in March 2014.  

  6. An approach to the foreign officer profile in the Spanish army of the 18th Century: the early training of Lieutenant General Alejandro O’reilly (1723-1794 Una aproximación al modelo del oficial extranjero en el ejército borbónico: la etapa de formación del teniente general Alejandro O’reilly (1723-1794

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar RECIO MORALES

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Irish-born Lieutenant General Alejandro O’Reilly (1723-1794 is one of the most controversial figures of Eighteenth-Century Spain. Already at the time he was branded as a mercenary, a parvenu and the king’s favourite. Historiography added to his name adjectives like Bloody O’Reilly or General Desastre. Over the years this reputation has not been accompanied by a better understanding of his figure. This contribution examines his early years of training, starting with his departure from Ireland in the early 1730s to enter the royal army with two of his brothers, until his return to Madrid in 1760 after participating as a military observer in Central Europe. These are unknown years, but they are essential to explain the different instruments that allowed O’Reilly to become the «king’s agent», such as his own merits, kinship, friendship, patronage, fellowship and professional endogamy. O’Reilly’s career allows us to approach a characteristic professional profile of Bourbon Spain, that is, the senior officers of foreign origin who occupied the highest military ranks and political positions in the 18th Century Spanish Empire.Alejandro O’Reilly (1723-1794 es una de las figuras más controvertidas del XVIII español. En su época fue tachado de mercenario, advenedizo y favorito del rey, y la historiografía unió su apellido a sonoros adjetivos como bloody O’Reilly o General Desastre. Con el paso de los años esta notoriedad no ha venido acompañada de un mejor conocimiento de su figura. Esta contribución examina sus primeros años de formación, desde su salida de Irlanda a principios de la década de 1730 para ingresar en los ejércitos reales, hasta su regreso a Madrid en 1760 tras su participación como observador militar en Centroeuropa. Esta etapa resulta fundamental para explicar los distintos instrumentos que permitieron a O’Reilly convertirse en «agente del rey», como sus méritos propios, el parentesco, la amistad, el

  7. 18th Stage of the 2004 Tour de France

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Hosts States Service

    2004-01-01

    Haute-Savoie / Pays de Gex 23 July 2004 On Friday 23 July 2004, the 18th stage of the Tour de France cycle race will be departing from Annemasse (Haute-Savoie) and heading for Lons-le-Saunier (Jura), passing through Archamps, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Collonges, Farges, Saint-Jean-de-Gonville, Thoiry, Sergy, Saint-Genis-Pouilly, Chevry, Gex et Mijoux, inter alia (a detailed itinerary with approximate passage times can be found on http://www.letour.fr/2004/us/index.html). This event is likely to cause numerous disruptions to local traffic, as the roads used by the race will be closed to all vehicles except those bearing the official race insignia: 90 minutes before the first rider comes through; up to 15 minutes after the police vehicle bearing the ' fin de course ' sign has driven through. Furthermore, there will be no access to the centre of Saint-Genis-Pouilly from about 12.30 p.m. to 2.30 p.m. As a result, you are strongly advised to take these difficulties into account when making any car journeys ...

  8. Synthesis of the 18th ArgoSpine Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, P; Graftiaux, A; Mazel, C; Richard, N

    2014-07-01

    The subject of this 18th Symposium of ArgoSpine Association was the space of the intervertebral discs. Space of the intervertebral discs must be initially defined anatomically and histologically. A geometrical rebuilding in 3D is possible and must allow a modeling of the intervertebral discs. The physiology of the disc, its nutrition, must be known, in particular that of the center of the disc. The disc constitutes the base of the balance of the rachis, balances which can be only dynamic. The degenerative cascade by the loss of the proteoglycans involves the loss of the biomechanical properties of the disc. The consequences of this degenerative cascade are the base of all the vertebral pathology of origin of the intervertebral discs and even of the posterior articular facets. The origin of the pains and the diagnosis, especially at the lumbar level, are studied by the speakers. Traumatology of the intervertebral discs is the object of a particular chapter. Finally, the average therapeutic ones, that is, decompression of the intervertebral discs, fusion of the intervertebral discs, the recovery of mobility of the intervertebral discs, and the capacity of restoration of space of the intervertebral discs, are studied in detail. The infection of the disc is studied in detail.

  9. 文学视域下东西方文化语境比较--以《鲁宾逊漂流记》与“三言”“二拍”经商题材小说为例%Comparison of the East-West Cultural Context from the Perspective of Literature in 17th and 18th Centuries---Taking Business Novels Robinson Crusoe and “San Yan” “Er Pai”as Examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁

    2013-01-01

    文学是社会生活的镜像,深刻地反映出文化的特质。笛福的《鲁宾逊漂流记》和冯梦龙的“三言”、凌濛初“二拍”经商题材小说,深刻地反映了十七、十八世纪东西方商业的发展以及文化的各自特点。这一时期东西方世界对个人价值肯定、对自由人格重视遥相呼应,有很大的相似性。在创作目的上,他们都是想通过作品来疗救人的灵魂或社会,但由于东西方文化的巨大差异,虽然同是对生命与个体的意义、价值取向的关注,西方是指向宗教,而中国则是指向史学。鲁宾逊和“三言”“二拍”中的商人群体都是特定时代的特写人物,这些作品围绕其文化内核在人物形象、义利之辨等方面而极具民族特色,反映出了东西文化的差异。%Literature reflects the cultural characteristics profoundly as a mirror of social life .Business novels like Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, Feng Menglong’s“Sanyan” and Ling Mengchus’“Er Pai” reflect the East-West develop-ment of business and characteristics of culture in the 17th and 18th centuries.There is a lot of similarity in the Eastern and Western world which affirmed personal values and emphasized free personality echoes during this period .In the purpose of writing , they wanted to work to save the soul of and society , but because of the huge cultural differences between the East and the West , the West pointed to religion , while China pointed to history .Robinson and merchants in“San Yan” “Er Pai”are feature characters of the specific times .These works focus on the ethnic cultural charac-teristic about character image and justice , reflecting the cultural differences .

  10. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  11. EDITORIAL: The 18th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 07)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J. H.

    2008-06-01

    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 18th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 07), which took place at the University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal from 16-18 September 2007. Since the first workshop at the University of Twente in 1989 the field of micromechanics has grown substantially and new fields have been added: optics, RF, biomedical, chemistry, and in recent years the emergence of nanotechnology. This year an extensive programme was scheduled with contributions from new materials research to new manufacturing techniques. In addition, the invited speakers presented a review of the state-of-the-art in several main trends in current research, with the focus on micro/nanosystems in the ICT Work Programme in EC FP7. As ever, the two day workshop was attended by delegates from all over Europe, the USA, Brazil, Egypt, Japan and Canada. A total of 96 papers were accepted for presentation and there were a further five keynote presentations. The workshop provides a forum for young researchers to learn about new experimental methods and to enhance their knowledge of the field. This special issue presents a selection of 17 of the best papers from the workshop. The papers highlight fluidic and optical devices, energy scavenging microsystems, neural probe arrays and microtechnology fabrication techniques. All the papers went through the regular reviewing procedure of IOP Publishing, and I am grateful to all the referees for their excellent work. I would also like to extend my thanks to Professor Robert Puers for advice on the final selection of papers and to Ian Forbes of IOP Publishing for managing the entire process. My thanks also go to the editorial staff of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. I believe that this special issue will provide a good overview of the topics presented at the workshop and I hope you enjoy reading it.

  12. P.P. Shcherbinin, Voennyi factor v povsednevnoi zhizni russkoi zhenshcheny v XVIII—nachale XX v. [The Military Factor in the Daily Life of Russian Women from the 18th to the 20th Centuries],Tambov, Izdatel’stvo Iulis, 2004, 507 pages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Steinberg

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of war and military service on the daily lives of women from the eighteenth century to the end of the Imperial period is the topic that Shcherbinin brings to light in this path breaking study. This topic has not been studied in historiography hence the author takes on an enormously significant task, considering the role of the military in Imperial society, with firm authority through his extensive yet judicious use of sources. Because of his comprehensive bibliography, readers can ...

  13. A plebe do açúcar: a população livre na retomada da jurisdição portuguesa na capitania de Pernambuco (séc. xvii-xviii The sugar populace: free people in the recovery of the portuguese jurisdiction of the captaincy of Pernambuco - Brazil 17th to 18th centuries

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    Kalina Vanderlei Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende apresentar um panorama da estrutura social açucareira a partir da retomada da jurisdição portuguesa sobre a capitania de Pernambuco em 1654, observando especificamente os grupos sociais livres urbanos que vivenciaram um crescimento significativo durante o governo holandês e a partir dele. Considerando o discurso dos cronistas, dados inquisitoriais e correspondência administrativa, buscamos analisar as modificações sociais ocorridas então.This paper is an analysis of the social structure of the Pernambucan sugar society stemming from the recovery of the Portuguese jurisdiction of the captaincy of Pernambuco in 1654, and focusing specifically on the free urban social groups that had developed significantly under Dutch administration. Taking into consideration chroniclers' accounts, inquisitorial data and official documents, we seek to analyze the social changes that had surged during the new Portuguese government of the late 17th century in Pernambuco.

  14. The «Spectators» and their influence on the Press in Cádiz in the 18th Century and the Spanish War of Independence: a Successful Model in a Changing Society Los «espectadores-pensadores» y su influencia en la prensa gaditana del XVIII y la Guerra de la Independencia: un modelo de éxito en una sociedad cambiante

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    Beatriz SÁNCHEZ HITA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the influence of certain characteristics of the «spectators», the most important journalistic format of enlightenment, in the miscellaneous publications appearing at the end of the eighteenth-century, and also in the various public papers of the Spanish War of independence. in this last period, thanks to freedom of the press, journalism experiences a second golden age and becomes a sort of fourth power with influence over political life; it is at this time that criticism of customs evolves to a real project of social transformation.El presente estudio muestra cómo ciertas características de los denominados «espectadores-pensadores», el gran modelo periodístico de la ilustración, han perdurado e influido en las publicaciones misceláneas de finales del siglo XVIII, así como en diversos papeles públicos de la Guerra de la Independencia. En esta última etapa al amparo de la libertad de imprenta el género conoce su segunda edad de oro y se convierte en un cuarto poder de notoria influencia en la vida política, y se pasa de la crítica de las costumbres con afán regeneracionista a la puesta en marcha de un verdadero proyecto de transformación social.

  15. Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

    2014-05-01

    The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26

  16. Estratégia e adaptabilidade alimentares na América Portuguesa do século XVIII: alguns casos monçoeiros - 10.4025/dialogos.v14i2.463 Alimentary strategy and adaptability in 18th century Luso-America: some expedition cases - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v14i2.463 Estrategia y adaptabilidad alimenticias em la América Portuguesa del siglo xviii: algunos casos “monzónicos”

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    Christian Fausto Moraes dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Várias foram as intempéries e adversidades enfrentadas pelos primeiros colonizadores da América Portuguesa que se aventuraram pelas regiões inexploradas desta colônia de Portugal. Além do clima, geografia, fauna e flora completamente novos, o colonizador tinha ainda de adaptar-se a uma nova dieta, que não somente pudesse suprir os gastos calóricos resultantes de um desgaste físico constante, mas que também se adaptasse, enquanto gênero alimentício cultivável, ao solo e clima da Colônia e ainda se conservasse o maior tempo possível, servindo de alimento durante expedições e viagens que podiam durar meses. A partir de tal enfoque pretende-se aqui, através da análise de relatos e diários de viagem, discutir as estratégias referentes à alimentação dos colonizadores durante tais empreitadas, sobretudo daqueles que se aventuraram nas expedições que, durante o século XVIII, saiam da Capitania de São Paulo com destino às recém-descobertas minas de ouro na região de Cuiabá.The first settlers underwent several adversities while venturing into the unexplored regions of this colony of Portugal. In addition to a completely new climate, geography, fauna and flora, settlers had to adapt to a new diet that could not only supply their caloric needs resulting from constant physical strain, but which could also adjust to the soil and climate of the colony and withstand expeditions and journeys that could last months. From that viewpoint, this work aims to discuss – through reports and travel diaries – the strategies regarding the diet of settlers during these journeys, particularly those who ventured in the expeditions departing from the capitaincy of São Paulo for the recently discovered golf mines in the Cuiabá region during the 18th century.Varias fueron las intemperies y adversidades enfrentadas por los primeros colonizadores de la América Portuguesa que se aventuraron por las regiones inexploradas de esta colonia. Adem

  17. PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

    2013-11-01

    YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of

  18. La transformation des Landes de Gascogne (18e-19e, de la mise en valeur comme colonisation intérieure ? The transformation of the Moors of Gascony (18th-19th centuries, development as interior colonization? A transformação da Landas da Gasconha (séculos 18 e 19, o desenvolvimento pela colonização interna?

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    Julien Aldhuy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lorsqu’on évoque la mise en valeur des Landes de Gascogne, on pense à la transformation de cette région au 19e siècle par l’extension d’un boisement de pins maritimes suite à un drainage systématique. Cette simplification héritée de l’histoire de l’affirmation de l’Etat-Nation français soulève deux problèmes. Premièrement, elle réduit la transformation des Landes de Gascogne à une histoire locale décontextualisée par rapport aux idées et aux enjeux de l’époque. Deuxièmement, une telle réduction favorise une lecture désocialisée de la production de cet espace car, de la transformation des Landes de Gascogne, on ne retient que les moyens de l’action (le drainage et son résultat (la forêt de pin. Une telle posture implique une vision dénuée d’acteurs et de rapports de domination entre ceux qui disqualifient l’espace et justifient l’action compensatrice et ceux qui l’habitent. Nous montrerons dans cet article qu’une fois mis en contexte dans le concert des idées de l’époque et une fois la place de ses acteurs restituée, la mise en valeur des Landes de Gascogne peut être envisagée comme une forme de colonisation intérieure.When one evokes the development of the Moors of Gascony, one thinks of the transformation of this area at the 19th century by a forestation with maritime pines thanks to a systematic drainage. This simplification inherited of the history of the French Nation-State raises two problems. Firstly, it reduces the transformation of the Moors of Gascony to a decontextualized local history, without links with the ideas and the stakes of the time. Secondly, such a reduction supports a dissocialized reading of the production of this space because, one only retains the means of the action (the drainage and its result (the forest of pine. Such a posture implies a vision devoid of actors and of relationship of domination between those which disqualify space and justify the compensation

  19. Thomas Taylor’s dissent from some 18th-century views on Platonic philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Taylor’s interpretation of Plato’s works in 1804 was condemned as guilty by association immediately after its publication. Taylor’s 1804 and 1809 reviewer thus made a hasty generalisation in which the qualities of Neoplatonism, assumed to be negative, were transferred to Taylor’s own...... interpretation, which made use of Neoplatonist thinkers. For this reason, Taylor has typically been marginalised as an interpreter of Plato. This article does not deny the association between Taylor and Neoplatonism. Instead, it examines the historical and historiographical reasons for the reviewer’s assumption...... an integral part of Brucker’s Lutheran religiosity and thus theologically and ethically biased. If these premises are identified, articulated and discussed critically — which they have not been so far in connection with Taylor’s reception — it becomes less obvious that the reviewer was justified in his...

  20. Towards the creation of a climatic database for Catalonia (18th to 21st centuries

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    M. Prohom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the project that is being carried out in the Climatology Department of the Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya (Meteorological Service of Catalonia, which aims to create a climatic database for Catalonia that is as complete and of the highest quality possible. Due to historical events, this climatic information is still incomplete and widely scattered in many different sources. As a consequence, it has been necessary to make a previous identification and cataloguing of the sources containing climatic material. Later on, a methodology used to integrate such a volume of information in a database was created, taking two aspects into consideration: the recovery of the metadata and the generation of climatic series. METADEM was developed to preserve all the information related to the metadata of a meteorological observatory, while a methodology was also designed to create complete and high quality climatic series. This one includes three levels: digitalization, quality control and homogeneity analysis. As a result of this project, which is still in its initial phase, ca. two hundred series have had their temporary coverage improved, while ca. one hundred and fifty new series have been identified.

  1. Communicating the new chemistry in 18th-century Portugal: Seabra's Elementos de Chimica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Simões, Ana

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, we analyse the aims, contents and impact of Seabra’s two-volume textbook - Elementos de Chimica ( Elements of Chemistry) - published in 1788 and 1790. Seabra’s Elements of Chemistry does not conform to the characteristics usually ascribed to textbooks by traditional historiography, and in particular to textbooks published in the peripheries. Marking the arrival of the new chemistry in Portugal, in a period in which many still resisted Lavoisier’s chemistry, this textbook was a state of the art account written in Portuguese, interspersed with critical evaluations, original comments and novel contributions. Despite being the only Portuguese chemistry textbook written during this period, it had hardly any readers, even among its natural audience at the University of Coimbra.

  2. A Swedish female folk healer from the beginning of the 18th century

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    Carl-Martin Edsman

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Catharina Fagerberg was a tailor's daughter from Marbäck in Småland, South-Sweden, where she was born in 1700. For a period of seven years she was afflicted with severe vexations of spirit, and was visited by blasphemous and murderous thoughts. In January, 1727, physical weakness set in; she had a stitch in her side and other troubles that kept her sleepless for eleven weeks. For a while they stopped, but on Easter Monday while in church Catharina experienced great difficulty in breathing and mental agony. On the 5th of August, 1727, as Catharina was sitting at her loom she had an attack of yawning and convulsions felt in an unusual state, and then was addressed by a 'good spirit', but from inside her and without her perceiving any voice: "You are puzzled by this yawning. I want now to tell you what is the matter with you, namely, that several unclean spirits dwell in your body and cause your illness and your pains”. She devoted herself to steady prayer and Bible-reading.

  3. Dynamic and Fatigue Analysis of an 18th Century Steel Arch Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumechra, Nadir; Hamdaoui, Karim

    2008-07-01

    Within the "Oran-Tlemcen" railway line realization project (159 km), several bridges were built by the Railroads Algerian West Company. 7 km from the east of Tlemcen city, this railway line must cross a very broken mountainous collar, that's why the French engineer "Gustave Eiffel" was solicited to construct a 68 m length bridge. In 1890, an arch steel truss bridge was realized. The bridge presents 300 m of apron curvature radius and, currently, is considered as one of the most important monuments of the Algerian historical heritage. Considering the age of the bridge and the evolution of the railway loads in time, it was essential to check the good behavior of the studied structure. For that, analyses to verify the physical and mechanical properties of the growth iron members are made. A finite element model of the bridge was built and numerical simulations were drawn. The structural vibration conducted analysis permit to understand the behavior of this particular structure, then to evaluate (in detail) the rate of the structure fatigue.

  4. A magnificent circumcision carnival in the early 18th century Ottoman period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verit, Ayhan; Cengiz, Mustafa; Yeni, Ercan; Unal, Dogan

    2005-01-01

    Circumcision has always been regarded as both an important social event and a milestone of a young man's life in Turkish culture, especially in the Ottoman period. Herein we study an exceptional circumcision festivity which lasted 15 days in the early autumn of the year 1720, for the 4 princes of Sultan III Ahmed, some sons of two high-ranking Ottoman officials and thousands of male children of poor citizens of Istanbul as representing the beneficent of the Sultan. All the organizations of the Empire participated in this huge event, including many shows and a feast, and the preparations were initiated months before. Traditionally, this kind of important social event of Ottoman culture had been described in a literary manner, and Surname-i Vehbi was the special name for the book of this circumcision festivity with 137 colored paintings and a total of 175 pages. The original of this work, which is in the library of Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul, was written by Vehbi and illustrated by Levni. The importance of this antique book is that it is the last important example of the illustrated festivity books of Ottoman literature.

  5. Frederica: An 18th-Century Planned Community. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marion

    The excavated foundations of various structures in Frederica, Saint Simons Island, Georgia, remind visitors that from 1736 until 1758, this planned community served the military garrison quartered there and housed a population of 1000. This lesson is based on the Fort Frederica National Monument listed in the National Register of Historic Places.…

  6. Preliminary observations on an 18th-century wreck at Poompuhar (east coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Saxena, M.; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    The preliminary results of detailed geophysical surveys and diving operations at the Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu (India) wreck site are presented and discussed. The exploration was undertaken in two phases. The first phase involved the use of geophysical...

  7. AIP mutation in pituitary adenomas in the 18th century and today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Harvinder S; Stals, Karen; Unterländer, Martina; Balding, David J; Thomas, Mark G; Kumar, Ajith V; Besser, G Michael; Atkinson, A Brew; Morrison, Patrick J; Howlett, Trevor A; Levy, Miles J; Orme, Steve M; Akker, Scott A; Abel, Richard L; Grossman, Ashley B; Burger, Joachim; Ellard, Sian; Korbonits, Márta

    2011-01-06

    Gigantism results when a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma is present before epiphyseal fusion. In 1909, when Harvey Cushing examined the skeleton of an Irish patient who lived from 1761 to 1783, he noted an enlarged pituitary fossa. We extracted DNA from the patient's teeth and identified a germline mutation in the aryl hydrocarbon-interacting protein gene (AIP). Four contemporary Northern Irish families who presented with gigantism, acromegaly, or prolactinoma have the same mutation and haplotype associated with the mutated gene. Using coalescent theory, we infer that these persons share a common ancestor who lived about 57 to 66 generations earlier.

  8. Haptic Blackness: The Double Life of an 18th-century Bust

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    Cyra Levenson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “One Object” is a British Art Studies series that uses an object from a collection as a starting point for collaborative research. Cyra Levenson and Chi-ming Yang have co-authored this essay which is followed by a photo-essay by artist Ken Gonzales-Day and an interview between him and the authors.

  9. On an 18th century oil-planting of botanical interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.

    1946-01-01

    A few years ago Prof. Dr W. Martin, at the time director of the Gallery of prints and drawings at Leyden, drew my attention to an oilpainting at Prof. J. N. Bakhuizen van den Brink’s, 40 Rapenburg, Leyden. This painting (size 95 X 68 cm), which is owned by the Leyden University Fund, shows a peculia

  10. Women, Families and Social Welfare in Spain from the 18th Century to the Present

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    Juan Gracia Cárcamo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a contribution to the debate on the development of Social Welfare in Southern Europe. Emphasis is placed on factors such as educational formation of women for their task of responsibility for welfare and care within the families; this made possible improvements in Public Health. We note the relevance of women in the charitable activities of the public sphere grew paradoxically through reactionary movements. Emphasis is placed on the importance of women in Social Welfare during the Catholic Revival as receivers of charity (in Christian trade unions, in catholic mutual aid societies…, as intermediaries for poor families (facing priests, nuns and charitable ladies, as assistants (teachers in religious schools and nurses in hospitals and as leaders (Catholic ladies. There was an increase during the Francoist dictatorship in the participation of women in the reception, intermediation and offer of charity (in groups closer to fascism and in Catholic organisations.

  11. Reading, writing, drawing and making in the 18th-century instrument trade

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Florence Grant

    2014-01-01

    When George Adams assembled a large collection of philosophical instruments for King George III in the early 1760s, he drew on a variety of printed books as sources of experiments and instrument designs. Most important of these was Mathematical Elements of Natural Philosophy by the Dutch mathematician and philosopher Willem ’s Gravesande, whose own collection of instruments is now in the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden. Papers in the Science Museum archives reveal the specific practices through wh...

  12. Relationship between Spain and the United States during the 18th and 19th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-21

    year 1813, Uruguay in 1814, Chile in 1816, Argentina in 1817, 5 and Mexico in 1823. By 1828 thirteen new states were created in America. Between 1860...1927. 2. ENCYCLOPEDIA AMERICANA US. Constitution Bicentennial Commemorative Edition 1987. 3. FERNANDO DIAZ PLAJA, Otra Historia de Espana, Colleccion

  13. Translation Studies and the History of Science: The Greek Textbooks of the 18th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Georgia

    2006-01-01

    The process of translation has been studied extensively from a philological point of view, and has been lately regarded as a creative activity, during which the translated text is not treated in isolation from the circumstances of its reception. Current research has related communicational and functional approaches with concepts such as…

  14. Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century

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    Lev Efraim

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. The article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (The Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham in the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the medieval and early Ottoman Levant has yielded forty-eight substances of animal origin that were used medicinally. The vast majority of these substances were local and relatively easy to obtain. Most of the substances were domestic (honey, wax, silkworm, etc., others were part of the local wildlife (adder, cuttle fish, flycatcher, firefly, frog, triton, scorpion, etc., part of the usual medieval household (milk, egg, cheese, lamb, etc., or parasites (louse, mouse, stinkbug, etc.. Fewer substances were not local but exotic, and therefore rare and expensive (beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, ambergris, etc.. The range of symptoms that the substances of animal origin were used to treat was extensive and included most of the known diseases and maladies of that era: mainly hemorrhoids, burns, impotence, wounds, and skin, eye, and stomach diseases. Changes in the moral outlook of modern societies caused the use of several substances of animal origin to cease in the course of history. These include mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New standards in 18th century astrometry (Lequeux, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequeux, J.

    2014-05-01

    Catalogue of Flamsteed (flamstee.dat): John Flamsteed (1646-1719) was the first astronomer in charge of Greenwich Observatory. His stellar catalogue (Flamsteed 1725) was built on observations from 1675 to 1683 with a 6-feet radius sextant mounted on an axis parallel to the polar axis of the Earth, then from 1683 to 1719 with a mural circle with a radius of 79.5 inches (2m). 220 stars over 3925. Catalogue of Romer (romer.dat): Ole (or Olaus) Romer (1644-1710) is principally known for his 1676 discovery of the finite velocity of light, a discovery that he shared with Jean-Dominique Cassini. After a long stay in Paris, he returned to Copenhagen in 1681 and was appointed professor of astronomy at the University. The observatory and all the observations were destroyed in the great Copenhagen fire of 1728, with the exception of observations of 88 stars obtained during three observing nights, from 20 to 23 October 1706. La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (lacaifun.dat): Nicolas-Louis La Caille (or Lacaille, or de la Caille, 1713-1762) was a French astronomer who is remembered principally for his survey of the southern sky, where he introduced 14 new constellations that are still in use today. Before leaving for the Cape of Good Hope in 1750, he started a catalogue of the 400 brightest stars of both hemispheres, which he completed during his stays in Cape Town and in the Mauritius island, then after his return to Paris in 1754. He reduced the observations himself, including for the first time corrections for aberration and nutation, and published them with details of the observations and reductions (La Caille 1757). Bailly's adaptation of La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (bailly.dat): After the death of La Caille, Jean-Sylvain Bailly published a catalogue of the brighest stars of both hemispheres for the equinox B1750.0 in Ephemerides for 10 year from 1765 to 1775 (Anonymous (Bailly) 1763, p. lvii-lxiv). This catalogue obviously derives from the catalogue named lacaillefund.dat. La Caille's complete survey of the southern sky (lacaisur.dat): During his stay in Cape Town in 1751-1752, La Caille made the first systematic survey of the sky ever, in the modern sense. 244 stars over 9766. La Caille's catalogue of zodiacal stars (lacaizod.dat): When La Caille returned from his southern expedition in 1754, he undertook the construction of a catalogue of zodiacal stars. Mayer's zodiacal catalogue (mayer.dat): At exactly the same time as La Caille, Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) in Gottingen undertook a similar catalogue of zodiacal stars, using a 6-feet radius mural quadrant made by John Bird (1709-1776). 200 stars over 998. Bradley's stellar catalogue (bradley.dat): James Bradley (1693-1762) is famous for his discovery of aberration and nutation. From 1750 to his death in 1762, he built a large stellar catalogue, from observations first with an old mural sector and after 1753 with the Bird 8-ft mural sector located in Greenwich, where it 215 stars over 3220. Piazzi's stellar catalogue (piazzi.dat): Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1846) built a large catalogue containing 7646 stars from 1792 to 1813, observed in Palermo with an altazimuthal circle of Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800) can still be seen. 202 stars over 7646. Lalande's stellar catalogue (lalande.dat): L'Histoire celeste francaise de Lalande (Lalande 1801), which contains the unreduced observations of approximately 40,000 stars, is the first very large stellar catalogue. 198 stars over ~45000. (10 data files).

  16. Tongue and lip frenectomy in Spanish medical texts of the 16th-18th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Maroto, Martín; Sáez-Gómez, José Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The frena of the tongue and lip are normal structures of the buccal cavity, and surgical resection is only necessary in cases of hypertrophy. This article looks at medical texts of the Early Modern Era to analyze the origins and quality of our knowledge on this topic and examine any therapeutic measures proposed. This review shows that while the indications for carrying out tongue frenectomy are very similar to those today (speech and breastfeeding difficulties), those for carrying out a lip frenectomy are very different. Interestingly, apart from purely surgical or medicinal treatments, some authors indicated the need to complement such treatment with educational intervention and what can only be called basic speech therapy.

  17. Beggars, Vagrants and Romanies : Repression and Persecution in Portuguese Society (14th–18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu, Laurinda

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Europe that witnessed the construction of the Early Modern States, those who did not have an occupation and refused to work were stigmatized, severely persecuted, marginalized and expelled from the communities. What I propose in this paper is to go back to the first regulations against vagrancy and idleness in Portugal. With no substantial differences to the other European States’ diplomas promulgated at the same time, the Portuguese laws against the false beggars, the vagabonds and Roma have some particularities: they maintain the medieval matrix (1375, represent the thought of the central government and were conceived to be applied at a national scale. And, above all, they were also responsible for the conceptualization of “deserving poor”, keeping those groups away from the institutionalized poor relief and health care, especially the ones given by the hospitals.

  18. John Hyacinth de Magellan (1722-90): 18th century physicist with views on medical matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Thomaz, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    John Hyacinth de Magellan, whose Portuguese name was João Hyacintho de Magalhaens, though not a doctor nevertheless had many contacts with doctors and showed a genuine interest in disseminating medical news to his many friends and correspondents in Europe. The abundant and less formal correspondence with his friend Ribeiro Sanches forms the greater part of the work but in letters to other correspondents, including Trudaine de Montigny, Condorcet, Volta, J A Euler, Fabroni and Johann III Bernoulli, we find comments on medical subjects. The Sanches letters are particularly interesting because they are private, friend-to-friend letters that convey spontaneous and sincere thoughts and feelings.

  19. Surname analysis in biological anthropology: Alpine populations in the 17th and 18th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prost, M; Boëtsch, G; Girotti, M; Rabino-Massa, E

    2008-08-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary research program on Alpine populations, we studied the biodemographic evolution of two populations of the Dauphiné in the period 1690-1799. We analyzed several indexes derived from surname analysis to infer the genetic structure of the populations. Although situated in the same area of the Dauphiné, the two communities of Vallouise and Chiomonte had different biodemographic characteristics. Vallouise was heavily populated but genetically homogeneous, whereas Chiomonte was less populated but more heterogeneous. The two districts also differed in geographic position: Vallouise was a glacier-enclosed valley that did not attract new inhabitants; Chiomonte was situated in an open valley served by important roads and thus was able to attract many new inhabitants. The demographic differences between the two populations explain the differences in genetic structure. The index of isonymous relationship (R(i)) being different from 0 is due to the rare marriages between members of the two populations. Because R(i) is based on surnames, which are mostly polyphyletic, it can overestimate the genetic relationships between the populations, as in the case of consanguinity assessed by matrimonial isonymy.

  20. A historical perspective: infection from cadaveric dissection from the 18th to 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Benninger, Brion; Agutter, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-03-01

    Today, the study of human anatomy utilizing the ultimate study guide, the cadaver, is relatively safe. In the past, however, human dissection was dangerous. Prior to the germ theory, antibiotics, and the use of gloves, cadavers were often life threatening to dissectors including both the teacher and the student. Medical students who graduated in the United States before 1880 were unlikely to practice antisepsis in the dissecting room. In the present article, we review human cadaveric dissection in Europe and the United States primarily from the 1700s to the early 1900s in regard to its potential for transmission of infection to the dissector. A brief account of the infectious hazards of human cadavers in general and those of cadavers used for dissection in particular is given.

  1. Analysis of lead ingots from an 18th century shipwreck near Poompuhar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Parthiban, G.

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_2_114.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_2_114.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. ANTHIM THE IVIRITE AN EXPONENT OF CAUCASIAN AND ROMANIAN SPIRITUALITY IN THE 18TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela BOTEZ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the theme about Anthim the Ivirite is an exponent of Romanian and Caucasian spirituality. Honouring this personality we start from the observation that his spiritual heritage remains relevant over the ages. Some biographers claim that Anthim the Ivirite was from a noble family. His life was as well dramatic, as noble. Anthim the Ivirite remains in Romanian history as a deeply religious man and a man of many talents. He spoke several foreign languages among which Romanian, Greek, Arabic and Turkish. Saint Anthim was a scholar, a printer of religious writings, he wrote religious literature and succeeded to leave a deep mark in the Romanian culture that times undimmed. We consider relevant also that among the important anniversaries of the year 2016 along with the anniversary of Saint Anthim the Ivirite the Romanian Orthodox Church celebrates all the Romanian Church typographers who have contributed fundamentally to a rich religious culture in Romanian. A religious journalist notice for a specialized publication that The fact that the Romanian Orthodox Church, under the clear vision of His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel has chosen to inscribe amongst the paramount holidays of the year 2016 the Church typographers represents a memorable and soul-uplifting gesture, a gesture of conscience in agreement with all who wanted and succeeded to conquer time through the eternity of the typed letter, taking the Word of God in all the four skies and seeding the values of Christian faith and Christian moral in the hearts and thoughts of all Romanians. Posterity’s judgment was warm, respectful and fair in what concerns Saint Hierarch Anthim, and the Holy Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church glorified him, as a saint and martyr of our Romanian Orthodox Church and this is the reason why the final part of the paper is dedicated to the identification of a string of interesting Anthim anniversaries over the times.

  3. Elemental images of Spain in 18th Century French culture: from material culture to public opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Henri PAGEAUX

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to illustrate certain possibilities of adaptation of literary studies to the field of «material history» as defined in the work of Fernand Braudel («material civilization» and particularly Jean-Marie Pesez in the collective work coordinated by J. Le Goff, La nouvelle histoire (1998. It thus traces, with commentary, certain elemental images of Spain (plants, fruit, wool, horses, wine, not to mention the symbolic product, gold that may have gone through a process of literaturization, but above all, of «socialization», in «literary» works and texts (ranging from the article in the Encyclopedie to the descriptive poetry so much in vogue during the Enlightenment. In spite of the fragmentation of the inquiry, a gradual reformulation of the essential bases of a «social imagery» is being made that should serve a broader study of (French «public opinion» when faced with a foreign culture (Spanish culture.

  4. A Note on the 18th Party Congress of the CCP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2012-01-01

    The 18th Party Congress was more dramatic than anticipated due to the completely non-transparent process of selecting new leaders as well as a number of scandals involving leaders competing for the top posts. This contrasts with 2002 when Hu Jintao became secretary general in a comprehensive chan...

  5. Proceedings to the 18th Workshop : What Comes Beyond the Standard Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Holger Bech; Lukman, Dragan; What Comes Beyond the Standard Models

    2015-01-01

    The contribution contains the preface to the Proceedings to the 18th Workshop "What Comes Beyond the Standard Models", Bled, July 11 - 19, 2015, published in Bled workshops in physics, Vol.16, No. 2, DMFA-Zaloznistvo, Ljubljana, Dec. 2015, links to (most of) the published contributions and section (by M.Yu. Khlopov) on VIA at Bled 2015.

  6. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and…

  7. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and…

  8. 18th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The 18th edition of ACAT will bring together experts to explore and confront the boundaries of computing, automated data analysis, and theoretical calculation technologies, in particle and nuclear physics, astronomy and astrophysics, cosmology, accelerator science and beyond. ACAT provides a unique forum where these disciplines overlap with computer science, allowing for the exchange of ideas and the discussion of cutting-edge computing, data analysis and theoretical calculation technologies in fundamental physics research.

  9. 76 FR 25710 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Request for Information Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th Edition... concerning the collection of data about the proposed extension to ET Handbook 336, 18th Edition... modification to the ET Handbook No. 336. States will continue to use the State Plan Narrative to provide a...

  10. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  11. Various administrative services and AIS applications unavailable on Friday 18th May 2007

    CERN Document Server

    Administrative Information Services

    2007-01-01

    Due to a major upgrade Oracle HR application won't be available from Wednesday 16th May evening until Sunday 20th May. For that reason, various administrative services won't offer full service or will even be closed on Friday 18th May 2007. These services include: Users Office Registration Office (building 55) Records Office (HR) ...and others (full list available on http://ais.cern.ch website) We thank you for your understanding. AIS Administrative Information Services ais.support@cern.ch

  12. Various administrative services and AIS applications unavailable on Friday 18th May 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    AIS Administrative Information Services

    2007-01-01

    Due to a major upgrade the Oracle HR application will not be available from Wednesday 16th May in the evening until Sunday 20th May. For that reason, various administrative services won't offer full service or will even be closed on Friday 18th May 2007. These services include: Users' Office Registration Office (building 55) Records Office (HR) ... and others (full list available on http://ais.cern.ch website) We thank you for your understanding. AIS Administrative Information Services ais.support@cern.ch

  13. THE IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN EUROPE IN THE 18TH CENTURY: ECOLE DES ENFANTS DE LANGUE D’ISTANBUL IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE (1669-1873 XVIII. YÜZYIL AVRUPA’SINDA YABANCI DİL OLARAK TÜRKÇE ÖĞRETİMİNİN ÖNEMİ: OSMANLI İMPARATORLUĞU’NDA İSTANBUL FRANSIZ DİL OĞLANLARI OKULU (1669-1873

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna TİMUR AĞILDERE

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Söz konusu çalışmamızda, Fransız Hükümeti’nin Doğu dilleri tercümanları yetiştirmek amacıyla 1669’da İstanbul’da kurduğu Doğu Dilleri Oğlanları okulunun yaklaşık olarak bir yüzyıla kadar yayılan tarihi, Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretilmesinde kullanılan yöntemler ve okulun amaç ve hedefleri incelenmiştir. Hiç kuşkusuz adı geçen okul Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretilmesi tarihinin en önemli yapı taşını oluşturmaktadır. Doğu dilleri okulunun en önemli özelliği Fransız uyruklu öğrencilerine küçük yaşlardan itibaren İstanbul’da Türk dili ve kültürünü öğretmektir. Söz konusu öğrenciler ilerleyen yıllarda uluslararası ilişkilerde diplomat ve çevirmen olarak önemli görevler almış ve Osmanlı kültürü ile Avrupa kültürü arasında bir köprü oluşturmuşlardır. This study is intended to analyze the nearly one-century history of the School of Infants of Eastern Languages, which was founded by the French government in Istanbul in 1669 with the aim of training interpreters of eastern languages, and the methods employed to teach Turkish as a foreign language as well as the purposes and targets of the school. Doubtless, the school in question forms the most important cornerstone of the history of teaching Turkish as a foreign language. The most significant quality of the school of eastern languages is that it teaches its students, who are citizens of France, the Turkish culture and language in Istanbul from their early ages onwards. These students have undertaken important tasks and positions in the forthcoming years as diplomats and interpreters in field of international affairs, thus bridging the Ottoman culture and European culture.

  14. 18th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanovic, Mirjana; Kon-Popovska, Margita; Manolopoulos, Yannis; Palpanas, Themis; Trajcevski, Goce; Vakali, Athena

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the papers of 3 workshops and the doctoral consortium, which are organized in the framework of the 18th East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS’2014). The 3rd International Workshop on GPUs in Databases (GID’2014) is devoted to subjects related to utilization of Graphics Processing Units in database environments. The use of GPUs in databases has not yet received enough attention from the database community. The intention of the GID workshop is to provide a discussion on popularizing the GPUs and providing a forum for discussion with respect to the GID’s research ideas and their potential to achieve high speedups in many database applications. The 3rd International Workshop on Ontologies Meet Advanced Information Systems (OAIS’2014) has a twofold objective to present: new and challenging issues in the contribution of ontologies for designing high quality information systems, and new research and technological developments which use ontologie...

  15. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, RR

    2004-11-02

    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  16. New Words in Americon Feminist Movement (From 18th century to 1920)%New Words in Americon Feminist Movement (From 18th century to 1920)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟斐

    2011-01-01

    1. Introduction As we all know, in a broad sense, sex discrimination is a kind of sexual prejudice, which mainly refers to the discrimination against women. This phenomenon exists all over the world and in all aspects of social life, so there is no doubt that there exists bias in English language.

  17. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-05

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  18. Preliminary Report of the AMS analysis of tsunami deposits in Tohoku -- Japan -- 18th to the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Wassmer, P; Hart, D E; Hiraishi, T; Azuma, R; Koenig, B; Trautmann, M

    2015-01-01

    Sedimentary records of tsunamis are a precious tool to assess the occurrence of past events, as attested by an abundant literature, which has seen a particular 'boom' in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Despite an extensive literature, there is very little to no understanding of the role that the changing coastal environment is playing on the record of a tsunami, and for a given location, it is still unclear whether the largest tsunamis leave the largest amount of deposits. To research this question, the present study took place in Japan, in the Tohoku Region at Agawa-pond, because the pond act as a sediment trap. Using a sediment-slicer, a 1 m thick deposit was retrieved, from which 4 tsunami sequences were identified, including the latest 2011 tsunami. Using a series of sedimentary proxies: the AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility), grain size analysis, quartz morphoscopy (morphology and surface characteristics) and the analysis of microfossils, disparities b...

  19. Medical electricity and madness in the 18th century: the legacies of Benjamin Franklin and Jan Ingenhousz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreau, Sherry Ann; Finger, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin had at least two accidents that resulted in electricity passing through his brain. In addition, he witnessed a patient's similar accident and performed an experiment that showed how humans could endure shocks to the head without serious ill effects, other than amnesia. Jan Ingenhousz, Franklin's Dutch-born medical correspondent better known for his discovery of photosynthesis, also had a serious accident that sent electricity though his head and, in a letter to Franklin, he described how he felt unusually elated the next day. During the 1780s, Franklin and Ingenhousz encouraged leading French and English electrical "operators" to try shocking the heads of melancholic and other deranged patients in their wards. Although they did not state that they were responding to Ingenhousz's and Franklin's suggestions, Birch, Aldini, and Gale soon did precisely what Ingenhousz and Franklin had suggested. These practitioners did not appear to induce convulsions in their mentally ill patients, but they still reported notable successes.

  20. Spatial-temporal analysis on climate variation in early Qing dynasty (17th -18th century) using China's chronological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Hui Elaine; Wang, Pao-Kuan; Fan, I.-Chun; Liao, Yi-Chun; Liao, Hsiung-Ming; Pai, Pi-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change in the form of extreme, variation, and short- or mid-term fluctuation is now widely conceived to challenge the survival of the human beings and the societies. Meanwhile, improving present and future climate modeling needs a comprehensive understanding of the past climate patterns. Although historical climate modeling has gained substantive progress in recent years based on the new findings from dynamical meteorology, phenology, or paleobiology, less known are the mid- to short-term variations or lower-frequency variabilities at different temporal scale and their regional expressions. Enabling accurate historical climate modeling would heavily rely on the robustness of the dataset that could carry specific time, location, and meteorological information in the continuous temporal and spatial chains. This study thus presents an important methodological innovation to reconstruct historical climate modeling at multiple temporal and spatial scales through building a historical climate dataset, based on the Chinese chronicles compiled in a Zhang (2004) edited Compendium of Chinese Meteorological Records of the Last 3,000 Years since Zhou Dynasty (1100BC). The dataset reserves the most delicate meteorological data with accurate time, location, meteorological event, duration, and other phonological, social and economic impact information, and is carefully digitalized, coded, and geo-referenced on the Geographical Information System based maps according to Tan's (1982) historical atlas in China. The research project, beginning in January 2015, is a collaborative work among scholars across meteorology, geography, and historical linguistics disciplines. The present research findings derived from the early 100+ years of the Qing dynasty include the following. First, the analysis is based on the sampling size, denoted as cities/counties, n=1398 across the Mainland China in the observation period. Second, the frequencies of precipitation, cold-warm temperature, flood and drought with an index of social unrest are counted in an interval of a year, five years, ten years, and twenty years to gain their running mean(s) for every cites/counties to depict their temporal variations. Third, the cities and counties are divided into seven zones based on their meteorological and geographical characteristics, in order to interpret the regional expressions of the climate variations. Finally, the Ordinary Least Square regression model is used to estimate the coefficients among precipitation, temperature, flood and drought. Significantly, it is found that in general all these indices fluctuated in past 100+ years. However, the occurrence of drought and flood all have significant correlation with lower (colder) temperature (P=0.00) and also with precipitation (P<0.05). This implies that cold temperature tends to have higher meteorological extremes, and both flood and drought can occur approximately in the same year with abundant precipitation at different time. Among seven geographical zones, North China is found more vulnerable to the temperature changes considering these extreme weathers. Temperature change in Central and South China however are less significant. Central China on the other hand is more sensitive to the precipitation that are both correlated with drought and flood.

  1. The distribution of silver specimens from the Kongsberg Silver Mines, Norway, 17th and 18th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B.I.; Nordrum, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Specimens of native silver from the Kongsberg mines in Norway are world famous and have been distributed through sales and gifts during the whole period of mining from 1623 to 1958. Names of customers, the number of sold specimens and their silver content are documented in accounts which are preserv

  2. The distribution of silver specimens from the Kongsberg Silver Mines, Norway, 17th and 18th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B.I.; Nordrum, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Specimens of native silver from the Kongsberg mines in Norway are world famous and have been distributed through sales and gifts during the whole period of mining from 1623 to 1958. Names of customers, the number of sold specimens and their silver content are documented in accounts which are preserv

  3. A 18^th century thermometer recipe: The begin of experimental physics courses in Guadalajara, M'exico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alba Martinez, Durruty Jesus

    2007-03-01

    As a part of the Special Funds Collection of the Jalisco's State Public Library ``Juan Jos'e Arreola'' is a physics course manuscript attributed to Francisco Javier Clavigero s.j. (1731-1787), teacher at the Jesuit Colegio de Santo Tom'as (a college-level institution in Guadalajara before the university opening), inside of the vellum bounded volume is a unbounded folio containing instructions on how to build a thermometer. In this work are discussed some evidences of the belonging of such folio to the manuscript in spite of their differences (it is written in Spanish not in Latin as the whole), we also describe the process to construct the thermometer and how could be the experimental part of the physics course. Also is briefly exposed the importance of the educational role of Clavigero as a builder of the concept of mexicanity.

  4. Biodemographic characteristics of North-Western Italian population (Giaglione - Susa Valley between 18th and 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio De Iasio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the study of genetic changes that occur over time in human communities (microevolution anthropologists and biodemographers have favored the use of renewable flow, in particular the registers of marriage. Indeed they allow to easily estimate several biodemographic parameters (endogamy and exogamy; repeated pairs; immigration, even for long periods of time, since it is quite common to have consecutive series of documents relating to the marriage of a population. However, the sources of flow do not always allow to study in depth the factors that have given continuity to the community because they provide only partial information on demographic structure, the mode of aggregation of its members and the processes of change within families. A good alternative to sources of flow may be the use of sources of state, civil (censuses or parish sources (the status animarum, which give a very detailed picture of the state of the population at a given time. The retrieval and analysis of census documentation assume therefore a primary role in order to obviate the intrinsic weaknesses of the sources of flow. In the perspective of biodemographic studies, the integration of the two types of sources is in actual fact the operating optimum. It must be remembered that it is quite difficult to find contemporary sources of flow and of state for the Italian populations of the past.

  5. An Overview of Surveys of Paris Meridian Arc Section Lengths in the 17th and 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief introduction is followed by description of the spread of the Paris meridian in France. Following is description of the survey of Paris meridian arc section lengths and production of contemporary maps of France: by Jean Picard, Philippe de la Hire, Jean-Dominique Cassini (Cassini I, Cassini II, Cassini III and Cassini IV.

  6. Introducing borrowings in the late 18th century : the Estonian translation of a Swedish cookbook by Cajsa Warg / Raimo Raag

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raag, Raimo, 1953-

    2002-01-01

    Rootsi kokaraamatu tõlkest eesti keelde ja selle osast eesti keele arengus: Warg, Christina. Köki ja Kokka Ramat, mis Rootsi kelest Eesti-ma Kele üllespandud on / [tlk. Johann Luthander]. Tallinn : [s.n.], 1781

  7. THE IMAGE OF THE CROSS IN THE HOMILIES OF TRYPHON PETROV, THE OLD BELIEVERS WRITER OF THE 18TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Dmitrievna Grishkevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the peculiar properties of the style of writing of Tryphon Petrov, the Old Believer writer of the Vyg literary school. The analysis is based on two homilies which are dedicated to the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. The article examines the structure of the homilies, their genre features, meanings and interpretations of the image ofthe cross as well as the form and sources of the texts. The work containscomments on the infl uence of Baroque esthetics and rhetoric on the author’s style of writing. The analysis of the fi rst text is focused on its structure which is inscribed in the symbol of the cross. Listening to the preacher hearers go through the space-time coordinates determined by the cross. The most important in the second homily are the canticles which are a part of the text. They create rhythm and convert the homily into reminiscence of a hymn. The narration of both texts is based on amplifi cation. Th e article resumes the thought that Tryphon Petrov assimilated new trends of his time but he also was continuer of the tradition of patristic eloquence.

  8. Introducing borrowings in the late 18th century : the Estonian translation of a Swedish cookbook by Cajsa Warg / Raimo Raag

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raag, Raimo, 1953-

    2002-01-01

    Rootsi kokaraamatu tõlkest eesti keelde ja selle osast eesti keele arengus: Warg, Christina. Köki ja Kokka Ramat, mis Rootsi kelest Eesti-ma Kele üllespandud on / [tlk. Johann Luthander]. Tallinn : [s.n.], 1781

  9. Ballistic blocks around Kīlauea Caldera: Their vent locations and number of eruptions in the late 18th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Donald A.; Zolkos, Scott P.; Haravitch, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of ballistic blocks occur around Kīlauea Caldera and record part of the latest major period of explosive activity on the volcano, in late 1790 or within a few years thereafter. The sizes of the blocks – the largest of which is more than 2 m in nominal diameter – and differences in rock types allow the definition of at least 6 dispersal lobes of mostly undetermined relative age. The orientations of the lobes help approximate the locations of vents or explosion sources on the floor of the caldera, now deeply buried by younger lava flows. The vents may have been distributed northward for about 2 km from near the site of the modern Halema'uma'u Crater and were apparently confined to the western half of the caldera. The blocks are entirely lithic except for those in one dispersal lobe, which contains cored bombs and blocks as well as juvenile lapilli. Eruption parameters calculated from EJECT! suggest that the phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions could have been generated at the water table, about 600 m below the high point on the caldera rim.

  10. The Theatre of Drottningholm – Then and Now : Performance between the 18th and 21st centuries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Theatre of Drottningholm – Then and Now tells the story of the Drottningholm Court Theatre, from 1776 – the year it was built – to today’s performances presented during annual summer festivals. The court theatre was rarely used after Gustav III’s death in 1792 until it was rediscovered in 1921, luckily for us, because this has meant that not only the auditorium but also the stage machinery, painted flats and backdrops have been almost perfectly preserved. This book provides a vivid pictur...

  11. The distribution of silver specimens from the Kongsberg Silver Mines, Norway, 17th and 18th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B.I.; Nordrum, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Specimens of native silver from the Kongsberg mines in Norway are world famous and have been distributed through sales and gifts during the whole period of mining from 1623 to 1958. Names of customers, the number of sold specimens and their silver content are documented in accounts which are

  12. The power of laughter: humor, violence and consensus in New Spain. 17th and 18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Lipsett-Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Joking and teasing permeated all aspects of life in New Spain. Using court records from Mexico City and its surrounding communities, this article explores the ways that laughter was deployed within New Spain’s culture of masculinity. Humor was both a means for to relate to each other but also to mark differences. It was a normal part of the day to day interactions of men in New Spain between friends who joked and teased but it could also fall flat when one person did not have the right tone. Yet the border between joking and insulting comments was imprecise and thus often led to conflicts. Laughter brought people together when they were of the same social class but when it was used in an offensive manner, it was transformed into a weapon to assert social distance. Such humor was also part of seductions and similarly had political overtones when it was used in satirical songs. Humor brought people together and created groups of insiders and outsiders. Laughter was a powerful tool within social interactions and provides an alternate way to understand the culture of masculinity in colonial Mexico.

  13. American Education Policy Towards Indian Tribes (the End of the 18th – Beginning of 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin Timur Vladimirovich-

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the policy of the first presidential administrations of the USA in relation to the Native Americans. The policy was established during the period of George Washington’s presidency. The key factor of this policy was the education of aboriginals, the inurement of skills necessary for the integration with white people. The development of trade relations between nations became the beginning of this process. Trade relations required competent management and special laws regulating the process of trade and intercourse with the Native Americans. Government trading houses (factories had to urge the process of civilization. The author shows the influence of the Enlightenment philosophy of Thomas Jefferson on his idea to educate the aboriginals. The close attention is paid not only to the political views of the third president of the USA, but also to his activity in the process of realizing the educational policy towards the Natives. Educational programs had a purpose to integrate aboriginal tribes into the US society. It was uneasy task and the government tried to find more constructive forms of working instead of common trade and intercourse acts with the Indians. The Louisiana Purchase gave new opportunities for developing the federal policy. Lewis and Clark explored the West and collected comprehensive information about its tribes, their habits and way of life. It was very useful for the government in its idea to civilize the indigenous peoples. The author studies the letters of Thomas Jefferson to some American politics and to the Natives, that the president wrote about his plans about the future of the American Indians. Revival movement of the Second Great Awaking found good allies for the US government. The author shows the role of protestant missionaries in the educational policy of the USA towards the Natives.

  14. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of the varnish and glue of an ancient 18th century double bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Orecchio, Santino; Cicero, Maria Grazia; Di Stefano, Cosimo

    2007-04-20

    A GC-MS investigation is conducted on the double bass "Panormus", property of Conservatorio di Musica "Vincenzo Bellini" in Palermo. The most important components of the varnish (fatty acids) and of the glue (proteinaceous amino acids), with which the musical instrument was treated in the past, are determined. The analyses are carried out by prior derivatization of fatty acids by acidic methanol and of amino acids by acidic methanol and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Analytes identification is achieved by direct comparison with several reference materials and the use of a digitized library.

  15. Parish registers from Transylvania - sources of the history of medicine (late 18th - early 20th centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Vlad

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse the typology of medical-historical information provided by parish registers from Transylvania - a category of primary sources used mainly by historical demographers. The approach is descriptive and prospective in character: it creates a typology of the medical information to be found in the sources, while highlighting possible research directions and approaching a series of methodological and interpretation issues. The parish registers contain references to medical actors (the midwife, the physician, the death inspector), to medical activities (vaccination), and to events regarding the history of medicine (multiple births, infant mortality, death-causing diseases and accidents, epidemics, etc.). Despite the fact that they provide mainly demographic data, some epidemiological and medicine-related information can prove interesting for researchers in the field of the history of medicine. Such information is suitable for serial analyses and in some cases even for collective biography studies of the medical staff (e.g., the birth assistants and midwives), thus cross-referencing in many respects with cultural and social history. However, probably for reasons related to the sources' accessibility, medical historians have not seemed very interested in these data, a situation which will hopefully change in the near future due to the newly compiled historical population databases. The conclusions reached in this paper point towards the variety of medical-historical information contained in parish registers, highlighting the need for reconsidering them as sources not only for historical demography, but also for medical history.

  16. The Editorial Policy as a Mirror of Petrine Reforms: Textbooks and Their Translators in Early 18th Century Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouzevitch, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Peter I's editorial policy appears as a starting point in the birth of secular Russian textbooks. Since the printing production was then organized on a massive scale as a response to the needs of European-like modernization, it should be safely suggested that nearly "all" books produced during this pioneering period focused teaching…

  17. On the Authorship of an 18th Century French Writing:Montesquieu or Fréret

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Minglong

    2015-01-01

    The long accepted view that Quelques remarques sur la Chine que j'aytirées des conversations que j'ay eües avec Mr. Ouanges was written byMontesquieu was challenged by Benitez and Volpilhac-Auger. However,their arguments are either groundless or implausible. This article aimsat restoring the authorship to Montesquieu mainly by demonstrating thatthey had misinterpreted Huang, Montesquieu, and their relation; theywere unfamiliar with the Chinese language; and their arguments on theasterisks in the writing at issue lacked substantial evidence.

  18. Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

  19. 18th international symposium on environmental pollution and its impact on life in the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-08-01

    The 18th International Symposium on environmental pollution and its impact on life in the Mediterranean region was held on September 26-30, 2015 in Crete. Its main theme was sustainable resource use and impact on health and well-being. This is the theme of the current special issue, which is based on the scientific works of the Symposium. This overarching theme was further developed in thematic sessions focusing on the following: - Sustainable natural resource and waste management; - Environmental health and well-being; - Climate change mitigation and adaptation; - Indoor and outdoor air pollution; - Water and soil pollution and control; - Ecotoxicity and biodiversity; - Energy, environment and sustainability; - Environmental aspects of nutrition; - Environmental economics, policy and education. The quality of the presentations was high and several colleagues expressed their interest in publishing their work presented in the symposium into this Special Issue. After a thorough peer review process, where each manuscript was evaluated by two independent reviewers, 70 high quality manuscripts were finally selected for publication.

  20. The bodies I have lived with: keynote for 18th Lesbian Lives Conference, Brighton, England, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Nestle pays homage in ideas and images to the bodies, both familial and communal, that have informed her life's work-an exploration of the mid-twentieth-century American fem-butch community by creating an archive of primary sources, faces and words, that challenge prevailing national and sometimes communal narratives of what is history and what is absence.

  1. Party’s Control over the State: An Interpretation of the Keynote Political Report to the 18th Party Congress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANTAO; REN

    2013-01-01

    Hu Jintao’s political report to the 18thNational Congress of the Communist Party of China(CPC)shows that China,a particular type of party-state different from any kind of Western political system,is undergoing a tremendous and difficult transition.On one hand,the 18thNational Congress of the CPC reinforced the party-state morphology,and,on the other,we notice that the Party’s state-building has actually developed to an unprecedented level.However,it is believed that the CPC is facing fateful challenges in governing the country.It is therefore extremely important to make adjustments in the political ideas,institutional arrangements and practical measures if the CPC wants to ensure a long-term success.In contrast to the overall political arrangements,specific procedures need to be implemented to achieve the goal of good governance of the CPC.

  2. The Hair and Wig of Meryt: Grooming in the 18th Dynasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Buckley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of the hair and wig of Meyrit. As part of a long-term study of the collections of Turin's Museo Egizio, the authors have particularly focused on the contents of the tomb of the 14th-century BC couple Kha and Meryt, discovered intact in 1906 at the workman's village of Deir el-Medina, modern Luxor (Schiaparelli 1927; Vassilika 2010. As the most impressive woman's wig to have survived from pharaonic times (Schiaparelli 1927, 101, Meryt's long wig closely replicates the numerous portrayals of the long full 'enveloping' style found particularly in 14th-century BC sculpture and tomb scenes (Fletcher 1995, 260-3.

  3. Graphics from Latin America and the Caribbean: January 18th - March 9th, 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB); Riverside Art Museum

    2002-01-01

    43 lithographs, etchings, linocuts, woodcuts, silkscreens and other works in various graphic techniques by 40 artists from the Americas were presented at the Riverside Art Museum, Riverside, California. On loan from the IDB Cultural Center; the artistic holdings serve to promote understanding of the cultural heritage of its member countries. Included in the exhibit are graphics by important 20th century Mexican muralists José Clemente Orozco, Diego Rivera, and David Alfaro Siqueiros; the surr...

  4. Conference Report: 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD) 2016: MAXQDA User Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Galan-Diaz

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of March 2016, 120 researchers from 12 different countries, including Syria, Japan, the USA and Turkey, met in Berlin (Germany) to learn more about their computer-assisted qualitative data analysis skills. The 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD) offered several workshops, a research methods poster session, and the opportunity to share and discuss best practice between attendees, trainers and speakers (informally and through the user foru...

  5. Dedicated Followers of Fashion? Bioarchaeological Perspectives on Socio-Economic Status, Inequality, and Health in Urban Children from the Industrial Revolution (18th-19th C), England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S L; Gowland, R L

    2017-01-01

    The 18th and 19th centuries in England were characterised by a period of increasing industrialisation of its urban centres. It was also one of widening social and health inequalities between the rich and the poor. Childhood is well-documented as being a stage in the life course during which the body is particularly sensitive to adverse socio-economic environments. This study therefore aims to examine the relationship between health and wealth through a comprehensive skeletal analysis of a sample of 403 children (0-17 years), of varying socio-economic status, from four cemetery sites in London (c.1712-1854). Measurements of long bone diaphyseal length, cortical thickness, vertebral neural canal size, and the prevalence of a range of pathological indicators of health stress were recorded from the Chelsea Old Church (high status), St Benet Sherehog (middle status), Bow Baptist (middle status), and Cross Bones (low status) skeletal collections. Children from the low status Cross Bones site demonstrated deficient growth values, as expected. However, those from the high status site of Chelsea Old Church also demonstrated poor growth values during infancy. Fashionable child-care practices (e.g. the use of artificial infant feeds and keeping children indoors) may have contributed to poor infant health amongst high status groups. However, differing health risks in the lower status group revealed the existence of substantial health inequality in London at this time. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Identifications of ancient Egyptian royal mummies from the 18th Dynasty reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, M E; Bouwman, A S; Rühli, F J

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, ancient Egyptian Royal mummies have drawn the attention both of the general public and scientists. Many royal mummies from the New Kingdom have survived. The discoveries of the bodies of these ancient rulers have always sparked much attention, yet not all identifications are clear even nowadays. This study presents a meta-analysis to demonstrate the difficulties in identifying ancient Egyptian royal mummies. Various methods and pitfalls in the identification of the Pharaohs are reassessed since new scientific methods can be used, such as ancient DNA-profiling and CT-scanning. While the ancestors of Tutankhamun have been identified, some identities are still highly controversial (e.g., the mystery of the KV-55 skeleton, recently most likely identified as the genetic father of Tutankhamun). The meta-analysis confirms the suggested identity of some mummies (e.g., Amenhotep III, Thutmosis IV, and Queen Tjye).

  7. American veterinary history: before the nineteenth century. 1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, Bert W

    2014-11-01

    With the development of our present day domesticated animals in America (during the 16th and 17th centuries), it was not long before animal diseases became troublesome and destructive (especially during the latter half of the 18th century). Though veterinary medicine became rather firmly established in many European countries (including England) during the latter half of the 18th century, veterinary medicine was relatively nonexistent in America, with only self-styled animal doctors and farriers (with their empirical and often destructive remedies).

  8. A century of progress in weed control in hardwood seedbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. South

    2009-01-01

    Weeds have existed in nurseries since before the time Bartram grew hardwoods during the 18th century. Hand weeding was the primary method of weed control during the first part of the 20th century. From 1931 to 1970, advances in chemistry increased the use of herbicides, and advances in engineering increased the reliance on machines for cultivation. Many managers now...

  9. Eight Sages over Five Centuries Share Oxygen's Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinghaus, John W.

    2016-01-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color.…

  10. Moçambique e seu “diminuto número de habitantes”: recenseamentos da população da África oriental portuguesa, no último quartel do século XVIII - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v11i1e2.59 Moçambique and its “decreasing inhabitants”: population censuses in portuguese east Africa in the second half of the 18th century - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v11i1e2.59 Mozambique y su “diminuto número de habitantes”: los censos de población de los dominios portugueses en África oriental durante el último cuarto del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Wagner

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem por objetivo discutir uma política da coroa portuguesa que pretendia, na sua base, um melhor conhecimento das populações que habitavam seus domínios. A partir de ações político-administrativas iniciadas na década de 1770, foram realizados recenseamentos periódicos em diferentes localidades do Império Português. Discutimos, particularmente, a documentação produzida pelos administradores da região da África Oriental portuguesa. Ao privilegiar a situação da capitania de Moçambique e Rios de Senna, no último quartel do século XVIII, analisamos as estruturas demográficas e categorias sociais daquela região, e discutimos a importância da população no interior da política portuguesa da época.Current research on population censuses in Portuguese East Africa in the second half of the 18th Century discusses the policies of the Portuguese Crown. Portugal wanted to know better the populations living under its dominion. As from political and administrative activities in the 1770s, periodical censuses were undertaken in different parts of the Portuguese Empire. Documents produced by the administrators of Portuguese East Africa are investigated. Highlighting the situation of Mozambique and Rios de Senna, the demographic structures and social categories of that region and the importance of hinterland population within Portuguese policies of the period are discussed.Este texto tiene por objetivo discutir la política de la Corona portuguesa que pretendía conocer mejor las poblaciones que habitaban en sus territorios. A partir de acciones político-administrativas iniciadas durante la década de 1770, se realizaron varios censos en diferentes localidades del Imperio Portugués en forma periódica. En particular, aquí discutimos la documentación emanada de los administradores de la región portuguesa de África Oriental. Al privilegiar la situación de la Capitanía de Mozambique y Ríos de Senna durante el último

  11. Conference Report: 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD 2016: MAXQDA User Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Galan-Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the first week of March 2016, 120 researchers from 12 different countries, including Syria, Japan, the USA and Turkey, met in Berlin (Germany to learn more about their computer-assisted qualitative data analysis skills. The 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD offered several workshops, a research methods poster session, and the opportunity to share and discuss best practice between attendees, trainers and speakers (informally and through the user forum. The conference also hosted three seminal keynote speakers in two presentations: John CRESWELL, and Udo KUCKARTZ and Stefan RÄDIKER, who shared, respectively, the state of the art of mixed methods and the ways that software can support these approaches. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs170146

  12. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers' village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated "recipes", whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification.

  13. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Bianucci

    Full Text Available The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers' village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated "recipes", whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification.

  14. Manchuria Railway Corporation And September 18th Incident%满铁与“九·一八”事变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武向平

    2014-01-01

    The Manchuria Railway Corporation is the largest modern“state corporation”which set up by Japan in China. From its establishment to collapse, it plays an important role in aggression and expansion in the mainland policy. It completely torn off the business signs and support the Kwantung Army after the September 18th Incident, plays an irreplaceable role in the Japanese invasion war. It acts as the Kwantung Army’s general logistics department, depot base, intelligence department, and plays a very important role in the whole process.%满铁是近代日本设在中国最大的“国策会社”。从其成立到解体,满铁始终在日本对华进行侵略和大陆扩张政策中发挥着重要作用。“九·一八”事变爆发后,满铁彻底撕下了企业的招牌,自动投入到关东军的麾下,成为关东军的左膀右臂,在日本对华侵略战中发挥着不可替代的作用。“九·一八”事变中,满铁充当了关东军的总后勤部、兵站基地、情报部,整个事变过程中起到了极为重要的作用。

  15. Constitutional Law and International Law at the Turn of the Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    History has seen several waves of constitution-making in the 20th Century. ... Southern European countries such as Italy, Spain and Portugal have ... lawyers who have to work with a constitution drafted at the end of the 18th century before.

  16. Furniture and paintings in the houses of the marqueses de Santa Cruz de Marcenado (Asturias between the 17th and 18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laca Menéndez de Luarca, Luis Ramón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using unpublished archival documents, the author studies and analyses in detail the collections of furniture and paintings left at the time of their deaths by Sebastián Vigil de Quiñones y la Rúa and his daughter Jacinta in their houses in the town of Pola de Siero and the capital, Oviedo (Asturias. Both furniture and paintings were destroyed —or perhaps dispersed— during the Napoleonic Wars, when la Rúa’s house in Oviedo was repeatedly sacked. Nevertheless, the inventories here transcribed perfectly demonstrate the wealth displayed by the Asturian nobility of the period, which can be verified by comparing these inventories with those of other families related to the Vigil de Quiñones, for example the Miranda, marqueses de Valdecarzana.

    A través de documentos inéditos de archivo, se analizan y estudian en detalle los conjuntos de muebles y la colección de pintura que quedaron a la muerte de don Sebastián Vigil de Quiñones y la Rúa y de su hija Jacinta, en sus casas de la villa de Pola de Siero y Oviedo (Asturias. Tanto los muebles como los cuadros se destruyeron o quizá dispersaron durante la Guerra de Independencia, cuando la Casa de la Rúa de Oviedo fue saqueada en reiteradas ocasiones. No obstante, los inventarios transcritos en este artículo ilustran perfectamente la riqueza de la que hacía gala en Asturias la nobleza de la época, como se comprueba comparando los inventarios estudiados con los de otras familias emparentadas con los Vigil de Quiñones, por ejemplo los Miranda, marqueses de Valdecarzana.

  17. The Royal Natural History Collection in Vienna (18th century): from possessing minerals as a private treasure towards territorial ambitions as consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemun, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with a famous private natural history collection of the court, transformed to a public collection of the state. Associated is a very important question: how cultural and political structures became a dimension of a collection. In order to establish a Court Natural History Cabinet of

  18. The heliospheric Hale cycle over the last 300 years and its implications for a “lost” late 18th century solar cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owens Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Hale cycle, one complete magnetic cycle of the Sun, spans two complete Schwabe cycles (also referred to as sunspot and, more generally, solar cycles. The approximately 22-year Hale cycle is seen in magnetic polarities of both sunspots and polar fields, as well as in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays reaching Earth, with odd- and even-numbered solar cycles displaying qualitatively different waveforms. Correct numbering of solar cycles also underpins empirical cycle-to-cycle relations which are used as first-order tests of stellar dynamo models. There has been much debate about whether the unusually long solar cycle 4 (SC4, spanning 1784–1799, was actually two shorter solar cycles combined as a result of poor data coverage in the original Wolf sunspot number record. Indeed, the group sunspot number does show a small increase around 1794–1799 and there is evidence of an increase in the mean latitude of sunspots at this time, suggesting the existence of a cycle “4b”. In this study, we use cosmogenic radionuclide data and associated reconstructions of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF to show that the Hale cycle has persisted over the last 300 years and that data prior to 1800 are more consistent with cycle 4 being a single long cycle (the “no SC4b” scenario. We also investigate the effect of cycle 4b on the HMF using an open solar flux (OSF continuity model, in which the OSF source term is related to sunspot number and the OSF loss term is determined by the heliospheric current sheet tilt, assumed to be a simple function of solar cycle phase. The results are surprising; Without SC4b, the HMF shows two distinct peaks in the 1784–1799 interval, while the addition of SC4b removes the secondary peak, as the OSF loss term acts in opposition to the later rise in sunspot number. The timing and magnitude of the main SC4 HMF peak is also significantly changed by the addition of SC4b. These results are compared with the cosmogenic isotope reconstructions of HMF and historical aurora records. These data marginally favour the existence of SC4b (the “SC4b” scenario, though the result is less certain than that based on the persistence of the Hale cycle. Thus while the current uncertainties in the observations preclude any definitive conclusions, the data favour the “no SC4b” scenario. Future improvements to cosmogenic isotope reconstructions of the HMF, through either improved modelling or additional ice cores from well-separated geographic locations, may enable questions of the existence of SC4b and the phase of Hale cycle prior to the Maunder minimum to be settled conclusively.

  19. Sacred History for a Central Asian TownSaints, Shrines, and Legends of Origin inHistories of Sayrām, 18th-19th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin DeWeese

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie les mythes historiques concernant Sayrām, une petite ville du sud de l'actuel Kazakhstan, cas exemplaire de concepts indigènes d'identité communautaire en Asie centrale pré-soviétique. Ces traditions sont conservées dans un ensemble de travaux en turc, sous le titre générique de « Histoire de Sayrām », qui combine une « histoire sacrée » de la ville avec une « géographie sacrée » sous la forme d'un catalogue de mausolées locaux ; ces deux composantes situent ainsi Sayrām à la fois dans le temps et dans l'espace, à l'intérieur d'un univers sacré défini en tant qu'islamique. Elles offrent une vision de la participation de cette ville à un cadre historique déterminé par l'hommage sanctificateur du Prophète Muhammad à Sayrām, et une affirmation de la présence continue et de la protection, à travers leurs mausolées, d'une multitude de saints musulmans (comprenant aussi bien des personnages purement locaux que d'autres bien connus dans le folklore islamique. Ces ouvrages, compilés vraisemblablement au XVIIIe siècle et répandus très largement dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, reflètent souvent d'anciennes traditions narratives évocatrices du rôle de Sayrām au début de l'islamisation de l'Asie centrale. Mais elles montrent également l'importance capitale de la définition par la religion des identités locales et régionales, au sein de la population sédentaire d'Asie centrale, avant les changements induits par la conquête russe, l'établissement du pouvoir soviétique et la formulation des nouvelles identités « nationales » qui perdurent aujourd'hui.

  20. Late 18th to early 19th century sea-level history and inter-seismic behavior along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt recorded by coral microatolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sze-Chieh; Shyu, J. Bruce H.

    2016-04-01

    Along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt, the Indian-Australian plate is subducting obliquely beneath the Burma micro-plate at a rate of about 23 mm/yr. Although information about the 1762 Arakan earthquake, the only major historical event occurred along this plate boundary belt, has been delineated recently from uplifted coastal features, constraints on the inter-seismic behavior of this belt is still very limited, due to the lack of high resolution instrumental records in the area. Therefore, we utilized coral microatolls to analyze relative sea level history, in order to obtain potential information of land-level change along the western coast of Myanmar. Our sample was collected from northwestern Ramree Island, approximately 80 km away from the trench. Previous studies suggest that the coral was uplifted and killed during a local earthquake event in 1848, and recorded relative sea level history of ~80 years prior to that event. Since the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls is constrained within a few centimeters of the lowest tide level of the area, the patterns of annual growth bands of the coral microatoll in x-radiograph provide us yearly record of relative sea level, and we used U-Th dating technique to constrain the age of the coral. Our results show that this coral microatoll may have recorded the inter-seismic subsidence of northwestern Ramree Island, punctuated by several climatic events that produced die-down records of the coral growth bands. We hope the data obtained from this coral microatoll, combined with previously reported information of the area, will enable us to further understand the seismic behavior of this major plate boundary belt.

  1. [Rural healthcare in the 17th and 18th centuries: types of conducción (contract) for health professionals in Aragon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Doctor, Asunción; Arcarazo Garcia, Luis A

    2002-01-01

    In order to ensure continuous health care for the population, Town Councils of the rural areas of Aragon offered contracts to health professionals. The contract was known as a "conducta médica" or "conducción". In this study, we review the legislation of the time, the types of contracts and the procedures followed, in addition to the fees and duties of the health professionals (conducidos) hired. Finally, the problems arising from this system are considered and some relevant sources are given.

  2. Count Nicolaus Ludwig Von Zinzendorf’s Theory for Missions Portrayed at Herrnhut and by Selected 18th-20th Century Moravian Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    when the finances of Mexico were in a desperate condition, these missions were ’secularized’ and their riches confiscated. Since then the stations have...34 practices of "ghost dances". and the habits of drinking and gambling at their " fiestas ." Second, to prepare the Indiana for eventual citizenship, the...annual Indian fiesta at which many would blow all the money they had earned throughout the year. Weinland spent much time in Temperance work and for a

  3. The Royal Natural History Collection in Vienna (18th century): from possessing minerals as a private treasure towards territorial ambitions as consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemun, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with a famous private natural history collection of the court, transformed to a public collection of the state. Associated is a very important question: how cultural and political structures became a dimension of a collection. In order to establish a Court Natural History Cabinet of

  4. Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, S.; Jameson, R.; Etnier, M.; Flemings, M.; Bentzen, P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1969 and 1970, surveys of the endangered Yuma Clapper Rail were conducted using taped calls to elicit responses from the birds. During the two summers, more than 158 Yuma clappers were located in cattailtule marshes along the Colorado River south of Needles, California, to the International Boundary, a distance of about 240 miles. Clappers (probably of the same race) were also found in estuarian marshes of the Colorado River Delta of Mexico; in the Salton Sea; in two freshwater marsh areas near Phoenix, Arizona; and in two freshwater marshes adjacent to the lower Gila River near Tacna, Arizona.....Populations of Sonora Clapper Rails were discovered as permanent residents in five separate mangrove swamps along the west coast of Mexico in the vicinity of Kino Bay, Sonora. These observations were farther north than any heretofore reported for the race R. l. rhizophorae, and the swamps also represent the extreme northward limit of mangroves in Sonora.....During the winter, Yuma clappers did not respond to taped calls north of the International Boundary, whereas clappers along the coast of Sonora readily answered the calls during the same period of time. We conclude that most Yuma Clapper Rails migrate from their summer habitat along the Colorado River in September and do not return to the breeding areas until late April.

  5. The Pigment Analysis of 18th Century Pastel Paintings by Maurice-Quentin de La Tour (1704-1788) and Jean Valade (1710-1787)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gombaud, Cecile; Buti, David; Nielsen, Johanne Marie

    Pastel paintings are rarely studied unless they are unframed [1-3]. The conservation treatment of three French pastel portraits by Maurice-Quentin de La Tour (1704-1788) and Jean Valade (1710-1787) at the paper conservation studio of the National Museum of Sweden gave the opportunity to study the...... Proceedings II, 2014: p. 31-45. [4] Chaperon, P.R., Traite de la peinture au pastel, 1788....

  6. Architectural, spatial and composite features of the temples location in Saint-Petersburg and the surrounding counties in the 18th - 1st half of 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylova Severina Vyacheslavovna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the interdependences of territorial distribution of temples and their architectural-spatial and compositional features in St. Petersburg and the counties. The author revealed two different approaches to temple arrangement depending on the type of environment - in urban areas and rural areas. The construction of a temple in St. Petersburg was strictly regulated: its space-planning solution, accommodation, the place assigned for parish church, etc. The article draws attention to the particular choice of solutions, removal of land for construction, and certain architectural features of the temples. The author generally distinguishes four types of space-planning decisions of religious buildings: hall multiplex (The Basilica in the form of a Latin cross, centric (cross dome as the most common types of churches, combined. In turn, these types of temples were correlated with various types of accommodation identified by the author. Spatial distribution of temples include: a the location of temples in the natural landscape system and b with respect to the location of the man-made temples' environment (historical and cultural, in correlation with the buildings and / or communications (land and water communications, c the formation of a spatially-visual network (system of the city and surrounding area. For a better understanding of the revealed dependences chronological phase analysis was used, since the time prior to Saint Petersburg construction and till 1850. The periodization of temple architecture development during 1703-1850 was identified. The period before Saint Petersburg was also considered, though less detailed. The stages are minimal chronological segments, within which settlement system was unified by spatial and social characteristics, as well as uniform rules of specific territorial, economic and social development. As chronological boundaries, specific dates of the events were identified, which determined the transition to new stages. This approach allowed to gradually track changes in the methods of selecting and placing three-dimensional solution of various temples. The studies revealed that the temple was a member of the system, which includes urban development, individual settlements and their groups, the natural landscape. They were all interrelated, representing the idea of continuity, harmony with each other and the environment (natural and manmade. Such an organic fusion of church and surroundings have a mutual influence: the temple on the environment and the environment on the object.

  7. Richard Bradley: a unified, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans in the first decades of the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    During the years 1714 to 1721, Richard Bradley, who was later to become the first Professor of Botany at Cambridge University, proposed a unified, unique, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants and animals and the plague of humans. Bradley's agents included microscopic organisms, revealed by the studies of Robert Hooke and Antony van Leeuwenhoek. His theory derived from his experimental studies of plants and their diseases and from microscopic observation of animalcules in different naturally occurring and artificial environments. He concluded that there was a microscopic world of "insects" that lived and reproduced under the appropriate conditions, and that infectious diseases of plants were caused by such "insects." Since there are structural and functional similarities between plants and animals, Bradley concluded that microscopic organisms caused human and animal infectious diseases as well. However, his living agent cause of infectious diseases was not accepted by the contemporary scientific society.

  8. Libros de fiscal, libros de oidor: la biblioteca de Domingo de Arangoiti (siglo XVIII Prosecutors and Judges books: The personal library of Domingo de Arangoiti (18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia García

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La historia de las bibliotecas novohispanas parece ser un tema ampliamente investigado. Lo cierto es que este territorio de conocimiento es un gran desconocido pese al interés que ha tenido para diferentes disciplinas. En gran parte tal situación se puede explicar por la escasa atención que han tenido los documentos conservados. Éstos testimonian el número y tipo de material que conformaron esas colecciones bibliográficas. Entre estas bibliotecas las más olvidadas son las particulares y, al igual que otras, su estudio permite comprender las características de la cultura escrita de un periodo histórico. También son documentos que contribuyen a valorar nuestro legado bibliográfico. En este texto se presenta el caso de una biblioteca virreinal para mostrar la complejidad de la fuente histórica así como las enormes posibilidades de información que podemos obtener de estos testimonios.The history of Libraries in New Spain seems to be an extensively researched topic. Actually this field of knowledge is still largely unknown despite the interest of different disciplines. This situation can be explained mostly by the lack of attention that historical evidence has generally had. These books witness the number and type of material conforming those book collections. Among these libraries the most forgotten are personal collections, but their study allows to fully understand the characteristics of written culture in the past. They also are documents which contribute to appreciate our bibliographical legacy. In this paper, we explain through one colonial library the complexity of historical sources and the enormous possibilities of information that we can extract from these testimonies.

  9. [Vampires in the village Žrnovo on the island of Korčula: following an archival document from the 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coralic, Lovorka; Dugac, Zeljko; Sardelic, Sani

    2011-01-01

    The main interest of this essay is the analysis of the document from the State Archive in Venice (file: Capi del Consiglio de' Dieci: Lettere di Rettori e di altre cariche) which is connected with the episode from 1748 when the inhabitants of the village žrnove on the island of Korčula in Croatia opened tombs on the local cemetery in the fear of the vampires treating. This essay try to show some social circumstances connected with this event as well as a local vernacular tradition concerning superstitions.

  10. "A means of restoring the health and preserving the lives of His Majesty's subjects": Ireland's 18th-Century National Hospital System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In 1765, the Irish parliament enacted legislation that established a nationwide hospital network funded by a mixture of taxation and philanthropic donations. The county infirmaries had a similar ethos to the British and Irish voluntary hospitals; only those with an admission ticket were admitted. The legislation also regulated the qualifications of the County Infirmary Surgeons who were authorised to run the infirmaries. This was the first statutory nationwide network of care in Ireland. No other country in contemporary Europe passed similar legislation. The Irish parliamentarians and Charles Lucas in particular appear to have been the impetus for this innovative legislation.

  11. Cannons of the late 18th - early 19th century from he Fortress of Kuressaare and Their Conservation / Jüri Peets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peets, Jüri, 1952-

    2013-01-01

    1980. aastatel leiti Kuressaare vallikraavi puhastustöödel 6 malmsuurtükki. Oli selge, et metalli korrosioon ei ole ainult pindmine. Suurtükkide konserveerimine algas 2011. aasta sügisel ja tööd lõpetati 2013. aasta kevadel

  12. James Barry and the Portraits of His Country Patron Edmund Burke : A Struggle by the Irish Catholic Artist in the 18th Century London

    OpenAIRE

    桑島, 秀樹

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this essay is two: at first I will illustrate the early life and achievement of the ‘forgotten' Irish Catholic painter, James Barry (1741-1806), who was from Cork, a southern capital town of Ireland and subsequently became a professor of painting at the Royal Academy in London (but expelled in the end). Secondly I will also show the close relationship of the painter with his country-fellow aesthetician and political philosopher, Edmund Burke (1729-97) by examining two Burke' s port...

  13. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Clare

    2014-06-01

    Le jardin comme laboratoire: le rôle des jardins domestiques comme place d’exploration scientifique au cours du XVIII(e) siècleLes jardins du XVIII(e) siècle ont traditionnellement été considérés comme des espaces conçus pour le loisir, et comme représentations du goût, du pouvoir et du statut politiques. Cet article explore au contraire le concept de jardin en tant qu’espace dynamique où peuvent s’exercer expérimentation scientifique et pratique médicale. Cet article rapporte l’étude pilote de deux exemples: les paysages conçus pour la résidence du John Hunter à Earls Court, à Londres, et le jardin de la maison de Edward Jenner à Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Les méthodologies sur l’histoire du jardin ont été mises en place afin d’évaluer à quel point ces jardins domestiques peuvent être considérés comme espaces d’expérimentation.

  14. Métamorphoses de l’intrigue musicale (XIXe-XXe siècles Metamorphoses of Musical Plot (18th-20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Grabócz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L’auteur définit d’abord le cadre narratologique, celui de la narratologie classique, dans le but d’explorer la narrativité en musique. Elle fournit six types de définition en fonction de leur pertinence dans l’analyse musicale. Dans le but de créer une possible correspondance entre la séquence narrative et les sections d’une œuvre musicale, l’auteur introduit la notion de « signification musicale » et ses termes utilisés en musicologie (« topiques » ou « intonations ». Concernant leur mode d’organisation dans une forme musicale, quelques modèles sémiotiques ou narratologiques sont évoqués. Le IIIe chapitre offre les définitions « classiques » de l’intrigue, suivies de deux exemples musicaux : une sonate de Kuhnau (1700 et un mouvement lent d’une symphonie de Mozart (Andante de K. 504 dite de « Prague ». La IVe partie de l’article introduit les définitions « post-classiques » de l’intrigue, en les illustrant avec un exemple de Beethoven (Ouverture Leonore N° 3, op.72A, pour illustrer le suspense et la Vallée d’Obermann de Liszt (pour illustrer le cas d’intrigue appelé « curiosité »..The author defines at first the narratological frame, that of classical narratology, in the aim to explore musical narrativity. She provides six types of definition according to their pertinence in musical analysis. In order to create a possible correspondence between the narrative sequence and the sections of a musical piece, the author introduces the notion of “musical signification” and their terms used in musicology : the category of “topic” and that of “intonation”. As to their modes of organization within a musical form, some semiotic and narrative models are mentioned, those used by different musicologists. The part III provides “classical” definitions of the plot, followed by two musical examples (a “Biblical sonata” by Kuhnau from 1700 and the Andante of the symphony K.504 of Mozart. The part IV of the article presents the ”post-classical” definitions of the plot which will be illustrated by the Overture N° 3 “Leonor” of Beethoven as an example of “suspense”, and by the Vallée d’Obermann of Liszt as an example of “curiosity”.

  15. A Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Chinese Customs Compiled by a Japanese Local Official in Late 18th Century%《清俗纪闻》说略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲彦斌

    2004-01-01

    成书于18世纪末的《清俗纪闻》,是由日本人编纂的一部中国风俗百科图典,由编纂者在日本本土记录整理当时在日的闽浙商人的口述资料编绘而成.今所见之《清俗纪闻》,按礼、乐、射、御、书、数亦即古人所谓的"六艺"之序,分为礼帙、乐帙、射帙、御帙、书帙、数帙六部,涉及年中行事、居家、冠服、饮食制、闾学、生诞、冠礼、婚礼、宾客、羁旅行李、丧礼、祭礼、僧徒等类,凡十三卷.除序跋和少量文字说明之外,全书主要是有关这些内容的600余幅白描图.同时,《清俗纪闻》对于当时的一些民俗事象,有的部分还作了比较系统、全面和详尽的记录和描绘.它不仅是当年日本人了解中国风土民情的重要参考工具书,时至今日,也为我们研究中国清代社会世俗风情提供了很有意义的参考.

  16. Cannons of the late 18th - early 19th century from he Fortress of Kuressaare and Their Conservation / Jüri Peets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peets, Jüri, 1952-

    2013-01-01

    1980. aastatel leiti Kuressaare vallikraavi puhastustöödel 6 malmsuurtükki. Oli selge, et metalli korrosioon ei ole ainult pindmine. Suurtükkide konserveerimine algas 2011. aasta sügisel ja tööd lõpetati 2013. aasta kevadel

  17. Spatial trends in S and Cl in ash leachates of the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt. St Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayris, Paul M.; Delmelle, Pierre; Durant, Adam J.; Damby, David E.; Maters, Elena C.

    2014-05-01

    It has long been known that surficial deposits of salts and acids on volcanic ash particles derive from interactions of ash with sulphur and halide species within the eruption plume and volcanic cloud. These compounds are mobilised as ash particles are wetted, and beneficial or detrimental environmental and health impacts may be induced where the most concentrated solutions are produced. However, limited mechanistic understanding of gas-ash interactions currently precludes prediction of the spatial distribution or variation in leachate chemistry and concentration following an eruption. Sampling and leachate analysis of freshly-fallen ash therefore offers the sole method by which such variations can be observed. Previous ash leachate studies often involve a limited number of ash samples, and utilise a 'one-dimensional' analysis that considers variation in terms of absolute distance from the source volcano. Here, we demonstrate that extensive sampling and a 'two-dimensional' analysis can uncover more complex spatial trends. We compiled over 358 leachate compositions from the May 18th 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Of the water-extracted leachates, only 95 compositions from ash sampled at 45 localities between 35 and 1129 km from the volcano are sufficiently documented to be retrospectively comparable. To consider the effects of intra-deposit variability, we calculated average concentrations of leachate data within 11×22 km grid cells across the region, and defined a data quality parameter to reflect confidence in the derived values. To investigate any dependence of leachate composition on the grain size distribution, we generated an interpolated map of geometric specific surface area variation across the deposit, normalising ash leachate data to the calculated specific surface area at the corresponding sampling location. The data treatment identifies S and Cl enrichments in proximal blast deposits; relatively constant Cl concentrations across the ashfall deposits

  18. 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2008-09-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

  19. World of Learning, Sociability and City  in early Eighteenth Century France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Van Damme

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this last paper, I wish to present the research project I am currently working on, which is about the connection between the world of learning and scholars and the emergence of urban identities in Europe in the first half of the 18th century. To speak in broader terms, what I would like to grasp is how the circulation of knowledge shaped the making of the great cultural metropolises in the period between the 17th and the 18th century, mainly in a few sites : Paris, Lyon, London, Edinburgh,...

  20. Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in royal Egyptian mummies of 18th -20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies.

  1. 18th May 2011 - Chinese State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (SAFEA) Deputy Director-General M. LU (State Council of China) in the ATLAS visitors centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford and Collaboration member Z. Ren.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    18th May 2011 - Chinese State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (SAFEA) Deputy Director-General M. LU (State Council of China) in the ATLAS visitors centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford and Collaboration member Z. Ren.

  2. His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

  3. The Lady Hastings' Charity Schools: Accounting for Eighteenth-Century Rural Philanthropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mae

    1997-01-01

    Describes the philanthropic activities of Lady Elizabeth Hastings and the local provision of rural charity schools in 18th-century England. Covers Hastings' background, her establishment of girls' charity schools, charity-school curricula, the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, and charity-school teachers. Evaluates Hastings'…

  4. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  5. 18th International Seapower Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    ways been safe, secure or without damage to the maritime environment and the ecology . Piracy and armed robbery against ships is still a cause of...as you see it here. It is a joint staff with an operational center in Las Palmas , with represen- tatives from law enforcement. It is based on

  6. Educational and Cultural Regeneration of Modern Spain: Monarchical Reforms in Education and the Role of the Enlightenment Bishops at Eighteen Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel POY CASTRO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 18th century the church of Spain gradually diminished its extensive powers of self-government, while remaining the monopoly of education. This period was marked by the monarchical revival and the alliance between church and State. The crown nominates diocesan bishops and the church of Spain is committed to the goal of a renewed and modern nation. The 18th century saw the rise of an enlightenment Bishops movement, with its emphasis on the recovery of the Spanish catholic tradition, and the renaissance of the educational and cultural institutions.

  7. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  8. Focal mechanism of the August 18th 2012 Mw6.3 Palu-Koro earthquake and its implication of seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairina, Fadiah; Chen, Weiwen; Wei, Shengji; Suardi, Iman

    2017-07-01

    The Palu-Koro fault is a left-lateral strike-slip fault in Sulawesi within the active triple junction generated by the ongoing fast convergence of the Pacific-Philippine plate, the Indo-Australian plate and the Sunda plate. There are densely populated areas that are susceptible to earthquakes occur along the fault, and the August 18th 2012, Mw6.3 earthquake is one of such events. To better understand this earthquake and the seismic hazard in the region, we estimated source parameters of this earthquake using the Cut and Paste (CAP) inversion method with regional broadband waveform data. Our results show that the best solution of this event is 339°, 71°, -16° and 11 km for strike, dip, rake and centroid depth, respectively. Inversions using stations within different distance ranges, i.e. 0-5, 0-10° and 0-20°, reveal consistent solutions, suggesting the robustness of our result, which is also in agreement with that from the other agencies, i.e. USGS and Global CMT. We further verify the centroid depth by modeling the depth phases recorded at the teleseismic distance, which also confirm the depth of 11km. Finally we analyzed the Coulomb stress caused by this earthquake and historical events to investigate the interaction between the earthquakes in the region. Our analysis also shows that the unclamping effect from the 1996 Mw7.9 megathrust in the Minahassa Trench promoted the occurrence of the 2012 Mw6.3 event. High slip-rate across the fault and Coulomb stress analysis suggest that more attention should be paid to the segments along the Palu-Koro fault that did not rupture in the previous earthquake circle.

  9. On the variability of return periods of European winter precipitation extremes over the last three centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pauling

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the changes of extreme European winter (December-February precipitation back to 1700 and show for various European regions that return periods of extremely wet and dry winters are subject to significant changes both before and after the onset of anthropogenic influences. Generally, winter precipitation has become more extreme. We also examine the spatial pattern of the changes of the extremes covering the last 300 years where data quality is sufficient. Over central and Eastern Europe dry winters occurred more frequently during the 18th and the second part of the 19th century relative to 1951–2000. Dry winters were less frequent during both the 18th and 19th century over the British Isles and the Mediterranean. Wet winters have been less abundant during the last three centuries compared to 1951–2000 except during the early 18th century in central Europe. Although winter precipitation extremes are affected by climate change, no obvious connection of these changes was found to solar, volcanic or anthropogenic forcing. However, physically meaningful interpretation with atmospheric circulation changes was possible.

  10. On the variability of return periods of European winter precipitation extremes over the last five centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pauling

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the changes of extreme European winter (December–February precipitation over the last half millennium and show for various European regions that return periods of extremely wet and dry winters are subject to significant changes both before and after the onset of anthropogenic influences. Additionally, we examine the spatial pattern of the changes of the extremes covering the last 300 years where data quality is sufficient. Over central and eastern Europe dry winters occurred more frequently during the 18th and the second part of the 19th century relative to 1951–2000. Dry winters were less frequent during both the 18th and 19th century over the British Isles and the Mediterranean. Wet winters have been less abundant during the last three centuries compared to 1951–2000 except during the early 18th century in central Europe. Although winter precipitation extremes are affected by climate change, no obvious connection of these changes was found to solar, volcanic or anthropogenic forcing. However, physically meaningful interpretation with atmospheric circulation changes was possible.

  11. Views of Chemistry and Chemical Theories: A Comparison between Two University Textbooks in the Bolognese Context at the Beginning of the 19th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligardi, Raffaella

    2006-01-01

    After surveying some 18th century chemistry textbooks in Italy, this case study compares two Bolognese university textbooks related to the subject. Although the works in question represented two different ways of conceiving and using chemistry, both were within the Lavoisian framework. In other words, when a revolutionary theory passes from one…

  12. “Enlightened Policy” in Eighteenth Century Spain: а Russian Eye-witness - Diplomat Stepan Zinoviev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vilenovna Volosyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the process of the establishment of Russian-Spanish relations in the 18th century and the role of one of the most distinguished Russian diplomats at the court of Catherine II Stepan Zinoviev who spent amost 20 years in Madrid (1772-1794. The study is based largely on manuscripts (diplomatic and other correspondence from the Archives of External Policy of the Russian Empire in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation and fills a gap in the research of Russian foreign policy of the 18th century and the Russian-Spanish relations. Catherine’s foreign interests were focused toward the major states of Northern Europe, but she also tried to strengthen the position of the Russian Empire in Europe, to embed the country in the European 'Balance of Power' by establishing diplomatic relations with all European countries. In this sense, the Iberian Peninsula was not wholly without significance for Russia. The political unions of Russia with the outlying countries, as Spain, depended not only on the international situation in Europe in the second half of the 18th century but on the image of the country that was created by Russians who visited Spain at that time. The position of diplomats was particularly important - they were almost the only ones, except for merchants and sailors, who visited that country and it is on the basis of their reports that Russia's foreign policy in relation to Spain was built in the 18th century. Based on the reports of Zinoviev we can reconstruct the images of such important political figures as the King Charles III, Secretary of State Count of Floridablanca and the other ministers of the Spanish government. The biography of the outstanding Russian diplomat - Stepan Zinoviev is presented in this article for the first time.

  13. Conflict in "Silver and Money Trade" between China and Nepal in the 18th Century and Found of Silver Coin in Tibet%18世纪中尼"银钱贸易"冲突与西藏自铸银币

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁俊艳

    2007-01-01

    18世纪尼泊尔与中国西藏的"银钱之争"向被学术界视为廓尔喀侵藏战争的重要经济原因,但对其来龙去脉有所忽略.本文就"银钱贸易"的前因后果、是非公断、西藏地方政府因应对策自铸银币进行了深入考察辨析,给予了恰当定位,补正了作为证据的关键史料,并从政治高度论述了西藏币制改革和"乾隆宝藏"诞生的意义.

  14. El juicio de residencia como ritual político en la colonia (Gobernación de Tucumán, siglo XVIII: A political ritual. Tucumán 18th Century Impeachment proceeding in Colonial times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Smietniansky

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone analizar un juicio de residencia, llevado a cabo en los años 1775 y 1776 en la gobernación de Tucumán, como un ritual político. Entendemos que, al teatralizar una forma ideal de funcionamiento de las instituciones y comportamiento de los funcionarios, el juicio de residencia como ritual político actuaba fortaleciendo el poder monárquico en las colonias, transmitiendo un conjunto de valores y congregando y cohesionando a la comunidad local. Partiendo de esta perspectiva ritual, abordamos el problema de la tensión existente entre las normas y objetivos que ordenaban la institución de la residencia y las implicancias y consecuencias que, en la práctica, acarreaba su celebración.This article analyzes an impeachment proceeding that took place in 1775-1776 in colonial Tucumán, in terms of a political ritual. We understand that by performing the ideal way of government institution's operation and officials' behaviour, the impeachment proceeding acted as a political ritual, reinforcing monarchical power in the colonies, transmitting a set of social values and congregating the local community. From this ritual perspective, we approach the problem of the tension between the norms and aims of the impeachment procedure, and the consequences and implications of its practice.

  15. On the second houses at the 18th century in Hirato. At the castle town in Hirato; 1792; Hirato jokamachi no sekando {center_dot} hausu. Hirato rokuchozu {center_dot} kansei 4 nen (1792)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojina, Kyoji; Iida, Toshihiko; Oya, Maki

    1999-03-01

    As mentioned before there were 137 lots of the second houses in the map of Hirato castle town on 1792. The second houses were composed of three elements; 1st was own-using (Kakemochi), 2nd was rental houses (Kariya) and 3rd was vacants (Kakemochi-Akiya). The own-using houses were thirty-one, the rental houses were thirty-seven and vacants of the second houses were sixty-nine. These second houses were belonging to citizens in Hirato. Their occupations were thirty-two kinds among 122 kinds, from point of occupations the ratio of the second houses owners was 26.2 %. On Kimono fabric there were eight second houses, the ratio of the owners of second houses was 75 % except duplicated lots; but five of eight belonged only one owner. Next high example on Sake-Brewing there were 22 second houses, the ratio of the owners of second houses was 71.4 % except duplicated lots belonging to five owners. The next case of Oil-dealer there were eight second houses, the ratio of the owners of second houses was 55.5 % except duplicated lots belonging to three owners. Then on Dyer there were ten second houses, the ratio of the owners of the second houses was 20.0 % except duplicated lots belonging to three owners.So on Whole-Saler there were nine second houses, the ratio of the owners of the second houses was 15.7 % except duplicated lots belonging to one owner. On Mason there were two second houses, the ratio of the owners of the second houses was 25.0 % except duplicated lots cases, the following examples were owners whom belonging each one second house. On Fishmonger there were eight second houses, the ratio of the owners of the second houses was 13.1 %, On Wooden-Bucket maker there were five second houses, the ratio of the owners of the second houses was 17.2 %. So on Capenter there were five second houses, the ratio of the owners of the second houses was 7.2 %. Then there were three second houses group; Smithy, Greengrocer, Haberdashery and Malted-Rice shop, the ratio of owners of the second houses was 11.1 %, 20.0 %, 5.5 % and 14.3 %. So there were two second houses group; Noodle dealer, Rice-Shop, Tofu-shop and Pawn-shop, the ratio of the their owners of the second houses was 33.3 %, 11.1 %, 7.4 % and 20.0 %. Further there were thirteen kinds of occupations whose second houses was each only one. On Unknown-kind there were twenty-nine second houses except duplicated lots belonging to one owner. (author)

  16. 历史主义的兴起与十八世纪的认识论危机%The Rising of Historicism and the Crisis of Epistemology in the 18th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳波

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of empiricism was widely recognized with the success of Newton ~ physics, which challenged the paradigm of rationalism initiated by Descartes and led to the crisis of epistemology in the 18ta cen- tury. Historicism emerged and rose in the reflections on this crisis by the Enlightenment thinker. The present pa- per analyzes the essential relationship between the paradigm of empiricism and historicism, and holds that, as a kind of conception of history which opposed to the universal human nature and abstract principles held by the En- lightenment thinker, the basic principle of historicism is individuality and develooment.%牛顿物理学的成功使得经验主义的认识范式在十八世纪受到普遍地推崇。经验主义认识范式的流行给由笛卡尔肇端的唯理主义认识范式带了了极大的冲击,并造成了十八世纪的认识论危机。正是在启蒙思想家对这场危机的反思中,历史主义开始出现和兴起。本文分析了历史主义与经验主义范式之间的本质关联,并且指出,历史主义作为一种与强调普遍人性和抽象原则的启蒙历史观相对立的历史观,它的基本原则是强调个体性与发展。

  17. 18世纪末19世纪初的英、美浪漫主义文学探源%On the Origin of British and American Literary Romanticism in the Late 18 th and Early 19 th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭家海

    2015-01-01

    为了进一步探索浪漫主义文学的奥秘,运用比较文学平行研究中的类型学、主题学、文类学以及影响研究中的流传学等方法对18世纪末19世纪初的英、美两国浪漫主义文学进行溯源,发现两者产生的时间有先后之别,作品形式也有所不同,但导致它们产生的根源是一样的,两者所表现的主题也相似,而且在本质上是相同的。浪漫主义文学是一定社会发展阶段的产物,英国浪漫主义对美国浪漫主义的影响有限。%With the aim to further explore the magic power of literary romanticism , this paper , by using the approa-ches in comparative literature , offers some analyses of the similarity and difference between British Romantic literature and American Romantic literature .The paper finds that the former appears earlier than the latter , with the former tak-ing the form of poetry while the later the form of fiction .But they are similar in terms of root and theme and they are the same in essence .Romantic literature is a product of social development , and the influence of British romanticism on American romanticism is limited .

  18. ["Each medical practitioner and ordained physician commissioned by the city of Nuremberg shal vow ..." the structures of the public health system in Nuremberg at the beginning of the 18th century of Johann Christoph Götz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The medical institutions of Nuremberg were established quite early. The Collegium medicum were already founded in 1592. Though this board held responsibility for the supervision of pharmacies, the creation of Medizinalordnungen (medical legislations) and also had advisory functions, the physicians did not succeed in winning a prominent position. The spheres of competence between the different groups of medical practitioners were not yet clearly defined. Nevertheless the daily work of the practitioner Johann Christoph Götz (1688-1733) was going smoothly due to his cooperation with other doctors, surgeons, midwives and pharmacists.

  19. The "Chinese" Tone in Russian Architectural Art of the 18th Century%十八世纪俄罗斯建筑艺术中的"中国"情调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段禹农

    2007-01-01

    17至18世纪,在欧洲及俄罗斯掀起了一股崇尚中国情调和仿效中国艺术的热潮,谓之"中国风".文中考察了俄罗斯建筑艺术和造型艺术中出现中国形象的文化历史背景;用历史资料和图片展示了圣彼得堡及其郊区部分建筑艺术的中国风格;比较了俄罗斯建筑中的中式风格与中国传统建筑风格的差异,并分析研究了产生其差异的原因.研究成果丰富了中俄建筑艺术、文化、美学史的内容,有利于巩固和扩大俄中俄两国文化合作方面的友好联系.

  20. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-01-01

    The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and la...

  1. The Iron Age and 13th-18th century Cemetery and Chapel Site of Niklusmägi : Grave Looting and Archaeology / Heiki Valk, Pikne Kama, Riina Rammo ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    2011. aastal anti arheoloogilidele vihje Niklusmäe kalme lõhkumisest. 2012. aasta suvel leidsid projekti "Arheoloogia, võim ja ühiskond" raames aset arheoloogilised päästeuuringud. Ilmnes, et kalmet oli rüüstatud 4-5 aasta jooksul. Leitud luustikest, hauapanustest. Niklusmäest Läti Henriku kroonika andmetel. Tänini räägib pärimus Lätist tulnud, Niklusmäe metsa läbivast ja Sangaste poole suunduvast sõjateest. Leiud on tõstatanud küsimusi Eesti lõunaserva matmiskommete ja etnokultuuriliste olude kohta. Kuna kalmesüdamik on rüüstatud, jäävad küsimused vastuseta

  2. 18世纪德语地区各国的小提琴家和作曲家%Violinists and Composers in the 18th-Century's German Councouries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范额伦

    2002-01-01

    18世纪德国,奥地利和波希米亚地区的小提琴家和作曲家对小提琴音乐与曲目的发展作出了巨大的贡献.巴赫的无伴奏奏鸣乐与组曲以及协奏曲都是巴罗克时期最重要的小提琴作品.莫扎特创作了经典的古典主义的小提琴协奏曲和交响协奏曲,对于古典主义的小提琴奏鸣乐的形成与发展亦起了重要的作用.

  3. The Iron Age and 13th-18th century Cemetery and Chapel Site of Niklusmägi : Grave Looting and Archaeology / Heiki Valk, Pikne Kama, Riina Rammo ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    2011. aastal anti arheoloogilidele vihje Niklusmäe kalme lõhkumisest. 2012. aasta suvel leidsid projekti "Arheoloogia, võim ja ühiskond" raames aset arheoloogilised päästeuuringud. Ilmnes, et kalmet oli rüüstatud 4-5 aasta jooksul. Leitud luustikest, hauapanustest. Niklusmäest Läti Henriku kroonika andmetel. Tänini räägib pärimus Lätist tulnud, Niklusmäe metsa läbivast ja Sangaste poole suunduvast sõjateest. Leiud on tõstatanud küsimusi Eesti lõunaserva matmiskommete ja etnokultuuriliste olude kohta. Kuna kalmesüdamik on rüüstatud, jäävad küsimused vastuseta

  4. Life history of the individuals buried in the St. Benedict Cemetery (Prague, 15th-18th centuries): insights from (14)C dating and stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salesse, Kevin; Dufour, Élise; Castex, Dominique; Velemínský, Petr; Santos, Frédéric; Kuchařová, Hedvika; Jun, Libor; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2013-06-01

    Funerary practices and bioarchaeological (sex and age) data suggest that a mortality crisis linked to an epidemic episode occurred during the fifth phase of the St. Benedict cemetery in Prague (Czech Republic). To identify this mass mortality episode, we reconstructed individual life histories (dietary and mobility factors), assessed the population's biological homogeneity, and proposed a new chronology through stable isotope analysis (δ(13)C, δ(18)O and δ(15)N) and direct radiocarbon dating. Stable isotope analysis was conducted on the bone and tooth enamel (collagen and carbonate) of 19 individuals from three multiple graves (MG) and 12 individuals from individual graves (IG). The δ(15)N values of collagen and the difference between the δ(13)C values of collagen and bone carbonate could indicate that the IG individuals had a richer protein diet than the MG individuals or different food resources. The human bone and enamel carbonate and δ(18)O values suggest that the majority of individuals from MG and all individuals from IG spent most of their lives outside of the Bohemian region. Variations in δ(18)O values also indicate that all individuals experienced residential mobility during their lives. The stable isotope results, biological (age and sex) data and eight (14)C dates clearly differentiate the MG and IG groups. The present work provides evidence for the reuse of the St. Benedict cemetery to bury soldiers despite the funeral protest ban (1635 AD). The Siege of Prague (1742 AD) by French-Bavarian-Saxon armies is identified as the cause of the St. Benedict mass mortality event.

  5. Analysis of Factors that have Influenced Outcomes of Battles and Wars: A Data Base of Battles and Engagements. Volume 2. Wars from 1600 through 1800. Part 1. Wars of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    A.1;B.8.1; B.2S; B.33. S76 INE DUTCH WAR, 1672-1678 Fehrbellin, 28 June 1675 In January 1675 a Swedish army commanded by Count Carl Gustav Wrangel...galloped forward to steady his troops and received a mortal wound. Moreau immediately assumd command, and succeeded in re-establishing the position. By...for the defenders. They fell back, slowly at first, then in considerable confusion. The whole French line then collapsed. Moreau withdrew the remnants

  6. Een verkeerde loop in ’t vuur: an initial investigation into what Dutch archival sources can tell us about techniques and problems in the production of 17th and 18th century Dutch tin-glaze tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lookeren Campagne, K.; Delgado Rodrigues, J.; Mimoso, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Technical art-historical archival sources can be invaluable for our knowledge and understanding of the origin and preparation of materials as well as the production techniques used to make ceramic objects. The information provided could also aid our understanding of the factors that influence suscep

  7. Trapitos al sol: Análisis de textiles de la colonia española de Floridablanca (Patagonia, siglo XVIII Textile analysis from the Spanish colony of Floridablanca (Patagonia, 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Bianchi Villelli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto indagar sobre las características y la función de los textiles recuperados en el sitio arqueológico de Floridablanca (Puerto San Julián, provincia de Santa Cruz, cuyo rango de ocupación se extendió de 1780 a 1784. La muestra analizada proviene de la excavación de una de las unidades domésticas que componen el poblado. Se presentan los lineamientos metodológicos, los procedimientos técnicos puestos en práctica para la identificación de una muestra y los resultados obtenidos. La estrategia metodológica elegida nos permitió determinar la funcionalidad de los restos de textiles analizados en el espacio doméstico; principalmente contenedores relacionados con el almacenamiento de semillas y en menor medida posibles restos de vestimenta. Dicha información resulta de utilidad para discutir en otros niveles de análisis el significado y el rol de estos materiales en la vida cotidiana de los pobladores de la Colonia.This paper presents research into the function and characteristics of textiles recovered at the archaeological site of Floridablanca (Puerto San Julián, Santa Cruz, which was occupied between AD 1780 and 1784. The provenience of the sample analyzed is an excavated domestic unit in the village. Here the results, technical procedures and methods used for the identification of the material are presented. The chosen methodological strategy allowed determining the function of the textiles within the domestic space. They consisted mainly of containers for seed storage, with the addition of a few pieces of clothing. On higher analytical levels this information becomes particularly useful to discussing the meaning and role played by this type of material in the everyday life of the Colony's settlers.

  8. Bibliotecas y libros en la cultura universitaria de Córdoba durante los siglos XVII y XVIII Libraries and Books in the University Culture of Córdoba during the 17th and 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano G. A. Benito Moya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el proceso de conformación del sistema de bibliotecas universitario colonial en Córdoba (Argentina, aproximadamente entre 1609 fecha en que se estableció el Colegio Máximo jesuita y la primera década revolucionaria de 1810. Dos etapas quedan bien definidas, el período de administración jesuítica (1609-1767, caracterizado por el lento proceso de construcción de las bibliotecas y, luego de la expulsión, el período franciscano (1767-1807 en que las mismas quedaron bajo la administración de la Junta de Temporalidades. La organización física; la concepción mental de clasificar el conocimiento; los servicios que prestaban; y el rol de los bibliotecarios, son algunos de las temáticas relacionadas que se abordan.This is a study of the process of the development of library systems in colonial Córdoba (Argentina from around 1609, the date in which the Jesuit Collegium Maximum was founded, to 1810 (the first decade of the Revolutionary period. Two stages of development are clearly defined, the period of Jesuit administration (1609-1767 characterized by the slow process of constructing the libraries, and later the expulsion, the Franciscan period (1797-1807 in which these orders came under the administration of the Junta de Temporalidades. The physical organization; the mental conception of the categorization of knowledge, the services that they provided and the role of librarians are some of the topics that are addressed.

  9. Een verkeerde loop in ’t vuur: an initial investigation into what Dutch archival sources can tell us about techniques and problems in the production of 17th and 18th century Dutch tin-glaze tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lookeren Campagne, K.; Delgado Rodrigues, J.; Mimoso, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Technical art-historical archival sources can be invaluable for our knowledge and understanding of the origin and preparation of materials as well as the production techniques used to make ceramic objects. The information provided could also aid our understanding of the factors that influence

  10. Analysis of Factors that have Influenced Outcomes of Battles and Wars: A Data Base of Battles and Engagements. Volume 3. Wars from 1805 through 1900. Part 1. Wars of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Government Agencies only; Software Documentation; 6 Nov 1984. Other requests referred to: Dir/USACAA, 8120 Woodmont Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814-2797...16 Janary. 1809 In reaction to aseries of French military disasters an the Peninsula, Napoleon crossed the Pyrenees in November 1808 at the head of...pursued the. defeated army into ** the highlands east of Lima, Bolivar entered Lima and established a government . Source: D.14.3. 81 THE LATIN AMRICAN WARS

  11. [The union of three families of apothecaries in Paris in the 17th and 18th centuries--The apothecaries François Pihoué, François Regnault, Henry Charas and Marie Fourneau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-06-01

    The family network started with Marie Fourneau, daughter of the apothecary Jacques Fourneau, married successively two apothecaries first François Pihoué and then François Regnault and whose only daughter Marie Anne married the apothecary Henry Charas grandson of the famous apothecary Moyse Charas.

  12. Tolerate the Custom: Fairs and Romerias in the Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Peña Díaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the 18th Century, the Bourbon governments became obsessed with the public order vigilance, because of Esquilache´s riot caused fear of the crowd. In the meantime the episcopal authorities close to Jansenism, and adversaries of the popular base, attempted to banish the superstitious, and inmoral popular religious acts that Tridentine discipline had not got to eradicate. Even though the changes and the repressions applied during the 18th Centurie had the hoped outcomes. The Church attitude was cautious and limited to reassert the image of its power, and to eradicate what were considered that the governmental reforms desecrated a lot. This attitude was similar to the civil Government. If the activated repression caused tensions and complaints, it would have be better to go on tolerating the Custom. From the large documentary signs about fairs, and local religious festivities, this paper examine a socio-cultural daily life related to transgressions, resistances, and established negotiations when the rulers tried to accomplish the discipline Tridentine Project.

  13. Einstein's Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeremy Laurance; 贾庆文

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein began working at the patent office in Bern, Switzerland, a little more than a century ago. He had flunked the entrance exam for the Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology and took the job evaluating inventions because it paid a regular salary.

  14. Distinct Characteristics in the Struggle of Anti-corruption Since the 18th NCCPC%十八大以来中央反腐败斗争的鲜明特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宜胜

    2015-01-01

    十八大以来中央反腐败斗争呈现出六大鲜明特点:一是直面难题,高度重视;二是旗帜鲜明,立场坚定;三是真抓实干,注重实效;四是重点突破,抓常抓细;五是依托制度,标本兼治;六是依靠群众,凝聚共识。总结归纳十八大以来中央反腐败斗争的特点,便于我们对中央的执政思路与策略有一个更深刻的把握和全面的认识。%It has presented six distinct characteristics in struggle of anti-corruption since the 18th NCCPC . First, confronting and paying high attention to the problem;Second, a clear-cut and firm standing;Third, working diligently and focusing on actual effect;Fourth, the key breakthrough and normalization keeping;Fifth, relying on the system and seeking both temporary and permanent solutions; Sixth, Relying on the masses and building consensus. Summing up the characteristics of the struggle of anti-corruption since the 18th NCCPC helps us get a more profound grasp and comprehensive understanding on it.

  15. The environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal: ten centuries of whale and dolphin records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Brito

    Full Text Available The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded.

  16. The environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal: ten centuries of whale and dolphin records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded.

  17. Making a stand: five centuries of population growth in colonizing populations of Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Mark R; Jackson, Stephen T

    2012-05-01

    The processes underlying the development of new populations are important for understanding how species colonize new territory and form viable long-term populations. Life-history-mediated processes such as Allee effects and dispersal capability may interact with climate variability and site-specific factors to govern population success and failure over extended time frames. We studied four disjunct populations of ponderosa pine in the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming to examine population growth spanning more than five centuries. The study populations are separated from continuous ponderosa pine forest by distances ranging from 15 to >100 km. Strong evidence indicates that the initial colonizing individuals are still present, yielding a nearly complete record of population history. All trees in each population were aged using dendroecological techniques. The populations were all founded between 1530 and 1655 cal yr CE. All show logistic growth patterns, with initial exponential growth followed by a slowing during the mid to late 20th century. Initial population growth was slower than expectations from a logistic regression model at all four populations, but increased during the mid-18th century. Initial lags in population growth may have been due to strong Allee effects. A combination of overcoming Allee effects and a transition to favorable climate conditions may have facilitated a mid-18th century pulse in population growth rate.

  18. century drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  19. 18th Conference of IASC-ERS

    CERN Document Server

    Brito, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Presents methodological developments in Applied/Computational Statistics. This work covers a range of topics including Advances on Statistical Computing Environments, Methods for Classification and Clustering, Computation for Graphical Models and Bayes Nets, Computational Econometrics, and, Computational Statistics and Data Mining.

  20. Development of the Structure of Lithuanian Gardens and Parks from the 16th to the 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albinas Mocevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The historical development of Lithuanian parks cannot be separated from the historical evolution of our cities and towns and formation of their urbanistic structure. The beginnings of creating garden art in Lithuania, the same as in West Europe, are mentioned in medieval castles and monasteries. A strong influence on the developement of the history of Renaissance gardens was exerted by new models of garden theory, which were formed and formulated by famous European architects, artists, scientists, philosophers. The traditions of antique art were revived, new scientific inventions had an influence on garden art. During the 17th–18th centuries a lot of residences and manors were built, and they played an important role in the urbanisation of the country. In the 17th–18th centuries the tendencies in the Italian art of garden parks in West Europe were taken over by French baroque. In the junction of the 18th and 19th centuries the planning of cities and towns and urbanistic development in the territories of Lithuania and East Europe took place due to bizarre and geometralised influence of the baroque epoch. In the 19th century scenery parks were created next to mansions in Lithuanian towns by famous scenery specialists of that time from West Europe. In the junction of 19th and 20th centuries important geopolitical processes in Lithuania and Europe took place not only in the urbanisation of cities, but also in the planning of parks and their art tendencies. Due to the growth of cities, their urbanised territories and strengthening of social attitude towards a surrounding environment, the boundaries of park art spread into the public areas of cities. At the end of the paper there is a scheme which summarises the development and influence of park structure on city development and formation .Article in Lithuanian

  1. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  2. Solar cycle length and 20th Century northern hemisphere warming: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Paul E.; Peristykh, Alexei N.

    It has been suggested that the length of the solar cycle (SCL) is related to solar forcing of global climate change [Friis-Christensen and Lassen, 1991]. Although no physical mechanism had been proposed, the relation seemed to be supported by interesting correlations with several paleoclimate records and, separately, with the 20th century Northern Hemisphere instrumental record. Actually, what has been correlated is the quasi-sinusoidal Gleissberg cycle which is slightly greater in the 18th century than in the 20th century. Using the pre-industrial record as a boundary condition, the SCL-temperature correlation corresponds to an estimated 25% of global warming to 1980 and 15% to 1997.

  3. Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Sahl, Jason; Waglechner, Nicholas; Fourment, Mathieu; Forrest, Stephen A; Klunk, Jennifer; Schuenemann, Verena J; Poinar, Debi; Kuch, Melanie; Golding, G Brian; Dutour, Olivier; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Holmes, Edward C; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-01-21

    The 14th-18th century pandemic of Yersinia pestis caused devastating disease outbreaks in Europe for almost 400 years. The reasons for plague's persistence and abrupt disappearance in Europe are poorly understood, but could have been due to either the presence of now-extinct plague foci in Europe itself, or successive disease introductions from other locations. Here we present five Y. pestis genomes from one of the last European outbreaks of plague, from 1722 in Marseille, France. The lineage identified has not been found in any extant Y. pestis foci sampled to date, and has its ancestry in strains obtained from victims of the 14th century Black Death. These data suggest the existence of a previously uncharacterized historical plague focus that persisted for at least three centuries. We propose that this disease source may have been responsible for the many resurgences of plague in Europe following the Black Death.

  4. School teaching of Spanish language in Andalucía on the Eve of the 19th Century: an introduction to the «Ortographic Dialogue» by A. Balbina Lozano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola PONS RODRÍGUEZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ortographic Dialogue by Antonio Balbina Lozano, a school teacher from Cádiz, is a little-known manuscript written at the end of the 18th century or the beginning of the 19th century. Meant to be used in schools, it summarizes Spanish spelling rules according to the Spanish Royal Academy in the 18th Century and the main parts of the sentence, and at the end provides an alphabetical list with doubtful spellings, especially for Balbina’s Andalusian pupils who had a dialectal pronunciation. This work is framed in the pedagogical context of the time in Andalucía and Spain, in the clash between the old First Reader Book from Valladolid and the new pedagogical methods of the Enlightenment. Furthermore, its sources are discussed: the works of the Spanish Royal Academy in the 18th century, above all the Ortography of the Castilian Language, but also the works by Mañer, Cortés Moreno, Palomares and Gayoso.

  5. Understanding of the 18th Congress Spirit to Strengthen College Students' Moral Construction%贯彻十八大精神加强高校大学生公民道德建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶

    2013-01-01

      党的十八大报告第六部分“扎实推进社会主义文化强国建设”中提出:“全面提高公民道德素质”,强调推进公民道德建设工程。高校大学生是祖国未来的栋梁,加强高校大学生公民道德建设有利于提升我国公民道德的整体素质,直接关系到中国未来的健康发展。因此,切实加强高校大学生的公民道德建设,努力提高大学生公民道德素质是高校教育义不容辞的责任。%The sixth part of the Party's 18th Congress report"effectively promote the construction of socialist cultural powerful country"says:"comprehensively improve the moral quality of the citizens", emphasize on promoting the construction of citizen moral. University students are the future of our country. Strengthening the citizen moral construction is beneficial to improve the overall quality of the citizen ethics in China, directly related to the healthy development of China's future. Therefore, strengthening the construction of university stu-dents' citizen morality is the responsibility to college education.

  6. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder.

  7. Globalization and Glassy Ideality of the Web of Twentieth Century Science

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, J C

    2010-01-01

    Scientific communication is an essential part of modern science: whereas Archimedes worked alone, Newton (correspondence with Hooke, 1676) acknowledged that "If I have seen a little further, it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants." How is scientific communication reflected in the patterns of citations in scientific papers? How have these patterns changed in the 20th century, as both means of communication and individual transportation changed rapidly, compared to the earlier post-Newton 18th and 19th centuries? Here we discuss a glass model for scientific communications, based on a unique 2009 scientometric study of 25 million papers and 600 million citations that encapsulates the epistemology of modern science. The glass model predicts and explains, using no adjustable parameters, a surprisingly universal internal structure in the development of scientific research, which is essentially constant across the natural sciences, but which because of globalization changed qualitatively around 1960. Globaliza...

  8. Optical Character Recognition Applied to Romanian Printed Texts of the 18th–20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Cojocaru

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Optical Character Recognition (OCR of historical texts of the 18th–20th century in the Romanian language using the Cyrillic script. We differ three epochs (approximately, the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, with different usage of the Cyrillic alphabet in Romanian and, correspondingly, different approach to OCR. We developed historical alphabets and sets of glyphs recognition templates specific for each epoch. The dictionaries in proper alphabets and orthographies were also created. In addition, virtual keyboards, fonts, transliteration utilities, etc. were developed. The resulting technology and toolset permit successful recognition of historical Romanian texts in the Cyrillic script. After transliteration to the modern Latin script we obtain no-barrier access to historical documents.

  9. Analysis of an Unusual Mirror in a 16th-Century Painting: A Museum Exercise for Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Sudha; Lamelas, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Physics students at Worcester State University visit the Worcester Art Museum (WAM) at the end of a special 100-level course called Physics in Art. The students have studied geometrical optics, and they have been introduced to concepts in atomic physics. The purpose of the museum tour is to show how physics-based techniques can be used in a nontraditional lab setting. Other examples of the use of museum-based art in physics instruction include analyses of Pointillism and image resolution, and of reflections in soap bubbles in 17- and 18th-century paintings.

  10. Importul de mărfuri din Imperiul Rus în Principatul Moldovei la sfârşitul secolului al XVIII-lea - începutul secolului al XIX-lea / Imports from the Russian Empire into the Principality of Moldavia at the end of the 18th century - the beginning of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Cereş

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the period under review trade relations between the Principality of Moldavia and the Russian Empire experienced a new stage of development. Moldavia continued to import consumer goods from the Russian Empire. The increase in the volume of trade between the Russian Empire and the Romanian Principalities took place after the signing of the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca. Trade relations between the Principality of Moldavia and the Russian Empire were based on the Russian-Turkish trade treaty concluded in 1783. Particularly important and especially expensive imported goods were furs. In addition to the furs, there were imported iron and steel products, which competed with the products from Austria. The government of the Russian Empire encouraged the duty-free importation of large quantities of goods from Russia ostensibly for the army, and this caused damage to the Moldavian treasury. An important role in the import of goods from the Russian Empire into the Principality of Moldavia played merchants, especially foreign ones. The analysis showed that furs, canvas, cloth, iron and ironware, linen, and vodka were predominant among these imports.

  11. Intensidade de ruído em hospital de 222 leitos na 18ª Regional de Saúde - PR Noise level in a 222 bed hospital in the 18th health region - PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Otenio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A poluição sonora ambiental torna-se hoje onipresente e beira o intolerável. Nos hospitais, os avanços tecnológicos trazem, como conseqüência, níveis de ruído potencialmente danosos. Muito do ruído no hospital provém mais de dentro, do que de fora desse ambiente, sendo as principais causas de ruído em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, por exemplo, os equipamentos e a conversação entre a equipe hospitalar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o nível de ruído nos diversos ambientes hospitalares, em Hospital de 222 leitos na 18ª RS de Saúde - PR. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Conduziu-se, em março de 2005 no período de 24 horas, em dez setores. Forma de Estudo: Aferição do nível de ruído ambiental utilizando um Decibelímetro modelo 1350. RESULTADOS: O nível de ruído encontrado em nosso estudo apresentou média total de 63,7 dB(A, que excede os valores máximos permitidos de 45 dB recomendados pela Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (1987. CONCLUSÃO: Nos setores analisados, o nível de ruído encontrado neste está consideravelmente acima do recomendado. A equipe hospitalar deve estar consciente do ruído e dos efeitos deste, para que possa atuar de maneira mais efetiva na redução da poluição sonora, beneficiando assim a função laborativa dos profissionais e recuperação dos pacientes.Environment noise pollution is common place today, at intolerable levels. In hospitals, technological developments have, as a consequence, potentially harmful noise levels. Much of the hospital noise comes from inside, rather than outside, and the major source of such noise is the Intensive Care Unit, for example equipment and hospital staff talk. Our goal with the present study was to investigate the noise level present in the different hospital environments, within a 222 bed hospital located at the 18th health zone, PR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in March, 2005, during a period of 24 hours, in tem different

  12. Twentieth Century Moral Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, Rowland

    2008-01-01

    Despite being somewhat long in the tooth at the time, Aristotle, Hume and Kant were still dominating twentieth century moral philosophy. Much of the progress made in that century came from a detailed working through of each of their approaches by the expanding and increasingly professionalized corps of academic philosophers. And this progress can be measured not just by the quality and sophistication of moral philosophy at the end of that century, but also by the narrowing of s...

  13. A Case Study in Entrepreneurship: The Hanseatic Merchant Johannes Crasemann in México ; Paper read at the 18th. Mesoamerikanisten-Tagung, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg (16-18.01.2015), on 16.01.2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A strong business relationship has connected the Hanseatic cities to México since that country gained independence from Spain. Although the economic activities of some of the major companies overseas have been documented, few personal career-stories are known. This paper presents the case of Johannes Carl Heinrich Crasemann, descendent of a business family from Hamburg, who worked in México a quarter of a century long. In 1857 he left for México City where he began his training as a simple...

  14. Nineteenth-Century English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...

  15. Statistical versus Musical Significance: Commentary on Leigh VanHandel's 'National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin London

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In “National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song” Leigh Van Handel gives a sympathetic critique of William Rothstein’s claim that in western classical music of the late 18th and 19th centuries there are discernable differences in the phrasing and metrical practice of German versus French and Italian composers. This commentary (a examines just what Rothstein means in terms of his proposed metrical typology, (b questions Van Handel on how she has applied it to a purely melodic framework, (c amplifies Van Handel’s critique of Rothstein, and then (d concludes with a rumination on the reach of quantitative (i.e., statistically-driven versus qualitative claims regarding such things as “national metrical types.”

  16. Bone transplantation and tissue engineering. Part II: bone graft and osteogenesis in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Duhamel, Haller, Ollier and MacEwen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In the 18th century, the fate of allografts and their role in bone formation became of interest to many orthopaedic surgeons. A controversy over the science of osteogenesis, the formation of bone, had emerged following the opposing views of Duhamel and von Haller. Duhamel noted that the periosteum had a deep osteogenic layer, which he termed the "cambium layer". However, von Haller claimed the opposite: the periosteum was not osteogenic. In the 19th century, Ollier performed comprehensive studies on the periosteum. Ollier's experiments were published in two volumes entitled "Traite Experimental et clinique de la regeneration des os" in 1867. His conclusion was that transplanted periosteum and bone survived and could become osteogenic under proper conditions. The controversy was furthered by MacEwen who believed, contrary to Duhamel and Ollier, that the periosteum had no osteogenetic power and was purely a limiting membrane giving direction to bone growth but taking no active part in it. This manuscript describes this period of controversies about the osteogenesis of the transplanted bone, marrow and periosteum that would eventually die or not and be replaced by surrounding tissue or be active for osteogenesis. Whether bone grafts are a form of passive scaffolding or active in osteogenesis was the main question about auto and allografts in the 18th and 19th centuries. In response to this challenge, many papers were written to defend each side of the argument.

  17. Comet of the Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Fred; Ottewell, G.

    The present century has been a disappointing one for comets, but past centuries often featured spectacular, unforgettable comet shows that dominated the night (and even daytime) sky for months: comets that outshone Venus or even the Moon, whose spectacular tails stretched more than halfway across the sky or were weirdly split, and whose apparition was held responsible for everything from wars to unusually good wine vintages. Published to coincide with the first naked-eye appearance of Comet Hale-Bopp, perhaps our own comet of the century, this book is an irresistible guide to comet facts and lore throughout history.

  18. [William Cheselden: singular lithotomist and great illustrator of the XVIII Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros Sampol, Juan José

    2007-09-01

    We present a brief historic reference of who probably was the most famous English urologist-surgeon of the 18th century, and who, following the chronicle writers, holds the record for extraction of a bladder stone (between 24 and 54 seconds). He also was an example of humanism related to the medical profession: he was an extraordinary illustrator of his own books with the help of the "dark chamber", so frequently used by Renaissance artists, contributed to the design and performance of civil architectonic work, had relationships with the literature world through poetry, and decisively influenced the reformation and separation of barbers and surgeons, which ultimately lead to the creation of the Royal College of Surgeons.

  19. Family Crises and Migrations in Eighteenth-Century Galicia from a Gender Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia REY CASTELAO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of the relationship between crisis and migrations from the women’s point of view. This reflection is done using the information available to Galicia in the 18th century. This territory was characterized by intense male migration, with two variants: seasonal or short-term migration to Castile and the multiyear or medium-term to Portugal and Andalusia. In order to study its impact on women, this paper is divided into two parts: a firstly, the focus is on family crisis that caused whether the death of the absentee husband or the voluntary abandonment of the family, and proposing the different choices; b secondly, the aim is to study those single women who were in the need to migrate in order to solve their personal crisis, that is to say, those times when they had to make a decision to solve their own future.

  20. Ageing in the United States at the end of the century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, V L; Mills, T L; Parrott, T M

    1995-12-01

    "The belief that America is a ¿young' nation is widely held by many individuals in the United States. Historically, individualism, self-reliance, and an orientation towards youth have been cherished values reflecting...our national heritage and tradition dating from the 18th through the mid-20th century. However, America is no longer a ¿young' nation. Rather, we are an ¿aging' population, as we show in our analysis of demographic transitions reviewed in this paper. The phenomenon of ¿cultural (or structural) lag' is discussed in two different contexts: first--the context of the aging family; and second--the context of ethnic/racial minority groups. Finally, some of the relevant public policy responses to aging are described. We look at government programs in four major categories, namely, (1) income; (2) health care; (3) social services; and (4) housing."

  1. Revolution, Constitutions and Government in the Eighteenth Century: Hume and Bentham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rudan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We asked a series of questions to Luca Cobbe and Paola Rudan, authors of two books foregrounding the turning point of the 18th century by which, moving from the experience of the revolution, the structure of the constitution and configuration of government were deeply rethought. The two works, respectively about David Hume and Jeremy Bentham, contribute significantly to illuminate the way by which obedience has been reconsidered when society and opinion became the sources of political legitimation. This dialogue at distance clearly shows the presence of a plurality of constitutional registers which were necessary for the affirmation of the centrality of government in the era of the rising popular sovereignty.

  2. News Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

  3. Eight sages over five centuries share oxygen's discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinghaus, John W

    2016-09-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color. Michael Sendivogius (1566-1636) in Poland called a part of air "the food of life" and identified it as the gas made by heating saltpetre. John Mayow (1641-1679) in Oxford found that one-fifth of air was a special gas he called "spiritus nitro aereus." Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) in Uppsala generated a gas he named "fire air" by heating several metal calcs. He asked Lavoisier how it fit the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier never answered. In 1744, Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) in England discovered how to make part of air by heating red calc of mercury. He found it brightened a flame and supported life in a mouse in a sealed bottle. He called it "dephlogisticated air." He published and personally told Lavoisier and other chemists about it. Lavoisier never thanked him. After 9 years of generating and studying its chemistry, he couldn't understand whether it was a new element. He still named it "principe oxigene." He was still not able to disprove phlogiston. Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) made an inflammable gas in 1766. He and Priestley noted that its flame made a dew. Cavendish proved the dew was pure water and published this in 1778, but all scientists called it impossible to make water, an element. In 1783, on June 24th, Lavoisier was urged to try it, and, when water appeared, he realized that water was not an element but a compound of two gases, proving that oxygen was an element. He then demolished phlogiston and began the new chemistry revolution.

  4. Mapping Utopia: Cartography and Social Reform in 19th Century Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graves

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available From the 16th century on, the great Southern continent figured in the European literary and political imagination as a field for utopian thought. While we might expect such Arcadian essays to tail off as the colonisation of Australia proceeded apace in the late 18th, early 19th centuries, such was not the case: there are many examples of utopian literature set in Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries, and several examples from the 1830s , the period examined in this article. This article explores the utopian elements in the work of three near contemporaries: Edward G. Wakefield (1796-1862, Thomas J. Maslen (1787-1857 and James Vetch (1789-1869 who mapped onto Australia political and social projects that had their origin and rationale in objectives for reform in the mother country. They brought to their self-appointed task underlying assumptions and biases that reveal a range of influences, not least those of colonial expansionism, and an imperial disregard for the realities of the terrain and inhabitants of a country they had never visited. The article undertakes a close reading of the maps, systems of nomenclature and division of territory proposed by two of the three: Maslen and Vetch, and their underlying rationale and function. Both writers sought to redraw the map of Australia in order to advance projects for reform, imposing on an ‘empty land’ principles of division and sub-division claimed to be rational and scientific and yet essentially utopian.

  5. Century Tide Nicotine Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Century Tide Nicotine Patch, a hi-tech smoking control therapy, is designed in accordance with the scientific principle of nicotine replacement. The therapy is promoted by the World Health Organization. Meanwhile, it also integrates traditional Chinese medical therapy and adopts advanced TTS technology.

  6. The Relationship Between the Social Transformation and Islamization of West Africa in 14th-18th Centuries%14至18世纪中古后期至近代早期西非社会演进与当地伊斯兰化进程间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张歌

    2014-01-01

    14至18世纪西非经历了帝国的瓦解,国家和社会重新整合的历史过程。在行政机构、经济运作方式、宗教、文化等方面都有了新的发展。中央集权化趋势成为国家政治发展方面的主流,经济、贸易活动的形式更加丰富多样。与此相对应,伊斯兰教和当地传统宗教文化也都有了很大的发展,其中伊斯兰教的发展对西非日后的历史进程影响更加深远。在没有官方支持的情况下,伊斯兰教注重向民间社会的渗透,教团组织开始普及,并在随后与苏菲主义合流,形成了苏菲主义教团,建立起了自己的社会、经济基础,当地伊斯兰文化得到了整理和发展,教士们提出了针对社会问题的改革主张,并在上几内亚地区付诸行动,从理论和实践上为未来的西非历史进程奠定了基础。%West Africa has experienced the disintegration of the empire, The historical process of the state and society integration during this period. There were have new development in the administrative institutions, economic operation mode, religion, culture and other aspects. Centralized trend has become the mainstream in the country's political development and the economic and trade activities in the more diverse form. Under this situation, Islam and local traditional religious culture also has the very big development. Especially the development of Islam more profound influence on the historical process of west Africa. Without official support, Islam started its infiltration to civil society, the religious organizations began to spread, and combined with Sufism during the followed era, formed Sufism Orders, The Orders built up their own social and economic base, advanced the development of local Islamic cultures, Islamic clergies put forward the reform advocates for social problems, and put the action in upper-guinea region. They laid a foundation from the theory and practice for West African history.

  7. REPRESENTACIONES DEL ESPACIO PATAGÓNICO: UNA INTERPRETACIÓN DE LA CARTOGRAFÍA JESUÍTICA DE LOS SIGLOS XVII Y XVIII REPRESENTATIONS OF THE PATAGONIAN SPACE: AN INTERPRETATION OF 17TH- AND 18TH-CENTURY JESUIT CARTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis I de Lasa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La cartografía jesuítica constituye una fuente privilegiada para acceder a las formas de producción y uso del conocimiento geográfico y cartográfico referido a las fronteras australes del imperio español. Considerando que los mapas elaborados por los misioneros de la Compañía de Jesús son los primeros en integrar explícitamente el conocimiento espacial de los habitantes del territorio, indagamos sobre las condiciones de obtención de la información, las estrategias de apropiación y organización de los saberes indígenas y la compatibilización de distintas concepciones y representaciones del espacio en la elaboración del mapa. Atendiendo al uso de la producción de los jesuitas, identificamos los principales beneficiarios de este saber calificado. En este estudio examinamos los mapas generales de Patagonia de Alonso de Ovalle (1646, José Cardiel (1746-1747, 1749 y 1751 y Thomas Falkner (1772.Jesuit cartography serves as an exceptional sourcefor gaining access to the ways of production and use of the geographical and cartographic knowledge related to the southern borders of the Spanish empire. Taking into account that the maps produced by the missionaries from the Society ofJesus were the first to explicitly incorporate the spatial knowledge of the local inhabitants, we examined the conditions for collecting information, the strategiesfor appropriation and organization ofindigenous lore and the reconciliation ofdifferent spatial conceptions and representations upon producing the map. Considering the use made of the Jesuit production, we have identified the main beneficiaries from this intimate knowledge. At the present study we examine the general maps ofPatagonia produced by Alonso de Ovalle (1646, José Cardiel (1746-1747, 1749y 1751 and Thomas Falkner (1772.

  8. The Rationality of «Fanaticism»: Independence, secularisation and education in Colombia,18th to 20th centuries La racionalidad del «fanatismo»: independencia, secularización y educación en Colombia, siglos XVIII al XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar SALDARRIAGA VÉLEZ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the process of secularisation in Colombia from a case study of the liberal educational reform of 1870. It discusses theoretically the versatility of the concept of secularisation and the teleologies of modernity that postulated it as a future destiny. It concludes by arguing a general hypothesis on the structural role of «conciliation» that modern school plays against the demands of the State and the Church in the attempt to control it. Finally, it argues that pedagogical knowledge constitutes a third source of credibility and truth against the two traditional sovereign powers.El artículo examina el proceso de secularización en Colombia, haciendo un estudio de caso de la reforma educativa liberal de 1870. Discute teóricamente la polivalencia del concepto de secularización y las teleologías de la modernidad que la postulan como un destino futuro. Concluye argumentando una hipótesis general sobre el rol estructural de «conciliación» que juega la escuela moderna frente a las exigencias del Estado y de la Iglesia por controlarla, y sostiene que el saber pedagógico constituye una tercera fuente de credibilidad y verdad frente a los dos poderes soberanos clásicos.

  9. A brief history of the conchological collections at the Zoological Museum of Amsterdam, with some reflections on 18th century schell cabinets and their proprietors, on the occasion of the centenary of the Royal Zoological Society “Natura Artis Magistra”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benthem Jutting, van W.S.S.

    1939-01-01

    At the time when the Royal Zoological Society Natura Artis Magistra known in Holland as “Artis” was founded in 1838 the ground for the study of malacology lay already well prepared. For ever since the days when the early Dutch seafarers explored the commercial routes to East and to West, all kinds o

  10. 17-18世纪巴黎奢侈生活方式的扩散传播 --对"创新与扩散"理论的一种验证%Diffusion of the Luxury Vogue in Paris between 17th and 18th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林益楷

    2006-01-01

    通过对17-18世纪巴黎宫廷奢侈风气的产生及其扩散的过程的考察,文章认为,在这个漫长的传播过程中,这种风气的产生同技术的传播一样,也依次出现了五类创新采用者,也具有技术扩散的诸种特点.随后,文章从传播学、社会学、心理学等多个角度探究了此种传播现象发生的原因.

  11. Intuições "lingüísticas" sobre a língua de sinais, nos séculos XVIII e XIX, a partir da compreensão de dois escritores surdos da época "Linguistic" intuitions about sign language in the 18th and 19th centuries, according to the understanding of two deaf writers from that time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria de Souza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta e discute algumas concepções "lingüísticas" sobre a língua de sinais circulantes no período que denominamos modernidade a partir, principalmente, de dois textos: de um livro, escrito por um tipógrafo surdo, publicado em Paris em 1779, e de um ensaio assinado por um professor, também surdo, escrito em 1840. O objetivo da presente reflexão é mostrar a similaridade de algumas colocações, realizadas por eles, com certos conceitos e preconceitos ainda existentes sobre o que seja, do ponto de vista lingüístico, o que genericamente se denomina "língua de sinais". Considerações sobre seu papel na educação de pessoas surdas também serão realizadas, e projetadas para o presente, a partir daqueles mesmos textos.This paper discusses some "linguistic" conceptions about Sign Language which were current in the Modern Age, based mostly on two texts: one a book written by a deaf typographer and published in Paris in 1779; the other an essay written in 1840 by a deaf professor. Similarities will be shown to hold between their statements and several extant concepts and prejudices about what is generically called "Sign Language" from a linguistic point of view. Based on those same texts, considerations which are pertinent to the present will be made regarding the role of Sign Language in Deaf Education.

  12. From Tax Farmers to Provincial Administrators: an Approach to the Bureaucratization of the Spanish Tobacco Monopoly during the First Half of the 18th Century De subarrendatarios a administradores provinciales: una aproximación a la burocratización de la renta del tabaco durante la primera mitad del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael ESCOBEDO ROMERO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies, through 17 case studies, which were the socioeconomic features of the provincial administrators of the Spanish Royal tobacco Monopoly, at the time of its transition from a tax-farming scheme to a bureaucratic one. Considering the wide range of situations that this brief prospect lets to make out, we may realize besides how those provincial administrators generally were small businessmen who acted from within intricate social networks, in which the financial, administrative and political activities intertwined.Este artículo estudia a través de 17 casos concretos de administradores provinciales de la Renta del tabaco, cuáles eran las características socioeconómicas de estos cuadros medios del monopolio tabaquero en el momento de transición del modelo de arrendamientos y subarrendamientos al de administración directa. Dentro de la variedad de situaciones que esta breve cata permite vislumbrar, en todo caso se advierte cómo los administradores provinciales eran por lo general pequeños negociantes enmarcados en intrincadas redes sociales en las que se confundían las actividades financieras con las administrativas y políticas

  13. Descrições de paisagens: construindo vazios humanos e territórios indígenas na capitania de São Paulo ao final do século XVIII Landscape descriptions: building wilderness and Indian territories at the captaincy of São Paulo at the end of the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Shellard Corrêa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discutimos a reconstituição de paisagens pretéritas a partir de documentos escritos. Particularmente nos debruçamos sobre as paisagens reveladas pela documentação produzida pelos comandantes das expedições aos rios Tibagi, Iguaçu e Ivaí, acontecidas entre 1768 e 1774, comandadas por Afonso Botelho de San Paio e Sousa a mando D. Luís Antônio de Sousa Botelho Mourão - Morgado de Mateus -, Capitão General e Governador da capitania de São Paulo entre 1765 e 1775.In this article we discuss the reconstitution of past landscapes from written documents. Particularly, we studied the landscapes revealed by the documentation produced by the commanders of expeditions to the rivers Tibagi, Iguaçu and Ivaí. These expeditions happened between 1768 and 1774 and were commanded by Alfonso Botelho de San Paio and Sousa, by order of D. Luís Antônio de Sousa Botelho Mourão - Morgado de Mateus -, General and Governing Captain of the captaincy of Sao Paulo between 1765 e1775.

  14. La prohibición de sepultar en el interior de las iglesias en el Siglo XVIII: el caso de la Parroquia de San Sebastián de Madrid = The prohibition of burying inside the churches in the 18th century: the case of the Parish of San Sebastián in Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Domínguez, Julián

    2013-01-01

    Una de las cuestiones que han interesado a los historiadores sobre la muerte es la forma y el lugar del enterramiento del cadáver. Y ello es importante porque el rito es reflejo de las creencias del hombre acerca de sus postrimerías y porque afecta al papel del difunto en su conjunto social. Hebreos, griegos y romanos enterraban a sus muertos fuera de las ciudades. Sin embargo desde el siglo XIII en la Cristiandad se impuso el enterramiento en el interior de los templos buscand...

  15. Bibliothèque Bleue, Verte Erin: Some Aspects of Popular Printed Literature in France and Ireland in the 18th and 19th Centuries Bibliothèque Bleue et Verte Erin : quelques aspects de la littérature populaire en France et en Irlande aux dix-huitième et dix-neuvième siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Ó Ciosáin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article esquisse quelques éléments d’une comparaison entre les littératures populaires imprimées en France et en Irlande aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles. Un axe de comparaison possible consiste à rapprocher les historiographies des deux pays. On a commencé par adopter une approche quantitative et globale du corpus des textes en circulation, montrant des différences de contenu et aussi de réception. Les œuvres de piété du Moyen-Age, si répandues en France, étaient inexistantes en Irlande, à cause de la conquête anglaise protestante des XVIe et XVIIe siècles. Cette discontinuité créa aussi des contextes de réception différents dans les deux pays, par exemple pour les romans de chevalerie, et le cas irlandais conduit à remettre en cause l’image que donne l’historiographie française de ces textes comme porteurs de quiétisme politique.L’autre axe de comparaison est l’étude d’un texte, l’almanach, que l’on retrouve dans les deux pays. Bien que certains traits fondamentaux soient communs, certains types de textes, l’almanach politique par exemple, ou l’almanach en langue régionale, existaient en France et non  en Irlande, tandis qu’un certain style d’almanach littéraire très répandu en Irlande, dans lequel le contenu éditorial résultait des contributions envoyées par les lecteurs, était rare en France. On pourrait aussi avancer l’hypothèse selon laquelle la culture populaire imprimée irlandaise était plus textuelle et moins visuelle que la française.

  16. THE PROHIBITION OF ALCOHOL AND PROSTITION İN ISTANBUL: AN 18TH CENTURY PRACTICE DURING THE OTOMAN, RUSSIA AND AUSTRIAN WARS / XVIII. YÜZYIL SONLARI RUS VE AVUSTURYA SAVAŞLARI ESNASINDA OSMANLI DEVLETİNDE BİR UYGULAMA: İSTANBUL’DA İÇKİ VE FUHUŞ YASAĞI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Osman KÖSE

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Selim III came to the throne in 1789, when the wars were continuing between the Ottamans, Russians and Austria. This was a period, at which the problems appaered in the structure of the Otoman state and society. This article aims at examining the prohibition of alcohol and prostition, practiced by Selim III to prevent the degeneration in the society.

  17. LA PROHIBICIÓN DE SEPULTAR EN EL INTERIOR DE LAS IGLESIAS EN EL SIGLO XVIII. EL CASO DE LA PARROQUIA DE SAN SEBASTIÁN DE MADRID/THE PROHIBITION OF BURYING INSIDE THE CHURCHES IN THE 18TH CENTURY. THE CASE OF THE PARISH OF SAN SEBASTIÁN IN MADRID

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julián Hernández Domínguez

    2013-01-01

    ... buscando los beneficios espirituales que reportaba la cercanía a los restos de los mártires y los santos. Sirviéndonos de una parroquia madrileña veremos cómo esta costumbre por razones de salud pública, cambió a principios del siglo XIX, produciendo una transformación en las relaciones que mantenían los vivos y los muertos. Palabras clave Sepultura; iglesia; cementerio; salud pública; sufragios Summary One of the issues of interest to historians about death is the methods and the places of burial of the corps...

  18. Intuições "lingüísticas" sobre a língua de sinais, nos séculos XVIII e XIX, a partir da compreensão de dois escritores surdos da época "Linguistic" intuitions about sign language in the 18th and 19th centuries, according to the understanding of two deaf writers from that time

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Este estudo apresenta e discute algumas concepções "lingüísticas" sobre a língua de sinais circulantes no período que denominamos modernidade a partir, principalmente, de dois textos: de um livro, escrito por um tipógrafo surdo, publicado em Paris em 1779, e de um ensaio assinado por um professor, também surdo, escrito em 1840. O objetivo da presente reflexão é mostrar a similaridade de algumas colocações, realizadas por eles, com certos conceitos e preconceitos ainda existentes sobre o que s...

  19. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1998-01-01

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  20. Statisticians of the centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Seneta, E; Crépel, P; Fienberg, S; Gani, J

    2001-01-01

    Statisticians of the Centuries aims to demonstrate the achievements of statistics to a broad audience, and to commemorate the work of celebrated statisticians. This is done through short biographies that put the statistical work in its historical and sociological context, emphasizing contributions to science and society in the broadest terms rather than narrow technical achievement. The discipline is treated from its earliest times and only individuals born prior to the 20th Century are included. The volume arose through the initiative of the International Statistical Institute (ISI), the principal representative association for international statistics (founded in 1885). Extensive consultations within the statistical community, and with prominent members of ISI in particular, led to the names of the 104 individuals who are included in the volume. The biographies were contributed by 73 authors from across the world. The editors are the well-known statisticians Chris Heyde and Eugene Seneta. Chris Heyde is Pro...

  1. WHEELING THROUGH THE CENTURIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO; JIANYING

    2002-01-01

    IN an excavated pit at the side of an expressway in Shandong’s Linzi are visible 2,000-year-old remains of horses and wooden carriages. The horse skeletons are on their side, in an attitude of motion. The pit was discovered in the late 20th century, when the expressway was being built. These early ancestors of modern transport, no longer "road-worthy," are now protected historic artifacts.

  2. 18—20世纪初俄国价格和工资的变化趋势%The Change Trend of Prices and Wages in Russia between 18~(th) Century and 20~(th) Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米罗诺夫ЪН; 钟建平(译)

    2012-01-01

    In the mid of the 18th century,the whole Russia market was formed.In the united framework,the change of prices and wages tended to be synchronous.St.Petersburg workers' wages showed the workers' material situation of whole country.Though there were differences,they had the same rate.%18世纪中叶全俄市场形成。在统一的空间框架下,俄国不同地区之间的价格和工资变化趋于同步。彼得堡工人实际工资水平的变化反映了俄国所有工人物质状况的变化,虽然各地区的价格和工资水平存在差异,但变化的一致程度非常高。

  3. Reading Societies and their Social Exclusivity: Dalmatia in the First Half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lakuš

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading societies, known as the gabinetto di lettura, or the casino, appeared in Dalmatia in the middle of the 18th century modelled on their Western European, North Italian and Austrian counterparts. They became centres of social and cultural life in the region. However, their number was very small in comparison with other Central and Western European countries. In spite of that, their statutes can serve a historian as very fertile and useful historical sources. First of all, they can reveal the importance given to books and reading as well as changing attitude towards reading in the course of time. They can also indicate social structure of the reading circles as well as the interaction and communication among the members. In addition, they can reveal the participation of women in social and cultural life, internal functioning of the society, etc. Based on the statutes of several reading societies of the 19th century, this work suggests several important issues. First, it shows that in the first half of the 19th century the membership of these societies was still select and prestigious, acquired by position on the social scale. In other words, reading societies were still confined to very narrow social circles of the educated. Although in Western parts of Europe the reading public became more heterogeneous and open, in Dalmatia reading still preserved its exclusive features. Second, the work also suggests that what some historians of book and reading called the ”reading revolution” or ”revolution in reading” occurred in Dalmatia much later, and even then mostly in urban areas. Some changes in reading habits occurred in the region, albeit to a limited extent and with less influence on society as a whole. Third, the work also demonstrates that from the 1840s reading acquired a new dimension, becoming open to the more social strata and gradually losing its exclusive character. The reading societies, lending libraries and other cultural

  4. JPRS Report, Science and Technology Japan, 18th FRP Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    user part ( ISUP ) for line switching, and X.75 interface for packet switching. It is expected that Japan will adopt these interfaces. terminal ISD...terminal-to-terminal transfers will become possible in 1990 when the No 7 ISUP signal mode is introduced for communications between international terminal

  5. 18TH Annual Meeting of the European Neuroscience Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    LANGUAGE ACQUISITION. PERCEPTION. L. Bosch. Departasnent de Psicologia Bsica. Universitat de N r d T. Gasti MRC-CDU, 4 Taviton Street, London Barcelona...disorders of facial recognition. This hypothesis was tested by region, but also in the periocular region, whereas pretended pleasure ( social measuring...335, 31-38). Any impairments were slight, in contrast to the severe facial expression in the subject than a social smile. impairments on the same and

  6. 18th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The International Workshops on Radiation Imaging Detectors are held yearly and provide an international forum for discussing current research and developments in the area of position sensitive detectors for radiation imaging, including semiconductor detectors, gas and scintillator-based detectors. Topics include processing and characterization of detector materials, hybridization and interconnect technologies, design of counting or integrating electronics, readout and data acquisition systems, and applications in various scientific and industrial fields. The workshop will have plenary sessions with invited and contributed papers presented orally and in poster sessions. The invited talks will be chosen to review recent advances in different areas covered in the workshop.

  7. Foreword: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2014-05-01

    This second joint conference between the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter and the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT) demonstrates that static and dynamic compression of condensed matter continues to be a vibrant field of science and engineering. It is also by its nature an interdisciplinary field, incorporating chemistry, materials science, solid mechanics, plasma physics, and condensed matter physics, and utilizes theoretical, computational, and experimental tools. Recent years have brought about many advances in loading platforms, diagnostics, and computations that are leading to the emergence of many new avenues of research. These advances are also breathing new life into traditional topics such as equations of state, phase transformations, and chemistry at extreme conditions. The plenary lectures by Gennady Kanel, Karl Syassen, David Ceperley, Jon Eggert, Duck Young Kim, and Richard Kraus spanned the disciplines of static and dynamic high pressure physics and illustrated the breadth of the field. They also showed that interesting and important problems remain for researchers of the future to solve. The main guiding principal in the organization of this conference was to intertwine static and dynamical experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials. To achieve this goal, we arranged the conference to include static, dynamic, and computational components in the same sessions, quite often taking presenters out of their comfort zone. The three special sessions on Deep Carbon Budget (organized by Giulia Galli and Rus Hemley), High Energy Density Materials (organized by Raymond Jeanloz and Jon Eggert), and Dynamic Response of Materials (organized by Yogendra Gupta and John Sarrao) furthered this guiding principal. We also endeavored to represent the breadth of static and dynamic high pressure science and technology, notably beyond that done at national laboratories. To this end, a significant fraction of the plenary, invited and contributed presentations showcased work done in academia, defense laboratories and industry, as well as internationally. Although travel distance and visa issues always present difficulties, the conference had strong representation from a record number of international participants, including sizable groups from Russia and China (thanks to Tony Zocher and Frank Cherne), as well as Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Germany, Israel, and Italy. It is our sincere hope that international interactions that occurred at the conference will lead to further collaborations in the future. Finally, we strived to increase student participation at the conference. Through the leadership of Scott Alexander and his committee, a new all-day student symposium was held the day before the main conference, with only student attendees and presenters, in order to acclimate the students to conference participation and help them network with their peers. In cooperation with the APS Topical Group and the AIRAPT and with additional support from DTRA and the AWE, the conference was able to provide financial assistance to a large number of students to attend the conference and present their research. This aid helped increase the number of student attendees significantly over previous conferences. Finally, the conference sponsored a networking lunch for students and representatives from a number of laboratories and other institutions, which was well attended. Seattle proved itself to be an excellent venue for the conference. The international flavor of the city provided ample dining options and numerous activity choices outside of the conference sessions. The major international airport made travel as easy as possible, as Seattle is a convenient central location for attendees from Europe and Asia. The conference was truly a team effort with critical contributions from many individuals. We deeply appreciate their contributions to the success of the conference and the publication of these proceedings. Gilbert (RIP) Collins David S Moore Choong-Shik Yoo

  8. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of development and design. The ICED series of conferences has a long tradition, which started in 1981 with the first ICED in Rome. A total of 419 papers were presented at ICED11, each double-blind reviewed by multiple reviewers. The papers included research papers and case studies on a variety of topics...

  9. MANAGEMENT BOARD MEETING OF 18th DECEMBER 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Outcome of the December Council Meetings Chairing the Management Board's final meeting of 2002 in the absence of the Director-General, the Director of Administration, J. van der Boon, summarised the decisions taken during the December Council week and the main follow-up actions needed in 2003. As reported by the Director-General in his talk to the staff the previous day, the Council had approved the Management's proposed activities and resources baseline plan covering LHC construction and financing in 2003-2010 and had responded favourably to the human resources plan for the same period. It had also approved the financial agreement for the loan from the European Investment Bank, which was due to be signed in Brussels the following day, and had adopted the proposals on the adjustment of salaries and pensions for 2003 (1.2% and 0.6% respectively), the granting of observer status to India, the creation of an Associate Status for Non-European States and the setting-up of an audit committee. Finally, the Council ...

  10. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    concerned with design thinking, theory, and practice, with a premium placed on evidence-based research. The papers are published in a total of ten volumes of Proceedings, in addition to electronic publication. This volume is the first of two concerned with Design Methods and Tools, and contains 45 papers...

  11. 18th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Capasso, Vincenzo; Nicosia, Giuseppe; Romano, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of papers emphasizing applications of mathematical models and methods to real-world problems of relevance for industry, life science, environment, finance, and so on. The biannual Conference of ECMI (the European Consortium of Mathematics in Industry) held in 2014 focused on various aspects of industrial and applied mathematics. The five main topics addressed at the conference were mathematical models in life science, material science and semiconductors, mathematical methods in the environment, design automation and industrial applications, and computational finance. Several other topics have been treated, such as, among others, optimization and inverse problems, education, numerical methods for stiff pdes, model reduction, imaging processing, multi physics simulation, mathematical models in textile industry. The conference, which brought together applied mathematicians and experts from industry, provided a unique opportunity to exchange ideas, problems and methodologies...

  12. The 18th International Geological Congress, Great Britain, 1948

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RudolfTrümpy

    2004-01-01

    The International Geological Congresses (IGCs) had been interrupted for nine years during World War I, between Toronto (1913)and Brussels (1922). World War II caused an even longer break of eleven years, between Moscow (1937) and London (1948).

  13. The 18th Annual Condensed Matter Physics Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Don; Hutchinson, Wayne; Yazidjoglou, Nick; Stewart, Glen

    The Handbook contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations covering various aspects of condensed matter physics such as magnetism, superconductivity, semiconductor materials and their properties, as well as the use of nuclear techniques in studies of these materials. 162 contributions have been considered to be in the INIS subject scope and were indexed separately.

  14. American Telemedicine Association: 18th Annual International Meeting & Tradeshow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Forstag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For 18 years, the American Telemedicine Association (ATA Annual International Meeting & Exposition has been the premier forum for professionals in the telemedicine, telehealth and mHealth space -- one of the fastest growing meetings in the country. ATA 2013 is on course to be the largest ATA meeting ever, with over 6,000 projected attendees.  The program will include 500 educational sessions and posters, highlighting the latest innovations, applications and research in telemedicine. The 2013 exhibit hall will feature nearly 300 of the leading vendors in remote healthcare technologies. With over 6000 projected attendees, from all around the world, there's no better place to meet and network with your peers and thought leaders in the field. Detailed program information--including courses, sessions and CME information--will be available January 2013 at:http://www.americantelemed.org.

  15. New Century, New Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XULONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nuclear weapons changed the world of the 20th century. Their powerful force rewrote history. Nuclear bombs dropped on Japan by the United States accelerated the collapse of Japanese militarism and hastened the end of World War Ⅱ. The West led by the United States and the East bloc led by the Soviet Union started a bitter nuclear arms race that mutually assured destruction. The balance of terror between the two blocs stabilized in the Cold War and prevented the world from actual armed conflict, thus maintaining a long-term but occasionally uneasy peace in Europe and the world.

  16. How to create a building typology?: Typological matrix for mapping 19th century synagogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a research that comprised 500 synagogues, this paper is the first attempt to create a comprehensive building typology of synagogue architecture. This typology is the first that takes into consideration interior arrangement (plan and section, architectural language of the interior, bearing structure, architectural language (decoration of the exterior, exterior mass composition, size and urban context - the relationship of the synagogue building towards the neighboring buildings and towards the urban context in general. This typology has been developed on Ashkenazi synagogues of 19th century Habsburg Empire, but it can be applied to other building types and other territories in the 18th and 19th centuries, up to the onset of modernism in the 1920s and 1930s. The methodology if this research maybe applied particularly well for Orthodox and Protestant churches in Vojvodina, where the state religion has been Catholicism and confessional minorities faced some restrictions. These restrictions and the common architectural context make their religious buildings in typological sense similar.

  17. Reading practices in Minas Gerais during the XIX century: public libraries and newspaper reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Silvestre Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lift end of the ban on any press activity in Brazil, 1808, led to the multiplication of newspapers sparking a new impetus not only to a political debate, but also to spread the practice of informational and literary reading. Objective: Investigate the occurrence of reading practices in Minas Gerais, in the 19th century, particularly the newspapers reading in public libraries of the cities of Ouro Preto and São Joãodel Rei. Methodology: It was undertaken a literature review on History of Reading dialoguing with Darnton, Chartier, Abreu, Lajolo and Zilberman. A documentary research has been done involving the use of local newspapers as well as official documents and memoirs of foreign travellers, followed by textual analysis. Results: Even though in a small number Minas Gerais libraries were responsible for facilitating the access of the province inhabitants to reading practices. Newspapers reading, in particular, articulated an important network of communication between readers, publishers and advertisers, creating a channel of political participation and sociability between citizens of different brazilian towns. Conclusions: Minas Gerais social scenery in that moment, as was already happening since the 18th century, on the occasion of the conspiracy movements, did reading newspapers an everyday act lived by individuals of different social classes. In fact, in libraries and literary societies, such as in public squares, diaries and leaflets were read aloud for the benefit of poor and illiterate people who were, in this manner, socially inserted in that moment of social and political changes.

  18. Palaeoclimatic conditions during the last tree centuries in the tropical Andes inferred from two glaciological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomelli, V.; Blard, P.; Favier, V.; Pavlova, I.; Brunstein, D.; Soruco, A.; Grancher, D.

    2008-12-01

    Tropical glaciers are considered to be especially sensitive to climate change and thus offer an attractive proxy for palaeoclimatic conditions. Here we present temperature and precipitation changes during the last three centuries inferred from two different glaciological models applied on three glaciers selected in Bolivia and in Ecuador. Both models used glaciological parameters such as Equilibrium line Altitude, length, surface- area, and volume variations that were estimated from paleo glaciers documented with moraine records. Moraines were mapped with a GPS field survey and dated by lichenometry using the already published generalized extreme value approach. Climate changes were analyzed for different dates such as 1730, 1800, 1880 and 1956. Climatic reconstructions were firstly based on the modelling of past glacier extensions using a coupling of an ice melt model (to calculate the glacier mass balance) with an ice flow model. The second alternative approach was based on Area-Altitude balance ratio model. Once the models are adequately calibrated, starting from the present conditions, temperature and precipitation have just to be simultaneously changed in order to make the glaciers grow and advance until their past positions are documented by the successive old moraines. Both models revealed cool (about 0.8-1°C colder than today) and wet conditions during the 18th century (about 30% higher accumulation than today) followed by a short drier but colder period at the beginning of the 19th century. The observed reduction of Andean glaciers from the middle of the 19th century is due to a combination of increasingly warmer and drier conditions than before.

  19. A century of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bromley, D Allan

    2002-01-01

    In this amazing tour d'horizon, D. Allan Bromley uses the occasion of the centenary of the American Physical Society to reflect upon the growth of physics over the past 100 years, its fragmentation into numerous subdisciplines, the impact physics has had upon modern technology, and the re-emergence of the fundamental unity of the discipline in recent years. Hundreds of historical illustrations accompany the text. Bromley conveys much of the excitement and wonder that research in physics generated in the 20th century and asks what new things are in store in the next century. He covers such topics as relativity and quantum mechanics, the Manhattan project, superconductivity, transistors and the revolution brought about by solid-state electronics, protein folding, the uses of nuclear and atomic physics in biology and medicine, plate tectonics, the expansion of the universe and the Big Bang, and gravitational radiation. Bromley, the Sterling Professor of the Sciences and Dean of Yale University, served as Assista...

  20. The management century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it.

  1. a GIS of SARDINIA'S Coastal Defense System (xvi - XVIII Century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidda, M.; Musa, C.; Vacca, G.

    2015-06-01

    The use of GIS as a tool for archival, analysis and representation of geographic information has become significantly popular in many scientific fields that are directly concerned with the "territory" as their object of study. The field of application of GIS, however, has expanded also in other areas, such as those related to humanities and architecture, in which the territory is studied in an "indirect" mode because it constitutes a kind of substrate on which to develop a specific spatial analysis for particular purposes. Among these areas are to be included certainly archeology and restoration, fields in which the GIS has become a useful tool for historical studies. In this work we present a GIS developed for the study of the historical and territorial coastal defense system of Sardinia (16th - 18th century), in order to respond to the need to store, analyze and efficiently manage the information regarding cultural heritage and landscape heritage such as that consisting of the coastal defensive towers of Sardinia. This defensive system, in fact, was composed by over 100 towers positioned around the entire coastal perimeter of Sardinia, of which more than 90 still exist today. Their position was planned on the basis of the following criteria: - Warning the neighboring towers about the sighting of enemy ships - Protecting coasts located near the towns - Monitoring the water sources near the coast - Allowing for the full visibility of the coasts of any morphology With this study we also verified, through the use of high resolution and high accuracy DTM (LiDAR) and the topographic databases, whether the positioning criteria specified in the design of the system were respected and effective.

  2. Two Dimensions of the“Five-in-one Strategy”in the Report of the 18th CPC National Congress%论十八大报告中“五位一体”思想的两个维度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永强

    2013-01-01

    十八大报告中“五位一体”的思维方式是其鲜明的特点,这一特点表现为在中国建设方面构建了全面落实经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设“五位一体”总体战略,在理论发展上揭示了继承与发展的“五位一体”的理论发展模式。%The report of the 18th CPC National Congress is characterized by the“Five-in-one Way of Thinking”put forward on it.In terms of the practical dimension of China’s socialist construction,such a way of thinking in-tegrates the five goals into one general goal i.e.the goals of economic,political,cultural and social construction as well as the construction of ecological civilization.In terms of the theoretical dimension,it exemplifies the“Five-in-one Developing Mode”in inheriting and developing the theory of socialist development.

  3. Vaccines Through Centuries: Major Cornerstones of Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaya eHajj Hussein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cornerstones have shaped the history of vaccines, which may contain live attenuated viruses, inactivated organisms/viruses, inactivated toxins, or merely segments of the pathogen that could elicit an immune response.The story began with Hippocrates 400 B.C. with his description of mumps and diphtheria. No further discoveries were recorded until 1100 A.D. when the smallpox vaccine was described. During the 18th century, vaccines for cholera and yellow fever were reported and Edward Jenner, the father of vaccination and immunology, published his work on small pox.The 19th century was a major landmark, with the Germ Theory of disease of Louis Pasteur, the discovery of the germ tubercle bacillus for tuberculosis by Robert Koch, and the isolation of pneumococcus organism by George Miller Sternberg. Another landmark was the discovery of diphtheria toxin by Emile Roux and its serological treatment by Emil Von Behring and Paul Ehrlih. In addition, Pasteur was able to generate the first live attenuated viral vaccine against rabies. Typhoid vaccines were then developed, followed by the plague vaccine of Yersin. At the beginning of World War I, the tetanus toxoid was introduced, followed in 1915 by the pertussis vaccine. In 1974, The Expanded Program of Immunization was established within the WHO for BCG, Polio, DTP, measles, yellow fever and hepatitis B. The year 1996 witnessed the launching of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. In 1988, the WHO passed a resolution to eradicate polio by the year 2000 and in 2006; the first vaccine to prevent cervical cancer was developed. In 2010 The Decade of vaccines was launched, and on April 1st 2012, the United Nations launched the shot@Life campaign. In brief, the armamentarium of vaccines continues to grow with more emphasis on safety, availability and accessibility. This mini review highlights the major historical events and pioneers in the course of development of vaccines, which have eradicated

  4. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige, E-mail: epons@lsce.ipsl.fr [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe [CEREMA, 12 rue Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes (France); Douville, Eric [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Dumont, Emmanuel [CEREMA, rue de l' égalité Prolongée, 93352, Le Bourget cedex 319 (France)

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th–18th centuries ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.180 +/− 0.003). The mean {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181 +/− 0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183 +/− 0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172 +/− 0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975 +/− 15 years) deposit ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.148 +/− 0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.181 +/− 0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). - Highlights: • Urban speleothems from underground aqueduct in Paris, France were

  5. 17(th) Century Variola Virus Reveals the Recent History of Smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Ana T; Perdomo, Maria F; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Marciniak, Stephanie; Poinar, Debi; Emery, Matthew V; Buchmann, Jan P; Duchêne, Sebastian; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Humphreys, Margaret; Golding, G Brian; Southon, John; Devault, Alison; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Sahl, Jason W; Dutour, Olivier; Hedman, Klaus; Sajantila, Antti; Smith, Geoffrey L; Holmes, Edward C; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-12-19

    Smallpox holds a unique position in the history of medicine. It was the first disease for which a vaccine was developed and remains the only human disease eradicated by vaccination. Although there have been claims of smallpox in Egypt, India, and China dating back millennia [1-4], the timescale of emergence of the causative agent, variola virus (VARV), and how it evolved in the context of increasingly widespread immunization, have proven controversial [4-9]. In particular, some molecular-clock-based studies have suggested that key events in VARV evolution only occurred during the last two centuries [4-6] and hence in apparent conflict with anecdotal historical reports, although it is difficult to distinguish smallpox from other pustular rashes by description alone. To address these issues, we captured, sequenced, and reconstructed a draft genome of an ancient strain of VARV, sampled from a Lithuanian child mummy dating between 1643 and 1665 and close to the time of several documented European epidemics [1, 2, 10]. When compared to vaccinia virus, this archival strain contained the same pattern of gene degradation as 20(th) century VARVs, indicating that such loss of gene function had occurred before ca. 1650. Strikingly, the mummy sequence fell basal to all currently sequenced strains of VARV on phylogenetic trees. Molecular-clock analyses revealed a strong clock-like structure and that the timescale of smallpox evolution is more recent than often supposed, with the diversification of major viral lineages only occurring within the 18(th) and 19(th) centuries, concomitant with the development of modern vaccination. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Report on the 18th International Trade Fair of Plastics & Rubber (K2010)——New Technologies for Injection Molding%第十八届国际塑料及橡胶展览会特别报道(K2010)——注射成型新技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫民; 王小华; 谢鹏程

    2011-01-01

    On the 18th International Trade Fair of Plastics & Rubber (K2010), global injection molding leading enterprises displayed the latest injection molding technologies and machines,including fully electric injection molding machines, electro-hydraulic injection molding machines,large-scale injection molding machines, micro-injection molding machines, control systems with extended function, etc. The injection molding technologies are developed towards energy-saving,high precision, high efficiency and environmentally-friendly. Total solution with highly integrated and automated characteristics becomes the mainstream of plastics injection molding industry.Development of this solution continuously broadens the applications of injection molding process in packaging, medical and automobile fields.%综述了第十八届杜塞尔多夫国际塑料及橡胶展览中全球各大企业展示的最新注射成型技术及设备.注射成型新设备主要包括全电动注射成型设备、电液混合驱动新设备、大型注射成型设备、微型注射成型设备、扩展功能的控制系统等.塑料注射成型技术正向着节能、精密、高效、环保的方向发展,以产品为中心的高度集成化、自动化的总体解决方案成为行业主流,其在包装行业、医疗行业、汽车行业等领域的应用不断拓宽.

  7. 以党的十八大精神为指针,加快建立基本公共服务体系%Speed up the Establishment of the System of Basic Public Service Making the Great Mind of the 18th Congress of the CCP as the Pointer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫越

    2012-01-01

    党的十八大报告指出,基本公共服务体系是中国特色社会主义社会管理体系的重要组成部分,"必须加快建立政府主导、覆盖全民、可持续的公共服务体系。"这一论断指明了建立基本公共服务体系的紧迫性,因此,在实践中必须明确政府在基本公共服务体系中的责任和职能定位,以提高全民福祉为最终目的推进基本公共服务均等化,转变政府提供公共服务的方式,构建多元的、多层次、多样化的公共服务供给体系。%The reports the 18th congress of the CCP point out that basic public service system of socialism with Chinese characteris- tics is an important part of the social management system, "we must accelerate to build public service system which is governmental dominant,universal coverage and sustainablc."This thesis points out the establishment of basic public service system of urgency. Therefore,in practice,we must make clear the responsibility and function positioning of government in the system of basic public service,promote the equalization of basic: public services with the ultimate goal of improving people's welfare,change the way of government's public service,construct pluralistic,multi-level,diversified public service supply system.

  8. Book advertisements in Osijek’s 19th century newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Krtalić

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the promotion of books through advertising in the newspapers published in Osijek in the second half of the 19th century. From late 18th century and in the course of the 19th century’s intense developments in the publishing of newspapers and journals, advertising in this medium was one of the ways to promote books. Booksellers and publishers advertised books in newspaper ads, relying on the fact that newspapers had become a common and omnipresent medium for disseminating information. Book advertisements were evidence of the position of books in relation to other aspects of culture and society, of the approach to their promotion and, finally, of the importance of book promotion. In order to investigate how and how much book ads were present, and how Croatian books were promoted and reached the readership, the paper analyses daily and monthly publications, such as Esseker allgemeine illustrierte Zeitung from 1869, Die Drau from 1968 to 1877, and Branislav from 1878. Among the eleven different papers published in the second half of the 19th century in Osijek, these were selected for their content, as they were the first illustrated newspapers (Esseker allgemeine illustrierte Zeitung. The investigation focused on the influence of the newly emerged illustrated press and on the influence of the newspapers published in Croatian language (Branislav, as a possible tool for spreading and promotion of Croatian books. Another focus was on the influence of continued publication and on the growth of a steady readership (Die Drau. The papers were analysed with the aim to locate book advertisements which were then subjected to content analysis. Also provided is a brief overview of the book production and publication in Croatia and in Osijek at the time, and an overview of the emergence of newspapers in Osijek with a brief account of the titles selected for study in order to gain an insight into the context in which book ads appeared. It

  9. IN NINETEENTH CENTURY, THE DEMOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE OF FAMILIES IN DIYARBAKIR: MARRIAGES AND DIVORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürkan CEVGER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The family is the cornerstone of the smallest structures of society. This is the formation of a sacred institution, it is important to structure the distribution and demographic studies to determine the history of time. The formation of the Imperial family, knowledge of events occurring during the formation of both examined, and is of great importance for the investigated time frame. In this study, in terms of family formation and distribution of the Ottoman Muslims and non-Muslims were treated separately. At this stage, how to install it and what now scattered documents from the archives of the family in the process, such as the disbanding of the family are subject to review within Diyarbakir. It has also examined the demographic structure of the family in the 18th century in Diyarbakir in this study. The average number of children of Muslim or Muslim families living in the city, these children are detected and gender distribution as a result of screening of Diyarbakir probate registry, the data obtained is supplemented by tables and graphs. We are also very important for the family in Diyarbakir subject of polygamy has also been investigated in the archive documents axis.

  10. The Shorts of Bury St Edmunds: medicine, Catholicism and politics in the 17th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Francis

    2008-11-01

    The Short family of Bury St Edmunds produced at least eight doctors between the first half of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th. Some of these practised locally and others went on to achieve fame in London or abroad. They included Richard Short (d. 1668), a medical polemicist, and Thomas Short (1635-85) who treated Charles II in his last illness and became the subject of poetry and other literature. The Shorts generated controversy through their adherence to the Roman Catholic faith at a time of persecution and suspicion. Richard Short used medical polemic as a vehicle for advancing his religious views, and his son and nephew became involved in James II's political programme to introduce religious toleration in 1688. After the Revolution the Shorts withdrew from political life but continued in their medical practice and their recusancy. This paper is the first to unravel the family relationships of the Shorts, which previously have eluded most historians.

  11. Restoration of Gottseelige Schluess und Fuersaetz der Seele, an eighteenth century vellum bound book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit J. Smith

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available L'article concerne la restauration d'un livre du XVIIIe siècle imprimé à Würzburg. Le travail a été réalisé dans le cadre d'un workshop au Centro del bel libro, à Ascona, en Suisse, sous la direction de Renate Mesmer. Pour préserver autant que possible le livre original, les techniques les moins invasives ont été appliquées afin de réparer le papier et la couverture, mais le livre a dû être recousu en totalité.The article concerns the complete restoration of an 18th century vellum bound book printed in Würzburg. All work was done during a workshop at the Centro del bel libro in Ascona, Switzerland, under the direction of Ms Renate Mesmer. To preserve as much as possible of the original book, the least invasive techniques were applied in repairing paper, vellum, and the endbands, but the bookblock had to be disbound and re-sewn completely. In a new method, the vacuum table was used to force the Yapp edges back to their original 90-degree. To repair a circular hole in the cover, the replacement vellum was skived on the hair-side in contrast to usually skiving on the flesh-side, using a glass shard in addition to the skiving knife.

  12. [Emancipation of the works of artists with psychiatric illness - Artistic reflections from the twentieth century and the Art Brut].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesznivy, Edit

    2015-01-01

    The study presents the emancipation of the artworks of psychiatric patients through the review of four centuries, focusing on some of the most important medical cultural and art historical stages of the period between the 18th and the 21st century, which is a particularly relevant era in this regard. It touches on the collections linked to psychiatrists and hospitals that were formed primarily on the basis of the researches that were analyzing the connection between creativity and mental illness. After that, the study discusses the ever-changing attitudes and preferences of artists' and major artistic movements towards psychosis and the pictorial world of the psychotic. With great care, it analyses the aesthetic category of the art brut, which is connected to the French painter Jean Dubuffet and was born in the middle of the 1940s, and the relationship between contemporary art and art brut. In connection with some of the most significant art brut collections and exhibitions, the works of a few classical and contemporary art brut artists are also discussed (Adolf Wolfli, Louis Soutter, Aloise Corbaz, August Walla ).

  13. 高官腐败的新特征及其成因--以十八大后落马的71名省部级以上高官为样本%New Characteristics and Causes of Corruption Committed by Senior officials---A Case Study of the 71 Sacked Senior Officials After the 18th CPC National Congress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴高庆; 钱文杰

    2015-01-01

    Provincial and ministerial officials command key positions and absolute power, whose corruption will bring about great harm and severe impact to the whole society. Based on the case study of the 71 sacked senior officials after the 18th CPC National Congress, we find out their corruption presents new features, such as forming gangs, being addicted to superstition, leading a dissipated life, committing family-based crimes and establishing criminal society. The phenomenon results from the reasons including faith corruption, mental deficiency of “calcium”; privileged ideology, concentration of power, distortion and alienation, weak supervision, and absence of mechanism. To prevent and control the officials’corruption, we should regard the formation of faith as the foundation, the differentiation and restriction of power as the conditions; the establishment and improvement of the system as the base, and the transparent practice of power as the guarantee.%省部级以上高官位高权重,其腐败不仅危害大而且社会影响恶劣。通过对十八大后落马的71名省部级以上高官样本进行分析,发现高官腐败呈现出帮派化、迷信化、糜烂化、家族化、黑恶化等新特征。究其原因,主要是信仰腐败,精神缺“钙”;特权主义思想作祟;权力集中,扭曲异化;监督乏力,机制缺位等。因此防治高官腐败,信仰的养成与坚守是基础,权力的分化与制约是条件,制度的构建与完善是根本,阳光下的权力行使是保障。

  14. 黑龙江金厂金矿床18号矿体围岩蚀变及短波红外光谱特征%Characteristics of Wall-Rock Alteration and the Shortwave Infrared Spectra for Minerals in the 18th Orebody, Jinchang Gold DepositHeilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雨沁; 许虹; 李胜荣; 张岩

    2012-01-01

    金厂金矿18号矿体围岩蚀变发育顺序从早到晚为:钾化、硅化、绿泥石化、绢云母化、碳酸盐化、高蛉土化,从内往外依次发育青磐岩化带、绢英岩化带和钾化带.矿化出现在泥化和绢英岩化叠加处,以及泥化和青磐岩化叠加处.通过短波红外光谱测试技术,识别出本矿区有26种蚀交矿物,其中白云母含量与金矿体呈正相关,说明绢云母化与金矿化关系密切;青磐岩化带蚀变矿物组合为绿泥石+绿帘石+伊利石±埃洛石±蒙脱石±石英;钾化带蚀变矿物组合为钾长石+高岭石+埃洛石±蒙脱石±石英;绢英岩化带蚀变矿物组合为绢云母+埃洛石±蒙脱石±高岭石±石英.%The wall-rock alteration sequence of the 18th orebody in the Jinchang gold deposit is feldspathization, si-licification, chloritization, sericitization, calcitization and kaolinite, including propylitic, phyllic and potassic alteration zones from central to outword parts of the complex. The gold mineralization occurs mainly in the overlapped parts of argillization and phyllic alteration zones and of argillization and propylitic alteration zones. 26 species of hy-drothermal alteration minerals were identified by the short-wave infrared spectroscope technique. The positive correlation of muscovite and Au contents in these minerals suggested that the gold mineralization is closely related with the sericitization. The minerals associated with the propylitic alteration zone are chlorite + epidote + illite ± hal-loysite ± montmorillonite ± quartz, the minerals in the potassic alteration zone are K-feldspar + kaolinite + hal-loysite ± montmorillonite ± quartz and the minerals in the phyllic alteration zone are muscovite + halloysite ± montmorillonite ± kaolinite ± quartz.

  15. White Macael marble: a key element in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia for over 25 centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Sol Cruz, Ana; Arriaga, Lourdes; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Marble from Macael (Andalusia) is one of the most important natural stones in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia; in particular the variety commercially known as "White Macael". This natural stone has been used outdoors as well as indoors for decorative, ornamental or structural purposes. During the 7th century (B.C.) the Phoenicians began to systematically extract these quarries to be used in their more social important elements such as sarcophagus. During the Roman period this rock had a greater importance in construction; we find columns, pavements, tombstones… in many historical buildings such as the Roman amphitheatre in Mérida (1st century B.C.) and the city of Itálica in Seville (3rd century B.C.). But it is during the Muslim period when marble from Macael is more widely used: the Mosque of Córdoba (8th century), the Lions Court in the Alhambra palace, the Alcazaba in Almería, the Medina-Azahara palace in Córdoba (10th century). Other important buildings using the white marble are: Carlos V palace or the Royal Chapel in Granada (15th century), the Almería cathedral or El Escorial monastery in Madrid (16th century), San Telmo palace in Seville (17th century) or The Royal Palace in Madrid (18th century). Uncountable number of buildings, both historical and contemporary, show different elements made of this marble. From a geological point of view, the quarries are located in the upper part of the Nevado-Filábride Complex, the lowest nappe of the Internal Zones of the Betic Chains. Under the "White Macael" name is also possible to include another commercial denominations such "White Macael Río" or "White Macael Río Veteado". It is a clear white coloured, calcitic marble (up than 97% calcite), with average grain size between 0,16 y 3,2 mm in a mosaic texture with a very homogenous aspect. Regarding the main physical and mechanical properties, this rock has an open porosity value between 0,1-0,6%, bulk density 2,50-2,75 g/cm3, water absorption at

  16. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  17. [The mind on the stage of justice: the formation of criminal psychology in the 19th century and its interdisciplinary research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vec, Milos

    2007-09-01

    Criminal psychology emerges at the end of the 18th century as a new academic discipline in lectures and publications. It has recently been investigated by a considerable number of contributions from researchers of different academic backgrounds. In many respects criminal psychology can be seen as a predecessor of criminology. Its subject is the analysis of the origins of crime and its causes and determinants in the human mind. Criminal psychology embraced at that time philosophical, medical, legal and biological aspects. The latter increase in importance in the second half of the 19th century. The conditions of individual responsibility were generally codified in penal law, but had to be individually investigated in crucial cases through expertise in court. There a conflict emerged between medical experts and judges about their ability and competence to decide. At the end of the 19th century criminal psychology is used to fulfil the needs and interests of a criminal law which understands itself as increasingly utilitarian. Force and new instruments of treatment of offenders were legitimized by scientists who were very optimistic about their own epistemological abilities.

  18. Educational and Cultural Regeneration of Modern Spain: Monarchical Reforms in Education and the Role of the Enlightenment Bishops at Eighteen Century Regeneración educativa y cultural de la España moderna: reformas monárquicas en educación y el papel de los obispos de la ilustración en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel POY CASTRO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 18th century the church of Spain gradually diminished its extensive powers of self-government, while remaining the monopoly of education. This period was marked by the monarchical revival and the alliance between church and State. The crown nominates diocesan bishops and the church of Spain is committed to the goal of a renewed and modern nation. The 18th century saw the rise of an enlightenment Bishops movement, with its emphasis on the recovery of the Spanish catholic tradition, and the renaissance of the educational and cultural institutions.En el siglo XVIII la iglesia de España disminuyó gradualmente sus extensos poderes de autogobierno, mientras mantenía el monopolio sobre la educación. Este periodo estuvo caracterizado por la recuperación monárquica y la alianza entre iglesia y estado. La corona nomina los obispos y la iglesia española es conminada al objetivo de una nación moderna y renovada. El siglo contempló el ascenso de un movimiento de Obispos de la ilustración, con un énfasis en la recuperación de la tradición católica española, y el renacimiento de las instituciones educativas y culturales.

  19. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis P.

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, three intertwined ambitions drove federal legislation over wildlife and biodiversity: establishment of multiple-use federal lands, the economic development of natural resources, and the maintenance of option values. We examine this federal intervention...

  20. Talladega College: The First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Maxine D.; Richardson, Joe M.

    The book presents the history of the growth, development, and significance of Alabama's Talladega College, a black liberal arts college, from its inception in the 1860s through the student protest movement more than a century later. The historical account emphasizes such college issues as finance, enrollment, students, educational policy, and the…

  1. Selenography in the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, E. A.

    Contents: 1. Pre-telescopic observations. 2. The first telescopic observations. 3. Galileo's lunar observations. 4. Two new selenographical programmes. 5. A flurry of activity. 6. Hevelius and his Selenographia. 7. Riccioli, Grimaldi, and nomenclature. 8. Robert Hooke and selenology. 9. Cassini and La Hire. 10. Other seventeenth-century selenography. 11. Conclusion.

  2. Immigration and the American century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles

    2005-11-01

    The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.

  3. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  4. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cain, Louis P.; Kaiser, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, three intertwined ambitions drove federal legislation over wildlife and biodiversity: establishment of multiple-use federal lands, the economic development of natural resources, and the maintenance of option values. We examine this federal intervention in nat...

  5. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term conseque...

  6. Writers and their readers: the phenomenon of collective readership in Dalmatia in the early 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lakuš

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the late 18th century and early 19th century, during a period of extensive changes in the writing and reading culture, there was an increase not only in the number of readers but also in the importance that was being attributed to them. This importance manifested itself primarily in an increasingly widespread collective patronage but also a rising number of inscriptions to the collective reader that flourished at about the same time as the collective patronage phenomenon. Although books continued to be dedicated to various dignitaries throughout this period, most frequently as a token of gratitude for financial support but also inspired by friendship and family, the writers, who still rarely lived off the fruits of their labour, started to adopt a different attitude towards the reader. Using examples drawn from analysis of the entire book production in Dalmatian printing and publishing centres Zadar, Split and Dubrovnik in the period between 1815-1850, this paper intends to show to what extent inscriptions to the collective reader, generally identifiable by the fact that they address an unspecified reader or an entire community of readers, can reflect a growing significance that started to be attributed to the reader as early as the end of the 18th century and particularly in the first half of the 19th century. The analysis focused on the number and context in which inscriptions of that type are found, their variants, meaning, as well as reasons for their introduction into practice. Research has shown that inscriptions to the general readership became a common and regular form of communication with an entire community of readers as far back as the ‘20s. Although they were still not the most common type of inscriptions and failed to reach the number of inscriptions to prelates, their continuity was maintained during the next two centuries, which was particularly noticeable in the ‘40s. Moreover, the general readership was mainly dedicated

  7. Five Inquiries about Rule of Law:What Is to Be Learned From the Decision of the Fourth Plenum of 18 th CPC Central Committee%关于法治的五个追问--学习党的十八届四中全会《决定》心得*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏泽祥

    2015-01-01

    In order to deeply understand the decision of the fourth plenary session of the 18 th CPC Central Committee,it is necessary to probe into or restate five propositions as follows:Firstly,as a concept closely related to democracy,constitutionalism and human rights,the rule of law,namely the running a state with law,means literally all the people must abide by the law,with its essence demanding that national civil servants must play the role as a model does. Secondly,as governance,the rule of law differs fundamentally from rule of man,it is an unalterable truth that the former is superior to the latter,which has been demon-strated both in theory and tested in practice. Thirdly,the practice of rule of law must aim at the protection of human rights on which a flourishing and powerful state and a stable and peaceful society depend. Fourthly,only by orienting the rule of law towards the rule of the“officials”by virtue,can“running a state with law”and“running a state by virtue”be organically integrated together. Lastly,the implemen-tation of rule of law needs not only benign interactions among legislation,law enforcement,judicature and law-abidingness,but also the joint action of those factors as democratic politics,market economy,right-based culture and the elite.%为深入学习贯彻党的十八届四中全会《中共中央关于全面推进依法治国若干重大问题的决定》精神,有必要弄清以下五个命题:其一,法治即依法治国,与民主、宪政、人权是密切相关的概念,内含着所有人都要守法的要求,其深层含义是依法治“官”;其二,法治与人治是两种不同的治国方式,“法治优于人治”历经理论论证和实践检验,已属不刊之论;其三,实行法治,需以保障人权为依归,人权发达则国家兴旺发达,社会长治久安;其四,只有将“以德治国”的精义定位为以德治“官”,“依法治国”与“以德治国”才能有

  8. Thoroughly Implementing the Spirit of the 18th CPC National Congress to Promote Ecological Civilization Construction to a New Level in Suzhou%深入贯彻党的十八大精神努力推动苏州生态文明建设再上新台阶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宏坤

    2014-01-01

    切实加强生态文明建设,是党的十八大从中国特色社会主义“五位一体”总体布局高度明确的重大战略任务;是苏州经济社会发展到一定阶段,满足人民群众更高层次期待的迫切要求;更是苏州率先基本实现现代化,继续走在全省、全国前列的重要保障。在新的发展阶段,苏州要加快推进全面转型,努力形成生态文明与产业升级、城乡发展协调共进局面;要抓住重大工程建设,把握关键环节,努力提升生态文明建设层次,寻求生态文明建设重点突破;要切实加强制度创新,努力构建生态文明建设长效机制;要积极弘扬绿色环保理念,努力营造生态文明共建共享的良好氛围。苏州要努力推进生态文明建设再上新台阶,率先走出一条具有苏州特色的生产发展、生活富裕、生态良好的可持续发展之路。%Substantially strengthening the construction of ecological civilization is a highly specific and major strate-gic task of the“five one”overall layout of socialism with Chinese characteristics defined by the 18th CPC National Congress. It is an urgent requirement to meet the people’s higher expectations when the economic and social devel-opment is enhanced to a certain stage in Suzhou. It is also an important guarantee for Suzhou’s taking the lead in realizing the basic modernization and its being ranked in the forefront of the province and the whole country as well. In the new stage of development, Suzhou should accelerate its efforts to form a comprehensive transformation, upgrade ecological civilization and industry, harmonize urban and rural development, seize the major engineering construction, grasp the key link, promote the level of the construction of ecological civilization, achieve a signifi-cant breakthrough in the construction of ecological civilization, strengthen the institutional innovation, strive to build a long-term mechanism

  9. Floods of the Maros river in the early modern and modern period (16th-20th centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In the poster presentation a series of historical and recent floods of the Maros river, with special emphasis on the flood events occurred on the lower sections, are presented. Similar to the Hungarian flood databases of the Middle-Danube and Lower-Tisza, the main sources of investigations are the institutional (legal-administrative) documentary evidence (e.g. Szeged and Makó town council protocols and related administrative documentation, Csanád County meeting protocols) mainly from the late 17th-early 18th century onwards. However, in case of the Maros river there is an increased importance of narrative sources, with special emphasis on the early modern period (16th-17th century): in this case the (mainly Transylvanian) narratives (chronicles, diaries, memoires etc.) written by aristocrats, other noblemen and town citizens have particular importance. In the presentation the frequency of detected flood events, from the mid-16th century onwards (with an outlook on sporadic medieval evidence), is provided; moreover, a 3-scaled magnitude classification and a seasonality analysis are also presented. Floods of the Maros river, especially those of the lower river sections, often cannot be understood and discussed without the floods of the (Lower-)Tisza; thus, a comparison of the two flood series are also a subject of discussion. Unlike the Lower-Tisza, the Maros is prone to winter and early spring ice jam floods: since the floods that belonged to this type (similar to those of the Middle-Danube at Budapest) were the most destructive among the flood events of the river, this flood type, and the greatest flood events (e.g. 1751-1752, 1784) are also presented in more detail.

  10. Les Rȇves de la Fée Verte : L’absinthe dans les romans de la deuxième moitié du XIXe siècle (Dreams of The Green Fairy: Absinthe in The Novels of The Second Half of The 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Voldřichová Beránková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fabricated from the end of the 18th century, popularized after 1830 by French soldiers returning from Algeria, crowned the green fairy of the Parisian boulevards around 1860, the absinthe dominates the fin-de-siècle imagination as the principal means of transport “anywhere out of the world”. This article resumes the paradoxical mythology of this beverage that appears in French novels in the second half of the 19th century. Octave Féré, Jules Cauvain and the Goncourt brothers give a warning against its pernicious power, while Emile Zola’s attitude to the absinthe is more ambiguous. The magical potential of the green fairy seems to be tempting the father of naturalism who mixes science and mythology, the probable and the grotesque, the strict laws of heredity and the supernatural lightness of a blue flame coming from the “spontaneous combustion”.

  11. Seventeenth-century indivisibles revisited

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous success of indivisibles methods in geometry in the seventeenth century, responds to a vast project: installation of infinity in mathematics. The pathways by the authors are very diverse, as are the characterizations of indivisibles, but there are significant factors of unity between the various doctrines of indivisible; the permanence of the language used by all authors is the strongest sign. These efforts do not lead to the stabilization of a mathematical theory (with principles or axioms, theorems respecting these first statements, followed by applications to a set of geometric situations), one must nevertheless admire the magnitude of the results obtained by these methods and highlights the rich relationships between them and integral calculus. The present book aims to be exhaustive since it analyzes the works of all major inventors of methods of indivisibles during the seventeenth century, from Kepler to Leibniz. It takes into account the rich existing literature usually devoted to a singl...

  12. New Century,Broad Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    During his recent visit to the United States,Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi delivered a speech entitled "Broaden China-U.S. Cooperation in the 21st Century" at the Center for Strategic and International Studies(CSIS) in Washington,D.C. on March 12. John Hamre,President and Chief Executive Officer of the CSIS,and John Frisbie,President of the U.S.-China Business Council,hosted the event. Yang’s remarks follow:

  13. century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Sojak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Published in 1494, the Treatise on Double-entry Bookkeeping by Luca Pacioli was a comprehensive manual describing the principles of bookkeeping by the Italian method. The educational value of this work and its substantive merit made it quickly became a popular source of knowledge for merchants and students who wanted to learn the secrets of accounting. It presented, in a structured way and with numerous examples, a set of accounting principles developed over the years by Italian merchants. Later on, authors often modeled their manuals on Pacioli’s work, thus contributing to the dissemination of knowledge of accounting in Europe. In this way, double entry bookkeeping spread beyond the borders of Italy and thanks to, among others, the Dutch authors John Ympyn and Simon Stevin and an Englishman Richard Dafforne it came to Holland, England, Germany, France and other countries in the world. The purpose of this article is to present the works of these authors, and to compare the accounting rules described there to the rules that Pacioli set out in his treatise. The analysis showed that double entry principles propagated by Pacioli were reproduced in subsequent writings in an almost unchanged form. Modifications of the concept concerned only the technical issues,or were the result of the search for improvements in the field of keeping accounting records. However, the theoretical basis of bookkeeping has remained unchanged and provides the basis of modern accounting.

  14. Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    landscapes, characterized by deflation plains (gleyic arenosols) and complexes of inland dunes (haplic arenosols). Clear cutting was responsible for the mediaeval first large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. In such driftsand landscapes, the majority of the podzolic soils in coversand has been truncated by aeolian erosion. Only on scattered sheltered sites in the landscape, palaeopodzols were buried under mono or polycyclic driftsand deposits. They are now the valuable soil archives for palaeoecological research. During the 18th century, the population growth and regional economic activity stimulated the agricultural productivity. Farmers introduced the innovative 'deep stable' technique to increase the production of fertilizers. Farmers started sod digging, including the top of the Ah horizon of the humus forms. This consequently promoted heath degradation and sand drifting, resulting in the extension of driftsand landscapes. Deep stable economy and sod digging was responsible for the 18th century second large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. During the 19th century, farmers tried to find alternative fertilizers and authorities initiated reforestation projects. The invention of chemical fertilizers at the end of the 19th century marked the end of the period of heath management and plaggic agriculture. The heath was no longer used for the harvesting of plaggic matter and new land management practices were introduced. Heath was reclaimed to new arable land or reforested with Scotch pine. Geomorphological features as inland dunes and plaggic covers survived in the landscape and are now included in the geological inheritance.

  15. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: The Royal Natural History Collection in Vienna (18th century): from possessing minerals as a private treasure towards territorial ambitions as consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemun, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with a famous private natural history collection of the court, transformed to a public collection of the state. Associated is a very important question: how cultural and political structures became a dimension of a collection. In order to establish a Court Natural History Cabinet of

  16. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: The Royal Natural History Collection in Vienna (18th century): from possessing minerals as a private treasure towards territorial ambitions as consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemun, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with a famous private natural history collection of the court, transformed to a public collection of the state. Associated is a very important question: how cultural and political structures became a dimension of a collection. In order to establish a Court Natural History Cabinet of

  17. Етнічна структура дворянства Півдня України (кінець ХVIII – ХІХ ст. / SOUTHERN UKRAINE NOBILITY’S ETHNIC STRUCTURE (LATE 18TH – EARLY 19TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Циганенко Лілія

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Циганенко Лілія. Етнічна структура дворянства Півдня Ураїни (кінець ХVIII – ХІХ ст. Аналізується етнічний склад дворянства Катеринославської, Херсонської та Бессарабської губернії; участь аристократів українського, російського, молдавського, грецького, німецького, італійського походження у процесах колонізації та освоєння південноукраїнських земель Російської імперії протягом кінця ХVIII- ХІХ ст. Ключові слова: дворянство, колонізація, загальноросійський перепис, етнічні групи, аристократи, шляхетство.Цыганенко Лилия. ЭТНИЧЕСКАЯ СТРУКТУРА ДВОРЯНСТВА ЮГА УКРАИНЫ (КОНЕЦ ХVIII – ХІХ ВВ. Анализируется этнический состав дворянства Екатеринославской, Херсонской и бесарабской губерний; участие аристократов украинского, русского, молдавского, греческого, итальянского, немецкого происхождения в процессах колонизации и освоения южноукраинских земель Российской империи в конце ХVIII- ХІХ вв. Ключевые слова: дворянство, колонизация, общероссийская перепись населения, этнические группы, аристократы, шляхта. Tsyganenko Liliya. ETHNIQUE COMPOSITION GENTILHOMMERIE AU SUD DE L’UKRAINE (LA FIN 18 - 19 ART. Dans article se dépouille ethnique composition gentilhommerie Yekaterinoslavskoy, Khersonskoy et Bessarabskoy domaines participation aristocrates ukrainienne, russe, moldavienne , grec, polonais, italien genèse dans processuses colonisation sud sols ukrainienne Russie empire dans deuxième demie 18 - 19 siècles. Termes clés: gentilhommerie, colonisation, recensement population, ethniques groupes, aristocrates.

  18. Elemental images of Spain in 18th Century French culture: from material culture to public opinion Imagenes elementales de España en la cultura francesa del siglo XVIII: de la cultura material a la opinión pública Images elementaires de l’Espagne dans la culture française du XVIIIème siècle: de la culture materielle à l’opinion publique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Henri PAGEAUX

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to illustrate certain possibilities of adaptation of literary studies to the field of «material history» as defined in the work of Fernand Braudel («material civilization» and particularly Jean-Marie Pesez in the collective work coordinated by J. Le Goff, La nouvelle histoire (1998. It thus traces, with commentary, certain elemental images of Spain (plants, fruit, wool, horses, wine, not to mention the symbolic product, gold that may have gone through a process of literaturization, but above all, of «socialization», in «literary» works and texts (ranging from the article in the Encyclopedie to the descriptive poetry so much in vogue during the Enlightenment. In spite of the fragmentation of the inquiry, a gradual reformulation of the essential bases of a «social imagery» is being made that should serve a broader study of (French «public opinion» when faced with a foreign culture (Spanish culture.Este trabajo pretende ejemplificar unas posibilidades de adaptación del estudio literario al campo de la «historia material» tal como lo han definido los trabajos de Fernand Braudel («civilización material» y sobre todo Jean-Marie Pesez en la obra colectiva coordinada por J. Le Goff, La nouvelle histoire (1988. Se trata pues de rastrear comentándolas unas pocas imágenes elementales de España (plantas, fruta, lana, caballo, vino, sin olvidar el producto símbolo el oro que han podido pasar por un proceso de literaturización pero ante todo de «socialización» en obras y textos «literarios» (desde el artículo de la Encyclopedie a la poesía descriptiva que tanto fue de moda durante la Ilustración. A pesar de lo fragmentario de las encuestas, se van reformulando las bases esenciales de un «imaginario social» que ha de servir a un estudio más amplio de la «opinión pública» (francesa frente a una cultura extranjera (la española.Cet article vise à illustrer certaines possibilités d'adaptation des études littéraires dans le domaine de "l'histoire matérielle" comme nous l'avons défini les travaux de Fernand Braudel (la «civilisation matérielle» et surtout Jean-Marie Pesez dans l'ouvrage collectif coordonné par J. Le Goff, La Nouvelle Histoire (1988. Ainsi, il se prononce sur une trace quelques images élémentaires de l'Espagne (plantes, fruits, la laine, des chevaux, du vin, sans oublier l'or symbole de produit qui ont été impliquées dans un processus de literaturización mais surtout de la «socialisation» dans l'acte et textes «littéraires» (de l'article Encyclopédie de la poésie est à la fois de façon descriptive au siècle des Lumières. Malgré le caractère incomplet des enquêtes seront reformuler les fondements essentiels d'une «imaginaire social» qui doit servir une étude plus large de «l'opinion publique" (français contre une culture étrangère (l'espagnol.

  19. 十八大以来新一届中央领导集体反腐倡廉的理论与实践∗%Theory and practice of anti-corruption and clean governance of new central leadership team since 18 th CPC National Congress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙应帅

    2015-01-01

    党的十八大以来,以习近平为总书记的党中央更加重视反腐倡廉建设,在认识上将反腐败斗争提高到事关“亡党亡国”的高度,要求“老虎”、“苍蝇”一起打。党在实践上强调,要更多地依靠制度和法律建设推进反腐倡廉建设,更好地完善全方位反腐倡廉体系,把“权力关进制度的笼子里”,并用“治标”为“治本”赢得时间,以更快回应人民的反腐败要求。通过深化改革促进反腐倡廉建设,推进巡视制度,试行官员财产申报公开制度,通过网络微博等新媒体率先发力,引起网民热议监督、纪委迅速回应查处等新方式,加速形成党内党外、体制内和体制外的全方位联动反腐机制。通过严格执行八项规定、公务接待、公车改革等切实纠正“四风”,铲除腐败滋生的温床,加大对高级领导干部、责任缺失、失职渎职行为的查处力度等举措,成为新一届中央领导集体推进反腐倡廉建设的若干亮点。%Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the construction of anti-corruption and clean governance is paid more emphasis by the Central Committee of the Party led by the General Secretary XI Jin-ping. The struggle of combating corruption is promoted to the level that it is related with “the death of Party and the death of country” in cognition, which demands that to beat “tigers” and “flies” at the same time. The Party emphasizes in practice that the construction of anti-corruption and clean governance should be promoted by more and more construction of institution and law, the all-around system of anti-corruption and clean governance should be perfected better,“the power should be locked into a cage”, and the time for“effecting a permanent cure” should be gained by “taking temporary solution”, in order to response the demands of combating corruption of the people more quickly. The construction of anti

  20. The Century of Jerzy Grotowski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Attisani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the author, in the twentyfirst century there will be a discovery of the importance of the Polish master’s research and – especially through the mediation of the Workcenter of Jerzy Grotowski and Thomas Richards – it will be possible to use the results of the history and a conception of actors’s and directors’s praxis free from ideological and moral prejudices, so that Grotowski’s legacy will be one of the foundations of a new theatrical culture, based on presence and encounter.

  1. Nineteenth-century aether theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffner, Kenneth F

    2013-01-01

    Nineteenth-Century Aether Theories focuses on aether theories. The selection first offers information on the development of aether theories by taking into consideration the positions of Christiaan Huygens, Thomas Young, and Augustin Fresnel. The text then examines the elastic solid aether. Concerns include Green's aether theory, MacCullagh's aether theory, and Kelvin's aether theory. The text also reviews Lorentz' aether and electron theory. The development of Lorentz' ideas of the stagnant aether and electrons; Lorentz' theorem of corresponding states and its development; and Lorentz' respons

  2. Palenques and Marronage: resistance processes against the colonial slaves system in the Sabanero Caribbean (XVI, XVII and XVIII centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Castaño

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the marronage logics (Cimarronaje and the constitution of Palenque villages, as an expression of black slaves’ resistance against the colonial neogranadian system. The analysis is temporarily focused on the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, and spatially in the current Caribbean region of Colombia, specifically the areas known as Bolivar Sabanero and the Mompox Depression. Throughout the conjunction of these temporal and geographic variables, the author can track how black slaves ran away from their masters using marronage (cimarronaje dynamics, as a pursuit for social and territorial autonomy. This autonomy was materialized through the construction of Palenque villages in specific areas of the Colombian Caribbean, where they found what the colonial system did not provide to the enslaved population of the time.  In this sense, this paper presents some theoretical positions corresponding to the study of Afro-descendants during the colonial times in the focused region. The analysis could contribute to strengthening the figure of Palenque village’s as territorial entities and a geographic space that allowed the Maroons to access levels of social autonomy through a particular use and appropriation of their native territory.

  3. Records of climatic changes and volcanic events in an ice core from Central Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica) during the past century

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V N Nijampurkar; D K Rao; H B Clausen; M K Kaul; A Chaturvedi

    2002-03-01

    The depth profiles of electrical conductance, 18O, 210Pb and cosmogenic radio isotopes 10Be and 36Cl have been measured in a 30 m ice core from east Antarctica near the Indian station, Dakshin Gangotri. Using 210Pb and 18O, the mean annual accumulation rates have been calculated to be 20 and 21 cm of ice equivalent per year during the past ∼150 years. Using these acumulation rates, the volcanic event that occurred in 1815 AD, has been identified based on electrical conductance measurements. Based on 18O measurements, the mean annual surface air temperatures (MASAT) data observed during the last 150 years indicates that the beginning of the 19th century was cooler by about 2°C than the recent past and the middle of 18th century. The fallout of cosmogenic radio isotope 10Be compares reasonably well with those obtained on other stations (73° S to 90°S) from Antarctica and higher latitudes beyond 77°N. The fallout of 36Cl calculated based on the present work agrees well with the mean global production rate estimated earlier by Lal and Peters (1967) The bomb pulse of 36Cl observed in Greenland is not observed in the present studies a result which is puzzling and needs to be studied on neighbouring ice cores from the same region.

  4. Who was Jesus of Nazareth: Reconstructions of the Historical Jesus from the Late 20th to the Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreev Aleksei, priest

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with diff erent reconstructions of the personality, life and teaching of the historical Jesus. These reconstructions were made by the most prominent members of the ‛Search for the historical Jesus’ movement from the late 20th to the beginning of the 21st century. The article explores the specifi cs of the current stage of the ‛Search for the historical Jesus’ movement in its distinction from the earlier era (the middle of the 18th – the beginning of the 20th century. For the purpose of the article works of Edward Parish Sanders, John Mayer, John Dominic Crossan, Marcus Borg, Nicholas Thomas Wright are thoroughly examined. The article provides the summary of major works of these scholars. In the end of the article it is shown in which aspects reconstructions of these authors diff er from each other. Reconstructions are compared on the following parameters: how the historical Jesus of the specifi c reconstruction fi ts the Judaism of His epoch, and how the specifi c reconstruction deals with the question of eschatology. Some suggestions are made concerning the question of why there is a decline in current stage of the ‘Quest for the historical Jesus’ and how this movement could be revitalized.

  5. The metal alloys from the XIX century and weathering action in the Mercado do Ver-o-Peso building, northern Brazil: Identification with the usage of laboratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palácios, Flávia Olegário, E-mail: flavia.op@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Pará, LCM (Laboratório de Caracterização Mineral), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia e Geoquímica (PPGG) (Brazil); Angélica, Rômulo Simões [Universidade Federal do Pará, LCM (Laboratório de Caracterização Mineral), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia e Geoquímica (PPGG) (Brazil); Sanjad, Thais Alessandra Bastos Caminha [Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), LACORE (Laboratório de Restauração, Conservação e Reabilitação), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo - PPGAU (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    The fabrication of metallic buildings started in Europe after the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century. Metallic constructions became very popular, and started being imported by several countries, due to the facility of constructing or assembling. Belém, a northern Brazilian city, holds a great number of buildings entirely made of iron, including the Ver-o-Peso, a fish market which structures were imported from England by the end of the 19th century. This building represents a unique type of architecture and it's an important part of the city's heritage. However, research so far did not focus on its construction materials. Ver-o-Peso building's metal alloys haven't been thoroughly studied concerning physical, chemical and mineralogical characterizations. This paper aims to identify the types of metal alloys used in the building, and also corrosion products' result from weathering actions. The methods used to characterize the materials were scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Through this research it was possible to identify four types of iron alloys used in the different parts of the building, characterize the paint coats, and determine types of corrosion. The characterization of the materials in the building allows enrolling basis for restoration processes, documenting the types of metal alloy used in architectural heritage from the 19th century, as well as understanding the advances of corrosion. - Highlights: • Ver-o-peso is a heritage building from the 19th century with unidentified alloys. • Alloy and weathering product characterization was done using SEM/EDS and XRD. • Four metal alloy types were described, indicating different types of foundries. • Weathering products showed distinct mineral phases and physical characteristics. • Original paint coats were found among corrosion products.

  6. Synovial fluid over the centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the most meaningful historical topics on the study of synovial fluid, by starting from the Greco- Roman Medicine, up to Paracelsus (1493-1541, who introduced the term “synovia” to name the intra-articular humour. Afterwards, some till now unreported historical sources are recorded, e.g., a short text by the Italian XVIII century physician Giambattista Contoli (“Breve Instruzione sopre il Glutine, ò Colla…, 1699”. Then, in keeping with some recent researches, a brief history of arthrocentesis is outlined, by considering the first procedures, which should have been performed in Mexico, during the precolonial period. Moreover, the first chemical analysis of synovial fluid, as carried out by the French chemist Jean-Louis Margueron (1792, and the first modern study on the synovial membrane by Marie-François-Xavier Bichat (1800 are explained. Finally, some XIX century investigations concerning the synovial pharmacodynamics, in particular an Italian one based on the elimination of certain chemical substances through the synovial membrane, are discussed.

  7. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term conseque......We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term...... consequences affecting current resource allocations arose from disparities between broadly dispersed benefits and locally concentrated socio-economic and geo-physical (spatial) costs. We show that a primary intent of public land management has become to preserve multiple-use option values and identify...... important factors in computing those option values. We do this by demonstrating how the willingness to forego current benefits for future ones depends on the community’s resource endowments. These endowments are defined not only in terms of users’ current wealth accumulation but also from their expected...

  8. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CHINESE AND AMERICAN DISCOURSE FROM PERSPECTIVES OF TRANSITIVITY SYSTEM-Illustrated by News Reports on the 18 th National Congress of CPC in China Daily and the New York Times%从及物性视角对比中美新闻语篇--以《中国日报》和《纽约时报》对中共十八大的新闻报道语篇为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘小亚; 余丽华; 黄珊

    2015-01-01

    从批评语言学的视角,以韩礼德功能语法中概念元功能下的及物性系统理论为指导,分别选取《中国日报》和《纽约时报》中关于中共十八大的新闻报道各8篇,从定量和定性两方面,对中美新闻语篇进行了对比分析,挖掘出其异同点,并由表及里,透过新闻语篇的表层,透视了其背后的意识形态差异。%From perspectives of critical linguistics and based on the transitivity system of Halliday’s systemic-functional grammar,the paper selects eight pieces of news discourses on the 18th National Congress of CPC in China Daily and the New York Times and compares the news discourses in the two media from quantitative and qualitative aspects in order to observe the ideological differences between the two countries beneath the textual discourse of their reports.

  9. 时尚质优产学聚力网络交易江苏创造第十八届江苏国际服装节落实“三品战略”“品牌江苏,时尚江苏”再上台阶%FASHION & EXCELLENT QUALITY PRODUCT & STUDY COHESION NETWORK TRANSACTIONS JIANGSU CREATION THE 18TH JIANGSU INTERNATIONAL FASHION FESTIVAL IMPLEMENT THE "THREE STRATEGIES""BRAND JIANGSU, FASHION JIANGSU" STEP UP STEPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐可心; 王翔

    2016-01-01

    From January to June this year, Jiangsu textile and apparel industry actively cope with new problems and challenges, realized the main business income of 714.884 bilion yuan, an increase of 5.16%; the whole industry realized a total profit of 37.07 bilion yuan, an increase of 8.38%, continue to maintain a healthy and stable trend. Jiangsu textile and garment industry constantly improve the textile industry standard system to enhance quality assurance capabilities, optimizing product supply structure, vigorously promote the brand-building to do a lot of strong attempts to maintain a stable front line situation. The 18th Jiangsu International Fashion Festival will be held from September 9 to 11 in Nanjing International Expo Center, and actively implement three strategies which are "increase varieties, improve quality, create the brand," focus on "brand Jiangsu, fashion Jiangsu "two major themes, close connection with industry practice, highlight the brand building, fashion, creative and professional guide, showing Jiangsu textile and garment industry to deal with the latest achievements in economic development and lead the new norm, pushing Jiangsu textile supply side reform and further the Jiangsu international fashion Festival Exposition at home and abroad in order to become an important platform to build strong influence exchange ,cooperation, and trade show.

  10. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th-18th centuries ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.180+/-0.003). The mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181+/-0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183+/-0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172+/-0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975+/-15 years) deposit ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.148+/-0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.181+/-0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore).

  11. The Diary of Frances Jacobs: Astronomical Observations by a 19th-century Oregon Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGown, R. D.

    2002-12-01

    This abstract summarizes my research, transcription and editing of Francis Jacob's 170-page handwritten astronomical diary. This diary is a unique example of a time in early Portland history, illustrating the mind of a young woman who was interested in science and astronomy. Reflected in her diary are the discoveries and mention of leading astronomers of the day like Emerson Bernard and Edward Pickering. Francis Jacobs lived in an era of the great refractors For example, ``The Leviathan," built by Lord Rosse in Ireland was completed in 1847. In this 72-inch telescope, stars of 18th magnitude could be seen. The first spiral nebulae to be revealed was M51 - known today as the Whirlpool Galaxy. The Earl was the first to suggest that these spirals could actually be rotating masses of stars. At the turn of the century, study of observational astronomy was rooted in naked eye observing, study of binary stars and nebula. This was a time when women were becoming interested in the sciences and had begun to play an important role in science and astronomy. It was an incredible inspiration for other women across the country to hear what was happening on the astronomical frontiers at Harvard. Some constellation asterisms used in Francis Jacob's diary were different than they are today. One asterism in particular, the Egyptian Cross, is relatively unknown now. The summer triangle and winter circle asterisms were used in her notes and obviously popular in her era, as today. Her written comments included some Messier catalogue numbers and in some case written on her sketches and diagrams nicknames, such as the 'Dumbbell' nebula. She also referred to M99 as `St. Katherine's Wheel', a nickname that is not in common use today.

  12. Servicing the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, D. [DTLR, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-01

    Twentieth century governments have committed themselves to the principle of sustainable development. Efforts to fulfil this goal offer an insight into changes in building services provision in the opening decades of the new century. Sustainable development indicators are used to identify possible trends. The analysis also forms the basis for some speculative conjectures as a basis for a research agenda for the twenty-first century. (Author)

  13. A century of Dutch neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, P J; Bruyn, G W; Moffie, D

    1998-12-01

    The Netherlands Society of Neurology evolved from the Society of Psychiatry founded in 1871. The name was changed into Netherlands Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (NSPN) in 1897. In the same year, the word neurology was also added to the name of the journal. The Society steadily blossomed, but in 1909 the first signs of dissatisfaction occurred: the Amsterdam Neurologists Society was founded. A few split-offs would follow. The number of members of the NSPN increased from 205 in 1920 to 585 in 1960. In the early 1960s, the Society was reorganised and would consist of two sections, one for psychiatry and one for neurology. However, this would not last, as a full separation was established in 1974. For several reasons, the name of the journal was changed four times until it assumed its present name in 1974. The 100th volume of CNN was not published, as expected. in 1996, but in 1998, because of two skipped publication years, one during WWII and another in the 1970s. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, teaching of neurology was mostly given within the frame of psychiatry, following the German tradition of 'brainpsychiatry' (organic or biologic psychiatry). The first official chair of psychiatry was founded at Utrecht, 1893 (Winkler). In Amsterdam, private teachers such as Delprat taught 'electro-therapy and nervous diseases' since the 1880s. The first extraordinary chair of neurology and electrotherapy was founded for his successor, Wertheim Salomonson in 1899. The first university clinic for psychiatry and neurology started at the Amsterdam Municipal University, when Winkler became professor of psychiatry and neurology in Amsterdam in 1896. Around the turn of the century, chairs of psychiatry and neurology were also founded in Groningen and Leiden. Separate chairs for neurology and psychiatry appeared in Amsterdam in 1923 and in Utrecht in 1936. Following an initiative of Brouwer, the first neurological university clinic opened its doors in

  14. YI Suki's Yŏksimanpil and the Professional Identity of a Chung'in Medical Official in Eighteenth Century Chosŏn Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kiebok

    2013-08-01

    About one hundred years after the publication of Tongŭibogam (1613), a physician at the court YI Suki (1664-?) wrote a medical manuscript titled Yŏksimanpil (Miscellaneous Jottings on Medical Experiences and Tests, 1734). As indicated in its title, Yŏksimanpil was a medical essay composed of 130 medical case histories, drawing on what YI Suki himself had experienced in his medical practices. This paper examines the messages YI Suki in Yŏksimanpil tried to address to his fellow Korean doctors, and by doing so illuminates an aspect of the medicine in the late Chosŏn period. The argument goes that YI Suki wrote Yŏksimanpil as a vehicle for promulgating his professional identity as a bureaucratic physician who belonged to the network of the chung'in technical officials-a group of government technical functionaries in late Chosŏn Korea. Throughout the late Chosŏn period, the chung'in technical officials had been discriminated, institutionally and socioculturally, against the yangban literati, while their promotion to honored higher positions was blocked. It was in the late 17th and early 18th century that a group of chung'in officials tried to secure their sociocultural places for their professional activity, thus bringing to light their social and professional identity in Chosŏn society. A member of the network of the chung'in technical officials in the early 18th century, YI Suki was in an effort to position himself as a doctor somewhere between the medical tradition and the Confucian literary tradition. In these sociocultural contexts, we can see more clearly what YI Suki tried to speak of in his book and the historical meaning of the medical writing Yŏksimanpil. First, the way he practiced medicine was testing and confirming what the received medical textbooks had asserted (Chŭnghŏmkobang). This style of practicing medicine could be viewed as a reflection of the comprehensivity trait of bureaucratic court physicians network YI Suki belonged to. Also this

  15. La enseñanza escolar de la lengua española en Andalucía en los umbrales del XIX: introducción al «Diálogo ortográfico» de A. Balbina Lozano School teaching of Spanish language in Andalucía on the Eve of the 19th Century: an introduction to the «Ortographic Dialogue» by A. Balbina Lozano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola PONS RODRÍGUEZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El Diálogo ortográfico del maestro gaditano de primeras letras Antonio Balbina Lozano es un manuscrito poco conocido, escrito a finales del siglo XVIII o principios del siglo XIX. Con finalidad escolar, resume las reglas de ortografía de la lengua española según la Real Academia Española en el siglo XVIII y las principales partes de la oración, y al final proporciona una lista alfabética con palabras de ortografía dudosa, especialmente para los alumnos andaluces de Balbina, con pronunciación dialectal. La obra se encuadra en el contexto pedagógico de la época en Andalucía y España, en la pugna entre la antigua Cartilla de Valladolid y los nuevos métodos pedagógicos de la Ilustración. Asimismo, se discuten sus fuentes: las obras de la Real Academia Española en el siglo XVIII, sobre todo la Ortografía de la lengua castellana, pero también los trabajos de Mañer, Cortés Moreno, Palomares y Gayoso.The Ortographic Dialogue by Antonio Balbina Lozano, a school teacher from Cádiz, is a little-known manuscript written at the end of the 18th century or the beginning of the 19th century. Meant to be used in schools, it summarizes Spanish spelling rules according to the Spanish Royal Academy in the 18th Century and the main parts of the sentence, and at the end provides an alphabetical list with doubtful spellings, especially for Balbina’s Andalusian pupils who had a dialectal pronunciation. This work is framed in the pedagogical context of the time in Andalucía and Spain, in the clash between the old First Reader Book from Valladolid and the new pedagogical methods of the Enlightenment. Furthermore, its sources are discussed: the works of the Spanish Royal Academy in the 18th century, above all the Ortography of the Castilian Language, but also the works by Mañer, Cortés Moreno, Palomares and Gayoso.

  16. An Unfashionable Rhetoric in the Fifteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Marjorie Curry

    1989-01-01

    Reveals the continued importance of medieval rhetorical pedagogy throughout the high Middle Ages and early Renaissance by exploring the fifteenth-century popularity, uses of, and references to Geoffrey of Vinsauf's "Poetria nova" (a thirteenth-century verse treatise on the composition of poetry according to rhetorical principles). (SR)

  17. Phonetics of English in the nineteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Work on speech sound and the sound systems of languages can be traced back in the British Isles at least as far as the sixteenth century. It was, however, only in the nineteenth century that the word ‘phonetics' was actually coined, and it was also at this time that a wider interest in the subjec...

  18. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  19. Women in Eighteenth-century Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    2013-01-01

    he eighteenth century looms large in the Scottish imagination. It is a century that saw the doubling of the population, rapid urbanisation, industrial growth, the political Union of 1707, the Jacobite Rebellions and the Enlightenment - events that were intrinsic to the creation of the modern nation...

  20. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...