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Sample records for 188re-hedp comparing urine

  1. 肿瘤骨转移疼痛患者对188Re-HEDP的耐受性研究%The tolerance to 188Re-HEDP treatment in patients with bone pain from osseous metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程爱萍; 陈绍亮; 刘文官; 陈雪芬; 许长德

    2011-01-01

    .3156, 3.4917, all P < 0. 05 compared with baseline). At week 8, the mean level of platelet and leucocyte recovered to baseline. "Bounce pain" was found in 2 of 27 patients (7.41%).Conclusions The dose of 20 MBq/kg, 30 MBq/kg, 40 MBq/kg or 50 MBq/kg of 188Re-HEDP do not cause significant side effects on cancer patients with bone metastases, though there is a tendency that the haematological toxicity may increase as the dose of 188Re-HEDP increases.%目的 评价188Re-1-羟基-1,1-二膦酸钠乙烷(即依替膦酸盐,HEDP)治疗肿瘤骨转移疼痛患者的安全性.方法 符合入选标准的31例患者(前列腺癌10例,乳腺癌9例,肺癌3例,肝癌5例,直肠癌2例,食管癌1例,肾癌1例,均随时间顺序人选)知情同意后接受了按体质量肘静脉单次注射188ReHEDP,据药物递增剂量分为4个组:20 MBq/kg组6例、30 MBq/kg组6例、40 MBq/kg组9例、50 MBq/kg组10例.低剂量组安全性分析结束并显示安全后,才开始下一剂量组试验.如果患者出现由于用药引起的不可耐受的、WHO公布的Ⅲ或Ⅳ级骨髓毒性,即终止剂量递增,并认为前一组剂量为最大可接受剂量.观察指标包括给药前及给药后8周内每例患者的生命体征(用药后1,6,12,24,48,72 h和1,2,3,4,6,8周),血细胞计数(用药后1,2,3,4,6和8周),心电图,肝、肾功能,ALP(用药后4,8周),"反跳痛"以及不良反应等.统计分析主要针对符合方案集(PP)人群,包括统计描述和统计推断(t检验).结果 31例患者中有27例属于PP人群:20 MBq/kg组5例、30 MBq/kg组5例、40 MBq/kg组8例、50 MBq/kg组9例.在受试剂量范围内,没有观察到188Re-HEDP对患者生命体征、心电图、肝肾功能和ALP的不良影响.20 MBq/kg组的5例患者中仅1例自细胞出现WHO Ⅰ级毒性;30 MBq/kg组5例患者中2例白细胞出现WHO Ⅰ级毒性,其中1例合并血小板Ⅲ级毒性,但给药后8周白细胞和血小板均恢复正常;40 MBq/kg组8例患者中2例白细胞和血小板同

  2. [Comparative measurement of urine specific gravity: reagent strips, refractometry and hydrometry].

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    Costa, Christian Elías; Bettendorff, Carolina; Bupo, Sol; Ayuso, Sandra; Vallejo, Graciela

    2010-06-01

    The urine specific gravity is commonly used in clinical practice to measure the renal concentration/dilution ability. Measurement can be performed by three methods: hydrometry, refractometry and reagent strips. To assess the accuracy of different methods to measure urine specific gravity. We analyzed 156 consecutive urine samples of pediatric patients during April and May 2007. Urine specific gravity was measured by hydrometry (UD), refractometry (RE) and reagent strips (TR), simultaneously. Urine osmolarity was considered as the gold standard and was measured by freezing point depression. Correlation between different methods was calculated by simple linear regression. A positive and acceptable correlation was found with osmolarity for the RE as for the UD (r= 0.81 and r= 0.86, respectively). The reagent strips presented low correlation (r= 0.46). Also, we found good correlation between measurements obtained by UD and RE (r= 0.89). Measurements obtained by TR, however, had bad correlation when compared to UD (r= 0.46). Higher values of specific gravity were observed when measured with RE with respect to UD. Reagent strips are not reliable for measuring urine specific gravity and should not be used as an usual test. However, hydrometry and refractometry are acceptable alternatives for measuring urine specific gravity, as long as the same method is used for follow-up.

  3. Comparing Ion Exchange Adsorbents for Nitrogen Recovery from Source-Separated Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpeh, William A; Udert, Kai M; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-02-21

    Separate collection of urine, which is only 1% of wastewater volume but contains the majority of nitrogen humans excrete, can potentially reduce the costs and energy input of wastewater treatment and facilitate recovery of nitrogen for beneficial use. Ion exchange was investigated for recovery of nitrogen as ammonium from urine for use as a fertilizer or disinfectant. Cation adsorption curves for four adsorbents (clinoptilolite, biochar, Dowex 50, and Dowex Mac 3) were compared in pure salt solutions, synthetic urine, and real stored urine. Competition from sodium and potassium present in synthetic and real urine did not significantly decrease ammonium adsorption for any of the adsorbents. Dowex 50 and Dowex Mac 3 showed nearly 100% regeneration efficiencies. Estimated ion exchange reactor volumes to capture the nitrogen for 1 week from a four-person household were lowest for Dowex Mac 3 (5 L) and highest for biochar (19 L). Although Dowex Mac 3 had the highest adsorption capacity, material costs ($/g N removed) were lower for clinoptilolite and biochar because of their substantially lower unit cost.

  4. Comparative effects of indomethacin and nabumetone on urine and electrolyte output in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin Long, Idris; Singh, Harbindar Jeet; Rao, Gurubelli Janardhana

    2005-11-01

    The effects of indomethacin and nabumetone on urine and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats were examined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually for a five-week duration, consisting of acclimatization, control, experimental, and recovery phases. During the experimental phase, rats were given either indomethacin (1.5 mg . kg(-1) body weight . day(-1) in 0.5 ml saline, n = 10), nabumetone (15 mg . kg(-1) body weight . day(-1) 0.5 ml saline, n = 10), or 0.5 ml saline alone (n = 10) for a period of two weeks. Water and food intake, body weight, urine output, and electrolyte excretions were estimated. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Urine output in the indomethacin- and nabumetone-treated groups was not different from the controls, but was significantly different between the drug-treated groups (Pnabumetone-treated and control rats. However, sodium and potassium excretion was significantly lower in rats receiving indomethacin when compared to the control rats. Calcium and magnesium outputs, although did not differ from the controls, nevertheless decreased significantly with indomethacin (Pnabumetone when given at maximum human therapeutic doses may affect urine and electrolyte output in conscious rats.

  5. Comparative miRNA Analysis of Urine Extracellular Vesicles Isolated through Five Different Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo, Felix; Diwan, Izzuddin; Tackett, Michael R.; Zuñiga, Patricia; Sanchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Loizaga-Iriarte, Ana; Ugalde-Olano, Aitziber; Lacasa, Isabel; Perez, Amparo; Unda, Miguel; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Urine extracellular vesicles are a valuable low-invasive source of information, especially for the cells of the genitourinary tract. In the search for biomarkers, different techniques have been developed to isolate and characterize the cargo of these vesicles. In the present work, we compare five of these different isolation methods (three commercial isolation kits, ultracentrifugation, and lectin-based purification) and perform miRNA profiling using a multiplex miRNA assay. The results showed high correlation through all isolation techniques, and 48 out of 68 miRNAs were detected above the detection limit at least 10 times. The results obtained by multiplex assay were validated through Taqman qPCR. In addition, using this technique combined with a clinically friendly extracellular vesicle (uEV)-enrichment method, we performed the analysis of selected miRNAs in urine from patients affected with bladder cancer, benign prostate hyperplasia, or prostate cancer. Importantly, we found that those miRNAs could be detected in almost 100% of the samples, and no significant differences were observed between groups. Our results support the feasibility of analyzing exosomes-associated miRNAs using a methodology that requires a small volume of urine and is compatible with a clinical environment and high-throughput analysis. PMID:27973407

  6. Comparative miRNA Analysis of Urine Extracellular Vesicles Isolated through Five Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Royo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Urine extracellular vesicles are a valuable low-invasive source of information, especially for the cells of the genitourinary tract. In the search for biomarkers, different techniques have been developed to isolate and characterize the cargo of these vesicles. In the present work, we compare five of these different isolation methods (three commercial isolation kits, ultracentrifugation, and lectin-based purification and perform miRNA profiling using a multiplex miRNA assay. The results showed high correlation through all isolation techniques, and 48 out of 68 miRNAs were detected above the detection limit at least 10 times. The results obtained by multiplex assay were validated through Taqman qPCR. In addition, using this technique combined with a clinically friendly extracellular vesicle (uEV-enrichment method, we performed the analysis of selected miRNAs in urine from patients affected with bladder cancer, benign prostate hyperplasia, or prostate cancer. Importantly, we found that those miRNAs could be detected in almost 100% of the samples, and no significant differences were observed between groups. Our results support the feasibility of analyzing exosomes-associated miRNAs using a methodology that requires a small volume of urine and is compatible with a clinical environment and high-throughput analysis.

  7. [Blood and urine chromium: compared values between chromium exposed workers and common people].

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    Provenzani, A; Verso, M G; Picciotto, D

    2008-01-01

    Aim of present study is the valutation and quantification of chromium in blood and urine. We compared 3 groups of persons formed by building workers, in particular masons, because cement contains potassium chromate that is dangerous for health, and by common people: urban population and outside the town population. In fact, exposure to CrVI risk is high for people who live near chromate industries. We maked a medical examination, blood and instrumental tests, chromium measuring in blood (recent exposure indicator) and urine (recent and previous indicator). Then we used statistical methods to estimate obtained values of blood and urine chromium among professional exposed people and common people. At the end we think that preventive measures in working environment reduced exposure to CrVI but environmental exposure (for example road dust from catalytic converter erosion, from brake lining erosion, cement dust and tobacco smoke), in the last years, has increased. So there are no difference between urban population and outside the town population and there are also no difference with professional exposed people for work prevention according to law in force, that let down professional risk using safe limits.

  8. Selective androgen receptor modulators: comparative excretion study of bicalutamide in bovine urine and faeces.

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    Rojas, Dante; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Cesbron, Nora; Penot, Mylène; Sydor, Alexandre; Prévost, Stéphanie; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    Besides their development for therapeutic purposes, non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (non-steroidal SARMs) are also known to impact growth-associated pathways as ligands of androgenic receptors (AR). They present a potential for abuse in sports and food-producing animals as an interesting alternative to anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). These compounds are easily available and could therefore be (mis)used in livestock production as growth promoters. To prevent such practices, dedicated analytical strategies should be developed for specific and sensitive detection of these compounds in biological matrices. The present study focused on Bicalutamide, a non-steroidal SARM used in human treatment of non-metastatic prostate cancer because of its anti-androgenic activity exhibiting no anti-anabolic effects. To select the most appropriate matrix to be used for control purposes, different animal matrices (urine and faeces) have been investigated and SARM metabolism studied to highlight relevant metabolites of such treatments and establish associated detection time windows. The aim of this work was thus to compare the urinary and faecal eliminations of bicalutamide in a calf, and investigate phase I and II metabolites. The results in both matrices showed that bicalutamide was very rapidly and mainly excreted under its free form. The concentration levels were observed as higher in faeces (ppm) than urine (ppb); although both matrices were assessed as suitable for residue control. The metabolites found were consistent with hydroxylation (phase I reaction) combined or not with glucuronidation and sulfation (phase II reactions). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Concentration compared with total urinary excretion of 11,17-DOA in cynomolgus monkey urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Jann; Royo, F

    2008-01-01

    should be expressed as amounts excreted per time unit per kg body-weight, rather than being expressed as concentrations in samples. Urine and feces excretion varies significantly within and between animals over time, which may render simple concentration measures of molecules of little biological......Strees sensitive molecules exhibit great variation in concentration in the circulation and it may often be advantageous to quantify these in urine or feces rather than in serum or plasma. We advocate that all urine-or feces-should be collected, and that excretion of stress sensitive molecules...

  10. The Urine Proteome Profile Is Different in Neuromyelitis Optica Compared to Multiple Sclerosis: A Clinical Proteome Study.

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    Helle H Nielsen

    Full Text Available Inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS comprise a broad spectrum of diseases like neuromyelitis optica (NMO, NMO spectrum disorders (NMO-SD and multiple sclerosis (MS. Despite clear classification criteria, differentiation can be difficult. We hypothesized that the urine proteome may differentiate NMO from MS.The proteins in urine samples from anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4 seropositive NMO/NMO-SD patients (n = 32, patients with MS (n = 46 and healthy subjects (HS, n = 31 were examined by quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after trypsin digestion and iTRAQ labelling. Immunoglobulins (Ig in the urine were validated by nephelometry in an independent cohort (n = 9-10 pr. groups.The analysis identified a total of 1112 different proteins of which 333 were shared by all 109 subjects. Cluster analysis revealed differences in the urine proteome of NMO/NMO-SD compared to HS and MS. Principal component analysis also suggested that the NMO/NMO-SD proteome profile was useful for classification. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a 3-protein profile for the NMO/NMO-SD versus HS discrimination, a 6-protein profile for NMO/NMO-SD versus MS discrimination and an 11-protein profile for MS versus HS discrimination. All protein panels yielded highly significant ROC curves (AUC in all cases >0.85, p≤0.0002. Nephelometry confirmed the presence of increased Ig-light chains in the urine of patients with NMO/NMO-SD.The urine proteome profile of patients with NMO/NMO-SD is different from MS and HS. This may reflect differences in the pathogenesis of NMO/NMO-SD versus MS and suggests that urine may be a potential source of biomarkers differentiating NMO/NMO-SD from MS.

  11. The Urine Proteome Profile Is Different in Neuromyelitis Optica Compared to Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle H; Beck, Hans C; Kristensen, Lars P;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS comprise a broad spectrum of diseases like neuromyelitis optica (NMO), NMO spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite clear classification criteria, differentiation can be difficult. We hypothesized that the urine...

  12. Comparative urine analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics : Method development, evaluation, and application to proteinuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, Ramses F. J.; Horvatovich, Peter L.; Hoekman, Berend; Reijmers, Theo H.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    We describe a platform for the comparative profiling of urine using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and multivariate statistical data analysis. Urinary compounds were separated by gradient elution and subsequently detected by electrospray Ion-Trap MS. The lower limit o

  13. Life cycle assessment of segregating fattening pig urine and feces compared to conventional liquid manure management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from in-house storage of liquid animal manure remain a major contributor to the environmental impact of manure management. Our aim was to assess the life cycle environmental consequences and reduction potential of segregating fattening pig urine and feces with an innovative V-belt

  14. Comparative profile of circulating antigenic peptides in CSF, serum & urine from patients with neurocysticercosis diagnosed by immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, P S; Parija, S; Kumar, D; Jayachandran, S; Narayan, S

    2014-10-01

    Traditionally serum and/or CSF specimens have been used for detection of either specific antibodies or antigens as a supportive diagnosis of NCC. However, in recent days, much interest has been shown employing noninvasive specimens such as urine. In our study, we identified and compared a profile of circulating antigenic peptides of parasite origin in three different body fluids (CSF, serum and urine) obtained from confirmed NCC cases and control subjects. The circulating antigenic peptides were resolved by SDS-PAGE and subjected to immunoblotting. For confirmation of their origin as parasite somatic or excretory secretory (ES) material, immunoreactivity was tested employing affinity purified polyclonal Taenia solium metacestode anti-somatic or ES antibodies, respectively. Only lower molecular weight antigenic peptides were found circulating in urine in contrast to serum and CSF specimens. Few somatic peptides were identified to be 100% specific for NCC (19·5 kDa in all three specimens; 131, 70 kDa in CSF and serum only; 128 kDa in CSF only). Similarly, the specific ES peptides detected were 32 kDa (in all three specimens), 16·5 kDa (in serum and CSF only), and 15 kDa (urine only). A test format detecting either one or more of these specific peptides would enhance the sensitivity in diagnosis of NCC.

  15. Bilirubin - urine

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    Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Inoculation of Urine Samples with the Copan WASP® and BD Kiestra™ InoqulA™ Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jesper; Stendal, Gitta; Gerdes, Cecilie Marie

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated quantitative results as well as the quality of the inoculation patterns on urine specimens produced by two automated instruments, the Copan WASP® and the BD InoqulA™. 526 urine samples submitted in 10 ml canisters containing boric acid were processed within 30 minutes...... on an InoqulA, plating 10 ul of specimen, and two WASP instruments, one plating 1 ul of specimen (WASP-1) and the second WASP 10 ul (WASP-10). All samples were incubated, analysed, and digitally imaged using the BD Kiestra™ Total Lab Automation system. Results were evaluated using a quantitative protocol...... of the automated instruments divided by the counts for the calibrated pipet (golden standard). Ratios for the InoqulA were closest to 1,0 with the smallest standard deviations indicating that, compared to a calibrated pipet, the InoqulA results were more accurate than the WASP.. For clinical samples, the WASPs...

  17. Comparing Serum and 24-hour Urine Calcium between Preeclamptic and Non-preeclamptic Patients

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    N Shahbazian

    2014-02-01

    Results: No statistically significant difference was found between serum calcium means in the two groups (p=0.07, though mean of 24-hour urine calcium in preeclamptic patients was significantly lower than that of control group (p=0.0003. In preeclamptic group, the degree of hypocalciuria was related to disordered liver enzymes, serum creatinine greater than 1.2 mg/dl, thrombocytopenia and proteinuria more than 2g/24h. Conclusion: Preeclampsia is associated with hypocalciuria; the more hypocalciuria there exists , the more preeclampsia is observed.

  18. Symptom-dependent cut-offs of urine metanephrines improve diagnostic accuracy for detecting pheochromocytomas in two separate cohorts, compared to symptom-independent cut-offs.

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    Cho, Yoon Young; Song, Kee-Ho; Kim, Young Nam; Ahn, Seong Hee; Kim, Hyeonmok; Park, Sooyoun; Suh, Sunghwan; Kim, Beom-Jun; Lee, Soo-Youn; Chun, Sail; Koh, Jung-Min; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2016-10-01

    The development of advanced imaging techniques has increased the detection of subclinical pheochromocytomas. Because of the substantial proportions of subclinical pheochromocytomas, measurement of urine metanephrine concentrations is crucial due to detect or exclude pheochromocytoma. Although urine metanephrines are elevated in symptomatic subjects, diagnostic cut-offs according to the presence of adrenergic symptoms have not been studied. Pheochromocytomas patients who underwent adrenalectomy at Samsung Medical Center and a control group were compared to determine cut-off concentrations of urine metanephrines. An independent population was analyzed for urine metanephrines with different kits to validate the improvement in diagnostic accuracy using adjusted cut-offs. Symptom-dependent cut-offs of urine metanephrines were higher for symptomatic patients (307 μg/day in males, 235 μg/day in females for urine metanephrine, and 1,045 μg/day in males and 457 μg/day in females for urine normetanephrine) than for asymptomatic patients (206 μg/day in males, 199 μg/day in females for urine metanephrine, and 489 μg/day in males and 442 μg/day in females for urine normetanephrine). Symptom-dependent cut-offs of urine metanephrines improved a specificity from 92.7 % to 96.3 % and a high sensitivity of 97.8 % was maintained. Using the Symptom-dependent cut-offs raised diagnostic accuracy by 5.5 % (p <0.001). Similar trend was also observed in an independent population using different hormone kits. Using symptom-dependent cut-offs of urine metanephrines in symptomatic patients for pheochromocytomas resulted in a significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy in two separate cohorts.

  19. Urine culture

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    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  20. Preparation and bio-distribution of bone tumor therapeutic agent 188Re-TCTMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shu-Bin; LUO Shun-Zhong; DENG Hou-Fu; BIN Wen-Zeng; WANG Wen-Jin; WEI Hong-Yuan; LIU Guo-Ping

    2004-01-01

    TCTMP ( 1,4,8,11-tetraaza cyclotetradecyl- 1,4,8,11-tetramethylene phosphonate) was synthesized and coupled with 188Re. The 188Re-TCTMP's coupling condition, stability and bio-distribution in mice were investigated.The results showed that satisfactory yield of 188Re could be obtained under the conditions of media pH=2.0, 0.8~1.6 mg of SnCl2 and 50 mg of ligand. 188Re-TCTMP was stable (complexation yield >95%) in 8 d without protection of N2. The result of bio-distribution indicated that 188Re-TCTMP had a strong affinity to skeleton and very low non-target tissue's uptake, and the amount of 188Re-TCTMP in blood was (0.06±0.02)%ID/g 6 h after injection,whereas the concentration of 188Re-HEDP (1-hydroxy-ethylidene diphosphonate) in blood was (0.28±0.05)%ID/g 6 hafter injection. Compared with 188Re-HEDP, 188Re-TCTMP exhibits better potential for the treatment of metastases.

  1. Myoglobin urine test

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    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  2. Comparative analysis on red blood cells through UF-100 urine sediment analyzer, urine dry chemistry analyze and urine sediment microscopy%尿沉渣分析仪、尿液干化学分析仪测定及尿沉渣镜检红细胞对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白士丽; 刘长青; 王晓丽; 郎国华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To do the comparative analysis on red blood cells through UF-100 urine sediment analyzer, Urine Dry Chemistry Analyze and urine sediment microscopy for finding the most accurate judgment on red blood cells in the urine. Methods:Morning urine collected from 1200 cases of hospitalized patients with urine specimens, the UF-100 urine sediment analysis system, urine dry chemical analyzer and urine sediment microscopy detection to analyze it, detecting urine red blood cells. Results:UF-100 urine sediment analyzer detecting red blood cell positive rate was 18.8%, the urine dry chemical detecting red blood cell positive rate was 16.3%, microscopy positive rate was 13.2%. Conclusion:Urinary sediment analysis system, urine red blood cells in urine dry chemistry method and microscope test results vary, before two kinds of methods is influenced by certain factors can appear false positives and false negatives, so all can't replace the microscope examination in urine routine test, three methods should be combined together to provide accurate and reliable basis for clinical.%目的:对UF-100尿沉渣分析仪、尿液干化学分析仪检测尿液中红细胞与尿沉渣镜检法检测红细胞进行比较,以对尿液中红细胞进行最为准确的判断。方法:采集1200例住院患者的晨尿尿液标本,采用尿沉渣分析系统、尿液干化学分析仪与尿沉渣显微镜检测对其进行分析,检测尿液中的红细胞。结果:尿沉渣分析仪检测红细胞阳性率为18.8%,尿液干化学检测红细胞阳性率为16.3%,镜检阳性率为13.2%。结论:尿沉渣分析系统、尿液干化学法和显微镜检测尿液中红细胞结果存在差异,前两种方法受某些因素影响可出现假阳性及假阴性,因此尿液常规检测中均不能替代显微镜检查,应将3种检测方法相结合共同为临床提供准确可靠的红细胞检测依据。

  3. Bladder tumour antigen (BTA stat) test compared to the urine cytology in the diagnosis of bladder cancer: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aiye; Wang, Xiuhua; Gao, Lan; Shi, Juan; Sun, Changyi; Wan, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluate the diagnostic value of bladder tumour antigen (BTA stat) tests compared with urine cytology test in detecting bladder cancer. Methods: We searched public databases including PubMed, MEDLINE Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar before December 2012. To collect relevant data of BTA stat tests and urine cytology tests in patients with bladder cancer, we studied meta-analyses of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR), negative LR and diagnostic odds ratios (DOR) of BTA stat tests and cytology tests from published studies. We applied the software of Rev. Man 5.1 and Stata 11.0 to the meta-analysis. Results: A total of 13 separate studies consisting of 3462 patients with bladder cancer were considered in the meta-analysis. We found that the BTA stat test had a higher sensitivity than the urine cytology test (0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64 to 0.69 vs. 0.43, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.46), but the specificity, positive LR, negative LR, DOR, the area under the curve (AUC) and Q index of the BTA stat test were lower compared with the urine cytology test. The results of the Egger’s linear regression test showed no publication bias (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Specificity, positive LR, negative LR, DOR, the AUC and the Q index of the urine cytology test may be superior to the BTA stat test, but the BTA stat test has greater sensitivity than the urine cytology test. PMID:24940462

  4. Tissue polypeptide antigen in the follow-up of patients with urinary bladder cancer compared with conventional urine cytology.

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    Bantis, Athanasios; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Sountoulides, Petros; Giannakopoulos, Stilianos; Kalaitzis, Christos; Athanassiadou, Paulina; Agelonidou, Eleni; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer has demonstrated a rapid increase during the last decades. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical value of serum tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) as a tumour marker for urinary bladder cancer in comparison with conventional urine cytology. Urine and blood samples were obtained from a total of 108 patients (group A) with a known history of bladder cancer, who presented for their routine 3 month follow-up. These 108 patients included 45 patients with high grade and 63 patients with low grade bladder cancer, and 30 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and no history of bladder cancer (group B). Urine and blood samples from fifty healthy adults (group C) were also tested; this group served as the control group for estimating the normal range of serum TPA values. In all group A patients cystoscopy and/or bladder biopsies were performed. All blood and urine samples were tested for TPA and conventional urine cytology respectively. Results showed that the upper normal range for TPA was 1.0 ng/mL(0.9 ± 0.04) in the control group. For the subgroups of patients with high and low grade bladder cancer elevated serum TPA levels were found in 52% and 40% of the patients respectively. The overall serum TPA sensitivity and specificity were 50% and 85% respectively for patients with known bladder cancer (group A). We found the sensitivity of cytology for high grade bladder (GIII) carcinomas to be 72%; however when urine cytology was combined with serum TPA the overall sensitivity reached 80%. We conclude that serum TPA combined with urine cytology may be used as a prognostic marker for bladder cancer.

  5. Comparative Study of Seven Commercial Kits for Human DNA Extraction from Urine Samples Suitable for DNA Biomarker-Based Public Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bali, Latifa; Diman, Aurélie; Bernard, Alfred; Roosens, Nancy H. C.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Human genomic DNA extracted from urine could be an interesting tool for large-scale public health studies involving characterization of genetic variations or DNA biomarkers as a result of the simple and noninvasive collection method. These studies, involving many samples, require a rapid, easy, and standardized extraction protocol. Moreover, for practicability, there is a necessity to collect urine at a moment different from the first void and to store it appropriately until analysis. The present study compared seven commercial kits to select the most appropriate urinary human DNA extraction procedure for epidemiological studies. DNA yield has been determined using different quantification methods: two classical, i.e., NanoDrop and PicoGreen, and two species-specific real-time quantitative (q)PCR assays, as DNA extracted from urine contains, besides human, microbial DNA also, which largely contributes to the total DNA yield. In addition, the kits giving a good yield were also tested for the presence of PCR inhibitors. Further comparisons were performed regarding the sampling time and the storage conditions. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, an important gene related to smoking has been genotyped using the developed tools. We could select one well-performing kit for the human DNA extraction from urine suitable for molecular diagnostic real-time qPCR-based assays targeting genetic variations, applicable to large-scale studies. In addition, successful genotyping was possible using DNA extracted from urine stored at −20°C for several months, and an acceptable yield could also be obtained from urine collected at different moments during the day, which is particularly important for public health studies. PMID:25365790

  6. Comparative study of seven commercial kits for human DNA extraction from urine samples suitable for DNA biomarker-based public health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bali, Latifa; Diman, Aurélie; Bernard, Alfred; Roosens, Nancy H C; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J

    2014-12-01

    Human genomic DNA extracted from urine could be an interesting tool for large-scale public health studies involving characterization of genetic variations or DNA biomarkers as a result of the simple and noninvasive collection method. These studies, involving many samples, require a rapid, easy, and standardized extraction protocol. Moreover, for practicability, there is a necessity to collect urine at a moment different from the first void and to store it appropriately until analysis. The present study compared seven commercial kits to select the most appropriate urinary human DNA extraction procedure for epidemiological studies. DNA yield has been determined using different quantification methods: two classical, i.e., NanoDrop and PicoGreen, and two species-specific real-time quantitative (q)PCR assays, as DNA extracted from urine contains, besides human, microbial DNA also, which largely contributes to the total DNA yield. In addition, the kits giving a good yield were also tested for the presence of PCR inhibitors. Further comparisons were performed regarding the sampling time and the storage conditions. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, an important gene related to smoking has been genotyped using the developed tools. We could select one well-performing kit for the human DNA extraction from urine suitable for molecular diagnostic real-time qPCR-based assays targeting genetic variations, applicable to large-scale studies. In addition, successful genotyping was possible using DNA extracted from urine stored at -20°C for several months, and an acceptable yield could also be obtained from urine collected at different moments during the day, which is particularly important for public health studies.

  7. Comparing urine samples and cervical swabs for Chlamydia testing in a female population by means of Strand Displacement Assay (SDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentzel-Larsen Tore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an increasing number of diagnosed cases of Chlamydia trachomatis in many countries, in particular among young people. The present study was based on a growing request to examine urine as a supplementary or primary specimen in screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in women, with the Becton Dickinson ProbeTec (BDPT Strand Displacement Assay (SDA. Urine samples may be particularly important in screening young people who are asymptomatic. Methods A total of 603 women aged 15 and older were enrolled from the Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway, in 2007. Only 31 women were older than 35 years. Cervical swabs and urine samples were tested with BDPT for all participants. In cases of discrepant test results from a given patient, both samples were retested by Cobas TaqManCT and a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR-method (in-house. Prevalence of C. trachomatis, sensitivity, and specificity were estimated by latent class analysis using all test results available. Bootstrap BC confidence intervals (10 000 computations were estimated for sensitivity and specificity, and their differences in cervix vs. urine tests. Results A total of 1809 specimens were collected from 603 patients. 80 women (13.4% were positive for C. trachomatis. Among these, BDPT identified 72 and 73 as positive in cervix and urine samples, respectively. Of the 523 C. trachomatis negative women, BDPT identified 519 as negative based on cervical swabs, and 514 based on urine samples. Sensitivity for cervical swabs and urine samples with the BDPT were 89.0% (95% CI 78.8, 98.6 and 90.2% (95% CI 78.1, 95.5, respectively. The corresponding values for specificity were 99.2% (95% CI 98.3, 100 and 98.3% (95% CI 96.4, 100. Conclusions This study indicates that urine specimens are adequate for screening high-risk groups for C. trachomatis by the SDA method (BDPT. Such an approach may facilitate early detection and treatment

  8. Urine Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... References Brunzel NA. Physical examination of urine. In: Fundamentals of Urine and Body Fluid Analysis. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013:97. McPherson RA, et al., eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: ...

  9. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  10. Assessing the potential for racial bias in hair analysis for cocaine: examining the relative risk of positive outcomes when comparing urine samples to hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowski, Tom

    2011-03-20

    This article examines the conjecture that hair analysis, performed to detect cocaine use or exposure, is biased against African Americans. It does so by comparing the outcomes of 33,928 hair and 105,792 urine samples collected from both African American and white subjects. In making this comparison the analysis seeks to determine if there is a departure in rates of positive and negative outcomes when comparing the results of hair analysis for cocaine to the results from urinalysis for cocaine by racial group. It treats urine as an unbiased test. It compares both the relative ratios of positive outcomes when comparing the two groups and it calculates the relative risk of outcomes for each group for having positive or negative outcomes. The findings show that the ratios of each racial group are effectively same for hair and urine assays, and they also show that the relative risk and risk estimates for positive and negative outcomes are the same for both racial groups. Considering all samples, the cocaine positive risk estimate for the hair samples comparing the two racial groups is 3.28 and for urinalysis the risk estimate is 3.10 (Breslow-Day χ(2) .250, 1 df, p = 0.617) a non-significant difference in risk. For pre-employment samples, the cocaine positive risk estimate for the hair samples comparing the two racial groups is 3.10 and for urinalysis the risk estimate is 2.90 (Breslow-Day χ(2) .281, df = 1, p = 0.595), also a non-significant difference in risk.

  11. Suitability of bovine bile compared to urine for detection of free, sulfate and glucuronate boldenone, androstadienedione, cortisol, cortisone, prednisolone, prednisone and dexamethasone by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Luca; Nobile, Maria; Panseri, Sara; Vigo, Daniele; Pavlovic, Radmila; Arioli, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The administration of boldenone and androstadienedione to cattle is forbidden in the European Union, while prednisolone is permitted for therapeutic purposes. They are pseudoendogenous substances (endogenously produced under certain circumstances). The commonly used matrices in control analyses are urine or liver. With the aim of improving the residue controls, we previously validated a method for steroid analysis in bile. We now compare urine (a 'classic' matrix) to bile, both collected at the slaughterhouse, to understand whether the detection of steroids in the latter is easier. With the aim of having clearer results, we tested the presence of the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone. The results show that bile does not substantially improve the detection of boldenone, or its conjugates, prednisolone and prednisone. Dexamethasone, instead, was found in 10 out of 53 bovine bile samples, but only in one urine sample from the same animals. Bile could constitute a novel matrix for the analysis of residues in food-producing animals, and possibly not only of synthetic corticosteroids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  13. A comparative study of bacterial isolates from the urine samples of AIDS and non-AIDS patients in Benue, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okwori EE; Nwadioha SI; Jombo GTA; Nwokedi EOP; Odimayo MS

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the common bacterial causes of urinary tract infection and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in AIDS patients versus non-AIDS patients. Methods: One thousand consecutive AIDS patients with signs and symptoms of AIDS and non-AIDS patients (served as control) each on admission were recruited into the study between January 2005 to January 2008, in Federal Medical Center, Makurdi. Urine samples were collected with sterile universal bottles and analysed with appropriate laboratory methods and antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out by disk diffusion technique in accordance with National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, now CLSI) criteria. The results were analysed using SPSS 11.0 statistical software. Results:Urine samples of AIDS patients with urinary infection had a more spectrum of micro-organisms including Candida organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime or Ciprofloxacin had a remarkably high anti-bacterial activity across the two study groups. A general resistance was recorded in ampicillin, tetracycline and co-trimoxazole. There was no significant difference in antibiotic susceptibility patterns between AIDS and non-AIDS patients(P>0.05). Conclusions:A reduction in unnecessary use of antibiotics as well as infection control should be encouraged in our health facilities.

  14. 临床尿常规检验方法对比研究%The Comparative Study on Clinical Urine Routine Test Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究对比临床尿常规不同检验方法的运用价值。方法搜集2013年9月~2014年9月我院接收的行尿常规检验38例患者,按照检验方法不同分为两组,即研究组(尿干化学分析仪)与对照组(手工镜检)。观察并比较研究组与对照组的检验结果。结果研究组红细胞检验阳性率高于对照组,白细胞阳性率和蛋白质阳性率均低于对照组,两组蛋白质检验结果符合率是98.3%,红细胞是97.0%,白细胞是96.6%,结果有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论尿干化学分析仪与手工镜检在临床尿常规检验中均具有较高运用价值,但二者不可互相代替。%Objective The application value of different sampling methods in urine routine test is to be analyzed comparatively. Methods Choose 38 persons who took urine routine test in hospital from September 2013 to September 2014 and separate them into control group (urine dry chemistry analyzer) and study group (manual microscopic examination) according to different blood-sampling methods. And then observe and compare the testing results of two groups. Results Positive rate of red blood cel in study group is much higher than that in control group; however, the positive rate of leukocyte and protein in study group are much lower than counterparts in control group, the testing accuracy rate of protein content is 98.3%, it is 97.0%in testing accuracy rate of red blood cel and 96.6%in testing accuracy rate of leukocyte;such a result has statistic value(P<0.05);there is a treatment differential between the two groups, such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Urine dry chemistry analyzer and manual microscopic examination are of application significance in urine routine test, and these two testing methods can not be substituted by each other.

  15. HPLC-ICP-MS compared with radiochemical detection for metabolite profiling of H-3-bromohexine in rat urine and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B.P.; Gammelgaard, B.; Hansen, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    H-3-Bromohexine was dosed to rats as a model compound to allow comparison of HPLC-ICP-MS detection on bromine to radiochemical detection in an in vivo drug metabolism study. Metabolite profiles were obtained in urine and faeces extracts. No influence of the methanol gradient on the bromine response...... was observed in the range of 18 - 75% methanol. The sensitivity obtained by HPLC- ICP-MS was almost two orders of magnitude better than on-line H-3 radiochemical detection. For ICP- MS, the limit of detection was calculated to be 69 nM Br ( injection volume 100 mu l), corresponding to an absolute limit...... of detection of 1.3 ng of bromohexine on-column. This allowed ICP- MS detection of several minor metabolites that were not detected using radiochemical detection. Furthermore, metabolites that had lost the radioactive label were detected due to the bromine in the metabolites. As ICP- MS is also more selective...

  16. Comparative study of ProEx C immunocytochemistry and UroVysion fluorescent in-situ hybridization assays on urine cytology specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of urothelial carcinoma (UC by urine cytology can be challenging. Recently, ProEx C has been studied as a marker to improve detection of UC. ProEx C is an assay targeting expression of topoisomerase IIa and minichromosome maintenance protein-2 and is currently utilized to assist in diagnoses of the gynecological specimens. In this study, we compared the utility of ProEx C and UroVysion in urine specimens. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven urine specimens with UroVysion assay analysis and surgical biopsy follow-up were selected. The smears were stained with ProEx C. ProEx C and UroVysion assay results were separated into two categories based on surgical biopsy follow-up (benign or neoplastic. Surgical biopsy diagnoses were used as the gold standard for comparative evaluation of the two assays. The surgical follow-up was 9 benign, 2 low grade, and 16 high grade UCs. Results: The sensitivity was 88.9% for ProEx C and 55.6% for UroVysion, while the specificity was 77.8% for ProEx C and 44.4% for UroVysion. Positive predictive value was 88.9% for ProEx C and 66.7% for UroVysion. Negative predictive value was 77.8% and 33.3% for ProEx C and UroVysion, respectively. Using the two-tailed paired t-test, P value of 0.033 was obtained when ProEx C stain was compared with the UroVysion assay. Conclusion: ProEx C immunocytochemistry has a more favorable performance than fluorescent in-situ hybridization with a significant difference between the two assays using paired two-tail t-test (P = 0.0033.

  17. Increased risk of malignancy for non-atypical urothelial cell groups compared to negative cytology in voided urine. Morphological changes with LBC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Rosario; Butrón, Mercedes; Santonja, Carlos; Rodríguez, José-María; Martín, Ana; Duarte, Joanny; Camarmo, Encarnación; Corrales, Teresa; Aramburu, José-Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has recently become the preferred method for urine cytology analysis, but differences with conventional cytology (CC) have been observed. The purpose of this study is to analyze these differences and the clinical relevance of non-atypical urothelial cell groups (UCG) in voided urine specimens. Reporting terminology is discussed. Initially, diagnostic categories from 619 LBC and 474 CC samples, reviewed by five different pathologists, were compared (phase 1). Five years after LBC was implemented and applying strict cytologic criteria for UCG diagnosis, 760 samples were analyzed (phase 2) and compared to previous LBC specimens. Diagnostic differences, interobserver variability and clinicopathological correlation with a 6-month follow-up, were analyzed. UCG increased from 6.5% with CC to 20.7% (218%, 3.2 fold, P < 0.0001) with LBC. This difference was not related to interobserver variability. Five years later, the rate of UCG had decreased to 13 2%. While 6% of cases with a negative cytology had urothelial carcinoma (UC) within 6 months of diagnosis, this percentage increased to 15.7% with UCG. The sensitivity of the UCG category for UC was low (30.4%), but the specificity and the negative predictive value (NPV) were high (87.1% and 94%, respectively). LBC increases UCG when compared to CC. This can be corrected with observeŕs experience and using set cytological criteria. Due to its association with carcinoma, the presence of UCG in voided urine should be framed in a diagnostic category other than "negative for malignancy." Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:582-590. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  19. Liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry screening procedure for urine samples in forensic casework compared to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Helena; Dame, Torsten; Sachs, Hans; Musshoff, Frank

    2016-07-04

    This work represents the development, validation, and application of a liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) screening method for the detection of pharmaceutical substances and illicit drugs (acidic, basic, and neutral organic drugs) in urine samples. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed using an LC-Triple TOF 5600 system with electrospray ionization operated in both positive and negative mode, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs), determined for 34 substances, were 70%). These four parameters served as identification criteria and are discussed according to their role in identifying compounds even without reference substances. In routine casework, two in-house XIC (extracted ion chromatogram) lists, consisting of 456 protonated and 26 deprotonated compounds were used and retention times for 365 compounds were available. Compared to the results found with the established gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure, the findings with the LC-QTOF-MS screening method showed a good comparability. Results that were not detected by LC-QTOF-MS because of a missing entry in the targeted XIC list could retrospectively be confirmed by simply entering the elemental formula of the relevant substance into the software and reprocessing the sample. LC-QTOF-MS offers an attractive technique for the fast and specific identification of illicit drugs and toxic compounds in urine samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Comparing capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry fingerprints of urine samples obtained after intake of coffee, tea, or water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Erik; Bäckström, Daniel; Danielsson, Rolf; Sjöberg, Per J R; Bergquist, Jonas

    2008-12-01

    Metabolomic fingerprinting is a growing strategy for characterizing complex biological samples without detailed prior knowledge about the metabolic system. A two-way analysis system with liquid separation and mass spectrometric detection provides detail-rich data suitable for such fingerprints. As a model study, human urine samples, obtained after intake of coffee, tea, or water, were analyzed with capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-TOF-MS). In-house-developed software (in Matlab) was utilized to manage and explore the large amount of data acquired (230 CE-MS runs, each with 50-100 million nonzero data points). After baseline and noise reduction, followed by suitable binning in time and m/z, the data sets comprised 9 and 14 million data points in negative and positive ESI mode, respectively. Finally, a signal threshold was applied, further reducing the number to about 100 000 data points per data set. A set of interactive exploratory tools, utilizing principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) results based on a general linear model, facilitated visual interpretation with score plots (for group assessment) and differential fingerprints (for "hot spot" detection). In the model study highly significant differences due to beverage intake were obtained among the 10 first principal components (p coffee" and "tea or water" indicated several "hot spots" with highly elevated intensities (e.g., for uncharged masses 93, 94, 109, 119, 123, 132, 148, 169, 178, 187, 190, and 193) suitable for further analysis, for example, with tandem MS.

  1. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPIC Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Urine Test: Creatinine Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine ... Video) Urinary Tract Infections Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Kidneys and Urinary Tract Contact Us Print Resources ...

  2. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opening of the vagina. To collect the urine sample: Keeping your labia spread open, urinate a small amount into the toilet bowl, then stop the flow of urine. Hold the urine cup a few inches (or a ...

  3. Urination - difficulty with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common cause is infection of the prostate or urinary tract. Symptoms of a possible infection include: Burning or pain with urination Frequent urination Cloudy urine Sense of urgency (strong, sudden urge to urinate) The problem can ...

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY PATTERNS OF PRE OPERATIVE MID STREAM URINE WITH RENAL PELVIC URINE AND STONE TO PREDICT UROSEPSIS FOLLOWING PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTOMY: A PROSPECTIVE CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Vardhana Reddy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is the most frequently performed surgery for stone disease at our institution. Nearly 100 PCNL procedures are being performed in a year at our institution. Septicemia following PCNL can be catastrophic despite sterile preoperative urine and prophylactic antibiotics. Infected stones, obstructed kidneys , and comorbidit y have been held responsible. In this study we analyzed various culture specimens, namely Mid - stream urine (MSU, renal pelvic urine and crushed stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS : We performed a prospective clinical study in all our patients undergoing PCNL b etween January 2013 and December 2014. MSU was sent for culture and sensitivity testing (C&S one day prior to surgery. Percutaneous access into the ipsilateral pelvicaliceal system is achieved under image intensification using a fine, 14 gauge Kellet need le. Urine from the pelvicaliceal system is first aspirated and sent as pelvic urine C&S. Stone fragments are collected to be proces0sed for C&S. The data collected were divided into 3 main groups, that is MSU C&S, pelvic urine C&S and stone C&S. RESULTS : A total of 83 patients were included in the study, of this MSU C&S was positive in 9/83 (10.8% patients, Pelvic C&S in 10 /73 (13.7% patients and Stone C&S in 25/83 (30.1% patients. Out of 25 cases of stone culture positive patients 17 patients develope d Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS but only 2 patients developed SIRS in MSU C & S positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that positive stone C&S is the better predictor of potential urosepsis than MSU. Stone cultur e is available only after surgery but appears to be the best guide for antibiotic therapy in case of sepsis. So the routine collection of stone for C&S will be beneficial

  5. Thin layer chromatography of camel urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Hab,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available General screening of 10 camel urine samples was carried out to determine the most common constituent of camel urine. Samples used were crude, ethanolic and chlorofermic extracts and compared with their lyophilysed urine. The study revealed the presence of alkaloids and triterpene. The objectives of this investigation are to verify camel urine major chemical constituents which are extremely valuable information for detecting new drugs of natural origin.

  6. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  7. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  8. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the oropharynx and urine among sexually active men: a comparative study of infection by papillomavirus and other organisms, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazufumi; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Shohei; Wakatsuki, Akira; Kobori, Yoshitomo; Nakashima, Kazuyoshi; Ishii, Yasunori; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio

    2014-01-27

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has shown a gradual increase in male predominance due to the increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated OSCC. However, the mode of HPV transmission to the oral cavity is poorly understood, and little is known about the epidemiology of oral HPV infection in men. The prevalence rates of HPV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp. were compared in the oropharynx (oral cavity) and urine of male Japanese patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. The study population consisted of 213 men aged 16 - 70 years old (mean: 34.4 years old). Oropharyngeal gargles and urine were collected, and sedimented cells were preserved in liquid-based cytology solution. After DNA extraction, β-globin and infectious organisms were analyzed by a PCR-based method. The HPV genotype was determined by HPV GenoArray test. β-Globin was positive in 100% and 97.7% of oral and urine samples, respectively. HPV detection rates were 18.8% and 22.1% in oral and urine samples, respectively, suggesting that the prevalence of HPV infection in the oral cavity was similar to that in the urinary tract. N. gonorrhoeae was more prevalent in oral (15.6%) than urine samples (9.1%), whereas C. trachomatis was detected more frequently in urine (15.9%) than oral samples (4.2%). The detection rates of M. genitalium, M. hominis, and Ureaplasma spp. were 5.2%, 10.3%, and 16.0% in oral samples, and 7.7%, 6.3%, and 19.2% in urine, respectively. There were no significant differences in the detection rates of Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma spp. between anatomical locations. The distribution of HPV types were similar in oral and urine samples, and HPV16 was the most common type. The majority of men with HPV infection in both the oral cavity and urine had concordant oral and urinary HPV infection. The presence of urinary HPV infection was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, with an odds

  9. Photoluminescence of urine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-02-01

    Photoexcitation and luminescence spectra of dried urine sample under laser excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra of urine are determined by luminescence of urea which is the main component of urine. The presence of pathological salts in urine leads to the long-wave shifting of maxima of luminescence and to the decreasing of luminescence intensity.

  10. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  11. Comparative evaluation of hydroxyproline in urine and in serum as a possible clinical parameter for radiation-induced destruction of connective tissue due to fractionated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinartz, G.; Wurst, F.; Struck, H.; Dombrowa, B.

    1981-06-01

    In the course of postoperative fractionated radiation therapy hydroxyproline was evaluated as a biochemical parameter of radiation damage in 60 patients with different tumour diseases. At different times before, during and after therapy, hydroxyproline in serum was evaluated according to the method of Dabew and Struck, hydroxyproline in urine according to the test combination 'hypronosticon' (Organon-Technika). There was no correlation to be found between hydroxyproline in serum or urine, clinical course of disease and radiation dose. Possible explanations were discussed.

  12. Children's Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka

    2013-01-01

    . For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake...

  13. Effect of magnetic field strength on NMR-based metabonomic human urine data. Comparative study of 250, 400, 500, and 800 MHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Malmendal, Anders; Petersen, Bent O.;

    2007-01-01

    Metabonomic analysis of urine utilizing high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and chemometric techniques has proven valuable in characterizing the biochemical response to an intervention. To assess the effect of magnetic field strength on information contained in NMR-based metabonomic data sets, 1H NM...

  14. Comparative estimation of use potentialities of salt-accumulating and salt-eliminating halophytes for inclusion of NaCl contained in human mineralized urine in BLSS's mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kudenko, Yurii; Griboskaya, Illiada; Shklavtsova, Ekaterina; Balnokin, Yurii; Popova, Larissa; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    Comparative potentialities of different halophytes' cultivation on a human mineralized urine containing NaCl with the aim of this salt inclusion into the intrasystem BLSS mass exchange were investigated. Two halophyte species were studied namely, salt-accumulating (Salicornia europaea) and salt-eliminating (Limonium gmelinii). During the first two vegetation weeks the plants had been grown on the Knop solution; then a daily norm of the human mineralized urine was gradually added in the experiment solutions. During vegetation the model solutions simulating the urine mineral composition were gradually added in the control solutions. The NaCl concentration in the experiment and control solutions of the first treatment was 9 g/l and that of the second treatment was 20 g/l. The mineralized human urine exposed some inhibitory action on Salicornia europaea and Limonium gmelinii plants. The experiment plants' productivity was lower in comparison with the control. As far as Limonium gmelinii appears to be a perennial plant the growth rate and productivity of this halophyte species was signifi- cantly lower in comparison with Salicornia europaea. Na content in Salicornia europaea plants was higher in comparison with sodium amount emitted by Limonium gmelinii. Consequently Salicornia europaea appears to be a more perspective halophyte for its further use in BLSS aiming at involvement of sodium chloride contained in human liquid wastes in intrasystem mass exchange.

  15. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  16. Protein urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urine albumin; Proteinuria; Albuminuria Images White nail syndrome Protein urine test References Gerber GS, Brendler CB. Evaluation of the urologic patient: history, physical examination, and urinalysis. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi ...

  17. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  18. Urine concentration test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003608.htm Urine concentration test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to ...

  19. A comparative analysis between instrument methods and microscope test method in testing urine red blood cells and urine white blood cells%仪器分析法与显微镜法检测尿液细胞成分比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽丹; 曾莉; 李斌; 谭平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the similarities and differences between the instrument analysis detection method and microscopy in urine cell components,to provide a basis for improving the quality of urine test.Methods We used UF-1 00 automatic urine sediment analyzer,MA-4280KB urine dry chemistry analyzer and OlympusCX21 microscopy to test 71 0 samples,and the results were compared. Results Urine analyzer,urine dry chemistry analyzer and microscopy detection of urinary red blood cell (RBC)and white blood cell (WBC)showed statistically significant differences (P<0.01 ).Urinary sediment analysis and urine dry chemistry analysis had signifi-cant difference (WBC:P<0.01 ,RBC:P<0.05 ).When urinary sediment analysis was used with urine dry chemistry analysis to test WBC and RBC in urine,the sensitivity was improved in parallel,and the specificity was improved in series.Conclusions Dif-ferent detection principles of the three methods lead to differences in test results.Appropriate detection method should be chosen ac-cording to the objective of clinical diagnosis,and combination of detection method can be used,when necessary,to improve the accu-racy of test results.%目的:探讨仪器分析法与显微镜法检测尿液细胞成分的异同,为提高尿液检测质量提供依据。方法采用UF-100全自动尿沉渣分析仪、MA-4280KB尿干化学分析仪和OlympusCX21显微镜3种方法对710份尿样进行检测,并对结果进行比较分析。结果尿沉渣分析仪、尿干化学分析仪与显微镜法检测尿液红细胞(RBC)和白细胞(WBC)结果差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.01),尿沉渣分析法与尿干化学分析法差异亦有统计学意义(WBC:P<0.01,RBC:P<0.05),尿沉渣分析法与尿干化学分析法联合检测尿液白细胞和红细胞,并联时灵敏度有一定提高,串联时特异度提高明显。结论3种方法检测原理不同导致检验结果存在差异,要根据临床诊断目的选

  20. Effect of magnetic field strength on NMR-based metabonomic human urine data. Comparative study of 250, 400, 500, and 800 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Malmendal, Anders; Petersen, Bent O; Madsen, Jens Chr; Pedersen, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Hoppe, Camilla; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Duus, Jens Ø

    2007-09-15

    Metabonomic analysis of urine utilizing high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and chemometric techniques has proven valuable in characterizing the biochemical response to an intervention. To assess the effect of magnetic field strength on information contained in NMR-based metabonomic data sets, 1H NMR spectra were acquired on 250-, 400-, 500-, and 800-MHz instruments, respectively, on the same set of human urine samples collected before and after dietary interventions with milk and with meat proteins. Partial least-squares regression discriminant analyses (PLS-DA) were performed in order to elucidate the ability of the 1H spectra acquired at various field strengths to identify possible spectral differences and discriminate between pre- and postintervention samples. The loadings from PLS-DA contained the same spectral regions, implying that the same metabolites were involved in the discrimination independent of magnetic field strength. The investigation revealed a strong increase in prediction performance and thereby spectral information content when increasing the magnetic field strength from 250 to 500 MHz, while from 500 to 800 MHz the increase was less pronounced.

  1. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bekö

    Full Text Available Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di(isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw. For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum, which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

  2. Comparative evaluation of seven different sample treatment approaches for large-scale multiclass sport drug testing in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Romero, Juan C; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-09-26

    Sample preparation is a critical step in large-scale multiclass analysis such as sport drug testing. Due to the wide heterogeneity of the analytes and the complexity of the matrix, the selection of a correct sample preparation method is essential, looking for a compromise between good recoveries for most of the analytes and cleanliness of the extract. In the present work, seven sample preparation procedures based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) (with 5 different cartridges), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and sorbent-supported liquid extraction (SLE) were evaluated for multiclass sport drug testing in urine. The selected SPE sorbents were polymeric cartridges Agilent PLEXA™ and Oasis HLB™, mixed mode cation and anion exchange cartridges Oasis MAX™ and MCX™, and C18 cartridges. LLE was performed using tert-butyl methyl ether and SLE was carried out using Agilent Chem Elut™ cartridges. To evaluate the proposed extraction procedures, a list of 189 compounds were selected as representative from different groups of doping agents, including 34 steroids, 14 glucocorticosteroids, 24 diuretics and masking agents, 11 stimulants, 9 beta-agonist, 16 beta-blockers, 6 Selective Estrogen Receptors Modulators (SERMs), 24 narcotics and 22 other drugs of abuse/sport drugs. Blank urine samples were spiked at two levels of concentration, 2.5 and 25μgL(-1) and extracted with the different extraction protocols (n=6). The analysis of the extracts was carried out by liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The use of solid-phase extraction with polymer cartridges provided high recoveries for most of the analytes tested and was found the more suitable method for this type of application given the additional advantages such as low sample and solvent consumption along with increased automation and throughput.

  3. Comparison of two preparatory techniques for urine cytology.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of preparation of urine for cytology were compared retrospectively. In method 1 cells in the urine were fixed after the preparation of the smear; in method 2 the cells were fixed before smear preparation. Urine cytology reports were correlated with subsequent histological analysis. The specificities of urine cytology using both methods were high (99%). The sensitivity using method 1 was 87%; using method 2 it was 65%. This difference was significant. The cell preparation technique...

  4. Improvement in quantification of urine components: Alternate technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S

    2014-01-01

    Urea and creatinine are two important diagnostic components of urine. The study of creatinine in liquid phase is difficult due to its feeble concentration in urine. To bring down the detection limit, DCD Raman spectroscopy was employed. Raman studies in association with partial least square algorithm of artificial urine samples gave improved results in dried phase as compared to liquid phase. These findings were further validated on real urine samples.

  5. Urine testing for diabetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Marsden

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urine testing is relatively cheap and easy to do. Urine testing can be used to check for blood in the urine, to check for infection (by detecting the presence of white blood cells or protein and can show up other systemic problems such as liver problems (by showing abnormal bilirubin levels. Urine testing can also detect ketones in the urine.

  6. Pink urine syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis del Carpio-Orantes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present images we allude to a syndrome of low incidence, characterized by pink urine, being related to factors such as obesity, and being triggered by abdominal surgeries, use of propofol, among others. Being favoured by the presence of abundant crystals of uric acid in the urine confers the typical pink coloration.

  7. The influence Bladder Training Initiation to the Urine Residual of Stroke Patients with Urine Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Hidayati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The stroke patients usually experience with various dysfunction, including disturbance in elimination because of neurogenic bladder. Urine residue can be used to detect the bladder function in contracting and voiding urine. This research was aimed to compare bladder training initiation after stroke patients have passed the acute phase and one day before the urine catheter was removal. This research was used Quasy experiment posttest-only design with a comparison group design. The sample in this research taking by purposive random sampling method. Urine residue measuring with bladder scan and recorded in the observation sheet. The mean of urine residue in the treatment group was smaller (54,00 ml with SD=144,22 ml if compared with the urine residue volume in control group (101,71 ml with SD=42,55 ml. The influence bladder training in both of treatment and control groups and the differences of the urine residue volume was analyzed with t test independent, there wes no differences between urine residue volume in the groups (p=0,84. Therefore the health institution must consider to develop the system and made a procedure in bladder training program’s and the nurse must do bladder training before the urine catheter was removal. Keywords: bladder training, stroke patient, neurogenic bladder, nurse

  8. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) ... español Sangre en la orina (hematuria) What Is Hematuria? When blood gets into a person's urine (pee), ...

  9. Comparative assessment of blood and urine analyses in patients with acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol in clinical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, Yury Nikolaevich; Lisovik, Zhanna Andreevna; Belova, Maria Vladimirovna; Luzhnikov, Evgeny Alekseevich; Livanov, Alexandr Sergeevich

    2005-01-01

    Acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol are actual in Russia in the recent years. Comparison of analytic facilities of modern analytical techniques: chromatographic (HPLC, GC, GC-MS) and immuno-chemical (FPIA) in clinical toxicology for urgent diagnostics, assessment of the severity of acute poisoning and the efficacy of the treatment in patients with acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs, narcotics and alcohol have been done. The object of the study were serum, blood, urine of 611 patients with acute poisonings by amitriptyline, clozapine, carbamazepine, opiates and also alcohol. Threshold concentrations (threshold, critical and lethal) of the toxicants and their active metabolites which corresponded to different degrees of poisoning severity have been determined. The most comfortable and informative screening method for express diagnostics and assessment of severity of acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs and narcotics showed the HPLC with using automatic analyzers. FPIA using the automatic analyzer could be applied for screening studies, if group identification is enough. GC-FID method is advisable in case of poisoning by medical substances and narcotics in view of repeated investigation for assessment of the efficacy of the therapy. GC-MS could be advisable for confirming the results of other methods. GC-TCD possess high sensitivity and specificity and is optimal for express differential diagnostics and quantitative assessment of acute poisoning by ethanol and other alcohols.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Urine Testing by Different Methods in Pregnant Women%不同检查方法对孕妇尿检测结果的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芒会; 张利侠; 胡淑玲; 弥鹏; 王莉; 张连

    2013-01-01

    目的 究UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪对孕妇尿检测结果的可靠性分析.方法 随机选择100例怀孕妇女中段尿及100例门诊患者中段尿,用UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪、干化学分析仪及显微镜检查测定,对比三种方法的结果,分析UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪产生假阳性的原因.结果 UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪对孕妇尿的阳性预测值:白细胞为67.8%,红细胞为61.9%,管型为16.7%,上皮细胞为91.0%,结晶为57.1%.其他患者的阳性预测值:白细胞为89.3%,红细胞为83.3%,管型为65.5%,上皮细胞为93.6%,结晶为87.1%.干化学对孕妇尿的阳性预测值:白细胞为88.9%,红细胞为81.1%,对其他患者的阳性预测值:白细胞为96.1%,红细胞为81.6%.结论 UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪对孕妇尿各参数的阳性预测值及干化学对孕妇尿白细胞的阳性预测值低于其他患者.因此当孕妇尿干化学与UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪检测结果有差异时必须进行显微镜检查,对假阳性结果进行修正.%Objective To examine the reliability of urine testing by urinary sediment analyzer (UF-1000i) in pregnant women. Methods One hundred middle-urine samples were randomly collected from pregnant women and non-pregnant patients. Comparing the results of urine testing which were examined by three different methods, urinary sediment analyzer (UF-1000i),dry chemistry analyzer and microscopy,and finding the reasons that lead to? false positive results in urinary sediment analyzer (UF-1000i). Results The positive predictive values (PPV) of white blood cells (WBC),red blood cells (RBC), tube, epithelial cells and the crystal in urine testing from pregnant women by urinary sediment analyzer were 67. 8%,61. 9%, 16. 7%, 91.0% and 57. 1% , respectively, and from non-pregnant patients were 89. 3% , 83. 3% , 65. 5% , 93. 6% and 87. 1%. The PPV of WBC and RBC in urine testing from pregnant women by dry chemistry analyzer were 88. 9% and 81. 1% , respectively, and from non

  11. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  12. Drug screening in urine by cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) and kinetic interaction of microparticles in solution (KIMS): a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwettmann, Lutz; Külpmann, Wolf-Rüdiger; Vidal, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Two commercially available drug-screening assays were evaluated: the Roche kinetic interaction of microparticles in solution (KIMS) assay and the Microgenics cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA). Urine samples from known drug-abuse patients were analyzed for amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, benzoylecgonine, cannabinoids, LSD, methadone and opiates. Samples with discordant findings for the two assays were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Amphetamines showed 96.0% concordant results, with two false positive findings by CEDIA, three by KIMS and a further two false negatives by KIMS. Barbiturates showed 99.4% concordant results, with one false negative by KIMS. Benzodiazepines showed 97.4% concordant results, with two false negatives by KIMS (cutoff 100 microg/L, CEDIA cutoff 300 microg/L). Benzoylecgonine showed 17.8% concordant positive and 82.2% concordant negative results and no false finding by either assay. Cannabinoids showed 99.3% concordant results, with one sample negative by KIMS at a cutoff of 50 microg/L and positive by CEDIA (cutoff 25 microg/L). For LSD, 6.7% of findings were not in agreement. Methadone showed 97.5% concordant results, with two false positives by CEDIA, and one false positive and one false negative by KIMS. Opiates showed 96.9% concordant results, with no false KIMS results, but four false positives by CEDIA. The results indicate that the agreement of the CEDIA and KIMS results for the eight drugs is rather good (93.3-100%).

  13. 建立尿有形成分参考区间方法学的比较研究%A comparative study on the reference interval establishment of urine cell count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾春刚

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较分析离心法与不离心法尿沉渣显微镜检验的细胞学诊断效能,确定离心法的生物参考区间.方法 对尿液标本分别使用离心法和不离心法定量计数每微升红细胞(RBC)、白细胞(WBC)、上皮细胞个数,对2种方法的细胞学诊断效能比较分析.根据尿液分析试纸条浸渍法分析结果,筛选蛋白(PRO)、RBC、WBC全阴性(“-”)的标本,制定离心法尿沉渣显微镜检验的生物参考区间.结果 受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线下面积离心法RBC为0.652、不离心法RBC为0.663、离心法WBC为0.684、不离心法WBC为0.665;离心法上皮细胞、WBC与不离心法比较差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05);RBC 2种方法之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);女性上皮细胞、RBC、WBC第95百分位分别为23.0、2.4、4.1,男性分别为3.0、2.3、4.0.结论 离心法尿沉渣检验并不能提高细胞学诊断阳性率,离心法与不离心法尿沉渣生物参考区间不能混用,鉴于尿液检验标准化推广和临床,应建立离心法生物参考区间.%Objective To compare the cytology diagnostic efficacy of urinary sediment by microscopy before and after centrifugation, and determine the biological reference interval of the centrifuged urine cell count method. Methods Urine specimens were examined by microscopy before and after centrifugation respectively, and the red blood cell (RBC) count (/μL) , white blood cell (WBC) count (/μL) and epithelial cell count (/μL) were recorded and compared the cytology diagnostic efficacies of the 2 methods. The normal urine specimens in which protein (PRO) , RBC and WBC were confirmed all negative by urine dipstick chemical analysis were used to determine the biological reference interval of the centrifuged urine cell count method. Results After receiver operating characteristic ( ROC) curve analysis, the areas under the ROC curve of the 2 methods applied to RBC and WBC were 0. 652 and 0. 684 for centrifuged

  14. Comparative proteomics of uropathogenic Escherichia coli during growth in human urine identify UCA-like (UCL) fimbriae as an adherence factor involved in biofilm formation and binding to uroepithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurpel, Daniël J; Totsika, Makrina; Allsopp, Luke P; Webb, Richard I; Moriel, Danilo G; Schembri, Mark A

    2016-01-10

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the primary cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) in humans. For the successful colonisation of the human urinary tract, UPEC employ a diverse collection of secreted or surface-exposed virulence factors including toxins, iron acquisition systems and adhesins. In this study, a comparative proteomic approach was utilised to define the UPEC pan and core surface proteome following growth in pooled human urine. Identified proteins were investigated for subcellular origin, prevalence and homology to characterised virulence factors. Fourteen core surface proteins were identified, as well as eleven iron uptake receptor proteins and four distinct fimbrial types, including type 1, P, F1C/S and a previously uncharacterised fimbrial type, designated UCA-like (UCL) fimbriae in this study. These pathogenicity island (PAI)-associated fimbriae are related to UCA fimbriae of Proteus mirabilis, associated with UPEC and exclusively found in members of the E. coli B2 and D phylogroup. We further demonstrated that UCL fimbriae promote significant biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces and mediate specific attachment to exfoliated human uroepithelial cells. Combined, this study has defined the surface proteomic profiles and core surface proteome of UPEC during growth in human urine and identified a new type of fimbriae that may contribute to UTI.

  15. Urine protein electrophoresis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine protein electrophoresis; UPEP; Multiple myeloma - UPEP; Waldenström macroglobulinemia - UPEP; Amyloidosis - UPEP ... special paper and apply an electric current. The proteins move and form visible bands. These reveal the ...

  16. Urinating more at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium level Certain medicines, including water pills (diuretics) Diabetes insipidus Waking often during the night to urinate can ... medicines are you taking? Have you changed your diet? Do you drink caffeine and alcohol? If so, ...

  17. Sodium urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine sodium level may be a sign of: Adrenal glands releasing too much hormone ( hyperaldosteronism ) Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) Diarrhea and fluid loss Heart failure Kidney problems, such as chronic kidney disease or ...

  18. PBG urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  19. Comparison of two preparatory techniques for urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhundee, J; Rigby, H S

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of preparation of urine for cytology were compared retrospectively. In method 1 cells in the urine were fixed after the preparation of the smear; in method 2 the cells were fixed before smear preparation. Urine cytology reports were correlated with subsequent histological analysis. The specificities of urine cytology using both methods were high (99%). The sensitivity using method 1 was 87%; using method 2 it was 65%. This difference was significant. The cell preparation technique therefore significantly changes the sensitivity of urine cytology. Cellular fixation after smear preparation is preferable to smear preparation after fixation. PMID:2266176

  20. Perbandingan kandungan iodium dalam urin antara sampel urin 24 jam dan on spot pada anak usia sekolah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Ayu Kurnia Putri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urine Iodine Concentration (UIC is the indicator to assess iodine status. UIC from 24-hour urine collection appropriate to used as a direct measure of the iodine status and helps to validate the estimates intake of iodine. 24-hours urine collection is not practical in large studies and epidemiological surveys because it is quite difficult to complete and accurate collection. WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommend the use of on spot urine collection. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare of 24-hour urine collection and spot urine collection for the assessment UIC in children. Method: The cross-sectional study was applied in Bogor. UIC was measured in 24-hour urine and parallel collected three spot urine namely on spot 1 collected morning, on spot 2 collected afternoon, and on spot 3 collected evening, sample urine collected from 44 healthy children age 10-13 years. UIC of 24-hour urine and one spot urine analyzed in the laboratory GAKY FK UNDIP using acid digestion method. Results: The average UIC from 24-hour urine collection was 179.77 ± 56.4 µg/l and UIC from on spot urine collection were on spot morning 145.30 ± 63.6 µg/l, on spot afternoon 159.95 ± 64.5 µg/l, and on spot evening 167.50 ± 66.1 µg/l. However, UIC correlation between UIC from on spot afternoon and UIC 24-hour (r = 0.456 with 66.67 % sensitivity and 75.61 % specificity. Conclusion: UIC urine samples from lunch to dinner more accurately reflects the UIC 24 hours to categorize the iodine status of the population. UIC from spot urine samples collected on the afternoon can be used as an alternative to evaluate the iodine status of school-age children.

  1. Comparison of routine urinalysis and urine Gram stain for detection of bacteriuria in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Leilani Ireland; Sullivan, Lauren A; Johnson, Valerie; Morley, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    To determine the utility of performing urine Gram stain for detection of bacteriuria compared to routine urine sediment examination and bacterial aerobic urine culture. Prospective, observational study. University teaching hospital. Urine samples acquired via cystocentesis through convenience sampling from 103 dogs presenting to a tertiary referral institution. All samples underwent routine urinalysis, including sediment examination, as well as urine Gram stain and quantitative bacterial aerobic urine culture. The urine Gram stain demonstrated improved sensitivity (96% versus 76%), specificity (100% versus 77%), positive predictive value (100% versus 83%), and negative predictive value (93% versus 69%) when identifying bacteriuria, compared to routine urine sediment examination. The urine Gram stain is highly sensitive and specific when detecting the presence of bacteria in canine urine samples. Gram staining should be considered when bacteriuria is highly suspected and requires rapid identification while bacterial culture is pending. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  2. The human urine metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhaila Bouatra

    Full Text Available Urine has long been a "favored" biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS, direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify a total of: 209 (209 by NMR, 179 (85 by GC-MS, 127 (127 by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40 by ICP-MS and 10 (10 by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database

  3. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Virginia M., E-mail: vweaver@jhsph.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Vargas, Gonzalo García [Faculty of Medicine, University of Juárez of Durango State, Durango (Mexico); Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Coahuila, Coahuila, México (Mexico); Silbergeld, Ellen K. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rothenberg, Stephen J. [Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Centro de Investigacion en Salud Poblacional, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Fadrowski, Jeffrey J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rubio-Andrade, Marisela [Faculty of Medicine, University of Juárez of Durango State, Durango (Mexico); Parsons, Patrick J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Steuerwald, Amy J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  4. Phenylpyruvic acid in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulemans, O.; Vergeer, E.G.

    1960-01-01

    The method of The, Fleury And Vink for the determination of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) in urine is modified by measuring the extinction after the green colour with ferric chloride has faded, and subtracting this extinction from that found initially. More accurate values are obtained and low PPA values

  5. Genetics Home Reference: maple syrup urine disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) Genetic Testing Registry: Classical maple syrup urine disease Genetic Testing Registry: Intermediate maple syrup urine disease Genetic Testing Registry: Maple syrup urine disease Other Diagnosis ...

  6. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser induced detection and liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry-based desmosine assays in urine of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Fabio; Fumagalli, Marco; Piccinini, Paolo; Stolk, Jan; Luisetti, Maurizio; Viglio, Simona; Tinelli, Carmine; Iadarola, Paolo

    2012-11-30

    Evidences accumulated over the past years that desmosines could be attractive indicators of elastic fibre degradation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease have raised substantial interest with the development of reliable assays to measure their concentration in body fluids. It is a firm belief of researchers working in this field that accurate assessment of desmosine concentration would improve the understanding of elastin metabolism disorders and allow these cross-links to become a useful tool in the diagnosis and clinical management of these diseases. From among the variety of techniques available on the market, HPLC; CE and LC-MS have proved to be successful tools for measuring desmosines in biological fluids. However, differences in the analytical performance of methods may hinder the comparability of data, thus limiting the analytical strength and clinical utility of methods themselves. To address the relative contribution of different factors to the exact quantification of desmosines, the full potential of MEKC-LIF and LC-MS, the two systems that better than others offer more selective and sensitive detection for desmosine analysis, was studied on 56 urine samples. The results of this systematic comparative study underline the significant benefits of LC-MS over MEKC-LIF in terms of precision and sensitivity. Nevertheless, MEKC-LIF could be an attractive alternative in routine laboratories lacking the LC-MS instrumentation and skills to run these methods.

  7. HPV testing in first-void urine provides sensitivity for CIN2+ detection comparable with a smear taken by a clinician or a brush-based self-sample: cross-sectional data from a triage population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, A; Del Pino, M; Molijn, A; Rodriguez, A; Torné, A; de Koning, M; Ordi, J; van Kemenade, F; Jenkins, D; Quint, W

    2017-08-01

    To compare the sensitivity of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and genotype detection in self-collected urine samples in the morning (U1), and later on (U2), brush-based self-samples (SS), and clinician-taken smears (CTS) for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+) in a colposcopic referral population. Cross-sectional single-centre study. A colposcopy clinic in Spain. A cohort of 113 women referred for colposcopy after an abnormal Pap smear. Women undergoing colposcopy with biopsy for abnormal Pap smears were sent a device (Colli-Pee™, Novosanis, Wijnegem, Belgium) to collect U1 on the morning of colposcopy. U2, CTS, and SS (Evalyn brush™, Rovers Medical Devices B.V., Oss, the Netherlands) were also analysed. All samples were tested for HPV DNA using the analytically sensitive SPF10-DEIA-LiPA25 assay and the clinically validated GP5+/6+-EIA-LMNX. Histologically confirmed CIN2+ and hrHPV positivity for 14 high-risk HPV types. Samples from 91 patients were analysed. All CIN3 cases (n = 6) tested positive for hrHPV in CTS, SS, U1, and U2 with both HPV assays. Sensitivity for CIN2+ with the SPF10 system was 100, 100, 95, and 100%, respectively. With the GP5+/6+ assay, sensitivity was 95% in all sample types. The sensitivities and specificities for both tests on each of the sample types did not significantly differ. There was 10-14% discordance on hrHPV genotype. CIN2+ detection using HPV testing of U1 shows a sensitivity similar to that of CTS or brush-based SS, and is convenient. There was substantial to almost excellent agreement between all samples on genotype with both hrHPV assays. There was no advantage in testing U1 compared with U2 samples. Similar CIN2+ sensitivity for HPV testing in first-void urine, physician-taken smear and brush-based self-sample. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Urine Diagnosis for Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ The key to saving the life of a person suffering from a malignant tumor lies in early diagnosis and surgery. Chinese scientists have developed a new method of diagnosing cancer by analyzing a person's urine. This feat was acclaimed by a panel of experts at a meeting under the auspices of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in July 30 in Dalian, in northeast China's Liaoning Province.

  9. Polyglycolic acid (Dexon) sutures in Escherichia coli infected urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Schwartz, W

    1979-01-01

    The tensile strength, knot strength and stretch of polyglycolic acid (Dexon) was studied after emersion in physiological saline, sterile urine and infected urine. Tests were made each day under controlled conditions over a 10 day period. The results are compared with those of other earlier studie...

  10. Adulterants in Urine Drug Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S

    Urine drug testing plays an important role in monitoring licit and illicit drug use for both medico-legal and clinical purposes. One of the major challenges of urine drug testing is adulteration, a practice involving manipulation of a urine specimen with chemical adulterants to produce a false negative test result. This problem is compounded by the number of easily obtained chemicals that can effectively adulterate a urine specimen. Common adulterants include some household chemicals such as hypochlorite bleach, laundry detergent, table salt, and toilet bowl cleaner and many commercial products such as UrinAid (glutaraldehyde), Stealth® (containing peroxidase and peroxide), Urine Luck (pyridinium chlorochromate, PCC), and Klear® (potassium nitrite) available through the Internet. These adulterants can invalidate a screening test result, a confirmatory test result, or both. To counteract urine adulteration, drug testing laboratories have developed a number of analytical methods to detect adulterants in a urine specimen. While these methods are useful in detecting urine adulteration when such activities are suspected, they do not reveal what types of drugs are being concealed. This is particularly the case when oxidizing urine adulterants are involved as these oxidants are capable of destroying drugs and their metabolites in urine, rendering the drug analytes undetectable by any testing technology. One promising approach to address this current limitation has been the use of unique oxidation products formed from reaction of drug analytes with oxidizing adulterants as markers for monitoring drug misuse and urine adulteration. This novel approach will ultimately improve the effectiveness of the current urine drug testing programs. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment Of NPK In Human Male And Female Urine For Its Fertilising Potential In Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred L.K. Kuwornu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study evaluated concentrations of Nitrogen Phosphorus and Potassium in male and female urine stored over six months and its potential as a fertilizing agent in agriculture. Urinals were constructed to allow for easy collection of male and female urine and then stored in transparent bottles for six months in a greenhouse. Monthly triplicate analysis of male and female urine was done for nitrogen phosphorus potassium temperature pH and colour change. Bray P1 and Flame photometry methods were used in the determination of phosphorus and potassium contents and Kjedahl digestion and non-digestion direct methods for nitrogen content. Temperature pH and colour were determined using mercury thermometer temperaturepH meter and a colour chart. Results showed that nitrogen in female urine was significantly p0.05 higher than that in male urine after 2 to 5 months of storage. However there were no significant differences p0.05 with respect to the direct method. Contrastingly phosphorus in male urine was significantly p0.05 higher than that in female urine after 2 to 3 months of storage but there were no significant differences in potassium content for all male and female urine samples. Generally NPK yields in both urine sources peaked four months after storage. There was a moderate positive correlation between the direct female urine Nitrogen and storage time. The phosphorus levels also correlated positively with storage time and temperature but weakly negative with pH. Generally urine nitrogen strongly correlated positively with potassium but moderately with temperature and pH. Colour of matured urine after six months storage was yellow for females and brown for males. NPK contents in both male 30.43.4-1-43.7 and female 34.46.5-1-62.8 urine were comparable to those of chemical fertilizers such as 21 N ammonia. However the nitrogen content of digested female urine was significantly higher than that of male urine. Phosphorus concentration was

  12. Application of the ThinPrep Imaging System in Urine Cytology A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemel, Bettien M.; Haarsma, Jolanda G.; Ruitenbeek, Teus; Groen, Henk; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In this prospective study, for the first time, the authors compared the accuracy of reading urine specimens using the ThinPrep Imager System (TIS) with the accuracy of conventional screening for the detection of abnormal urine cells. METHODS ThinPrep slides were made from 1455 urine speci

  13. Specificity, sensitivity, and operability of RSID™-urine for forensic identification of urine: comparison with ELISA for Tamm-Horsfall protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Sakurada, Koichi

    2012-11-01

    In this study, the specificity, sensitivity, and operability of RSID™-Urine, a new immunochromatographic test for urine identification, was evaluated and compared with ELISA detection of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP). Urine was successfully identified among other body fluids using RSID™-Urine and ELISA detection of THP. The detection limit of RSID™-Urine equated to 0.5 μL of urine; although the sensitivity of RSID™-Urine may be lower than that of ELISA detection of THP, it is thought to be sufficient for application to casework samples. However, results from RSID™-Urine must be interpreted with caution when the sample may have been contaminated with blood or vaginal fluid, because this might inhibit urine detection. The RSID™-Urine assay can be performed in just 15 min by dropping the extracted sample onto the test cassette. Therefore, RSID™-Urine should be an effective tool for the forensic identification of urine, in addition to ELISA detection of THP.

  14. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  15. Preparation and biodistribution of 186,188Re—HEDP for bone tumor therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗顺忠; 谯健; 等

    1996-01-01

    Radionuclides186,188Re,suitable for tumor therapy and with high specific activity,are prepared through irradiating natural metallic rhenium,instead of costly enriched target,Complexation of rhenium with HEDP(1-hydroxy ethylidene diphosphonate)is mainly dependent on pH values and the reductant concentrations in the medium,and the yield is not less than 0.95 in pH2.0-4.0 and SnⅡconcentration of 0.012-0.018mol/L.The 186,188ReHEDP complex has high stability in vitro and in vivo in the presence of protecting agent,and gives superior biological properties in small animals,similar to those of 153Sm-EDTMP including faster blood clearance,lower soft tissue residue and higher skeletal uptake with the peak of 0.2576 ID/g at 1h post injection(overseas report 0.0101 ID/g)comparable to that of 153m-EDTMP(0.2644ID/g) at 3h post injection.

  16. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  17. Urine sediment from a Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallatto, Valarie; Wood, Michael; Grindem, Carol

    2005-12-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Chihuahua was presented with stranguria and painful urination of 5 days duration. Cystine crystals were observed in low numbers in unstained urine sediment preparations, and a diagnosis of cystinuria was made. Uroliths were removed surgically from the urethra and the bladder, and mineral analysis indicated the stones were composed of 100% cystine. Cystinuria results from an inherited defect in renal tubular transport of cystine that affects many breeds and has been found as an autosomal recessive trait in Newfoundlands. Accurate identification of cystine crystals in urine is an important means of diagnosing cystinuria.

  18. Applying quality by design principles to the small-scale preparation of the bone-targeting therapeutic radiopharmaceutical rhenium-188-HEDP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Rogier; Ter Heine, Rob; Van Der Gronde, Toon; Selles, Suzanne; De Klerk, John; Bloemendal, Haiko; Hendrikse, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rhenium-188-HEDP (188Re-HEDP) is a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for treatment of osteoblastic bone metastases. No standard procedure for the preparation of this radiopharmaceutical is available. Preparation conditions may influence the quality and in vivo behaviour of this product. I

  19. Urine and serum concentrations of inhaled and oral terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Hostrup, Morten; Pedersen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    We examined urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic use of single and repetitive doses of inhaled and supratherapeutic oral use of terbutaline. We compared the concentrations in 10 asthmatics and 10 healthy subjects in an open-label, cross-over study with 2 mg inhaled and 10 mg oral....... Median (IQR) urine concentrations peaked in the period 0-4 h after inhalation with Cmax 472 (324) ng/mL in asthmatics and 661 (517) ng/mL in healthy subjects, and 4-8 h after oral use with Cmax 666 (877) ng/mL in asthmatic and 402 (663) ng/mL in healthy subjects. In conclusion we found no significant...... differences in urine and serum concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We compared urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic inhaled doses and supratherapeutic oral doses and observed significant statistical differences in both groups but found it impossible to distinguish between...

  20. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  1. Avian bornavirus in the urine of infected birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalobos AR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Alice R Villalobos21Zoological Medicine, 2Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV causes proventricular dilatation disease in multiple avian species. In severe clinical disease, the virus, while primarily neurotropic, can be detected in many organs, including the kidneys. We postulated that ABV could be shed by the kidneys and found in the urine of infected birds. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated viral N and P proteins of ABV within the renal tubules. We adapted a nonsurgical method of urine collection for use in parrots known to be shedding ABV in their droppings. We obtained urine without feces, and results were compared with swabs of fresh voided feces. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay performed on these paired samples from five birds indicated that ABV was shed in quantity in the urine of infected birds, and a single sample was urine-positive and fecal-negative. We suggest that urine sampling may be a superior sample for detection of birds shedding ABV, and advocate that additional birds, known to be shedding or infected with ABV, should be investigated via this method.Keywords: avian bornavirus, Psittaciformes, parrot, urine, proventricular dilatation disease

  2. Efficacy of Urine Samples in Biioavailability Study of Ranitidine

    OpenAIRE

    Sima Sadray; Hosnieh Tajerzedeh; Afshin Mohajer; Ahmad Mirfazaelian Mohammad Reza Rouini

    2003-01-01

    Urinary excretion of ranitidine is known to be almost 70% of the intact drug , therefore this drug would be a good candidate for bioavailability studies using urine samples. In this study the bioequivalency of two marketed formulations using both urine and plasma samples were investigated. 'Ranitidine' 150 mg tablets (generic) and 'Zantac' 150 mg tablets were compared in a double blind crossover study using eight healthy male volunteers. A simple and rapid HPLC method was ...

  3. Rheological and Infrared Spectroscopic Investigations of Normal and Chronic Kidney Disease Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ismail Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to examine the physical properties of urine of healthy donors and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD patients for possible early detection of proteinuria. Specific gravity, viscosity, surface tension, refractive index, electrical conductivity and IR spectroscopy of urine were studied. First morning urine and random urine samples were collected from healthy male donors and were considered as controls to compare with CKD patients. Urine from healthy donors treated with albumin also used in the study. The decrease in surface tension of CKD urines was observed due to high albumin excretion and increased blood urea nitrogen. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectra in the mid IR region were recorded for normal and albumin treated urine. It observed that peaks at 1641 cm-1 and 1450 cm-1 in IR spectra are the most specific peaks for urea and albumin, respectively. This method of detecting proteinuria is quick and cheaper, and is an alternate to eGFR.

  4. Evaluation of urine culture screening by light-scatter photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, D.C.; Thrupp, L.D.; Matsen, J.M.

    1981-08-01

    Urine screening for bacteriuria by light-scatter photometry (Autobac) was evaluated for accuracy and compared with a colony count by the calibrated loop method. Incubation time, inoculum size, precision, and interference of particulate matter were evaluated in an effort to standardize the screening procedure. Results showed that urines could be accurately screened for Enterobacteriaceae by inoculating a single Autobac cuvette chamber with 0.1 or 0.2 ml of urine and determining the voltage change after four hours. A change of greater than or equal to 0.2 units indicates significant bacteriuria. Decreased accuracy was noted for urines having greater than 10(5) cfu/ml of Pseudomonas species or gram-positive cocci, possibly because these organisms grow more slowly.

  5. Urine sampling techniques in symptomatic primary-care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anne; Aabenhus, Rune

    2016-01-01

    in primary care. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of urine culture from different sampling-techniques in symptomatic non-pregnant women in primary care. Methods: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline and Embase for clinical studies conducted in primary care using......Background: Choice of urine sampling technique in urinary tract infection may impact diagnostic accuracy and thus lead to possible over- or undertreatment. Currently no evidencebased consensus exists regarding correct sampling technique of urine from women with symptoms of urinary tract infection...... seven studies investigating urine sampling technique in 1062 symptomatic patients in primary care. Mid-stream-clean-catch had a positive predictive value of 0.79 to 0.95 and a negative predictive value close to 1 compared to sterile techniques. Two randomized controlled trials found no difference...

  6. Toilet compost and human urine used in agriculture: fertilizer value assessment and effect on cultivated soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, D; Sou Dakoure, M; Hijikata, N; Lahmar, R; Yacouba, H; Coulibaly, L; Funamizu, N

    2015-01-01

    Toilet compost (TC) and human urine are among natural fertilizers, which raise interest due to their double advantages to combine sanitation and nutrient recovery. However, combination of urine and TC is not so spread probably because the best ratio (urine/TC) is still an issue and urine effect on soil chemical properties remains poorly documented. This study aims to determine the best ratio of urine and TC in okra cultivation, by targeting higher fertilization effect combined with lower impact on soil chemical properties. Based on Nitrogen requirement of okra, seven treatments were compared: (T0) no fertilizer, (T1) chemical fertilizer (NPK: 14-23-14), (T2) 100% urine, (T3) 100% TC, (T4) ratio of 75% urine+25% TC, (T5) 50% urine+50% TC and (T6) 25% urine+75% TC. Results indicated that T4 (75% urine+25% TC) gave the highest plant height and yield. In contrast, T2 (100% urine) gave the lowest results among all treatments, indicating toxicity effects on plant growth and associated final yield. Such toxicity is confirmed by soil chemical properties at T2 with soil acidification and significant increase in soil salinity. In contrast, application of urine together with TC mitigates soil acidification and salinity, highlighting the efficiency of urine and TC combination on soil chemical properties. However, further investigation is necessary to refine better urine/TC ratio for okra production.

  7. Chemical differences between voided and bladder urine in the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis): implications for olfactory communication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Harelimana, Innocent H; Goodwin, Thomas E; Drea, Christine M

    2013-07-01

    Urine serves a communicative function in many mammalian species. In some species, the signaling function of urine can be enhanced by the addition of chemical compounds from glands along the distal portion of the urogenital tract. Although urine marking is the main mode of chemical communication in many primate species, there has been no study of the contribution of urogenital secretions to the chemical complexity of primate urine. Here, we compared the chemical composition of bladder urine versus voided urine in the aye-aye, Daubentonia madagascariensis, a strepsirrhine primate that relies on urine in intraspecific communication. Both types of urine, collected from each of 11 aye-ayes representing both sexes of varying adult ages, underwent headspace analysis via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Although the average number of compounds was similar in bladder and voided urine, 17% of the compounds detected occurred exclusively in voided urine (but only in a subset of individuals). An overall measure of chemical complexity (using a nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis) showed that both types of urine were chemically different at the individual level. There was no apparent sex or age differences in the chemical components found in aye-aye urine. Nonetheless, the individual dissimilarities between bladder urine and voided urine indicate chemical contributions from structures along the urogenital tract and offer further support for the relevance of urinary communication in the aye-aye.

  8. Toward a standardized urine proteome analysis methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Magali; Selevsek, Nathalie; Matondo, Mariette; Allory, Yves; Garin, Jerome; Masselon, Christophe D; Domon, Bruno

    2011-03-01

    Urine is an easily accessible bodily fluid particularly suited for the routine clinical analysis of disease biomarkers. Actually, the urinary proteome is more diverse than anticipated a decade ago. Hence, significant analytical and practical issues of urine proteomics such as sample collection and preparation have emerged, in particular for large-scale studies. We have undertaken a systematic study to define standardized and integrated analytical protocols for a biomarker development pipeline, employing two LC-MS analytical platforms, namely accurate mass and time tags and selected reaction monitoring, for the discovery and verification phase, respectively. Urine samples collected from hospital patients were processed using four different protocols, which were evaluated and compared on both analytical platforms. Addition of internal standards at various stages of sample processing allowed the estimation of protein extraction yields and the absolute quantification of selected urinary proteins. Reproducibility of the entire process and dynamic range of quantification were also evaluated. Organic solvent precipitation followed by in-solution digestion provided the best performances and was thus selected as the standard method common to the discovery and verification phases. Finally, we applied this protocol for platforms' cross-validation and obtained excellent consistency between urinary protein concentration estimates by both analytical methods performed in parallel in two laboratories. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Creating a urine black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.

  10. Urine suPAR levels compared with plasma suPAR levels as predictors of post-consultation mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    -suPAR), thereby exploring the possibility of replacing the blood sample with an easy obtainable urine sample. We enrolled 1,007 adults, older than 15 years of age, with a negative TB diagnosis between April 2004 and December 2006. Levels of U-suPAR and P-suPAR were available in 863 individuals. U......-suPAR was measured using a commercial ELISA (suPARnostic®). We found that U-suPAR carried significant prognostic information on mortality for HIV-infected subjects with an area under the ROC curve of 0.75. For HIV-negative individuals, little or no prognostic effect was observed. However, in both HIV positives...... and negatives, the predictive effect of U-suPAR was found to be inferior to that of P-suPAR....

  11. Monitoring Hydration Status Pre- and Post-Training among University Athletes Using Urine Color and Weight Loss Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marquitta C.; Salandy, Sinead T.; Beckford, Safiya E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hydration status pre- and post-training among university athletes using urine color and weight loss as indicators. Participants: Participants were 52 university athletes training for campus games in a developing country. Methods: Pre- and post-training urine specimens were compared with a standard urine color scale.…

  12. Miniaturized sample preparation method for determination of amphetamines in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Manami; Namera, Akira; Yashiki, Mikio; Kimura, Kojiro

    2004-07-16

    A simple and miniaturized sample preparation method for determination of amphetamines in urine was developed using on-column derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Urine was directly applied to the extraction column that was pre-packed with Extrelut and sodium carbonate. Amphetamine (AP) and methamphetamine (MA) in urine were adsorbed on the surface of Extrelut. AP and MA were then converted to a free base and derivatized to N-propoxycarbonyl derivatives using propylchloroformate on the column. Pentadeuterated MA was used as an internal standard. The recoveries of AP and MA from urine were 100 and 102%, respectively. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range of 0.50-50 microg/mL for AP and MA in urine. When urine samples containing two different concentrations (0.50 and 5.0 microg/mL) of AP and MA were determined, the intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation were 1.4-7.7%. This method was applied to 14 medico-legal cases of MA intoxication. The results were compared and a good agreement was obtained with a HPLC method.

  13. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment. In conclusion, adjustment of urine samples to a USG of 1.020 g/mL decreases risk of false negative doping tests after administration of oral salbutamol. Adjusting urine samples for USG might be useful when evaluating urine concentrations of salbutamol...... by the Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P = 0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4 h after...... in doping cases....

  14. Comparison of overnight, morning and 24-hour urine collections in the assessment of diabetic microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshøj, O; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Larsen, M L

    1987-01-01

    With the aim of comparing different urine collection periods in the assessment of micro-albuminuria, urinary albumin excretion rates (AERs) were measured in samples from 24 h, overnight, and morning urine collections in 54 patients aged 17 to 62 years with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus...... with a mean duration of 15 years. The AER in overnight urine was found to be reduced by 25% compared to the rate in 24 h and morning urine. Assessing the ability to predict a 24 h AER within the microalbuminuric range (20-200 micrograms/min) we found a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 88% for both...... overnight and morning urine samples. These values were slightly improved by relating AER to the excretion of creatinine and it is concluded that overnight as well as morning urine collections can be used when diagnosing microalbuminuria in insulin-dependent diabetics. Furthermore the results show...

  15. Male urination in the train

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loth, M.; Molenbroek, J.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study about hygiene in train toilets. The central problem is that with the existing train toilet design and the different groups of users it is impossible to keep the train toilet clean. In a conventional train, it is especially difficult for men to urinate

  16. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  17. Analysis of Detecting HIV-1 Antibody in Paired Urine and Serum Specimens from Drug Users by ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中夫; 李志军; 刘世亮; 李莉; 梁富雄; 郑锡文

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the consistency of the results from detecting HIV-1 antibody in the paired urine and serum specimens from drug users by ELISA.Methods: The paired urine and serum specimens from 273 drug users detained at a detoxification unit were collected, and the HIV-1 antibodies in the specimens of them were screened by urine and serum ELISA kits, respectively. Results: Of 273 serum specimens, 94 ones showed positive reaction and among 94 counterpart urine specimens, 93 ones also appeared positive reaction. Taking the results together,the consistent rate of HIV-1 antibody screened by urine and serum ELISA kits was 99.6%.Conclusion: The urine ELISA kit, which screened HIV-1 antibody of urine showing almost the same results tested by serum ELISA kit, is reliable. It is proposed that urine ELISA be introduced in many fields.

  18. Screening for human papillomavirus: Is urine useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K W D′Hauwers

    2009-01-01

    We looked at the usefulness of urine as a tool for HPV screening. Pubmed was searched with the words ′′HPV′′, ′′Urine,′′ and ′′HPV-DNA′′. The chance of finding HPV-DNA in urine is higher in men with lesions in the urethra than outside the urethra, and in women with abnormal cervical cytology. In general, the results of testing urine for HPV-DNA are better for women than for men, probably because of the anatomical position of the urethra to the vagina, vulva, and cervix. In both genders, urine HPV prevalence is higher in HIV pos patients and in high-risk populations. Urine, to screen asymptomatic low-risk-profile (women seems less useful because their urine samples are often inadequate. If urine proves to be the best medium to screen, a low-risk population remains controversial.

  19. PURPLE URINE BAG SYNDROME: AN ALARMING HUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbha Thulasi Ram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare phenomenon reported mostly in females on an indwelling catheter in chronically constipated with alkaline urine. It is secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubicin producing bacteria. Here we present this interesting case of an elderly woman who had purple colored urine bag

  20. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Too Short All About Puberty Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  1. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Puberty Train Your Temper Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  2. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Video: Getting an X-ray Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  3. Profiles of phytoestrogens in human urine from several Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Isobe, Tomohiko; Aldous, Kenneth M; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2010-09-08

    Intake of a diet rich in phytoestrogens has been associated with a decreased risk for hormone-dependent cancers in humans. Biomonitoring of phytoestrogens in human urine has been used to assess the intake of phytoestrogens. Although studies have reported phytoestrogen levels in urine specimens from the United States and Japan, little is known of human intake of phytoestrogens in other Asian countries. In this study we determined the concentrations of seven phytoestrogens, namely, enterolactone, enterodiol, daidzein, equol, O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), genistein, and coumestrol, in 199 human urine samples from three Asian countries, Vietnam (Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh), Cambodia (Phnom Penh), and India (Chennai and Kolkata), using a simple, sensitive, and reliable liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method. The residue levels of phytoestrogens in urine samples from the three Asian countries were compared with the concentrations in 26 urine samples from Japan (Ehime) and 16 urine samples from the United States (Albany), analyzed in this study. Among the phytoestrogens analyzed, isoflavones such as daidzein and genistein were predominant in urine samples from Vietnam; samples from Cambodia and India contained higher concentrations of enterolactone than isoflavones. Urinary concentrations of isoflavones in samples from Hanoi, Vietnam, were notably higher than the concentrations in samples from Cambodia, India, and the United States and similar to the concentrations in samples from Japan. The lowest concentrations of daidzein and the highest concentrations of enterolactone were found in urine samples from India. Concentrations of equol and O-DMA, which are microbial transformation products of daidzein (produced by gut microflora), were notably high in urine samples from Hanoi, Vietnam. The ratios of the concentration of equol or O-DMA to that of daidzein were significantly higher in samples from Hanoi than from Japan, indicating high

  4. Comparative Study of Urine Sediment Analysis with Microscopy before and after Kidney Biopsy among 282 Patients%肾活检术前后尿相差显微镜检查282例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮章茹; 殷玉敏; 王晋文; 刘虹

    2011-01-01

    目的 用尿相差显微镜检查探讨肾活检术前后患者血尿的变化及对临床诊治的影响.方法 对2008年1月至2011年7月间进行肾穿刺活检术,并且术前及术后尿样进行尿相差显微镜检查的282例患者的血尿进行分析研究,探讨其变化规律.结果 282例肾活检患者中临床诊断以慢性肾小球肾炎(包括无症状血尿和/或蛋白尿综合征)和原发性肾病综合症为多,继发性肾病以狼疮性肾炎为主,临床表现以血尿、蛋白尿和浮肿为主(42.6%),病理类型以系膜增生性肾炎(32.6%)、IgA肾病(18.8%)和微小病变肾病(16.0%)为主,术后血尿的发生率较高,以镜下血尿为主(74.8%),尿相差镜检以异形红细胞增加相对较多(46.2%),发生肉眼血尿的患者以肾功能异常者为多.结论 肾穿刺活检术后血尿增加有诸多原因,并非全由肾穿刺损伤血管引起,及时进行尿差显微镜检查,能迅速查明血尿原因,对临床正确处置具有重要的指导意义.%Objective To study the difference of microscopic hematuria before and after kidney biopsy and the influence on the therapy. Method We evaluated 282 patients' microscopic hematuria before and after kidney biopsy in our department from January 2008 to July 2011 and discussed the difference. Results 282 cases were chronic glomerulonephritis (including asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria syndrome) and essential nephritic syndrome, secondary kidney disease was lupus nephritis, mostly. Clinical manifestations were hematuria, proteinuria, and edema. However, pathological types including mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy and minor change disease. We found a high incidence of postoperative hematuria, mainly were shaped red blood cells detected by urine sediment analysis with microscopy. Moreover, patients with renal dysfunction were more likely to have gross hematuria. Conclusions Lots of reasons account for the increase of hematuria

  5. Efficacy of Urine Samples in Biioavailability Study of Ranitidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Sadray

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary excretion of ranitidine is known to be almost 70% of the intact drug , therefore this drug would be a good candidate for bioavailability studies using urine samples. In this study the bioequivalency of two marketed formulations using both urine and plasma samples were investigated. 'Ranitidine' 150 mg tablets (generic and 'Zantac' 150 mg tablets were compared in a double blind crossover study using eight healthy male volunteers. A simple and rapid HPLC method was also developed to analyze the drug concentration in both urine and plasma. Double peak phenomenon, observed in plasma samples, was omitted when the urine samples were used. Bioavailability of the two formulations calculated from urinary data were not significantly different, whereas the plasma data were considerably different (based on Cmax & Tmax but not AUC. Pharmacokinetic parameters resulted from urine regarding the rate of the absorption (Tmax-ud, (dDu/dtmax, Ka-ud did not correlate well with their respective plasma parameters (Tmax, Cmax, Ka, whereas those of absorption extent and elimination rates (plasma AUC, K and urinary Du  were well correlated. It is concluded that the urine sampling which has advantages of easy sample collection and extraction could be used for determination of the extent of absorption and rate of the elimination of ranitidine, since similar parameters can be obtained with easier sample collection and extraction, whereas for determination of absorption rate, Cmax & Tmax plasma data are preferred. Key words: Ranitidine, Bioavailability, HPLC, Plasma, Urine.

  6. Repeat urine cultures in children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risky Vitria Prasetyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the second leading cause of infection in children, following respiratory tract infections. Repeat urine cultures after antibiotic treatment are routinely obtained in clinical practice to verify proof of bacteriologic cure. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommended repeat cultures, due to increased cost and discomfort to patients. Objective To determine the frequency of positive repeat urine cultures after 3 days of antibiotics in children with UTIs. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on children with UTIs who visited the Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Child Health at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya from January 2006 to December 2011. Results of repeat urine cultures were obtained after 3 days of antibiotic treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results Of the 779 pediatric UTI cases, repeat urine cultures were performed in 264 (33.9% cases. Of the 264 patients who comprised our study, there were similar numbers of girls and boys (50.4% vs. 49.6%, respectively. The mean age of patients was 43.9 (SD 1.59 months and 35.5% of subjects were aged under 1 year. In the initial urine cultures of our subjects, Escherichia coli was the most common organism found, with 92 cases (34.8%, compared to 58 cases (21.9% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 29 cases (10.9% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rrepeat urine cultures showed no bacterial growth in 168 cases (63.6%. Conclusion Mostly negative repeat urine cultures will probably obviate the need of this test in daily routine practice. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:170-4].

  7. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  8. [Evolution of urine test paper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Akemi

    2014-07-01

    Qualitative urinalysis with test strips is utilized as a screening test. Test strip use has been incorporated in the diagnostic criteria of a variety of clinical practice guidelines. The strips can measure many parameters and have the advantage of being able to rapidly provide results at a low cost. I hope that the standardization of parameters on test strip use will progress further, and that new urine biomarkers will be included.

  9. The performance of fully automated urine analysis results for predicting the need of urine culture test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis and urine culture are most common tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study is to examine the diagnostic performance of urine analysis and the role of urine analysis to determine the requirements for urine culture. Methods: Urine culture and urine analysis results of 362 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Culture results were taken as a reference for chemical and microscopic examination of urine and diagnostic accuracy of the test parameters, that may be a marker for urinary tract infection, and the performance of urine analysis were calculated for predicting the urine culture requirements. Results: A total of 362 urine culture results of patients were evaluated and 67% of them were negative. The results of leukocyte esterase and nitrite in chemical analysis and leukocytes and bacteria in microscopic analysis were normal in 50.4% of culture negative urines. In diagnostic accuracy calculations, leukocyte esterase (86.1% and microscopy leukocytes (88.0% were found with high sensitivity, nitrite (95.4% and bacteria (86.6% were found with high specificity. The area under the curve was calculated as 0.852 in ROC analysis for microscopic examination for leukocytes. Conclusion: Full-automatic urine devices can provide sufficient diagnostic accuracy for urine analysis. The evaluation of urine analysis results in an effective way can predict the necessity for urine culture requests and especially may contribute to a reduction in the work load and cost. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 286-289

  10. Urine bag as a modern day matula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid.

  11. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  12. The method of urine sampling is not a valid predictor for vesicoureteral reflux in children after febrile urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, Bernhard; Roesch, Judith; Strasser, Christa; Oswald, Josef

    2017-03-16

    The likelihood of detecting vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) after febrile urinary tract infections (UTI) in children logically should correlate with the correct diagnosis of the UTI. Beneath the unspecific symptoms of fever urine analysis is the main diagnostic criterion for the exact diagnosis of febrile UTIs in children. Use of inadequate urine sampling techniques during diagnosis may lead to impaired accuracy in UTI diagnosis. This could lead to the assumption that children, having diagnosed their UTI by the use of possibly inadequate urine sampling techniques should not be evaluated as consequently compared to those, where the diagnosis relied on sterile urine sampling techniques. We hypothesized that children with possibly contaminated urine samples during the initial diagnosis may show a lower rate of VUR in subsequent VCUGs because of a wrong diagnosis initially compared to children, where accurate urine sampling techniques were used. Between 2009 and 2014, a total of 555 patients underwent a primary VCUG at our department indicated because of febrile UTIs. Patients with urine collection methods other than bag urine and catheter/suprapubic aspiration (SPA) were excluded from this study (mid-stream urine, potty urine, n = 149). We evaluated 402 patients (male/female 131/271, mean age 1.91 years), VUR rates and grades were compared between patients where urine was sampled by the use of a urine bag only at the time of diagnosis (n = 296, 73.6%) and those where sterile urine sampling (catheter, suprapubic puncture) was performed (n = 106, 26.3%). 4 patients were excluded due to equivocal data on urine sampling. VUR rate in children after sterile urine sampling using a catheter or SPA accounted to 31.1%. In those where urine samples acquired by the use of urine bags were used, 33.7% showed VUR on subsequent VCUG (p = 0.718). There were no significant differences as to VUR grades or gender, although VUR was much more commonly diagnosed in female patients (37

  13. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, Robin A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment, which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for color change (xanthochromia, which is inaccurate. Bayer Multistix® urine test strips are designed to test urine for RBC by detecting the presence of hemoglobin. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the perfomance of urine reagent test strips for ruling out the presence of RBC in CSF.Methods: We compared color changes on Multistix® urine test strips to the standard of spectrophotometric absorbtion at 415nm and initial RBC counts in 138 visually clear CSF samples.Results: We performed Pearson Chi-Square and likelihood ratios on the results and found a correlation between a negative result on the urine test strip and less than 5 RBC per high power field and a spectrophotometric absorbance of less than 0.02% at 415nm in a CSF sample.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation in the form of a prospective clinical validation as it may alter the emergency department evaluation for SAH. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:63-66.

  14. Clinical confirmation of trichothecene mycotoxicosis in patient urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, William A; Jastromski, Bonnie M; Croft, Amanda L; Peters, Henry A

    2002-07-01

    The investigations of four Cases involving mold-contaminated buildings and human reaction to exposure, documents tests of extracted urine containing trichothecene mycotoxins confirming exposure and the diagnosis of mycotoxicosis in humans. In each of four Cases, the urine demonstrated antibiotic activity, sulfuric acid charring, and protein release. Urine was extracted using ethyl acetate 40V/60V[EA]. Extracted mycotoxin spotted on (TLC) displayed color and a range of (rf) between 0.2-0.6 using various solvents. Extract was re-suspended using 50% ethanol V/V to inject mycotoxins into weanling female Sprague-Dawley rats. Degeneration and necrosis of the rat's tissue followed. Koch's Postulates conditions were fulfilled by isolation of the causative agent, the trichothecene mycotoxins and the reproduction of disease. Examination of human tissue within the urine extraction group confirms Koch's Postulates and comparative pathology confirms inhalation Mycotoxicosis, with severe necrosis of the central nervous system and severe scarring within the lungs. Extraction of mycotoxins from human patient urine is a very useful confirmatory test to demonstrate exposure and identify mycotoxicosis. Low concentrations (6%) of sodium hypochlorite were ineffective against the activity of trichothecene mycotoxin. The severity or stages of disease directly correlates the level of exposure or poisoning (Patent Pending).

  15. Serum and Urine Copper – Contamination and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrova Ivanova I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pre-analytical factors of variation need to be carefully considered and investigated in efforts to harmonize all aspects of the total testing process. This study aimed to evaluate contamination and stability in copper (Cu analysis of serum and urine by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS and to compare the stability of urine Cu in controls and in D-penicillamine (D-PA administration. Cu was measured by AAnalyst 400, Perkin Elmer, USA. Blood was collected in BD Vacutainer®SSTTM II Advance tubes and BD Vacutainer® Trace Element tubes. Sterile polyethylene and polypropylene vessels for collection, transportation, storage and preliminary preparation of samples were used in urinalysis. Stability in serum and 24 h urine was evaluated in two temperature regimens: 15-25°C and 2-8°C, for particular time of storage. No significant differences (p = 0.20 in Cu concentration was found between the two types of tested tubes with patient`s sera. The stability of the samples (serum and urine was better at refrigeration temperature. In urine the stability was better in D-PA administration.Standardization of Cu analysis could be achieved by assessing the aspects of pre-analytical factors of variations.

  16. The Recovery of Water and Nitrogen from Urine in BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong; Deng, Shengda

    The recycle and reuse of the wastewater is one of the main factors for realizing a higher closure degree of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), and the treatment and recovery of the crew’s urine are the most difficult and critical issues. Urine contains a lot of water and high concentrations of urea and salts. Water can be used for the irrigation of the plants in BLSS, and the nitrogen is also the necessary nutrient for plant growth. Therefore, if the nitrogen could be recycled simultaneously while desalting the urine, the substance circulation and the closure of BLSS could be improved significantly. In this study, two-step method was conducted to treat the urine and recycle the water and nitrogen. The urea was hydrolyzed firstly, and then the water vapor and ammonia gas were cooled and collected by using reduced pressure distillation in alkaline condition. High temperature acidification and urease processing methods were studied during the urea hydrolysis step. The treatment conditions of both methods were optimized and the degrees of hydrolysis were compared. This investigation may provide a reference for the establishment of the urine recycle in BLSS.

  17. Comparison of proteomic biomarker panels in urine and serum for ovarian cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Anette Lykke; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Høgdall, Estrid;

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to confirm previously found candidate epithelial ovarian cancer biomarkers in urine and to compare a paired serum biomarker panel and a urine biomarker panel from the same study cohort with regard to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) area under the ...

  18. Contamination Rates of Three Urine-Sampling Methods to Assess Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Visser, Caroline E.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate and compare contamination rates of three different urine-sampling methods in pregnant women to assess bacteriuria. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 113 pregnant women collected three different midstream urine samples consecutively: morning (first void); midstream (void

  19. Protein Complexes in Urine Interfere with Extracellular Vesicle Biomarker Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Wachalska; Danijela Koppers-Lalic; Monique van Eijndhoven; Michiel Pegtel; Geldof, Albert A.; Lipinska, Andrea D.; R. Jeroen van Moorselaar; Irene V. Bijnsdorp

    2016-01-01

    Urine exosomes (extracellular vesicles; EVs) contain (micro)RNA (miRNA) and protein biomarkers that are useful for the non-invasive diagnosis of various urological diseases. However, the urinary Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) complex, which forms at reduced temperatures, may affect EV isolation and may also lead to contamination by other molecules including microRNAs (miRNAs). There‐ fore, we compared the levels of three miRNAs within the purified EV fraction and THP- protein-network. Urine was ...

  20. Infinite dilution conductimetry of plasma and urine: correlation with osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genain, C; Tellier, P; Syrota, A; Pocidalo, J J; Hans, M

    1978-08-15

    The infinite dilution conductivity (IDC) of plasma and urine allows a measurement of the electrolyte content in small samples (5 to 15 microliter). The method was compared to the corrected osmolality (II'p) measured by the freezing-point depression. A linear correlation existed between II'p and the IDC: for plasma: II'p = 13.10 sigma o,p + 37.00 (n = 46 and r = 0.9949) for urine: II'u = 12.75 sigma o,u + 16.56 (n = 85 and r = 0.9504). The measurement of the IDC does not depend on protein concentration and can be used instead of the osmometer methods to determine the total plasma and urine electrolyte content.

  1. The effects of gliadin on urine metabolome in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Zhang, Li; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    Gliadin, a proline-rich protein of gluten, is thought to modulate the gut microbiota and affect the intestinal permeability and immune system. However, little is known about the long-term effects of gliadin on the host and microbial metabolism. To study this, we compared the urine metabolome of two...

  2. Detection of chikungunya virus in saliva and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Didier; Teissier, Anita; Rouault, Eline; Teururai, Sylviane; de Pina, Jean-Jacques; Nhan, Tu-Xuan

    2016-06-16

    Saliva and urine have been used for arthropod-borne viruses molecular detection but not yet for chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We investigated the use of saliva and urine for molecular detection of CHIKV during the French Polynesian outbreak. During the French Polynesian chikungunya outbreak (2014-2015), we collected the same day blood and saliva samples from 60 patients with probable chikungunya (47 during the 1st week post symptoms onset and 13 after), urine was available for 39 of them. All samples were tested using a CHIKV reverse-transcription PCR. Forty eight patients had confirmed chikungunya. For confirmed chikungunya presenting during the 1st week post symptoms onset, CHIKV RNA was detected from 86.1 % (31/36) of blood, 58.3 % (21/36) of saliva and 8.3 % (2/24) of urine. Detection rate of CHIKV RNA was significantly higher in blood compared to saliva. For confirmed chikungunya presenting after the 1st week post symptoms onset, CHIKV RNA was detected from 8.3 % (1/12) of blood, 8.3 % (1/12) of saliva and 0 % (0/8) of urine. In contrast to Zika virus (ZIKV), saliva did not increased the detection rate of CHIKV RNA during the 1st week post symptoms onset. In contrast to ZIKV, dengue virus and West Nile virus, urine did not enlarged the window of detection of CHIKV RNA after the 1st week post symptoms onset. Saliva can be used for molecular detection of CHIKV during the 1st week post symptoms onset only if blood is impossible to collect but with a lower sensitivity compared to blood.

  3. Optimization for Peptide Sample Preparation for Urine Peptidomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hsieh, Szu-Chuan; Dai, Hong; Qian, Weijun; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2014-02-25

    Analysis of native or endogenous peptides in biofluids can provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms. Furthermore, the detected peptides may also have utility as potential biomarkers for non-invasive monitoring of human diseases. The non-invasive nature of urine collection and the abundance of peptides in the urine makes analysis by high-throughput ‘peptidomics’ methods , an attractive approach for investigating the pathogenesis of renal disease. However, urine peptidomics methodologies can be problematic with regards to difficulties associated with sample preparation. The urine matrix can provide significant background interference in making the analytical measurements that it hampers both the identification of peptides and the depth of the peptidomics read when utilizing LC-MS based peptidome analysis. We report on a novel adaptation of the standard solid phase extraction (SPE) method to a modified SPE (mSPE) approach for improved peptide yield and analysis sensitivity with LC-MS based peptidomics in terms of time, cost, clogging of the LC-MS column, peptide yield, peptide quality, and number of peptides identified by each method. Expense and time requirements were comparable for both SPE and mSPE, but more interfering contaminants from the urine matrix were evident in the SPE preparations (e.g., clogging of the LC-MS columns, yellowish background coloration of prepared samples due to retained urobilin, lower peptide yields) when compared to the mSPE method. When we compared data from technical replicates of 4 runs, the mSPE method provided significantly improved efficiencies for the preparation of samples from urine (e.g., mSPE peptide identification 82% versus 18% with SPE; p = 8.92E-05). Additionally, peptide identifications, when applying the mSPE method, highlighted the biology of differential activation of urine peptidases during acute renal transplant rejection with distinct laddering of specific peptides, which was obscured for most proteins

  4. Use of a midstream clean catch mobile application did not lower urine contamination rates in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mary S; Kulie, Paige; Benedict, Cameron; Ordoobadi, Alexander J; Sikka, Neal; Steinmetz, Erika; McCarthy, Melissa L

    2017-07-08

    Urine microscopy is a common test performed in emergency departments (EDs). Urine specimens can easily become contaminated by different factors, including the collection method. The midstream clean-catch (MSCC) collection technique is commonly used to reduce urine contamination. The urine culture contamination rate from specimens collected in our ED is 30%. We developed an instructional application (app) to show ED patients how to provide a MSCC urine sample. We hypothesized that ED patients who viewed our instructional app would have significantly lower urine contamination rates compared to patients who did not. We prospectively enrolled 257 subjects with a urinalysis and/or urine culture test ordered in the ED and asked them to watch our MSCC instructional app. After prospective enrollment was complete, we retrospectively matched each enrolled subject to an ED patient who did not watch the instructional app. Controls were matched to cases based on gender, type of urine specimen provided, ED visit date and shift. Urinalysis and urine culture contamination results were compared between the matched pairs using McNemar's test. The overall urine culture contamination rate of the 514 subjects was 38%. The majority of the matched pairs had a urinalysis (63%) or urinalysis plus urine culture (35%) test done. There were no significant differences in our urine contamination rates between the matched pairs overall or when stratified by gender, by prior knowledge of the clean catch process or by type of urine specimen. We did not see a lower contamination rate for patients who viewed our instructional app compared to patients who did not. It is possible that MSCC is not effective for decreasing urine specimen contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A history of urine microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, J Stewart

    2015-11-01

    The naked-eye appearance of the urine must have been studied by shamans and healers since the Stone Age, and an elaborate interpretation of so-called Uroscopy began around 600 AD as a form of divination. A 1000 years later, the first primitive monocular and compound microscopes appeared in the Netherlands, and along with many other objects and liquids, urine was studied from around 1680 onwards as the enlightenment evolved. However, the crude early instruments did not permit fine study because of chromatic and linear/spherical blurring. Only after complex multi-glass lenses which avoided these problems had been made and used in the 1820s in London by Lister, and in Paris by Chevalier and Amici, could urinary microscopy become a practical, clinically useful tool in the 1830s. Clinical urinary microscopy was pioneered by Rayer and his pupils in Paris (especially Vigla), in the late 1830s, and spread to UK and Germany in the 1840s, with detailed descriptions and interpretations of cells and formed elements of the urinary sediment by Nasse, Henle, Robinson and Golding Bird. Classes were held, most notably by Donné in Paris. After another 50 years, optical microscopy had reached its apogee, with magnifications of over 1000 times obtainable free of aberration, using immersion techniques. Atlases of the urinary sediment were published in all major European countries and in the US. Polarised light and phase contrast was used also after 1900 to study urine, and by the early 20th century, photomicroscopy (pioneered by Donné and Daguerre 50 years previously, but then ignored) became usual for teaching and recording. In the 1940s electron microscopy began, followed by detection of specific proteins and cells using immunofluorescent antibodies. All this had been using handheld methodology. Around 1980, machine-assisted observations began, and have dominated progress since.

  6. Papain: a novel urine adulterant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, David L; Nicolaides, Andrea; Rice, Peter J; Dufforc, Michelle; Johnson, David A; Ferslew, Kenneth E

    2005-01-01

    The estimated number of employees in the United Stated screened annually for illicit drugs is approximately 20 million, with marijuana being the most frequently abused drug. Urine adulterants provide an opportunity for illicit drug users to obtain a false-negative result on commonly used primary drug screening methods such as the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique and the fluorescence polarized immunoassay technique (FPIA). Typical chemical adulterants such as nitrites are easily detected or render the urine specimen invalid as defined in the proposed SAMHSA guidelines for specimen validity testing based on creatinine, specific gravity, and pH. Papain is a cysteine protease with intrinsic ester hydrolysis capability. The primary metabolite of the psychoactive chemical in marijuana, 11-norcarboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC-COOH), was assayed by FPIA in concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 ng/mL, at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 8, over the course of 3 days with papain concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 mg/mL. FPIA analysis of other frequently abused drugs: amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine, along with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of THC-COOH and high-pressure liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) of nordiazepam was performed in order to determine if the mechanism of urine adulteration by papain was analyte specific. Control and adulterated urine specimens (n = 30) were assayed for creatinine, specific gravity, and pH to determine if papain rendered the specimens invalid based on the proposed SAMHSA guidelines. There was a direct pH, temperature, and time-dependent correlate between the increase in papain concentration and the decrease in THC-COOH concentration from the untreated control groups (p < 0.01). The average 72-h THC-COOH concentration decrease at pH 6.2 with a papain concentration of 10 mg/mL was 50%. Papain did not significantly decrease the concentration of the

  7. Nitrification and microalgae cultivation for two-stage biological nutrient valorization from source separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Joeri; Lindeboom, Ralph; Muys, Maarten; Coessens, Wout; Alloul, Abbas; Meerbergen, Ken; Lievens, Bart; Clauwaert, Peter; Boon, Nico; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-07-01

    Urine contains the majority of nutrients in urban wastewaters and is an ideal nutrient recovery target. In this study, stabilization of real undiluted urine through nitrification and subsequent microalgae cultivation were explored as strategy for biological nutrient recovery. A nitrifying inoculum screening revealed a commercial aquaculture inoculum to have the highest halotolerance. This inoculum was compared with municipal activated sludge for the start-up of two nitrification membrane bioreactors. Complete nitrification of undiluted urine was achieved in both systems at a conductivity of 75mScm(-1) and loading rate above 450mgNL(-1)d(-1). The halotolerant inoculum shortened the start-up time with 54%. Nitrite oxidizers showed faster salt adaptation and Nitrobacter spp. became the dominant nitrite oxidizers. Nitrified urine as growth medium for Arthrospira platensis demonstrated superior growth compared to untreated urine and resulted in a high protein content of 62%. This two-stage strategy is therefore a promising approach for biological nutrient recovery.

  8. Thermally stimulated luminescence of urine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-05-01

    The thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) of normal and pathological urine was studied. The presence of pathological salts leads to extinguishing of TSL intensity and to the appearance of additional stripes with maxima nearly 118 and 205K, except of characteristic stripes with the maxima nearly 173 and 260K. TSL stripes depend on urine constituents. The comparison of TSL intensity of normal and pathological urine is carried out and energies of thermal activation are determined for most intensive TSL stripes.

  9. Urine screening with the MS-2.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoban, D J; Koss, J C; Gratton, C A; Ronald, A R

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of the MS-2 (Abbott Laboratories, Dallas, Tex.) in screening urine specimens in a large clinical laboratory. A total of 15,319 urine specimens (9,954 midstream specimens and 5,365 catheter specimens) were evaluated with the MS-2 and by a surface streak procedure. The study was conducted in two phases, differing in that phase II urine specimens were evaluated in the MS-2 by using a program software update (03.01). For midstream urine specime...

  10. Comparison of Plasma and Urine Biomarker Performance in Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schley, Gunnar; Köberle, Carmen; Manuilova, Ekaterina; Rutz, Sandra; Forster, Christian; Weyand, Michael; Formentini, Ivan; Kientsch-Engel, Rosemarie; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Willam, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Background New renal biomarkers measured in urine promise to increase specificity for risk stratification and early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) but concomitantly may be altered by urine concentration effects and chronic renal insufficiency. This study therefore directly compared the performance of AKI biomarkers in urine and plasma. Methods This single-center, prospective cohort study included 110 unselected adults undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between 2009 and 2010. Plasma and/or urine concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM1), and albumin as well as 15 additional biomarkers in plasma and urine were measured during the perioperative period. The primary outcome was AKI defined by AKIN serum creatinine criteria within 72 hours after surgery. Results Biomarkers in plasma showed markedly better discriminative performance for preoperative risk stratification and early postoperative (within 24h after surgery) detection of AKI than urine biomarkers. Discriminative power of urine biomarkers improved when concentrations were normalized to urinary creatinine, but urine biomarkers had still lower AUC values than plasma biomarkers. Best diagnostic performance 4h after surgery had plasma NGAL (AUC 0.83), cystatin C (0.76), MIG (0.74), and L-FAPB (0.73). Combinations of multiple biomarkers did not improve their diagnostic power. Preoperative clinical scoring systems (EuroSCORE and Cleveland Clinic Foundation Score) predicted the risk for AKI (AUC 0.76 and 0.71) and were not inferior to biomarkers. Preexisting chronic kidney disease limited the diagnostic performance of both plasma and urine biomarkers. Conclusions In our cohort plasma biomarkers had higher discriminative power for risk stratification and early diagnosis of AKI than urine biomarkers. For preoperative risk stratification of AKI clinical models showed

  11. Comparison of Plasma and Urine Biomarker Performance in Acute Kidney Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Schley

    Full Text Available New renal biomarkers measured in urine promise to increase specificity for risk stratification and early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI but concomitantly may be altered by urine concentration effects and chronic renal insufficiency. This study therefore directly compared the performance of AKI biomarkers in urine and plasma.This single-center, prospective cohort study included 110 unselected adults undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between 2009 and 2010. Plasma and/or urine concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM1, and albumin as well as 15 additional biomarkers in plasma and urine were measured during the perioperative period. The primary outcome was AKI defined by AKIN serum creatinine criteria within 72 hours after surgery.Biomarkers in plasma showed markedly better discriminative performance for preoperative risk stratification and early postoperative (within 24h after surgery detection of AKI than urine biomarkers. Discriminative power of urine biomarkers improved when concentrations were normalized to urinary creatinine, but urine biomarkers had still lower AUC values than plasma biomarkers. Best diagnostic performance 4h after surgery had plasma NGAL (AUC 0.83, cystatin C (0.76, MIG (0.74, and L-FAPB (0.73. Combinations of multiple biomarkers did not improve their diagnostic power. Preoperative clinical scoring systems (EuroSCORE and Cleveland Clinic Foundation Score predicted the risk for AKI (AUC 0.76 and 0.71 and were not inferior to biomarkers. Preexisting chronic kidney disease limited the diagnostic performance of both plasma and urine biomarkers.In our cohort plasma biomarkers had higher discriminative power for risk stratification and early diagnosis of AKI than urine biomarkers. For preoperative risk stratification of AKI clinical models showed similar discriminative performance

  12. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Hemmersbach, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral salbutamol, subjects performed submaximal exercise for 15 min followed by two, 2-min exercise bouts at an intensity corresponding to 110% of VO2max and a bout to exhaustion at same intensity. Urine samples were collected 4, 8, and 12 h following administration of salbutamol. Samples were analyzed by the Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P = 0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4 h after administration when samples were adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment (3089 ± 911 vs. 1918 ± 1081 ng/mL). With the current urine decision limit of 1200 ng/mL for salbutamol on WADA's 2013 list of prohibited substances, fewer false negative urine samples were observed when adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment. In conclusion, adjustment of urine samples to a USG of 1.020 g/mL decreases risk of false negative doping tests after administration of oral salbutamol. Adjusting urine samples for USG might be useful when evaluating urine concentrations of salbutamol in doping cases.

  13. Analytical performance, agreement and user-friendliness of six point-of-care testing urine analysers for urinary tract infection in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, Marjolein J C; van Delft, Sanne; Kooijman-Buiting, Antoinette M J; de Wit, Niek J; Hopstaken, Rogier M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Various point-of-care testing (POCT) urine analysers are commercially available for routine urine analysis in general practice. The present study compares analytical performance, agreement and user-friendliness of six different POCT urine analysers for diagnosing urinary tract infection i

  14. Estimating mean change in population salt intake using spot urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kristina S; Wu, Jason H Y; Webster, Jacqui; Grimes, Carley; Woodward, Mark; Nowson, Caryl A; Neal, Bruce

    2016-10-14

    : Spot urine samples are easier to collect than 24-h urine samples and have been used with estimating equations to derive the mean daily salt intake of a population. Whether equations using data from spot urine samples can also be used to estimate change in mean daily population salt intake over time is unknown. We compared estimates of change in mean daily population salt intake based upon 24-h urine collections with estimates derived using equations based on spot urine samples. : Paired and unpaired 24-h urine samples and spot urine samples were collected from individuals in two Australian populations, in 2011 and 2014. Estimates of change in daily mean population salt intake between 2011 and 2014 were obtained directly from the 24-h urine samples and by applying established estimating equations (Kawasaki, Tanaka, Mage, Toft, INTERSALT) to the data from spot urine samples. Differences between 2011 and 2014 were calculated using mixed models. : A total of 1000 participants provided a 24-h urine sample and a spot urine sample in 2011, and 1012 did so in 2014 (paired samples n = 870; unpaired samples n = 1142). The participants were community-dwelling individuals living in the State of Victoria or the town of Lithgow in the State of New South Wales, Australia, with a mean age of 55 years in 2011. The mean (95% confidence interval) difference in population salt intake between 2011 and 2014 determined from the 24-h urine samples was -0.48g/day (-0.74 to -0.21; P  0.058). Separate analysis of the unpaired and paired data showed that detection of change by the estimating equations was observed only in the paired data. : All the estimating equations based upon spot urine samples identified a similar change in daily salt intake to that detected by the 24-h urine samples. Methods based upon spot urine samples may provide an approach to measuring change in mean population salt intake, although further investigation in larger and more diverse population groups is

  15. Reliable Quantification of the Potential for Equations Based on Spot Urine Samples to Estimate Population Salt Intake: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Liping; Crino, Michelle; Wu, Jason HY; Woodward, Mark; Land, Mary-Anne; McLean, Rachael; Webster, Jacqui; Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan; Nowson, Caryl A; Elliott, Paul; Cogswell, Mary; Toft, Ulla; MILL, Jose G.; Furlanetto,Tania W.; Ilich, Jasminka Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background Methods based on spot urine samples (a single sample at one time-point) have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-hour urine samples for determining mean population salt intake. Objective The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for estimating mean population salt intake from spot urine samples. This will be done by comparing the performance of existing equations against one other and against estimates derived from 24-hour urine samples. The effect...

  16. Non-invasive optical detection of esophagus cancer based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaohua; Wang, Lan; Chen, Weiwei; Lin, Duo; Huang, Lingling; Wu, Shanshan; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    A surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) approach was utilized for urine biochemical analysis with the aim to develop a label-free and non-invasive optical diagnostic method for esophagus cancer detection. SERS spectrums were acquired from 31 normal urine samples and 47 malignant esophagus cancer (EC) urine samples. Tentative assignments of urine SERS bands demonstrated esophagus cancer specific changes, including an increase in the relative amounts of urea and a decrease in the percentage of uric acid in the urine of normal compared with EC. The empirical algorithm integrated with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to identify some important urine SERS bands for differentiation between healthy subjects and EC urine. The empirical diagnostic approach based on the ratio of the SERS peak intensity at 527 to 1002 cm-1 and 725 to 1002 cm-1 coupled with LDA yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 72.3% and specificity of 96.8%, respectively. The area under the receive operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.954, which further evaluate the performance of the diagnostic algorithm based on the ratio of the SERS peak intensity combined with LDA analysis. This work demonstrated that the urine SERS spectra associated with empirical algorithm has potential for noninvasive diagnosis of esophagus cancer.

  17. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de un análisis ...

  18. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de un análisis ...

  19. Odorous urine following asparagus ingestion in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S C; Waring, R H; Land, D; Thorpe, W V

    1987-04-15

    The production of odorous urine after the ingestion of asparagus has been shown to occur in 43% of 800 volunteers investigated. This characteristic is reproducible over a 12-month-period and has been shown to remain with individuals for virtually a lifetime. Family studies suggest that the ability to produce the odorous urine is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.

  20. Comparison of five commercial assays for the detection of Legionella pneumophila antigens in urine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Ory, Fernando; Minguito, Teodora

    2009-01-01

    Antigenuria detection is the main approach for diagnosing Legionella infections. The aim of this study was to compare 5 commercially available methods for detecting Legionella pneumophila soluble antigens in urine...

  1. Evaluation of an automated urine chemistry reagent-strip analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, J A; Johnson, W R; Luke, K E

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the Miles Inc., Clinitek Atlas Automated Urine Chemistry Analyzer for 11 tests: bilirubin, color, glucose, ketones, leukocyte esterase, nitrite, occult blood, pH, protein, specific gravity, and urobilinogen. The instrument uses a roll of reagent strips affixed to a clear plastic support; urine specimens are automatically pipetted onto these strips. The instrument measures the pads' color using reflectance colorimetry. Specific gravity is measured using a fiberoptic refractive index method. Four hospitals participated in the evaluation, and tests were performed only on fresh urine samples. We found the instrument easy to use; it has walk-away capability with up to 40-specimen loading capacity plus spaces for STATs, calibrators and controls. We found good comparability with chemical tests and other nonreagent strip procedures, as well as good agreement with the Miles Inc. Clinitek 200+ urine chemistry analyzer and visual reading of the Miles Inc. Multistix Reagent Strips. The Clinitek Atlas is rugged and reliable, and is suitable for a high-volume urinalysis laboratory.

  2. Estimating residual kidney function in dialysis patients without urine collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Tariq; Michels, Wieneke M; Levey, Andrew S; Inker, Lesley A; Dekker, Friedo W; Krediet, Raymond T; Hoekstra, Tiny; Schwartz, George J; Eckfeldt, John H; Coresh, Josef

    2016-05-01

    Residual kidney function contributes substantially to solute clearance in dialysis patients but cannot be assessed without urine collection. We used serum filtration markers to develop dialysis-specific equations to estimate urinary urea clearance without the need for urine collection. In our development cohort, we measured 24-hour urine clearances under close supervision in 44 patients and validated these equations in 826 patients from the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis. For the development and validation cohorts, median urinary urea clearance was 2.6 and 2.4 ml/min, respectively. During the 24-hour visit in the development cohort, serum β-trace protein concentrations remained in steady state but concentrations of all other markers increased. In the validation cohort, bias (median measured minus estimated clearance) was low for all equations. Precision was significantly better for β-trace protein and β2-microglobulin equations and the accuracy was significantly greater for β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, and cystatin C equations, compared with the urea plus creatinine equation. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for detecting measured urinary urea clearance by equation-estimated urinary urea clearance (both 2 ml/min or more) were 0.821, 0.850, and 0.796 for β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, and cystatin C equations, respectively; significantly greater than the 0.663 for the urea plus creatinine equation. Thus, residual renal function can be estimated in dialysis patients without urine collections.

  3. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal’s ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the “stepwise peristaltic ureter” (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney. PMID:26392557

  4. Improvement in the detection of enteric protozoa from clinical stool samples using the automated urine sediment analyzer sediMAX(®) 2 compared to sediMAX(®) 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, J; Sala, M R; Falbo, R; Cappellini, F; Brambilla, P

    2017-01-01

    Detection of intestinal parasites from fecal samples is routinely performed by direct wet mount examination. This method requires skilled personnel, and it is time consuming. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the usefulness of the newer automated urinary sediment analyser sediMAX 2 for a fast detection of intestinal protozoa in stool samples. A total of 700 consecutively preserved samples consisting of 70 positives and 630 negatives were analyzed. SediMAX 2 takes digital images of each sediment sample, and analysis was conducted using a dilution of stool specimens, allowing determination of typical morphology. Compared to manual microscopy, sediMAX 2 showed sensitivity and specificity of 100 % in the detection of intestinal parasites, as also recently demonstrated for sediMAX 1. However, all clinically important human protozoa were detected using only 15 images for each specimen, compared to 30 images required in sediMAX 1 analysis. Moreover, changing manually the focus, it is possible to carry out a discrimination between morphologically identical Entamoeba complex members, including the pathogenic E. histolytica and the non-pathogenic E. dispar, E. moshkovskii and E. Bangladeshi, from the non-pathogenic Entamoeba coli based on the number of nuclei present in the cells. This study presents sediMAX 2 as an automatic aid to traditional microscopy.

  5. Using an isolated rat kidney model to identify kidney origin proteins in urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Jia

    Full Text Available The use of targeted proteomics to identify urinary biomarkers of kidney disease in urine can avoid the interference of serum proteins. It may provide better sample throughput, higher sensitivity, and specificity. Knowing which urinary proteins to target is essential. By analyzing the urine from perfused isolated rat kidneys, 990 kidney origin proteins with human analogs were identified in urine. Of these proteins, 128 were not found in normal human urine and may become biomarkers with zero background. A total of 297 proteins were not found in normal human plasma. These proteins will not be influenced by other normal organs and will be kidney specific. The levels of 33 proteins increased during perfusion with an oxygen-deficient solution compared to those perfused with oxygen. The 75 proteins in the perfusion-driven urine have a significantly increased abundance ranking compared to their ranking in normal human urine. When compared with existing candidate biomarkers, over ninety percent of the kidney origin proteins in urine identified in this study have not been examined as candidate biomarkers of kidney diseases.

  6. A novel precision-engineered microfiltration device for capture and characterisation of bladder cancer cells in urine

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sensitivity of standard urine cytology for detecting urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) is low, attributable largely to its inability to process entire samples, paucicellularity and presence of background cells. Objective: Evaluate performance and practical applicability of a novel portable microfiltration device for capture, enumeration and characterisation of exfoliated tumour cells in urine, and compare it with standard urine cytology for UCB detection. Meth...

  7. Ethanol Induced Urine Acidification is Related with Early Acetaldehyde Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Kil Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, urine acidification after ethanol ingestion is related with serum acetaldehyde concentration. Early elevation of acetaldhyde could induce urine acidification, but the urine pH was elevated after a few hours, that might make prolonged acidemia.

  8. Effect of injected rotenone on the production and composition of urine from the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, D.A.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Renal function was evaluated in adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) dosed i.a. with rotenone at 225 and 275 μg/kg. The chemical composition of urine samples and urine flow rates collected over a 5-h pretreatment period were compared with hourly urine samples collected over a 5-h posttreatment period. Significant increases in osmolality and in concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, and total protein were observed in the urine of treated fish. Urine solute concentrations reached maximum values within 1 to 3 h after treatment and decreased thereafter, indicating that the effects were reversible. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were highly correlated in 2-h posttreatment urine samples at the low (r = 0.922) and high (r = 0.981) rotenone treatments. Urine flow rates were reduced in trout at each dose of rotenone but the decrease in volume of urine voided was not dose-dependent. In a separate study, [14C]polyethylene glycol was used as a filtration marker to determine the effect of rotenone treatment (225 &mu:g/kg) on urine flow rate, glomerular filtration rate, and renal water reabsorption. We showed that posttreatment urine flow rates were reduced partly by reduced glomerular filtration and partly by increased water reabsorption. Transient increases in plasma osmolality and hematocrit also were observed 0.5 h after rotenone treatment.

  9. Direct Agglutination Test and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay with Urine Samples for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishma-niasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkari B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or Kala azar is an infectious disease caused by various species of Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study was to detect and compare the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the urine of vis-ceral leishmaniasis patients using ELISA and DAT methods."nMethods: A total of 30 urine samples were collected from VL patients referred to Shiraz (southeast of Iran hospitals. Moreover 31 urine samples were collected from healthy individuals and patients with other diseases such as malaria, brucellosis, hydatidosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collected samples were examined to detect anti-Leishmania antibod-ies in urine, using ELISA and DAT."nResults: Anti-Leishmania antibody was detected in urine of 18 out of 30 (60% VL patients by DAT while ELISA detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in urine of 28 out of 30 (93.3% of VL cases. Sensitivity and specificity of urine-based DAT was 60% and 83.9%, respectively while sensitivity and specificity of urine-based ELISA were 93.3% and 93.5%, corre-spondingly. "nConclusion: Urine-based DAT and ELISA have a reasonable specificity and sensitivity in diagnosis of VL. Accordingly, urine-based ELISA might be a suitable alternative for serum based assays for diagnosis of VL.

  10. Blood and urine cadmium and bioelements profile in nickel-cadmium battery workers in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Z Plamenac; Dukic-Cosic, D; Dokic, M; Bulat, P; Matovic, V

    2009-03-01

    Although cadmium (Cd) is extensively used for nickel-cadmium battery production, few recent reports are available on the effect of this toxic metal on the imbalance of biometals in occupational exposure. The current study was carried out to determine the Cd level and its effect on the content of bioelements: zinc, cooper, magnesium, and iron in blood and urine of workers exposed to Cd during nickel-cadmium battery production. beta(2)-microglobulins (beta(2)-MG), as indicators of kidney damage, were determined in urine.The study group comprised 32 male nickel-cadmium battery workers, and the control group had 15 male construction workers with no history of Cd exposure. Levels of Cd and bioelements were determined in blood and urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Cd concentration in blood of exposed workers was around 10 microg/L and in urine ranged from 1.93 to 8.76 microg/g creatinine (cr). Urine Cd concentration was significantly higher in exposed workers than in the controls, although no statistical difference in beta(2)-MG content was observed in urine between the two groups. Blood Zn and Mg level were significantly reduced and urine Zn level was increased in Cd-exposed group when compared with controls.The mean Cd concentrations in blood and urine did not exceed the recommended reference values of 10 microg/L in blood and 10 microg/g cr in urine. Cd exposure resulted in disturbances of Zn in blood and urine and Mg in blood but had no effect on Cu and Fe content in biological fluids.

  11. Advances in the Diagnosis of Human Opisthorchiasis: Development of Opisthorchis viverrini Antigen Detection in Urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanika Worasith

    Full Text Available Many strategies to control opisthorchiasis have been employed in Thailand, but not in the other neighbouring countries. Specific control methods include mass drug administration (MDA and health education to reduce raw fish consumption. These control efforts have greatly shifted the epidemiology of Opisthorchis viverrini (OV infection over the last decade from presenting as densely concentrated "heavy" infections in single villages to widespread "light" OV infections distributed over wide geographical areas. Currently, the "gold standard" detection method for OV infection is formalin ethyl-acetate concentration technique (FECT, which has limited diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity for light OV infections, with OV eggs often confused with eggs of minute intestinal flukes (MIFs in feces. In this study, we developed and evaluated the diagnostic performance of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of OV excretory-secretory (ES antigens in urine (urine OV-ES assay for the diagnosis of opisthorchiasis compared to the gold standard detection FECT method.We tested several methods for pre-treating urine samples prior to testing the diagnostic performance of the urine OV-ES assay. Using trichloroacetic acid (TCA pre-treated urine, we compared detection and quantification of OV infection using the urine OV-ES assay versus FECT in OV-endemic areas in Northeastern Thailand. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the urine OV-ES assay using TCA pre-treated urine, and to establish diagnostic positivity thresholds. The Positive Predictive Value as well as the likelihood of obtaining a positive test result (LR+ or a negative test result (LR- were calculated for the established diagnostic positivity threshold. Diagnostic risks (Odds Ratios were estimated using logistic regression.When urine samples were pre-treated with TCA prior to

  12. Antineoplastic drug contamination in the urine of Canadian healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Teschke, Kay; Shen, Hui; Demers, Paul A; Venners, Scott

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the urine concentration of non-metabolized cyclophosphamide (CP), a commonly administered antineoplastic drug, among potentially exposed Canadian healthcare workers and to identify factors associated with the drug concentration levels. Participants were asked to provide two sets of 24-h urine samples (at two different sampling events), and the level of CP was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition to demographic information, participants were surveyed regarding their frequency of handling of antineoplastic drugs, safe drug handling training, and known contact with CP on their work shift. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. A backward stepwise linear mixed effect model was conducted to identify the factors associated with urine concentration levels. We collected 201 urine samples, and 55 % (n = 111) had levels greater than the LOD of 0.05 ng/mL. The mean urinary CP concentration was 0.156 ng/mL, the geometric mean was 0.067 ng/mL, the geometric standard deviation was 3.18, the 75th percentile was 0.129 ng/mL, and the range was drug administration unit, but were not responsible for administering the drugs to patients, i.e., volunteers, oncologists, ward aides, and dieticians, had the largest proportion of samples exceeding the LOD. We did not find any correlation between the urinary concentration levels and known contact with CP during the work shift. Two factors were found to be significantly associated with urinary CP concentration: (1) Workers who had a duty to handle antineoplastic drugs had higher concentration levels, and (2) workers who had not received safe drug handling training had higher levels of CP in their urine compared with those who had. The presence of non-metabolized CP in urine confirms that, despite the existence of control measures, a broad range of healthcare workers are at risk of exposure to antineoplastic drugs. A

  13. Rapid urine antibody test for Helicobacter pylori infection in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Masumi; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Lin, Yingsong; Chaochen, Wang; Taniguchi, Yohei; Kato, Mototsugu; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2017-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastric cancer; thus, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial. Given that H. pylori infection in adolescents or young adults has few symptoms, screening tests are necessary for this population. In this study, the accuracy of the rapid urine H. pylori antibody (u-HpAb) test was evaluated and compared with that of urine and serum H. pylori enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (u-HpELISA and s-HpELISA, respectively) in junior high school students. All 1,225 students attending the junior high schools in Sasayama City were invited to participate in this study. Urine and blood samples were assayed for anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies, and rapid u-HpAb was performed by three investigators independently. When all investigators were in agreement, the test was confirmed as positive or negative. Non-concordance was defined as undetermined. In total, 187 students participated in this study and provided both urine and blood samples. Three students had undetermined rapid u-HpAb. Excluding these results, the positivity rate of rapid u-HpAb was 3.3% (6/184), whereas that for u-HpELISA and s-HpELISA was 4.8% (10/187) and 5.9% (11/187), respectively. Using s-HpELISA and u-HpELISA as the standards, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of rapid u-HpAb were 85.7%, 100%, 100%, and 99.4%, respectively, excluding the undetermined rapid u-HpAb results. Rapid urine-HpAb test had excellent specificity but relatively low sensitivity. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. What constitutes a normal ante-mortem urine GHB concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Francesco; Politi, Lucia; Trignano, Claudia; Di Milia, Maria Grazia; Di Padua, Marianna; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2009-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is endogenously produced within the central nervous system, however it is also used as a medication for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions, sold under the name Zyrem in the United States and Alcover in Europe. It is a very dangerous drug with a very limited safety margin, and is classified as a controlled substance in many countries. The interpretation of post-mortem studies of GHB concentrations is problematic; GHB can be detected in urine and blood from non-GHB users, both before and after death, and concentrations in both matrices may rise with prolonged storage. Because it is produced as a post-mortem artifact, forensically defensible cut-offs for post-mortem blood concentrations have yet to be established. Given the enormous degree of inter and intra-individual variation in GHB production that has been documented, it is unlikely they ever will. The important issue for forensic scientists is whether the detection of GHB in urine, in concentrations above some yet to be determined value, can be used as evidence for drug facilitated assault. In an attempt to see if a cut-off level could be determined we analyzed urine from 39 alcoholics who were being treated with known oral doses of Alcover (group 1), and compared the results with concentrations found in the urine of 30 volunteers who had no exogenous GHB intake (group 2), and 30 urine specimens taken from the alcoholics before they initiated GHB therapy (Alcover treatment group 3). More than one third (36.6%) of subjects being treated with GHB were found to have urinary GHB concentration that fell between 2.75 and 10 microg/mL. The data suggests that caution must be used when applying the currently used cut-off of 10 microg/mL.

  15. Elevated CXC chemokines in urine noninvasively discriminate OAB from UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Tyagi, Vikas; Qu, Xianggui; Chuang, Yao Chi; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Chancellor, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Overlapping symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) and urinary tract infection (UTI) often complicate the diagnosis and contribute to overprescription of antibiotics. Inflammatory response is a shared characteristic of both UTI and OAB and here we hypothesized that molecular differences in inflammatory response seen in urine can help discriminate OAB from UTI. Subjects in the age range of (20-88 yr) of either sex were recruited for this urine analysis study. Urine specimens were available from 62 UTI patients with positive dipstick test before antibiotic treatment. Six of these patients also provided urine after completion of antibiotic treatment. Subjects in cohorts of OAB (n = 59) and asymptomatic controls (n = 26) were negative for dipstick test. Urinary chemokines were measured by MILLIPLEX MAP Human Cytokine/Chemokine Immunoassay and their association with UTI and OAB was determined by univariate and multivariate statistics. Significant elevation of CXCL-1, CXCL-8 (IL-8), and CXCL-10 together with reduced levels for a receptor antagonist of IL-1A (sIL-1RA) were seen in UTI relative to OAB and asymptomatic controls. Elevated CXCL-1 urine levels predicted UTI with odds ratio of 1.018 and showed a specificity of 80.77% and sensitivity of 59.68%. Postantibiotic treatment, reduction was seen in all CXC chemokines with a significant reduction for CXCL-10. Strong association of CXCL-1 and CXCL-10 for UTI over OAB indicates mechanistic differences in signaling pathways driving inflammation secondary of infection in UTI compared with a lack of infection in OAB. Urinary chemokines highlight molecular differences in the paracrine signaling driving the overlapping symptoms of UTI and OAB.

  16. Mining nutrients (N, K, P) from urban source-separated urine by forward osmosis dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiefeng; She, Qianhong; Chang, Victor W C; Tang, Chuyang Y; Webster, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    Separating urine from domestic wastewater promotes a more sustainable municipal wastewater treatment system. This study investigated the feasibility of applying a forward osmosis (FO) dewatering process for nutrient recovery from source-separated urine under different conditions, using seawater or desalination brine as a low-cost draw solution. The filtration process with the active layer facing feed solution exhibited relatively high water fluxes up to 20 L/m(2)-h. The process also revealed relatively low rejection to neutral organic nitrogen (urea-N) in fresh urine but improved rejection of ammonium (50-80%) in hydrolyzed urine and high rejection (>90%) of phosphate, potassium in most cases. Compared to simulation based on the solution-diffusion mechanism, higher water flux and solute flux were obtained using fresh or hydrolyzed urine as the feed, which was attributed to the intensive forward nutrient permeation (i.e., of urea, ammonium, and potassium). Membrane fouling could be avoided by prior removal of the spontaneously precipitated crystals in urine. Compared to other urine treatment options, the current process was cost-effective and environmentally friendly for nutrient recovery from urban wastewater at source, yet a comprehensive life-cycle impact assessment might be needed to evaluate and optimize the overall system performance at pilot and full scale operation.

  17. For reliable urine cultures in the detection of complicated urinary tract infection, do we use urine specimens obtained with urethral catheter or a nephrostomy tube?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Gülay; Deveci, Özcan; Dede, Onur; Utanğac, Mazhar; Dağgulli, Mansur; Penbegül, Necmettin; Hatipoğlu, Namık Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the results of urine cultures obtained either from urethral, and percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) catheters. Materials and methods This study included 328 consecutive patients that underwent PCN at our institution with complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) between July 2010 and April 2015. Results of urine cultures obtained from the urethral and nephrostomy catheters were compared. Results This study included 152 male and 176 female patients. Mean age of the patients was 46.2±24.3 years. The main indications were obstructive uropathy due to urolithiasis complicated with pyonephrosis 145 (44%), malignant disease (n=87; 26%), pregnancy (n=26; 8%), and anatomical abnormality (n=23; 7%). One hundred and twenty three patients had diabetes mellitus. The most common causative organisms were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Blood cultures showed the same results for the PCN and bladder urine cultures. The bladder urine culture was positive in 304 patients, while the PCN urine culture in 314 patients. Conclusion PCN is an important treatment for the management of pyonephrosis. Cultures from the PCN yield valuable information that is not available from urethral urine cultures, and is a guiding tool for antibiotic therapy selection. PMID:27909624

  18. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A nonhazardous urine pretreatment system prototype is proposed that will stabilize urine against biological growth or chemical instabilities without using hazardous...

  19. Mass spectrometry for high-throughput metabolomics analysis of urine

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelrazig, Salah M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Direct electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (direct ESI-MS), by omitting the chromatographic step, has great potential for application as a high-throughput approach for untargeted urine metabolomics analysis compared to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The rapid development and technical innovations revealed in the field of ambient ionisation MS such as nanoelectrospray ionisation (nanoESI) chip-based infusion and liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA...

  20. Purple urine bag syndrome- changing hue!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhna Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple Urine Bag Syndrome (PUBS is a unique disease entity characterised by purple discoloration of urine secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubin producing bacteria and is predominantly seen in constipated, chronically debilitated and catheterised women with alkaline urine. This syndrome indicates underlying recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs associated with higher incidence of mortality and morbidity than urinary tract infection alone without this occurrence. This article is about an elderly hypothyroid woman with PUBS and reviews the need to be aware of this entity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(1.000: 31-32

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of uriSed automated urine microscopic sediment analyzer and dipstick parameters in predicting urine culture test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysal, Kağan; Budak, Yasemin U; Karaca, Ayse Ulusoy; Aydos, Murat; Kahvecioğlu, Serdar; Bulut, Mehtap; Polat, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common types of infection. Currently, diagnosis is primarily based on microbiologic culture, which is time- and labor-consuming. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of urinalysis results from UriSed (77 Electronica, Budapest, Hungary), an automated microscopic image-based sediment analyzer, in predicting positive urine cultures. We examined a total of 384 urine specimens from hospitalized patients and outpatients attending our hospital on the same day for urinalysis, dipstick tests and semi-quantitative urine culture. The urinalysis results were compared with those of conventional semiquantitative urine culture. Of 384 urinary specimens, 68 were positive for bacteriuria by culture, and were thus considered true positives. Comparison of these results with those obtained from the UriSed analyzer indicated that the analyzer had a specificity of 91.1%, a sensitivity of 47.0%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 53.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 40.8-65.3), and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 88.8% (95% CI = 85.0-91.8%). The accuracy was 83.3% when the urine leukocyte parameter was used, 76.8% when bacteriuria analysis of urinary sediment was used, and 85.1% when the bacteriuria and leukocyturia parameters were combined. The presence of nitrite was the best indicator of culture positivity (99.3% specificity) but had a negative likelihood ratio of 0.7, indicating that it was not a reliable clinical test. Although the specificity of the UriSed analyzer was within acceptable limits, the sensitivity value was low. Thus, UriSed urinalysis resuIts do not accurately predict the outcome of culture.

  2. Correlation between urine analysis and urine culture in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in Yazd central laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili M B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The misdiagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI may lead to kidney deficiency and even pyelonephritis. Since different species may cause this disease, urine culture (UC and antibiogram of the isolated species should be performed and results compared to urine analysis (UA parameters to obtain the best diagnosis."nMethods: The urine specimens from 1509 patients (1195 women and 314 men were processed for UA, UC and antibiogram. First of all, the sterile urine samples were cultured using differential media, including EMB and blood agar. After 24 hr incubation, the colonies were identified and differentiated by biochemical tests. Antibiograms for all isolated species were determined using Muller Hinton agar. All results obtained from this survey were analyzed using SPSS software."nResults: Of the 1509 samples, 986 (65.3% were positive for pathogenic bacteria, 170 (17.2% of which were from men and 816 (82.8% from women. E. coli was the most prevalent with 591 cases (58.7%, followed by Enterobacter 115 (11.4% and Klebsiella 88 (8.8%. Data analysis revealed that the correlations between the WBC, RBC, nitrite, crystal, and protein were significantly higher in culture-positive samples. Of the antibiotics tested, isolated species were most sensitive to amikacin and most resistant to ampicillin."nConclusion: The present study revealed a correlation between pyuria and bacteruria; however, it should be noted that the clinical signs and the presence of WBC in urine could not be used to confirm the UTI. In addition, since different bacterial species are able to cause UTI, in order to administer proper treatment while controlling improper use of antibiotics, thorough testing, including UA and UC together with antibiogram, is strongly recommended.

  3. Leukocyte counts in urine reflect the risk of concomitant sepsis in bacteriuric infants: A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harper Marvin B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When urine infections are missed in febrile young infants with normal urinalysis, clinicians may worry about the risk – hitherto unverified – of concomitant invasion of blood and cerebrospinal fluid by uropathogens. In this study, we determine the extent of this risk. Methods In a retrospective cohort study of febrile 0–89 day old infants evaluated for sepsis in an urban academic pediatric emergency department (1993–1999, we estimated rates of bacteriuric sepsis (urinary tract infections complicated by sepsis after stratifying infants by urine leukocyte counts higher, or lower than 10 cells/hpf. We compared the global accuracy of leukocytes in urine, leukocytes in peripheral blood, body temperature, and age for predicting bacteruric sepsis. The global accuracy of each test was estimated by calculating the area under its receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests compared count data. Medians for data not normally distributed were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Two thousand two hundred forty-nine young infants had a normal screening dipstick. None of these developed bacteremia or meningitis despite positive urine culture in 41 (1.8%. Of 1516 additional urine specimens sent for formal urinalysis, 1279 had 0–9 leukocytes/hpf. Urine pathogens were isolated less commonly (6% vs. 76% and at lower concentrations in infants with few, compared to many urine leukocytes. Urine leukocytes (AUC: 0.94 were the most accurate predictors of bacteruric sepsis. Infants with urinary leukocytes Conclusion In young infants evaluated for fever, leukocytes in urine reflect the likelihood of bacteriuric sepsis. Infants with urinary tract infections missed because of few leukocytes in urine are at relatively low risk of invasive bacterial sepsis by pathogens isolated from urine.

  4. On-Demand Urine Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research program will develop a novel surface-enhanced Raman (SER) sensor that will perform real-time chemical analysis of urine. It...

  5. Murine Automated Urine Sampler (MAUS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines planned development for a low-power, low-mass automated urine sample collection and preservation system for small mammals, capable of...

  6. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... hematuria can be seen because it changes the color of urine, which can happen with just a ...

  7. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... embarrassing to pee in a cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  8. Chlooramfenicol in urine van slachtdieren: een onderzoekmodel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel LA van; Rossum HJ van

    1989-01-01

    Een onderzoekmodel voor de detectie van chlooramfenicol (CAP) in monsters urine, gebaseerd op screening met de enzym immunochemische (Quik Card R) methode en bevestiging met gaschromatografie (GC)- massaspectrometrie (MS) wordt beschreven. Een gemeenschappelijke studie, waaraan zeven Nederlandse

  9. A brief review of Rhazes, Avicenna, and Jorjani's views on diagnosis of diseases through urine examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Mohsen; Haghverdi, Farshid; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed

    2014-07-01

    The present survey aims at studying the opinions of three famous medical scholars in history (Rhazes, Avicinna, and Jorjani) on the diagnosis of diseases via urine examination and their compatiblity with modern science. Refering to original authentic sources in traditional medicine, including Al-Hawi (The Virtuous Life), Zakhireh-i Kharazmshahi (Thesaurus of the Shah of Khwarazm), and Al-Canon fi al Tibb (The Canon on Medicine), we compared the ideas of the authors with modern medicine. In traditional medicine, physicians would pay attention to the methods of urine collection and urinary features such as color, consistency, volume, frequency, odor, and foam as the means of diagnosis, all of which still serve as the bases for today's diagnostic approach. Moreover, symptoms of the diagnosis of the disease through urine are consistent in tradition and modern medicine; some examples are blood in the urine (hematuria), decreased urine output (oliguria), change in urine color together with headache (Alport syndrome), diluted urine (tubular dysfunction in reabsorption of water or initial polydipsy), and urinary floor with tiny bubbles (one of the main symptoms of proteinuria).

  10. Urine phenobarbital drug screening: potential use for compliance assessment in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, Ronnie; Kwon, Jennifer M; Chen, Sixaio; McDermott, Michael P

    2012-02-01

    This study was done to determine if urine phenobarbital measurements provide a reliable indicator of presence of the drug in neonates. Urine was collected from neonates treated with phenobarbital for clinical indications within 4 to 6 hours of clinically indicated collection of serum phenobarbital levels. Urine samples were also collected from control neonates not treated with phenobarbital. One aliquot was assayed fresh, another frozen at -30°C and assayed 1 to 3 months later. Phenobarbital was assayed using the ONLINE TDM Roche/Hitachi automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Serum and urine concentrations were compared as were fresh and frozen urine measurements. Serum phenobarbital ranged from 5.6 to 52.7 μg/mL. Matched urine samples were 56.6 ± 12.5% of the serum level. Frozen samples were 98.3 ± 8.0% of the fresh samples. Urine phenobarbital concentrations, either fresh or frozen, can be used in neonates as a noninvasive estimate of drug levels.

  11. The quantitation of 2-oxo-3-hydroxy lysergic acid diethylamide (O-H-LSD) in human urine specimens, a metabolite of LSD: comparative analysis using liquid chromatography-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, G K; Klette, K L; Anderson, C

    2000-04-01

    This paper compares the potential forensic application of two sensitive and rapid procedures (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry) for the detection and quantitation of 2-oxo-3-hydroxy lysergic acid diethylamide (O-H-LSD) a major LSD metabolite. O-H-LSD calibration curves for both procedures were linear over the concentration range 0-8,000 pg/mL with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.99. The observed limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) for O-H-LSD in both procedures was 400 pg/mL. Sixty-eight human urine specimens that had previously been found to contain LSD by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were reanalyzed by both procedures for LSD and O-H-LSD. These specimens contained a mean concentration of O-H-LSD approximately 16 times higher than the LSD concentration. Because both LC methods produce similar results, either procedure can be readily adapted to O-H-LSD analysis for use in high-volume drug-testing laboratories. In addition, the possibility of significantly increasing the LSD detection time window by targeting this major LSD metabolite for analysis may influence other drug-free workplace programs to test for LSD.

  12. Primary culture media for routine urine processing.

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, J C; Lucia, B; Clark, E.; Berman, M.; Goldstein, J.; D'Amato, R F

    1982-01-01

    It has been recommended that routine microbiological processing of urine specimens include quantitative plating onto blood agar medium along with a selective and differential agar such as MacConkey agar for gram-negative organisms. Few data have been published to justify this combination. To evaluate the validity of this recommendation 2,553 midstream, clean-voided urine samples were quantitatively plated onto blood agar, MacConkey agar, and colistin-nalidixic acid agar, which is a selective ...

  13. Screening for human papillomavirus: Is urine useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D′Hauwers K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infection with high-risk Human papillomavirus (hr-HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 is the main risk factor for developing malignant genital lesions. Screening methods and follow-up schedules for cervical cancer are well known. A golden standard to screen and monitor men does not exist yet, because HPV-related, life threatening malignancies in men are rare. The importance of male HPV screening lies mainly in HPV vaccination. Young females are the target group for HPV, but men are considered to be the reservoir for HPV and to have a role in the perpetuation of the infection in the general population. We looked at the usefulness of urine as a tool for HPV screening. Pubmed was searched with the words ′′HPV′′, ′′Urine,′′ and ′′HPV-DNA′′. The chance of finding HPV-DNA in urine is higher in men with lesions in the urethra than outside the urethra, and in women with abnormal cervical cytology. In general, the results of testing urine for HPV-DNA are better for women than for men, probably because of the anatomical position of the urethra to the vagina, vulva, and cervix. In both genders, urine HPV prevalence is higher in HIV pos patients and in high-risk populations. Urine, to screen asymptomatic low-risk-profile (women seems less useful because their urine samples are often inadequate. If urine proves to be the best medium to screen, a low-risk population remains controversial.

  14. An update on purple urine bag syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadano Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection

  15. Mutagens in urine of carbon electrode workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquini, R.; Monarca, S.; Sforzolini, G.S.; Conti, R.; Fagioli, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following previous work carried out in an Italian factory producing carbon electrodes and evaluating the occupational mutagenic-carcinogenic hazards, the authors studied the presence of mutagen metabolites in the urine of workers in the same factory who were exposed to petroleum coke and pitch and in the urine of a control group of unexposed workers. The urine samples were concentrated by absorption on XAD-2 columns and were tested using the Salmonella/microsome assay (strain TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1538) with and without the addition of beta-glucuronidase and metabolizing system. The collection of urine samples was carried out twice, with an interval of 2 months; 'before working time', 'after working time', and also during Sunday. The results showed that urine samples collected 'before' occupational exposure (upon waking) or on Sunday revealed no mutagenic activity in either worker groups and that the urine samples collected after or during occupational exposure revealed high mutagenic activity in the exposed workers, with a statistically significant difference between the mean of the revertants/plate values for exposed and unexposed workers. On the basis of the previous and the present research, the authors suggest that application of the Salmonella/microsome test to work environments could offer useful and suitable tool for evaluating the health hazards due to mutagenic/carcinogenic substances from occupational exposure.

  16. Adequacy of urine cytology specimens: an assessment of collection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Andrew F; Maygarden, Susan; Wu, Jennifer M; Visco, Anthony G; Connolly, AnnaMarie

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the method of urine collection impacts the adequacy and cell counts of cytology specimens in a low-risk population. Voided, post-cystometrogram (CMG), and bladder irrigant specimens were collected and evaluated for cytologic adequacy and average cell count by a single cytopathologist masked to the source of each sample. Data were analyzed to detect differences in specimen adequacy and cell counts based on method of collection. Both the voided and post-CMG specimens (97.3%, 93.7% respectively) were significantly more likely to be adequate compared to the bladder irrigant specimen (11.7%, p urine dipstick (p = 0.03). No cytologic abnormalities were diagnosed. Whereas both spontaneously voided and post-CMG specimens were consistently adequate for interpretation, spontaneous voided specimens were optimal with regard to maximizing cell count/hpf.

  17. Zinc in hair and urine of paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wouwe, J P; de Wolff, F A; van Gelderen, H H

    1986-02-28

    Zinc concentrations in hair and urine were measured in groups of children varying in one condition - short stature, or after prolonged upper respiratory infection, or during non-infectious diarrhea, or while on chemotherapy for acute lymphatic leukaemia and in healthy controls. As compared with controls, hair zinc was significantly low after respiratory infection (p less than 0.0001) and high in short stature (p less than 0.01). Urinary zinc was increased during initial chemotherapy (p less than 0.001) and diarrhea (p less than 0.02). It is shown that zinc deficiency occurs in one of the common symptoms in paediatric medicine, namely upper respiratory tract infection. The high overlap (34-88%) proves hair and urine zinc to be of no use for reliable individual diagnostic statements.

  18. Discovery and Characterization of Human-Urine Utilization by Asymptomatic-Bacteriuria-Causing Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Deepak S; Ben Zakour, Nouri L; Sullivan, Matthew J; Beatson, Scott A; Ulett, Kimberly B; Benjamin, William H; Davies, Mark R; Dando, Samantha J; King, Nathan P; Cripps, Allan W; Schembri, Mark A; Dougan, Gordon; Ulett, Glen C

    2015-11-09

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes both symptomatic cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU); however, growth characteristics of S. agalactiae in human urine have not previously been reported. Here, we describe a phenotype of robust growth in human urine observed in ABU-causing S. agalactiae (ABSA) that was not seen among uropathogenic S. agalactiae (UPSA) strains isolated from patients with acute cystitis. In direct competition assays using pooled human urine inoculated with equal numbers of a prototype ABSA strain, designated ABSA 1014, and any one of several UPSA strains, measurement of the percentage of each strain recovered over time showed a markedly superior fitness of ABSA 1014 for urine growth. Comparative phenotype profiling of ABSA 1014 and UPSA strain 807, isolated from a patient with acute cystitis, using metabolic arrays of >2,500 substrates and conditions revealed unique and specific l-malic acid catabolism in ABSA 1014 that was absent in UPSA 807. Whole-genome sequencing also revealed divergence in malic enzyme-encoding genes between the strains predicted to impact the activity of the malate metabolic pathway. Comparative growth assays in urine comparing wild-type ABSA and gene-deficient mutants that were functionally inactivated for the malic enzyme metabolic pathway by targeted disruption of the maeE or maeK gene in ABSA demonstrated attenuated growth of the mutants in normal human urine as well as synthetic human urine containing malic acid. We conclude that some S. agalactiae strains can grow in human urine, and this relates in part to malic acid metabolism, which may affect the persistence or progression of S. agalactiae ABU.

  19. Comparison of Result Times Between Urine and Whole Blood Point-of-care Pregnancy Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Michael; Wnek, Kristopher; Moskoff, Jordan; Christian, Errick; Bailitz, John

    2016-07-01

    Point-of-care (POC) pregnancy testing is commonly performed in the emergency department (ED). One prior study demonstrated equivalent accuracy between urine and whole blood for one common brand of POC pregnancy testing. Our study sought to determine the difference in result times when comparing whole blood versus urine for the same brand of POC pregnancy testing. We conducted a prospective, observational study at an urban, academic, tertiary care hospital comparing the turnaround time between order and result for urine and whole blood pregnancy tests collected according to standard protocol without intervention from the investigators. After the blood was collected, the nurse would place three drops onto a Beckman Coulter ICON 25 Rapid HCG bedside pregnancy test and set a timer for 10 minutes. At the end of the 10 minutes, the result and time were recorded on an encoded data sheet and not used clinically. The same make and model analyzer was also used for urine tests in the lab located within the ED. The primary outcome was the difference in mean turnaround time between whole blood in the ED and urine testing in the adjacent lab results. Concordance between samples was assessed as a secondary outcome. 265 total patients were included in the study. The use of whole blood resulted in a mean time savings of 21 minutes (95% CI 16-25 minutes) when compared with urine (presults, with one false negative urine specimen with a quantitative HCG level of 81 mIU/L. Our results suggest that the use of whole blood in place of urine for bedside pregnancy testing may reduce the total result turnaround time without significant changes in accuracy in this single-center study.

  20. The potential of at-home prediction of the formation of urolithiasis by simple multi-frequency electrical conductivity of the urine and the comparison of its performance with urine ion-related indices, color and specific gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverio, Angelito A; Chung, Wen-Yaw; Cheng, Cheanyeh; Wang, Hai-Lung; Kung, Chien-Min; Chen, Jun; Tsai, Vincent F S

    2016-04-01

    It is important to control daily diet, water intake and life style as well as monitor the quality of urine for urolithiasis prevention. For decades, many ion-related indices have been developed for predicting the formation of urinary stones or urolithiasis, such as EQUILs, relative supersaturation (RSS), Tiselius indices (TI), Robertson risk factor algorithms (RRFA) and more recently, the Bonn risk index. However, they mostly demand robust laboratory analysis, are work-intensive, and even require complex computational programs to get the concentration patterns of several urine analytes. A simple and fast platform for measuring multi-frequency electrical conductivity (MFEC) of morning spot urine (random urine) to predict the onset of urolithiasis was implemented in this study. The performance thereof was compared to ion-related indices, urine color and specific gravity. The concentrations of relevant ions, color, specific gravity (SG) and MFEC (MFEC tested at 1, 10, 100, 5001 KHz and 1 MHz) of 80 random urine samples were examined after collection. Then, the urine samples were stored at 4 °C for 24 h to determine whether sedimentation would occur or not. Ion-activity product index of calcium oxalate (AP(CaOx) EQ2) was calculated. The correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color, SG and MFEC were analyzed. AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color and MFEC (at 5 frequencies) all demonstrated good prediction (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, respectively) for stone formation. The positive correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2 and MFEC is also significant (p = 0.01). MFEC provides a good metric for predicting the onset of urolithiasis, which is comparable to conventional ion-related indices and urine color. This technology can be implemented with much ease for objectively monitoring the quality of urine at points-of-care or at home.

  1. [Urine cytology - update 2013. A systematic review of recent literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, M; vom Dorp, F; Schostak, M; Hakenberg, O W

    2013-09-01

    Urine cytology is an important element of the diagnosis and follow-up of urothelial carcinomas and is recommended in most relevant guidelines. Urine-based marker systems are advocated as an adjunct to or a replacement of urine cytology. Urine cytology also has its place in the diagnosis of benign diseases. This systematic review describes and discusses the literature on urine cytology published since 2010.

  2. Law of Urination: all mammals empty their bladders over the same duration

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Patricia J; Choo, Jerome; Hu, David L

    2013-01-01

    The urinary system evolved to eject fluids from the body body quickly and efficiently. Despite a long history of successful urology treatments in humans and animals, the physics of urination has received comparatively little attention. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate the hydrodynamics of urination across five orders of magnitude in animal mass, from mice to elephants. Using high-speed fluid dynamics videos and flow-rate measurement at Zoo Atlanta, we discover the "Law of Urination", which states animals empty their bladders over nearly constant duration of average 21 seconds (standard deviation 13 seconds), despite a difference in bladder volume from 100 mL to 100 L. This feat is made possible by the increasing urethra length of large animals which amplifies gravitational force and flow rate. We also demonstrate the challenges faced by the urinary system for rodents and other small mammals for which urine flow is limited to single drops. Our findings reveal the urethr...

  3. Association of urine protein excretion and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Bernese Mountain dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bernhard; Eichenberger, Simone; Haug, Katharinan; Wittenbrink, Max M; Reusch, Claudia E

    2009-12-01

    Bernese Mountain dogs (BMDs) are prone to develop a familial glomerulonephropathy and a pathogenic role of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in this disease has been suspected. Glomerular disease in many affected dogs is clinically inapparent and proteinuria is found incidentally. In this study, urine protein excretion was evaluated in 122 clinically healthy BMDs and 55 controls. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi in BMDs was 57%, compared to 16% in controls. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of positive dipstick results, microalbuminuria, urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio or abnormal urine protein pattern (determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate agarose gel electrophoresis) between BMDs and controls and BMDs with and without antibodies against B. burgdorferi. It was concluded that antibodies against B. burgdorferi are not associated with proteinuria as an early sign of renal disease in BMDs.

  4. Urinary AQP2 excretion is increased during nephrotic syndrome and is associated with reduced urine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, René Frydensbjerg; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Frøkjær, Jørgen

    of the study was to investigate the urinary presence of the renal water channel AQP2 and it´s correlation to urine production in children with NS. METHODS: A total of 20 (7 girls) children with NS were included with a mean age of 9.1±3.2 yrs. Urine samples were collected from the second morning void at debut......OBJECTIVES: Edema is a hallmark of nephrotic syndrome (NS) and has largely been attributed to sodium retention. Yet low plasma sodium is frequently observed in children with acute NS suggesting that a disturbance in renal water handling may coexist together with sodium retention. The aim......, patients exhibit an increased excretion of AQP2 in urine compared with remission and increased uAQP2 concentration correlated with reduced urine production. Further studies are needed to investigate if uAQP2 contributes to a positive free water balance in NS independently of sodium retention....

  5. Global gene expression profiling of asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli during biofilm growth in human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) E. coli strains 83972 and VR50 are significantly better biofilm formers in their natural growth medium, human urine, than the two uropathogenic E. coli isolates CFT073 and 536. We used DNA microarrays to monitor the expression profile during biofilm growth in urine of the two ABU...... strains 83972 and VR50. Significant differences in expression levels were seen between the biofilm expression profiles of the two strains with the corresponding planktonic expression profiles in morpholinepropanesulfonic acid minimal laboratory medium and human urine; 417 and 355 genes were up- and down...... versions of 83972 and VR50; all mutants showed reduced biofilm formation in urine by 18 to 43% compared with the wild type (P profile of strain 83972 in the human urinary tract partially overlaps with the biofilm expression profile....

  6. Katkor(R cat litter, a non-invasive method of collecting cat urine for phosphate determination : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Delport

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to compare the collection of cat urine, for phosphate concentration determination, by catheterisation with that via a proprietary cat litter (Katkor (R. The passage of urine through the litter or its retention in the litter for a period of 2 hours did not affect the concentration of phosphates compared with that of the original sample. Apart from a small volume of urine trapped in the litter by capillary action, and some urine adhering to the funnel in which the litter was placed, the litter proved to be an excellent medium for routine urine collection from cats, and more especially as an alternative to catheterisation when regular collection from a particular cat is required.

  7. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  8. Male panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) urine contains kinship information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU DingZhen; WEI RongPing; ZHANG GuiQuan; YUAN Hong; WANG ZhiPeng; SUN Lixing; ZHANG dianXu; ZHANG HeMin

    2008-01-01

    Chemical communication plays an important role in kin selection and mate choice in mammals. The covariance of odor-genes of rodents has been documented and kinship odor has been proposed and termed, yet little is known of the relationship between genetic relatedness and chemical composition of kinship odors. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) rely substantially on chemical communication to mediate their social interactions. To examine the relationship between genetic relatedness and compounds in the urine/anogenital gland secretions, we compared the similarities between genetic relatedness and the chemical profiles of anogenital gland secretions and urine via lineage construction and GC-MS (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry). We found that information about kinship odors was present only in the urine of male adults in the mating season but absent in the non-mating season. Adult females and all sub-adults did not have such kinship odors in either mating or non-mating season. Therefore, kinship odor in the panda was contingent on age, sex, and season. This is the first report about the condition-dependent expression of kinship odor, which may have a sig-nificant implication in the practice of panda conservation in relation to chemical communication and sexual selection.

  9. Urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, J; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, J

    2011-01-01

    We examined blood and urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol in relation to the existing cut-off value used in routine doping control. We compared the concentrations in asthmatics with regular use of beta2-agonists prior to study and healthy controls with no previous use...... of beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label study in which subjects inhaled repetitive doses of 400 microgram salbutamol every second hour (total 1600 microgram), which is the permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected...... and the median ranged from 268 to 611 ng×mL (-1). No samples exceeded the WADA threshold value of 1000 ng×mL (-1) when corrected for the urine specific gravity. When not corrected one sample exceeded the cut-off value with urine concentration of 1082 ng×mL (-1). In conclusion we found no differences in blood...

  10. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkar Nandita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C ratio ii nuclear pleomorphism iii nuclear margin irregularity iv hyperchromasia and v chromatin abnormalities Conclusion The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.

  11. Surface glycosylation profiles of urine extracellular vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Q Gerlach

    Full Text Available Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs are released by cells throughout the nephron and contain biomolecules from their cells of origin. Although uEV-associated proteins and RNA have been studied in detail, little information exists regarding uEV glycosylation characteristics. Surface glycosylation profiling by flow cytometry and lectin microarray was applied to uEVs enriched from urine of healthy adults by ultracentrifugation and centrifugal filtration. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin microarray profiles was confirmed by competitive sugar inhibition and carbohydrate-specific enzyme hydrolysis. Glycosylation profiles of uEVs and purified Tamm Horsfall protein were compared. In both flow cytometry and lectin microarray assays, uEVs demonstrated surface binding, at low to moderate intensities, of a broad range of lectins whether prepared by ultracentrifugation or centrifugal filtration. In general, ultracentrifugation-prepared uEVs demonstrated higher lectin binding intensities than centrifugal filtration-prepared uEVs consistent with lesser amounts of co-purified non-vesicular proteins. The surface glycosylation profiles of uEVs showed little inter-individual variation and were distinct from those of Tamm Horsfall protein, which bound a limited number of lectins. In a pilot study, lectin microarray was used to compare uEVs from individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to those of age-matched controls. The lectin microarray profiles of polycystic kidney disease and healthy uEVs showed differences in binding intensity of 6/43 lectins. Our results reveal a complex surface glycosylation profile of uEVs that is accessible to lectin-based analysis following multiple uEV enrichment techniques, is distinct from co-purified Tamm Horsfall protein and may demonstrate disease-specific modifications.

  12. Solar thermal evaporation of human urine for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonini, Samantha, E-mail: sam_antonini@uni-bonn.de; Nguyen, Phong Thanh; Arnold, Ute; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    A No Mix sanitation system was installed in a dormitory at the University of Can Tho in Vietnam, with the objective of recycling nutrients from source separated urine. This paper presents a pilot scale evaporation technology, and investigates the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from human urine by solar still for use as fertilizer. After 26 days of sun exposure, 360 g of solid fertilizer material was recovered from 50 L undiluted urine. This urine-derived fertilizer was mainly composed of sodium chloride, and had phosphorus and nitrogen contents of almost 2%. When tested with maize and ryegrass, the urine fertilizer led to biomass yields and phosphorus and nitrogen uptakes comparable to those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Urine acidification with sulfuric or phosphoric acid prior treatment reduced nitrogen losses, improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers, and induced higher biomass yields and nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes than the commercial mineral fertilizer. However, acidification is not recommended in developing countries due to additional costs and handling risks. The fate of micropollutants and the possibility of separating sodium chloride from other beneficial nutrients require further investigation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 360 g of fertilizer was derived from 50 L urine by solar evaporative distillation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fertilizer contained 90% sodium chloride, 3% sulfur, 2% nitrogen, 2% phosphorus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It induced biomass yields comparable to those produced by a commercial fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine acidification improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acidification is not recommended for use in developing countries (costs, safety).

  13. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution (1961); Les mecanismes de concentration et de dilution de l'urine (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F.; Guinnebault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a problem in the field of renal physiology which has shown many new developments during the course of the last few years. The following are treated successively: a) the data obtained from measurements of free water clearance and their interpretation; b) the data provided by nephron morphology and the comparative anatomy of the kidney ; c) the data relative to the existence of an intrarenal osmotic gradient; d) the principle of concentration multiplication by a counter current technique; e) the present day theory of counter current concentration of urine, and f) the physiological check on dilution and concentration mechanisms in urine. Lastly, the advantages of the modern theory and the unknown factors which remain are discussed. (authors) [French] Cette revue de question est consacree l'analyse d'un probleme de physiologie renale qui, au cours des dernieres annees, a subi un developpement et un renouveau remarquables. Sont successivement exposes: a) les donnees fournies par les mesures de clearance de l'eau libre et leur interpretation; b) les donnees fournies par la morphologie des nephrons et l'anatomie comparee du rein; c) les donnees concernant l'existence d'un gradient osmotique intrarenal; d) le principe de multiplication de concentration par contrecourant; e) la theorie actuelle de concentration de l'urine par contre-courant, et f) le controle physiologique des mecanismes de dilution et de concentration de l'urine. Les avantages de la theorie moderne et les obscurites qui subsistent sont enfin discutes. (auteurs)

  14. Cow Urine Keratopathy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanduja, Sumeet; Jain, Prachi; Sachdeva, Sumit; Phogat, Jitender

    2017-04-01

    Injury to the ocular surface has been described to occur with a wide variety of chemicals. In most cases the cause is industrial injury with acids or alkalis. We are reporting a case of ocular surface injury due to "Cow urine" which to the best of our knowledge is been reported for the first time. Cow urine is a well-accepted medicinal ingredient in ancient Indian medicine. However, wrong formulation and inadvertent prescriptions by quacks can lead to severe ocular surface injury and morbidity. Here, with this case report we have discussed the possible culprit and possible mechanism of ocular injury due to instillation of a concoction containing cow urine as an active ingredient and also discuss legal aspects of quackery in India.

  15. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  16. Investigation of Urination Disorder in Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Mei Zhang; Xu-Ping Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Urination disorders are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and respond poorly to medication.This study aimed to analyze the risk factors for urination disorders in PD.Methods:Ninety-one patients with PD (aged 34-83 years old) were recruited.Patients were assessed with the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS),Hoehn and Yahr stage,Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI),Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD),and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA).Micturition number was recorded,and Type B ultrasound was used to evaluate residual urine.Statistics was performed using binary logistic regression,bivariate correlations,and Chi-square and t-tests.Results:Of 91 patients,urinary dysfunction occurred in 55.0%.Among these,49.5% suffered with nocturia,47.3% with pollakiuria.Nocturia number had a positive linear relationship with HAMA score (odds ratio [OR] =0.340,P =0.001),HAMD score (OR =0.323,P =0.002),duration of L-dopa medication (OR =0.328,P =0.001),dose of L-dopa (OR =0.273,P =0.009),UPDRS-Ⅱ (OR =0.402,P =0.000),UPDRS-Ⅲ score (OR =0.291,P =0.005),and PSQI score (OR =0.249,P =0.017).Micturition number over 24 h was positively associated with HAMA (OR =0.303,P =0.004) and UPDRS-Ⅱ scores (OR =0.306,P =0.003).Of patients with residual urine,79.3% had a volume of residual urine <50 ml.Residual urine was present in 44.4% of the patients with nocturia,46.5% of the patients with pollakiuria,and 80.0% of the patients with dysuria.More men than women had residual urine (35.2% male vs.13.3% female;P =0.002).Conclusions:Nocturia and pollakiuria were common micturition symptoms in our participants with PD.Nocturia was associated with depression,anxiety,sleep problems,and severity of PD.Pollakiuria was associated with anxiety and severity of PD.Male patients were more prone to residual urine and pollakiuria.

  17. Bisphenol A levels in human urine.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Akiko; Kunugita, Naoki; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Isse, Toyohi; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Foureman, Gary L; Morita, Masatoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been reported in human cells (E-screen assays) and in (italic)in vivo(/italic) studies of rodents, although the latter reports remain controversial, as do the exposure levels and adverse health effects of BPA in humans. In this study we report on an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence method for BPA and its conjugate in human urine and on the application of this method in two student cohorts. Urine, along with informa...

  18. Comparison of osmolality and refractometric readings of Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, A Paige; Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L; Fry, Michael M; Hall, James S; Bartges, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between osmolality and specific gravity of urine samples from clinically normal adult parrots and to determine a formula to convert urine specific gravity (USG) measured on a reference scale to a more accurate USG value for an avian species, urine samples were collected opportunistically from a colony of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Samples were analyzed by using a veterinary refractometer, and specific gravity was measured on both canine and feline scales. Osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometry. Specific gravity and osmolality measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.96). The linear relationship between refractivity measurements on a reference scale and osmolality was determined. An equation was calculated to allow specific gravity results from a medical refractometer to be converted to specific gravity values of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots: USGHAp = 0.201 +0.798(USGref). Use of the reference-canine scale to approximate the osmolality of parrot urine leads to an overestimation of the true osmolality of the sample. In addition, this error increases as the concentration of urine increases. Compared with the human-canine scale, the feline scale provides a closer approximation to urine osmolality of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots but still results in overestimation of osmolality.

  19. Specific detection of prostate cancer cells in urine by multiplex immunofluorescence cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kazutoshi; Pavlovich, Christian P; Netto, George J; Konishi, Yuko; Isaacs, William B; Ali, Syed; De Marzo, Angelo; Meeker, Alan K

    2009-07-01

    Prostate cancer biomarkers are enriched in urine after prostatic manipulation, suggesting that whole cells might also be detectable for diagnosis. We tested multiplex staining of urinary sediments as a minimally invasive method to detect prostate cancer. Urine samples were collected from 35 men who had prostatic massage (attentive digital rectal examination) in a urology clinic and from 15 control men without urologic disease and without massage, for a total of 50 specimens (27 cancer-positive cases and 23 cancer-negative cases). LNCaP prostate cancer cells spiked into urine were used for initial marker optimization. Urine sediments were cytospun onto glass slides and stained. Multiplex urine cytology was compared with conventional urine cytology for cancer detection; anti-alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase antibody was used as a marker of prostate cancer cells, anti-Nkx3.1 as a marker of prostate epithelial cells, anti-nucleolin as a marker of nucleoli, and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole to highlight nuclei. Prostate cancer cells were successfully visualized by combined staining for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, Nkx3.1, and nucleolin. Of the 25 informative cases with biopsy-proven prostate cancer, 9 were diagnosed as suspicious or positive by multiplex immunofluorescence urine cytology, but only 4 were similarly judged by conventional cytology. All cases without cancer were read as negative by both methods. The multiplex cytology sensitivity for cancer detection in informative cases was 36% (9/25), and specificity was 100% (8/8). In conclusion, we have successfully achieved multiple staining for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, Nkx3.1, nucleolin, and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole to detect prostate cancer cells in urine. Further refinements in marker selection and technique may increase sensitivity and applicability for prostate cancer diagnosis.

  20. Urine volume dependency of specific dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol metabolites in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lijie; Wudy, Stefan A; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Hartmann, Michaela F; Remer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Urine volume should be considered as a confounder when using urinary free cortisol (UFF) and cortisone (UFE) to assess glucocorticoid (GC) status. We aimed to examine whether adrenal androgen (AA) metabolites may be also affected by urine volume in healthy children. To compare the flow dependence of GC and AA metabolites, specific GC metabolites were examined. In 24-h urine samples of 120 (60 boys) healthy children (4-10 yr), steroid profiles were determined by GC-MS analysis, UFF and UFE by radioimmunoassay. To assess daily AA and GC secretion rates, 7 quantitatively most important AA (∑C19) and GC (∑C21) metabolites were summed. Sum of DHEA and its 16α-hydroxylated metabolites were denoted as DHEA&M. Association of urine volume with AA (∑C19, DHEA&M, DHEA, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA, 3β,16α,17β-androstenetriol) and GC (∑C21, UFF, UFE, 6β-hydroxycortisol, 20α-dihydrocortisol) were examined in linear regression models. Among the examined AA metabolites, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA (β=0.56, pDHEA (β=0.43, p=0.05) showed relatively strong association with urine volume. A trend was seen for ∑C19 (β=0.23, p=0.08), but not for DHEA&M (p>0.1). Regarding GC metabolites, urine volume showed a stronger association with cortisol's direct metabolites, i.e., cortisone, 6β-hydroxycortisol and 20α-dihydrocortisol (β=0.4-0.6, pDHEA, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA, 6β-hydroxycortisol, and 20α-dihydrocortisol may also depend on urine volume. The intrarenal production of the latter three and cortisone might explain their relative strong water-flow-dependency. Total AA or GC secretion marker appears not to be relevantly confounded by urine volume. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis: Detection of parasite-derived DNA in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodh, Nilanjan; Caro, Reynaldo; Sofer, Shterna; Scott, Alan; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Shiff, Clive

    2016-11-01

    Detecting infections of Strongyloides stercoralis is arduous and has low sensitivity. Clinically this is a major problem because chronic infections may disseminate in the host and lead to a life threatening condition. Epidemiologically, S. stercoralis is often missed in surveys as it is difficult to identify by standard stool examination procedures. We present, for the first time, evidence that the infection can be detected in filtered urine samples collected and processed in the field and subsequently assayed for the presence of parasite DNA. Urine specimens (∼40mL) were collected from 125 test and control individuals living in rural and peri-urban regions of Northern Argentina. From the same individuals, fresh stool specimens were processed using three different copropological methods. Urine specimens were filtered in the field through a 12.5cm Whatman No. 3 filter. The filters were dried and packed individually in sealable plastic bags with desiccant and shipped to a laboratory where DNA was recovered from the filter and PCR-amplified with primers specific to a dispersed repetitive sequence. Prevalence of S. stercoralis infection by stool culture and direct examination was 35/125 (28%), In contrast, PCR-based detection of parasite-specific trans-renal DNA in urine indicated that 56/125 (44.8%) carried the parasite. Of the patients that tested positive for urine-based parasite DNA, approximately half also tested positive in their stool specimens. There were 6.4% of cases where parasite larvae were seen in the stool but no DNA was amplified from the urine. As proof of principle, DNA amplification from urine residue reveals significantly more cases of S. stercoralis infection than the current standard stool examination techniques. Additional work is required to establish the relative utility, sensitivity and specificity of urine-based analysis compared to parasitological and nucleic acid detection from stool for clinical and epidemiological detection for S

  2. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Virginia M., E-mail: vweaver@jhsph.edu [Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615N. Wolfe St., Rm. 7041, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Industrial Medicine, SoonChunHyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Parsons, Patrick J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Spector, June [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Fadrowski, Jeffrey [Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jaar, Bernard G. [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Steuerwald, Amy J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Todd, Andrew C. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2011-11-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) {mu}g/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (r{sub s}=0.5; p<0.001). After adjustment, ln (urine cadmium) was not associated with serum cystatin-C-based measures. However, higher ln (urine cadmium) was associated with higher creatinine-based eGFRs including the MDRD and an equation incorporating serum cystatin C and creatinine (beta-coefficient=4.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

  3. Matrix metalloproteinases -8 and -9 in the Airways, Blood and Urine During Exacerbations of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, Jennifer L; Mallia-Millanes, Brendan; Forrester, Douglas L; Knox, Alan J; Bolton, Charlotte E; Johnson, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are elevated in the airways and blood of COPD patients, contributing to disease pathogenesis and tissue remodelling. However, it is not clear if MMP levels in airways, blood and urine are related or if MMP levels are related to disease severity or presence of exacerbations requiring hospitalisation. Seventy-two patients requiring hospitalisation for COPD exacerbations had serum, urine and sputum MMP-8, -9 and active MMP-9 measured by ELISA and gelatin zymography on day one, five and four weeks later (recovery). Clinical history, spirometry, COPD Assessment Test and MRC dyspnoea score were obtained. Twenty-two stable COPD patients had MMP measurements one week apart. During exacerbations, serum and urine MMP-9 were slightly elevated by 17% and 30% compared with recovery values respectively (p = 0.001 and p = 0.026). MMP-8 was not significantly changed. These MMP levels related to serum neutrophil numbers but not to outcome of exacerbations, disease severity measures or smoking status. In clinically stable patients, serum MMP levels did not vary significantly over 7 days, whereas urine MMPs varied by up to nine fold for MMP-8 (p = 0.003). Sputum, serum and urine contained different MMP species and complexes. Median values for sputum active MMP-9 were significantly different from serum (p = 0.035) and urine (p = 0.024). Serum and urine MMPs are only modestly elevated during exacerbations of COPD and unlikely to be useful biomarkers in this clinical setting. Airway, serum and urine MMP levels are independent of each other in COPD patients. Further, MMP levels are variable between patients and do not reflect airflow obstruction.

  4. Detection of bladder transitional cell carcinoma: urinary hTERT assay versus urine cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahyazadeh SR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC of bladder is the second most common urogenital malignancy and because of its high rate of recurrence (two third of tumors recur vigilant surveillance is necessary. There have been a lot of efforts to find a proper biomarker for detecting urothelial cancers because available methods are expensive and invasive (like cystoscopy or have a low degree of sensitivity (like urine cytology. Urothelial malignancies, like other cancers tend to express a large amount of telomerase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible application of voided urine human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT mRNA assay in detecting low-grade bladder carcinoma in comparison with urine cytology. "nMethods: Voided urine samples were collected from 49 patients who were supposed to go under operation. Samples were examined by both Quantitative Real-time RT-PCR (for measuring hTERT mRNA level and cytology; the results were then compared to the final pathologic studies. "nResults: Regardless of clinical stage and or pathological grade of tumor, sensitivity of telomerase test and urine cytology was 74% and 16% respectively. There was a strong correlation between results of urine cytology and stage and/or grade of tumor; however, sensitivity of telomerase test was acceptable regardless of stage and or grade of tumor. There was a statistically significant difference between sensitivity of urine cytology and telomerase test (p<0.001. "nConclusion: Detection of hTERT-mRNA can potentially be used as a non-invasive method for diagnosis and follow up of bladder carcinoma instead of urine cytology.

  5. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine, and effe......Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine...

  6. Evaluation of commercial boric acid containing vials for urine culture: low risk of contamination and cost effectiveness considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appannanavar, Suma B; Biswal, Manisha; Rajkumari, Nonika; Mohan, Balvinder; Taneja, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    Urine culture is a gold standard in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection. Clean catch midstream urine collection and prompt transportation is essential for appropriate diagnosis. Improper collection and delay in transportation leads to diagnostic dilemma. In developing countries, higher ambient temperatures further complicate the scenario. Here, we have evaluated the role of boric acid as a preservative for urine samples prior to culture in female patients attending outpatient department at our center. Consecutive 104 urine samples were cultured simultaneously in plain uricol (Control-C) and boric acid containing tubes from Becton Dickinson urine culture kit (Boric acid group-BA). In the real-time evaluation, we found that in almost 57% (59/104) of the urine samples tested, it was more effective in maintaining the number of the organisms as compared to samples in the container without any preservative. Our in vitro study of simulated urine cultures revealed that urine samples could be kept up to 12 h before culture in the preservative without any inhibitory effect of boric acid. Though the use of boric acid kit may marginally increase the initial cost but has indirect effects like preventing delays in treatment and avoidance of false prescription of antibiotics. If the man-hours spent on repeat investigations are also taken into consideration, then the economic cost borne by the laboratory would also decrease manifold with the use of these containers.

  7. Evaluation of commercial boric acid containing vials for urine culture: Low risk of contamination and cost effectiveness considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma B Appannanavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urine culture is a gold standard in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection. Clean catch midstream urine collection and prompt transportation is essential for appropriate diagnosis. Improper collection and delay in transportation leads to diagnostic dilemma. In developing countries, higher ambient temperatures further complicate the scenario. Here, we have evaluated the role of boric acid as a preservative for urine samples prior to culture in female patients attending outpatient department at our center. Materials and Method: Consecutive 104 urine samples were cultured simultaneously in plain uricol (Control-C and boric acid containing tubes from Becton Dickinson urine culture kit (Boric acid group-BA. Results: In the real-time evaluation, we found that in almost 57% (59/104 of the urine samples tested, it was more effective in maintaining the number of the organisms as compared to samples in the container without any preservative. Our in vitro study of simulated urine cultures revealed that urine samples could be kept up to 12 h before culture in the preservative without any inhibitory effect of boric acid. Though the use of boric acid kit may marginally increase the initial cost but has indirect effects like preventing delays in treatment and avoidance of false prescription of antibiotics. If the man-hours spent on repeat investigations are also taken into consideration, then the economic cost borne by the laboratory would also decrease manifold with the use of these containers.

  8. Protective Effect of Distillate and Redistillate of Cow's Urine in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Challenged With Established Genotoxic Chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. KRISHNAMURTHI; DIPANWITA DUTTA; S. D. SIVANESAN; T. CHAKRABARTI

    2004-01-01

    From the ancient period cow's urine has been used as a medicine. In Veda, cow's urine was compared to the nectar. In Susrut, several medicinal properties of cow's urine have been mentioned and are known to cause weight loss, reversal of certain cardiac and kidney problems, indigestion, stomach ache, edema, etc. However, the literature and scripture did not mention the antigenotoxic properties of cow's urine. Methods In the present investigation, the antigenotoxic/ antioxidant properties of cow's urine distillate and redistillate were studied in vitro. The antioxidant status and volatile fatty acid levels were determined. Actinomycin-D (0.1 μmol/L) and hydrogen peroxide (150 μmol/L) were used for inducing DNA strand break with 0.1% DMSO as negative control. Dose for the antigenotoxic effect of cow's urine was chosen from the dose response study carried out earlier. Results Both actinomycin-D and H2O2 caused statistically significant DNA unwinding of 80% & 75% respectively (P<0.001) as revealed by fluorimetric analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU), and the damage could be protected with the redistilled cow's urine distillate (1, 50 & 100 μL) in simultaneous treatment with genotoxic chemicals. Conclusion The redistillate of cow's urine was found to possess total antioxidant status of around 2.6 mmol, contributed mainly by volatile fatty acids (1500 mg/L) as revealed by the GC-MS studies. These fatty acids and other antioxidants might cause the observed protective effects.

  9. Metabolomic and elemental analysis of camel and bovine urine by GC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Syed Rizwan; Alhaider, Abdul Qader; Raish, Mohammad; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies from the author's laboratory indicated that camel urine possesses antiplatelet activity and anti-cancer activity which is not present in bovine urine. The objective of this study is to compare the volatile and elemental components of bovine and camel urine using GC-MS and ICP-MS analysis. We are interested to know the component that performs these biological activities. The freeze dried urine was dissolved in dichloromethane and then derivatization process followed by using BSTFA for GC-MS analysis. Thirty different compounds were analyzed by the derivatization process in full scan mode. For ICP-MS analysis twenty eight important elements were analyzed in both bovine and camel urine. The results of GC-MS and ICP-MS analysis showed marked difference in the urinary metabolites. GC-MS evaluation of camel urine finds a lot of products of metabolism like benzene propanoic acid derivatives, fatty acid derivatives, amino acid derivatives, sugars, prostaglandins and canavanine. Several research reports reveal the metabolomics studies on camel urine but none of them completely reported the pharmacology related metabolomics. The present data of GC-MS suggest and support the previous studies and activities related to camel urine.

  10. Urine sampling techniques in symptomatic primary-care patients: a diagnostic accuracy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Anne; Aabenhus, Rune

    2016-06-08

    Choice of urine sampling technique in urinary tract infection may impact diagnostic accuracy and thus lead to possible over- or undertreatment. Currently no evidencebased consensus exists regarding correct sampling technique of urine from women with symptoms of urinary tract infection in primary care. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of urine culture from different sampling-techniques in symptomatic non-pregnant women in primary care. A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline and Embase for clinical studies conducted in primary care using a randomized or paired design to compare the result of urine culture obtained with two or more collection techniques in adult, female, non-pregnant patients with symptoms of urinary tract infection. We evaluated quality of the studies and compared accuracy based on dichotomized outcomes. We included seven studies investigating urine sampling technique in 1062 symptomatic patients in primary care. Mid-stream-clean-catch had a positive predictive value of 0.79 to 0.95 and a negative predictive value close to 1 compared to sterile techniques. Two randomized controlled trials found no difference in infection rate between mid-stream-clean-catch, mid-stream-urine and random samples. At present, no evidence suggests that sampling technique affects the accuracy of the microbiological diagnosis in non-pregnant women with symptoms of urinary tract infection in primary care. However, the evidence presented is in-direct and the difference between mid-stream-clean-catch, mid-stream-urine and random samples remains to be investigated in a paired design to verify the present findings.

  11. Dried urine spots - A novel sampling technique for comprehensive LC-MS(n) drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michely, Julian A; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2017-08-22

    Dried matrix spot (DMS) technique as alternative sampling strategy, especially dried urine spots (DUS), might be an alternative for drug screening. So far only particular drugs or drug classes were covered in DMS screenings. Therefore, workup of DUS for a broad comprehensive library-based LC-MS(n) screening was developed. It consisted of enzymatic on-spot deconjugation followed by liquid extraction and LC-MS(n) analysis. This workup was compared to established urine precipitation (UP) and validated according to international guidelines for qualitative approaches, using exemplary compounds of several drug classes (antidepressants, benzodiazepines, cardiovascular drugs, neuroleptics, opioids, stimulants, etc.) with a broad range of (physico-)chemical properties and chromatographic behaviors. On-spot conjugate cleavage and liquid extraction was sufficient for most compounds and the validation results comparable to those obtained after simple UP. For demonstrating the applicability, 103 authentic urine samples, six rat urine samples after low dose substance administrations, and two proficiency tests for systematic toxicological urinalysis were worked up with the new DUS approach or by UP without or with conjugate cleavage. In the authentic urine samples, 112 different drugs out of 43 categories plus metabolites were identified via the used LC-MS(n) library. With the new DUS approach, 5% less positive hits could be found compared to the UP approach and 15% less than the latter after conjugate cleavage. The differences should be caused mainly by smaller urine volumes used for DUS. In the two proficiency tests, all 15 drugs could be detected. Unfortunately, all three approaches were not able to detect very low-dosed substances in rat urine samples. However, they could be detected using a more sensitive LC-high resolution-MS/MS approach showing that the DUS workup was also suitable for those. In conclusion, DUS might be an alternative sampling technique for comprehensive

  12. Application of the assay of urine FSH β-subunit in patients with pubertal disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yu-gui; Song Lin; Yang Xiao-fang; Feng Ting; Jia Yue; Pan Qin-qin; Di Fu-song; Zhou Zuo-min; Sha Jia-hao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic predictive value in the identification of puberty disorders by means of ELISA of β-FSH subunit levels in successively collected urine samples compared to RIA of intact FSH in serum obtained from the normal control subjects and patients with puberty disorders, respectively.Subjects and Methods: Five male and four female volunteers were recruited as controls. Four patients with the hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, five patients with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, four patients with the central precocious puberty and one patient with isosexual peripheral precocious puberty collected successively their early-morning urine samples for 30 to 32 days.The urine β-FSH subunit was assayed with the method of ELISA, then adjusted by creatinine (Cr) concentration.Results:Comparing with their cotemporary groups, patients with the hypogonadotropic hypogonadism had lower levels of urine β-FSH, and patients with idiopathic hypergonadism had higher levels with irregular fluctuation. Meanwhile, patients with the central precocious puberty had much higher levels of urine β-FSH with irregular peaks, and patients with isosexual peripheral precocious puberty had almost normal levels. The patterns were coincident with the clinical characteristics and serum FSH levels.Conclusion: The ELISA of urine β-FSH subunit possesses a number of advantages over the RIA of serum FSH level, such as low cost, simplicity and reliability in the clinical practice. It can be used for the diagnoses of puberty disorders. In addition, it is possible and much easier, comparing with blood samples, to collect successively urine samples for research of pathophysiological dynamics of FSH secretion in puberty disorders and other reproductive dysfunction.

  13. Comparison of Uriswab to alternative methods for urine culture collection and transport: confirmation of standard culture methodology for investigation of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Robert P; Turnbull, Lee-Ann; Gauchier-Pitts, Kaylee; Bennett, Tracy; Dyrland, Debbie; Blonski, Susan

    2016-08-01

    The ability to isolate and identify causative agents of urinary tract infections relies primarily on the quality of the urine sample that is submitted to the microbiology. The most important factors are the method of collection, the maintenance of viability of the potential pathogens during transport, and standardization of the culturing of the urine sample. This report is a composite of several investigations comparing collection and transport on urine culture paddles, with a preservative urine sponge (Uriswab), and a comparison of Uriswab with the BD preservative transport tube as methods of preservation of urinary pathogens. Primary studies showed that Uriswab maintained significantly more urinary pathogens than the urine culture paddle with fewer mixed or contaminated cultures. The two preservative transport systems were comparable for maintenance of viability of the pathogens, but there were fewer mixed cultures when samples were collected with Uriswab. This study confirms the importance of a standard volume of 1 μL of urine for culture.

  14. Urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, J; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, J;

    2011-01-01

    We examined blood and urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol in relation to the existing cut-off value used in routine doping control. We compared the concentrations in asthmatics with regular use of beta2-agonists prior to study and healthy controls with no previous use...... of beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label study in which subjects inhaled repetitive doses of 400 microgram salbutamol every second hour (total 1600 microgram), which is the permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected...

  15. Prostatic cavitary lesions containing urine in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokemeyer, J; Peppler, C; Thiel, C; Failing, K; Kramer, M; Gerwing, M

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the proportion of urine-containing prostatic cavitary lesions ("urinary cysts") in dogs and to describe their clinical management. The study included dogs with clinically relevant prostatic-retention cyst/abscess (n=87) treated initially by percutaneous ultrasound-guided drainage of the prostatic cavity. Based on a prostatic fluid:serum creatinine ratio, the study population was divided into two groups: group 1 (n=16) with and group 2 (n=71) without evidence of urine within the lesion. Medical records of both the groups were reviewed. Cavitary lesions containing urine were observed in 16 of the 87 dogs (18·4%; group 1). In 10 (62·5%) of the group 1 dogs, abdominal surgery was recommended, because of recurrent filling during follow-up. In group 2, abdominal surgery was recommended in only 11 of 71 cases (15·5%). In dogs, 18·4% (95% confidence interval, 10·9 to 28·1%) of the prostatic cavitary lesions contain urine. Measurement of creatinine within the prostatic cavity fluid is a helpful tool in diagnosing a presurgical intra-prostatic urethral fistulation, and these dogs tend to require a more aggressive surgical therapy than percutaneous drainage alone. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading What to Do ... Urine Test (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de un análisis de orina (video) It ...

  17. Measurement of post-void residual urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asimakopoulos, Anastasios D.; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Kocjancic, Ervin; Tubaro, Andrea; Rosier, Peter F.; Finazzi-Agrò, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Aims To present the teaching module "Measurement of Post-void residual urine." Methods This module has been prepared by a Working Group of the ICS Urodynamics Committee. The methodology used included comprehensive literature review, consensus formation by the members of the Working Group, and review

  18. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading 7 Videos: Kids ... Urine Test (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de un análisis de orina (video) It ...

  19. Urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, Karel; Van De Loo, Aurora; Mackus, M.; Verster, Joris

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. Methods N = 36 healthy social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day. N = 18 of them have regular hangovers (the

  20. Protein-Based Urine Test Predicts Kidney Transplant Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, August 22, 2013 Protein-based urine test predicts kidney transplant outcomes NIH- ... supporting development of noninvasive tests. Levels of a protein in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can ...

  1. Differences in quantitative urine composition in stone-forming versus unaffected mate kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Eisenberg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael L Eisenberg1, Keith L Lee1, Benjamin N Breyer1, Thomas J Walsh2, Badrinath R Konety1, Marshall L Stoller11Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAObjectives: Many patients present with bilateral stones. There is a unique group of patients, however, that presents with stones exclusively on one side. We hypothesize that in such situations, 24-hour urine collections may not reveal specific defects on the affected stone-bearing kidney. We therefore evaluated selective 12-hour urine collections after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL to help determine if there is differential renal excretion.Methods: We collected urine specimens from patients with nephrolithiasis who underwent unilateral PNL. Urine samples were collected and analyzed from nephrostomy tubes, representing the affected kidneys, and from Foley bladder catheters, representing the contralateral mate kidney.Results: Thirty-one patients were studied (14 with unilateral nephrolithiasis and 17 with bilateral. Treated kidneys from patients with unilateral nephrolithiasis displayed lowered urine excretion of uric acid, sodium, chloride, calcium, and total osmoles when compared to patients with bilateral nephrolithiasis. Stone size and length of procedure were not predictive of urine composition after PNL.Conclusions: Treated kidneys from patients with a history of unilateral stone disease revealed marked differences in urine excretion compared to those with bilateral nephrolithiasis after unilateral PNL. These findings could be secondary to the surgical insult, urinary stone disease, or could be a responsible factor for stone pathogenesis.Keywords: percutaneous nephrolithotomy, kidney, stone, nephrolithiasis

  2. Métodos de tratamento utilizados na incontinência urinária de esforço genuína: um estudo comparativo entre cinesioterapia e eletroestimulação endovaginal Methods of treatment of genuine stress incontinence: a comparative study between a pelvic floor exercise program and a pelvic floor electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole O. Bernardes

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar pacientes portadoras de incontinência urinária de esforço genuína (IUEG que se submeteram a um protocolo de cinesioterapia para reforço perineal àquelas que se submeteram a eletroestimulação endovaginal (EEEV. O objetivo foi traçar uma conduta de tratamento fisioterápico mais adequada para tal enfermidade. Métodos: foram selecionadas 14 pacientes portadoras de IUEG, com idade entre 31 e 64 anos, sendo divididas em dois grupos de 7 mulheres cada. Cada grupo foi submetido a um dos protocolos de tratamento ambulatorial diário durante 10 dias consecutivos. As pacientes foram avaliadas e reavaliadas por somente uma fisioterapeuta. Para as análises estatísticas foram utilizados testes não-paramétricos. Resultados: todas pacientes obtiveram uma melhora parcial ou total da IUEG com 10 sessões fisioterápicas consecutivas, considerando os critérios objetivos e subjetivos de avaliação. Conclusão: tanto a cinesioterapia quanto a EEEV se mostraram efetivas no tratamento da IUEG, porém, a cinesioterapia para reforço perineal apresentou uma tendência para ser o tratamento de escolha.Purpose: to compare patients with genuine stress incontinence (GSI who were submitted to a pelvic floor exercise program (PFEP with those who were submitted to a pelvic floor electrical stimulation (PFES. Methods: fourteen GSI patients, with age between 31-64 years, participated in the study. They were divided into two groups of 7 each. PFEP or PFES was performed for 10 days. The women were evaluated at the first consultation and reevaluated after the ten-day treatment by only one physical therapist. For the statistical analysis nonparametric tests were used. Results: all had a partial or a total improvement of the GSI after the treatment, considering the subjective and objective analysis of the research. Conclusion: both PFEP and PFES showed to be effective to treat GSI, although PFEP showed a tendency to be the better treatment.

  3. Felinine stability in the presence of selected urine compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Kitson, T.M.; Woolhouse, A.D.; McGrath, M.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    The stability of felinine, an amino acid present in feline urine, was investigated. Synthetic felinine was unstable in the urine of a selection of mammals. Felinine was found to stable in feline urine in which urea had been degraded. Synthetic felinine was found to react specifically with urea and d

  4. Urine storage under refrigeration preserves the sample in chemical, cellularity and bacteriuria analysis of ACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Cristina Barcellos Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The analysis of urine abnormal constituents and sediment (ACS comprises tests of great diagnostic and prognostic value in clinical practice. When the analysis of ACS cannot be performed within two hours after collection, the sample must be preserved in order to avoid pre-analytical interferences. Refrigeration is the most applied technique due to its cost effectiveness. Moreover, it presents fewer inconveniences when compared to chemical preservation. However, changes in ACS may also occur in samples under refrigeration. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of refrigeration at 2 to 8ºC on the storage of urine samples within 24 hours. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A total of 80 urine samples were selected from patients admitted at Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF university hospital, which were tested for ACS at room temperature and stored under refrigeration for 6, 12 and 24 hours. RESULTS: The results showed that refrigeration proved to be effective when compared to samples kept at room temperature, inasmuch as the physical, chemical, microbial and cellularity features were preserved. Nevertheless, crystalluria was present after a 6- hour storage period. CONCLUSION: The tests revealed that cooling preserved cellularity and chemical characteristics of urine samples for up to 12 hours. Nonetheless, the precipitation of crystals was evident in this storage method. Thus, the possible consequences of storing urine samples for ACS test under these conditions should be included in the analysis report.

  5. Improved buprenorphine immunoassay performance after urine treatment with β-glucuronidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Marion L; Darragh, Alicia; Flood, James G; Jones, Jenny; Ropar, Kaitlin; Jarolim, Petr; Melanson, Stacy E F

    2014-01-01

    Buprenorphine (BUP), a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic, is increasingly prescribed for the treatment of chronic pain and opioid dependence. Urine immunoassay screening methods are available for monitoring BUP compliance and misuse; however, these screens may have poor sensitivity or specificity. We evaluated whether the pretreatment of urine with β-glucuronidase (BG) improves the sensitivity and overall accuracy of three BUP enzyme immunoassays when compared with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Urine samples sent to our laboratories for BUP testing (n = 114) were analyzed before and after BG pretreatment by cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA), enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and homogenous EIA (HEIA) immunoassays using a common 5 ng/mL cutoff. Total BUP and norbuprenorphine (NBUP) concentrations were measured by LC-MS-MS as the reference method. Urine BG pretreatment improved EIA, HEIA and CEDIA sensitivities from 70, 82 and 94%, respectively, to 97% for each of the three methods, when compared with LC-MS-MS. While the specificity of the EIA and HEIA remained 100% after BG pretreatment, the specificity of the CEDIA decreased from 74 to 67%. Urine pretreatment with BG is recommended to improve sensitivity of the EIA and HEIA BUP screening methods. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Comparison of two liquid preservatives for SurePath™ slides prepared from voided urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Shigematsu, Yumie; Irino, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Norimatsu, Yoshiaki

    2014-05-01

    Blood-rich gynecologic specimens can be problematic in the processing of liquid-based cytology. However, little is known about the influence of erythrocytes and protein on urine specimens. In addition, the SurePath™ system has two preservatives for non-gynecologic specimens. In this study, we compared the epithelial cell counts and cytomorphology obtained from CytoRich™ (CR) Red and CR Blue. A total of 98 voided urine samples were processed using both CR Red and CR Blue. We made an assessment of the epithelial cell counts, fixation, and staining quality, and backgrounds of both slides. Urine protein and urine erythrocyte counts were analyzed, and those data were compared with the epithelial cell counts in CR Red and CR Blue slides. Overall, epithelial cell counts were equivalent for both CR Red and CR Blue slides. However, in high-level proteinuria cases, the CR Red slides showed higher epithelial cell counts than the CR Blue slides. On the other hand, in microscopic hematuria cases, the CR Blue slides showed higher epithelial cell counts than the CR Red slides. We have found both CR Red and CR Blue to be available for urine cytology. However, it is important to note that CR Blue is inferior to CR Red in epithelial cell recovery rates in cases of high-level proteinuria.

  7. [Foam in urine: from Hippocrates to the Medical School of Salerno].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Luigi; Lamagna, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The formation of persistent little bubbles in urine, similar to those of beer, was noticed since ancient times by the first scholars of uroscopy. The diagnostic interest, rare and uncertain in Hippocrates, has increased over time. The Hippocratic school limited itself to observe the sign without interpreting the pathophysiology and they did not compare it with other clinical signs. Hippocratic texts only expressed an opinion on the severity and prognosis of the pathology which had produced it. Galen does not differ much from the Hippocratic school, however he tries to interpret the cause of the formation of bubbles in urine. Certainly, because of being unfamiliar to the laws of fluids and to the surperficial tension of liquids, he believes that the air contained in the bubbles of the foam in the urine comes from inside the organism. However, he realizes that the foam in urine is formed only when the urine is denser (more viscous).The Byzantine uroscopy, with Theophilus Protospatharius and Stephen of Athens considers the presence of foam quite important. In fact, they state that the bubbles appear in the urine when there is a severe failure of the organism. It is a sign of the attempt of the body to eliminate the bad humours produced in the different zones where digestion takes place. Several authors from the School of Salerno express different opinions on the production of foam in urine. Cofone affirms it derives from the putrefied blood in dense urine and he also uses this sign for diagnostic and prognostic results. Mattheus Archiepiscopus confirms Galens belief that the foam derives from wind bubbles produced in the stomach. The "De Urinis" of Maestro Mauro is strongly influenced by the writings of Constantine the African, who reports the experience of Isaac. The "humani corporis regiones" and the "regiones urine" are described and therefore Mauro tries to localize in which region of the body the bad humours were produced. In particular, the chapter on "De

  8. Detection of Genitourinary Tract Chlamydia trachomatis Infection In Urine specimens by PCR Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪霞; 温泉; 夏迎华; 张林

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of the cervical/urethral swabs with voided urine specimens for the detection of genitourinary tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and determine whether urine specimens can replace the cervical/urethral swabs in detection of C. trachomatis. Methods: The matched cervical/urethral swabs and voided urine specimens were collected from 569 patients of STD clinics.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay specific for C. trachomatis plasmid DNA and rapid antigen testing (Clear view assay) was used to detect C. trachomatis. Standard criteria that defined """"true"""" positive included: 1) positive PCR results both in cervical/urethral swab and voided urine specimen or 2) positive voided urine results both by PCR assay and clear view test or 3)positive results in both PCR assay of cervical/urethral swab and clear view test of voided urine. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test was used. Results: The prevalence of C. trachomatis in patients with symptoms was 12.1% (28/231) in women and 10.4%(10/96) in men, with no significant difference between them (x2=0.21,P>0.05). The prevalence of C. trachomatis in patients with no symptoms was 11.0% (11/100) in women and 15.5% (22/142) in men, with a significant difference existing between them. (x2=4.0, P0.05) existed between PCR testing of swabs (sensitivity 87.3 %; specificity 99.2 %) and PCR testing of urine (sensitivity 88.7%; specificity 98.8%). As for clear view assay, sensitivity was 60.6% and specificity was 100%. Conclusions: PCR assay is superior to clear view in detecting C. trachomatis. Although both PCR testing of swabs and PCR testing of urine specimens both have high sensitivity and specificity, urine specimen testing is more cost-effective, practical and noninvasive. Thus urine specimens can take the place of the swabs in PCR testing for chlamydia.

  9. Biological monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Metabolites in urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongeneelen, F.J.; Bos, R.P.; Anzion, R.B.; Theuws, J.L.; Henderson, P.T.

    1986-04-01

    Assays of urinary mutagenicity, urinary 3-hydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene were used to study their suitability in estimating exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in coal tar products. Rats exposed to coal tar solutions applied on the dorsal skin excreted mutagens, 3-hydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene dose dependently in their urine. The correlation between the three parameters was high. Five dermatologic patients undergoing topical coal tar treatment excreted low concentrations of 3-hydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene and high concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene. A significant correlation between the excretion of the two metabolites was found. The smoking workers of a coal tar distillation plant showed a significantly enhanced urinary mutagenicity compared with their nonsmoking colleagues, but an increase due to occupational exposure was not found. However, the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of these workers highly exceeded the upper 95 percentile of a reference population. The urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene of smoking referents was not significantly increased compared with that of nonsmoking referents. The data suggest that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene is a sensitive and specific marker for the assessment of occupational exposure to PAH.

  10. [Comparison of the Conventional Centrifuged and Filtrated Preparations in Urine Cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Nobuyuki; Shimosakai, Hirofumi; Nishikawa, Rika; Sato, Hiroaki; Kouno, Hiroyoshi; Fujimura, Masaaki; Mikami, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The urine cytology test is one of the most important tools for the diagnosis of malignant urinary tract tumors. This test is also of great value for predicting malignancy. However, the sensitivity of this test is not high enough to screen for malignant cells. In our laboratory, we were able to attain a high sensitivity of urine cytology tests after changing the preparation method of urine samples. The differences in the cytodiagnosis between the two methods are discussed here. From January 2012 to June 2013, 2,031 urine samples were prepared using the conventional centrifuge method (C method) ; and from September 2013 to March 2015, 2,453 urine samples were prepared using the filtration method (F method) for the cytology test. When the samples included in category 4 or 5, were defined as cytological positive, the sensitivities of this test with samples prepared using the F method were significantly high compared with samples prepared using the C method (72% vs 28%, p<0.001). The number of cells on the glass slides prepared by the F method was significantly higher than that of the samples prepared by the C method (p<0.001). After introduction of the F method, the number of f alse negative cases was decreased in the urine cytology test because a larger number of cells was seen and easily detected as atypical or malignant epithelial cells. Therefore, this method has a higher sensitivity than the conventional C method as the sensitivity of urine cytology tests relies partially on the number of cells visualized in the prepared samples.

  11. Comparison of Cobas 6500 and Iris IQ200 fully-automated urine analyzers to manual urine microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Ebubekir; Ozturk, Nurinnisa; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Polat, Elif; Akpinar, Kadriye; Dorman, Emrullah; Polat, Harun; Bakan, Nuri

    2016-10-15

    Urine screening is achieved by either automated or manual microscopic analysis. The aim of the study was to compare Cobas 6500 and Iris IQ200 urine analyzers, and manual urine microscopic analysis. A total of 540 urine samples sent to the laboratory for chemical and sediment analysis were analyzed on Cobas 6500 and Iris IQ200 within 1 hour from sampling. One hundred and fifty three samples were found to have pathological sediment results and were subjected to manual microscopic analysis performed by laboratory staff blinded to the study. Spearman's and Gamma statistics were used for correlation analyses, and the McNemar test for the comparison of the two automated analyzers. The comparison of Cobas u701 to the manual method yielded the following regression equations: y = - 0.12 (95% CI: - 1.09 to 0.67) + 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.95) x for WBC and y = 0.06 (95% CI: - 0.09 to 0.25) + 0.66 (95% CI: 0.57 to 0.73) x for RBC. The comparison of IQ200 Elite to manual method the following equations: y = 0.03 (95% CI: - 1.00 to 1.00) + 0.88 (95% CI: 0.66 to 1.00) x for WBC and y = - 0.22 (95% CI: - 0.80 to 0.20) + 0.40 (95% CI: 0.32 to 0.50) x for RBC. IQ200 Elite compared to Cobas u701 yielded the following equations: y = - 0.95 (95% CI: - 2.13 to 0.11) + 1.25 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.44) x for WBC and y = - 1.20 (95% CI: - 1.80 to -0.30) + 0. 80 (95% CI: 0.55 to 1.00) x for RBC. The two analyzers showed similar performances and good compatibility to manual microscopy. However, they are still inadequate in the determination of WBC, RBC, and EC in highly-pathological samples. Thus, confirmation by manual microscopic analysis may be useful.

  12. Serum and urine concentrations of flunitrazepam and metabolites, after a single oral dose, by immunoassay and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, H; Schwenzer, K S; Pearlman, R; McNally, A J; Tsilimidos, M; Salamone, S J; Brenneisen, R; ElSohly, M A; Feng, S

    2001-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the ability of commercially available immunoassays to detect flunitrazepam (FNP) in plasma and urine samples and to compare the results with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The clinical study consisted of four individuals (two male and two female) who had taken a single 2-mg dose of FNP. Serum was collected over a 48-h period and urine was collected over a 72-h period. The serum and urine samples were analyzed by the COBAS INTEGRA Serum Benzodiazepines assay (SBENZ), the TDx serum and urine Benzodiazepines assay, and GC-MS. The GC-MS procedure was developed for analysis of FNP and metabolites in plasma and urine using an acid hydrolysis step resulting in the formation of specific benzophenones corresponding to FNP and its metabolites. The relative sensitivities of the assays for the detection of FNP and metabolites in serum and urine were GC-MS > SBENZ > TDx. The immunoassay results for serum samples showed peak concentrations of FNP metabolites at 8 h after FNP ingestion for three individuals and at about 1 h for the fourth individual. The GC-MS, SBENZ, and TDx urine immunoassays detected drug above the stated limit of detection (LOD) in 44, 41, and 35 serial FNP urine samples, respectively. FNP metabolites were detected in urine samples with all three assays for up to 72 h after a 2-mg dose. The improved detection rate with the SBENZ assay as compared to the TDx assay is likely explained by its higher cross-reactivity with the major metabolite, 7-amino-flunitrazepam (7-amino-FNP), and its lower LOD.

  13. Urine proteomic profiling of uranium nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malard, V.; Gaillard, J.C.; Sage, N. [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBTN, Laboratoire de Biochimie des Systemes Perturbes (LBSP), Bagnols-sur-Ceze, F-30207 (France); Berenguer, F. [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBTN, Laboratoire d' Etude des Proteines Cibles (LEPC), Bagnols-sur-Ceze, F-30207 (France); Quemeneur, E. [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBTN, Bagnols-sur-Ceze, F-30207 (France)

    2009-07-01

    Uranium is used in many chemical forms in civilian and military industries and is a known nephro-toxicant. A key issue in monitoring occupational exposure is to be able to evaluate the potential damage to the body, particularly the kidney. In this study we used innovative proteomic techniques to analyse urinary protein modulation associated with acute uranium exposure in rats. Given that the rat urinary proteome has rarely been studied, we first identified 102 different proteins in normal urine, expanding the current proteome data set for this central animal in toxicology. Rats were exposed intravenously to uranyl nitrate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg and samples were collected 24 h later. Using two complementary proteomic methods, a classic 2-DE approach and semi-quantitative SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS, 14 modulated proteins (7 with increased levels and 7 with decreased levels) were identified in urine after uranium exposure. Modulation of three of them was confirmed by western blot. Some of the modulated proteins corresponded to proteins already described in case of nephrotoxicity, and indicated a loss of glomerular permeability (albumin, alpha-1-anti-proteinase, sero-transferrin). Others revealed tubular damage, such as EGF and vitamin D-binding protein. A third category included proteins never described in urine as being associated with metal stress, such as ceruloplasmin. Urinary proteomics is thus a valuable tool to profile uranium toxicity non-invasively and could be very useful in follow-up in case of accidental exposure to uranium. (authors)

  14. Psychopathology and urine toxicology in methadone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Sadek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile. The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48, were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44, reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41, of phobic tendencies (r=40, of anxiety (r=0.39, and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38, and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43.

  15. Maple syrup urine disease: mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Patrick R; Gass, Jennifer M; Vairo, Filippo Pinto E; Farnham, Kristen M; Atwal, Herjot K; Macklin, Sarah; Klee, Eric W; Atwal, Paldeep S

    2017-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by defects in the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, which results in elevations of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in plasma, α-ketoacids in urine, and production of the pathognomonic disease marker, alloisoleucine. The disorder varies in severity and the clinical spectrum is quite broad with five recognized clinical variants that have no known association with genotype. The classic presentation occurs in the neonatal period with developmental delay, failure to thrive, feeding difficulties, and maple syrup odor in the cerumen and urine, and can lead to irreversible neurological complications, including stereotypical movements, metabolic decompensation, and death if left untreated. Treatment consists of dietary restriction of BCAAs and close metabolic monitoring. Clinical outcomes are generally good in patients where treatment is initiated early. Newborn screening for MSUD is now commonplace in the United States and is included on the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP). We review this disorder including its presentation, screening and clinical diagnosis, treatment, and other relevant aspects pertaining to the care of patients.

  16. Determination of salbutamol and salbutamol glucuronide in human urine by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareck, Ute; Guddat, Sven; Schwenke, Anne; Beuck, Simon; Geyer, Hans; Flenker, Ulrich; Elers, Jimmi; Backer, Vibeke; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    The determination of salbutamol and its glucuronide in human urine following the inhalative and oral administration of therapeutic doses of salbutamol preparations was performed by means of direct urine injection utilizing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and employing d(3)-salbutamol and d(3)-salbutamol glucuronide as internal standards. Unconjugated salbutamol was detected in all administration study urine samples. Salbutamol concentrations following inhalation were commonly (99%) below 1000 ng/ml whereas values after oral administration frequently (48%) exceeded this threshold. While salbutamol glucuronide was not detected in urine samples collected after inhalation of the drug, 26 out of 82 specimens obtained after oral application contained salbutamol glucuronide with a peak value of 63 ng/ml. The percentage of salbutamol glucuronide compared to unconjugated salbutamol was less than 3%. Authentic doping control urine samples indicating screening results for salbutamol less than 1000 ng/ml, showed salbutamol glucuronide concentrations between 2 and 6 ng/ml, whereas adverse analytical findings resulting from salbutamol levels higher than 1000 ng/ml, had salbutamol glucuronide values between 8 and 15 ng/ml. The approach enabled the rapid determination of salbutamol and its glucuronic acid conjugate in human urine and represents an alternative to existing procedures since time-consuming hydrolysis or derivatization steps were omitted. Moreover, the excretion of salbutamol glucuronide in human urine following the administration of salbutamol was proven.

  17. High incidence of intact or fragmented immunoglobulin in urine of patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraj, Maria; Kruk, Barbara; Lech-Marańda, Ewa; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika

    2015-01-01

    In this prospective study we determined the incidence of intact/fragmented immunoglobulin and Bence Jones protein in urine immunofixation using Sebia reagents and HydrasysTM 2 apparatus and compared the results to concentrations of serum free light chains (FLC) assessed using Siemens BNTM II nephelometer and the immunoassay Freelite (Binding Site) in 289 patients with multiple myeloma at diagnosis. It was found that in one third of IgG, IgA and IgD myeloma patients, intact/fragmented immunoglobulin can be detected in urine and is connected with impaired renal function and reduced survival. Urine immunofixation detects monoclonal protein (FLC and intact/fragmented immunoglobulin) in 66-79% of IgG and IgA myeloma patients while serum FLC immunoassay detect it in 82-94% of IgG and IgA myeloma patients. However, the latter method is inadequate for detection of intact/fragmented immunoglobulin in urine. Serum FLC immunoassay and urine immunofixation are complementary methods in diagnosing and monitoring monoclonal protein in patients with myeloma.

  18. On some exotic urine colors in ancient and Byzantine Greek literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudas, Pavlos C; Diamandopoulos, Athanasios A

    2011-01-01

    This work does not analyze the entire subject of uroscopy but focuses on a very small part thereof: i.e., some rare urine colors, in particular green and blue. These are so rare that most modern nephrologists have never encountered them. We conducted a small survey comparing contemporary knowledge with that of the past, with the participation of 40 Greek nephrologists (25 juniors and 15 seniors). Of these, 63% rejected the notion that green or blue urine even exists, while of those who were aware of them, only 20% had personally encountered them. According to our search of the modern literature, such colors result from either consumption of green or blue pigments, liver dysfunction or urine infection by certain bacteria. We searched and traced several passages on these rare urine colors, referred to in ancient Greek fewer than 7 different names, in the Greek medical literature of the Classical, Roman and Byzantine eras. In these passages, the authors not only gave detailed descriptions of the medical conditions of the corresponding patients but also explained this appearance of the urine. Surprisingly, in the studied texts we also found identical explanations with those in modern texts: consumption of certain foods, liver disease and inflammation. We present and comment on these passages, concluding that many uroscopical findings of antiquity were not quackery, but rather reliable medical statements based on thorough observation and rational reasoning.

  19. The influence of synthetic sheep urine on ammonia oxidizing bacterial communities in grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Shahid; Prosser, James I

    2006-06-01

    In grazed, grassland soils, sheep urine generates heterogeneity in ammonia concentrations, with potential impact on ammonia oxidizer community structure and soil N cycling. The influence of different levels of synthetic sheep urine on ammonia oxidizers was studied in grassland soil microcosms. 'Total' and active ammonia oxidizers were distinguished by comparing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles following PCR and RT-PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments, targeting DNA and RNA, respectively. The RNA-based approach indicated earlier, more reproducible and finer scale qualitative shifts in ammonia oxidizing communities than DNA-based analysis, but led to amplification of a small number of nonammonia oxidizer sequences. Qualitative changes in RNA-derived DGGE profiles were related to changes in nitrate accumulation. Sequence analysis of excised DGGE bands revealed that ammonia oxidizing communities in synthetic sheep urine-treated soils consisted mainly of Nitrosospira clusters 2, 3 and 4. Nitrosospira cluster 2 increased in relative abundance in microcosms treated with all levels of synthetic sheep urine. Low levels additionally led to increased relative abundance of Nitrosospira cluster 4 and medium and high levels increased relative abundance of cluster 3. Synthetic sheep urine is therefore likely to influence the spatial distribution and composition of ammonia oxidizer communities, with consequent effects on nitrate accumulation.

  20. Urban nutrient recovery from fresh human urine through cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Lim, Chun Yong; Chen, Chia-Lung; Liu, He; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    High rate food consumption in urban cities causes vast amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus used in agriculture to end up in urban wastewaters. To substantially recover these nutrients, source-separated human urine should be targeted. The present study was to investigate the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus in urine via microalgae cultivation. In concentrated urine, urea hydrolysis and precipitation occur rapidly, making microalgal growth difficult and nutrient recovery ineffective. However, when fresh urine was added as nutrient stock for 1-day growth requirement, biomass of Chlorella sorokiniana grew from 0.44 to 0.96 g L(-1) utilising 62.64 mg L(-1) of N and 10.64 mg L(-1) of P, achieving 80.4% and 96.6% recoveries, respectively in a 1-day non-sterile cultivation cycle. Overall, microalgae grown with urine added as nutrient supplement show no signs of inferiority as compared to those grown in recipe medium BG11 in terms of mass and chlorophyll a growth rates as well as resulting lipids (36.8%) and energy contents (21.0 kJ g(-1)).

  1. Unrestrictive identification of post-translational modifications in the urine proteome without enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on the human urine proteome may lay the foundation for the discovery of relevant disease biomarkers. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) have important effects on the functions of protein biomarkers. Identifying PTMs without enrichment adds no extra steps to conventional identification procedures for urine proteomics. The only difference is that this method requires software that can conduct unrestrictive identifications of PTMs. In this study, routine urine proteomics techniques were used to identify urine proteins. Unspecified PTMs were searched by MODa and PEAKS 6 automated software, followed by a manual search to screen out in vivo PTMs by removing all in vitro PTMs and amino acid substitutions. Results There were 75 peptides with 6 in vivo PTMs that were found by both MODa and PEAKS 6. Of these, 34 peptides in 18 proteins have novel in vivo PTMs compared with the annotation information of these proteins on the Universal Protein Resource website. These new in vivo PTMs had undergone methylation, dehydration, oxidation, hydroxylation, phosphorylation, or dihydroxylation. Conclusions In this study, we identified PTMs of urine proteins without the need for enrichment. Our investigation may provide a useful reference for biomarker discovery in the future. PMID:23317149

  2. Evaluation of the BinaxNOW® Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen test on fresh, frozen and concentrated urine samples in elderly patients with and without community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukkoriipi, Annika; Pascal, Thierry; Palmu, Arto A

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the BinaxNOW® urine antigen test in elderly. For fresh un-concentrated urine samples, the sensitivity for pneumococcal pneumonia was 63% and specificity 97%. After freezing and concentration, the results comparable to positive control line in intensity at 60 min gave high sensitivity (81%) with no loss in specificity (96%).

  3. Mechanical characterization of benign and malignant urothelial cells from voided urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei-Baghini, Ehsan; Zheng, Yi; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Geddie, William B.; Sun, Yu

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates whether mechanical differences exist between benign and malignant urothelial cells in voided urine. The Young's modulus of individual cells was measured using the micropipette aspiration technique. Malignant urothelial cells showed significantly lower Young's modulus values compared to benign urothelial cells. The results indicate that Young's modulus as a biomechanical marker could possibly provide additional information to conventional urinary cytology. We hope that these preliminary results could evoke attention to mechanical characterization of urine cells and spark interest in the development of biomechanical approaches to enhance non-invasive urothelial carcinoma detection.

  4. Direct measurement of homovanillic, vanillylmandelic and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids in urine by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A; Heinänen, M; Jiménez, L M; Barbas, C

    2000-02-25

    Separation conditions in CE, with a neutral coated capillary and reversed polarity, have been optimised to make direct measurement of vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid possible in urine samples without pre-treatment. The method developed has been validated, presenting adequate parameters for linearity, accuracy and precision. Detection limits range from 0.03 to 2.5 microM. Finally the method has been applied to urine samples taken from patients, both adults and children, in hospital. Some of them were also measured by immunoassay and HPLC-electrochemical detection and results have been compared.

  5. Analysis of fentanyl in urine by DLLME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael A; Sampsel, Sheena; Jenkins, Werner W; Owens, Janel E

    2015-03-01

    Fentanyl is a synthetic narcotic anesthetic ∼80-100 times more potent than morphine. Owing to the potential for its abuse, the drug may be included in a forensic toxicology work-up, which requires fast, precise and accurate measurements. Here, the stability of fentanyl was assessed when stored at three different temperatures (-20, 4 and 25°C) in synthetic urine. Stability at those three temperatures was demonstrated over 12 weeks upon analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a deuterated internal standard (fentanyl-D5) utilizing three different extraction techniques: liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-phase extraction and dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The DLLME method was then optimized before use in the analysis of fentanyl in urine samples obtained from autopsy cases at the El Paso County Coroner's Office. Accuracy of the DLLME method was assessed by completing spike and recovery studies at three different fortification levels (10, 100 and 250 ng/mL) with excellent recovery (89.9-102.6%). The excellent comparability between DLLME and LLE is demonstrated (Bland-Altman difference plot with a mean difference of 4.9 ng/mL) and the use of this methodology in the analysis of forensically relevant samples is discussed.

  6. Urine Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction in Neonatal Septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B K; Suri, Shipra; Nath, Gopal; Prasad, Rajniti

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study was done to evaluate diagnostic efficacy of urine nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using broad-range 16SrDNA PCR-based amplification, followed by restriction analysis and sequencing in neonatal septicemia. The study included 50 babies; 48% had vaginal delivery, 46% were preterm, 20% had a history of prolonged rupture of membranes and 56% were low birth weight (≤2500 g). Clinical presentations were lethargy (96%), respiratory distress (80%) and bleeding diathesis (16%). Absolute neutrophil count <1800/mm(3) was observed in 60%, and positive C-reactive protein in 46%. Thirty neonates had positive blood culture, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (22%) was the predominant organism. Nested urine PCR was positive in 38 (76%) and detected bacterial DNA in 8 neonates with negative blood cultures. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of nested PCR were 100, 60, 78.9, 100 and 84%, respectively, compared with blood culture. Nested PCR can detect most bacteria in single assay and identify unusual and unexpected causal agents.

  7. Recreational drug use at a major music festival – trend analysis of anonymised pooled urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte; Christiansen, Cecilie; Søe, Jesper Langager

    2017-01-01

    , were qualitatively identified in the 44 urine samples. The recreational drugs identified were amphetamine (n = 30), cocaine (n = 44), MDA (n = 40), MDMA (n = 44), THC-COOH (n = 19) and ketamine (n = 17). No NPS were identified. Sample testing using the urine drug-screening immunoassays showed presence...... of cocaine (n = 27), methamphetamine/MDMA (n = 4), THC (n = 7), "Spice" (n = 7) and methylphenidate (n = 1). These discrepancies might be caused by differences in cut-off values between the analytical methods, limited specificity or cross-reactivity of the urine drug-screening immunoassays compared to UPLC...

  8. Effect of cow urine on wound healing property in Wister Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Tikare.,Paniraj K.L and Swetha R

    Full Text Available The wound healing activity of cow urine was studied in Wistar albino rats. The efficacy of wound healing property was evaluated by excision wound model. The parameter studied was the rate of wound contraction. The studies on excision wound healing revealed that all the groups showed decreased wound area from day to day. On day 4th, the external application of urine showed significant increase in wound healing in male and female rats compared to all other groups. However, on 14th post wounding day, Group I and VIII animals showed 0 % and 0.40.4 % of healing was left, which may be due to normal immunity of the animals. Where as nitrofurazone treated animals showed 0 % and 0.50.3 % healing .The study revealed that the cow urine on external application to the wound, hastened the wound healing process. [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 317-321

  9. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Examining the Proportion of Dietary Phosphorus From Plants, Animals, and Food Additives Excreted in Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jules, David E; Jagannathan, Ram; Gutekunst, Lisa; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-03-01

    Phosphorus bioavailability is an emerging topic of interest in the field of renal nutrition that has important research and clinical implications. Estimates of phosphorus bioavailability, based on digestibility, indicate that bioavailability of phosphorus increases from plants to animals to food additives. In this commentary, we examined the proportion of dietary phosphorus from plants, animals, and food additives excreted in urine from four controlled-feeding studies conducted in healthy adults and patients with chronic kidney disease. As expected, a smaller proportion of phosphorus from plant foods was excreted in urine compared to animal foods. However, contrary to expectations, phosphorus from food additives appeared to be incompletely absorbed. The apparent discrepancy between digestibility of phosphorus additives and the proportion excreted in urine suggests a need for human balance studies to determine the bioavailability of different sources of phosphorus.

  11. Identification of amygdalin and its major metabolites in rat urine by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, B Y; Chen, H X; Han, F M; Chen, Y

    2007-10-01

    Amygdalin and its metabolites in rat urine were identified using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem ion-trap mass spectrometry. The purified rat urine sample was separated using a reversed-phase C18 column with 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3.1) containing 30% methanol as the mobile phase, amygdalin and its metabolites were detected by on-line mass detector in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The identification of the metabolites and elucidation of their structure were performed by comparing the changes in molecular masses (DeltaM), retention times and MS(2) spectral patterns of metabolites with those of parent drug. At least seven metabolites and the parent drug were found in rat urine after i.v. injection of 100 mg/kg doses of amygdalin. Among them, six metabolites were reported for the first time.

  12. Urine estrogen profiles in European countries with high or low breast cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macmahon, B.; Andersen, A.P.; Brown, J.; Cole, P.; Dewaard, V.; Kauraniemi, T.; Ravhinar, B.; Stormby, N.; Trichopoulos, D.; Westlund, K.

    1980-01-01

    Urine estrogens of women in two age groups, 15 18 and 30-39, were measured in four northern European countries where breast cancer rates are high, two southern European countries where they are low, and in Finland, a northern country where incidence rates are comparable to those of the southern coun

  13. Latent association between low urine pH and low body weight in an apparently healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kei; Oda, Eiji; Kanda, Eiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Low urine pH, a plausible predictor for chronic kidney disease and metabolic disorders, is often observed in obese individuals. However, the association between low urine pH and low body weight is equivocal. We examined clinical parameters including urine pH and body mass index (BMI) in a cross-sectional study of 3629 apparently healthy Japanese adults aged 25-80 years who underwent a health-screening check-up. Urine pH was lower and the prevalence of proteinuria was significantly higher in subjects with BMI of ≥ 27.0 kg/m(2) compared with those with BMI of 21.0-22.9 kg/m(2). By contrast, hematuria was more prevalent in subjects with BMI of ≤ 20.9 kg/m(2). Logistic regression analysis showed that BMI of ≥ 27.0 kg/m(2) was significantly associated with low urine pH (≤ 5.5), which remained significant after adjustment for relevant confounders including age, sex, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, urine density, hematuria, smoking status, and daily alcohol drinking. However, the association disappeared after further adjustment for serum uric acid. In contrast, the association between low urine pH and BMI of ≤ 19.0 kg/m(2) was significant after adjustment for age and sex and rather strengthened by the further adjustment for serum uric acid. In conclusion, low urine pH may be independently associated with low BMI. However, the underlying mechanisms of low urine pH in low body weight may differ from those in high body weight.

  14. Dental fluorosis, fluoride in urine, and nutritional status in adolescent students living in the rural areas of Guanajuato, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen, Aguilar-Díaz Fatima; Javier, de la Fuente-Hernández; Aline, Cintra-Viveiro Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess urine fluoride concentration, nutritional status, and dental fluorosis in adolescent students living in the rural areas of Guanajuato, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted including participants aged 11-20 years. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis was registered according to the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TFI) criteria. Anthropometric measures were also recorded. Urine sample of the first morning spot was recollected to assess urine fluoride concentration by using the potentiometric method with an ion-selective electrode. Water samples were also recollected and analyzed. Bivariate tests were performed to compare urine fluoride concentration according to different variables such as sex, body mass index, and TFI. Nonparametric tests were used. A logistic regression model was performed (SPSS® 21.0). This study included 307 participants with a mean age of 15.6 ± 1.6; 62.5% of the participants showed normal weight. A total of 91.9% of the participants had dental fluorosis, and 61.6% had TFI > 4. Mean fluoride content in urine ranged between 0.5 and 6.65 mg/L, with a mean of 1.27 ± 1.2 mg/L. Underweight children showed greater urine fluoride concentration. The increment of urine fluoride was a related (OR = 1.40) to having severe dental fluorosis. Most of the studied population had moderate or severe dental fluorosis. Urine fluoride concentration was related to fluorosis severity and nutritional status. Underweight children showed greater urine fluoride concentration as well as severe dental fluorosis.

  15. Chromogenic media for urine cultures can be cost-effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž J. Retelj

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromogenic media for diagnostic urinary bacteriology have several advantages over traditional media, such as cysteine-lactose-electrolyte deficient (CLED medium. Chromogenic media allow for easier recognition of mixed growth, save time, reduce workload and provide higher detection rates. However, the cost of chromogenic media is significantly higher compared to CLED and performance of chromogenic media varies depending on the manufacturer. In the present study, performance, turn-around time and cost of Uriselect4 chromogenic medium was compared to CLED.Methods: For performance analysis, 351 midstream urine (MSU samples from September 2005 to December 2005 were directly plated in parallel on Uriselect4 and CLED agar using the calibrated loop technique. Isolates on Uriselect4 were presumptively identified according to the product insert. For cost-effectiveness analysis, we included 1,972 consecutive MSU samples from May 2005 to July 2006. We compared the cost of required materials as well as technologists’ or specialists’ time for each medium examined.Results: No significant differences were found between the isolation rates of urinary pathogens on the studied media. The procedure using chromogenic media for uropathogens is slightly cheaper than the procedure using CLED, considering the proportion of bacteriuria positive samples (50.5 % and the distribution of taxa among isolates (namely Escherichia coli with 59.6 % observed in our laboratory. At the current isolation proportion in MSU samples processed in our laboratory, the average time to reporting results could be decreased by 0.3 days.Conclusions: Use of chromogenic media for urine investigations offers multiple advantages without increasing costs compared to procedures using CLED.

  16. Ion Chromatography Based Urine Amino Acid Profiling Applied for Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Amino acid metabolism in cancer patients differs from that in healthy people. In the study, we performed urine-free amino acid profile of gastric cancer at different stages and health subjects to explore potential biomarkers for diagnosing or screening gastric cancer. Methods. Forty three urine samples were collected from inpatients and healthy adults who were divided into 4 groups. Healthy adults were in group A (n=15, early gastric cancer inpatients in group B (n=7, and advanced gastric cancer inpatients in group C (n=16; in addition, two healthy adults and three advanced gastric cancer inpatients were in group D (n=5 to test models. We performed urine amino acids profile of each group by applying ion chromatography (IC technique and analyzed urine amino acids according to chromatogram of amino acids standard solution. The data we obtained were processed with statistical analysis. A diagnostic model was constructed to discriminate gastric cancer from healthy individuals and another diagnostic model for clinical staging by principal component analysis. Differentiation performance was validated by the area under the curve (AUC of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results. The urine-free amino acid profile of gastric cancer patients changed to a certain degree compared with that of healthy adults. Compared with healthy adult group, the levels of valine, isoleucine, and leucine increased (P<0.05, but the levels of histidine and methionine decreased (P<0.05, and aspartate decreased significantly (P<0.01. The urine amino acid profile was also different between early and advanced gastric cancer groups. Compared with early gastric cancer, the levels of isoleucine and valine decreased in advanced gastric cancer (P<0.05. A diagnosis model constructed for gastric cancer with AUC value of 0.936 tested by group D showed that 4 samples could coincide with it. Another diagnosis model for clinical staging with an AUC value of 0.902 tested by

  17. Psychogenic urine retention during doping controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Schlegel, Marius M.; Brand, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    relation to recovery, performance, and self-perception of professionalism and athletic excellence. Furthermore, a scale developed especially for the close description and measurement of PURD is presented. A questionnaire was used for measuring paruresis. The results are based on two online and one paper...... and pencil study involving 222 German-speaking athletes from various sports. The results indicate that 60% of these athletes have experienced psychogenic urine retention during doping controls, with only 39% of them showing symptoms of paruresis. PURD impacts athlete recovery and self...

  18. C26 sterol in a human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikekawa, N; Fujimoto, Y; Isiguro, M; Suwa, S; Hirayama, Y; Mizunuma, H

    1979-06-15

    A new C26 sterol, 22-trans-27-norcholesta-5,22-dien-3 beta-ol, was found in the urine of a 6-year-old girl, with a clinical diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia of the salt losing type, accompanied by symptoms of mixed sex anatomy and skin pigmentation. The structure of the sterol was determined by comparison with the synthetic compound. The sterol was also detected in ther serum. This appears to be the first case in which a C26 sterol has occurred in mammalia.

  19. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence).

  20. Greenhouse evaluation and environmental impact assessment of different urine-derived struvite fertilizers as phosphorus sources for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Samantha; Arias, Maria Alejandra; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    A selection of six urine-derived struvite fertilizers generated by innovative precipitation technologies was assessed for their quality and their effectiveness as phosphorus sources for crops. Struvite purity was influenced by drying techniques and magnesium dosage. In a greenhouse experiment, the urine fertilizers led to biomass yields and phosphorus uptakes comparable to or higher than those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Heavy metal concentrations of the different struvite fertilizers were below the threshold limits specified by the German Fertilizer and Sewage Sludge Regulations. The computed loading rates of heavy metals to agricultural land were also below the threshold limits decreed by the Federal Soil Protection Act. Urine-derived struvite contributed less to heavy metal inputs to farmland than other recycling products or commercial mineral and organic fertilizers. When combined with other soil conditioners, urine-derived struvite is an efficient fertilizer which covers the magnesium and more than half of the phosphorus demand of crops.

  1. Determination of salbutamol and salbutamol glucuronide in human urine by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mareck, Ute; Guddat, Sven; Schwenke, Anne;

    2012-01-01

    The determination of salbutamol and its glucuronide in human urine following the inhalative and oral administration of therapeutic doses of salbutamol preparations was performed by means of direct urine injection utilizing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and employing d(3......)-salbutamol and d(3)-salbutamol glucuronide as internal standards. Unconjugated salbutamol was detected in all administration study urine samples. Salbutamol concentrations following inhalation were commonly (99%) below 1000 ng/ml whereas values after oral administration frequently (48%) exceeded...... this threshold. While salbutamol glucuronide was not detected in urine samples collected after inhalation of the drug, 26 out of 82 specimens obtained after oral application contained salbutamol glucuronide with a peak value of 63 ng/ml. The percentage of salbutamol glucuronide compared to unconjugated...

  2. Evaluation of the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i screening for urinary tract infection in nonpregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qingkai; Jiang, Yongmei; Shi, Hua; Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Shengjie; Yang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a widespread disease in women. Urine culture is still the "gold standard" diagnostic test for UTI, but most of them are negative. To reduce unnecessary culture, we evaluated the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i screening for UTI in nonpregnant women. The urine specimens submitted to our laboratory were submitted for culture and tested by the Sysmex UF-1000i. Bacteria and white blood cell (WBC) counts were compared to standard urine culture results to assess the best cutoff values. In this study, 272 urine samples were included, of which 98 (36.0%) were culture positive with a bacterial cutoff value of 10 x 10(5) CFU/mL. A combination of bacterial (> 95/microL) and/or WBC count (> 24/microL) provided the best screening for UTI, with a sensitivity of 0.99 and a specificity of 0.82 compared with the urine culture. Sysmex UF-1000i could be used as a screening test for UTI in nonpregnant women. According to the distribution and range of the bacterial scattergram, we could primarily identify and differentiate between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  3. PENGARUH APLIKASI URIN KAMBING DAN PUPUK CAIR ORGANIK KOMERSIAL TERHADAP BEBERAPA PARAMETER AGRONOMI PADA TANAMAN PAKAN INDIGOFERA SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abdullah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been done during 6 months period in order to study the effect of goat urine and comersial liquid organic fertilizer (NASA® as fertizers on some agronomic parameters which are related with potential forage production. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment which is consist of PO = control, P1 = 50% goat urine + 50% mineral water, P2= 100% urine, P3= NASA 0.25%, P4 NASA= NASA 0.50% and P5 = NASA 0.75%, with 5 repetitions. Some agronomic parameters observed were biomass production of tajuk, leaves dry matter production, numbers of leafs and leaf square. To observe the effect of goat urine observation were conducted in two growth periodes. The results of the experiment showed that the application of goat urine and comercial liquid organic fertilizer produce better results in all treatments compared to control. 100% goat urine treatment showed that better results in all parameters compared to commercial liquid organic fertilizers

  4. Sample preparation for actinoides determination in urine; Probenvorbereitung fuer die Bestimmung von Actinoiden in Urin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biehl, R.; Burow, M.; May, K.; Ostapczuk, P. [Abt. Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Mineralisation of up to 5 1 urine by UV-irradiation and destruction of urea by nitrous acid, produced by electrolysis were described. Phosphate precipitation following by coprecipitation on iron-tannin-complex increase the concentration of radionuclides 10{sup 4} times. Presented semi-automatic procedure minimise the digestion time and amount of used chemicals. (orig.)

  5. Effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in forensic drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Anti-microbial Activity of Urine after Ingestion of Cranberry: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Lean Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the anti-microbial activity of urine specimens after the ingestion of a commercial cranberry preparation. Twenty subjects without urinary infection, off antibiotics and all supplements or vitamins were recruited. The study was conducted in two phases: in phase 1, subjects collected the first morning urine prior to ingesting 900 mg of cranberry and then at 2, 4 and 6 h. In phase 2, subjects collected urine on 2 consecutive days: on Day 1 no cranberry was ingested (control specimens, on Day 2, cranberry was ingested. The pH of all urine specimens were adjusted to the same pH as that of the first morning urine specimen. Aliquots of each specimen were independently inoculated with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Candida albicans. After incubation, colony forming units/ml (CFU ml−1 in the control specimen was compared with CFU ml−1 in specimens collected 2, 4 and 6 h later. Specimens showing ≥50% reduction in CFU ml−1 were considered as having ‘activity’ against the strains tested. In phase 1, 7/20 (35% subjects had anti-microbial activity against E. coli, 13/20 (65% against K. pneumoniae and 9/20 (45% against C. albicans in specimens collected 2–6 h after ingestion of cranberry. In phase 2, 6/9 (67% of the subjects had activity against K. pneumoniae. This pilot study demonstrates weak anti-microbial activity in urine specimens after ingestion of a single dose of commercial cranberry. Anti-microbial activity was noted only against K. pneumoniae 2–6 h after ingestion of the cranberry preparation.

  7. Estudo comparativo entre sling pubovaginal de parede vaginal e sling de fáscia do reto abdominal no tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço Comparative study between vaginal wall sling and rectus fascia pubovaginal sling in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Monteiro de Carvalho Júnior

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cirurgia de sling pubovaginal é utilizada no tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço (IUE do tipo III e como resgate na falha de procedimentos anteriores. Tem índice de sucesso variando de 73 a 89%. Podem ser utilizados diversos materiais autólogos e sintéticos com semelhantes resultados. Nosso objetivo foi comparar o sling de parede vaginal com o de fáscia do reto abdominal quanto à eficácia e às complicações. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 27 pacientes no período de 04/98 a 09/00, divididas em dois grupos: grupo I com nove pacientes submetidas a sling de parede vaginal; grupo II com 18 pacientes submetidas a sling de fáscia do reto abdominal. Todas foram submetidas a um estudo urodinâmico completo, classificadas quanto ao tipo de IUE, e seguidas no ambulatório de urologia. RESULTADOS: grupo I com média de idade de 51,4 anos, tempo de seguimento médio de 14,3 meses. Pressão de Perda aos Esforços (PPE variando de 50 a 100cmH2O com média de 81,1cmH2O. Houve 66% de complicações. Taxa de sucesso de 88,8% e índice de satisfação 85 pontos. Grupo II com média de idade de 54,2 anos, seguimento médio de 19,3 meses. PPE variando de 45 a 92cmH2O, média de 65,5cmH2O. Houve 72% de complicações e sucesso de 88,8%. Índice de satisfação de 74 pontos. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados encontrados estão de acordo com a literatura, sendo os dois grupos comparáveis quanto à eficácia em período curto de seguimento. O grupo II apresentou maior número de complicações, assim como maior tempo de cateter vesical e menor índice de satisfação geral.BACKGROUND: Pubovaginal sling is being currently used for the treatment of type III Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI and for recurrences after previous procedures. Success rates vary from 73 to 89%. Many autologous and allogênic materials have being used with a variable rate of complications. Our objective was to compare the vaginal wall sling to the rectus fascia pubovaginal

  8. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  9. The influence of urine cytology on our practice

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Bladder cancer is a common malignancy. It is ranked ninth among male population in Saudi Arabia. Urine cytology is used by some physicians routinely in the workup for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with urothelial cancer. Our objective is to determine whether urine cytology is still essential in the work up of suspected urothelial cancer patients and to measure its cost-effectiveness. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all urine cytology reports that were performed over a ...

  10. Bisphenol A levels in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akiko; Kunugita, Naoki; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Isse, Toyohi; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Foureman, Gary L; Morita, Masatoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been reported in human cells (E-screen assays) and in (italic)in vivo(/italic) studies of rodents, although the latter reports remain controversial, as do the exposure levels and adverse health effects of BPA in humans. In this study we report on an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence method for BPA and its conjugate in human urine and on the application of this method in two student cohorts. Urine, along with information on smoking, alcohol intake, and coffee/tea consumption, was collected in two different years from two different groups of university students, 50 in 1992 and 56 in 1999. Overall, the urinary BPA levels in the students in 1992 were significantly higher than were those in 1999. The BPA levels were also positively correlated with coffee and tea consumption in the 1992 cohort but not in the 1999 cohort. We speculate that recent changes made in Japan regarding the interior coating of cans used to package these beverages may partly explain these findings.

  11. Dimethylnitrosamine adducts excreted in rat urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, K

    1982-03-15

    Rats were injected with [14C]dimethylnitrosamine and urine was collected up to 5 days after the injection. Urine samples were concentrated and subjected to Sephadex G-10 chromatography. Three peaks of radioactivity (I-III, in the order of elution) were observed for all injection times. The peaks were analysed further by cation exchange and thin-layer chromatography and by phase-separation (pH-determination). The pK-determinations and the chromatographic properties suggested that Sephadex fraction I composed of methylated amino acids, such as N-acetyl-S-methylcysteine, 1-methylhistamine and S-methylcysteine, in addition to radioactive methionine. Sephadex fraction II was suggested to compose of allantoin and of a metabolite of thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. The latter compound was a reaction product of formaldehyde and cysteine, indicating activity of the formaldehyde moiety released from dimethylnitrosamine. By gel filtration properties Sephadex fraction III indicated identity as 7-methylguanine. Although the urinary radioactivity accounted for about 9% of the applied dose.

  12. [Exfoliative urine cytology in the treatment of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirdewahn, S; Vom Dorp, F; Rübben, H; Hakenberg, O W

    2011-03-01

    Urine cytology in addition to cystoscopy and transurethral resection is an integral part in diagnostic and follow-up of transitional carcinomas. The WHO-Classification of 2004 distinguishes between low grade and high grade tumours. Cytological diagnosis had to be adjusted to this new classification.Above all cytology has to detect high grade lesions in a reliable manner. The sensitivity for these lesions ranges between 85-95%. Well differentiated transitional cell carcinomas show marginal nuclear alterations compared to normal urothelial cells. Therefore the cytological low grade diagnosis is needless. Well differentiated papillary tumours can be detected with conventional cystoscopy in nearly 100 percent of all cases. This subtype of urothelial carcinomas is characterized by a very low rate of tumour progression despite a relevant rate of tumour recurrence. A negative cytology result combined with a cystoscopically proven papillary bladder tumour implies low grade disease with low risk of tumour progression.

  13. Human Urine as a Noninvasive Source of Kidney Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Oliveira Arcolino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine represents an unlimited source of patient-specific kidney cells that can be harvested noninvasively. Urine derived podocytes and proximal tubule cells have been used to study disease mechanisms and to screen for novel drug therapies in a variety of human kidney disorders. The urinary kidney stem/progenitor cells and extracellular vesicles, instead, might be promising for therapeutic treatments of kidney injury. The greatest advantages of urine as a source of viable cells are the easy collection and less complicated ethical issues. However, extensive characterization and in vivo studies still have to be performed before the clinical use of urine-derived kidney progenitors.

  14. Cytokeratin-20 immunocytochemistry in voided urine cytology and its comparison with nuclear matrix protein-22 and urine cytology in the detection of urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Arora, Vinod Kumar; Aggarwal, Seema; Bhatia, Arati; Singh, Navjeevan; Agrawal, Vivek

    2012-09-01

    This study was done on 59 subjects (42 urinary bladder carcinoma patients and 17 non-neoplastic controls). Urine cytology and bladder chek NMP22 test was done on all cases. CK20 immunostaining was performed on archived papanicolaou stained urine cytology smears in 34 cases (27 bladder carcinoma and 7 negative controls). Results of all three tests (cytology, NMP22, and CK20 immunostaining) were compared with histopathology to evaluate the accuracy of individual test. The combination of cytology and NMP22 was compared with combination of cytology and CK20 immunostaining for detection of bladder carcinoma. NMP22 had sensitivity of 92.9% and specificity of 70.6%, as compared with voided urine cytology (sensitivity of 76.2% and specificity of 76.5%) and CK20 immunostaining (sensitivity of 70.4% and specificity of 71.4%). Combination of cytology and NMP22 gave better results (sensitivity of 88.1% and specificity of 88.2%) than combination of cytology and CK20 immunostaining or any other test in isolation.

  15. Can circulated lung cancer cells pass to the urine without apparent urine tract metastases? A single centre series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamposioras, Konstantinos; Pentheroudakis, George; Malamou-Mitsi, Vassiliki; Pappa, Lina; Bafa, Maria; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2008-04-01

    Urine cytology has been a useful tool for the diagnosis of urinary tract malignancies. However, the presence of tumor cells in the urine sediment without an obvious urothelial metastatic deposit is a rare phenomenon and in patients with lung cancer has never been reported. We present five cases with metastatic lung cancer and positive urine cytology. The possible mechanisms underlining this phenomenon and its implications are discussed.

  16. Comparison of a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine urine specific gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, J K; Bennett, A D; Dodkin, S J; Gunn-Moore, D A

    2012-05-05

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is used clinically as a measure of urine concentration, and is routinely assessed by refractometry. A comparison between optical analogue and digital refractometers for evaluation of canine urine has not been reported. The aim of this study was to compare a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine USG, and to assess correlation with urine osmolality. Prospective study. Free-catch urine samples were collected from 285 hospitalised adult dogs, and paired USG readings were obtained with a digital and an optical analogue refractometer. In 50 dogs, urine osmolality was also measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. There was a small but statistically significant difference between the two refractometers (P<0.001), with the optical analogue refractometer reading higher than the digital refractometer (mean difference 0.0006, sd 0.0012). Paired refractometer measurements varied by <0.002 in 91.5 per cent of cases. The optical analogue and digital refractometer readings showed excellent correlation with osmolality (r=0.980 and r=0.977, respectively, P<0.001 in both cases). Despite statistical significance, the difference between the two refractometers is unlikely to be clinically significant. Both instruments provide an accurate assessment of USG in dogs.

  17. The influence of exercise and dehydration on the urine concentrations of salbutamol after inhaled administration of 1600 µg salbutamol as a single dose in relation to doping analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Christoffer Bjerre; Backer, Vibeke; Kalsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of exercise and dehydration on the urine concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation of that maximal permitted (1600 µg) on the 2015 World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list. Thirteen healthy males participated in the study. Urine concentrations......-24 h after drug administration. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment. The 2015 WADA decision limit (1200 ng/mL) for salbutamol was exceeded in 23, 31, and 10% of the urine samples during EX, EXD, and R, respectively......, when unadjusted for USG. When adjusted for USG, the corresponding percentages fell to 21, 15, and 8%. During EXD, mean urine concentrations of salbutamol exceeded (1325±599 ng/mL) the decision limit 4 h after administration when unadjusted for USG. Serum salbutamol Cmax was lower (P

  18. Development of a multiplexed urine assay for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vener, Tatiana; Derecho, Carlo; Baden, Jonathan; Wang, Haiying; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Skelton, Joanne; Mehrotra, Jyoti; Varde, Shobha; Chowdary, Dondapati; Stallings, Walt; Leibovich, Bradley; Robin, Howard; Pelzer, Alexandre; Schäfer, Georg; Auprich, Marco; Mannweiler, Sebastian; Amersdorfer, Peter; Mazumder, Abhijit

    2008-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the value of DNA methylation in urine-based assays for prostate cancer diagnosis. However, a multicenter validation with a clinical prototype has not been published. We developed a multiplexed, quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) assay consisting of 3 methylation markers, GSTP1, RARB, and APC, and an endogenous control, ACTB, in a closed-tube, homogeneous assay format. We tested this format with urine samples collected after digital rectal examination from 234 patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations > or =2.5 microg/L in 2 independent patient cohorts from 9 clinical sites. In the first cohort of 121 patients, we demonstrated 55% sensitivity and 80% specificity, with area under the curve (AUC) 0.69. In the second independent cohort of 113 patients, we found a comparable sensitivity of 53% and specificity of 76% (AUC 0.65). In the first cohort, as well as in a combined cohort, the MSP assay in conjunction with total PSA, digital rectal examination status, and age improved the AUC without MSP, although the difference was not statistically significant. Importantly, the GSTP1 cycle threshold value demonstrated a good correlation (R = 0.84) with the number of cores found to contain prostate cancer or premalignant lesions on biopsy. Moreover, samples that exhibited methylation for either GSTP1 or RARB typically contained higher tumor volumes at prostatectomy than those samples that did not exhibit methylation. These data confirm and extend previously reported studies and demonstrate the performance of a clinical prototype assay that should aid urologists in identifying men who should undergo biopsy.

  19. 76 FR 52644 - Faucets, Showerheads, Water Closets and Urinals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Faucets, Showerheads, Water Closets and Urinals AGENCY... respect to any State regulation concerning the water use or water efficiency of faucets, showerheads, water closets and urinals that is: (1) More stringent than Federal regulation concerning the water...

  20. USE OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS TO COLLECT URINE IN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large studies of children's health as it relates to exposures to chemicals in the environment often require measurements of biomarkers of chemical exposures or effects in urine samples. But collection of urine samples from infants and toddlers is difficult. For large exposure s...

  1. SPE-NMR metabolite sub-profiling of urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Spiesser, L.; Garnier, M.; Roo, de N.; Dorsten, van F.; Hollebrands, B.; Velzen, van E.; Draijer, R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    NMR-based metabolite profiling of urine is a fast and reproducible method for detection of numerous metabolites with diverse chemical properties. However, signal overlap in the (1)H NMR profiles of human urine may hamper quantification and identification of metabolites. Therefore, a new method has b

  2. The importance of cooling of urine samples for doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, J. Gijs; Konings, Wil N.

    2010-01-01

    Storing and transporting of urine samples for doping analysis, as performed by the anti-doping organizations associated with the World Anti-Doping Agency, does not include a specific protocol for cooled transport from the place of urine sampling to the doping laboratory, although low cost cooling fa

  3. The importance of cooling of urine samples for doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, J.G.; Konings, W.N.

    2009-01-01

    Storing and transporting of urine samples for doping analysis, as performed by the anti-doping organizations associated with the World Anti-Doping Agency, does not include a specific protocol for cooled transport from the place of urine sampling to the doping laboratory, although low cost cooling fa

  4. Clinical significance of urine ferritin in patients with cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find an indicator in urine to assist diagnosis of cerebral infarction,we investigated the changes of urine ferritin in patients with cerebral infarction.Methods Collected serum from 30 healthy volunteers and 53 patients with cerebral infarction (CI) ,with ratio ofmales to females

  5. SPE-NMR metabolite sub-profiling of urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Spiesser, L.; Garnier, M.; Roo, de N.; Dorsten, van F.; Hollebrands, B.; Velzen, van E.; Draijer, R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    NMR-based metabolite profiling of urine is a fast and reproducible method for detection of numerous metabolites with diverse chemical properties. However, signal overlap in the (1)H NMR profiles of human urine may hamper quantification and identification of metabolites. Therefore, a new method has

  6. Detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum DNA in human saliva and urine: loop-mediated isothermal amplification for malaria diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Zahra; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Akhlaghi, Lame; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Farivar, Leila; Razmjou, Elham

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in urine and saliva of malaria patients. From May to November 2011, 108 febrile patients referred to health centers in Sistan and Baluchestan Province of south-eastern Iran participated in the study. Saliva, urine, and blood samples were analyzed with nested PCR and LAMP targeting the species-specific nucleotide sequence of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rRNA) of P. falciparum and P. vivax and evaluated for diagnostic accuracy by comparison to blood nested PCR assay. When nested PCR of blood is used as standard, microscopy and nested PCR of saliva and urine samples showed sensitivity of 97.2%, 89.4% and 71% and specificity of 100%, 97.3% and 100%, respectively. LAMP sensitivity of blood, saliva, and urine was 95.8%, 47% and 29%, respectively, whereas LAMP specificity of these samples was 100%. Microscopy and nested PCR of saliva and LAMP of blood were comparable to nested PCR of blood (к=0.95, 0.83, and 0.94, respectively), but agreement for nested PCR of urine was moderate (к=0.64) and poor to fair for saliva LAMP and urine LAMP (к=0.38 and 0.23, respectively). LAMP assay showed low sensitivity for detection of Plasmodium DNA in human saliva and urine compared to results with blood and to nested PCR of blood, saliva, and urine. However, considering the advantages of LAMP technology and of saliva and urine sampling, further research into the method is worthwhile. LAMP protocol and precise preparation protocols need to be defined and optimized for template DNA of saliva and urine.

  7. Usefulness of liquid-based preparation in urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eu Chang; Park, Seong Hoon; Jung, Seung Il; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung; Ryu, Soo Bang; Park, Chang Soo

    2007-07-01

    ThinPrep (TP), a liquid-based cytological and non-invasive technique to confirm the diagnosis of bladder cancer, is reported to be a better screening test than the conventional cytospin method. This study compared the new MonoPrep2 (MP), a liquid-based cytological technique, with TP for diagnosing bladder cancer. Between January 2003 and June 2004, urine samples from 284 patients were processed using the TP and MP methods. The cytological diagnosis and the determination of specimen quality were performed separately. The cytological diagnoses were classified into four categories: unsatisfactory, benign, borderline, and malignant. A subsequent biopsy was performed in 73 patients. The cytological diagnoses were compared with the biopsy results to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the two methods. Considering all the features examined, the overall specimen quality was comparable between the MP and TP techniques in the majority of cases. The rate of satisfactory specimens was 100% for TP and 98.6% for MP. The diagnostic capacity was similar between MP and TP. The overall sensitivities with MP and TP were 58.6 and 62.0%, respectively, and the specificities were 100 and 97.7%; the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). MP and TP produced comparable results in diagnosing bladder cancer. As MP is less expensive than TP, we recommend MP as an alternative liquid-based cytology method for use in bladder cancer screening.

  8. Methodology for assessing the performance of urine absorbing aids in controlling malodour release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, S; Capelli, L; Dentoni, L; Del Rosso, R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of comparing the performance of different absorbent aids in terms of odour control by discussing a suitable methodology for product evaluation. To overcome the problems of low test reproducibility owing to biological urine variability, the first step of the work consisted of the identification and the production of artificial urine having a constant and stable composition over time, moreover preventing sensorial assessors from any risk of biological contamination. Sensorial measurements were performed to optimize the similarity between artificial and biological urine, especially as far as the composition of the volatile component and therefore of the odour properties are concerned. The assessment of absorbent articles performance to control urine malodour includes both the concentration and the hedonic tone of the odour released by the article itself loaded with synthetic urine. Analyses were run on different products, which can be grouped into two different classes: absorbing aids with or without odour control technology (OCT) respectively. Results show that, despite of the presence or absence of OCT on absorbing products, their odour concentrations are almost identical, being comprised between 10 000 and 12 000 ouE m(-3) . For this reason, it is evident that odour concentration is not suitable as the sole parameter for comparison of different absorbing products. Instead, the hedonic odour tone (odour pleasantness/unpleasantness) relevant to the different product typologies (that is products with and without OCT) should be used as an additional discriminating factor for this kind of comparative tests.

  9. CCL18 in a multiplex urine-based assay for the detection of bladder cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Urquidi

    Full Text Available The early detection of bladder cancer (BCa is pivotal for successful patient treatment and management. Through genomic and proteomic studies, we have identified a number of bladder cancer-associated biomarkers that have potential clinical utility. In a case-control study, we examined voided urines from 127 subjects: 64 tumor-bearing subjects and 63 controls. The urine concentrations of the following proteins were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; C-C motif chemokine 18 (CCL18, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and CD44. Data were compared to a commercial ELISA-based BCa detection assay (BTA-Trak© and voided urinary cytology. We used analysis of the area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic curves to compare the ability of CCL18, PAI-1, CD44, and BTA to detect BCa in voided urine samples. Urinary concentrations of CCL18, PAI-1, and BTA were significantly elevated in subjects with BCa. CCL18 was the most accurate biomarker (AUC; 0.919; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8704-0.9674. Multivariate regression analysis highlighted CCL18 (OR; 18.31; 95% CI, 4.95-67.70, p<0.0001 and BTA (OR; 6.43; 95% CI, 1.86-22.21, p = 0.0033 as independent predictors of BCa in voided urine samples. The combination of CCL18, PAI-1 and CD44 improved the area under the curve to 0.938. Preliminary results indicate that CCL18 was a highly accurate biomarker for BCa detection in this cohort. Monitoring CCL18 in voided urine samples has the potential to improve non-invasive tests for BCa diagnosis. Furthermore using the combination of CCL18, PAI-1 and CD44 may make the model more robust to errors to detect BCa over the individual biomarkers or BTA.

  10. Establishment of a Method for Measuring Antioxidant Capacity in Urine, Based on Oxidation Reduction Potential and Redox Couple I2/KI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cao, Tinghui; He, Min; Bai, Tianyu; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    .... The new method was compared with the traditional method of iodine titration and then used to measure the antioxidant capacity of urine samples from 30 diabetic patients and 30 healthy subjects. Results...

  11. Natural radionuclides in urine- and faeces samples; Natuerliche Radionuklide in Urin- und Stuhlproben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froning, M.; Burow, M.; Ennen, R.; Hoelters, A.; Laumen-Sentis, S.; Zoriy, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz

    2016-07-01

    In interpreting of measurement data for incorporation monitoring by excretion samples a clear distinction between the natural intake and the fraction subjected due to occupational exposure should be performed. At the present only a few data about an excretion of primordial elements such as {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th are available in the literature. In the following study actual data measured in urine and faeces will be presented and discussed.

  12. Using the Receptivity model to uncover 'urine blindness': perceptions on the re-use of urine

    OpenAIRE

    Roma, E; Benoit, N.; Buckley, C.; Bell, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Population growth, climatic changes and over-exploitation of natural resources are at the basis of the world’s food crisis, which counts almost one million people without sufficient food sustenance. These changes require novel environmental practices which are based on nutrient recovery and management in agriculture. This contribution analyses and discusses users’ perceptions on re-use of urine as fertilizer through the lenses of the Receptivity model. A search was performed on Scopus (as wel...

  13. Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma: Cytologic features in a retrospective series of urine specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas John Heymann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The micropapillary variant of urothelial carcinoma (uPC is a rare variant of urothelial carcinoma that carries a poor prognosis. Definitive surgery may represent optimal management of low stage tumors. Urine cytology is indispensable in the screening and follow-up of urinary tract cancer. However, cytopathological criteria for diagnosis of uPC and its differentiation from conventional urothelial carcinoma (CUC are not well-defined. Materials and Methods : Twenty-five cases of histologically confirmed micropapillary uPC from 21 patients were compared to 25 cases of histologically confirmed high-grade CUC. Results : In uPC cases, cell clusters were identified in 13 of 25 specimens from 10 patients. Six of the 13 specimens containing cell clusters corresponded to surgical pathology specimens in which micropapillary carcinoma accounted for at least 50% of total carcinoma. In contrast, only 1 of the 12 urine specimens devoid of cell clusters corresponded to surgical specimens in which micropapillary carcinoma accounted for at least 50% of total carcinoma. Cytomorphologic features of urinary specimens from patients with histologically confirmed micropapillary carcinoma were generally similar to those from patients with high-grade CUC, making it difficult to distinguish these entities in exfoliative urine specimens. Conclusions and Summary : Further investigation of the core cytopathological characteristics of uPC is warranted to refine its diagnostic criteria by exfoliative urine cytology.

  14. Urine β 2-Microglobolin in the Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad Noori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to evaluate the renal tubular function in the patients with congenital heart disease using β2-microglobulin. Methods: In this case-control study, based on oxymetry, the patients with congenital heart disease were divided into two groups of cyanotic (n=20 and acyanotic (n=20. Congenital heart disease was diagnosed by echocardiography. Healthy individuals within the same age and sex groups were used as controls. Na+, β2-micro globulin, creatinine (Cr, and β2-microglobulin/Cr ratio were measured in random urine samples and the results were compared to the same parameters in the control group using Tukey, One-Way ANOVA, and X2 tests. Results: Based on the study results, urine sodium in the patients with cyanotic heart disease was significantly different from that of the controls (P=0.023. The results also revealed a significant difference between the two groups with congenital heart disease regarding urine β2-microglobulin (P=0.045. In addition, the patients with cyanotic heart disease were significantly different from those with acyanotic heart disease and the controls regarding urine β2-micro globulin/Cr ratio (P=0.012 and P=0.026, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that renal tubular dysfunction began in the patients with congenital heart disease, especially in those with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Besides, early diagnosis before cardiac surgery leads to better control of renal tubular disease.

  15. Identification of anhydroecgonine ethyl ester in the urine of a drug overdose victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Alan L; Williams, Heather E; Kraner, James C; Callery, Patrick S

    2005-11-01

    Toxicological evaluation of postmortem urine collected from a 41-year-old deceased white male detected anhydroecgonine ethyl ester (ethylecgonidine, AEEE), a transesterification product of smoked cocaine co-abused with ethanol. A solid phase extraction (SPE) method was used to extract cocaine, AEEE, and related metabolites from urine. SPE on a 1 mL urine sample from the decedent followed by GC-MS detected AEEE. Other metabolites identified by GC-MS included cocaine, cocaethylene, and anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). To determine whether some or all of the AEEE was artifactually produced in the heated GC injector port, an alternative LC-MS method was developed. LC/MS following SPE found at least 50 ng/mL of AEEE in the extract. The mass fragmentation (MS/MS and MS3) of AEEE detected in the urine was compared to spectra of authentic, synthesized compound. AEEE is a potential additional forensic marker for the co-abuse of smoked cocaine and ethanol.

  16. Comparison of the techniques of evaluation of urine dilution/concentration in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossin, O; Germain, C; Braun, J P

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the measurement of dog urine dilution/concentration by comparing osmolality with three methods of specific gravity (USG) measurement, i.e. weighing, refractometry and test strips. In unselected urine samples from 182 dogs there was a better agreement between osmolality and USG determination by refractometry (r = 0.92) than by weighing (r = 0.82) or by test strips (r = 0.27). There was an almost linear relationship between osmolality and USG: osmolality (mOsm/kg) = 36646(34318/38974) x (USGref - 1) + 25(-39/88); calculated osmolality differed from measured osmolality by more than 500 mOsm/kg in only 8 of 181 samples. There was a good agreement between USG determination by weighing and refractometry: USGref = 1.000(0.905/1.095) x USGweighing - 0.0004(-0.0019/0.0027), with a moderate bias. Only 12% of the differences between the two methods exceeded 0.010. Test strip assessment of USG was unreliable because of systematic underestimation and should not be used for dog urine. Refractometry is the best technique for routine evaluation of urine concentration/dilution when osmometry is not available.

  17. Induction of neurotoxicity by organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos and modulating role of cow urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shelly; Chadha, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals for controlling a wide variety of pests and for domestic purposes. Among these chlorpyrifos (CPF) is the most extensively used pesticide throughout the world, including India. The present study was undertaken to examine the neurotoxicity induced by CPF and modulatory effect of cow urine as a natural antioxidant alternative to reduce the neurotoxic effects of CPF. For this purpose LD50 was determined and one fourth of LD50 was selected (38 mg/kg body weight (b.wt)) for treatment of rats. The antioxidant level of cow urine was determined by ABTS assay. Exposure to pesticides resulted in significant reduction in the acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity (P ≤ 0.01). However, groups pretreated with cow urine had improved levels of AChE activity as compared to CPF treated groups. Thus, the present findings clearly show that oral CPF has the propensity to cause significant neurotoxicity in rat brains while cow urine treatment alleviates CPF induced toxicity to a greater extent. In addition, AChE can be used as a potential biomarker of toxicity associated with pesticide exposure.

  18. A non-enzymatic urine glucose sensor with 2-D photonic crystal hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zequn; Xue, Min; He, Qian; Lu, Wei; Meng, Zihui; Yan, Dan; Qiu, Lili; Zhou, Lijun; Yu, Yingjie

    2016-11-01

    A novel polymerized crystalline colloidal array (PCCA) sensing material for the detection of urine glucose was developed by embedding a two-dimensional (2-D) polystyrene crystalline colloidal array (CCA) in 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (3-APBA)-functionalized hydrogel. After adjusting the cross-linker concentration, this material showed significant sensitivity for glucose under lab conditions, the particle spacing of the PCCA changed from 917 to 824 nm (93 nm) within 3 min as the glucose concentration increased from 0 to 10 mM, and the structural color of the PCCA changed from red through orange, to green, and finally, to cyan. In further experiments, this material was used to semi-quantitatively detect glucose in 20 human urine (HU) samples. Compared with the traditional dry-chemistry method, which was applied widely in clinical diagnosis, the PCCA method was more accurate and cost-effective. Moreover, this method can efficiently avoid the errors induced by most of the urine-interfering elements like vitamin C and ketone body. With a homemade portable optical detector, this low-cost intelligent sensing material can provide a more convenient and efficient strategy for the urine glucose detection in clinical diagnosis and point-of-care monitoring.

  19. A review of reporting systems and terminology for urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Christopher L; Vandenbussche, Christopher J; Burroughs, Frances H; Rosenthal, Dorothy L

    2013-01-01

    Urine cytology continues to play an important role in the diagnosis and management of urothelial carcinoma, a common cancer of adults with significant morbidity and mortality. Because of its high sensitivity for high-grade urothelial tumors, including lesions that may be cystoscopically occult, urine cytology nicely compliments cystoscopic examination, a method that detects most low-grade tumors. Over the decades, several reporting schemes for urine cytology have been published in the literature, each of which has relative strengths and weaknesses. Unlike cervical cytology, there has not been widespread acceptance and use of any particular reporting scheme for urine cytology studies. Thus, terminology and criteria for urine cytology reporting are not uniform among pathologists, which can frustrate clinicians and hinders interlaboratory comparisons.

  20. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of electrolysis for detoxification of an antineoplastic in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toyohide; Hirose, Jun; Sano, Kouichi; Kato, Ryuji; Ijiri, Yoshio; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Goto, Emi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakano, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Antineoplastics in excreta from patients have been considered to be one of the origins of cytotoxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic contaminants in surface water. Recent studies have demonstrated that antineoplastics in clinical wastewater can be detoxified by electrolysis. In this study, to develop a method for the detoxification of antineoplastics in excreta, methotrexate solution in the presence of human urine was electrolyzed and evaluated. We found that urine inhibits detoxification by electrolysis; however, this inhibition decreased by diluting urine. In urine samples, the concentrations of active chlorine generated by anodic oxidation from 0.9% NaCl solution for inactivation of antineoplastics increased in dilution-dependent and time-dependent manner. These results indicate that electrolysis with platinum-based iridium oxide composite electrode is a possible method for the detoxification of a certain antineoplastic in urine.

  2. The influence of urine volume on body impedance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, K H; Park, K S

    2008-01-01

    Bio-signal has some characteristics that the signal is so weak. So, it is good that the factors to influence measured electrical signal are eliminated as much as they can. So, in this paper we will show the influence of urine in bladder on measuring human body impedance. Human urine has different conductivity from other human tissues. Therefore, if the volume of the urine changed, the measured body impedance data also changed.So, in this paper, we will show the influence of urine in bladder with foot-to-foot and thigh-to-thigh current paths. As a result, if the current flows through human bladder, the influence of urine in the bladder must be considered when the body impedance is measured

  3. Towards a method of rapid extraction of strontium-90 from urine: urine pretreatment and alkali metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dietz, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kaminski, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mertz, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shkrob, I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A technical program to support the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention is being developed to provide an analytical method for rapid extraction of Sr-90 from urine, with the intent of assessing the general population’s exposure during an emergency response to a radiological terrorist event. Results are presented on the progress in urine sample preparation and chemical separation steps that provide an accurate and quantitative detection of Sr-90 based upon an automated column separation sequence and a liquid scintillation assay. Batch extractions were used to evaluate the urine pretreatment and the column separation efficiency and loading capacity based upon commercial, extractant-loaded resins. An efficient pretreatment process for decolorizing and removing organics from urine without measurable loss of radiostrontium from the sample was demonstrated. In addition, the Diphonix® resin shows promise for the removal of high concentrations of common strontium interferents in urine as a first separation step for Sr-90 analysis.

  4. Degradation of pharmaceuticals and metabolite in synthetic human urine by UV, UV/H2O2, and UV/PDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruochun; Sun, Peizhe; Boyer, Treavor H; Zhao, Lin; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-03-03

    To minimize environmental pharmaceutical micropollutants, treatment of human urine could be an efficient approach due to the high pharmaceutical concentration and toxic potential excreted in urine. This study investigated the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP) and N4-acetyl-sulfamethoxazole (acetyl-SMX) in synthetic fresh and hydrolyzed human urines by low-pressure UV, and UV combined with H2O2 and peroxydisulfate (PDS). The objective was to compare the two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and assess the impact of urine matrices. All three compounds reacted quickly in the AOPs, exhibiting rate constants of (6.09-8.53) × 10(9) M(-1)·s(-1) with hydroxyl radical, and (2.35-16.1) × 10(9) M(-1)·s(-1) with sulfate radical. In fresh urine matrix, the pharmaceuticals' indirect photolysis was significantly suppressed by the scavenging effect of urine citrate and urea. In hydrolyzed urine matrix, the indirect photolysis was strongly affected by inorganic urine constituents. Chloride had no apparent impact on UV/H2O2, but significantly raised the hydroxyl radical concentration in UV/PDS. Carbonate species reacted with hydroxyl or sulfate radical to generate carbonate radical, which degraded SMX and TMP, primarily due to the presence of aromatic amino group(s) (k = 2.68 × 10(8) and 3.45 × 10(7) M(-1)·s(-1)) but reacted slowly with acetyl-SMX. Ammonia reacted with hydroxyl or sulfate radical to generate reactive nitrogen species that could react appreciably only with SMX. Kinetic simulation of radical concentrations, along with products analysis, helped elucidate the major reactive species in the pharmaceuticals' degradation. Overall, the AOPs' performance was higher in the hydrolyzed urine than fresh urine matrix with UV/PDS better than UV/H2O2, and varied significantly depending on pharmaceutical's structure.

  5. Does subdivision of the "atypical" urine cytology increase predictive accuracy for urothelial carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, David G; Hossain, Deloar

    2014-12-01

    Urine cytology is routinely used for early diagnosis and monitoring of patients with hematuria or a history of urothelial carcinoma, but its clinical utility is greatly diminished by a high frequency of "atypical" specimens, reportedly around 20% in the literature. We compared our results with double-stained urine cytology specimens (papanicolaou and acid hematoxylin stains) with published results with only a single or double papanicolaou stain. The acid hematoxylin stain enhanced nuclear chromatin staining, eliminated significant background debris, and improved visibility of diagnostic cells in the presence of obscuring blood. Medical records of all urine cytologies received between 2005 and 2012 in our laboratories were reviewed. The study group consisted of all cases with bladder biopsy follow-up within one year of cytology. Of 43,131 urine cytologies diagnosed in our laboratories, biopsy follow-up results were available within one year in 10,473 cases, including 852 for symptoms and 1,461 for follow-up of bladder cancer. An additional 6,427 cases had cystoscopy results in which no biopsy was obtained. Cases were classified as negative (81.6%), atypical, favor reactive (2.9%), atypical, favor neoplastic (7.3%), suspicious (5.7%), and malignant (2.5%), with subsequent frequencies for urothelial cancer on biopsy of 13.3%, 31.1%, 37.6%, 53.6%, and 74.3%, respectively. No significant difference was found if atypical was subdivided into two categories: favor reactive and favor neoplastic. Subdivision of the atypical category did not improve diagnostic accuracy. Addition of the acid hematoxylin stain decreased the incidence of atypical urine cytologies from about 20% to 10.2%.

  6. Immunohistochemical detection of hTERT in urothelial lesions: a potential adjunct to urine cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalbuss Walid

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urine cytology has a critical role in evaluation for bladder carcinoma. Due to the low sensitivity of this technique, ancillary modalities such as the detection of markers of malignancy by immunochemistry are desirable. Promising factors in this context are components of the human telomerase enzyme complex. Telomerase repairs and extend telomeres, which when eroded beyond a critical limit trigger a senescence checkpoint. Accordingly, while absent in normal somatic cells, telomerase activity has been detected in the great majority of malignant tumor specimens tested, and so has potential value for the recognition of malignant cells in clinical specimens. Methods In this study, we investigated whether the immunohistochemical detection of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT can aid cytology in the diagnosis of bladder lesions. Findings from the retrospective evaluation of over 100 cell blocks, including urine sediments from confirmed malignant and benign conditions, were compared with routine urine cytology data. Results The presence of hTERT protein was indicative of the transformation of urothelia to a malignant phenotype. Nucleolar hTERT was expressed in 27 (93% of 29 samples obtained from patients with confirmed primary bladder cancer. Conversely, hTERT was detectable in only 3 (0.8% of 39 samples from benign conditions. The hTERT assay showed higher diagnostic sensitivity (84.8% than published urine cytology data (~65% for confirmed bladder carcinoma, however, the hTERT assay was less specific than cytology (65.2% vs. ~95% respectively. Conclusion As a highly sensitive marker, immunohistochemical hTERT detection in urine sediments represents a reliable adjunct to cytology in the accurate diagnosis of urothelial neoplasms.

  7. Fourfold Increase in Pumpkin Yield in Response to Low-Dosage Root Zone Application of Urine-Enhanced Biochar to a Fertile Tropical Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Peter Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A widely abundant and invasive forest shrub, Eupatorium adenophorum, was pyrolyzed in a cost-efficient flame curtain kiln to produce biochar. The resulting biochar fulfilled all the requirements for premium quality, according to the European Biochar Certificate. The biochar was either applied alone or mixed with fresh cow urine (1:1 volume to test its capacity to serve as slow release fertilizer in a pumpkin field trial in Nepal. Treatments included cow-manure compost combined with (i urine-only; (ii biochar-only or (iii urine-loaded biochar. All materials were applied directly to the root zone at a biochar dry matter content of 750 kg·ha−1 before seeding. The urine-biochar treatment led to a pumpkin yield of 82.6 t·ha−1, an increase of more than 300% compared with the treatment where only urine was applied, and an 85% increase compared with the biochar-only treatment. This study showed for the first time that a low-dosage root zone application of urine-enhanced biochar led to substantial yield increases in a fertile silt loam soil. This was tentatively explained by the formation of organic coating of inner pore biochar surfaces by the urine impregnation, which improved the capacity of the biochar to capture and exchange plant nutrients.

  8. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased.

  9. Determination of Lead in Urine by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Stig; Cramé, Kim

    1968-01-01

    A method for the determination of lead in urine by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is described. A combination of wet ashing and extraction with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate into isobutylmethylketone was used. The sensitivity was about 0·02 μg./ml. for 1% absorption, and the detection limit was about 0·02 μg./ml. with an instrumental setting convenient for routine analyses of urines. Using the scale expansion technique, the detection limit was below 0·01 μg./ml., but it was found easier to determine urinary lead concentrations below 0·05 μg./ml. by concentrating the lead in the organic solvent by increasing the volume of urine or decreasing that of the solvent. The method was applied to fresh urines, stored urines, and to urines, obtained during treatment with chelating agents, of patients with lead poisoning. Urines with added inorganic lead were not used. The results agreed well with those obtained with a colorimetric dithizone extraction method (r = 0·989). The AAS method is somewhat more simple and allows the determination of smaller lead concentrations. PMID:5647975

  10. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  11. The factors influencing direct spectral fluorimetry of some urine metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichardusová, L; Kušnír, J; Valko-Rokytovská, M; Mareková, M

    2010-01-01

    Urine contains a variety of organic and inorganic chemicals including a number of natural fluorophores. Most of them are formed by tryptophan metabolites. But there are also metabolites of riboflavin, catecholamines and porphyrins. The alternation in the autofluorescence of urine and the alternation in the concentration of these substances are developed by both physiological and pathological changes such as disorder of body metabolism, dietary intake, age and etc. In this work we present fluorescent properties of chosen urine fluorophores - i.e. 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), indoxyl sulphate (urine indican), serotonin (5-HT), vanillylmandelic (VMA) and homovanillic (HVA) acids typical for various diseases. Differences of fluorescent parameters of individual fluorophores measured in vitro in the water solutions and in natural environment of urine are significant and can lead to false results and conclusions. Therefore, we present the most common influence that can occur in urine (e.g. pH, ionic strength, proteins, and other fluorophores). The aim is to elaborate the exact "know-how" for direct complex fluorescent measurement in urine related to particular diagnoses.

  12. Diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in asymptomatic males by testing urine by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Domeika, M; Bassiri, M; Mårdh, P A

    1994-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) (MikroTrak; Syva) was compared with PCR (Amplicor; Roche) for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in first-void urine (FVU) from 184 men attending a skin and venereal disease clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population studied was 18.5%. Discrepant results between Syva EIA and Roche PCR were retested by using major outer membrane protein primer-based PCR. After retesting, the sensitivity, the specificity, and the positive and negative p...

  13. Interlaboratory Comparison of Lead and Cadmium in Blood, Urine, and Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulev, P. E.; Solgaard, Per Bent; Tjell, Jens Christian

    1978-01-01

    Analysis for lead and cadmium in biological liquids (blood and urine) is difficult. Results of such analyses from five laboratories are compared for samples with known additions of lead and cadmium. The data, evaluated in terms of inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility and accuracy, suggest t...... that laboratories should voluntarily participate in quality control programs. Users of routine laboratories are advised to use their own quality control program...

  14. Studies on Soil fertility, Cow urine and Panchagavya levels on Growth and Yield of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Devakumar, N.; Subha, S; Rao, G.G.E.; ImranKhan, J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed that higher grain and stover yield, plant height and number of leaves in maize with panchagavya, cow urine but it was comparable to recommended fertilizer treatments at higher level (200% and 300%). It can be concluded that presence of rich plant growth substances, both major and micro nutrients, beneficial microbial population in organic liquid manures help to bring rapid changes in phenotypic characteristics of plants and also improves the growth and ultimately im...

  15. Cathepsin D and carcino-embryonic antigen in serum, urine and tissues of colon adenocarcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Snarska, Jadwiga; Jankowska, Anna; Roszkowska-Jakimiec, Wieslawa; Puchalski, Zbigniew; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    the urine was expressed in nmol Tyr/mg of creatinine/6h. CEA concentration in the blood serum was determined by the immunoenzymatic method (MEIA) on Axym Abbot Analyzer and was expressed in ng/mL. The protein concentration was determined by the Lowry method, and the results were expressed in mg/mL. The creatinine concentration in the urine was determined by the Jaffe method (without deproteinization) and was expressed in mg/100mL. CD activity was increased in the blood serum (p < 0.0001) and tissues (p = 0.022) of colon adenocarcinoma patients in comparison to the reference group. CD specific activity (Tyr/mg of protein/6h) was significantly increased in serum but decreased in the urine (p < 0.0001) whereas the specific activity of CD (nmol Tyr/mg of creatinine/6h) was increased in the urine (p = 0.0001). CD specific activity has tendency to increase in colon adenocarcinoma tissues (p = 0.441) as compared to the reference group. By examining data in regard to TNM clinical-histopathological classification, G and the tumor size, it could be concluded that CD activity in serum and urine in colon adenocarcinoma patients depends on progress of cancer in which CD activity increases with TNM. A statistically significant increase in CEA concentration was found in the serum of colon adenocarcinoma patients, which was almost threefold higher than the in reference group. No significant differences in CEA concentration were found depending on TNM, G and tumor size. The results of this study suggest that examination of CD activity and CEA concentration in serum, as well as CD activity in the urine, might be used in oncological diagnostics of colon adenocarcinoma.

  16. Pholcodine interference in the immunoassay for opiates in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenneby, G; Wedege, E; Karlsen, R L

    1983-01-01

    The excretion in urine after single oral therapeutic doses of morphine derivatives was analysed with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) for opiates. In contrast to the rapid excretion of ethylmorphine and codeine, pholcodine showed positive results for opiates 2-6 weeks after intake when the urines were analysed with the RIA-method. When analysed with the EMIT-method, positive results were obtained for pholcodine for approximately 10 days. As pholcodine is a common component in cough mixtures, its prolonged excretion could represent a hazard in interpreting the results from drug analyses of urines.

  17. Assessment of hydration status of elite young male soccer players with different methods and new approach method of substitute urine strip

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study is to determine and compare the hydration status with different methods and determine fluid intake, dehydration percentages and sweat rate of 26 young male soccer players (15 ± 1.2 years) before an important competition. More specifically, the study aims at validating the urine strip and advising the players to use it as an easy and practical method. Methods Measurements of urine analysis were taken from the urine sample of the participants before breakfast...

  18. Chemotherapeutic potential of Cow Urine AND#8211; A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur Randhawa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the grim scenario where presently about 70% of pathogenic bacteria are resistant to at least one of the drugs for treatment, cue is to be taken from traditional/ indigenous medicine to tackle it urgently. The Indian traditional knowledge emanates from ayurveda, where Bos indicus is placed at a high pedestal for numerous uses of its various products. Urine is one of the products of cow with many benefits and without inducing toxicity. Various studies have found good antimicrobial activity of CU comparable with standard drugs like Ofloxacin, Cefpodoxime and Gentamycin, against a vast number of pathogenic bacteria, more so against gram positive than negative bacteria. Interestingly antimicrobial activity has also been found against some resistant strains like MDR E coli and K pneumonia. Antimicrobial action is enhanced still further by it being an immunoenhancer and bioenhancer of some antibiotic drugs. Antifungal activity was comparable to Amphotericin B. CU also has anthelmintic and antineoplastic action. CU has in addition antioxidant properties and it can prevent the damage to DNA caused by the environmental stress. In the management of infectious diseases, CU can be used alone or as an adjunctive to prevent the development of resistance and enhance the effect of standard antibiotics. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 180-186

  19. Urine temperature as an index for the core temperature of industrial workers in hot or cold environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanami, Shoko; Horie, Seichi; Inoue, Jinro; Yamashita, Makiko

    2012-11-01

    Workers working in hot or cold environments are at risk for heat stroke and hypothermia. In Japan, 1718 people including 47 workers died of heat stroke in 2010 (Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare, Japan 2011). While the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) recommendation lists the abnormal core temperature of workers as a criterion for halting work, no method has been established for reliably measuring core temperatures at workplaces. ISO 9886 (Ergonomics-evaluation of thermal strain by physiological measurements. ISO copyright office, Geneva, pp 3-14; 2004) recognizes urine temperature as an index of core temperature only at normal temperature. In this study we ascertained whether or not urine temperature could serve as an index for core temperature at temperatures above and below the ISO range. We measured urine temperature of 31 subjects (29.8 ± 11.9 years) using a thermocouple sensor placed in the toilet bowl at ambient temperature settings of 40, 20, and 5˚C, and compared them with rectal temperature. At all ambient temperature settings, urine temperature correlated closely with rectal temperature exhibiting small mean bias. Urine temperature changed in a synchronized manner with rectal temperature at 40˚C. A Bland and Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement (mean bias ± 2SD) between rectal and urine temperatures were -0.39 to +0.15˚C at 40˚C (95%CI -0.44 to +0.20˚C) and -0.79 to +0.29˚C at 5˚C (-0.89 to +0.39˚C). Hence, urine temperature as measured by the present method is a practical surrogate index for rectal temperature and represents a highly reliable biological monitoring index for assessing hot and cold stresses of workers at actual workplaces.

  20. European guidelines for workplace drug testing in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, Sanna; Beck, Olof; Bosch, Tessa; Brcak, Michaela; Carmichael, Duncan; Fucci, Nadia; George, Claire; Piper, Mark; Salomone, Alberto; Schielen, Wim; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    These European Guidelines for Workplace Drug Testing in Urine have been prepared and updated by the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS). The first version of these urine guidelines was published in 2002. Since then, the guidelines have been followed by many laboratories in different European countries and their role has been essential particularly in countries lacking legislation for workplace drug testing. In 2014, the EWDTS started a guidelines updating project and published a new version of the urine guidelines in 2015. Here we represent this updated version of the urine guidelines. The European Guidelines are designed to establish best practice procedures whilst allowing individual countries to operate within the requirements of national customs and legislation. The EWDTS recommends that all European laboratories that undertake legally defensible workplace drug testing should use these guidelines as a template for accreditation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  2. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  3. Measurement of Orotic Acid in Urine by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This work presents a simple, rapid and reliable supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) method for a sensitive measurement of orotic acid in human urine. The samples were diluted with deionized water and analyzed directly without any pretreatment.

  4. Bacterial spectrum of urine in staghorn calculi nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogan М.I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the role of the bacterial spectrum of urine in the development and clinical course of staghorn calculi nephrolithiasis. Patients and Methods. From 2008 to 2010 in the urological department of Rostov State Medical University urine culture was assessed in 86 patients with staghorn calculi. Mean age was 50,4±5,9 (25-73 years. Results: Most of the patients with staghorn calculus (89,5% have microbial contamination of urine, which has a high correlation with leucocituria, and the spectrum of microorganisms often has the various bacterial associations, which caused more infection complications during treatment. Conclusion: In the urine urease-producing bacteria, E. Coli, gram-positive organisms, nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria were predominated

  5. Blood and urine catecholamine concentrations after implantation of artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, T H; Kennard, L; Isern-Amaral, J; Olsen, D; Lunn, J

    1976-05-01

    Plasma and urine epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were measured before and after implantation of an artificial heart in 20 calves and before and after thoracotomy in 3 control calves. All animals had similar preoperative plasma and urine catecholamine concentrations. During the first 4 postoperative days, plasma and urine epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were markedly elevated in all animals. However, calves with an artificial heart had significantly higher concentrations than control calves. Thereafter, catecholamine levels in control animals returned to preoperative levels, whereas epinephrine concentrations in artificial heart recipients remained elevated for 2 weeks and norepinephrine concentrations remained elevated for over a month. Two artifical heart recipeints survived longer than 2 months and had normal plasma and urine catecholamine concentrations from day 32 until a few days before being put to death. Although the mechanism in unclear, these findings suggest that early artificial heart function is associated with a significant metabolic stress which slowly disappears or becomes tolerable after one month.

  6. Dimensional Analysis and the Time Required to Urinate

    CERN Document Server

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Zheng, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    According to the recently discovered 'Law of Urination', mammals, ranging in size from mice to elephants, take, on the average, 21s to urinate. We attempt to gain insights into the physical processes responsible for this uniformity using simple dimensional analysis. We assume that the biological apparatus for urination in mammals simply scales with linear size, and consider the scenarios where the driving force is gravity or elasticity, and where the response is dominated by inertia or viscosity. We ask how the time required for urination depends on the length scale, and find that for the time to be independent of body size, the dominant driving force must be elasticity, and the dominant response viscosity. Our note demonstrates that dimensional analysis can indeed readily give insights into complex physical and biological processes.

  7. EARLY MORNING URINE ESTROGEN-GLUCURONIDE DETERMINATION FOR OVULATION PREDICTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUMei-Guang; TULCHINSKYD

    1989-01-01

    Monitoring of ovulation is necessary for induction of ovulation in clinical trials. Bakerfound that the conoentration of estrogen glucuronides was high in female urine and devel-oped a RIA method for direct measurment. Adlevcrefutz and some other five groups

  8. The effect of sleep on nocturnal urine output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren

    2005-01-01

    .47 ± 0.07 ml/min).We found a significant correlation between hemodynamics as these were assessed by blood pressure and heart rate and the degree of nocturnal polyuria following sleep deprivation.Interpretation of resultsResearch into the field of incontinence has therefore during the past years taken...... (Na+, K+, Ca2+) creatinine, urea and osmolality were made in plasma and urine. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored every hour, using an ambulatory device. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) was measured in plasma by means of radioimmunoassay. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was directly measured in urine......  Hypothesis / aims of studyAim of this study was to elucidate the impact of sleep on the quantity and quality of the nocturnal urine production in healthy individuals.Our hypothesis was that sleep deprivation is related to excess nocturnal urine production.Study design, materials and methods...

  9. Diagnostic value of cytology of voided urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicić, Valerija; Prvulović, Ivana; Panda, Natalija; Bilić-Kirin, Vesna; Kraljik, Nikola; Serić, Vatroslav

    2014-06-01

    There are 961 new cases and approximately 366 deaths from urothelial carcinoma registered annually in Croatia. Exfoliative urinary cytology has important role in detection of high grade urinary tumors, invasive and in situ lesions respectively. In contrast to cystoscopy and biopsy, cytology is a noninvasive method which is easily repeated. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess value of urinary cytology in our institution. For this purpose only patients with histological diagnosis and clinical follow up were considered. There were 138 urine specimens with cytological diagnosis of dyskaryosis, suspicious for malignancy or malignant and histology and follow up data examined at our Department of Clinical Cytology between 2004 and 2011. Cytological diagnosis suspicious for malignancy and malignant were considered positive and the results were correlated with histological diagnosis according to the WHO histological classification of tumors of the urinary tract. Patients with negative histological findings were followed for the next two years. The positive predictive value of cytological detection of malignant urothelial lesions was 91.8%. In 10 cases cytological diagnosis of malignancy was not confirmed histologically or clinically which makes the total of 8.2% of false positive reports. Of the total of detected malignant urothelial lesions 90.9% are high grade lesions and only 9.1% low-grade lesions; 67.3% are invasive lesions and 32.7% non-invasive lesions. Cytological findings of dyskariotyc cells requires further urological investigation because such findings in further processing prove the presence of tumor in 93.8% of cases. In conclusion: cytology is very good diagnostic tool for detection of high grade invasive and noninvasive carcinomas of the urinary tract. In order to make it more efficient we need to study its limits carefully, define diagnostic criteria and reach consensus in nomenclature.

  10. Is specific gravity a good estimate of urine osmolality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Sethi; Eva, Goldwater; Christopher, Shutty; Flynn, Ethan; Henner, David

    2010-01-01

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is often used by clinicians to estimate urine osmolality. USG is measured either by refractometry or by reagent strip. We studied the correlation of USG obtained by either method with a concurrently obtained osmolality. Using our laboratory's records, we retrospectively gathered data on 504 urine specimens on patients on whom a simultaneously drawn USG and an osmolality were available. Out of these, 253 USG's were measured by automated refractometry and 251 USG's were measured by reagent strip. Urinalysis data on these subjects were used to determine the correlation between USG and osmolality, adjusting for other variables that may impact the relationship. The other variables considered were pH, protein, glucose, ketones, nitrates, bilirubin, urobilinogen, hemoglobin, and leukocyte esterase. The relationships were analyzed by linear regression. This study demonstrated that USG obtained by both reagent strip and refractometry had a correlation of approximately 0.75 with urine osmolality. The variables affecting the correlation included pH, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, glucose, and protein for the reagent strip and ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin for the refractometry method. At a pH of 7 and with an USG of 1.010 predicted osmolality is approximately 300  mosm/kg/H(2)O for either method. For an increase in SG of 0.010, predicted osmolality increases by 182  mosm/kg/H(2) O for the reagent strip and 203  mosm/kg/H(2)O for refractometry. Pathological urines had significantly poorer correlation between USG and osmolality than "clean" urines. In pathological urines, direct measurement of urine osmolality should be used. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine

    OpenAIRE

    Fenderson, Joshua L.; Stratton, Amy N; Domingo, Jennifer S.; Matthews, Gerald O.; Tan, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substan...

  12. Does daily urine output really matter in renal transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillou, Xavier; Lee-Bion, Adrien; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Orczyk, Clément; Le Gal, Sophie; Desmonts, Alexis; Bensadoun, Henri; Doerfler, Arnaud

    2013-12-27

    Our objective was to clarify the clinical outcome of renal transplantation based on residual daily urine output (RDUO). We retrospectively analyzed a prospective database of 276 patients who underwent renal transplantation (Tx) between January 2008 and December 2012. Patients had pre-transplantation daily urine output measurement of 24-h proteinuria and were clinically re-evaluated the day before transplantation. We included patients with no daily urine output and those with residual daily urine output. Real bladder capacity was not measured. We excluded patients with a history of lower urinary tract malformation, those treated by trans-ileal conduit or enterocystoplasty, and those with early graft thrombosis or graft primary non-function. Sex ratio, age at Tx, pre-Tx MHC antibodies levels, donor age, and cold ischemia duration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Dialysis duration was longer in group I (p<0.001). The dialysis duration was correlated with the volume of residual urine output (r=0.12, p<0.0001). We found 14 (19.4%) urological complications in Group I (11 urinary leaks and 3 urethral stenosis) and 13 (6.4%) in Group II (5 urinary leaks and 8 stenosis). This difference was significant (p=0.0013 and relative risk [RR]=2.2). Absence of residual daily urine output was a risk factor of post-transplantation urinary leak (p<0.0001: RR=2.95). At 3 years, graft survival was 74.7% and 94.6%, respectively, in Group I and II (p=0.003). The absence of residual daily urine output seems to be a major risk factor for urological complications. Taking into account recipient residual daily urine output should modify surgical strategy during renal transplantation.

  13. Urine Culture in Uncomplicated UTI: Interpretation and Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2016-05-01

    Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical problem, accounting for millions of outpatient visits in the USA annually. Although routinely obtaining urine cultures in UTI is not recommended, there are circumstances in which obtaining a pre-therapy culture may be warranted or chosen by clinicians, such as when indicated by the need for careful antimicrobial stewardship. This review focuses on understanding reasons for obtaining a pre-therapy culture, methods of collection, and appropriately interpreting urine culture data.

  14. Detection of congenital cytomegalovirus infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of saliva or urine specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Shannon A; Ahmed, Amina; Palmer, April L; Michaels, Marian G; Sánchez, Pablo J; Bernstein, David I; Tolan, Robert W; Novak, Zdenek; Chowdhury, Nazma; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh B

    2014-11-01

    Viral culture of urine or saliva has been the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Results of rapid culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of urine and saliva specimens from 80 children were compared to determine the clinical utility of a real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of congenital CMV infection. Results of urine PCR were positive in 98.8% of specimens. Three PCR-positive urine samples were culture negative. Results of saliva PCR and culture were concordant in 78 specimens (97.5%). Two PCR-positive saliva samples were culture negative. These findings demonstrate that PCR performs as well as rapid culture of urine or saliva specimens for diagnosing congenital CMV infection and saliva specimens are easier to collect. Because PCR also offers more rapid turnaround, is unlikely to be affected by storage and transport conditions, has lower cost, and may be adapted to high-throughput situations, it is well suited for targeted testing and large-scale screening for CMV.

  15. Development and validation of a simple determination of urine metabolites (oxalate, citrate, uric acid and creatinine) by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Jose A; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

    2010-04-15

    Oxalate, citrate, uric acid and creatinine are important urine markers for the evaluation and treatment of urolithiasic patients. They have been traditionally analysed by enzymatic and chromatographic techniques which present practical drawbacks, mainly in the sample pre-treatment step. The purpose of this study was to evaluate those markers in urine samples, by an easy multi-analyte assay using capillary zone electrophoresis. The four urine metabolites were determined, at 25 degrees C, by using a 50 cm x 75 microm capillary in 50 mmol l(-1) phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), at constant voltage of -30 kV and UV detection at 195 nm (for oxalate and citrate) or 30 kV and 234 nm (for creatinine and uric acid). The sample pre-treatment was minimum, 5- and 20-fold dilution of the urine sample and acidification to pH 3-4. Validation parameters (linear range, sensitivity, accuracy, precision and detection limits) were statistically comparable to those obtained with the official methods normally used in the clinical practice. The effect of freezing as a conservation method of urine samples is also discussed in terms of recoveries of the analytes. The analytical method developed is highly useful as a diagnostic tool for detecting metabolic renal disorders due to its simplicity, time consuming, easy automation, cost efficiency and analytical effectiveness, accomplishing with the clinical requirements.

  16. Development of radiolabelled compounds using reactor-produced radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Bae; Shin, Byung Chul; Choi, Sun Ju [and others

    2000-05-01

    Our investigation ascertained the efficacy of radiopharmaceuticals developed by our research team with the applications into clinical studies and its unwanted effects on the aspects of quality control and safety concerns as well. According to our research, newly developed {sup 166}Ho-chitosan complex was verified as a very promising radiopharmaceutical in the future. Clinical studies further approved that its applications could be broadened out for the treatment of other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and liver cancer whose size is larger than 4 cm with highly effective manner compared to other radiopharmaceutical. Investigation on {sup 166}Ho-patch as a topical application for skin diseases proved its efficacy and safety through animal experiments. Its efficacy on the treatment of skin cancer was also confirmed by Raman spectrum. Also, {sup 166}Ho-Stent and {sup 166}Ho-Balloon were developed as one of the effective radioactive medical devices for a treatment of esophageal cancer and for an inhibition of restenosis, respectively. One of the most important achievements from present investigation was a development of {sup 166}Ho-coated balloon. With concerns of safety and efficiency related to the leakage of radioactive material into unwanted area due to the worst case of a balloon rupture when using a {sup 166}Ho-DTPA filled balloon, the concept of coating skill was introduced. Thereby, a coated balloon was developed and a significantly advanced its safety and efficacy of coated balloon were also affirmed by animal study. A development of radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 153}Sm-CHICO and {sup 188}Re-HEDP were also carried out. Especially {sup 53}Sm is known to possess longer half-life than {sup 166}Ho, therefore, a concept was extended to develop {sup 53}Sm-chitosan complex with easy preparation procedure. Results approved theses radiopharmaceuticals could be useful in the treatment of radiosynovectomy, pain induced from metastasized bone cancer

  17. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Bach Knudsen, Knud E.; Serena, Anja;

    2006-01-01

    could be ascribed to differences in the content of betaine and creatine/creatinine between the two diets, and LC-MS analyses verified a significantly lower content of creatinine in WGD urine samples compared with NWD urine samples. In conclusion, using an explorative approach, the present studies...... disclosed biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet on plasma betaine content and excretion of betaine and creatinine....

  18. COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO URINE DILUTION TESTS: THEIR ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso CG

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main physiological test currently used for evaluating renal dilution capability is the hypotonic infusion test (HIT, which also evaluates proximal and thick ascending limb of Henle´s loops (TALH function. There is another urine dilution test: oral water load test, and it is simpler than HIT. However, it has not been documented yet if oral water load test performs an adequate evaluation of proximal tubule and TAHL activity, as HIT does. Thus, we decided to evaluate if there was any significant difference between both tests by evaluating: maximum urinary dilution capability, proximal sodium clearance, and TAHL sodium reabsorption. Materials and Method: Both urine dilution evaluating tests were prospectively performed to forty healthy volunteers with the aim of measuring the following physiological parameters by them: maximum urine hypotonicity, free water clearance, proximal tubule sodium clearance, and TALH sodium reabsorption. Results: All volunteers were able to maximally dilute their urine during HIT, while only 4 volunteers (10% were not able to do it during the oral water load tests. No significant difference was documented in the three studied parameters between both tests, in those patients who were able to maximally dilute their urine (n: 36 (p= NS. In conclusion this study has documented that HIT and oral water load test showed to be adequate studies for evaluating urine dilution capability, proximal and TAHL function. However, while HIT was more effective in obtaining the maximal dilution status, the oral water load test showed to be a simpler study.

  19. Urine antigen detection for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Yesenia; Rodriguez, Silvia; García, Hector H; Brandt, Jef; Van Hul, Anke; Silva, Maria; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Portocarrero, Mylagritos; Melendez, D Paolo; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2009-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of seizures and epilepsy. Diagnosis is based on brain imaging, supported by immunodiagnosis in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Lumbar puncture is invasive and painful. Blood sampling is slightly painful and poorly accepted. Urine antigen detection has been used for other parasites and tried in NCC with suboptimal performance. We used a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA to detect Taenia solium antigens in urine from 87 Peruvian neurocysticercosis patients (viable cysts, N = 34; subarachnoid cysticercosis, N = 10; degenerating parasites, N = 7; calcified lesions, N = 36) and 32 volunteers from a non-endemic area of Peru. Overall sensitivity of urine antigen detection for viable parasites was 92%, which decreased to 62.5% in patients with a single cyst. Most patients (30/36, 83%) with only calcified cysticercosis were urine antigen negative. Antigen levels in paired serum/urine samples (evaluated in 19 patients) were strongly correlated. Non-invasive urine testing for T. solium antigens provides a useful alternative for NCC diagnosis.

  20. Urine as a CO{sub 2} absorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Manuel Jimenez, E-mail: manuel.jimenez.aguilar@juntadeandalucia.es [Instituto de Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera, Consejeria de Agricultura y Pesca, Junta de Andalucia, Camino de Purchil s/n. P.O. Box 2027, 18080 - Granada (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of urine on the absorption of greenhouse gases was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrolyzed urine could be used to capture CO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} and urine convert into NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling urine, CO{sub 2} and olive mill wastewaters new fertilizers could be make. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of urine on the absorption of greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2}. Human urine diluted with olive-oil-mill wastewaters (OMW) could be used to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas of coal-fired power plant and convert CO{sub 2} emissions into valuable fertilizers (mainly, NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) that can enhance CO{sub 2} sequestration into soil and subsoil layers. Thus, the CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced between 0.1 and 1%. The proposed strategy requires further research to increase CO{sub 2} absorption and assess the risks associated with wastewater reuse and xenobiotics in the agroecological environment.

  1. Effects of water matrix on virus inactivation using common virucidal techniques for condensate urine disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaojun; Chu, Xiaona; Hu, Jiangyong

    2015-10-01

    Three common virucidal techniques (chlorine, UV and UV/TiO2) were applied to inactivate virus (MS2 and Phi X174) in condensate water after the evaporation of source-separated urine for reclaimed water. The inactivation efficiencies were compared with the results of previous studies, with the emphasis on the analysis of water matrix effects. Results showed that all virus inactivation in condensate water were lower than the control (in sterilized DI water). As for UV/TiO2 disinfection, both nitrate and ammonia nitrogen could promote slightly viral inactivation, while the inhibition by urea was dominant. Similarly, ammonia nitrogen had greater impacts on chlorine disinfection than urea and nitrate. In contrast, all water matrices (urea, nitrate and ammonia nitrogen) had little influence on UV disinfection. Based on the findings in this study, UV disinfection could be recommended for disinfecting the reclaimed water from the evaporation of source-separated urine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Biomarkers for Detection and Monitoring of B16 Melanoma in Mouse Urine and Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Sever

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is the most malignant type of skin cancer. Early detection of melanoma is thus critical for patient prognosis and survival. At present, examination by a skilled dermatologist followed by biopsy of suspicious lesions is the diagnostic gold standard. The aim of the present study was to examine an alternative and noninvasive method for the diagnosis of melanoma at an early stage. We identified and compared the volatile organic compounds (VOCs in mouse urine and feces, before and after a subcutaneous injection of B16 melanoma cells. We identified a total of 16 VOCs in urine and 13 VOCs in feces that could serve as potential biomarkers. Statistical analysis significantly discriminated between the cancer and control groups. These results should be validated in a larger-scale animal study, after which a study could be designed in patients to develop a melanoma biomarker.

  3. Cause-specific mortality according to urine albumin creatinine ratio in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh;

    2014-01-01

    -specific mortality. METHODS: We included a total of 9,125 individuals from two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, conducted in 1993-94 and 1999-2001, respectively. Urine albumin creatinine ratio was measured from spot urine samples by standard methods. Information on causes of death was obtained from......-cause mortality, endocrine nutritional and metabolic diseases, mental and behavioural disorders, diseases of the circulatory system, and diseases of the respiratory system with hazard ratios 1.56, 6.98, 2.34, 2.03, and 1.91, for the fourth UACR compared with the first, respectively. Using UACR as a continuous......-cause mortality, endocrine nutritional and metabolic diseases, and diseases of the circulatory system and possibly mental and behavioural disorders, and diseases of the respiratory and digestive system....

  4. Reusable urine glucose sensor based on functionalized graphene oxide conjugated Au electrode with protective layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Youn Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical based system with multiple layers coated on a functionalized graphene oxide Au electrode was developed to measure glucose concentration in urine in a more stable way. Two types of gold printed circuit boards were fabricated and graphene oxide was immobilized on their surface by chemical adsorption. Multiple layers, composed of a couple of polymers, were uniformly coated on the surface electrode. This device exhibited higher electrochemical responses against glucose, a greater resistivity in the presence of interferential substances in urine, and durable stabilities for longer periods of time than conventional units. The efficiency in current level according to the order and ratio of solution was evaluated during the immobilization of the layer. The fabricated electrodes were then also evaluated using hyperglycemic clinical samples and compared with the patterns of blood glucose measured with commercially available glucose meters. Our findings show that not only was their pattern similar but this similarity is well correlated.

  5. Novel validated spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of taurine in energy drinks and human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf El Din, M K; Wahba, M E K

    2015-03-01

    Two sensitive, selective, economic and validated spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for the determination of taurine in energy drinks and spiked human urine. Method Ι is based on fluorimetric determination of the amino acid through its reaction with Hantzsch reagent to form a highly fluorescent product measured at 490 nm after excitation at 419 nm. Method ΙΙ is based on the reaction of taurine with tetracyanoethylene yielding a fluorescent charge transfer complex, which was measured at λex /em of (360 nm/450 nm). The proposed methods were subjected to detailed validation procedures, and were statistically compared with the reference method, where the results obtained were in good agreement. Method Ι was further applied to determine taurine in energy drinks and spiked human urine giving promising results. Moreover, the stoichiometry of the reactions was studied, and reaction mechanisms were postulated.

  6. Comparison of uncertainties related to standardization of urine samples with volume and creatinine concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Ase Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    When measuring biomarkers in urine, volume (and time) or concentration of creatinine are both accepted methods of standardization for diuresis. Both types of standardization contribute uncertainty to the final result. The aim of the present paper was to compare the uncertainty introduced when using...... that the uncertainty associated with creatinine standardization (19-35%) was higher than the uncertainty related to volume standardization (up to 10%, when not correcting for deviations from 24 h) for 24 h urine samples. However, volume standardization introduced an average bias of 4% due to missed volumes...... in population studies. When studying a single 24 h sample from one individual, there was a 15-20% risk that the sample was incomplete. In this case a bias of approximately 25% was introduced when using volume standardization, whereas the uncertainty related to creatinine standardization was independent...

  7. Use of urine volatile organic compounds to discriminate tuberculosis patients from healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Khalid Muzaffar; Pasikanti, Kishore Kumar; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Singla, Rupak; Rao, Kanury Venkata Subba; Chauhan, Virander Singh; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar

    2011-07-15

    Development of noninvasive methods for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, with the potential to be administered in field situations, remains as an unmet challenge. A wide array of molecules are present in urine and reflect the pathophysiological condition of a subject. With infection, an alteration in the molecular constituents is anticipated, characterization of which may form a basis for TB diagnosis. In the present study volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human urine derived from TB patients and healthy controls were identified and quantified using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). We found significant (p 3-pentanol (0.59), dimethylstyrene (0.37), and cymol (0.42) in TB patients compared to controls. These markers could discriminate TB from healthy controls and related diseases like lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. This study suggests a possibility of using urinary VOCs for the diagnosis of human TB.

  8. A hybrid approach to urine drug testing using high-resolution mass spectrometry and select immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Marin, Stephanie J; Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L; Lawlor, Bryan G; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2015-02-01

    The major objective of this research was to propose a simplified approach for the evaluation of medication adherence in chronic pain management patients, using liquid chromatography time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry, performed in parallel with select homogeneous enzyme immunoassays (HEIAs). We called it a "hybrid" approach to urine drug testing. The hybrid approach was defined based on anticipated positivity rates, availability of commercial reagents for HEIAs, and assay performance, particularly analytical sensitivity and specificity for drug(s) of interest. Subsequent to implementation of the hybrid approach, time to result was compared with that observed with other urine drug testing approaches. Opioids, benzodiazepines, zolpidem, amphetamine-like stimulants, and methylphenidate metabolite were detected by TOF mass spectrometry to maximize specificity and sensitivity of these 37 drug analytes. Barbiturates, cannabinoid metabolite, carisoprodol, cocaine metabolite, ethyl glucuronide, methadone, phencyclidine, propoxyphene, and tramadol were detected by HEIAs that performed adequately and/or for which positivity rates were very low. Time to result was significantly reduced compared with the traditional approach. The hybrid approach to urine drug testing provides a simplified and analytically specific testing process that minimizes the need for secondary confirmation. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  9. Rapid reporting of urine culture results: impact of the uro-quick screening system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilki, Arzu; Bekdemir, Pinar; Ulger, Nurver; Soyletir, Guner

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the Uro-Quick (UQ) screening system (Alifax, Italy) for a rapid and accurate reporting of urine cultures, and whether it can provide bacterial yield to be used in identification and susceptibility testing. A total of 1480 urine samples collected between October 2006 and July 2008 were tested by conventional culture (CC) methods and UQ simultaneously. Sediments of positive UQ vials were used as bacterial yields for identification and susceptibility testing procedures. Of the 1480 samples, 999 revealed bacteria and/or leukocytes in direct microscopy. Among these 999 samples, positive growth was detected in 420 (42%) and 433 (43.3%) by UQ and CC, respectively. However, only 0.6% of samples without bacteria and leukocytes exhibited positive growth. When compared to CC, UQ demonstrated high levels of positive predictive value (95.9%), negative predictive value (94.8%), sensitivity (93%) and specificity (96.9%). Both CC isolates and UQ bacteria showed 81.3% concordance in identification results. Susceptibility testing of UQ bacteria displayed >90% agreement, when compared with standardized disk diffusion test. Our results indicate that UQ can reliably be used in routine laboratories giving microbial growth results in 3 hours. The most significant part of the study is that bacterial yields of UQ positive samples can be used in identification and susceptibility testing, allowing a rapid, same-day reporting of urine cultures.

  10. Association between consumption of cruciferous vegetables and condiments and excretion in urine of isothiocyanate mercapturic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Martijn; van den Berg, Robin; Freidig, Andreas P; van Bladeren, Peter J; Vaes, Wouter H J

    2006-07-26

    A high intake of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This protective effect has been linked to isothiocyanates, enzymatic hydrolysis products of glucosinolates. In this study, the metabolic fate of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates after ingestion of 19 different cruciferous vegetables was studied in three male subjects. After the consumption of 13 cruciferous vegetables (glucosinolate content, 0.01-0.94 mmol/kg) and six condiments (isothiocyanate content, 0.06-49.3 mmol/kg), eight different isothiocyanate mercapturic acids were determined in urine samples. Excretion levels after the consumption of raw vegetables and condiments were higher (bioavailability, 8.2-113%) as compared to cooked vegetables (bioavailability, 1.8-43%), but the excretion rate was similar (t1/2=2.1-3.9 h). Isothiocyanates in urine remain longer at a nonzero level after the consumption of glucosinolates from cooked vegetables, as compared to raw vegetables and condiments, and maximal levels in urine were reached about 4 h later. Isothiocyanate mercapturic acids can be used as a biomarker to reflect the active dose of isothiocyanates absorbed.

  11. Primary isolation of Candida species from urine specimens using chromogenic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulicz, J F; Rivard, R G; Conger, N G; Nguyen, M X; Hospenthal, D R

    2008-03-01

    CHROMagar Candida (CaC) is a chromogenic medium that can be used to detect Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and perhaps Candida glabrata. We evaluated the utility of CaC to detect candiduria in high-risk patients and the potential usefulness of this information in directing initial antifungal therapy in those later identified with candidaemia. CaC was compared in parallel to standard laboratory methods (SM) for the detection of Candida from urine collected from high-risk units and wards. Of 893 samples, Candida was recovered by CaC from 104 compared with 35 using SM. No isolates detected by SM were undetected by CaC. More than one Candida species were recovered by CaC in 19 of the 104 (18.3%); only two mixed cultures were detected by SM. The identification was more rapid with CaC. Five of 69 patients with candiduria detected by CaC developed candidaemia on or after the date of urine culture. SM recovered fungus in only two of these patients. CaC can be used as primary media for the detection of Candida species from urine specimens. Primary isolation by CaC may enable clinicians to make earlier, directed selection of antifungal agents and potentially reduce patient morbidity and mortality.

  12. 急慢性肾衰的指甲肌酐测定与尿视黄醇结合蛋白检测的比较%THE VALUE OF COMPARING MENSTRUATING NAIL CREATININE AND URINE RETINOL-BINDING PROTEIN IN CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE AND ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符克英; 钟路; 占锋

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨指甲肌酐在鉴别急慢性肾衰的临床意义。方法 指甲肌酐(NCr)应用碱性苦味酸法,尿视黄醇结合蛋白(RBP)应用ELISA法及其与尿肌酐比值。结果 慢性肾衰组(NCr)及健康对照组(NCr)及急性肾衰组(NCr)比较有显著差异(P<0.01)健康对照组(NCr)及急性肾衰组(NCr)比较无显著差异(P>0.05),慢性肾衰组(RBP,RBP/Cr)及急性肾衰组(RBP,RBP/Cr)与健康对照组(RBP,RBP/Cr)比较有显著差异(P<0.01),慢性肾衰组(RBP,RBP/Cr)与急性肾衰组(RBP,RBP/Cr)比较无显著差异(P>0.05)。结论 指甲肌酐含量的测定在鉴别急慢性肾衰中有着重要的临床价值。%Objective:To discuss the clinic significance about nailcreatinine in pa tients of acute renal failure and chronic renal failure.Methods: To use the alkal escent picrate methodology menstruates the nail creatinine(NCr),and to use the E LISA methodology menstruates the retinol-binding protein(RBP),and to use routine methodology menstruates the proportionality between RBP and urine creatinine(RB P/Ucr).Results:In creatinine(NCr),there is a remarkable signific ance between chr onic renal failure group and normal control group ,acute renal failure group(P< 0.01),there is no significance between normal control group and acute renal fail ure(P>0.05),but in RBP,RBP/Ucr,there is a remarkable significance between signi ficance,acute renal failure group and normal control group(P<0.01),there is no significance between in chronic renal failure group and acute renal failure grou p.Conclusions:There is significant value for differentiating chronic renal failure and acute renal failure.

  13. Captan metabolism in humans yields two biomarkers, tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI) and thiazolidine-2-thione-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, R I; Thongsinthusak, T

    1993-01-01

    Captan fungicide (N-(trichloromethylthio)-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide) metabolism in two human volunteers rapidly yields THPI (tetrahydrophthalimide) and TTCA (thiazolidine-2-thione-4-carboxylic acid). The work was done to evaluate usefulness of TTCA and THPI as biomarkers of occupational exposure and to compare human and rat dermal absorption and metabolism. THPI in 12h urine ranged from MDL (5 ppb) to 640 ppb and was stable for at least one year. TTCA was also a stable metabolite, but the MDL was 50 ppb. THPI was detectable in urine for 72 hours following oral dosages of 1 mg/kg, but most was eliminated 0-24 h. No THPI was detectable in urine following application of a chloroform solution to hands, forearms, or inguinal region. Dermal absorption and metabolism of captan are substantially different in humans and rats.

  14. The assessment of 24 24-h urine volume by measurement of urine specific gravity with dipstick in adults with nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hatef Khorami

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The use of behavioral modification with dipstick is an effective method for control and maintenance of optimal urine volume, and it has resulted in more patient compliance for drinking water and is more effective for prevention of renal stone.

  15. Comparison of individual and pooled urine samples for estimating the presence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infections at the population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Legesse, Mengistu; Negash, Yohannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-11-16

    There is a lack of cost-effective diagnostic strategies to evaluate whether mass drug administration (MDA) programmes to control Schistosoma haematobium progress as anticipated. The purpose of this study is to provide a proof-of-principle for examination of pooled urine samples as a strategy for rapid assessment of presence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infections at the population level. A total of 640 urine samples were collected from 520 school-aged children (520 at baseline and 120 at follow-up) during a clinical trial that was designed to assess the efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium infections in Ethiopia. Individual and pooled urine samples were screened using the filtration technique (volume of 10 ml urine) to determine the number of S. haematobium eggs in 10 ml of urine. Samples were pooled into pools of 5 (n = 128), 10 (n = 64) and 20 (n = 32) individual samples. The sensitivity, the probability of finding at least one egg in a pooled sample when the mean urine egg count (UEC) of the corresponding individual urine samples was not zero, was calculated for each pool size. UECs of a pooled examination strategy were compared with the mean UECs of the corresponding individual samples. The sensitivity of a pooled examination strategy was 50.6% for pools of 5, 68.6% for pools of 10 and 63.3% for pools of 20. The sensitivity of a pooled examination strategy increased as a function of increasing mean UEC of the corresponding individual urine samples. For each of the three pool sizes, there was a significant positive correlation between mean UECs of individual and those obtained in pooled samples (correlation coefficient: 0.81 - 0.93). Examination of pools of 5 provided significantly lower UECs compared to the individual examination strategy (3.9 eggs/10 ml urine versus 5.0 eggs/10 ml urine). For pools of 10 (4.4 eggs/10 ml) and 20 (4.2 eggs/10 ml), no significant difference in UECs was observed. Examination of pooled

  16. Simpler spectrophotometric assay of paracetamol in tablets and urine samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin; Khaskheli, Abdul Rauf; Shah, Afzal; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Niaz, Abdul; Mahesar, Sarfaraz

    2007-11-01

    A very fast, economical and simpler direct spectrophotometric method was investigated for paracetamol (PC) determination in aqueous medium without using any chemical reagents. The method is based on the photo-absorption of the analyte at 243 nm after dissolution in water. The change in structure of PC after addition of water was studied by comparing the corresponding FTIR spectra. Optimization studies were conducted by using a 5 μg ml -1 standard solution of the analyte. Various parameters studied include, time for stability and measurement of spectra, effect of HCl, NaOH, CH 3COOH and NH 3 for change in absorbance and shift in spectra, interference by some analgesic drugs and some polar solvents and temperature effect. After optimization, Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 0.3-20 μg ml -1 PC solution with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and detection limit of 0.1 μg ml -1. The newly developed method was successfully applied for PC determination in some locally available tablets and urine samples. The proposed method is very useful for quick analysis of various types of solid and liquid samples containing PC.

  17. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Miranda G M; Swann, Jonathan R; Wilson, Ian D; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats to study microbial-host co-metabolism. Rats were treated with the antibiotics penicillin G and streptomycin sulfate for four or eight days and compared t

  18. Laboratory and clinical evaluation of on-site urine drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof; Carlsson, Sten; Tusic, Marinela; Olsson, Robert; Franzen, Lisa; Hulten, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Products for on-site urine drug testing offer the possibility to perform screening for drugs of abuse directly at the point-of-care. This is a well-established routine in emergency and dependency clinics but further evaluation of performance is needed due to inherent limitations with the available products. Urine drug testing by an on-site product was compared with routine laboratory methods. First, on-site testing was performed at the laboratory in addition to the routine method. Second, the on-site testing was performed at a dependency clinic and urine samples were subsequently sent to the laboratory for additional analytical investigation. The on-site testing products did not perform with assigned cut-off levels. The subjective reading between the presence of a spot (i.e. negative test result) being present or no spot (positive result) was difficult in 3.2% of the cases, and occurred for all parameters. The tests performed more accurately in drug negative samples (specificity 96%) but less accurately for detecting positives (sensitivity 79%). Of all incorrect results by the on-site test the proportion of false negatives was 42%. The overall agreement between on-site and laboratory testing was 95% in the laboratory study and 98% in the clinical study. Although a high degree of agreement was observed between on-site and routine laboratory urine drug testing, the performance of on-site testing was not acceptable due to significant number of false negative results. The limited sensitivity of on-site testing compared to laboratory testing reduces the applicability of these tests.

  19. Design and use of mouse control DNA for DNA biomarker extraction and PCR detection from urine: Application for transrenal Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Hali; Ricks, Keersten M; Pask, Megan E; Russ, Patricia K; Solinas, Francesca; Baglia, Mark L; Short, Philip A; Nel, Andrew; Blackburn, Jonathan; Dheda, Keertan; Zamudio, Carlos; Cáceres, Tatiana; Wright, David W; Haselton, Frederick R; Pettit, April C

    2017-05-01

    Urine samples are increasingly used for diagnosing infections including Escherichia coli, Ebola virus, and Zika virus. However, extraction and concentration of nucleic acid biomarkers from urine is necessary for many molecular detection strategies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Since urine samples typically have large volumes with dilute biomarker concentrations making them prone to false negatives, another impediment for urine-based diagnostics is the establishment of appropriate controls particularly to rule out false negatives. In this study, a mouse glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) DNA target was added to retrospectively collected urine samples from tuberculosis (TB)-infected and TB-uninfected patients to indicate extraction of intact DNA and removal of PCR inhibitors from urine samples. We tested this design on surrogate urine samples, retrospective 1milliliter (mL) urine samples from patients in Lima, Peru and retrospective 5mL urine samples from patients in Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction/PCR control DNA was detectable in 97% of clinical samples with no statistically significant differences among groups. Despite the inclusion of this control, there was no difference in the amount of TB IS6110 Tr-DNA detected between TB-infected and TB-uninfected groups except for samples from known HIV-infected patients. We found an increase in TB IS6110 Tr-DNA between TB/HIV co-infected patients compared to TB-uninfected/HIV-infected patients (N=18, p=0.037). The inclusion of an extraction/PCR control DNA to indicate successful DNA extraction and removal of PCR inhibitors should be easily adaptable as a sample preparation control for other acellular sample types.

  20. Utility of ELISA screening for the monitoring of abstinence from illegal and legal drugs in hair and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, methadone, and benzodiazepines in authentic hair samples with drug concentrations around the medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines cut-offs were screened by LUCIO-direct ELISA kits. Following confirmation of all positive and a significant number of negatively screened samples with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods accredited for forensic purposes. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were plotted and the area under the curve (AUC) and overall misclassification rate (OMR) were calculated and compared to those obtained for the same drug classes in urine. While fulfilling the validation criteria of the German forensic guidelines, for almost all screening tests in hair and urine the AUC were greater than 0.8, indicating good to excellent performance. Moreover the AUC calculated for the detection of drugs in hair did not differ significantly to the AUC calculated for the detection of the same drug classes in urine, thus showing a comparable screening performance to the well accepted, previously published application of the same ELISAs for the detection of drugs at unconventionally low cut-offs in urine. For the first time, the validation of the immunoassay tests for the complete 6-drug panel MPA profile in hair and urine using a large population of authentic hair and urine samples with drug concentrations around MPA cut-offs, lower than conventional clinical or workplace drug testing guidelines cut-offs as well as those suggested by the Society of hair testing (SoHT) is presented.

  1. Telomerase activity in solid transitional cell carcinoma, bladder washings, and voided urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, R S; Aldous, W K; Blaser, J; Thrasher, J B

    1998-03-04

    Telomerase activity has been detected in a wide variety of human malignancies. It appears to be one of the fundamental ingredients necessary for cellular immortality. We sought to determine the incidence of telomerase activity in solid transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) specimens, benign urothelium, bladder washings, and voided urine from patients with TCC identified cystoscopically compared with controls. Telomerase activity was measured in 26 solid bladder cancers and 13 benign urothelial specimens using the telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay. Telomerase activity was further measured in the centrifuged cellular material obtained from the bladder washings of 26 patients with TCC and 40 with benign urologic disease found to have a normal cystoscopy. All patients with hematuria were additionally evaluated with an upper tract radiographic examination and found to be free of malignancy. Voided urine was likewise evaluated in 11 patients with TCC, 12 with benign urologic diseases, and 56 asymptomatic control subjects. Telomerase activity was detected in 25 of 26 (96%) solid specimens, 21 of 26 (81%) bladder washings, and 6 of 11 (54%) voided urine specimens from patients with histologically confirmed TCC. In the control group, 2 of 13 (15%) benign urothelial specimens and 2 of 56 (4%) voided urine specimens from the asymptomatic volunteer group demonstrated telomerase activity. Of those with benign urologic disease, 16 of 40 (40%) bladder barbotage specimens and 6 of 12 (50%) voided urine specimens demonstrated telomerase activity. Sensitivity and specificity of telomerase as a marker for TCC were 81% and 60%, respectively, in the bladder washings group and 54% and 50%, respectively, in voided urine. These data indicate that activation of telomerase is frequent in solid TCC and appears to be a sensitive marker in bladder washings of patients with TCC. We noted an unexpectedly high false positive detection rate in

  2. A micromethod for quantitation of debrisoquine and 4-hydroxydebrisoquine in urine by liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new simple, selective and sensitive micromethod based on HPLC and fluorescence detection to measure debrisoquine (D and 4-hydroxydebrisoquine (4-OHD in urine for the investigation of xenobiotic metabolism by debrisoquine hydroxylase (CYP2D6. Four hundred µl of urine was required for the analysis of D and 4-OHD. Peaks were eluted at 8.3 min (4-OHD, 14.0 min (D and 16.6 min for the internal standard, metoprolol (20 µg/ml. The 5-µm CN-reverse-phase column (Shimpack, 250 x 4.6 mm was eluted with a mobile phase consisting of 0.25 M acetate buffer, pH 5.0, and acetonitrile (9:1, v/v at 0.7 ml/min with detection at lexcitation = 210 nm and lemission = 290 nm. The method, validated on the basis of measurements of spiked urine, presented 3 ng/ml (D and 6 ng/ml (4-OHD sensitivity, 390-6240 ng/ml (D and 750-12000 ng/ml (4-OHD linearity, and 5.7/8.2% (D and 5.3/8.2% (4-OHD intra/interassay precision. The method was validated using urine of a healthy Caucasian volunteer who received one 10-mg tablet of Declinax®, po, in the morning after an overnight fast. Urine samples (diuresis of 4 or 6 h were collected from zero to 24 h. The urinary excretion of D and 4-OHD, Fel (0-24 h, i.e., fraction of dose administered and excreted into urine, was 6.4% and 31.9%, respectively. The hydroxylation capacity index reported as metabolic ratio was 0.18 (D/4-OHD for the person investigated and can be compared to reference limits of >12.5 for poor metabolizers (PM and <12.5 for extensive metabolizers (EM. In parallel, the recovery ratio (RR, another hydroxylation capacity index, was 0.85 (4-OHD: SD + 4-OHD versus reference limits of RR <0.12 for PM and RR >0.12 for EM. The healthy volunteer was considered to be an extensive metabolizer on the basis of the debrisoquine test.

  3. Potassium citrate decreases urine calcium excretion in patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Shoag, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2016-04-01

    Two previous studies (nephrolithiasis. The hypothesized mechanisms are (1) a decrease in bone turnover due to systemic alkalinization by the medications; (2) binding of calcium by citrate in the gastrointestinal tract; (3) direct effects on TRPV5 activity in the distal tubule. We performed a retrospective review of patients on potassium citrate therapy to evaluate the effects of this medication on urinary calcium excretion. A retrospective review was performed of a metabolic stone database at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients were identified with a history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and hypocitraturia who were on potassium citrate therapy for a minimum of 3 months. 24-h urine composition was assessed prior to the initiation of potassium citrate therapy and after 3 months of therapy. Patients received 30-60 mEq potassium citrate by mouth daily. Inclusion criterion was a change in urine potassium of 20 mEq/day or greater, which suggests compliance with potassium citrate therapy. Paired t test was used to compare therapeutic effect. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. Mean age was 58.8 years (SD 14.0), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m(2) (SD 5.9), and gender prevalence was 36.4% female:63.6% male. Mean pre-treatment 24-h urine values were as follows: citrate 280.0 mg/day, potassium 58.7 mEq/day, calcium 216.0 mg/day, pH 5.87. Potassium citrate therapy was associated with statistically significant changes in each of these parameters-citrate increased to 548.4 mg/day (p < 0.0001), potassium increased to 94.1 mEq/day (p < 0.0001), calcium decreased to 156.5 mg/day (p = 0.04), pH increased to 6.47 (p = 0.001). Urine sodium excretion was not different pre- and post-therapy (175 mEq/day pre-therapy versus 201 mEq/day post-therapy, p = NS). Urinary calcium excretion decreased by a mean of 60 mg/day on potassium citrate therapy-a nearly 30 % decrease in urine calcium excretion. These data lend support to the hypothesis that alkali therapy reduces urine calcium

  4. Astronaut Bones: Stable Calcium Isotopes in Urine as a Biomarker of Bone Mineral Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.; Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S.

    2016-12-01

    Bone loss is a common health concern, in conditions ranging from osteoporosis to cancer. Bone loss due to unloading is also an important health issue for astronauts. We demonstrate stable calcium isotopes, a tool developed in geochemistry, are capable of detecting real-time quantitative changes in net bone mineral balance (BMB) using serum and urine [1]. We validated this technique by comparing with DEXA and biomarker data in subjects during bed rest, a ground-based analog of space flight effects [2-4]. We now apply this tool to assess changes in astronauts' BMB before, during and after 4-6 month space missions. There is stable isotope fractionation asymmetry between bone formation and resorption. During bone formation there is a mass-dependent preference for "lighter" calcium isotopes to be removed from serum and incorporated into bone mineral. During bone resorption, there is no measurable isotopic discrimination between serum and bone. Hence, when bone formation rates exceed that of resorption, serum and urine become isotopically "heavy" due to the sequestration of "light" calcium in bone. Conversely, when bone resorption exceeds bone formation, serum and urine become isotopically "light" due to the release of the sequestered light calcium from bone. We measured Ca isotopes in urine of thirty International Space Station astronauts. Average Ca isotope values in astronauts' urine shift isotopically lighter during microgravity, consistent with negative net BMB. Within a month of return to Earth, astronauts returned to within error of their δ44Ca value prior to departure. Urine samples from astronauts testing bone loss countermeasures showed bisphosphonates provide a viable pharmacological countermeasure. Some, but not all, individuals appear able to resist bone loss through diet and intensive resistive exercise alone. This is a promising new technique for monitoring BMB in astronauts, and hopefully someday on the way to/from Mars, this also has important clinical

  5. The effect of urine storage on antiviral and antibiotic compounds in the liquid phase of source-separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Sanna T; Palmroth, Marja R T; Rintala, Jukka A; Tuhkanen, Tuula A

    2016-09-01

    The behaviour of pharmaceuticals related to the human immunodeficiency virus treatment was studied in the liquid phase of source-separated urine during six-month storage at 20°C. Six months is the recommended time for hygienization and use of urine as fertilizer. Compounds were spiked in urine as concentrations calculated to appear in urine. Assays were performed with separate compounds and as therapeutic groups of antivirals, antibiotics and anti-tuberculotics. In addition, urine was amended either with faeces or urease inhibitor. The pharmaceutical concentrations were monitored from filtered samples with solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography. The concentration reductions of the studied compounds as such or with amendments ranged from less than 1% to more than 99% after six-month storage. The reductions without amendments were 41.9-99% for anti-tuberculotics; <52% for antivirals (except with 3TC 75.6%) and <50% for antibiotics. In assays with amendments, the reductions were all <50%. Faeces amendment resulted in similar or lower reduction than without it even though bacterial activity should have increased. The urease inhibitor prevented ureolysis and pH rise but did not affect pharmaceutical removal. In conclusion, removal during storage might not be enough to reduce risks associated with the studied pharmaceuticals, in which case other feasible treatment practises or urine utilization means should be considered.

  6. Self-renewal and differentiation capacity of urine-derived stem cells after urine preservation for 24 hours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Lang

    Full Text Available Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20-54 years old. About 6 × 10(4 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a "rice grain" shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis.

  7. Concentration of mutagens from urine by absorption with the nonpolar resin XAD-2: cigarette smokers have mutagenic urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, E; Ames, B N

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for concentrating mutagens/carcinogens from human urine about 200-fold for subsequent assay in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. The method is also applicable for other aqueous liquids and for other in vitro tests for mutagens/carcinogens. The urine (up to 500 ml) is put through a column with a 1.5-cm3 bed volume of XAD-2 (styrene-divinylbenzene polymer) and the adsorbed material is then eluted with a few milliliters of acetone. The acetone is taken to dryness and the residue is dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. This is the urine concentrate that is assayed for mutagenicity. Various mutagens/carcinogens have been added to human urine and the recoveries have been measured after adsorption on XAD-2, XAD-4, and Tenax GC (diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide polymer). We propose that this method be used in monitoring the urine of human populations and of experimental animals in toxicological studies. It is shown with this procedure that cigarette smokers have mutagenic urine while nonsmokers do not. PMID:333441

  8. Comparison of Urine and Oral Fluid for Workplace Drug Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casolin, Armand

    2016-09-01

    To determine the relative detection rates of urine versus oral fluid testing in a safety sensitive industry and the correlation with diagnosed substance use disorders and possible impairment at work. The trial involved 1,500 paired urine and oral fluid tests performed in accordance with Australian Standard/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS) 4308:2008 and AS 4760:2006. Workers who returned a positive test were screened for substance use disorders, as defined by DSM-5, and for possible impairment at work following that particular episode of substance use. Substances were detected in 3.7% (n = 56) of urine samples and 0.5% (n = 8) of oral fluid samples (p drug or a controlled substance without a clinical indication and prescription. Nine workers tested positive on urine alone, one on oral fluid alone and two on both (p = 0.0114). Of note, 6/11 workers who tested positive on urine had possible impairment at work and 2/11 had a substance use disorder versus 2/3 and 0/3, respectively, who tested positive on oral fluid. Urine drug testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 is more likely to detect overall substance use and illicit drug use than oral fluid testing conducted in accordance with AS 4760:2006. Urine testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 may also be more likely to detect workers with possible impairment at work and substance use disorders than oral fluid testing performed in accordance with AS 4760:2006. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laubach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3 emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 subsequent days. Daily-integrated emission rates peaked on Day 3 of the experiment (last day of cattle presence and declined steadily for five days thereafter. Urine patches were the dominant sources for these emissions. On Day 9, a secondary emissions peak occurred, with dung pats likely to be the main sources. This interpretation is based on simultaneous observations of the pH evolution in urine patches and dung pats created next to the circular plot. Feed and dung samples were analysed to estimate the amounts of nitrogen (N ingested and excreted. Total N volatilised as NH3 was 19.8 (± 0.9% of N intake and 22.4 (± 1.3% of N excreted. The bimodal shape of the emissions time series allowed to infer separate estimates for volatilisation from urine and dung, respectively, with the result that urine accounted for 88.6 (± 2.6% of the total NH3 emissions. The emissions from urine represented 25.5 (± 2.0% of the excreted urine-N, while the emissions from dung amounted to 11.6 (± 2.7% of the deposited dung-N. Emissions from dung may have continued after Day 13 but were not resolved by the measurement technique. A simple resistance model shows that the magnitude of the emissions from dung is controlled by the resistance of the dung crust.

  10. Mining the human urine proteome for monitoring renal transplant injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Gao, Yuqian; He, Jintang; Wang, Anyou; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Shi, Tujin; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Salvatierra, Oscar; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2016-06-01

    The human urinary proteome reflects systemic and inherent renal injury perturbations and can be analyzed to harness specific biomarkers for different kidney transplant injury states. 396 unique urine samples were collected contemporaneously with an allograft biopsy from 396 unique kidney transplant recipients. Centralized, blinded histology on the graft was used to classify matched urine samples into categories of acute rejection (AR), chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), BK virus nephritis (BKVN), and stable graft (STA). Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics using iTRAQ based discovery (n=108) and global label-free LC-MS analyses of individual samples (n=137) for quantitative proteome assessment were used in the discovery step. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was applied to identify and validate minimal urine protein/peptide biomarkers to accurately segregate organ injury causation and pathology on unique urine samples (n=151). A total of 958 proteins were initially quantified by iTRAQ, 87% of which were also identified among 1574 urine proteins detected in LC-MS validation. 103 urine proteins were significantly (p<0.05) perturbed in injury and enriched for humoral immunity, complement activation, and lymphocyte trafficking. A set of 131 peptides corresponding to 78 proteins were assessed by SRM for their significance in an independent sample cohort. A minimal set of 35 peptides mapping to 33 proteins, were modeled to segregate different injury groups (AUC =93% for AR, 99% for CAN, 83% for BKVN). Urinary proteome discovery and targeted validation identified urine protein fingerprints for non-invasive differentiation of kidney transplant injuries, thus opening the door for personalized immune risk assessment and therapy.

  11. Temperature dependent removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) from synthetic nitrified urine

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Samuel J.

    2011-01-01

    Urine is the source of the major part of plant nutrients in municipal wastewater. Therefore, full nutrient recovery from source-separated urine is an attractive option for both treating wastewater and gaining a valuable fertilizer product. Full nutrient recovery can be achieved by first stabilizing collected urine by nitrification and then concentrating the urine by distillation. Since concentrations of all salts in urine increase with increasing removal of water also the ...

  12. The use of saliva as a practical and feasible alternative to urine in large-scale screening for congenital cytomegalovirus infection increasesinclusion and detection rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Santos de Carvalho Cardoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although urine is considered the gold-standard material for the detection of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection, it can be difficult to obtain in newborns. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of detection of congenital CMV infection in saliva and urine samples. METHODS: One thousand newborns were included in the study. Congenital cytomegalovirus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: Saliva samples were obtained from all the newborns, whereas urine collection was successful in only 333 cases. There was no statistically significant difference between the use of saliva alone or saliva and urine collected simultaneously for the detection of CMV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva samples can be used in large-scale neonatal screening for CMV infection.

  13. Determinação simultânea dos ácidos hipúrico e metil-hipúrico urinários por métodos cromatográficos: comparação entre cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e cromatografia gasosa capilar Simultaneous determination of urinary hyppuric and methylhyppuric acids through chromatographic methods: comparation between high performance liquid chromatography and capilary gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelaine Lima Silva

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado objetivando-se comparar a eficiência de dois métodos analíticos, um por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE e outro por cromatografia em fase gasosa com coluna capilar (CG, na determinação conjunta do ácido hipúrico (AH e ácido metil-hipúrico (AMH em urina de indivíduos expostos ocupacionalmente ao tolueno e xileno. Após a validação analítica foi observado que o método CLAE apresentou melhores precisão intra e interensaio, porcentagem de recuperação e sensibilidade. Amostras de urina de trabalhadores expostos aos dois solventes em fábrica de tintas-látex foram analisadas pelos dois métodos validados e os resultados avaliados estatisticamente. Não se encontrou diferença significativa entre os valores de AH superiores a 1,0 g/g de creatinina, quando determinados pelos dois métodos cromatográficos. Esta similaridade não foi repetida quando os níveis de AH eram inferiores a 1,0 g/g de creatinina. Os valores de AMH nas amostras analisadas estavam, na maioria das vezes, abaixo do limite de deteção, razão pela qual não foi realizada a comparação estatística entre os mesmos.High performance liquid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography were compared for simultaneous measurement of hyppuric and methyl hyppuric acids in urine of workers co-exposed to toluene and xilene. Quantitative advantages offered by HPLC over capillary GC method are observed: better average recovery, wider dynamic interval in calibration curve and lower detection and quantification limits mainly when MHA measurement was performed. No significant difference was found between the values of HA higher than 1.0 g/g creatinine measured by the two chromatographic procedures. Regarding to MHA concentration the methods gave similar results and there was no significant difference between the values.

  14. Determination of cadmium and lead in urine of some Nigerian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfowokan, A O; Famuyiwa, S O; Adenuga, A A; Fatoki, O S

    2002-09-01

    Forty-one urine samples of smokers and non-smokers from Ile-Ife, Nigeria were analyzed for normal cadmium and lead levels after acid digestion. Results of the preliminary study show that concentrations of cadmium obtained were generally low compared with lead. The mean urinary levels from non-smokers ranged from 0.05 - 0.02 to 0.16 - 0.01 wg ml-1 and from 0.02 - 0.03 to 0.88 - 0.04 wg ml-1 for cadmium and lead respectively, whilst, for smokers, urinary levels varied between 0.07 - 0.01 and 0.23 - 0.02 wg ml-1 and between 0.28 - 0.03 and 1.02 - 0.02 wg ml-1 were obtained for cadmium and lead, respectively. Cd levels in urine of smokers and non-smokers are higher than the recommended normal level of 0.0085 wg ml-1, while levels of Pb are above the 0.08-0.15 wg ml-1 exposure range. Results of spiking experiments with urine gave high percentage recoveries for both elements (Cd, 87.9 - 0.40%) and (Pb, 90.40 - 0.12%). Blank determination was done for background correction.

  15. Direct ELISA kits as a sensitive and selective screening method for abstinence control in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Musshoff, Frank; Wilbert, Ansgar; Röhrich, Jörg; Madea, Burkhard

    2011-04-15

    In 2009 cutoff values of assessment criteria to testify abstinence control in order to estimate driving ability were standardized in Germany. The cutoff values are lower than required in existing guidelines like SAMHSA and there is critical discussion about detection of low concentrations by using immunoassay, especially concerning amphetamines in urine (50 ng/ml). In this study Direct ELISA kits were tested for their applicability to identify the absence of amphetamines, cannabinoids, opiates, cocaine, methadone and benzodiazepines in urine. Results were confirmed by LC/MS or GC/MS analyses. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values (positive as well as negative) and overall misclassification rates were evaluated by contingency tables and were compared to ROC-analyses. Sensitivity results as well as specificity results were satisfying showing sensitivity values higher than 96% for each analyte. The amphetamine test we used showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 88%, respectively, even if amphetamine tests usually react with high cross-reactivity. Our study results include high discrimination at required cutoff values between positives and negatives for each drug group and demonstrate that immunological tests complying with requirements of current decreased urine cutoff values for assessment of driving ability do exist.

  16. Identification of tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid in foodstuffs, human urine and human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, J; Mizoi, Y; Naito, T; Ogawa, Y; Uetani, Y; Ninomiya, I

    1991-05-01

    1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (TCCA), both precursors of mutagenic N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosamines, 1-methyl-2-nitroso-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid and 2-nitroso-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid), were detected in various food-stuffs, urine from healthy human subjects and human milk. A purification procedure, involving a chemically-bonded material followed by HPLC combined with fluorometric detection, was used for the quantitative determination of these compounds, allowing the separation of two diastereoisomers of MTCA. An HPLC and mass spectrometry method was also developed for their identification. Comparing the concentration of MTCA and TCCA in fermented products and raw materials suggested that tetrahydro-beta-carbolines may have been produced through fermentation or by condensation of tryptophan and acetaldehyde formed from ethanol added as a food preservative. This is the first report of excretion of tetrahydro-beta-carbolines in human urine and human milk. A comparison of the concentrations of tetrahydro-beta-carbolines in urine from human infants and human milk indicates that tetrahydro-beta-carbolines may be synthesized endogenously in humans. A possible pathway of tryptophan metabolism in plants and animals is presented.

  17. Rapid determination of nicotine in urine by direct thermal desorption ion trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.B.; Ilgner, R.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of nicotine and cotinine in physiological fluids (urine, blood serum, and saliva) is widely used as a means of assessing human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Although numerous analytical methods exist for these measurements, they generally involve extensive sample preparation which increases cost and decreases sample throughput. We report the use of thermal desorption directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) for the rapid determination of nicotine and cotinine in urine. A 1{mu}L aliquot of urine is injected into a specially designed inlet and flash vaporized directly into an ITMS through an open-split capillary restrictor interface. Isobutane chemical ionization is used to generate (M+H){sup +} ions of the analytes and collision induced dissociation is used to generate characteristic fragment ions which are used to confirm their identity. Quantification is achieved by integrating the ion current for the characteristic ions and comparing with an external working curve. Detection limits are approximately 50 pg per analyte and the sample turnaround time is approximately 3 minutes without the need for extensive sample preparation. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Reference values for ethylenethiourea in urine in Northern Italy: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosio, Claudio; Visentin, Sara; Birindelli, Sarah; Campo, Laura; Fustinoni, Silvia; Mariani, Franco; Tiramani, Manuela; Tommasini, Michele; Brambilla, Gabri; Maroni, Marco

    2006-04-10

    This study was carried out to define reference values for urinary ethylenethiourea (ETU) in the Northern Italy population and to identify the sources of exposure. Ninety-five healthy subjects were selected. A spot urine sample was collected in the morning, and analyzed using GC/MS in the EI/SIM mode. Thirty-nine subjects showed urinary ETU concentrations lower than the limit of detection (LOD, 0.4 microg/g creatinine), and the remainders ETU concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 11.6 microg/g creatinine. No correlation was shown between smoke or alcohol intake and urinary ETU concentrations. Based on data on ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (EBDC) concentrations in food, we estimated a total EBDCs intake of 31.7-50.1 microg/day. These values are largely below the ADIs, but explain the presence of small amounts of ETU in the urine samples we have analyzed. Finally, it was estimated that the mean ETU in urine in the Italian general population is 0.6-0.8 microg/g creatinine, with a 95th percentile of 4.5-5.0 microg/g creatinine. These values can be used as reference, to compare the results of biological monitoring activities carried out on EBDCs occupationally and environmentally exposed populations.

  19. Determination of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) in urine by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grases, F.; Perello, J.; Isern, B.; Prieto, R.M

    2004-05-10

    Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) is a substance present in urine with an important role in preventing calcium renal calculi development. In spite of this, the use of urinary phytate levels on stone-formers' evaluation and treatment is still notably restricted as a consequence of the enormous difficulty to analyze this substance in urine. In this paper, a simple procedure for routinary urinary phytate determination based on phosphorus determination through inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry is described. The method only requires a previous separation of phytate from other components by column anion exchange chromatography. The working linear range used was 0-2 mg l{sup -1} phosphorus (0-7 mg l{sup -1} phytate). The limit of detection was 64 {mu}g l{sup -1} of phytate and the limit of quantification was 213 {mu}g l{sup -1}. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for 1.35 mg l{sup -1} phytate was 2.4%. Different urine samples were analyzed using an alternative analytical methodology based on gas chromatography (GC)/mass detection used for inositol determination (phytate was previously hydrolyzed), resulting both methods comparable using as criterion to assess statistical significance P<0.05.

  20. Three-dimensional paper-based microfluidic device for assays of protein and glucose in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Deidre; Greer, Brady; Johnson, Jesse; Hashemi, Nastaran

    2013-11-19

    The first step in curing a disease is being able to detect the disease effectively. Paper-based microfluidic devices are biodegradable and can make diagnosing diseases cost-effective and easy in almost all environments. We created a three-dimesnional (3D) paper device using wax printing fabrication technique and basic principles of origami. This design allows for a versatile fabrication technique over previously reported patterning of SU-8 photoresist on chromatography paper by employing a readily available wax printer. The design also utilizes multiple colorimetric assays that can accommodate one or more analytes including urine, blood, and saliva. In this case to demonstrate the functionality of the 3D paper-based microfluidic system, a urinalysis of protein and glucose assays is conducted. The amounts of glucose and protein introduced to the device are found to be proportional to the color change of each assay. This color change was quantified by use of Adobe Photoshop. Urine samples from participants with no pre-existing health conditions and one person with diabetes were collected and compared against synthetic urine samples with predetermined glucose and protein levels. Utilizing this method, we were able to confirm that both protein and glucose levels were in fact within healthy ranges for healthy participants. For the participant with diabetes, glucose was found to be above the healthy range while the protein level was in the healthy range.

  1. Urine from stressed rats increases immobility in receptor rats forced to swim: role of 2-heptanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Contreras, Carlos M; Mendoza-López, M Remedios; García-Barradas, Oscar; Cruz-Sánchez, J Samuel

    2007-05-16

    The present study was aimed to determine whether the urine from donor rats, which were physically stressed (UD-PS) by unavoidable electric footshocks, produces despair in receptor partner rats (RP) in the long-term. For each trial, an RP rat was placed during 10 min once per day for 21 days in a small non-movement-restricting cage impregnated with the urine collected from a UD-PS rat. Control rats, free of stimulation, maintained their locomotion and immobility scores at basal values throughout the 21-day test. After 21 days of stressing experience [F(2,90)=15.22, Pimmobility [F(2,90)=8.83, Pswim test (RP, r=0.886, P<0.05; UD-PS, r=0.962, P<0.001) compared with the control group (r=-0.307, NS). We conclude that the RP became similarly despaired as the UD-PS group through the action of 2-heptanone, a ketonic compound identified in UD-PS urine by HS-GC/MS techniques. This ketone was found to be increased [F(2,15)=3.50, P<0.05] from the 1st day of unavoidable electric footshocks, and to induce despair, an effect reverted [F(2,21)=16.5, P<0.0001] by imipramine (5.0 mg/kg) in another group of rats.

  2. Kinetics of Rituximab Excretion into Urine and Peritoneal Fluid in Two Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Anke; Wagner, A. D.; Haller, Hermann; Schiffer, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Clinical observations suggest that treatment of Rituximab might be less effective in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria when compared to nonnephrotic patients. It is conceivable that the reason for this is that significant amounts of Rituximab might be lost in the urine in a nephrotic patient and that these patients require a repeated or higher dosage. However, this has not been systematically studied. In this case report we describe two different patients with nephrotic range proteinuria receiving Rituximab. The first patient received Rituximab for therapy resistant cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and the other for second line treatment of Felty's syndrome. We employed flow cytometry to determine the amount of Rituximab excretion in both urine and peritoneal fluid specimens in these patients following administration of Rituximab. We found that a significant amount of Rituximab is lost from the circulation by excretion into the urine. Furthermore we saw a close correlation of the excretion of Rituximab to the excretion of IgG molecules suggesting selectivity of proteinuria as the determining factor of Rituximab excretion. Further larger scale clinical studies could have the potential to evaluate an optimal cut-off value of IgG urinary loss before a possible administration of Rituximab therefore contributing to a more individualized treatment approach in patients with nonselective and nephrotic range proteinuria.

  3. Analysis of Urine Composition in Type II Diabetic Mice after Intervention Therapy Using Holothurian Polypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysates and peptide fractions (PF obtained from sea cucumber with commercial enzyme were studied on the hyperglycemic and renal protective effects on db/db rats using urine metabolomics. Compared with the control group the polypeptides from the two species could significantly reduce the urine glucose and urea. We also tried to address the compositions of highly expressed urinary proteins using a proteomics approach. They were serum albumins, AMBP proteins, negative trypsin, elastase, and urinary protein, GAPDH, a receptor of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR, and Ig kappa chain C region. We used the electronic nose to quickly detect changes in the volatile substances in mice urine after holothurian polypeptides (HPP fed, and the results show it can identify the difference between treatment groups with the control group without overlapping. The protein express mechanism of HPP treating diabetes was discussed, and we suggested these two peptides with the hypoglycemic and renal protective activity might be utilized as nutraceuticals.

  4. Kinetics of Rituximab Excretion into Urine and Peritoneal Fluid in Two Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Stahl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical observations suggest that treatment of Rituximab might be less effective in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria when compared to nonnephrotic patients. It is conceivable that the reason for this is that significant amounts of Rituximab might be lost in the urine in a nephrotic patient and that these patients require a repeated or higher dosage. However, this has not been systematically studied. In this case report we describe two different patients with nephrotic range proteinuria receiving Rituximab. The first patient received Rituximab for therapy resistant cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and the other for second line treatment of Felty’s syndrome. We employed flow cytometry to determine the amount of Rituximab excretion in both urine and peritoneal fluid specimens in these patients following administration of Rituximab. We found that a significant amount of Rituximab is lost from the circulation by excretion into the urine. Furthermore we saw a close correlation of the excretion of Rituximab to the excretion of IgG molecules suggesting selectivity of proteinuria as the determining factor of Rituximab excretion. Further larger scale clinical studies could have the potential to evaluate an optimal cut-off value of IgG urinary loss before a possible administration of Rituximab therefore contributing to a more individualized treatment approach in patients with nonselective and nephrotic range proteinuria.

  5. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL as a biomarker for acute canine kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ya-Jane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomarkers for the early prediction of canine acute kidney injury (AKI are clinically important. Recently, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL was found to be a sensitive biomarker for the prediction of human AKI at a very early stage and the development of AKI after surgery. However, NGAL has not yet been studied with respect to dog kidney diseases. The application of NGAL canine AKI was investigated in this study. Results The canine NGAL gene was successfully cloned and expressed. Polyclonal antibodies against canine NGAL were generated and used to develop an ELISA for measuring NGAL protein in serum and urine samples that were collected from 39 dogs at different time points after surgery. AKI was defined by the standard method, namely a serum creatinine increase of greater than or equal to 26.5 μmol/L from baseline within 48 h. At 12 h after surgery, compared to the group without AKI (12 dogs, the NGAL level in the urine of seven dogs with AKI was significantly increased (median 178.4 pg/mL vs. 88.0 pg/mL, and this difference was sustained to 72 h. Conclusion As the increase in NGAL occurred much earlier than the increase in serum creatinine, urine NGAL seems to be able to serve as a sensitive and specific biomarker for the prediction of AKI in dogs.

  6. Cost and Efficacy Assessment of an Alternative Medication Compliance Urine Drug Testing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kelly; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the frequency at which quantitative results provide additional clinical benefit compared to qualitative results alone. A comparison between alternative urine drug screens and conventional screens including the assessment of cost-to-payer differences, accuracy of prescription compliance or polypharmacy/substance abuse was also included. In a reference laboratory evaluation of urine specimens from across the United States, 213 urine specimens with provided prescription medication information (302 prescriptions) were analyzed by two testing algorithms: 1) conventional immunoassay screen with subsequent reflexive testing of positive results by quantitative mass spectrometry; and 2) a combined immunoassay/qualitative mass-spectrometry screen that substantially reduced the need for subsequent testing. The qualitative screen was superior to immunoassay with reflex to mass spectrometry in confirming compliance per prescription (226/302 vs 205/302), and identifying non-prescription abuse (97 vs 71). Pharmaceutical impurities and inconsistent drug metabolite patterns were detected in only 3.8% of specimens, suggesting that quantitative results have limited benefit. The percentage difference between the conventional testing algorithm and the alternative screen was projected to be 55%, and a 2-year evaluation of test utilization as a measure of test order volume follows an exponential trend for alternative screen test orders over conventional immunoassay screens that require subsequent confirmation testing. Alternative, qualitative urine drug screens provide a less expensive, faster, and more comprehensive evaluation of patient medication compliance and drug abuse. The vast majority of results were interpretable with qualitative results alone indicating a reduced need to automatically reflex to quantitation or provide quantitation for the majority of patients. This strategy highlights a successful approach using an alternative strategy for both the

  7. Optimization of a Pre-MEKC Separation SPE Procedure for Steroid Molecules in Human Urine Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Olędzka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many steroid hormones can be considered as potential biomarkers and their determination in body fluids can create opportunities for the rapid diagnosis of many diseases and disorders of the human body. Most existing methods for the determination of steroids are usually time- and labor-consuming and quite costly. Therefore, the aim of analytical laboratories is to develop a new, relatively low-cost and rapid implementation methodology for their determination in biological samples. Due to the fact that there is little literature data on concentrations of steroid hormones in urine samples, we have made attempts at the electrophoretic determination of these compounds. For this purpose, an extraction procedure for the optimized separation and simultaneous determination of seven steroid hormones in urine samples has been investigated. The isolation of analytes from biological samples was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE with dichloromethane and compared to solid phase extraction (SPE with C18 and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB columns. To separate all the analytes a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECK technique was employed. For full separation of all the analytes a running buffer (pH 9.2, composed of 10 mM sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax, 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, and 10% methanol was selected. The methodology developed in this work for the determination of steroid hormones meets all the requirements of analytical methods. The applicability of the method has been confirmed for the analysis of urine samples collected from volunteers—both men and women (students, amateur bodybuilders, using and not applying steroid doping. The data obtained during this work can be successfully used for further research on the determination of steroid hormones in urine samples.

  8. Patients with nephrolithiasis had lower fetuin-A protein level in urine and renal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong Xian; Li, Cheng Yang; Deng, Yao Liang

    2014-02-01

    Fetuin-A acts as an inhibitor of systemic and local ectopic calcification and inflammatory response, but the role of fetuin-A in the etiology of urolithiasis is still unclear. We aim to investigate the expression of fetuin-A in the serum, urine and renal tissue of patients with or without nephrolithiasis. 48 patients with nephrolithiasis (group A) and 32 individuals without urolithiasis (group B, control group) were enrolled into our study. Level of fetuin-A in serum and urine was measured by ELISA, and expression of fetuin-A in renal tissue was localized and assessed by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting, respectively. Indexes of oxidative stress in kidney were evaluated. Other routine serum and urine chemistries for inpatients were measured biochemically. The results showed that fetuin-A expressed widely in the proximal and distal renal tubule, the thin segment of Henle's loop and the collecting duct epithelium. There were no differences in serum fetuin-A level between the two groups. Compared with control group, cellular expression of P47phox and fetuin-A mRNAs in the renal tissue of patients with nephrolithiasis increased, the level of MDA in renal tissue and the level of urinary calcium also increased, but urinary and renal fetuin-A protein and the activities of SOD in renal tissue decreased. Correlation analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between the level of renal fetuin-A protein and the expression of P47phox mRNA and MDA. These results revealed that nephrolithiasis patients had lower fetuin-A protein level in urine and renal tissue.

  9. Urine proteomics for discovery of improved diagnostic markers of Kawasaki disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentsis, Alex; Shulman, Andrew; Ahmed, Saima; Brennan, Eileen; Monuteaux, Michael C; Lee, Young-Ho; Lipsett, Susan; Paulo, Joao A; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Fuhlbrigge, Robert; Bachur, Richard; Bradwin, Gary; Arditi, Moshe; Sundel, Robert P; Newburger, Jane W; Steen, Hanno; Kim, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Absence of definitive diagnostic markers limits the accuracy of clinical evaluations of suspected KD with significant increases in morbidity. In turn, incomplete understanding of its molecular pathogenesis hinders the identification of rational targets needed to improve therapy. We used high-accuracy mass spectrometry proteomics to analyse over 2000 unique proteins in clinical urine specimens of patients with KD. We discovered that urine proteomes of patients with KD, but not those with mimicking conditions, were enriched for markers of cellular injury such as filamin and talin, immune regulators such as complement regulator CSMD3, immune pattern recognition receptor muclin, and immune cytokine protease meprin A. Significant elevations of filamin C and meprin A were detected in both the serum and urine in two independent cohorts of patients with KD, comprised of a total of 236 patients. Meprin A and filamin C exhibited superior diagnostic performance as compared to currently used markers of disease in a blinded case-control study of 107 patients with suspected KD, with receiver operating characteristic areas under the curve of 0.98 (95% confidence intervals [CI] of 0.97–1 and 0.95–1, respectively). Notably, meprin A was enriched in the coronary artery lesions of a mouse model of KD. In all, urine proteome profiles revealed novel candidate molecular markers of KD, including filamin C and meprin A that exhibit excellent diagnostic performance. These disease markers may improve the diagnostic accuracy of clinical evaluations of children with suspected KD, lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets, and allow the development of a biological classification of Kawasaki disease. PMID:23281308

  10. Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn; Xue, Jun-Fa; Shang, Yun-Feng

    2013-10-15

    The property changes of urinary nanocrystallites in 20 cases of uric acid (UA) stone formers after 1 week of potassium citrate (K{sub 3}cit) intake were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Before K{sub 3}cit intake, the urinary crystallites mainly contained UA and calcium oxalate. After K{sub 3}cit intake, the components changed to urate and UA; the qualities, species, and amounts of aggregated crystallites decreased; urine pH, citrate, and glycosaminoglycan excretions increased; and UA excretion, Zeta potential, and crystallite size decreased. The stability of crystallites followed the order: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Therefore, the components of urinary stones were closely related to the components of urinary crystallites. - Graphical abstract: The relationships among stone components, urinary crystallite components, and urine pH were established. The crystallites stability order was: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Highlights: • Urine crystallite property of uric acid stone former after K{sub 3}cit intake was studied. • The components of crystallites in urine are closely related to type of stones. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the qualities and species of crystallites decreased. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the amount of aggregated crystallites decreased. • The stability of urinary crystallites of UA patients increased after taking K{sub 3}cit.

  11. The extraction of thorium by calix[6]arene columns for urine analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekki, S; Bouvier-Capely, C; Jalouali, R; Rebière, F

    2011-03-01

    Thorium is a natural alpha-emitting element occurring in various ores and has numerous industrial applications. Routine monitoring of potentially exposed workers is generally achieved through radiobioassay (urine and faeces). The procedures currently used for analysing actinides such as thorium in urine require lengthy chemical separation associated with long counting times by alpha-spectrometry due to low activity levels. Thus, their main drawback is that they are time-consuming, which limits the frequency and flexibility of individual monitoring. In this context, this study developed new radiochemical procedures based on the use of tertbutylcalix[6]arenes bearing three carboxylic acid groups or three hydroxamic acid groups. These previous works demonstrated that these macrocyclic molecules immobilised on an inert solid support are excellent extractants for uranium, plutonium and americium. In this study, the authors investigated the thorium extraction by calix[6]arene columns. Experiments were performed on synthetic solutions and on real urine samples. The influence of various parameters, such as the thorium solution pH and the column flow rate on thorium extraction, was studied. The results showed that both calix[6]arenes are efficient to extract thorium. Thorium extraction is quantitative from pH = 2 for synthetic solution and from pH = 3 for real urine samples. This study has demonstrated that the column flow rate is a crucial parameter since its value must not be too high to achieve the steady-state complexation equilibrium. Finally, these results will be compared with those obtained for other actinides (U, Pu and Am) and the conditions of actinides' separation will be discussed.

  12. Albumin heterogeneity in low-abundance fluids. The case of urine and cerebro-spinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Santucci, Laura; Candiano, Giovanni; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2013-12-01

    Serum albumin is a micro-heterogeneous protein composed of at least 40 isoforms. Its heterogeneity is even more pronounced in biological fluids other than serum, the major being urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Modification 'in situ' and/or selectivity of biological barriers, such as in the kidney, determines the final composition of albumin and may help in definition of inflammatory states. This review focuses on various aspects of albumin heterogeneity in low 'abundance fluids' and highlights the potential source of information in diseases. The electrical charge of the protein in urine and CSF is modified but with an opposite change and depending on clinical conditions. In normal urine, the bulk of albumin is more anionic than in serum for the presence of ten times more fatty acids that introduce equivalent anionic charges and modify hydrophobicity of the protein. At the same time, urinary albumin is more glycosylated compared to the serum homolog. Finally, albumin fragments can be detected in urine in patients with proteinuria. For albumin in CSF, we lack information relative to normal conditions since ethical problems do not allow normal CSF to be studied. In multiple sclerosis, the albumin charge in CSF is more cationic than in serum, this change possibly involving structural anomalies or small molecules bindings. Massively fatty albumin could be toxic for tubular cells and be eliminated on this basis. Renal handling of glycosylated albumin can alter the normal equilibrium of filtration/reabsorption and trigger mechanisms leading to glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Serum Albumin. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of urine pH on the effectiveness of shock wave lithotripsy: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoub, Ahmad; Al-Ani, Ammar; Gul, Tawiz; Kamkoum, Hatem; Al-Jalham, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is a well-established modality in the treatment of urolithiasis. Studying the effect of urine pH on SWL success is appealing as pH can be manipulated before SWL to insure a better outcome. This is a prospective study performed at a tertiary medical center. Patients presenting to the SWL unit with a single renal stone <2 cm in size were included in this study. In addition to standard laboratory and radiologic investigations, urine pH measurement was performed on all patients before their procedure. The number of sessions performed, and the stone-free rate (SFR) were assessed. Patients were divided into two groups according to stone clearance. Group 1 was stone-free, whereas Group 2 had residual stones after three sessions of SWL. Data was also classified according to different pH ranges. Influential factors were compared among the study groups and pH ranges. A total of 175 patients were included in this study. The SFR was 54.3%. The mean number of sessions performed was 2.2 ± 0.8. Group 1 included 95 patients, whereas Group 2 had eighty patients. Among all studied factors, stone size (P = 0.03) and skin to stone distance (P = 0.04) significantly affected SFR with SWL. Urine pH was not found to have a statistically significant influence on SWL outcome (P = 0.51). Urine pH was not found in this study population to influence the effectiveness of SWL. Further experimental studies are required to help investigate this notion.

  14. Albuminuria is associated with an increased prostasin in urine while aldosterone has no direct effect on urine and kidney tissue abundance of prostasin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Kurt, Birgül; Schwarzensteiner, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    in plasma and urine from type 2 diabetic patients with resistant hypertension (n = 112) randomized to spironolactone/placebo in a clinical trial. Prostasin protein level was assessed by immunoblotting in (1) human and rat urines with/without nephrotic syndrome, (2) human nephrectomy tissue, (3) urine...... the result of an improved glomerular filtration barrier function and generally reduced proteinuria....

  15. Comparison of serum free light chain and urine electrophoresis for the detection of the light chain component of monoclonal immunoglobulins in light chain and intact immunoglobulin multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejoie, Thomas; Attal, Michel; Moreau, Philippe; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Avet-Loiseau, Herve

    2016-03-01

    Response criteria for multiple myeloma are based upon changes in monoclonal protein levels quantified using serum and/or urine protein electrophoresis. The latter lacks sensitivity at low monoclonal protein levels and since 2001, the serum free light chain test has been available and its clinical utility proven, yet guidelines have not recommended it as a replacement for urine assessment. Herein we evaluated responses using serum free light chain measurements and serum and urine electrophoresis after 2 and 4 cycles of therapy and after stem cell transplantation in 25 light chain and 157 intact immunoglobulin myeloma patients enrolled in the IFM 2007-02 MM trial. All 25 light chain patients had measurable disease by serum free light chain and urine methods at presentation. By contrast 98 out of 157 intact immunoglobulin patients had measurable disease by serum free light chain compared to 55 out of 157 by urine electrophoresis. In all patients there was substantial agreement between predicate (serum/urine protein electrophoresis) and test (serum protein electrophoresis and serum free light chain) methods for response assessment (Weighted Kappa=0.83). Urine immunofixation became negative in 47% light chain and 43% intact immunoglobulin patients after 2 cycles of therapy. At this time the serum free light chain ratio normalised in only 11% and 27% patients, respectively. In summary we found good agreement between methods for response assessment, but the serum free light chain test provided greater sensitivity than urine electrophoresis for monitoring. To our knowledge this is the first report comparing both methods for response assignment based on the International Myeloma Working Group guidelines. (Clinical Trials Register.eu identifier: 2007-005204-40).

  16. Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L. Fenderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays.

  17. A prototype urine collection device for female aircrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Roger U.; Delger, Karlyna L.

    1993-01-01

    Women are gaining increased access to small military cockpits. This shift has stimulated the search for practical urine containment and disposal methods for female aircrew. There are no external urine collection devices (UCD) for women that are comfortable, convenient, and leak free. We describe a prototype UCD that begins to meet this need. Materials used to make custom aviator masks were adapted to mold a perineal mask. First, a perineal cast (negative) was used to make a mold (positive). Next, a perineal mask made of wax was formed to fit the positive mold. Finally, a soft, pliable perineal mask was fabricated using the wax model as a guide. The prototype was tested for comfort, fit, and leakage. In the sitting position, less than 5 cc of urine leakage occurred with each 600 cc of urine collected. Comfort was mostly satisfactory, but ambulation was limited and the outlet design could lead to kinking and obstruction. We concluded that a perineal mask may serve as a comfortable and functional external UCD acceptable for use by females in confined environments. Changes are needed to improve comfort, fit, and urine drainage. Integration into cockpits, pressure suits, chemical defense gear, and environments where access to relief facilities is restricted is planned.

  18. Reverse osmosis brine for phosphorus recovery from source separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiujun; Wang, Guotian; Guan, Detian; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Aimin; Li, Jin; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhongguo

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste streams has recently been recognized as a key step in the sustainable supply of this indispensable and non-renewable resource. The feasibility of using brine from a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit treating cooling water as a precipitant for P recovery from source separated urine was evaluated in the present study. P removal efficiency, process parameters and precipitate properties were investigated in batch and continuous flow experiments. More than 90% of P removal was obtained from both undiluted fresh and hydrolyzed urines by mixing with RO brine (1:1, v/v) at a pH over 9.0. Around 2.58 and 1.24 Kg of precipitates could be recovered from 1 m(3) hydrolyzed and fresh urine, respectively, and the precipitated solids contain 8.1-19.0% of P, 10.3-15.2% of Ca, 3.7-5.0% of Mg and 0.1-3.5% of ammonium nitrogen. Satisfactory P removal performance was also achieved in a continuous flow precipitation reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 3-6 h. RO brine could be considered as urinal and toilet flush water despite of a marginally higher precipitation tendency than tap water. This study provides a widely available, low - cost and efficient precipitant for P recovery in urban areas, which will make P recovery from urine more economically attractive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Amphetamine positive urine toxicology screen secondary to atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenderson, Joshua L; Stratton, Amy N; Domingo, Jennifer S; Matthews, Gerald O; Tan, Christopher D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays.

  20. Genital region cleansing wipes: Effects on urine culture contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selek, Mehmet Burak; Bektöre, Bayhan; Sezer, Ogün; Kula Atik, Tuğba; Baylan, Orhan; Özyurt, Mustafa

    2017-01-30

    Urine culture is the gold standard test for revealing the microbial agent causing urinary tract infection (UTI). Culture results are affected by sampling techniques; improper sampling leads to contamination of urine and thus contamination of the culture with urogenital flora. We aimed to evaluate the effect of urogenital cleansing, performed with chlorhexidine-containing genital region cleansing wipes (GRCW) on contamination rates. A total of 2,665 patients with UTI-related complaints and with urine culture requests from various outpatient clinics were enrolled in the study. Of the patients, 1,609 in the experimental group used GRCW before sampling, while 1,046 in the control group did not use any wipes. The contamination rate in the experimental group patients was 7.7%, while it was 15.8% in the control group. Contamination rates were significantly higher in the control group than in the experimental group for both women and men. Contamination rates for children and adults were also significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. Our study, conducted in a large population, showed that the use of chlorhexidine-containing cleansing wipes significantly reduced urine culture contamination rates in both genders, in both child and adult age groups. Using GRCW, collection of urine after urogenital area cleansing will decrease the contamination problem.

  1. Analysis of Urine Flow in Three Different Ureter Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Wuk Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ureter provides a way for urine to flow from the kidney to the bladder. Peristalsis in the ureter partially forces the urine flow, along with hydrostatic pressure. Ureteral diseases and a double J stent, which is commonly inserted in a ureteral stenosis or occlusion, disturb normal peristalsis. Ineffective or no peristalsis could make the contour of the ureter a tube, a funnel, or a combination of the two. In this study, we investigated urine flow in the abnormal situation. We made three different, curved tubular, funnel-shaped, and undulated ureter models that were based on human anatomy. A numerical analysis of the urine flow rate and pattern in the ureter was performed for a combination of the three different ureters, with and without a ureteral stenosis and with four different types of double J stents. The three ureters showed a difference in urine flow rate and pattern. Luminal flow rate was affected by ureter shape. The side holes of a double J stent played a different role in detour, which depended on ureter geometry.

  2. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  3. Animal urine as painting materials in African rock art revealed by cluster ToF-SIMS mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel, Vincent; Richardin, Pascale; Touboul, David; Brunelle, Alain; Richard, Caroline; Laval, Eric; Walter, Philippe; Laprévote, Olivier

    2010-08-01

    The rock art site at the village of Songo in Mali is a very important Dogon ritual place where, since the end of the nineteenth century until today, takes place the ceremony of circumcision. During these ceremonies, paintings are performed on the walls of the shelter with mainly three colors: red, black and white. Ethnological literature mentions the use of animal urine of different species such as birds, lizards or snakes as a white pigment. Urine of these animals is mainly composed of uric acid or urate salts. In this article, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is used to compare uric acid, snake urine and a sample of a white pigment of a Dogon painting coming from the rock art site of Songo. ToF-SIMS measurements in both positive and negative ion modes on reference compounds and snake urine proved useful for the study of uric acid and urate salts. This method enables to identify unambiguously these compounds owing to the detection in negative ion mode of the ion corresponding to the deprotonated molecule ([M-H](-) at m/z 167.01) and its fragment ions. Moreover, the mass spectra obtained in positive ion mode permit to differentiate uric acid and urate salts on the basis of specific ions. Applying this method to the Dogon white pigments sample, we show that the sample is entirely composed of uric acid. This proves for the first time, that animal urine was used as a pigment by the Dogon. The presence of uric acid instead of urate salts as normally expected in animal urine could be explained by the preparation of the pigment for its application on the stone. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Blood and urine samples as useful sources for the direct detection of tuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, María J; San Juan Garrido, Rafael; Folgueira, Dolores; Palenque, Elia; Díaz-Pedroche, C; Lumbreras, Carlos; Aguado, José M

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the utility of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in blood and urine for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). We prospectively evaluated the usefulness of PCR performed in blood and urine samples from patients with proved or probable TB compared with a control group of patients. The PCR technique was performed using IS6110 primers. We included in the study 57 patients (43 with definite TB and 14 with probable TB) and 26 controls. Blood and urine samples were drawn at the time of microbiologic diagnosis and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months later. Cultures were positive in the early period (<1 month after treatment) in 11 of 57 patients (19%) with probable or definite TB, in comparison with 42% of patients (24/57) who yielded a positive PCR (P = 0.02). Urine samples increased the sensitivity of PCR determination in blood samples by 10%. The PCR in blood and/or urine was positive in 41% of patients with pulmonary TB, in 36% of patients with extrapulmonary TB, and in 50% of patients with disseminated TB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was still detectable by PCR in 5 of 13 patients with cured TB after 1 or more months of antituberculous treatment. The PCR detection of M. tuberculosis in blood and urine samples is useful for the diagnosis of different clinical forms of TB, mostly in those patients in which sample extraction is difficult or requires aggressive techniques. The sensitivity of this technique could be improved studying more than 1 sample in each patient, even after initiating an antituberculous treatment.

  5. The Role of Sarcosine, Uracil, and Kynurenic Acid Metabolism in Urine for Diagnosis and Progression Monitoring of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsos, Georgios; Virgiliou, Christina; Lagoudaki, Ioanna; Sardeli, Chrysanthi; Raikos, Nikolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios; Dimitriadis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate sarcosine, uracil, and kynurenic acid in urine as potential biomarkers in prostate cancer detection and progression monitoring. Sarcosine, uracil, and kynurenic acid were measured in urine samples of 32 prostate cancer patients prior to radical prostatectomy, 101 patients with increased prostate-specific antigen prior to ultrasonographically-guided prostatic biopsy collected before and after prostatic massage, and 15 healthy volunteers (controls). The results were related to histopathologic data, Gleason score, and PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen). Metabolites were measured after analysis of urine samples with Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) instrumentation. Multivariate, nonparametric statistical tests including receiver operating characteristics analyses, one-way analysis of variance (Kruskal–Wallis test), parametric statistical analysis, and Pearson correlation, were performed to evaluate diagnostic performance. Decreased median sarcosine and kynurenic acid and increased uracil concentrations were observed for patients with prostate cancer compared to participants without malignancy. Results showed that there was no correlation between the concentration of the studied metabolites and the cancer grade (Gleason score <7 vs. ≥7) and the age of the patients. Evaluation of biomarkers by ROC (Receiving Operating Characteristics) curve analysis showed that differentiation of prostate cancer patients from participants without malignancy was not enhanced by sarcosine or uracil levels in urine. In contrast to total PSA values, kynurenic acid was found a promising biomarker for the detection of prostate cancer particularly in cases where collection of urine samples was performed after prostatic massage. Sarcosine and uracil in urine samples of patients with prostate cancer were not found as significant biomarkers for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. None of the

  6. The Role of Sarcosine, Uracil, and Kynurenic Acid Metabolism in Urine for Diagnosis and Progression Monitoring of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gkotsos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate sarcosine, uracil, and kynurenic acid in urine as potential biomarkers in prostate cancer detection and progression monitoring. Sarcosine, uracil, and kynurenic acid were measured in urine samples of 32 prostate cancer patients prior to radical prostatectomy, 101 patients with increased prostate-specific antigen prior to ultrasonographically-guided prostatic biopsy collected before and after prostatic massage, and 15 healthy volunteers (controls. The results were related to histopathologic data, Gleason score, and PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen. Metabolites were measured after analysis of urine samples with Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS instrumentation. Multivariate, nonparametric statistical tests including receiver operating characteristics analyses, one-way analysis of variance (Kruskal–Wallis test, parametric statistical analysis, and Pearson correlation, were performed to evaluate diagnostic performance. Decreased median sarcosine and kynurenic acid and increased uracil concentrations were observed for patients with prostate cancer compared to participants without malignancy. Results showed that there was no correlation between the concentration of the studied metabolites and the cancer grade (Gleason score <7 vs. ≥7 and the age of the patients. Evaluation of biomarkers by ROC (Receiving Operating Characteristics curve analysis showed that differentiation of prostate cancer patients from participants without malignancy was not enhanced by sarcosine or uracil levels in urine. In contrast to total PSA values, kynurenic acid was found a promising biomarker for the detection of prostate cancer particularly in cases where collection of urine samples was performed after prostatic massage. Sarcosine and uracil in urine samples of patients with prostate cancer were not found as significant biomarkers for the diagnosis of prostate cancer

  7. Plasma and urine catecholamine levels in cosmonauts during long-term stay on Space Station Salyut-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvetn̆anský, R.; Davydova, N. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Vigas̆, M.; Popova, I. A.; Us̆akov, A. C.; Macho, L.; Grigoriev, A. I.

    The activity of the sympathetic adrenal system in cosmonauts exposed to a stay in space lasting for about half a year has so far been studied only by measuring catecholamine levels in plasma and urine samples taken before space flight and after landing. The device "Plasma 01", specially designed for collecting and processing venous blood from subjects during space flight on board the station Salyut-7 rendered it possible for the first time to collect and freeze samples of blood from cosmonauts in the course of a long-term 237-day space flight. A physician-cosmonaut collected samples of blood and urine from two cosmonauts over the period of days 217-219 of their stay in space. The samples were transported to Earth frozen. As indicators of the sympathetic adrenal system activity, plasma and urine concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine as well as urine levels of the catecholamine metabolites metanephrine, normetanephrine, and vanillylmandelic acid were determined before, during and after space flight. On days 217-219 of space flight plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were slightly increased, yet not substantially different from normal. During stress situations plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine levels usually exhibit a manifold increase. On days 217-219 of space flight norepinephrine and epinephrine levels in urine were comparable with pre-flight values and the levels of their metabolites were even significantly decreased. All the parameters studied, particularly plasma norepinephrine as well as urine norepinephrine, normetanephrine, and vanillylmandelic acid, reached the highest values 8 days after landing. The results obtained suggest that, in the period of days 217-219 of the cosmonauts' stay in space in the state of weightlessness, the sympathetic adrenal system is either not activated at all or there is but a slight activation induced by specific activities of the cosmonauts, whereas in the process of re-adaptation after space flight on

  8. Highly sensitive trivalent copper chelate-luminol chemiluminescence system for capillary electrophoresis detection of epinephrine in the urine of smoker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Zuorong; Xie, Haoyue; Fu, Zhifeng

    2012-12-12

    Epinephrine (EP) is one of the most important neurotransmitters and hormones. Some previous literatures show that there is a close relation between its release and smoking. To compare the levels of EP in urines of smokers and nonsmokers, a sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) system, luminol-diperiodatocuprate (III) (K(5)[Cu(HIO(6))(2)], DPC), has been developed and validated for the determination of EP after CE separation. The DPC-luminol-EP CL reaction showed very intensive emission and fast kinetic characteristics, thus led to a high sensitivity in the flow-through detection mode for capillary electrophoresis. With the peak height as a quantitative parameter, the relative CL intensity was linear with the EP concentration in the range of 2.0-400ng/mL, with a limit of detection of 0.82ng/mL (S/N=3). The reproducibility was assessed by intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 11 replicate determinations of EP standard samples at low, medium and high concentrations. The intra- and inter-day RSDs for CL signals were 5.5%-6.6% and 6.1%-7.5%, respectively, and those for migration times were 3.4%-5.8% and 4.3%-6.3%, respectively. The presented method was successfully applied to the determination of EP in EP injection and urine samples of smokers and nonsmokers. The recovery test results for urine samples ranged from 86.5 to 112.0%, which demonstrated the reliability of this method. The results for urine sample detection indicate that the average level of EP in the urines of the smoker group is obviously higher than that in the urines of the nonsmoker group, which may demonstrate that smoking can stimulate the release of EP in human body. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Observational study of the effect of individual urination training on urination after renal biopsy%个体化排尿训练对肾穿术后排尿效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 张金萍

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of individual urination training before renal biopsy on urination and comfort for patients after renal biopsy. Methods One hundred and sixty for hospitalized patients under renal biopsy were randomly selected as subjects. Study group included 81 patients who were individually trained with urination. Control group included 83 patients who were routinely educated before renal biopsy. The methods of urination and comfort between two groups were compared. Results The percentage of autonomous urination after renal biopsy in patients individually trained with urination was higher than that in control group (P <0. 01 ). The comfort of study group was also superior to that of control group (P < 0. 01). There was statistically significant difference between two groups. Conclusions Individual urination training could effectively promote autonomous urination, reduce urinary retention and improve the comfort for patients under renal biopsy.%目的 研究术前实施个体化排尿训练对肾穿刺术后患者的排尿方式和舒适度的影响.方法 随机抽取164例肾穿刺患者为研究对象,分为研究组81例,实施个体化排尿训练;对照组83例,常规术前宣教,比较两组患者术后的排尿方式和舒适度.结果 术前实施个体化排尿训练组患者术后自行排尿的比例高于对照组,舒适程度也明显高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 实施个体化排尿训练可有效促进肾穿刺术后患者自行排尿,减少尿潴留的发生,提高患者的舒适度.

  10. [Activity of cathepsin D in the blood serum and urine of patients with cancer of the stomach, pancreas and liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Snarska, Jadwiga; Roszkowska-Jakimiec, Wiesława; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Siedlecka, Katarzyna; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Krupkowska, Agnieszka

    2006-12-01

    Cathepsin D is a protease involved in invasion of the cancer and metastasis formation. The purpose of the study was to evaluate a prognostic value of cathepsin D activity in blood serum and urine of patients with cancer of the stomach, pancreas and liver. The study was carried out on the samples of blood serum and urine obtained from patients with cancer of the stomach, pancreas and liver treated surgically at the First Department of General Surgery and Endocrinology of the Medical University of Białystok. The control group consisted of healthy individuals. Activity of cathepsin D was determined in serum and urine by the Folin-Ciocaltau method with the cupric modification and was expressed in nmol Tyr/ml/6h. Specific activity of cathepsin D was determined in the urine, and was expressed in nmol Tyr/mg of protein/6h. Protein concentration in serum was assessed with Lowry et al. method and results were expressed in mg/ml. A significant increase in activity of cathepsin D in serum (p = 0.0169) and urine (p = 0.0008) and an enhanced specific activity in the urine (p = 0.0085) was found in patients with cancer of the pancreas as compared with the controls. A significantly increased activity of cathepsin was revealed in serum (p = 0.0233) of patients with cancer of the stomach. No significant differences of cathepsin D activity were found in urine of the patients with cancer of the stomach when compared to the controls. Additionally, an upward tendency (almost two-fold increase) of cathepsin D activity was shown in blood serum and an increase in the activity and in specific activity was observed in urine of both patients with cancer of the liver in comparison with the healthy individuals. There were no significant differences in the activity of cathepsin D in serum of the patients with cancer of the pancreas and stomach (p = 0.4156). A statistically significantly higher activity (p = 0.0004) and specific (0.0048) cathepsin D activity was demonstrated in urine of the

  11. Results of hair analyses for drugs of abuse and comparison with self-reports and urine tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, F; Driever, F; Lachenmeier, K; Lachenmeier, D W; Banger, M; Madea, B

    2006-01-27

    Urine as well as head and pubic hair samples from drug abusers were analysed for opiates, cocaine and its metabolites, amphetamines, methadone and cannabinoids. Urine immunoassay results and the results of hair tests by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were compared to the self-reported data of the patients in an interview protocol. With regard to the study group, opiate abuse was claimed from the majority in self-reports (89%), followed by cannabinoids (55%), cocaine (38%), and methadone (32%). Except for opiates the comparison between self-reported drug use and urinalysis at admission showed a low correlation. In contrast to urinalysis, hair tests revealed consumption in more cases. There was also a good agreement between self-reports of patients taking part in an official methadone maintenance program and urine test results concerning methadone. However, hair test results demonstrated that methadone abuse in general was under-reported by people who did not participate in a substitution program. Comparing self-reports and the results of hair analyses drug use was dramatically under-reported, especially cocaine. Cocaine hair tests appeared to be highly sensitive and specific in identifying past cocaine use even in settings of negative urine tests. In contrast to cocaine, hair lacks sensitivity as a detection agent for cannabinoids and a proof of cannabis use by means of hair analysis should include the sensitive detection of the metabolite THC carboxylic acid in the lower picogram range.

  12. Fluorescence anisotropy characterization of urine in the diagnosis of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Ramu; Brindha, Elumalai; Sivabalan, Shanmugam; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is considered as the second most commonly occurring malignancy among women, next to breast cancer. It is well known that most of the cancer patients diagnosed with advanced stages and there is a pressing need for improved methods to detect cancer at its initial stages. Many techniques have been adopted for the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Among these, fluorescence polarization spectroscopy is a complementary technique of fluorescence spectroscopy which helps us to elucidate the spectral characteristics which highly depend on pH, viscosity and local environment. Since urine has many metabolites and the measurement of native fluorescence of urine, in principle, able to provide an indication of a number of health conditions, attempts were made to study fluorescence anisotropic characterization of the human urine of cervical cancer patients and normal subjects. Significant differences were observed between the anisotropic and polarization values of cancer subjects and normal subjects.

  13. Electron imaging of calcium oxalate crystals in beagle dogs’ urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa I. Mohamaden

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate crystalluria appears to be a common problem in most of small animal clinics. This current study aimed at inducing a condition of oxalate crystalluria in beagles and record the primary changes in canine blood and urine on response to oxalates injection. 15 dogs were divided into two groups; those in the treatment group were injected intravenously with 0.5 M potassium oxalate and the dogs of control group were injected with physiological saline for five successive days. Urine test revealed a significant decrease in urinary creatinine and urinary urea nitrogen levels. The ultrastructural examination of urine sediment showed typical and atypical phases of calcium oxalate crystals and the X-ray defractionation of these crystals showed high content of calcium in addition to other minerals. Therefore potassium oxalate injection may provide an example of calcium oxalate crystalluria which may answer some question around the pathogenesis of this problem in dogs.

  14. Using urine as a source of energy: feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badri-Koohi, B.; Shakouri, G. H.; Nourbakhsh, S. H. [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: babak.badrikoohi@gmail.com, email: hshakouri@ut.ac.ir, email: hadi.noorbakhsh@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    Researchers are developing a wide range of technologies to produce hydrogen economically from a variety of resources in environmentally friendly ways. An efficient way of producing hydrogen from urine has been developed recently. A feasibility analysis of a 1MW plant for hydrogen production by urine electrolysis is presented in this paper. For the sensitivity analysis, three different scenarios are investigated with changes in assumptions for the costs of some of the required raw materials and facilities. Based on the mentioned data and assumptions, hydrogen production by urine electrolysis on a large-scale is not economically satisfactory. However, that may change and the project become economically justified if the costs of the required electrolyte and catalyst (e.g. potassium hydroxide and nickel), and the prices of electrolyzer and the liquefier drop. And in any case, given the expected future increase in energy prices, the project may well become economically attractive at some point.

  15. Detection of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae from Urine with Ligase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹经江; 郑和义; 胡维

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of ligase chain reaction(LCR) in the diagnosis of diplococcus gonorrhoeae in urine.Methods: LCR detection of the urine for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and bacteria culture of discharge was per-formed simultaneously to 276 patients with urethritis or cervicitis seeking treatment in sex transmitted dis-eases (STDs) outpatient clinic. For specimens with discordant results, polymerase chain reaction was conducted. The purpose was to detect the respective sensitivity and specificity of bacteria culture and LCR. Results: 24 of 276(8.7%) patients had positive LCR results and 21 of 276(7.6%) were positive for culture.5 specimens had discordant results from LCR and bacteria culture. The sensitivity and specificity of LCR in the diagnosis of gonorrhoeae were 92.3% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that LCR had a higher sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gonorrhoeae from urine.

  16. Determination of struvite crystallization mechanisms in urine using turbidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triger, Aurélien; Pic, Jean-Stéphane; Cabassud, Corinne

    2012-11-15

    Sanitation improvement in developing countries could be achieved through wastewater treatment processes. Nowadays alternative concepts such as urine separate collection are being developed. These processes would be an efficient way to reduce pollution of wastewater while recovering nutrients, especially phosphorus, which are lost in current wastewater treatment methods. The precipitation of struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)∙6H(2)O) from urine is an efficient process yielding more than 98% phosphorus recovery with very high reaction rates. The work presented here aims to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of struvite precipitation in order to supply data for the design of efficient urine treatment processes. A methodology coupling the resolution of the population balance equation to turbidity measurement was developed, and batch experiments with synthetic and real urine were performed. The main mechanisms of struvite crystallization were identified as crystal growth and nucleation. A satisfactory approximation of the volumetric crystal size distribution was obtained. The study has shown the low influence on the crystallization process of natural organic matter contained in real urine. It has also highlighted the impact of operational parameters. Mixing conditions can create segregation and attrition which influence the nucleation rate, resulting in a change in crystals number, size, and thus final crystal size distribution (CSD). Moreover urine storage conditions can impact urea hydrolysis and lead to spontaneous struvite precipitation in the stock solution also influencing the final CSD. A few limits of the applied methodology and of the proposed modelling, due to these phenomena and to the turbidity measurement, are also discussed.

  17. Reproducibility of urinary biomarkers in multiple 24-h urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Franke, Adrian A; Rosner, Bernard; Curhan, Gary C; Willett, Walter C

    2017-01-01

    Limited knowledge regarding the reproducibility of biomarkers in 24-h urine samples has hindered the collection and use of the samples in epidemiologic studies. We aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of various markers in repeat 24-h urine samples. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of biomarkers measured in 24-h urine samples that were collected in 3168 participants in the NHS (Nurses' Health Study), NHSII (Nurses' Health Study II), and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. In 742 women with 4 samples each collected over the course of 1 y, ICCs for sodium were 0.32 in the NHS and 0.34 in the NHSII. In 2439 men and women with 2 samples each collected over 1 wk to ≥1 mo, the ICCs ranged from 0.33 to 0.68 for sodium at various intervals between collections. The urinary excretion of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate, and other urinary markers showed generally higher reproducibility (ICCs >0.4). In 47 women with two 24-h urine samples, ICCs ranged from 0.15 (catechin) to 0.75 (enterolactone) for polyphenol metabolites. For phthalates, ICCs were generally ≤0.26 except for monobenzyl phthalate (ICC: 0.55), whereas the ICC was 0.39 for bisphenol A (BPA). We further estimated that, for the large majority of the biomarkers, the mean of three 24-h urine samples could provide a correlation of ≥0.8 with true long-term urinary excretion. These data suggest that the urinary excretion of various biomarkers, such as minerals, electrolytes, most polyphenols, and BPA, is reasonably reproducible in 24-h urine samples that are collected within a few days or ≤1 y. Our findings show that three 24-h samples are sufficient for the measurement of long-term exposure status in epidemiologic studies. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Urine Metabolite Profiles Predictive of Human Kidney Allograft Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhre, Karsten; Schwartz, Joseph E; Sharma, Vijay K; Chen, Qiuying; Lee, John R; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Dadhania, Darshana M; Ding, Ruchuang; Ikle, David N; Bridges, Nancy D; Williams, Nikki M; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Karoly, Edward D; Mohney, Robert P; Abecassis, Michael; Friedewald, John; Knechtle, Stuart J; Becker, Yolanda T; Samstein, Benjamin; Shaked, Abraham; Gross, Steven S; Suthanthiran, Manikkam

    2016-02-01

    Noninvasive diagnosis and prognostication of acute cellular rejection in the kidney allograft may help realize the full benefits of kidney transplantation. To investigate whether urine metabolites predict kidney allograft status, we determined levels of 749 metabolites in 1516 urine samples from 241 kidney graft recipients enrolled in the prospective multicenter Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-04 study. A metabolite signature of the ratio of 3-sialyllactose to xanthosine in biopsy specimen-matched urine supernatants best discriminated acute cellular rejection biopsy specimens from specimens without rejection. For clinical application, we developed a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based assay that enabled absolute and rapid quantification of the 3-sialyllactose-to-xanthosine ratio in urine samples. A composite signature of ratios of 3-sialyllactose to xanthosine and quinolinate to X-16397 and our previously reported urinary cell mRNA signature of 18S ribosomal RNA, CD3ε mRNA, and interferon-inducible protein-10 mRNA outperformed the metabolite signatures and the mRNA signature. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the composite metabolite-mRNA signature was 0.93, and the signature was diagnostic of acute cellular rejection with a specificity of 84% and a sensitivity of 90%. The composite signature, developed using solely biopsy specimen-matched urine samples, predicted future acute cellular rejection when applied to pristine samples taken days to weeks before biopsy. We conclude that metabolite profiling of urine offers a noninvasive means of diagnosing and prognosticating acute cellular rejection in the human kidney allograft, and that the combined metabolite and mRNA signature is diagnostic and prognostic of acute cellular rejection with very high accuracy.

  19. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carrier, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three different mineral acids were substituted for sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the urine stabilizer solution to eliminate the excess of sulfate ions in pretreated urine and assess the impact on maximum water recovery to avoid precipitation of minerals during distillation. The study evaluated replacing 98% sulfuric acid with 85% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), 37% hydrochloric acid (HCl), or 70% nitric acid (HNO3). The effect of lowering the oxidizer concentration in the pretreatment formulation also was studied. This paper summarizes the test results, defines candidate formulations for further study, and specifies the injection masses required to stabilize urine and minimize the risk of mineral precipitation during distillation. In the first test with a brine ersatz acidified with different acids, the solubility of calcium in gypsum saturated solutions was measured. The solubility of gypsum was doubled in the brines acidified with the alternative acids compared to sulfuric acid. In a second series of tests, the alternative acid pretreatment concentrations were effective at preventing precipitation of gypsum and other minerals up to 85% water recovery from 95th-percentile pretreated, augmented urine. Based on test results, phosphoric acid is recommended as the safest alternative to sulfuric acid. It also is recommended that the injected mass concentration of chromium trioxide solution be reduced by 75% to minimize liquid resupply mass by about 50%, reduce toxicity of brines, and reduce the concentration of organic acids in distillate. The new stabilizer solution formulations and required doses to stabilize urine and prevent precipitation of minerals up to 85% water recovery are given. The formulations in this study were tested on a limited number of artificially augmented urine batches collected from employees at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). This study successfully demonstrated that the desired physical and chemical stability of pretreated urine and brines

  20. Application of the Technicon Chem 1+ chemistry analyzer to the Syva Emit ethyl alcohol assay in plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, F M; Kralik, M; Wozniak, E; Crockett, H; Jennison, T A

    1993-09-01

    The performance of the Technicon Chem 1+ chemistry analyzer with the Syva Emit ethyl alcohol assay in plasma and urine was evaluated. Spiked specimens from 0 to 600 mg/dL were tested, and expected versus measured concentrations were monitored. Linear regression line equations of y = 0.9314x + 5.4 and y = 0.9005x + 4.6, and correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9997 and 0.9995, were obtained for plasma and urine, respectively. A limit of detection of 5 mg/dL for plasma and urine, and a limit of quantitation of 20 mg/dL for plasma and 15 mg/dL for urine were obtained. Recovery was within 10% of expected concentration from 20 to 600 mg/dL. Precision was evaluated, giving the following coefficients of variation: within-run precision: plasma, 1.31-2.20; urine, 1.16-1.21; total precision: plasma, 2.72-3.38; urine, 2.98-4.64. No carry-over was detected when alternating 600 mg/dL and negative specimens. No interference from acetone, isopropanol, or methanol was detected. No significant differences in evaporation of alcohol at two concentrations, or from the two matrices were observed. Evaporation from a small cup (200 microL) was more than twice as great as from a large cup (2 mL). The Chem 1+ was compared to a gas chromatographic method. Plasma specimens of 0-352 mg/dL produced a linear regression line of y = 1.0112x + 6.0, r = 0.9859; urine specimens of 0-313 mg/dL produced a line of y = 1.0493x - 0.3, r = 0.9910. The capability to separate positive and negative specimens at 20% around a cutoff concentration of 20 mg/dL was examined. Four hundred specimens were analyzed, with only one specimen incorrectly classified (a false positive). The Chem 1+ chemistry analyzer demonstrated reliable performance of the Emit ethyl alcohol assay of plasma and urine specimens.

  1. Infecções do trato urinário

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Susana; Cambão, Marta; Vieira, Sandra; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2005-01-01

    O sistema urinário é uma das quatro vias de excreção existentes no corpo humano. A sua exposição a factores exteriores e/ou interiores torna-o sensível a diversas infecções, pelo que, actualmente, em termos de quadro clínico. as patologias relacionadas com as infecções do tracto urinário (ITU), nomeadamente, a uretrite, cistite, síndroma uretral agudo e pielonefrite, são bastantes comuns.

  2. Urine macrophage migration inhibitory factor in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otukesh, Hasan; Chalian, Majid; Hoseini, Rozita; Chalian, Hamid; Hooman, Nakysa; Bedayat, Arash; Yazdi, Reza Salman; Sabaghi, Saeed; Mahdavi, Saeed

    2007-12-01

    We reported a series of ten patients with lupus nephritis (five patients in the relapse phase and five in the remission phase) and measured the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an important pro-inflammatory cytokine with probable role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, in their urine samples. MIF/creatinine (Cr) ratio directly correlated with disease activity and it does not have any significant difference between inactive disease and normal ones. We found that the urine MIF/Cr ratio not only differentiates active disease from inactive disease and normal ones but also correlates with the activity indices of renal pathology.

  3. Infecções do trato urinário

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Susana; Cambão, Marta; Vieira, Sandra; Leticia M. Estevinho

    2005-01-01

    O sistema urinário é uma das quatro vias de excreção existentes no corpo humano. A sua exposição a factores exteriores e/ou interiores torna-o sensível a diversas infecções, pelo que, actualmente, em termos de quadro clínico. as patologias relacionadas com as infecções do tracto urinário (ITU), nomeadamente, a uretrite, cistite, síndroma uretral agudo e pielonefrite, são bastantes comuns.

  4. Escitalopram-Induced Amenorrhea and False Positive Urine Pregnancy Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hour, Siv; Gunasekar, Palanikumar; Gray, Caron; Smith, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. A 34-year-old female patient with major depressive disorder developed amenorrhea and had a false-positive urine pregnancy test after initiation of escitalopram treatment. To our knowledge, no published case report of amenorrhea and false-positive urine pregnancy tests in women taking escitalopram exists. This case report suggests that women of child-bearing age should be carefully monitored for amenorrhea while they are on an antidepressant treatment regimen. PMID:28197332

  5. An emergency bioassay method for (210)Po in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Nicolas; Dai, Xiongxin

    2015-09-01

    A rapid method was developed to efficiently measure (210)Po in urine samples in an emergency situation. Polonium-210 in small urine samples (10 mL) was spontaneously deposited on a stainless steel disc in 1 M HCl at room temperature for 4 h in a polyethylene bottle. The metallic disc was then counted for 4 h by alpha spectrometry. The developed method allowed the preparation of large sample batch in a short time. The method meets the requirements for an emergency bioassay procedure.

  6. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  7. Investigation of Urination Disorder in Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Mei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urination disorders are common in Parkinson′s disease (PD and respond poorly to medication. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors for urination disorders in PD. Methods: Ninety-one patients with PD (aged 34-83 years old were recruited. Patients were assessed with the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr stage, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA. Micturition number was recorded, and Type B ultrasound was used to evaluate residual urine. Statistics was performed using binary logistic regression, bivariate correlations, and Chi-square and t-tests. Results: Of 91 patients, urinary dysfunction occurred in 55.0%. Among these, 49.5% suffered with nocturia, 47.3% with pollakiuria. Nocturia number had a positive linear relationship with HAMA score (odds ratio [OR] = 0.340, P = 0.001, HAMD score (OR = 0.323, P = 0.002, duration of L-dopa medication (OR = 0.328, P = 0.001, dose of L-dopa (OR = 0.273, P = 0.009, UPDRS-II (OR = 0.402, P = 0.000, UPDRS-III score (OR = 0.291, P = 0.005, and PSQI score (OR = 0.249, P = 0.017. Micturition number over 24 h was positively associated with HAMA (OR = 0.303, P = 0.004 and UPDRS-II scores (OR = 0.306, P = 0.003. Of patients with residual urine, 79.3% had a volume of residual urine <50 ml. Residual urine was present in 44.4% of the patients with nocturia, 46.5% of the patients with pollakiuria, and 80.0% of the patients with dysuria. More men than women had residual urine (35.2% male vs. 13.3% female; P = 0.002. Conclusions: Nocturia and pollakiuria were common micturition symptoms in our participants with PD. Nocturia was associated with depression, anxiety, sleep problems, and severity of PD. Pollakiuria was associated with anxiety and severity of PD. Male patients were more prone to residual urine and pollakiuria.

  8. An emergency bioassay method for actinides in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiongxin; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila

    2011-08-01

    A rapid bioassay method has been developed for the sequential measurements of actinides in human urine samples. The method involves actinide separation from a urine matrix by co-precipitation with hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO), followed by anion exchange and extraction chromatography column purification, and final counting by alpha spectrometry after cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. The minimal detectable activities for the method were determined to be 20 mBq L(-1) or less for plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes, with an 8-h sample turn-around time. Spike tests showed that this method would meet the requirements for actinide bioassay following a radiation emergency.

  9. The effect of sleep on nocturnal urine output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren

    2005-01-01

    (Na+, K+, Ca2+) creatinine, urea and osmolality were made in plasma and urine. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored every hour, using an ambulatory device. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) was measured in plasma by means of radioimmunoassay. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was directly measured in urine...... baseline night and the night with sleep deprivation. The circadian rhythm in plasma AVP was not influenced by sleep deprivation. In accordance with this, solute free water reabsorption was not significantly different between baseline and during sleep deprivation (baseline 0.45 ± 0.08, sleep deprivation 0...

  10. Analysis of Urine for Pure Beta Emitters: Methods and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    for this purpose. Tritium and C-14 are important radionuclides for workers in nuclear reactors and radiopharmaceutical laboratories. A method for the determination of tritium and C-14 in organic and inorganic forms in urine has been developed. It involves activated charcoal absorption of organic matter followed...... purification and liquid scintillation counting. Using accelerator mass spectrometry, urine samples can be analyzed for low level I-129 in both organic and inorganic forms after active charcoal adsorption and solvent extraction separation. Condensed water collected daily from the reactor hall in a Danish...

  11. The influence of exercise and dehydration on the urine concentrations of salbutamol after inhaled administration of 1600 µg salbutamol as a single dose in relation to doping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Christoffer Bjerre; Backer, Vibeke; Kalsen, Anders; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Hemmersbach, Peter; Hostrup, Morten

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of exercise and dehydration on the urine concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation of that maximal permitted (1600 µg) on the 2015 World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list. Thirteen healthy males participated in the study. Urine concentrations of salbutamol were measured during three conditions: exercise (EX), exercise+dehydration (EXD), and rest (R). Exercise consisted of 75 min cycling at 60% of VO2max and a 20-km time-trial. Fluid intake was 2300, 270, and 1100 mL during EX, EXD, and R, respectively. Urine samples of salbutamol were collected 0-24 h after drug administration. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment. The 2015 WADA decision limit (1200 ng/mL) for salbutamol was exceeded in 23, 31, and 10% of the urine samples during EX, EXD, and R, respectively, when unadjusted for USG. When adjusted for USG, the corresponding percentages fell to 21, 15, and 8%. During EXD, mean urine concentrations of salbutamol exceeded (1325±599 ng/mL) the decision limit 4 h after administration when unadjusted for USG. Serum salbutamol Cmax was lower (Psalbutamol and increase the risk of Adverse Analytical Findings in samples collected after inhalation of that maximal permitted (1600 µg) for salbutamol. This should be taken into account when evaluating doping cases of salbutamol. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Performance of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA urine-dipsticks for rapid detection of intestinal schistosomiasis in schoolchildren from shoreline communities of Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kariuki HC

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For disease surveillance and mapping within large-scale control programmes, RDTs are becoming popular. For intestinal schistosomiasis, a commercially available urine-dipstick which detects schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (CCA in host urine is being increasingly applied, however, further validation is needed. In this study, we compared the CCA urine-dipstick test against double thick Kato-Katz faecal smears from 171 schoolchildren examined along the Tanzanian and Kenyan shorelines of Lake Victoria. Diagnostic methods were in broad agreement; the mean prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis inferred by Kato-Katz examination was 68.6% (95% confidence intervals (CIs = 60.7-75.7% and 71.3% (95% CIs = 63.9-78.8% by CCA urine-dipsticks. There were, however, difficulties in precisely 'calling' the CCA test result, particularly in discrimination of 'trace' reactions as either putative infection positive or putative infection negative, which has important bearing upon estimation of mean infection prevalence; considering 'trace' as infection positive mean prevalence was 94.2% (95% CIs = 89.5-97.2%. A positive association between increasing intensity of the CCA urine-dipstick test band and faecal egg count was observed. Assigning trace reactions as putative infection negative, overall diagnostic sensitivity (SS of the CCA urine-dipstick was 87.7% (95% CIs = 80.6-93.0%, specificity (SP was 68.1% (95% CIs = 54.3-80.0%, positive predictive value (PPV was 86.1% (95% CIs = 78.8-91.7% and negative predictive value (NPV was 71.1% (95% CIs = 57.2-82.8%. To assist in objective defining of the CCA urine-dipstick result, we propose the use of a simple colour chart and conclude that the CCA urine-dipstick is a satisfactory alternative, or supplement, to Kato-Katz examination for rapid detection of intestinal schistosomiasis.

  13. The Preliminary Study of Urine by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy%尿液表面增强拉曼光谱的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰斯; 冯尚源; 林居强; 俞允; 邱文强; 伍严安; 潘建基; 陈荣

    2011-01-01

    The absorption spectroscopy of silver colloids and the mixture of silver colloids with urine were measured.The urine' s Raman spectroscopy were tested and analyzed before and after the adding of silver colloids.Based on the technology of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, the intensity of the urine' s Raman signal in the silver colloids was increased obviously and the SERS signal of uric acid in urine was successfully detected.The characteristic Raman bands of urine were tentatively assigned.The SERS of the urine of the morning and the night were compared and analyzed.The detection of morning urine bears higher credibility and SNR.The results showed that the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy might provide a new kind of method for the clinic detection of urine.%利用紫外与可见分光光度计测量银溶胶与尿液的吸收谱,采用拉曼光谱测量系统检测并研究分析了尿液加入银胶前后的拉曼光谱.基于表面增强技术,尿液的拉曼光谱信号得到显著增强,尿液中微弱的尿酸SERS信号被成功检测.文中对尿液的拉曼峰进行了谱峰归属,并分析了晨尿与夜尿的SERS谱.对晨尿的检测具有更高的可信度和信噪比.研究结果表明表面增强拉曼光谱技术有可能发展成为临床尿液检测的一种新方法.

  14. N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in blood serum and urine, as a potential colon cancer markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Borzym-Kluczyk, Małgorzata; Snarska, Jadwiga; Puchalski, Zbigniew; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase (HEX), and its isoenzymes A (HEX A) and B (HEX B) activity in blood serum and urine as potential markers of colorectal cancer. The study was performed in blood serum and urine of 32 patients with adenocarcinoma, 6 with adenocarcinoma mucinosum of the colon, and 20 healthy people. The activity of HEX, HEX A and HEX B was determined in blood serum and urine by spectrophotometric method of Marciniak et al. The concentration of CEA was determined in blood serum by immunoenzymatic method (MEIA). The concentration of protein was assessed by the Lowry method, whereas the concentration of creatinine in urine by the Jaffe method (without deproteinization). A significant increase in the concentration of HEX, HEX A and HEX B activity was proved in serum and urine of patients with colon adenocarcinoma. In patients with colon adenocarcinoma mucinosum, the higher activity of HEX was revealed in blood serum compared to healthy people, and the significantly higher activity of HEX and HEX B expressed as pKat/mg of creatinine, was found in urine. We observe a significant increase in the activity of HEX, HEX A and HEX B expressed in pKat/mg of creatinine was found in urine of patients bearing tumor of diameter 6.0-7.0 cm in comparison to patients with tumor of diameter 4.0-5.0 cm. The present study results suggest that determination of HEX, HEX A and HEX B activity in blood serum and urine may be used to detect colon cancer in its early stages. However, the use of HEX, HEX A and HEX B activity in oncological diagnostics requires further studies on a larger group of patients.

  15. Performance of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-dipsticks for rapid detection of intestinal schistosomiasis in schoolchildren from shoreline communities of Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    For disease surveillance and mapping within large-scale control programmes, RDTs are becoming popular. For intestinal schistosomiasis, a commercially available urine-dipstick which detects schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in host urine is being increasingly applied, however, further validation is needed. In this study, we compared the CCA urine-dipstick test against double thick Kato-Katz faecal smears from 171 schoolchildren examined along the Tanzanian and Kenyan shorelines of Lake Victoria. Diagnostic methods were in broad agreement; the mean prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis inferred by Kato-Katz examination was 68.6% (95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 60.7-75.7%) and 71.3% (95% CIs = 63.9-78.8%) by CCA urine-dipsticks. There were, however, difficulties in precisely 'calling' the CCA test result, particularly in discrimination of 'trace' reactions as either putative infection positive or putative infection negative, which has important bearing upon estimation of mean infection prevalence; considering 'trace' as infection positive mean prevalence was 94.2% (95% CIs = 89.5-97.2%). A positive association between increasing intensity of the CCA urine-dipstick test band and faecal egg count was observed. Assigning trace reactions as putative infection negative, overall diagnostic sensitivity (SS) of the CCA urine-dipstick was 87.7% (95% CIs = 80.6-93.0%), specificity (SP) was 68.1% (95% CIs = 54.3-80.0%), positive predictive value (PPV) was 86.1% (95% CIs = 78.8-91.7%) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 71.1% (95% CIs = 57.2-82.8%). To assist in objective defining of the CCA urine-dipstick result, we propose the use of a simple colour chart and conclude that the CCA urine-dipstick is a satisfactory alternative, or supplement, to Kato-Katz examination for rapid detection of intestinal schistosomiasis. PMID:20181101

  16. Prevalence of isolated non-albumin proteinuria in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and urine albumin: An unexpected discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayev, Alexander; Zebelman, Arthur M; Sharp, Thomas M; Samantha Flynn; Bernstein, Richard K

    2017-04-01

    Isolated non-albumin proteinuria (NAP) is a condition when urine total protein concentrations are elevated without elevation of urine albumin. The prevalence of NAP in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and albumin was assessed in this study. The database of a US nationwide laboratory network was queried for test results when random urine albumin was ordered together with urine total protein and also when timed 24-hour urine albumin was ordered together with urine total protein. The total prevalence of NAP in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and albumin was calculated for patient groups having normal and low-normal urine albumin (random and timed) with elevated and severely increased urine total protein (random and timed). Also, the prevalence of NAP was calculated for patients with normal urine albumin to assess the probability of missing proteinuria if only urine albumin is measured. The prevalence of NAP in the random samples group was 10.1% (15.2% for females and 4.7% for males). Among patients with normal random albumin, there were 20.0% (27.3% of females and 10.7% of males) patients with NAP. The prevalence of NAP in the timed samples group was 24.6% (29.8% for females and 18.5% for males). Among patients with normal timed urine albumin, there were 36.2% (40.0% of females and 30.8% of males) patients with NAP. There was a strong positive association with female gender and NAP in most patients groups. Testing for only urine (micro)albumin can miss up to 40% of females and 30.8% of males with gross proteinuria. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mercury concentrations in urine of amerindian populations near oil fields in the peruvian and ecuadorian amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Ross, Nancy; Mergler, Donna

    2016-11-01

    Mercury is a global contaminant with toxic, persistent effects on human health. Petroleum extraction is an important source of elemental mercury; little is known about human exposure levels near oil fields in the Amazon basin. To characterize mercury levels in people living near oil production sites in the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon, controlling for fish consumption, occupation, source of water and socio-demographic characteristics. Analyze mercury levels in urine samples using cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry from 76 indigenous men and women in eight riverine communities situated near oil wells or pipelines. Subjects answered a questionnaire soliciting socio-demographic, occupational and dietary information. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression modeling. The mean value of U-Hg was 2.61μg/g creatinine (95% CI: 2.14-3.08), with 7% of the sample recording values above the global background standard suggested by The World Health Organization (5μg/g creatinine). Women who used water from a surface source had two and a half times the amount of mercury in their urine (mean=3.70μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 2.26-5.15) compared with women who used other water sources (mean =1.39μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 0.51-2.25). Men who were involved in an oil clean-up operation had twice as much mercury in their urine (mean =3.07μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.97-4.16) as did those who worked on other tasks (mean =1.56μg/g creatinine, 95% CI: 1.48-2.65). Mercury levels were not associated with the number of fish meals per week. Indigenous peoples of the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Amazon living near oil production sites generally had urine mercury levels within the global background standard suggested by the World Health Organization. Increased levels of mercury in urine were detected for men involved in oil spill remediation and for women who relied on surface water for household needs. These findings signal the need for strict safety measures to limit the amount

  18. DIETARY EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM ON HISTAMINE METABOLISM AND URINE ACIDITY IN DOMESTIC FELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiency has been associated with increased histamine production in rats. Limitation of Mg with acidifying foods is common practice for management of urinary tract health in domestic cats. Nine healthy adult female shorthair cats were used in a 3 period random crossover experiment with fixed treatment sequences to test the effects of dietary Mg (0.06, 0.12 and 0.18% DM on histamine in blood and urine. The dry-extruded test foods were fed in sufficient amounts to maintain ideal body weight and obtain a target urine pH of 6.3. Each experimental period was preceded by a 7d wash out period, in which the 0.06% Mg food was fed, followed by a 14d feeding period of the appropriate food. Two 24 h total urine collections were performed (d13: Acidified, d14: Un-acidified; immediately iced and blood was collected on d14. Dry matter intake (p≥0.13 and BW (p≥0.13 were not affected by treatment. Plasma Mg concentration increased linearly with increasing dietary Mg (0.54, 0.56, 0.58 mM; p = 0.001. In contrast, plasma concentrations of threonine, histidine and tryptophan were lower in cats fed 0.12% Mg compare with 0.06 or 0.18% Mg (quadratic, p≤0.03. Urine output (p≥0.17, pH (p≥0.55, NH3 (p≥0.21 and titratable acidity of urine (p≥0.14 were similar across treatments. Urinary histamine excretion responded quadratically (p = 0.02 to treatment (3483, 3369, 3986 ng/d, whereas urinary histamine: Creatinine (p≥0.43 and plasma histamine concentration (p≥0.55 were unaffected. Differences were not detected among treatments in total histamine, cellular + noncellular histamine, (p≥0.11 or antigen-induced (p≥0.21 histamine release in whole blood. These data indicate that dietary Mg concentration, from 0.06-0.18%, does not affect urinary acidity or circulating histamine concentrations, however, supplying Mg at 0.18% may increase urinary histamine excretion.

  19. Normalization to specific gravity prior to analysis improves information recovery from high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic profiles of human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmands, William M B; Ferrari, Pietro; Scalbert, Augustin

    2014-11-04

    Extraction of meaningful biological information from urinary metabolomic profiles obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) necessitates the control of unwanted sources of variability associated with large differences in urine sample concentrations. Different methods of normalization either before analysis (preacquisition normalization) through dilution of urine samples to the lowest specific gravity measured by refractometry, or after analysis (postacquisition normalization) to urine volume, specific gravity and median fold change are compared for their capacity to recover lead metabolites for a potential future use as dietary biomarkers. Twenty-four urine samples of 19 subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort were selected based on their high and low/nonconsumption of six polyphenol-rich foods as assessed with a 24 h dietary recall. MS features selected on the basis of minimum discriminant selection criteria were related to each dietary item by means of orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis models. Normalization methods ranked in the following decreasing order when comparing the number of total discriminant MS features recovered to that obtained in the absence of normalization: preacquisition normalization to specific gravity (4.2-fold), postacquisition normalization to specific gravity (2.3-fold), postacquisition median fold change normalization (1.8-fold increase), postacquisition normalization to urinary volume (0.79-fold). A preventative preacquisition normalization based on urine specific gravity was found to be superior to all curative postacquisition normalization methods tested for discovery of MS features discriminant of dietary intake in these urinary metabolomic datasets.

  20. Comparison of uncertainties related to standardization of urine samples with volume and creatinine concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Ase Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    When measuring biomarkers in urine, volume (and time) or concentration of creatinine are both accepted methods of standardization for diuresis. Both types of standardization contribute uncertainty to the final result. The aim of the present paper was to compare the uncertainty introduced when using...... the two types of standardization on 24 h samples from healthy individuals. Estimates of uncertainties were based on results from the literature supplemented with data from our own studies. Only the difference in uncertainty related to the two standardization methods was evaluated. It was found...... increase in convenience for the participants, when collecting small volumes rather than complete 24 h samples....

  1. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J;

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  2. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... items back into his or her pockets. (c) The collector shall instruct the donor to wash and dry his or her hands before urinating. (d) After washing his or her hands, the donor shall remain in the presence of the collector and may not have access to any water fountain, faucet, soap dispenser, cleaning...

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of urine dipstick for proteinuria in older outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmin Lim

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Urine dipstick test can be used for screening in older outpatients with ACR ≥300 mg/g or PCR as the reference standard for proteinuria. However, we cannot recommend the test as a screening tool with ACR ≥30 mg/g as the reference owing to its low sensitivity.

  4. Urine cytology of micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Takahiko; Furuta, Michiko; Mimura, Akihiro; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kiyoshi

    2011-11-01

    A case of micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) of urinary bladder is presented, in which the urine smear was studied in detail in an attempt to better characterize the cytologic findings of MPC. When the voided urine was examined in low power, cancer cells were scattered in the specimens as compact papillary/spheroidal clusters composed of pleomorphic cancer cells. Solitary carcinoma cells were occasionally observed. High power view of the smear revealed that the papillae/spheroids consisted of high-grade urothelial carcinoma cells. The cancer cells had pleomorphic nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin and thickened, irregular nuclear membrane, and thick cytoplasm. Histologically, the tumor in the resected bladder appeared as small nests with surrounding hallo both in the luminal surface and in the site of wall involvement. These tightly bound papillary/spheroidal clusters comprised of highly atypical cancer cells were the most specific cytologic finding in the urine of MPC, which were considered as a key diagnostic clue of MPC. The background of the urine smear showed numerous granulocytes and bacilli compatible with cystitis, which is a previously known complication of MPC. Differential diagnoses of MPC from those with pertinent cytologic findings such as conventional UC (including glandular differentiation), and primary/secondary adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder are discussed with a brief review of literature.

  5. [Therapy of urine incontinence by electro-stimulation (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, W; Schwock, G; Festge, O A; Estel, S

    1982-01-01

    The most common cause of urine incontinence in childhood is a neurogenic disturbed micturition in cases of myelo-dysplasia. Of decisive significance for the diagnosis and choice of therapy are urodynamic examinations. A report is given on the effectiveness of the author's own examinations using transurethral electro-stimulation.

  6. Urine examination findings in apparently healthy new school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinalysis as a part of medical examination of fitness in schoolchildren is useful in detecting ... The latter was significantly greater in male and .... Their mean age was 6.7±1.38 v. ... abnormal urine findings were more common among females.

  7. User perceptions of urine diversion dehydration toilets: Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... Experiences from a cross-sectional study in eThekwini Municipality. E Roma1,2*, K ... INTRODUCTION. Over recent years concerns have been raised within the global ..... Cultural Acceptability of using Human Excreta (Faeces and Urine) for Food ... and development of a marketing strategy. In: Werner C ...

  8. Acute and chronic urine retention among adults at the urology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E.M.T. Yenli

    a Department of Surgery, Urology Unit, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana b Department of ... urine retention with outcomes were recorded on data sheet. .... Accord- ing to the Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), the population trends .... tive and cost effective treatment options for patients with BPE [41]. Various ...

  9. LORRY DRIVERS WORK STRESS EVALUATED BY CATECHOLAMINES EXCRETED IN URINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERBEEK, AJ; MEIJMAN, TF; FRINGSDRESEN, MHW; KUIPER, JI

    1995-01-01

    Objectives-To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. Methods-The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline o

  10. Recovery of protein from urine specimens collected in cotton wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C; Taylor, C M

    1992-01-01

    Cotton wool balls have been used to aid the collection of urine from infants. Concentrations of two urinary proteins, albumin and retinol binding protein, decreased by 40 and 80% respectively within 15 minutes of contact with the cotton wool. Cotton wool balls should not be used when investigating proteinuria. PMID:1489230

  11. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  12. Development and evaluation of immunoassay for zeranol in bovine urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A high affinity polyclonal antibody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of zeranol in bovine urine. On the basis of urine matrix studies, the optimized dilution factors producing insignificant matrix interference were selected as 1:5 in pretreatment. In the improved ELISA, the linear response range was between 0.02 and 1 μg/ml, and the detection limit was 0.02 μg/ml for the assay. The overall recoveries and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were in the range of 82% ~127% and 3.5%~8.8%, respectively. Thirty-six bovine urine samples spiked with zeranol (ranging from 0.2 to 10 μg/ml) were detected by the ELISA and liquid chromatography (LC) method, and good correlations were obtained between the two methods (R2=0.9643). We conclude that this improved ELISA is suitable tool for a mass zeranol screening and can be an alternative for the conventional LC method for zeranol in bovine urine.

  13. LORRY DRIVERS WORK STRESS EVALUATED BY CATECHOLAMINES EXCRETED IN URINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERBEEK, AJ; MEIJMAN, TF; FRINGSDRESEN, MHW; KUIPER, JI

    Objectives-To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. Methods-The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline

  14. Sysmex UF-1000i performance for screening yeasts in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Riazzo, Cristina; Sanbonmatsu, Sara; de Dios Luna, Juan; Sorlózano, Antonio; Miranda, Consuelo; Navarro, José María

    2014-04-01

    We tested the capacity of the Sysmex UF-1000i system to detect yeasts in urine by screening a total of 22 132 urine samples received for culture in our microbiology laboratory during 1 year. We also analyzed different dilutions of previously filtered urine inoculated with a strain of Candida albicans. With clinical samples, a single cut-off point of 50 yeast-like cells (YLCs)/μL detected candiduria ≥10 000 colony forming units (CFU)/mL and >100 000 CFU/mL with a sensitivity of 87.3%/95.4%, a specificity of 97%, a negative predictive value of 95.9%, and a positive predictive value of 9.3%/5.7%. With the simulated samples, a linear relationship was observed between the dilution factor and the number of cells detected by UF-1000i. This instrument appears to be able to reliably rule out candiduria of a magnitude of at least 10 000 CFU/mL and facilitate urine sample screening, thereby providing fast results. The Sysmex UF1000i system can be adapted for candiduria screening by the use of an appropriate YLCs/μL cut-off point that takes account of the prevalence of candiduria in the population.

  15. Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

  16. Forgotten Hardware: How to Urinate in a Spacesuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, Hunter

    2013-01-01

    On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American to fly in space. Although National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had discounted the need for him to urinate, Shepard did, in his spacesuit, short circuiting his electronic biosensors. With the development of the pressure suit needed for high-altitude and space flight…

  17. In vitro monitoring of natural thorium in urine using fluorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiselvan, S; Lakshmanan, A R; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2011-12-15

    A relatively less expensive and less time consuming radio analytical technique for quantitative determination of Th(nat) in urine at mBq level is developed and reported in this paper. Th in urine is co-precipitated with Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) from wet oxidized urine matrix and the precipitate is dissolved in HNO(3) and evaporated to dryness. The residue is dissolved in 3M HCl and 200mg of Na-EDTA is added to mask Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(3+) ions. Th(4+) is extracted into 0.01M PC-88A (2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester), dissolved in toluene from the experimentally optimized pH 2.5 ± 0.3 in aqueous phase. Th(4+) is stripped into 8.0M HCl and evaporated to dryness. The content of the beaker is dissolved in pH 1.8 HCl and complexed with 3-hydroxy flavone. The sample is excited at 397 nm and fluorescence intensity is measured at 462 nm. The detailed study of the method is presented in this paper. Interference study on elements that are normally present in urine and other actinides (if present) is also given. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioimmunoassay for immunolobulin G in serum and urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, J.; Floyd, M.; Longley, M.A.; Cannon, D.C.

    1979-12-01

    We describe a radioimmunoassay for immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum and urine. Aliquots of diluted samples and /sup 125/I-labeled IgG were incubated in antibody-coated tubes at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the supernates were decanted, and the radioactivity in tubes containing the bound fraction was counted. The dose-response curve in the range of 0.4-500 mg/L of urine or 640-40 000 mg/L of serum was linear on logit-log transformation and iterative weighted regression. Assay sensitivity was 10 ng of IgG. Validation studies included testing for precision, accuracy, antibody specificity, and parallelism of the dose-response curves for standard and unknown. In a study of 14 apparently normal individuals, serum IgG = 4.0-10.9 gL, urine IgG = 1.1-4.8 mg/24 h, and IgG clearance = 0.2 x 10/sup -4/ to 4.8 x 10/sup -4/ mL/min. In 20 patients with renal allografts, serum IgG = 15.8-66 g/L, urine IgG = 9.6-626 mg/24 h, and IgG clearance = 9 x 10/sup -4/ to 1.99 x 10/sup -1/ mL/min. IgG values correlate well with severity of renal allograft rejection.

  19. Detection of stanozolol in the urine of athletes at a pg level: The possibility of passive exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.

    2016-01-01

    Stanozolol is a synthetic heterocyclic steroid with anabolic and androgenic properties, which has been abused by several high-profile professional athletes. Stanozolol is also used in veterinary medicine to increase appetite, cause weight gain and treat certain types of anemia. The detection of stanozolol metabolites in human urine for doping control purposes depends on the analytical method applied. The most commonly applied methods in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited doping control laboratories are gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). Recently, a new method has been published and validated that makes the detection of 3′-hydroxystanozolol glucuronide in urine possible in a concentration >50-fold less compared to the above-mentioned commonly used methods. It is common practice to administer breeding animals with steroid hormones in order to enhance their growth. Athletes who consume meat containing such hormone residues may be at risk of failing a sports drug test. A randomized study in the general population consuming meat should be conducted, monitoring the levels of 3′-OH-stanozolol glucoronide in human urine, in order to determine the threshold levels of passive exposure, if any, and therefore guarantee that any adverse analytical findings reported in the urine of athlete at a pg level correspond to stanozolol abuse for enhancing performance. PMID:28105335

  20. Prevalence of drugs of abuse in urine of drivers involved in road accidents in France: a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, P; Delpla, P A; Kerguelen, S; Bremond, J; Facy, F; Garnier, M; Guery, B; Lhermitte, M; Mathé, D; Pelissier, A L; Renaudeau, C; Vest, P; Seguela, J P

    1998-07-01

    The collaborative, anonymous, case-control study was intended to determine the prevalence of opiates, cocaine metabolites, cannabinoids and amphetamines in the urine of drivers injured in road accidents and to compare these values with those of non-accident subjects ("patients") in France. Recruitment was performed nationwide in the emergency departments of five hospitals and comprised 296 "drivers" aged 18 to 35 and 278 non-traumatic "patients" in the same age range. Females represented 28.4% of "drivers" and 44.2% of "patients." Screening for drugs in urine was performed by fluorescence polarization immunoassays in each center. Each positive result was verified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in a single laboratory. Statistical analysis comprised single-step logistic regression and simultaneously took account of confounding factors and the final differences in prevalence values between the two populations or different subgroups. Cannabinoids were found in 13.9% of drivers (16.0% of males and 8.3% of females, p urine samples (NS), and were more frequent in urine samples positive for cannabinoids, in drivers (p amphetamines 1.4 and 2.5%, respectively. No causal relationship between drugs and accidents should be inferred from this retrospective study. Nevertheless, the high prevalence of cannabis and opiate (licit or illicit) use in young people, whether injured drivers or patients, has potential implications for road traffic safety in France. Cocaine and amphetamines did not appear to be a major problem, unlike the experience in other countries.

  1. Routine analysis of amphetamine class drugs as their naphthaquinone derivatives in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, D; Watson, I D; Stewart, M J

    1999-12-10

    We describe a simple HPLC method which is suitable for the routine confirmation of immunoassay positive amphetamine urine samples. The precolumn derivisation method employing sodium naphthaquinone-4-sulphonate was found to have adequate sensitivity, selectivity and precision for the measurement of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) at 500 microg/l cutoff level for confirmatory analysis of amphetamines in urine. The specificity of the method is enhanced by detecting the peaks at two different wavelengths. The ratios of the peak heights measured at the two wavelengths were different for each of the 5 amphetamines analysed. There was no interference from other phenylethylamine analogues that are commonly found in "over the counter" preparations. The HPLC method is compared to a commercial TLC system for detecting amphetamines in urine of drug abusers attending drug rehabilitation programmes. The HPLC confirmatory method described is a viable alternative to GC or to the more complex and costly GC-MS techniques for confirming amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA and MDEA in urine of drug abusers especially when used in a clinical care setting.

  2. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Valentina F; Nasuti, Cinzia; Piangerelli, Marco; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Ghezzo, Alessandro; Marini, Marina; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M; Visconti, Paola; Giustozzi, Marcello; Rossi, Gerardo; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2016-04-01

    The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides) as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR) children, aged 5-12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054). Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC) analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones.

  3. Evaluation of a Urine Pooling Strategy for the Rapid and Cost-Efficient Prevalence Classification of Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Jean T.; Bendavid, Eran; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer; Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A key epidemiologic feature of schistosomiasis is its focal distribution, which has important implications for the spatial targeting of preventive chemotherapy programs. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a urine pooling strategy using a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test for detection of Schistosoma mansoni, and employed simulation modeling to test the classification accuracy and efficiency of this strategy in determining where preventive chemotherapy is needed in low-endemicity settings. Methodology We performed a cross-sectional study involving 114 children aged 6–15 years in six neighborhoods in Azaguié Ahoua, south Côte d’Ivoire to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of the POC-CCA cassette test with urine samples that were tested individually and in pools of 4, 8, and 12. We used a Bayesian latent class model to estimate test characteristics for individual POC-CCA and quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears on stool samples. We then developed a microsimulation model and used lot quality assurance sampling to test the performance, number of tests, and total cost per school for each pooled testing strategy to predict the binary need for school-based preventive chemotherapy using a 10% prevalence threshold for treatment. Principal Findings The sensitivity of the urine pooling strategy for S. mansoni diagnosis using pool sizes of 4, 8, and 12 was 85.9%, 79.5%, and 65.4%, respectively, when POC-CCA trace results were considered positive, and 61.5%, 47.4%, and 30.8% when POC-CCA trace results were considered negative. The modeled specificity ranged from 94.0–97.7% for the urine pooling strategies (when POC-CCA trace results were considered negative). The urine pooling strategy, regardless of the pool size, gave comparable and often superior classification performance to stool microscopy for the same number of tests. The urine pooling strategy with a pool size of 4 reduced the number of tests and total

  4. Evaluation of Sysmex UF-100 urine flow cytometer vs chamber counting of supravitally stained specimens and conventional bacterial cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, T T; Kähkönen, U; Malminiemi, K; Vuento, R; Rowan, R M

    1999-07-01

    We evaluated the Sysmex UF-100 urine flow cytometer (TOA Medical Electronics, Kobe, Japan) with 269 uncentrifuged urine specimens by comparing it with Sternheimer staining and particle counting in 1-microL disposable chambers with both brightfield and phase-contrast microscopy (the reference method). Results of routine test strip analysis, sediment microscopy (182 specimens), and bacterial culture (204 specimens) were also available. Detection of urinary WBCs and RBCs was highly reliable with the UF-100 compared with manual chamber counting (r = .98 and .88, respectively). Identification of bacteria was equal to that with visual microscopy of uncentrifuged specimens; sensitivity was 55%, and specificity 90%, compared with bacterial cultures at a cutoff of > 10(3) colony-forming units per milliliter. Renal damage was difficult to evaluate even with manual methods because of the low counts of renal tubular cells and casts; with standard manual Sternheimer-stained sediment analysis, sensitivity was 65% to 69% and specificity 66% to 91%, compared with the uncentrifuged chamber method at a cutoff of 3 and 10 particles per microliter, respectively. Renal damage was demonstrated with the UF-100 with a sensitivity of 26% to 69% and specificity 92% to 94%, compared with chamber counts. Automated urinalysis with the UF-100 urine flow cytometer offers considerable savings in time and labor. When high sensitivity is needed, visual microscopic review should be performed to detect renal disease.

  5. Six methods for determining urinary protein compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilena, B A; Penberthy, L A; Fraser, C G

    1983-03-01

    Inter-laboratory surveys have shown that "routine methods" of urinary protein determination are often unsatisfactory. Therefore, we compared six frequently used methods for determination of protein in urine with respect to linearity, within-batch and between-batch precision, comparative bias, and practicability. We assayed dilutions of human and bovine albumin and serum, and fresh and lyophilized human urine. We find that the AACC Selected Method has poor practicability and poor precision under routine conditions, but good linearity. The sulfosalicylic acid/biuret technique is also impracticable, requires a large sample, and is not linear at low concentrations of urine protein. The Coomassie Brilliant Blue technique has a narrow range of linearity and poor precision. The sulfosalicylic acid/sodium sulfate turbidimetric method is not precise and cannot be standardized with bovine materials. The Ponceau-S technique has good performance characteristics and practicability, and we recommend it for routine laboratory use.

  6. Concentrations versus amounts of biomarkers in urine: a comparison of approaches to assess pyrethroid exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchard Michèle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of human exposure to non-persistent pesticides such as pyrethroids is often based on urinary biomarker measurements. Urinary metabolite levels of these pesticides are usually reported in volume-weighted concentrations or creatinine-adjusted concentrations measured in spot urine samples. It is known that these units are subject to intra- and inter-individual variations. This research aimed at studying the impact of these variations on the assessment of pyrethroid absorbed doses at individual and population levels. Methods Using data obtained from various adult and infantile populations, the intra and inter-individual variability in the urinary flow rate and creatinine excretion rate was first estimated. Individual absorbed doses were then calculated using volume-weighted or creatinine-adjusted concentrations according to published approaches and compared to those estimated from the amounts of biomarkers excreted in 15- or 24-h urine collections, the latter serving as a benchmark unit. The effect of the units of measurements (volume-weighted or creatinine adjusted concentrations or 24-h amounts on results of the comparison of pyrethroid biomarker levels between two populations was also evaluated. Results Estimation of daily absorbed doses of permethrin from volume-weighted or creatinine-adjusted concentrations of biomarkers was found to potentially lead to substantial under or overestimation when compared to doses reconstructed directly from amounts excreted in urine during a given period of time (-70 to +573% and -83 to +167%, respectively. It was also shown that the variability in creatinine excretion rate and urinary flow rate may introduce a bias in the case of between population comparisons. Conclusion The unit chosen to express biomonitoring data may influence the validity of estimated individual absorbed dose as well as the outcome of between population comparisons.

  7. The effect of material and flushing water type on urine scale formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Shervin; Han, Mooyoung; Kim, Tschungil

    2015-01-01

    One of the important challenges with current sanitation practices is pipe blockage in urinals caused by urine scale formation. Urinal material and flushing water type are the two most important factors affecting scale formation. This paper examines the scale formation process on different materials which are commonly used in urinal manufacturing and exposed to different urine-based aqua cultures. This study shows that urine scale formation is the greatest for carbon steel material, and the least for PVC. Additionally, material exposure to the urine-rainwater mixture resulted in the smallest amount of scale formation. Based on these results, two new methods for improving sanitation practices are proposed: (1) using PVC as production material for urinals and pipelines; and (2) using rainwater for flushing systems.

  8. The in vitro cytotoxicity of urine from patients with interstitial cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier-Holgersen, R; Hermann, G G; Mortensen, S O

    1994-01-01

    Urine from patients with interstitial cystitis has been reported to be more cytotoxic than urine from healthy subjects when tested in vitro against cells from a normal urothelial cell line. The purpose of the present study was to develop a method to measure urinary cytotoxicity and so make...... it possible to estimate the toxicity of urine from interstitial cystitis patients. The study included 10 women with interstitial cystitis and 10 healthy controls. Urine specimens were obtained from both groups and urine cytotoxicity was measured by a modified 51Cr-release assay: A range of urine dilutions...... in urine cytotoxicity between interstitial cystitis patients and healthy controls. Urine cytotoxicity was increased by dilution in both groups....

  9. Survival of enteric bacteria in source-separated human urine used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAKAYA

    the quarter-diluted urine at 25°C. Survival times of the tested bacteria were more shortened in ammonia ... the urine treatment by storage may preserve the useful nutrients ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... Microsoft Excel package was used.

  10. The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habash, MB; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Reid, G

    1999-01-01

    In this study, urine was collected from groups of volunteers following the consumption of water, ascorbic acid, or cranberry supplements. Only ascorbic acid intake consistently produced acidic urine. Photospectroscopy data indicated that increased water consumption produced urine with lower protein

  11. Mice with targeted disruption of the acyl-CoA binding protein display attenuated urine concentrating ability and diminished renal aquaporin-3 abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langaa, Stine; Bloksgaard, Maria; Bek, Signe

    2012-01-01

    Cl balance as well as urine concentrating ability in metabolic cages. Food intake and urinary excretion of Na(+) and K(+) did not differ between ACBP(-/-) and (+/+) mice. Water intake and diuresis were significantly higher at baseline in ACBP(-/-) mice compared to that of (+/+) mice. Subsequent to 20h water...... deprivation, ACBP(-/-) mice exhibited increased diuresis, reduced urine osmolality, elevated hematocrit and higher relative weight loss compared to (+/+) mice. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of renin, corticosterone and aldosterone between mice of the two genotypes. At baseline...

  12. Natural levels of {sup 210}Po in human urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Frances, I.; Manjon, G.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, J. [Departament of Applied Phisic II, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012 Seville (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Departament of Applied Phisic II, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012 Seville (Spain); National Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Since the secret agent Alexander Litvinenko was murdered in 2006 by a {sup 210}Po lethal dose, presumably ingested, there is renovated interest on the toxicity of this radionuclide in humans. {sup 210}Po is a radioactive isotope naturally found in nature, mainly incorporated by humans via food and water ingestion, as well as inhaled through its progenitor, the {sup 222}Rn. The total amount of natural {sup 210}Po in the human body can vary from person to person depending on their lifestyle: dietary habits, drinking water source, place of residence (associated with exposure to {sup 222}Rn), etc- and therefore in the concentrations of this element to be found in urine. To analyze the influence of dietary habits on the amount of {sup 210}Po excreted in urine, two volunteers in Seville had a well-defined and time-varying diet for a month, following a daily collection of their urine and determination of the concentrations therein of this radionuclide. The results obtained and the conclusions derived from them form the core of this communication. {sup 210}Po determinations were performed daily in 200 ml aliquots of urine using the technique of high resolution alpha spectrometry. This has involved the application of a single radiochemical method for the concentration and isolation {sup 210}Po, followed by its auto-deposition on copper planchets for proper measure. Daily {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in voluntary urine analyzed during the month of study show high variability with a difference of up to an order of magnitude between maximum and minimum values obtained, and a clear dependence on the diet type followed in the various stages of the experiment. The lowest concentrations obtained are associated with a diet rich in carbohydrates and proteins 'terrestrial' (pork, beef,...), while the highest concentrations were obtained in the final phase of the experiment when the diet was enriched with presence of marine products in fair correspondence with the

  13. Evaluation of diagnostic performance of rK28 ELISA using urine for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prakash; Bhaskar, Khondaker R H; Hossain, Faria; Khan, Md Anik Ashfaq; Vallur, Aarthy C; Duthie, Malcolm S; Hamano, Shinjiro; Salam, Md Abdus; Huda, M Mamun; Khan, Md Gulam Musawwir; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G; Mondal, Dinesh

    2016-07-04

    Recombinant fusion proteins are now commonly used to detect circulating antibodies for the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Asia, Africa and the Americas. Although simple, these tests still require blood collection and their use in remote settings can be limited due to the need of collection devices, serum fractionation instrument and generation of biohazardous waste. The development of an accurate and non-invasive diagnostic algorithm for VL, such as could be achieved with urine, is desirable. We enrolled 87 VL patients and 81 non-VL individuals, including 33 healthy endemic controls, 16 healthy non-endemic controls, 16 disease controls and 16 tuberculosis (TB) patients. We compared the efficacy of recombinant antigens rK28, rK39 and rKRP42 for the diagnosis of VL when either serum or urine were used to develop antibody-detection ELISA. As expected, each of the antigens readily detected antibodies in the serum of VL patients. rK28 ELISA showed the highest sensitivity (98.9 %), followed by rK39 and rKRP42 ELISA (97.7 and 94.4 %, respectively); overall specificity was > 96 %. When urine was used as the test analyte, only a marginal drop in sensitivity was observed, with rK28 ELISA again demonstrating the greatest sensitivity (95.4 %), followed by rK39 and rKRP42 ELISA, respectively. Again, the overall specificity was > 96 %. Our data indicate the potential for using urine in the diagnosis of VL. Detection of antibodies against rK28 demonstrated the greatest sensitivity. Together, our results indicate that rK28-based antibody detection tests using urine could provide a completely non-invasive tool amenable for diagnosis of VL in remote locations.

  14. The role of urine drug testing for patients on opioid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph; Pappagallo, Macro; Stauffer, Joseph; Gharibo, Christopher; Fortner, Neil; De Jesus, Mathew N; Brennan, Michael J; Richmond, Charlotte; Hussey, Desmond

    2010-01-01

    Opioid analgesics must be prescribed with discernment and their appropriate use should be periodically assessed. Urine drug testing, although not designed specifically for this role, is a widely available and familiar method for monitoring opioid use in chronic pain patients. Urine drug testing can help track patient compliance and expose possible drug misuse and abuse. We sought to evaluate current attitudes and practices regarding the use of urine drug testing among chronic pain patients taking opioids. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first such attempts in the literature to examine and document the practice patterns of urine drug testing in this context. A total of 99 attendees at the American Congress of Pain Medicine were surveyed in 2008 about their urine testing practices for patients on opioid therapy. Surprisingly, more urine testing was motivated by a desire to detect undisclosed substances than to evaluate appropriate opioid use. Some respondents never urine-tested their opioid patients, and about two-thirds of respondents had no formal training in urine testing of patients on opioid therapy. The literature does not thoroughly address the role of urine drug testing in this patient population. Most respondents did random rather than scheduled testing; few had any urine testing protocol. The study found motivations for urine testing and testing practices varied widely, and urine testing, despite its clinical utility, is not used consistently. © 2010 The Authors. Pain Practice © 2010 World Institute of Pain.

  15. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are the only persons authorized to collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing. (b) A collector must meet...

  16. Selenium speciation in pretreated human urine by ion-exchange chromatography and ICP-MS detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.; Bendahl, L.

    2001-01-01

    Urine samples were extracted by benzo-15-crown-5-ether to remove sodium and potassium. More than 90% of the sodium and potassium content of the urine was removed with this extraction. In a cation-exchange system based on oxalic acid at pH 3, chromatography of an untreated urine pool resulted in a...

  17. Temporal variability in urinary phthalate metabolite excretion based on spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples: Considerations for epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Kranich, Selma K.; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Urinary phthalate excretion is used as marker of phthalate exposure in epidemiological studies. Here we examine the reliability of urinary phthalate levels in exposure classification by comparing the inter- and intrasubject variation of urinary phthalate metabolite levels. Thirty-three young...... healthy men each collected two spot, three first-morning, and three 24-h urine samples during a 3-month period. Samples were analyzed for the content of 12 urinary metabolites of 7 different phthalates. Variability was assessed as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). For the metabolites of diethyl...... of exposures for these two phthalates in population studies and hence an attenuation of the power to detect possible exposure-outcome associations. The only slightly higher ICCs for 24-h pools compared to first-morning and spot urine samples does not seem to justify the extra effort needed to collect 24-h...

  18. Biological monitoring of human exposure to coal tar. Urinary mutagenicity assays and analytical determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Jongeneelen, F; Zordan, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The mutagenicity of urine extracts from anode plant workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles and non-smoking psoriatic patients treated with coal tar applications and UV light (Goeckermann regimen), was determined by the plate incorporation assay and the fluctuation test employing Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the presence of rat liver post-mitochondrial fractions and deconjugating enzymes. The levels of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and of a marker metabolite of pyrene (1-hydroxypyrene) were determined in the urine of the same subjects. Both the occupational and in particular the therapeutic exposure to coal tar resulted in clear increases in urinary levels of PAH metabolites as compared to unexposed subjects. The level of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine samples was comparable to or even greater than the corresponding level of total PAHs, indicating a poor recovery of PAH metabolites for this method. Following treatment with coal tar, most of the psoriatic patients excreted clearly increased levels of mutagens in their urine, while non-smoking anode plant workers showed no increase in urinary mutagenicity. The minimum levels of PAH metabolites corresponding to a significant increase in urinary mutagenicity varied from sample to sample, presumably depending on interfering factors present in different amounts in the extracts. Nonetheless the urine samples which were clearly mutagenic presented elevated levels of PAH metabolites, suggesting that the mutagenicity assays lack sufficient sensitivity to allow their application in the biological monitoring of most occupational exposures to coal tar.

  19. Effect of smoking on activity of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase in serum and urine of renal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Radziejewska, Iwona; Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Lewszuk, Anna; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Knaś, Malgorzata; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Darewicz, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    To compare N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase (HEX) activity in the serum and urine of smokers as well as non-smokers with renal cancer, and healthy people. To assess hexosaminidase activity the level of p-nitrophenol released from p-nitrophenol derivatives was measured. The activity of enzyme was significantly higher in cancer group, with the highest activity in non-smokers. Cigarette smoking can inhibit, by the influence on HEX activity, catabolism of oligosaccharide chains in cancer tissues.

  20. [Comparison of five commercial assays for the detection of Legionella pneumophila antigens in urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ory, Fernando; Minguito, Teodora

    2009-02-01

    Antigenuria detection is the main approach for diagnosing Legionella infections. The aim of this study was to compare 5 commercially available methods for detecting Legionella pneumophila soluble antigens in urine. Seventy-one urine samples were tested, 62 from patients with bacterial infection and 9 from patients with respiratory syncytial virus infection. All samples were assayed for the presence of L. pneumophila by immunoenzymatic (ELISA) (Binax and Bartels), and immunochromatographic (IC) (Binax, SAS and Uni-Gold) methods. Identical results (35 positive and 17 negative) were obtained by the 5 assays in 52 samples (73.2%). Samples showing discrepant results were classified by the majority criterion, and/or other laboratory results (serology), and/or epidemiological findings. On this basis, 51 samples were ultimately classified as positive, and 20 as negative. Sensitivity values of ELISA-Binax, ELISA-Bartels, IC-Binax, IC-SAS and IC-Uni-Gold were 80.4, 100, 82.4, 86.3, and 70.6%, respectively. Corresponding values for specificity were 90, 95, 100, 95 and 100%. The results indicate that the methods compared are all adequate for diagnosing Legionella infection, although some have certain limitations regarding sensitivity.