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Sample records for 188re-hedp comparing urine

  1. {sup 188}Re-HEDP combined with capecitabine in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients with bone metastases: a phase I safety and toxicity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G.E.H. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bosma, Tjitske B.; Rijk, Peter P. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zonnenberg, Bernard A. [UMC Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    {sup 188}Re-HEDP is indicated for the treatment of pain in patients with painful osteoblastic bone metastases, including hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients. Efficacy may be improved by adding chemotherapy to the treatment regimen as a radiation sensitizer. The combination of {sup 188}Re-HEDP and capecitabine (Xeloda registered) was tested in a clinical phase I study. Patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer were treated with capecitabine for 14 days (oral twice daily in a dose escalation regimen with steps of 1/3 of 2,500 mg/m{sup 2} per day in cohorts of three to six patients, depending on toxicity). Two days later patients were treated with 37 MBq/kg {sup 188}Re-HEDP as an intravenous injection. Six hours after treatment post-therapy scintigraphy was performed. Urine was collected for 8 h post-injection. Follow-up was at least 8 weeks. The primary end-point was to establish the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of capecitabine when combined with {sup 188}Re-HEDP. Secondary end-points included the effect of capecitabine on the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of {sup 188}Re-HEDP. Three patients were treated in the first and second cohorts, each without unacceptable toxicity. One of six patients in the highest cohort experienced unacceptable toxicity (grade 4 thrombopaenia). The MTD proved to be the maximum dose of 2,500 mg/m{sup 2} per day capecitabine. No unexpected toxicity occurred. Capecitabine had no effect on uptake or excretion of {sup 188}Re-HEDP. Capecitabine may be safely used in combination with {sup 188}Re-HEDP in a dose of 2,500 mg/m{sup 2} per day and 37 MBq/kg, respectively. Efficacy will be further studied in a phase II study using these dosages. (orig.)

  2. 188Re-HEDP combined with capecitabine in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients with bone metastases: a phase I safety and toxicity study

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Marnix G.E.H.; Bosma, Tjitske B.; Rijk, Peter P. van; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose 188Re-HEDP is indicated for the treatment of pain in patients with painful osteoblastic bone metastases, including hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients. Efficacy may be improved by adding chemotherapy to the treatment regimen as a radiation sensitizer. The combination of 188Re-HEDP and capecitabine (Xeloda®) was tested in a clinical phase I study. Methods Patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer were treated with capecitabine for 14 days (oral twice daily in a dose esca...

  3. An attempt to understand kidney's protein handling function by comparing plasma and urine proteomes.

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    Lulu Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the help of proteomics technology, the human plasma and urine proteomes, which closely represent the protein compositions of the input and output of the kidney, respectively, have been profiled in much greater detail by different research teams. Many datasets have been accumulated to form "reference profiles" of the plasma and urine proteomes. Comparing these two proteomes may help us understand the protein handling aspect of kidney function in a way, however, which has been unavailable until the recent advances in proteomics technology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After removing secreted proteins downstream of the kidney, 2611 proteins in plasma and 1522 in urine were identified with high confidence and compared based on available proteomic data to generate three subproteomes, the plasma-only subproteome, the plasma-and-urine subproteome, and the urine-only subproteome, and they correspond to three groups of proteins that are handled in three different ways by the kidney. The available experimental molecular weights of the proteins in the three subproteomes were collected and analyzed. Since the functions of the overrepresented proteins in the plasma-and-urine subproteome are probably the major functions that can be routinely regulated by excretion from the kidney in physiological conditions, Gene Ontology term enrichment in the plasma-and-urine subproteome versus the whole plasma proteome was analyzed. Protease activity, calcium and growth factor binding proteins, and coagulation and immune response-related proteins were found to be enriched. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The comparison method described in this paper provides an illustration of a new approach for studying organ functions with a proteomics methodology. Because of its distinctive input (plasma and output (urine, it is reasonable to predict that the kidney will be the first organ whose functions are further elucidated by proteomic methods in the near future. It

  4. Comparative analysis of biogas slurry and urine as sustainable nutrient sources for hydroponic vertical farming

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrescu, Vlad Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable alternatives to using mined nutrients in agriculture must be found in order to limit environmental impacts such as eutrophication, habitat destruction and greenhouse gas emis-sions. Biogas slurry and urine recycled to hydroponic food production (a type of soilless agri-culture) have the potential of providing inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus, the main essential nutrients required for plant growth. A Life Cycle Inventory Assessment (LCI) methodology has been used to compare the sy...

  5. Life cycle assessment of segregating fattening pig urine and feces compared to conventional liquid manure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Jerke W; Aarnink, André J A; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; De Boer, Imke J M

    2013-02-01

    Gaseous emissions from in-house storage of liquid animal manure remain a major contributor to the environmental impact of manure management. Our aim was to assess the life cycle environmental consequences and reduction potential of segregating fattening pig urine and feces with an innovative V-belt system and to compare it to conventional liquid manure management, that is, the reference. Moreover, we aimed at analyzing the uncertainty of the outcomes related to applied emission factors. We compared a reference with two scenarios: segregation with solid, aerobically, stored feces and with liquid, anaerobically, stored feces. Results showed that, compared to the reference, segregation reduced climate change (CC) up to 82%, due to lower methane emission, reduced terrestrial acidification (TA) and particulate matter formation (PMF) up to 49%, through lower ammonia emission, but increased marine eutrophication up to 11% through nitrogen oxide emission from storage and nitrate leaching after field application. Fossil fuel depletion did not change. Segregation with liquid feces revealed lower environmental impact than segregation with solid feces. Uncertainty analysis supported the conclusion that segregating fattening pig urine and feces significantly reduced CC and additionally segregation with liquid feces significantly reduced TA and PMF compared to the reference. PMID:23268735

  6. Studies of HEDP labelled with 188Re from different generators of 188W /188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread interest in 188Re for therapeutic applications, is due to its attractive 16,9 hours half-life, emission of a β- particle with maximum energy of 2.12 MeV and gamma-ray of 155 keV suitable for imaging. This work presents the radiolabelling of HEDP (etidronate) with 188Re eluted from alumina-based 188W/188Re generators and tungstate-based 188W/188Re gel generators. Dependence of the yield of the 18'8Re-HEDP on the concentration of the reduction agent, p H, reaction time, temperature and addition of carrier Re2O7 were evaluated. The radiolabelling of 188Re-HEDP procedure using the optimum conditions resulted a yield >= 98% for liquid and lyophilized kits. This basic formulation contains: 30 mg de HEDP, 7 mg de SnCl2, 3 mg de ascorbic acid and addition of 20 mug of Re2O7. The reactions were carried out with heating in boiling water for 30 minutes followed by 60 minutes of incubation. Another important aspect of this work was the radiochemical quality control comparing the results of PC, TLC and ion chromatography, along with the experiments with HPLC. The biological distribution proved the adequate bone uptake and in vivo stability of 188Re-HEDP complexes. (author)

  7. Concentration compared with total urinary excretion of 11,17-DOA in cynomolgus monkey urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Jann; Royo, F

    2008-01-01

    Strees sensitive molecules exhibit great variation in concentration in the circulation and it may often be advantageous to quantify these in urine or feces rather than in serum or plasma. We advocate that all urine-or feces-should be collected, and that excretion of stress sensitive molecules...

  8. The Urine Proteome Profile Is Different in Neuromyelitis Optica Compared to Multiple Sclerosis: A Clinical Proteome Study.

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    Helle H Nielsen

    Full Text Available Inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS comprise a broad spectrum of diseases like neuromyelitis optica (NMO, NMO spectrum disorders (NMO-SD and multiple sclerosis (MS. Despite clear classification criteria, differentiation can be difficult. We hypothesized that the urine proteome may differentiate NMO from MS.The proteins in urine samples from anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4 seropositive NMO/NMO-SD patients (n = 32, patients with MS (n = 46 and healthy subjects (HS, n = 31 were examined by quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after trypsin digestion and iTRAQ labelling. Immunoglobulins (Ig in the urine were validated by nephelometry in an independent cohort (n = 9-10 pr. groups.The analysis identified a total of 1112 different proteins of which 333 were shared by all 109 subjects. Cluster analysis revealed differences in the urine proteome of NMO/NMO-SD compared to HS and MS. Principal component analysis also suggested that the NMO/NMO-SD proteome profile was useful for classification. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a 3-protein profile for the NMO/NMO-SD versus HS discrimination, a 6-protein profile for NMO/NMO-SD versus MS discrimination and an 11-protein profile for MS versus HS discrimination. All protein panels yielded highly significant ROC curves (AUC in all cases >0.85, p≤0.0002. Nephelometry confirmed the presence of increased Ig-light chains in the urine of patients with NMO/NMO-SD.The urine proteome profile of patients with NMO/NMO-SD is different from MS and HS. This may reflect differences in the pathogenesis of NMO/NMO-SD versus MS and suggests that urine may be a potential source of biomarkers differentiating NMO/NMO-SD from MS.

  9. The Urine Proteome Profile Is Different in Neuromyelitis Optica Compared to Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle H; Beck, Hans C; Kristensen, Lars P;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS comprise a broad spectrum of diseases like neuromyelitis optica (NMO), NMO spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite clear classification criteria, differentiation can be difficult. We hypothesized that the urine...

  10. Comparative Study of Extracellular Vesicles from the Urine of Healthy Individuals and Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzgunova, Olga E; Zaripov, Marat M; Skvortsova, Tatyana E; Lekchnov, Evgeny A; Grigor'eva, Alina E; Zaporozhchenko, Ivan A; Morozkin, Evgeny S; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Yurchenko, Yuri B; Voitsitskiy, Vladimir E; Laktionov, Pavel P

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that extracellular vesicles may be the key to timely diagnosis and monitoring of genito-urological malignancies. In this study we investigated the composition and content of extracellular vesicles found in the urine of healthy donors and prostate cancer patients. Urine of 14 PCa patients and 20 healthy volunteers was clarified by low-speed centrifugation and total extracellular vesicles fraction was obtain by high-speed centrifugation. The exosome-enriched fraction was obtained by filtration of total extracellular vesicles through a 0.1 μm pore filter. Transmission electron microscopy showed that cell-free urine in both groups contained vesicles from 20 to 230 nm. Immunogold staining after ultrafiltration demonstrated that 95% and 90% of extracellular vesicles in healthy individuals and cancer patients, respectively, were exosomes. Protein, DNA and RNA concentrations as well as size distribution of extracellular vesicles in both fractions were analyzed. Only 75% of the total protein content of extracellular vesicles was associated with exosomes which amounted to 90-95% of all vesicles. Median DNA concentrations in total extracellular vesicles and exosome-enriched fractions were 18 pg/ml and 2.6 pg/ml urine, correspondingly. Urine extracellular vesicles carried a population of RNA molecules 25 nt to 200 nt in concentration of no more than 290 pg/ml of urine. Additionally, concentrations of miR-19b, miR-25, miR-125b, and miR-205 were quantified by qRT-PCR. MiRNAs were shown to be differently distributed between different fractions of extracellular vesicles. Detection of miR-19b versus miR-16 in total vesicles and exosome-enriched fractions achieved 100%/93% and 95%/79% specificity/sensitivity in distinguishing cancer patients from healthy individuals, respectively, demonstrating the diagnostic value of urine extracellular vesicles. PMID:27305142

  11. Comparative profile of circulating antigenic peptides in CSF, serum & urine from patients with neurocysticercosis diagnosed by immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, P S; Parija, S; Kumar, D; Jayachandran, S; Narayan, S

    2014-10-01

    Traditionally serum and/or CSF specimens have been used for detection of either specific antibodies or antigens as a supportive diagnosis of NCC. However, in recent days, much interest has been shown employing noninvasive specimens such as urine. In our study, we identified and compared a profile of circulating antigenic peptides of parasite origin in three different body fluids (CSF, serum and urine) obtained from confirmed NCC cases and control subjects. The circulating antigenic peptides were resolved by SDS-PAGE and subjected to immunoblotting. For confirmation of their origin as parasite somatic or excretory secretory (ES) material, immunoreactivity was tested employing affinity purified polyclonal Taenia solium metacestode anti-somatic or ES antibodies, respectively. Only lower molecular weight antigenic peptides were found circulating in urine in contrast to serum and CSF specimens. Few somatic peptides were identified to be 100% specific for NCC (19·5 kDa in all three specimens; 131, 70 kDa in CSF and serum only; 128 kDa in CSF only). Similarly, the specific ES peptides detected were 32 kDa (in all three specimens), 16·5 kDa (in serum and CSF only), and 15 kDa (urine only). A test format detecting either one or more of these specific peptides would enhance the sensitivity in diagnosis of NCC.

  12. A COMPARATIVE BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF SOME BRANDS OF OFLOXACIN BY URINE AND SALIVARY ANALYSIS IN INDIA

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    SHARMA A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess the bioequivalence of randomly selected brands of ofloxacin tablets marketed in India. Bioavailability assessment was conducted by measuring the concentration of drugs in the urine as well as saliva and bioavailability data was presented as cumulative quantity of drugs recovered in urine in 24 hours. Simple and sensitive, accurate and economical spectrophotometric method was developed for the estimation of ofloxacin in urine and saliva samples using phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 at 288 nm. Microbiological assay technique was used to analyze urine samples. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2-20 µg/ml for ofloxacin. The two different brands of ofloxacin with the strength of 200mg and 400mg each showed same minimum inhibitory concentration value against the test strain of Staphylococcus aureus of 0.468 µg /ml and 1.388 µg /ml respectively. The salivary ofloxacin concentration ratio was highly dependent on sampling time. The salivary half-lives showed significant correlation with each other while the area under curve of ofloxacin concentration in saliva failed to show significant correlation. The two brands of ofloxacin 200mg(X1-X2, 400mg(X3-X4 each in punjab (India exhibited same bioavailability data in vivo and can be said to be bioequivalents.

  13. Life cycle assessment of segregating fattening pig urine and feces compared to conventional liquid manure management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from in-house storage of liquid animal manure remain a major contributor to the environmental impact of manure management. Our aim was to assess the life cycle environmental consequences and reduction potential of segregating fattening pig urine and feces with an innovative V-belt

  14. Comparing Serum and 24-hour Urine Calcium between Preeclamptic and Non-preeclamptic Patients

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    N Shahbazian

    2014-02-01

    Results: No statistically significant difference was found between serum calcium means in the two groups (p=0.07, though mean of 24-hour urine calcium in preeclamptic patients was significantly lower than that of control group (p=0.0003. In preeclamptic group, the degree of hypocalciuria was related to disordered liver enzymes, serum creatinine greater than 1.2 mg/dl, thrombocytopenia and proteinuria more than 2g/24h. Conclusion: Preeclampsia is associated with hypocalciuria; the more hypocalciuria there exists , the more preeclampsia is observed.

  15. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  16. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  17. Comparative analysis on red blood cells through UF-100 urine sediment analyzer, urine dry chemistry analyze and urine sediment microscopy%尿沉渣分析仪、尿液干化学分析仪测定及尿沉渣镜检红细胞对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白士丽; 刘长青; 王晓丽; 郎国华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To do the comparative analysis on red blood cells through UF-100 urine sediment analyzer, Urine Dry Chemistry Analyze and urine sediment microscopy for finding the most accurate judgment on red blood cells in the urine. Methods:Morning urine collected from 1200 cases of hospitalized patients with urine specimens, the UF-100 urine sediment analysis system, urine dry chemical analyzer and urine sediment microscopy detection to analyze it, detecting urine red blood cells. Results:UF-100 urine sediment analyzer detecting red blood cell positive rate was 18.8%, the urine dry chemical detecting red blood cell positive rate was 16.3%, microscopy positive rate was 13.2%. Conclusion:Urinary sediment analysis system, urine red blood cells in urine dry chemistry method and microscope test results vary, before two kinds of methods is influenced by certain factors can appear false positives and false negatives, so all can't replace the microscope examination in urine routine test, three methods should be combined together to provide accurate and reliable basis for clinical.%目的:对UF-100尿沉渣分析仪、尿液干化学分析仪检测尿液中红细胞与尿沉渣镜检法检测红细胞进行比较,以对尿液中红细胞进行最为准确的判断。方法:采集1200例住院患者的晨尿尿液标本,采用尿沉渣分析系统、尿液干化学分析仪与尿沉渣显微镜检测对其进行分析,检测尿液中的红细胞。结果:尿沉渣分析仪检测红细胞阳性率为18.8%,尿液干化学检测红细胞阳性率为16.3%,镜检阳性率为13.2%。结论:尿沉渣分析系统、尿液干化学法和显微镜检测尿液中红细胞结果存在差异,前两种方法受某些因素影响可出现假阳性及假阴性,因此尿液常规检测中均不能替代显微镜检查,应将3种检测方法相结合共同为临床提供准确可靠的红细胞检测依据。

  18. Sodium-induced hyperhydration decreases urine output and improves fluid balance compared with glycerol- and water-induced hyperhydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, Félix A; Dion, Tommy; Asselin, Audrey; Goulet, Eric D B

    2015-01-01

    Before 2010, which is the year the World Anti-Doping Agency banned its use, glycerol was commonly used by athletes for hyperhydration purposes. Through its effect on osmoreceptors, we believe that sodium could prove a viable alternative to glycerol as a hyperhydrating agent. Therefore, this study compared the effects of sodium-induced hyperhydration (SIH), glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) and water-induced hyperhydration (WIH) on fluid balance responses. Using a randomized, double-blind and counterbalanced protocol, 17 men (21 ± 3 years, 64 ± 6 kg fat-free mass (FFM)) underwent three 3-h hyperhydration protocols during which they ingested, over the first 60-min period, 30 mL/kg FFM of water with (i) an artificial sweetener (WIH); (ii) an artificial sweetener + 7.45 g/L of table salt (SIH); or (iii) an artificial sweetener + 1.4 g glycerol/kg FFM (GIH). Changes in body weight (BW), urine production, fluid retention, hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma volume, and perceptual variables were monitored throughout the 3-h trials. After 3 h, SIH was associated with significantly (p hyperhydrating technique than, and proves to be a worthwhile alternative to, GIH. PMID:25494972

  19. Bladder tumour antigen (BTA stat) test compared to the urine cytology in the diagnosis of bladder cancer: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aiye; Wang, Xiuhua; Gao, Lan; Shi, Juan; Sun, Changyi; Wan, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluate the diagnostic value of bladder tumour antigen (BTA stat) tests compared with urine cytology test in detecting bladder cancer. Methods: We searched public databases including PubMed, MEDLINE Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar before December 2012. To collect relevant data of BTA stat tests and urine cytology tests in patients with bladder cancer, we studied meta-analyses of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR), negative LR and diagnostic odds ratios (DOR) of BTA stat tests and cytology tests from published studies. We applied the software of Rev. Man 5.1 and Stata 11.0 to the meta-analysis. Results: A total of 13 separate studies consisting of 3462 patients with bladder cancer were considered in the meta-analysis. We found that the BTA stat test had a higher sensitivity than the urine cytology test (0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64 to 0.69 vs. 0.43, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.46), but the specificity, positive LR, negative LR, DOR, the area under the curve (AUC) and Q index of the BTA stat test were lower compared with the urine cytology test. The results of the Egger’s linear regression test showed no publication bias (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Specificity, positive LR, negative LR, DOR, the AUC and the Q index of the urine cytology test may be superior to the BTA stat test, but the BTA stat test has greater sensitivity than the urine cytology test. PMID:24940462

  20. Urination Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more often bad-smelling, bloody, or discolored urine (pee) fever or chills decreased appetite or activity irritability nausea or vomiting lower back pain or abdominal (belly) pain wetting accidents (in potty-trained kids) What to Do Call the doctor if your child has pain while urinating or can't ...

  1. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  2. Black Urine

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Vakili; Parisa Armanpoor; Parvaneh Armanpoor

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5)). Qualitative urine examination showed dar...

  3. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  4. Suitability of bovine bile compared to urine for detection of free, sulfate and glucuronate boldenone, androstadienedione, cortisol, cortisone, prednisolone, prednisone and dexamethasone by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Luca; Nobile, Maria; Panseri, Sara; Vigo, Daniele; Pavlovic, Radmila; Arioli, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The administration of boldenone and androstadienedione to cattle is forbidden in the European Union, while prednisolone is permitted for therapeutic purposes. They are pseudoendogenous substances (endogenously produced under certain circumstances). The commonly used matrices in control analyses are urine or liver. With the aim of improving the residue controls, we previously validated a method for steroid analysis in bile. We now compare urine (a 'classic' matrix) to bile, both collected at the slaughterhouse, to understand whether the detection of steroids in the latter is easier. With the aim of having clearer results, we tested the presence of the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone. The results show that bile does not substantially improve the detection of boldenone, or its conjugates, prednisolone and prednisone. Dexamethasone, instead, was found in 10 out of 53 bovine bile samples, but only in one urine sample from the same animals. Bile could constitute a novel matrix for the analysis of residues in food-producing animals, and possibly not only of synthetic corticosteroids.

  5. 临床尿常规检验方法对比研究%The Comparative Study on Clinical Urine Routine Test Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究对比临床尿常规不同检验方法的运用价值。方法搜集2013年9月~2014年9月我院接收的行尿常规检验38例患者,按照检验方法不同分为两组,即研究组(尿干化学分析仪)与对照组(手工镜检)。观察并比较研究组与对照组的检验结果。结果研究组红细胞检验阳性率高于对照组,白细胞阳性率和蛋白质阳性率均低于对照组,两组蛋白质检验结果符合率是98.3%,红细胞是97.0%,白细胞是96.6%,结果有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论尿干化学分析仪与手工镜检在临床尿常规检验中均具有较高运用价值,但二者不可互相代替。%Objective The application value of different sampling methods in urine routine test is to be analyzed comparatively. Methods Choose 38 persons who took urine routine test in hospital from September 2013 to September 2014 and separate them into control group (urine dry chemistry analyzer) and study group (manual microscopic examination) according to different blood-sampling methods. And then observe and compare the testing results of two groups. Results Positive rate of red blood cel in study group is much higher than that in control group; however, the positive rate of leukocyte and protein in study group are much lower than counterparts in control group, the testing accuracy rate of protein content is 98.3%, it is 97.0%in testing accuracy rate of red blood cel and 96.6%in testing accuracy rate of leukocyte;such a result has statistic value(P<0.05);there is a treatment differential between the two groups, such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Urine dry chemistry analyzer and manual microscopic examination are of application significance in urine routine test, and these two testing methods can not be substituted by each other.

  6. Pink urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P

    2014-11-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

  7. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

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    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY PATTERNS OF PRE OPERATIVE MID STREAM URINE WITH RENAL PELVIC URINE AND STONE TO PREDICT UROSEPSIS FOLLOWING PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTOMY: A PROSPECTIVE CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Vardhana Reddy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is the most frequently performed surgery for stone disease at our institution. Nearly 100 PCNL procedures are being performed in a year at our institution. Septicemia following PCNL can be catastrophic despite sterile preoperative urine and prophylactic antibiotics. Infected stones, obstructed kidneys , and comorbidit y have been held responsible. In this study we analyzed various culture specimens, namely Mid - stream urine (MSU, renal pelvic urine and crushed stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS : We performed a prospective clinical study in all our patients undergoing PCNL b etween January 2013 and December 2014. MSU was sent for culture and sensitivity testing (C&S one day prior to surgery. Percutaneous access into the ipsilateral pelvicaliceal system is achieved under image intensification using a fine, 14 gauge Kellet need le. Urine from the pelvicaliceal system is first aspirated and sent as pelvic urine C&S. Stone fragments are collected to be proces0sed for C&S. The data collected were divided into 3 main groups, that is MSU C&S, pelvic urine C&S and stone C&S. RESULTS : A total of 83 patients were included in the study, of this MSU C&S was positive in 9/83 (10.8% patients, Pelvic C&S in 10 /73 (13.7% patients and Stone C&S in 25/83 (30.1% patients. Out of 25 cases of stone culture positive patients 17 patients develope d Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS but only 2 patients developed SIRS in MSU C & S positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that positive stone C&S is the better predictor of potential urosepsis than MSU. Stone cultur e is available only after surgery but appears to be the best guide for antibiotic therapy in case of sepsis. So the routine collection of stone for C&S will be beneficial

  9. Validity of Urine Specific Gravity When Compared With Plasma Osmolality as a Measure of Hydration Status in Male and Female NCAA Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfield, Lesley M; McAnulty, Steven R; McBride, Jeffrey M; Zwetsloot, Jennifer J; Austin, Melanie D; Mehlhorn, Jonathan D; Calhoun, Mason C; Young, Juliane O; Haines, Traci L; Utter, Alan C

    2016-08-01

    Sommerfield, LM, McAnulty, SR, McBride, JM, Zwetsloot, JJ, Austin, MD, Mehlhorn, JD, Calhoun, MC, Young, JO, Haines, TL, and Utter, AC. Validity of urine specific gravity when compared with plasma osmolality as a measure of hydration status in male and female NCAA collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2219-2225, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine osmolality (Uosm) when compared with plasma osmolality (Posm) from euhydration to 3% dehydration and then a 2-hour rehydration period in male and female collegiate athletes. Fifty-six National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) wrestlers (mean ± SEM); height 1.75 ± 0.01 m, age 19.3 ± 0.2 years, and body mass (BM) 78.1 ± 1.8 kg and 26 NCAA women's soccer athletes; height 1.64 ± 0.01 m, age 19.8 ± 0.3 years, and BM 62.2 ± 1.2 kg were evaluated. Hydration status was obtained by measuring changes in Posm, Uosm, Usg, and BM. Male and female subjects dehydrated to achieve an average BM loss of 2.9 ± 0.09% and 1.9 ± 0.03%, respectively. Using the medical diagnostic decision model, the sensitivity of Usg was high in both the hydrated and dehydrated state for males (92%) and females (80%). However, the specificity of Usg was low in both the hydrated and dehydrated states for males (10 and 6%, respectively) and females (29 and 40%, respectively). No significant correlations were found between Usg and Posm during either the hydrated or dehydrated state for males or females. Based on these results, the use of Usg as a field measure of hydration status in male and female collegiate athletes should be used with caution. Considering that athletes deal with hydration status on a regular basis, the reported low specificity of Usg suggests that athletes could be incorrectly classified leading to the unnecessary loss of competition. PMID:26694503

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Inoculation of Urine Samples with the Copan WASP® and BD Kiestra™ InoqulA™ Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jesper; Stendal, Gitta; Gerdes, Cecilie Marie;

    2016-01-01

    on an InoqulA, plating 10 ul of specimen, and two WASP instruments, one plating 1 ul of specimen (WASP-1) and the second WASP 10 ul (WASP-10). All samples were incubated, analysed, and digitally imaged using the BD Kiestra™ Total Lab Automation system. Results were evaluated using a quantitative protocol...... as well as for presence or absence of ≥5 distinct colonies. Separate studies were conducted using QC organisms to determine the relative accuracy of WASP-1, WASP-10 and InoqulA compared to results obtained with a calibrated pipet. Results with QC organisms were calculated as ratios of the counts...... of the automated instruments divided by the counts for the calibrated pipet (golden standard). Ratios for the InoqulA were closest to 1,0 with the smallest standard deviations indicating that, compared to a calibrated pipet, the InoqulA results were more accurate than the WASP.. For clinical samples, the WASPs...

  11. Comparative Evaluation of the Novel bioNexia Legionella Test with the BinaxNOW Legionella Card Assay and the Sofia Legionella FIA Assay for Detection of Legionella pneumophila (Serogroup 1) Antigen in Urine Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congestrì, Francesco; Crepaldi, Elisabetta; Gagliardi, Marina; Pedna, Maria Federica; Sambri, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    A new immunochromatographic test (bioNexiaLegionella; bioMérieux) for the detection ofLegionella pneumophilaurinary antigen was evaluated in 255 urine samples. The results were compared with those obtained by the BinaxNOW and SofiaLegionellatests. The novel test compared well with those currently in use. PMID:26865691

  12. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  13. Urination - difficulty with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003143.htm Urination - difficulty with flow To use the sharing features on this page, ... at night? Has the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ...

  14. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  15. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  16. Comparative diagnostic value of the breath test and the urine test with 14C-urea in the detection of the Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 92 patients with chronic gastritis we conducted a synchronous diagnosis of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection using a culture and a serological test (IFP), in conjunction with breath and urine tests involving 14C-urea (BTU-C14 and UTU-C14). The infection was confirmed by isolation in 71 persons (77.2%), the presence of specific IgG in the blood serum was found in 75 (81.5%). In comparison, the BTU-C14 indicated a group of 77 people (83.7%) as infected, and the UTU-C14 a group of 76 (82.6%). In order to determine the diagnostic value (sensitivity, specificity and efficiency) of the latter tests, the results were compared with those of the culture and of the serological tests. It was found that the BTU-C14 test used showed a 100% sensitivity, a 89.5% specificity and a 97.9% efficiency. The UTU-C14 test showed a 100.0% sensitivity, a 94.4% specificity and a 98.9% efficiency in the detection of the H. pylori infection. (author)

  17. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  18. Comparative evaluation of hydroxyproline in urine and in serum as a possible clinical parameter for radiation-induced destruction of connective tissue due to fractionated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinartz, G.; Wurst, F.; Struck, H.; Dombrowa, B.

    1981-06-01

    In the course of postoperative fractionated radiation therapy hydroxyproline was evaluated as a biochemical parameter of radiation damage in 60 patients with different tumour diseases. At different times before, during and after therapy, hydroxyproline in serum was evaluated according to the method of Dabew and Struck, hydroxyproline in urine according to the test combination 'hypronosticon' (Organon-Technika). There was no correlation to be found between hydroxyproline in serum or urine, clinical course of disease and radiation dose. Possible explanations were discussed.

  19. Children's Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka;

    2013-01-01

    Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of a...

  20. RBC urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 red blood cells per high power field (RBC/HPF) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above ...

  1. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  2. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  3. A comparative analysis between instrument methods and microscope test method in testing urine red blood cells and urine white blood cells%仪器分析法与显微镜法检测尿液细胞成分比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽丹; 曾莉; 李斌; 谭平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the similarities and differences between the instrument analysis detection method and microscopy in urine cell components,to provide a basis for improving the quality of urine test.Methods We used UF-1 00 automatic urine sediment analyzer,MA-4280KB urine dry chemistry analyzer and OlympusCX21 microscopy to test 71 0 samples,and the results were compared. Results Urine analyzer,urine dry chemistry analyzer and microscopy detection of urinary red blood cell (RBC)and white blood cell (WBC)showed statistically significant differences (P<0.01 ).Urinary sediment analysis and urine dry chemistry analysis had signifi-cant difference (WBC:P<0.01 ,RBC:P<0.05 ).When urinary sediment analysis was used with urine dry chemistry analysis to test WBC and RBC in urine,the sensitivity was improved in parallel,and the specificity was improved in series.Conclusions Dif-ferent detection principles of the three methods lead to differences in test results.Appropriate detection method should be chosen ac-cording to the objective of clinical diagnosis,and combination of detection method can be used,when necessary,to improve the accu-racy of test results.%目的:探讨仪器分析法与显微镜法检测尿液细胞成分的异同,为提高尿液检测质量提供依据。方法采用UF-100全自动尿沉渣分析仪、MA-4280KB尿干化学分析仪和OlympusCX21显微镜3种方法对710份尿样进行检测,并对结果进行比较分析。结果尿沉渣分析仪、尿干化学分析仪与显微镜法检测尿液红细胞(RBC)和白细胞(WBC)结果差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.01),尿沉渣分析法与尿干化学分析法差异亦有统计学意义(WBC:P<0.01,RBC:P<0.05),尿沉渣分析法与尿干化学分析法联合检测尿液白细胞和红细胞,并联时灵敏度有一定提高,串联时特异度提高明显。结论3种方法检测原理不同导致检验结果存在差异,要根据临床诊断目的选

  4. Identification of recombinant human EPO variants in greyhound plasma and urine by ELISA, LC-MS/MS and western blotting: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Mark; Steel, Rohan; Vine, John

    2016-02-01

    The recombinant human erythropoietins epoetin alfa (Eprex®), darbepoetin (Aranesp®) and methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (Mircera®) were administered to greyhounds for 7, 10 and 14 days respectively. Blood and urine samples were collected and analysed for erythropoietin by ELISA, LC-MS/MS and western blotting. Limits of confirmation in plasma for western blotting and LC-MS/MS methods ranged from a low of 2.5mIU/mL, and closely matched the sensitivity of ELISA screening. PMID:26290355

  5. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bekö

    Full Text Available Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di(isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw. For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum, which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

  6. Effect of magnetic field strength on NMR-based metabonomic human urine data. Comparative study of 250, 400, 500, and 800 MHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Malmendal, Anders; Petersen, Bent O.;

    2007-01-01

    Metabonomic analysis of urine utilizing high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and chemometric techniques has proven valuable in characterizing the biochemical response to an intervention. To assess the effect of magnetic field strength on information contained in NMR-based metabonomic data sets, 1H NMR...... the ability of the 1H spectra acquired at various field strengths to identify possible spectral differences and discriminate between pre- and postintervention samples. The loadings from PLS-DA contained the same spectral regions, implying that the same metabolites were involved in the discrimination...... independent of magnetic field strength. The investigation revealed a strong increase in prediction performance and thereby spectral information content when increasing the magnetic field strength from 250 to 500 MHz, while from 500 to 800 MHz the increase was less pronounced....

  7. Comparative evaluation of seven different sample treatment approaches for large-scale multiclass sport drug testing in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Romero, Juan C; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-09-26

    Sample preparation is a critical step in large-scale multiclass analysis such as sport drug testing. Due to the wide heterogeneity of the analytes and the complexity of the matrix, the selection of a correct sample preparation method is essential, looking for a compromise between good recoveries for most of the analytes and cleanliness of the extract. In the present work, seven sample preparation procedures based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) (with 5 different cartridges), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and sorbent-supported liquid extraction (SLE) were evaluated for multiclass sport drug testing in urine. The selected SPE sorbents were polymeric cartridges Agilent PLEXA™ and Oasis HLB™, mixed mode cation and anion exchange cartridges Oasis MAX™ and MCX™, and C18 cartridges. LLE was performed using tert-butyl methyl ether and SLE was carried out using Agilent Chem Elut™ cartridges. To evaluate the proposed extraction procedures, a list of 189 compounds were selected as representative from different groups of doping agents, including 34 steroids, 14 glucocorticosteroids, 24 diuretics and masking agents, 11 stimulants, 9 beta-agonist, 16 beta-blockers, 6 Selective Estrogen Receptors Modulators (SERMs), 24 narcotics and 22 other drugs of abuse/sport drugs. Blank urine samples were spiked at two levels of concentration, 2.5 and 25μgL(-1) and extracted with the different extraction protocols (n=6). The analysis of the extracts was carried out by liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The use of solid-phase extraction with polymer cartridges provided high recoveries for most of the analytes tested and was found the more suitable method for this type of application given the additional advantages such as low sample and solvent consumption along with increased automation and throughput.

  8. Ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic-liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction method for simultaneous determination of anethole, estragole, and para-anisaldehyde in different plant extracts and human urine: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Maryam; Haji-Esfandiari, Sudabeh; Barfi, Behruz; Ghanbari, Hanieh

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the performances of four ionic-liquid-based microextraction methods, ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME), ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (IL-USA-ME), temperature-controlled ionic-liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction (TC-IL-DLME), and ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic-liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction (USA-TC-IL-DLME), were investigated for extraction of three bioactive compounds (anethole, estragole, and anisaldehyde) from different plant extracts and human urine. Anethole and estragole were chosen because they can alter cellular processes positively or negatively, and an efficient method is needed for their extraction and sensitive determination in the samples mentioned. Because there is no previous report on the separation of anethole and estragole (structural isomers), first, simultaneous gradient elution and flow programming were used. The microextraction methods were then applied and compared for analysis of these compounds in plant extracts and human urine by use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effect of conditions on extraction efficiency was studied and under the optimum conditions, the best enrichment factors (58-64), limits of detection (14-18 ng mL(-1)), limits of quantification (47-60 ng mL(-1)), and recovery (94.4-101.7 %) were obtained by use of USA-TC-IL-DLME. The optimized conditions were used to determine anethole, estragole, and para-anisaldehyde in fennel, anise, and tarragon extracts and in human urine. PMID:24817361

  9. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  10. Comparative Analysis of Urine Testing by Different Methods in Pregnant Women%不同检查方法对孕妇尿检测结果的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芒会; 张利侠; 胡淑玲; 弥鹏; 王莉; 张连

    2013-01-01

    目的 究UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪对孕妇尿检测结果的可靠性分析.方法 随机选择100例怀孕妇女中段尿及100例门诊患者中段尿,用UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪、干化学分析仪及显微镜检查测定,对比三种方法的结果,分析UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪产生假阳性的原因.结果 UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪对孕妇尿的阳性预测值:白细胞为67.8%,红细胞为61.9%,管型为16.7%,上皮细胞为91.0%,结晶为57.1%.其他患者的阳性预测值:白细胞为89.3%,红细胞为83.3%,管型为65.5%,上皮细胞为93.6%,结晶为87.1%.干化学对孕妇尿的阳性预测值:白细胞为88.9%,红细胞为81.1%,对其他患者的阳性预测值:白细胞为96.1%,红细胞为81.6%.结论 UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪对孕妇尿各参数的阳性预测值及干化学对孕妇尿白细胞的阳性预测值低于其他患者.因此当孕妇尿干化学与UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪检测结果有差异时必须进行显微镜检查,对假阳性结果进行修正.%Objective To examine the reliability of urine testing by urinary sediment analyzer (UF-1000i) in pregnant women. Methods One hundred middle-urine samples were randomly collected from pregnant women and non-pregnant patients. Comparing the results of urine testing which were examined by three different methods, urinary sediment analyzer (UF-1000i),dry chemistry analyzer and microscopy,and finding the reasons that lead to? false positive results in urinary sediment analyzer (UF-1000i). Results The positive predictive values (PPV) of white blood cells (WBC),red blood cells (RBC), tube, epithelial cells and the crystal in urine testing from pregnant women by urinary sediment analyzer were 67. 8%,61. 9%, 16. 7%, 91.0% and 57. 1% , respectively, and from non-pregnant patients were 89. 3% , 83. 3% , 65. 5% , 93. 6% and 87. 1%. The PPV of WBC and RBC in urine testing from pregnant women by dry chemistry analyzer were 88. 9% and 81. 1% , respectively, and from non

  11. Comparison of urine Gram stain and urine culture to diagnose urinary tract infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Utami Putri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infection (are due to pathogen invasion of the urinary tract. The upper or lower tract may be affected, depending on the presence of infection in the kidney, or bladder and urethra. Infection of urinary tract affect up to 10% of children and are the most common bacterial infection in infants and young children worldwide. The prevalence of UTI is 3-5% in girls and 1% in boys. Urine culture is considered to be the gold standard diagnostic test for UTI. However, Gram stains of uncentrifuged urine have been done in rural health centers and laboratories in peripheral areas that lack facilities to evaluate urine specimens. Gram stains of urine may be an effective method for ruling out UTI in rural health center patients, thus saving time and money in impoverished settings.Objective To compare urine Gram stain and urine culture as diagnostic tests for in children.Methods This cross-sectional study was held in H. Adam Malik Hospital from May to June 2010. The 54 participants were aged 0 - 14 years, suspected to have UTI and recruited by consecutive sampling. Uurine was collected after the external urethral orifice was cleaned. A drop of the urine specimen was Gram stained and examined by a light microscope, while the remainder of the specimen was used for laboratory urine cultures. If Gram negative bacteria were observed by Gram stain, we considered the subject to have UTI.Results The sensitivity and specificity of urine Gram stain compared to urine culture were 88% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were 100% and 90%, respectively.Conclusion Uurine Gram stain may be a good alternative to urine culture for diagnosing UTI in children living in areas with limited health care facilities. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:121-4.].

  12. Comparison of urine Gram stain and urine culture to diagnose urinary tract infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Utami Putri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infection (are due to pathogen invasion of the urinary tract. The upper or lower tract may be affected, depending on the presence of infection in the kidney, or bladder and urethra. Infection of urinary tract affect up to 10% of children and are the most common bacterial infection in infants and young children worldwide. The prevalence of UTI is 3-5% in girls and 1% in boys. Urine culture is considered to be the gold standard diagnostic test for UTI. However, Gram stains of uncentrifuged urine have been done in rural health centers and laboratories in peripheral areas that lack facilities to evaluate urine specimens. Gram stains of urine may be an effective method for ruling out UTI in rural health center patients, thus saving time and money in impoverished settings. Objective To compare urine Gram stain and urine culture as diagnostic tests for in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was held in H. Adam Malik Hospital from May to June 2010. The 54 participants were aged 0 - 14 years, suspected to have UTI and recruited by consecutive sampling. Uurine was collected after the external urethral orifice was cleaned. A drop of the urine specimen was Gram stained and examined by a light microscope, while the remainder of the specimen was used for laboratory urine cultures. If Gram negative bacteria were observed by Gram stain, we considered the subject to have UTI. Results The sensitivity and specificity of urine Gram stain compared to urine culture were 88% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were 100% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion Uurine Gram stain may be a good alternative to urine culture for diagnosing UTI in children living in areas with limited health care facilities. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:121-4.].

  13. Comparative proteomics of uropathogenic Escherichia coli during growth in human urine identify UCA-like (UCL) fimbriae as an adherence factor involved in biofilm formation and binding to uroepithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurpel, Daniël J; Totsika, Makrina; Allsopp, Luke P; Webb, Richard I; Moriel, Danilo G; Schembri, Mark A

    2016-01-10

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the primary cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) in humans. For the successful colonisation of the human urinary tract, UPEC employ a diverse collection of secreted or surface-exposed virulence factors including toxins, iron acquisition systems and adhesins. In this study, a comparative proteomic approach was utilised to define the UPEC pan and core surface proteome following growth in pooled human urine. Identified proteins were investigated for subcellular origin, prevalence and homology to characterised virulence factors. Fourteen core surface proteins were identified, as well as eleven iron uptake receptor proteins and four distinct fimbrial types, including type 1, P, F1C/S and a previously uncharacterised fimbrial type, designated UCA-like (UCL) fimbriae in this study. These pathogenicity island (PAI)-associated fimbriae are related to UCA fimbriae of Proteus mirabilis, associated with UPEC and exclusively found in members of the E. coli B2 and D phylogroup. We further demonstrated that UCL fimbriae promote significant biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces and mediate specific attachment to exfoliated human uroepithelial cells. Combined, this study has defined the surface proteomic profiles and core surface proteome of UPEC during growth in human urine and identified a new type of fimbriae that may contribute to UTI.

  14. PBG urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  15. Sodium urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine sodium level may be a sign of: Adrenal glands releasing too much hormone ( hyperaldosteronism ) Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) Diarrhea and fluid loss Heart failure Kidney problems, such as chronic kidney disease or ...

  16. Changes in urine composition after trauma facilitate bacterial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubron Cecile

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Critically ill patients including trauma patients are at high risk of urinary tract infection (UTI. The composition of urine in trauma patients may be modified due to inflammation, systemic stress, rhabdomyolysis, life support treatment and/or urinary catheter insertion. Methods Prospective, single-centre, observational study conducted in patients with severe trauma and without a history of UTIs or recent antibiotic treatment. The 24-hour urine samples were collected on the first and the fifth days and the growth of Escherichia coli in urine from patients and healthy volunteers was compared. Biochemical and hormonal modifications in urine that could potentially influence bacterial growth were explored. Results Growth of E. coli in urine from trauma patients was significantly higher on days 1 and 5 than in urine of healthy volunteers. Several significant modifications of urine composition could explain these findings. On days 1 and 5, trauma patients had an increase in glycosuria, in urine iron concentration, and in the concentrations of several amino acids compared to healthy volunteers. On day 1, the urinary osmotic pressure was significantly lower than for healthy volunteers. Conclusion We showed that urine of trauma patients facilitated growth of E. coli when compared to urine from healthy volunteers. This effect was present in the first 24 hours and until at least the fifth day after trauma. This phenomenon may be involved in the pathophysiology of UTIs in trauma patients. Further studies are required to define the exact causes of such modifications.

  17. A New Method to Make 24-Hour Urine Collection More Convenient: A Validity Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pooneh Nabavizadeh; Shadi Ghadermarzi; Mohammad Fakhri

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional...

  18. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed

  19. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Virginia M., E-mail: vweaver@jhsph.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Vargas, Gonzalo García [Faculty of Medicine, University of Juárez of Durango State, Durango (Mexico); Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Coahuila, Coahuila, México (Mexico); Silbergeld, Ellen K. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rothenberg, Stephen J. [Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Centro de Investigacion en Salud Poblacional, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Fadrowski, Jeffrey J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rubio-Andrade, Marisela [Faculty of Medicine, University of Juárez of Durango State, Durango (Mexico); Parsons, Patrick J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Steuerwald, Amy J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  20. Urine Diagnosis for Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ The key to saving the life of a person suffering from a malignant tumor lies in early diagnosis and surgery. Chinese scientists have developed a new method of diagnosing cancer by analyzing a person's urine. This feat was acclaimed by a panel of experts at a meeting under the auspices of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in July 30 in Dalian, in northeast China's Liaoning Province.

  1. Polyglycolic acid (Dexon) sutures in Escherichia coli infected urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Schwartz, W

    1979-01-01

    The tensile strength, knot strength and stretch of polyglycolic acid (Dexon) was studied after emersion in physiological saline, sterile urine and infected urine. Tests were made each day under controlled conditions over a 10 day period. The results are compared with those of other earlier studie...

  2. Specificity, sensitivity, and operability of RSID™-urine for forensic identification of urine: comparison with ELISA for Tamm-Horsfall protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Sakurada, Koichi

    2012-11-01

    In this study, the specificity, sensitivity, and operability of RSID™-Urine, a new immunochromatographic test for urine identification, was evaluated and compared with ELISA detection of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP). Urine was successfully identified among other body fluids using RSID™-Urine and ELISA detection of THP. The detection limit of RSID™-Urine equated to 0.5 μL of urine; although the sensitivity of RSID™-Urine may be lower than that of ELISA detection of THP, it is thought to be sufficient for application to casework samples. However, results from RSID™-Urine must be interpreted with caution when the sample may have been contaminated with blood or vaginal fluid, because this might inhibit urine detection. The RSID™-Urine assay can be performed in just 15 min by dropping the extracted sample onto the test cassette. Therefore, RSID™-Urine should be an effective tool for the forensic identification of urine, in addition to ELISA detection of THP.

  3. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  4. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  5. Avian bornavirus in the urine of infected birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalobos AR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Alice R Villalobos21Zoological Medicine, 2Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV causes proventricular dilatation disease in multiple avian species. In severe clinical disease, the virus, while primarily neurotropic, can be detected in many organs, including the kidneys. We postulated that ABV could be shed by the kidneys and found in the urine of infected birds. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated viral N and P proteins of ABV within the renal tubules. We adapted a nonsurgical method of urine collection for use in parrots known to be shedding ABV in their droppings. We obtained urine without feces, and results were compared with swabs of fresh voided feces. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay performed on these paired samples from five birds indicated that ABV was shed in quantity in the urine of infected birds, and a single sample was urine-positive and fecal-negative. We suggest that urine sampling may be a superior sample for detection of birds shedding ABV, and advocate that additional birds, known to be shedding or infected with ABV, should be investigated via this method.Keywords: avian bornavirus, Psittaciformes, parrot, urine, proventricular dilatation disease

  6. IS URINE CULTURE ROUTINELY NECESSARY BEFORE PROSTATE BIOPSY ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruyere, Franck; Faivre D'Arcier, Benjamin; Boutin, Jean-Michel; Haillot, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the value of a urine bacterial culture performed before prostate biopsy. Methods: We performed a prospective study on 353 patients who underwent prostate biopsy. All patients had a urine bacterial culture performed before biopsy. We compared the outcomes of patients with bacteriuria (left untreated) to those of patients without bacteriuria. Results: Of the 353 men, 12 had a pre-biopsy positive bacterial culture an...

  7. Study about excretion of 210 Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urine of mines's workers are analysed to detect the presence of 210 Po. The results was compared with the workers and with a control population. Cigarettes samples was analysed two and confirmed the 210 presence. The control population individuals were divided in smokers and non smokers and them urine was investigated the influence of the smoke in the 210 Po excretion. (L.M.J.)

  8. Preparation, quality control and animal testing of Re-188 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhenium-188 is an attractive therapeutic radioisotope obtained by elution from tungsten 188/rhenium 188-generator system. We used this eluate to label HEDP and lanreotide to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for experimental use. The results of our studies showed that using methods worked out under the framework of the CRP allowed us to prepare 188Re-HEDP and 188Re-lanreotide with high yield and favourable biodistribution in animals. In animal studies 188Re-HEDP was successfully used for localizing osteosarcoma in dog. (author)

  9. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a problem in the field of renal physiology which has shown many new developments during the course of the last few years. The following are treated successively: a) the data obtained from measurements of free water clearance and their interpretation; b) the data provided by nephron morphology and the comparative anatomy of the kidney ; c) the data relative to the existence of an intrarenal osmotic gradient; d) the principle of concentration multiplication by a counter current technique; e) the present day theory of counter current concentration of urine, and f) the physiological check on dilution and concentration mechanisms in urine. Lastly, the advantages of the modern theory and the unknown factors which remain are discussed. (authors)

  10. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization. In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus). Nitrogen (N) compounds are removed as inert nitrogen gas and phosphorus (P) is for example removed as iron phosphate. About 80% of the N and 50% of the P in wastewater originate from urine1, but urine on...

  11. Toilet compost and human urine used in agriculture: fertilizer value assessment and effect on cultivated soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, D; Sou Dakoure, M; Hijikata, N; Lahmar, R; Yacouba, H; Coulibaly, L; Funamizu, N

    2015-01-01

    Toilet compost (TC) and human urine are among natural fertilizers, which raise interest due to their double advantages to combine sanitation and nutrient recovery. However, combination of urine and TC is not so spread probably because the best ratio (urine/TC) is still an issue and urine effect on soil chemical properties remains poorly documented. This study aims to determine the best ratio of urine and TC in okra cultivation, by targeting higher fertilization effect combined with lower impact on soil chemical properties. Based on Nitrogen requirement of okra, seven treatments were compared: (T0) no fertilizer, (T1) chemical fertilizer (NPK: 14-23-14), (T2) 100% urine, (T3) 100% TC, (T4) ratio of 75% urine+25% TC, (T5) 50% urine+50% TC and (T6) 25% urine+75% TC. Results indicated that T4 (75% urine+25% TC) gave the highest plant height and yield. In contrast, T2 (100% urine) gave the lowest results among all treatments, indicating toxicity effects on plant growth and associated final yield. Such toxicity is confirmed by soil chemical properties at T2 with soil acidification and significant increase in soil salinity. In contrast, application of urine together with TC mitigates soil acidification and salinity, highlighting the efficiency of urine and TC combination on soil chemical properties. However, further investigation is necessary to refine better urine/TC ratio for okra production.

  12. Toilet compost and human urine used in agriculture: fertilizer value assessment and effect on cultivated soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, D; Sou Dakoure, M; Hijikata, N; Lahmar, R; Yacouba, H; Coulibaly, L; Funamizu, N

    2015-01-01

    Toilet compost (TC) and human urine are among natural fertilizers, which raise interest due to their double advantages to combine sanitation and nutrient recovery. However, combination of urine and TC is not so spread probably because the best ratio (urine/TC) is still an issue and urine effect on soil chemical properties remains poorly documented. This study aims to determine the best ratio of urine and TC in okra cultivation, by targeting higher fertilization effect combined with lower impact on soil chemical properties. Based on Nitrogen requirement of okra, seven treatments were compared: (T0) no fertilizer, (T1) chemical fertilizer (NPK: 14-23-14), (T2) 100% urine, (T3) 100% TC, (T4) ratio of 75% urine+25% TC, (T5) 50% urine+50% TC and (T6) 25% urine+75% TC. Results indicated that T4 (75% urine+25% TC) gave the highest plant height and yield. In contrast, T2 (100% urine) gave the lowest results among all treatments, indicating toxicity effects on plant growth and associated final yield. Such toxicity is confirmed by soil chemical properties at T2 with soil acidification and significant increase in soil salinity. In contrast, application of urine together with TC mitigates soil acidification and salinity, highlighting the efficiency of urine and TC combination on soil chemical properties. However, further investigation is necessary to refine better urine/TC ratio for okra production. PMID:25371046

  13. Metabolomic biomarkers in serum and urine in women with preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Austdal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential of magnetic resonance (MR metabolomics for study of preeclampsia, for improved phenotyping and elucidating potential clues to etiology and pathogenesis. METHODS: Urine and serum samples from pregnant women with preeclampsia (n = 10, normal pregnancies (n = 10 and non-pregnant women (n = 10 matched by age and gestational age were analyzed with MR spectroscopy and subjected to multivariate analysis. Metabolites were then quantified and compared between groups. RESULTS: Urine and serum samples revealed clear differences between women with preeclampsia and both control groups (normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. Nine urine metabolites were significantly different between preeclampsia and the normal pregnant group. Urine samples from women with early onset preeclampsia clustered together in the multivariate analysis. The preeclampsia serum spectra showed higher levels of low and very-low density lipoproteins and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins when compared to both non-pregnant and normal pregnant women. CONCLUSION: The MR determined metabolic profiles in urine and serum from women with preeclampsia are clearly different from normal pregnant women. The observed differences represent a potential to examine mechanisms underlying different preeclampsia phenotypes in urine and serum samples in larger studies. In addition, similarities between preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease in metabolomics are demonstrated.

  14. Creating a urine black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.

  15. Monitoring human papillomavirus prevalence in urine samples: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enerly E

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Espen Enerly, Cecilia Olofsson, Mari NygårdDepartment of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer, and many countries now offer vaccination against HPV to girls by way of government-funded national immunization programs. Monitoring HPV prevalence in adolescents could offer a near-term biological measure of vaccine impact, and urine sampling may be an attractive large-scale method that could be used for this purpose. Our objective was to provide an overview of the literature on HPV DNA detection in urine samples, with an emphasis on adolescents. We searched the PubMed database using the terms “HPV” and “urine” and identified 21 female and 14 male study populations in which HPV prevalence in urine samples was reported, four of which included only asymptomatic female adolescents. We provide herein an overview of the recruitment setting, age, urine sampling procedure, lesion type, HPV assay, and HPV prevalence in urine samples and other urogenital samples for the studies included in this review. In female study populations, concordance for any HPV type and type-specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples are provided in addition to sensitivity and specificity. We concluded that few studies on HPV prevalence in urine samples have been performed in asymptomatic female adolescent populations but that urine samples may be a useful alternative to cervical samples to monitor changes in HPV prevalence in females in the post-HPV vaccination era. However, care should be taken when extrapolating HPV findings from urine samples to the cervix. In males, urine samples do not seem to be optimal for monitoring HPV prevalence due to a low human genomic DNA content and HPV DNA detection rate compared to other urogenital sites. In each situation the costs and benefits of HPV DNA detection in urine compared to alternative monitoring options should be carefully

  16. Monitoring Hydration Status Pre- and Post-Training among University Athletes Using Urine Color and Weight Loss Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marquitta C.; Salandy, Sinead T.; Beckford, Safiya E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hydration status pre- and post-training among university athletes using urine color and weight loss as indicators. Participants: Participants were 52 university athletes training for campus games in a developing country. Methods: Pre- and post-training urine specimens were compared with a standard urine color scale.…

  17. Urine suPAR levels compared with plasma suPAR levels as predictors of post-consultation mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    -suPAR), thereby exploring the possibility of replacing the blood sample with an easy obtainable urine sample. We enrolled 1,007 adults, older than 15 years of age, with a negative TB diagnosis between April 2004 and December 2006. Levels of U-suPAR and P-suPAR were available in 863 individuals. U......-suPAR was measured using a commercial ELISA (suPARnostic®). We found that U-suPAR carried significant prognostic information on mortality for HIV-infected subjects with an area under the ROC curve of 0.75. For HIV-negative individuals, little or no prognostic effect was observed. However, in both HIV positives...... and negatives, the predictive effect of U-suPAR was found to be inferior to that of P-suPAR....

  18. Electrochemically driven extraction and recovery of ammonia from human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Amanda K; Desloover, Joachim; Fennell, Donna E; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-12-15

    Human urine contains high concentrations of nitrogen, contributing about 75% of the nitrogen in municipal wastewaters yet only 1% of the volume. Source separation of urine produces an ideal waste stream for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery, reducing downstream costs of nutrient treatment at wastewater treatment facilities. We examined the efficiency and feasibility of ammonia extraction and recovery from synthetic and undiluted human urine using an electrochemical cell (EC). EC processing of synthetic urine produced an ammonium flux of 384 ± 8 g N m(-2) d(-1) with a 61 ± 1% current efficiency at an energy input of 12 kWh kg(-1) N removed. EC processing of real urine displayed similar performance, with an average ammonium flux of 275 ± 5 g N m(-2) d(-1) sustained over 10 days with 55 ± 1% current efficiency for ammonia and at an energy input of 13 kWh kg(-1) N removed. With the incorporation of an ammonia stripping and absorption unit into the real urine system, 57 ± 0.5% of the total nitrogen was recovered as ammonium sulfate. A system configuration additionally incorporating stripping of the influent headspace increased total nitrogen recovery to 79% but led to reduced performance of the EC as the urine ammonium concentration decrease. Direct stripping of ammonia (NH3) from urine with no chemical addition achieved only 12% total nitrogen recovery at hydraulic retention times comparable with the EC systems. Our results demonstrate that ammonia can be extracted via electrochemical means at reasonable energy inputs of approximately 12 kWh kg(-1) N. Considering also that the hydrogen generated is worth 4.3 kWh kg(-1) N, the net electrical input for extraction becomes approximately 8 kWh kg(-1) N if the hydrogen can be used. Critical for further development will be the inclusion of a passive means for ammonia stripping to reduce additional energy inputs.

  19. Urine sampling techniques in symptomatic primary-care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anne; Aabenhus, Rune

    2016-01-01

    in primary care. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of urine culture from different sampling-techniques in symptomatic non-pregnant women in primary care. Methods: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline and Embase for clinical studies conducted in primary care using...... a randomized or paired design to compare the result of urine culture obtained with two or more collection techniques in adult, female, non-pregnant patients with symptoms of urinary tract infection. We evaluated quality of the studies and compared accuracy based on dichotomized outcomes. Results: We included...... seven studies investigating urine sampling technique in 1062 symptomatic patients in primary care. Mid-stream-clean-catch had a positive predictive value of 0.79 to 0.95 and a negative predictive value close to 1 compared to sterile techniques. Two randomized controlled trials found no difference...

  20. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  1. Use of a urine enzyme immunoassay as a diagnostic tool for Chlamydia trachomatis urethritis in men.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwebke, J. R.; Clark, A M; Pettinger, M. B.; Nsubga, P; Stamm, W E

    1991-01-01

    We collected first-voided urine specimens from 659 males attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic and performed both enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of chlamydial antigen and leukocyte esterase testing on these urine samples. The overall prevalence of chlamydial urethritis in the study population as determined by culture of urethral swabs was 11%. However, 46% of all men in the study had no symptoms of urethritis. Compared with urethral cultures for chlamydiae, the urine EIA had...

  2. Analysis of Detecting HIV-1 Antibody in Paired Urine and Serum Specimens from Drug Users by ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中夫; 李志军; 刘世亮; 李莉; 梁富雄; 郑锡文

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the consistency of the results from detecting HIV-1 antibody in the paired urine and serum specimens from drug users by ELISA.Methods: The paired urine and serum specimens from 273 drug users detained at a detoxification unit were collected, and the HIV-1 antibodies in the specimens of them were screened by urine and serum ELISA kits, respectively. Results: Of 273 serum specimens, 94 ones showed positive reaction and among 94 counterpart urine specimens, 93 ones also appeared positive reaction. Taking the results together,the consistent rate of HIV-1 antibody screened by urine and serum ELISA kits was 99.6%.Conclusion: The urine ELISA kit, which screened HIV-1 antibody of urine showing almost the same results tested by serum ELISA kit, is reliable. It is proposed that urine ELISA be introduced in many fields.

  3. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Albumin and Albumin/Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page ... known as: Microalbumin; ACR; UACR Formal name: Urine Albumin; Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Creatinine ; ...

  4. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size en ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  5. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size en ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  6. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization. In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus). Nitro

  7. Detection of Zika Virus in Urine

    OpenAIRE

    Gourinat, Ann-Claire; O’Connor, Olivia; Calvez, Elodie; Goarant, Cyrille; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle

    2015-01-01

    We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections.

  8. Chemotherapeutic potential of cow urine: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Sharma, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    In the grim scenario where presently about 70% of pathogenic bacteria are resistant to at least one of the drugs for the treatment, cue is to be taken from traditional/indigenous medicine to tackle it urgently. The Indian traditional knowledge emanates from ayurveda, where Bos indicus is placed at a high pedestal for numerous uses of its various products. Urine is one of the products of a cow with many benefits and without toxicity. Various studies have found good antimicrobial activity of cow’s urine (CU) comparable with standard drugs such as ofloxacin, cefpodoxime, and gentamycin, against a vast number of pathogenic bacteria, more so against Gram-positive than negative bacteria. Interestingly antimicrobial activity has also been found against some resistant strains such as multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrobial action is enhanced still further by it being an immune-enhancer and bioenhancer of some antibiotic drugs. Antifungal activity was comparable to amphotericin B. CU also has anthelmintic and antineoplastic action. CU has, in addition, antioxidant properties, and it can prevent the damage to DNA caused by the environmental stress. In the management of infectious diseases, CU can be used alone or as an adjunctive to prevent the development of resistance and enhance the effect of standard antibiotics. PMID:26401404

  9. Repeat urine cultures in children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risky Vitria Prasetyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the second leading cause of infection in children, following respiratory tract infections. Repeat urine cultures after antibiotic treatment are routinely obtained in clinical practice to verify proof of bacteriologic cure. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommended repeat cultures, due to increased cost and discomfort to patients. Objective To determine the frequency of positive repeat urine cultures after 3 days of antibiotics in children with UTIs. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on children with UTIs who visited the Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Child Health at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya from January 2006 to December 2011. Results of repeat urine cultures were obtained after 3 days of antibiotic treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results Of the 779 pediatric UTI cases, repeat urine cultures were performed in 264 (33.9% cases. Of the 264 patients who comprised our study, there were similar numbers of girls and boys (50.4% vs. 49.6%, respectively. The mean age of patients was 43.9 (SD 1.59 months and 35.5% of subjects were aged under 1 year. In the initial urine cultures of our subjects, Escherichia coli was the most common organism found, with 92 cases (34.8%, compared to 58 cases (21.9% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 29 cases (10.9% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rrepeat urine cultures showed no bacterial growth in 168 cases (63.6%. Conclusion Mostly negative repeat urine cultures will probably obviate the need of this test in daily routine practice. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:170-4].

  10. A New Method to Make 24-Hour Urine Collection More Convenient: A Validity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooneh Nabavizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients’ adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation P<0.001 between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as “more convenient” for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects’ adherence to this difficult sampling.

  11. Compare of high-yield and middle-yield holstein dairy cows in the nitrogen content in feces and urine and the NH3, H2S emission content in feces%奶牛粪尿中含氮量、NH3和H2S散发量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚飞飞; 胡登林; 赵正剑; 张志军; 余雄

    2011-01-01

    以荷斯坦高产和中产奶牛为例,研究其粪便含水量、粪尿中总氮(TN)、氨态氮(AN)浓度和NH3、H2S的散发量.选取高产和中产奶牛牛舍各一栋,测定粪便含水量、粪尿中总氮(TN)氨态氮(TN)质量分数以及粪中NH3和H2S气体的散发量.结果表明,粗蛋白的摄入与需求比增加,奶牛粪尿中氮和硫的质量分数也会增加.超过动物蛋白质需要量的几乎所有的氮都是通过尿液排出体外,尿氮增加的幅度大于粪氮增加的幅度.因此,减少粪氮不是降低氮污染的有效途径.%Test to compare the high-yield and middle-yield Holstein dairy cows in feces water content, the total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (AN) concentration in feces and urine, NH3 and H2S emission content in feces. Were selected a high-yield and a middle-yield cowshed, determination the feces water content, the total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (AN) concentration and NH3, H2S emission content in feces. The results showed that:The ratio of crude protein intake and demand increase, the nitrogen and sulfur content in feces and urine will increase. Protein, which more than demand will almost all be excreted through urine, the rate of increase urine nitrogen is greater than the rate of increase fecal nitrogen. Reduce the fecal nitrogen is not an effective way to reduce nitrogen pollution.

  12. The performance of fully automated urine analysis results for predicting the need of urine culture test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis and urine culture are most common tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study is to examine the diagnostic performance of urine analysis and the role of urine analysis to determine the requirements for urine culture. Methods: Urine culture and urine analysis results of 362 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Culture results were taken as a reference for chemical and microscopic examination of urine and diagnostic accuracy of the test parameters, that may be a marker for urinary tract infection, and the performance of urine analysis were calculated for predicting the urine culture requirements. Results: A total of 362 urine culture results of patients were evaluated and 67% of them were negative. The results of leukocyte esterase and nitrite in chemical analysis and leukocytes and bacteria in microscopic analysis were normal in 50.4% of culture negative urines. In diagnostic accuracy calculations, leukocyte esterase (86.1% and microscopy leukocytes (88.0% were found with high sensitivity, nitrite (95.4% and bacteria (86.6% were found with high specificity. The area under the curve was calculated as 0.852 in ROC analysis for microscopic examination for leukocytes. Conclusion: Full-automatic urine devices can provide sufficient diagnostic accuracy for urine analysis. The evaluation of urine analysis results in an effective way can predict the necessity for urine culture requests and especially may contribute to a reduction in the work load and cost. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 286-289

  13. Urine bag as a modern day matula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid.

  14. Urinary AQP2 excretion is increased during nephrotic syndrome and is associated with reduced urine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, René Frydensbjerg; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Frøkjær, Jørgen;

    : The concentration of uAQP2 was significantly higher during active NS compared to remission, 9.9 ng/ml (CI95% 4.3-22.5 ng/ml) vs. 3.9 ng/ml (CI95% 1.5-10.5 ng/ml), p=0.003. Mean urine production was 1.3 ml/h/kg during active NS compared to 1.0 ml/h/kg at remission, p=0.25. A linear regression analysis revealed...... a significant negative relationship between uAQP2 and urine production (r2=-0.20, p=0.05). Urine osmolality and urine production was negatively correlated (r2=-0.44, p=0.009) though urine osmolality did not differ comparing NS to remission 671±58 mOsm/kg vs. 703±44 mOsm/kg, p=0.62. CONCLUSIONS: During active NS...

  15. METHOD FOR THE CONFIRMATION OF CHLOROPHENOLS IN HUMAN URINE BY LC WITH AN ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described for the confirmation of chlorophenols in human urine. A hydrolyzed urine sample is analyzed by both gas chromatography (GC), and liquid chromatography (LC) with electrochemical detection and the results compared. A discussion of these results, including fact...

  16. Comparison of proteomic biomarker panels in urine and serum for ovarian cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Anette Lykke; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Høgdall, Estrid;

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to confirm previously found candidate epithelial ovarian cancer biomarkers in urine and to compare a paired serum biomarker panel and a urine biomarker panel from the same study cohort with regard to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) area under the ...

  17. Contamination Rates of Three Urine-Sampling Methods to Assess Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Visser, Caroline E.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate and compare contamination rates of three different urine-sampling methods in pregnant women to assess bacteriuria. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 113 pregnant women collected three different midstream urine samples consecutively: morning (first void); midstream (void

  18. Combined cervical swab and urine specimens for PCR diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, M; Reynolds, M.; Hoy, C.; Brayson, J.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Sampling of both the cervix and urine increases the chance of detection of Chlamydia trachomatis compared with sampling either site alone. We determined the effect of combining urine and cervical swab specimens in the clinic setting on the sensitivity of C trachomatis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing.

  19. The Recovery of Water and Nitrogen from Urine in BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong; Deng, Shengda

    The recycle and reuse of the wastewater is one of the main factors for realizing a higher closure degree of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), and the treatment and recovery of the crew’s urine are the most difficult and critical issues. Urine contains a lot of water and high concentrations of urea and salts. Water can be used for the irrigation of the plants in BLSS, and the nitrogen is also the necessary nutrient for plant growth. Therefore, if the nitrogen could be recycled simultaneously while desalting the urine, the substance circulation and the closure of BLSS could be improved significantly. In this study, two-step method was conducted to treat the urine and recycle the water and nitrogen. The urea was hydrolyzed firstly, and then the water vapor and ammonia gas were cooled and collected by using reduced pressure distillation in alkaline condition. High temperature acidification and urease processing methods were studied during the urea hydrolysis step. The treatment conditions of both methods were optimized and the degrees of hydrolysis were compared. This investigation may provide a reference for the establishment of the urine recycle in BLSS.

  20. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, Robin A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment, which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for color change (xanthochromia, which is inaccurate. Bayer Multistix® urine test strips are designed to test urine for RBC by detecting the presence of hemoglobin. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the perfomance of urine reagent test strips for ruling out the presence of RBC in CSF.Methods: We compared color changes on Multistix® urine test strips to the standard of spectrophotometric absorbtion at 415nm and initial RBC counts in 138 visually clear CSF samples.Results: We performed Pearson Chi-Square and likelihood ratios on the results and found a correlation between a negative result on the urine test strip and less than 5 RBC per high power field and a spectrophotometric absorbance of less than 0.02% at 415nm in a CSF sample.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation in the form of a prospective clinical validation as it may alter the emergency department evaluation for SAH. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:63-66.

  1. Urine and serum concentrations of inhaled and oral terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Hostrup, Morten; Pedersen, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    We examined urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic use of single and repetitive doses of inhaled and supratherapeutic oral use of terbutaline. We compared the concentrations in 10 asthmatics and 10 healthy subjects in an open-label, cross-over study with 2 mg inhaled and 10 mg oral terb...... therapeutic and prohibited use based on doping tests with urine and blood samples....... terbutaline on 2 study days. Further, 10 healthy subjects were administrated 1 mg inhaled terbutaline in 4 repetive doses with total 4 mg. Blood samples were collected at baseline and during 6 h after the first inhalations. Urine samples were collected at baseline and during 12 h after the first inhalations...

  2. Infinite dilution conductimetry of plasma and urine: correlation with osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genain, C; Tellier, P; Syrota, A; Pocidalo, J J; Hans, M

    1978-08-15

    The infinite dilution conductivity (IDC) of plasma and urine allows a measurement of the electrolyte content in small samples (5 to 15 microliter). The method was compared to the corrected osmolality (II'p) measured by the freezing-point depression. A linear correlation existed between II'p and the IDC: for plasma: II'p = 13.10 sigma o,p + 37.00 (n = 46 and r = 0.9949) for urine: II'u = 12.75 sigma o,u + 16.56 (n = 85 and r = 0.9504). The measurement of the IDC does not depend on protein concentration and can be used instead of the osmometer methods to determine the total plasma and urine electrolyte content.

  3. Analysis of uranium in urine by delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method developed at LASL for the measurement of uranium concentration in water samples delayed neutron counting (DNC) after reactor irradiation had been applied to urine analysis for the routine monitoring of personnel. For calibration purposes urine solutions were spiked with known amounts of depleted, natural or enriched uranium. Spiked samples were analyzed by DNC, as well as by fluorometric analysis for natural U, and by wet chemical isolation followed by α-measurement for enriched U, and results are compared. The DNC method is shown to be highly reliable and to have greater precision than the other two methods. The sensitivity and limitations of the DNC method, and experience with routine samples are discussed. For routine use the % 235U in the uranium should be known. DNC can also be used for Pu measurement in urine after accidental exposure if the exposure is known to be 239Pu, but the lower limit of detection is too high for routine monitoring. (author)

  4. Nutrients in urine: energetic aspects of removal and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, M.; Schwegler, P.; Larsen, T.A. [EAWAG, Environmental Engineering, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    The analysis of different removal and recovery techniques for nutrients in urine shows that in many cases recovery is energetically more efficient than removal and new-production for natural resources. Considering only the running electricity and fossil energy requirements for the traditional way of wastewater treatment and fertiliser production, the following specific energy requirements can be calculated: 45 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub N} for denitrification in a WWTP, 49 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub P} for P-precipitation in a WWTP, 45 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub N} for N-fertiliser and 29 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub P} for P-fertiliser production. These numbers are higher than the values derived for thermal volume reduction of urine (35 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub N} for eliminating 90% water) or production of struvite (102 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub N}, including 2.2 kg P). Considering only the electricity and fossil energy for the traditional way of wastewater treatment and fertiliser production, the energy value of 1 PE urine is 0.87 MJ PE{sup -1}d{sup -1} (fertiliser value: 0.44, wastewater treatment: 0.43 MJ PE{sup -1}d{sup -1}). A more detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of the entire urine collection system, including the required materials and the environmental burden, support the energy analysis. The LCA compares conventional denitrification in a wastewater treatment plant with collecting urine in households, reducing the volume by evaporation and using it as a multi-nutrient fertiliser. The primary energy consumption for recovery and reuse of urine, including the nutrients N, P and K, is calculated with 65 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub N}, compared with 153 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub N} derived for the conventional 'recycling over the atmosphere'. (author)

  5. Optimization for Peptide Sample Preparation for Urine Peptidomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hsieh, Szu-Chuan; Dai, Hong; Qian, Weijun; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2014-02-25

    Analysis of native or endogenous peptides in biofluids can provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms. Furthermore, the detected peptides may also have utility as potential biomarkers for non-invasive monitoring of human diseases. The non-invasive nature of urine collection and the abundance of peptides in the urine makes analysis by high-throughput ‘peptidomics’ methods , an attractive approach for investigating the pathogenesis of renal disease. However, urine peptidomics methodologies can be problematic with regards to difficulties associated with sample preparation. The urine matrix can provide significant background interference in making the analytical measurements that it hampers both the identification of peptides and the depth of the peptidomics read when utilizing LC-MS based peptidome analysis. We report on a novel adaptation of the standard solid phase extraction (SPE) method to a modified SPE (mSPE) approach for improved peptide yield and analysis sensitivity with LC-MS based peptidomics in terms of time, cost, clogging of the LC-MS column, peptide yield, peptide quality, and number of peptides identified by each method. Expense and time requirements were comparable for both SPE and mSPE, but more interfering contaminants from the urine matrix were evident in the SPE preparations (e.g., clogging of the LC-MS columns, yellowish background coloration of prepared samples due to retained urobilin, lower peptide yields) when compared to the mSPE method. When we compared data from technical replicates of 4 runs, the mSPE method provided significantly improved efficiencies for the preparation of samples from urine (e.g., mSPE peptide identification 82% versus 18% with SPE; p = 8.92E-05). Additionally, peptide identifications, when applying the mSPE method, highlighted the biology of differential activation of urine peptidases during acute renal transplant rejection with distinct laddering of specific peptides, which was obscured for most proteins

  6. A history of urine microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, J Stewart

    2015-11-01

    The naked-eye appearance of the urine must have been studied by shamans and healers since the Stone Age, and an elaborate interpretation of so-called Uroscopy began around 600 AD as a form of divination. A 1000 years later, the first primitive monocular and compound microscopes appeared in the Netherlands, and along with many other objects and liquids, urine was studied from around 1680 onwards as the enlightenment evolved. However, the crude early instruments did not permit fine study because of chromatic and linear/spherical blurring. Only after complex multi-glass lenses which avoided these problems had been made and used in the 1820s in London by Lister, and in Paris by Chevalier and Amici, could urinary microscopy become a practical, clinically useful tool in the 1830s. Clinical urinary microscopy was pioneered by Rayer and his pupils in Paris (especially Vigla), in the late 1830s, and spread to UK and Germany in the 1840s, with detailed descriptions and interpretations of cells and formed elements of the urinary sediment by Nasse, Henle, Robinson and Golding Bird. Classes were held, most notably by Donné in Paris. After another 50 years, optical microscopy had reached its apogee, with magnifications of over 1000 times obtainable free of aberration, using immersion techniques. Atlases of the urinary sediment were published in all major European countries and in the US. Polarised light and phase contrast was used also after 1900 to study urine, and by the early 20th century, photomicroscopy (pioneered by Donné and Daguerre 50 years previously, but then ignored) became usual for teaching and recording. In the 1940s electron microscopy began, followed by detection of specific proteins and cells using immunofluorescent antibodies. All this had been using handheld methodology. Around 1980, machine-assisted observations began, and have dominated progress since. PMID:26079823

  7. A history of urine microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, J Stewart

    2015-11-01

    The naked-eye appearance of the urine must have been studied by shamans and healers since the Stone Age, and an elaborate interpretation of so-called Uroscopy began around 600 AD as a form of divination. A 1000 years later, the first primitive monocular and compound microscopes appeared in the Netherlands, and along with many other objects and liquids, urine was studied from around 1680 onwards as the enlightenment evolved. However, the crude early instruments did not permit fine study because of chromatic and linear/spherical blurring. Only after complex multi-glass lenses which avoided these problems had been made and used in the 1820s in London by Lister, and in Paris by Chevalier and Amici, could urinary microscopy become a practical, clinically useful tool in the 1830s. Clinical urinary microscopy was pioneered by Rayer and his pupils in Paris (especially Vigla), in the late 1830s, and spread to UK and Germany in the 1840s, with detailed descriptions and interpretations of cells and formed elements of the urinary sediment by Nasse, Henle, Robinson and Golding Bird. Classes were held, most notably by Donné in Paris. After another 50 years, optical microscopy had reached its apogee, with magnifications of over 1000 times obtainable free of aberration, using immersion techniques. Atlases of the urinary sediment were published in all major European countries and in the US. Polarised light and phase contrast was used also after 1900 to study urine, and by the early 20th century, photomicroscopy (pioneered by Donné and Daguerre 50 years previously, but then ignored) became usual for teaching and recording. In the 1940s electron microscopy began, followed by detection of specific proteins and cells using immunofluorescent antibodies. All this had been using handheld methodology. Around 1980, machine-assisted observations began, and have dominated progress since.

  8. Correlation of 2 hour, 4 hour, 8 hour and 12 hour urine protein with 24 hour urinary protein in preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Rani Singhal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To find shortest and reliable time period of urine collection for determination of proteinuria.It is a prospective study carried out on 125 pregnant women with preeclampsia after 20 weeks of gestation having urine albumin >1 using dipstick test. Urine was collected in five different time intervals in colors labeled containers with the assistance of nursing staff; the total collection time was 24 hours. Total urine protein of two-hour, four-hour, eight-hour, 12-hour and 24-hour urine was measured and compared with 24-hour collection. Data was analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient.There was significant correlation (p value < 0.01 in two, four, eight and 12-hour urine protein with 24-urine protein, with correlation coefficient of 0.97, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. When a cut off value of 25 mg, 50 mg. 100 mg, and 150 mg for urine protein were used for 2-hour, 4-hours, 8-hour and 12-hour urine collection, a sensitivity of 92.45%, 95.28%, 91.51%, and 96.23% and a specificity of 68.42%, 94.74%, 84.21% and 84.21% were obtained, respectively.Two-hour urine proteins can be used for assessment of proteinuria in preeclampsia instead of gold standard 24-hour urine collection for early diagnosis and better patient compliance.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of triiodothyronine in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 21 cases of hypothyroidism, in 39 cases of hyperthyroidism, in 54 healthy subjects, in 23 pregnant women, and in certain internal diseases determinations of triiodothyronine were carried out in urine by radioimmunoassay. Anti-T3 antibodies were obtained in rabbits and sheep immunized with a complex of bovine albumin with triiodothyronine ester. Labelled triiodothyronine of high specific activity was obtained by iodinating triodothyronine by the chloramine method. Determinations of triiodothyronine were performed in morning urine and the obtained values were calculated for one-hour excretion. In healthy subjects the excretion of T3 was from 20 to 95 ng/hour, in hyperthyroidism it was significantly raised to from 120 to over 600 ng/hour, while in most cases of hypothyroidism it was decreased. In pregnancy the urinary excretion of T3 was normal amounting to from 34 to 87 ng/hour, although in most cases the serum T3 concentration was raised. In cases of anorexia nervosa and in obese starving subjects the excretion of T3 fell significantly, and similarly low excretion was found in some cases of debilitating diseases and myocardial infarction. (author)

  10. Comparison of Plasma and Urine Biomarker Performance in Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schley, Gunnar; Köberle, Carmen; Manuilova, Ekaterina; Rutz, Sandra; Forster, Christian; Weyand, Michael; Formentini, Ivan; Kientsch-Engel, Rosemarie; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Willam, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Background New renal biomarkers measured in urine promise to increase specificity for risk stratification and early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) but concomitantly may be altered by urine concentration effects and chronic renal insufficiency. This study therefore directly compared the performance of AKI biomarkers in urine and plasma. Methods This single-center, prospective cohort study included 110 unselected adults undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between 2009 and 2010. Plasma and/or urine concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM1), and albumin as well as 15 additional biomarkers in plasma and urine were measured during the perioperative period. The primary outcome was AKI defined by AKIN serum creatinine criteria within 72 hours after surgery. Results Biomarkers in plasma showed markedly better discriminative performance for preoperative risk stratification and early postoperative (within 24h after surgery) detection of AKI than urine biomarkers. Discriminative power of urine biomarkers improved when concentrations were normalized to urinary creatinine, but urine biomarkers had still lower AUC values than plasma biomarkers. Best diagnostic performance 4h after surgery had plasma NGAL (AUC 0.83), cystatin C (0.76), MIG (0.74), and L-FAPB (0.73). Combinations of multiple biomarkers did not improve their diagnostic power. Preoperative clinical scoring systems (EuroSCORE and Cleveland Clinic Foundation Score) predicted the risk for AKI (AUC 0.76 and 0.71) and were not inferior to biomarkers. Preexisting chronic kidney disease limited the diagnostic performance of both plasma and urine biomarkers. Conclusions In our cohort plasma biomarkers had higher discriminative power for risk stratification and early diagnosis of AKI than urine biomarkers. For preoperative risk stratification of AKI clinical models showed

  11. Comparison of Plasma and Urine Biomarker Performance in Acute Kidney Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Schley

    Full Text Available New renal biomarkers measured in urine promise to increase specificity for risk stratification and early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI but concomitantly may be altered by urine concentration effects and chronic renal insufficiency. This study therefore directly compared the performance of AKI biomarkers in urine and plasma.This single-center, prospective cohort study included 110 unselected adults undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between 2009 and 2010. Plasma and/or urine concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM1, and albumin as well as 15 additional biomarkers in plasma and urine were measured during the perioperative period. The primary outcome was AKI defined by AKIN serum creatinine criteria within 72 hours after surgery.Biomarkers in plasma showed markedly better discriminative performance for preoperative risk stratification and early postoperative (within 24h after surgery detection of AKI than urine biomarkers. Discriminative power of urine biomarkers improved when concentrations were normalized to urinary creatinine, but urine biomarkers had still lower AUC values than plasma biomarkers. Best diagnostic performance 4h after surgery had plasma NGAL (AUC 0.83, cystatin C (0.76, MIG (0.74, and L-FAPB (0.73. Combinations of multiple biomarkers did not improve their diagnostic power. Preoperative clinical scoring systems (EuroSCORE and Cleveland Clinic Foundation Score predicted the risk for AKI (AUC 0.76 and 0.71 and were not inferior to biomarkers. Preexisting chronic kidney disease limited the diagnostic performance of both plasma and urine biomarkers.In our cohort plasma biomarkers had higher discriminative power for risk stratification and early diagnosis of AKI than urine biomarkers. For preoperative risk stratification of AKI clinical models showed similar discriminative performance

  12. COX-2 disruption leads to increased central vasopressin stores and impaired urine concentrating ability in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norregaard, Rikke; Madsen, Kirsten Morill; Hansen, Pernille Bl;

    2011-01-01

    RNA and peptide level, AVP plasma concentration, and AVP-regulated renal transport protein abundances were measured. In male COX-2(-/-), basal urine output and water intake were elevated while urine osmolality was decreased compared with WT. Water deprivation resulted in lower urine osmolality, higher plasma......It was hypothesized that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes urine concentrating ability through stimulation of vasopressin (AVP) release after water deprivation (WD). COX-2-deficient (COX-2(-/-), C57BL/6) and wild-type (WT) mice were water deprived for 24 h, and water balance, central AVP m...... is not necessary for enhanced AVP expression and secretion in response to water deprivation. Renal medullary COX-2 activity negatively regulates AQP2 and -3. The urine concentrating defect in COX-2(-/-) is likely caused by developmental glomerular injury and not dysregulation of AVP or collecting duct aquaporins....

  13. Non-invasive optical detection of esophagus cancer based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaohua; Wang, Lan; Chen, Weiwei; Lin, Duo; Huang, Lingling; Wu, Shanshan; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    A surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) approach was utilized for urine biochemical analysis with the aim to develop a label-free and non-invasive optical diagnostic method for esophagus cancer detection. SERS spectrums were acquired from 31 normal urine samples and 47 malignant esophagus cancer (EC) urine samples. Tentative assignments of urine SERS bands demonstrated esophagus cancer specific changes, including an increase in the relative amounts of urea and a decrease in the percentage of uric acid in the urine of normal compared with EC. The empirical algorithm integrated with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to identify some important urine SERS bands for differentiation between healthy subjects and EC urine. The empirical diagnostic approach based on the ratio of the SERS peak intensity at 527 to 1002 cm-1 and 725 to 1002 cm-1 coupled with LDA yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 72.3% and specificity of 96.8%, respectively. The area under the receive operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.954, which further evaluate the performance of the diagnostic algorithm based on the ratio of the SERS peak intensity combined with LDA analysis. This work demonstrated that the urine SERS spectra associated with empirical algorithm has potential for noninvasive diagnosis of esophagus cancer.

  14. Substoichiometry and radioactive isotopic dilution determination of trace content of zinc in human's hair and urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment has been successfully used in substoichiometry and isotopic dilution for determining trace content of zinc in human's hair and urine. Experimental results are compared with those using others methods

  15. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de un análisis de orina (video) It may seem gross and embarrassing to pee ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: maple syrup urine disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urine Disease Mitsubuchi H, Owada M, Endo F. Markers associated with inborn errors of metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and their relevance to upper levels of intake in healthy people: an implication from clinical and molecular investigations on maple syrup urine disease. J Nutr. ...

  17. Microalgae growth on concentrated human urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuantet, K.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Temmink, H.; Zeeman, G.; Wijffels, R.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, for the first time, a microalga was grown on non-diluted human urine. The essential growth requirements for the species Chlorella sorokiniana were determined for different types of human urine (fresh, hydrolysed, male and female). Batch experimental results using microtiter plates sho

  18. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de ...

  19. Sheath flow SERS for chemical profiling in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Colleen M; Jacobs, Kevin T; Negri, Pierre; Schultz, Zachary D

    2016-06-23

    The molecular specificity and sensitivity of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) makes it an attractive method for biomedical diagnostics. Here we present results demonstrating the utility and complications for SERS characterization in urine. The chemical fingerprint characteristics of Raman spectra suggest its use as a label free diagnostic; however, the complex composition of biological fluids presents a tremendous challenge. In particular, the limited number of surface sites and competing absorption tend to mask the presence of analytes in solution, particularly when the solution contains multiple analytes. To address these problems and characterize biological fluids we have demonstrated a sheath-flow interface for SERS detection. This sheath-flow SERS interface uses hydrodynamic focusing to confine analyte molecules eluting out of a column onto a planar SERS substrate where the molecules are detected by their intrinsic SERS signal. In this report we compare the direct detection of benzoylecgonine in urine using DSERS with chemical profiling by capillary zone electrophoresis and sheath-flow SERS detection. The SERS spectrum from the observed migration peaks can identify benzoylecgonine and other distinct spectra are also observed, suggesting improved chemical diagnostics in urine. With over 2000 reported compounds in urine, identification of each of the detected species is an enormous task. Nonetheless, these samples provide a benchmark to establish the potential clinical utility of sheath-flow SERS detection. PMID:27034996

  20. Evaluation of an automated urine chemistry reagent-strip analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, J A; Johnson, W R; Luke, K E

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the Miles Inc., Clinitek Atlas Automated Urine Chemistry Analyzer for 11 tests: bilirubin, color, glucose, ketones, leukocyte esterase, nitrite, occult blood, pH, protein, specific gravity, and urobilinogen. The instrument uses a roll of reagent strips affixed to a clear plastic support; urine specimens are automatically pipetted onto these strips. The instrument measures the pads' color using reflectance colorimetry. Specific gravity is measured using a fiberoptic refractive index method. Four hospitals participated in the evaluation, and tests were performed only on fresh urine samples. We found the instrument easy to use; it has walk-away capability with up to 40-specimen loading capacity plus spaces for STATs, calibrators and controls. We found good comparability with chemical tests and other nonreagent strip procedures, as well as good agreement with the Miles Inc. Clinitek 200+ urine chemistry analyzer and visual reading of the Miles Inc. Multistix Reagent Strips. The Clinitek Atlas is rugged and reliable, and is suitable for a high-volume urinalysis laboratory.

  1. Use of gonozyme on urine sediment for diagnosis of gonorrhea in males.

    OpenAIRE

    Schachter, J; Pang, F; Parks, R M; Smith, R.F.; Armstrong, A S

    1986-01-01

    We compared enzyme immunoassay (Gonozyme; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) for detection of gonococcal antigen in urine sediments with urethral swab culture for diagnosis of gonorrhea in men attending a venereal disease clinic. The prevalence of infection was 14% by culture (27/196). The sensitivity of enzyme immunoassay was 93% (25/27) compared with the culture method, and the specificity was 99% (167/169). The ability to detect gonococcal antigen in urine sediment may provide the b...

  2. Direct Agglutination Test and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay with Urine Samples for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishma-niasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkari B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or Kala azar is an infectious disease caused by various species of Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study was to detect and compare the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the urine of vis-ceral leishmaniasis patients using ELISA and DAT methods."nMethods: A total of 30 urine samples were collected from VL patients referred to Shiraz (southeast of Iran hospitals. Moreover 31 urine samples were collected from healthy individuals and patients with other diseases such as malaria, brucellosis, hydatidosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collected samples were examined to detect anti-Leishmania antibod-ies in urine, using ELISA and DAT."nResults: Anti-Leishmania antibody was detected in urine of 18 out of 30 (60% VL patients by DAT while ELISA detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in urine of 28 out of 30 (93.3% of VL cases. Sensitivity and specificity of urine-based DAT was 60% and 83.9%, respectively while sensitivity and specificity of urine-based ELISA were 93.3% and 93.5%, corre-spondingly. "nConclusion: Urine-based DAT and ELISA have a reasonable specificity and sensitivity in diagnosis of VL. Accordingly, urine-based ELISA might be a suitable alternative for serum based assays for diagnosis of VL.

  3. Elevated CXC chemokines in urine noninvasively discriminate OAB from UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Tyagi, Vikas; Qu, Xianggui; Chuang, Yao Chi; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Chancellor, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Overlapping symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) and urinary tract infection (UTI) often complicate the diagnosis and contribute to overprescription of antibiotics. Inflammatory response is a shared characteristic of both UTI and OAB and here we hypothesized that molecular differences in inflammatory response seen in urine can help discriminate OAB from UTI. Subjects in the age range of (20-88 yr) of either sex were recruited for this urine analysis study. Urine specimens were available from 62 UTI patients with positive dipstick test before antibiotic treatment. Six of these patients also provided urine after completion of antibiotic treatment. Subjects in cohorts of OAB (n = 59) and asymptomatic controls (n = 26) were negative for dipstick test. Urinary chemokines were measured by MILLIPLEX MAP Human Cytokine/Chemokine Immunoassay and their association with UTI and OAB was determined by univariate and multivariate statistics. Significant elevation of CXCL-1, CXCL-8 (IL-8), and CXCL-10 together with reduced levels for a receptor antagonist of IL-1A (sIL-1RA) were seen in UTI relative to OAB and asymptomatic controls. Elevated CXCL-1 urine levels predicted UTI with odds ratio of 1.018 and showed a specificity of 80.77% and sensitivity of 59.68%. Postantibiotic treatment, reduction was seen in all CXC chemokines with a significant reduction for CXCL-10. Strong association of CXCL-1 and CXCL-10 for UTI over OAB indicates mechanistic differences in signaling pathways driving inflammation secondary of infection in UTI compared with a lack of infection in OAB. Urinary chemokines highlight molecular differences in the paracrine signaling driving the overlapping symptoms of UTI and OAB.

  4. What constitutes a normal ante-mortem urine GHB concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Francesco; Politi, Lucia; Trignano, Claudia; Di Milia, Maria Grazia; Di Padua, Marianna; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2009-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is endogenously produced within the central nervous system, however it is also used as a medication for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions, sold under the name Zyrem in the United States and Alcover in Europe. It is a very dangerous drug with a very limited safety margin, and is classified as a controlled substance in many countries. The interpretation of post-mortem studies of GHB concentrations is problematic; GHB can be detected in urine and blood from non-GHB users, both before and after death, and concentrations in both matrices may rise with prolonged storage. Because it is produced as a post-mortem artifact, forensically defensible cut-offs for post-mortem blood concentrations have yet to be established. Given the enormous degree of inter and intra-individual variation in GHB production that has been documented, it is unlikely they ever will. The important issue for forensic scientists is whether the detection of GHB in urine, in concentrations above some yet to be determined value, can be used as evidence for drug facilitated assault. In an attempt to see if a cut-off level could be determined we analyzed urine from 39 alcoholics who were being treated with known oral doses of Alcover (group 1), and compared the results with concentrations found in the urine of 30 volunteers who had no exogenous GHB intake (group 2), and 30 urine specimens taken from the alcoholics before they initiated GHB therapy (Alcover treatment group 3). More than one third (36.6%) of subjects being treated with GHB were found to have urinary GHB concentration that fell between 2.75 and 10 microg/mL. The data suggests that caution must be used when applying the currently used cut-off of 10 microg/mL.

  5. Elevated CXC chemokines in urine noninvasively discriminate OAB from UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Tyagi, Vikas; Qu, Xianggui; Chuang, Yao Chi; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Chancellor, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Overlapping symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) and urinary tract infection (UTI) often complicate the diagnosis and contribute to overprescription of antibiotics. Inflammatory response is a shared characteristic of both UTI and OAB and here we hypothesized that molecular differences in inflammatory response seen in urine can help discriminate OAB from UTI. Subjects in the age range of (20-88 yr) of either sex were recruited for this urine analysis study. Urine specimens were available from 62 UTI patients with positive dipstick test before antibiotic treatment. Six of these patients also provided urine after completion of antibiotic treatment. Subjects in cohorts of OAB (n = 59) and asymptomatic controls (n = 26) were negative for dipstick test. Urinary chemokines were measured by MILLIPLEX MAP Human Cytokine/Chemokine Immunoassay and their association with UTI and OAB was determined by univariate and multivariate statistics. Significant elevation of CXCL-1, CXCL-8 (IL-8), and CXCL-10 together with reduced levels for a receptor antagonist of IL-1A (sIL-1RA) were seen in UTI relative to OAB and asymptomatic controls. Elevated CXCL-1 urine levels predicted UTI with odds ratio of 1.018 and showed a specificity of 80.77% and sensitivity of 59.68%. Postantibiotic treatment, reduction was seen in all CXC chemokines with a significant reduction for CXCL-10. Strong association of CXCL-1 and CXCL-10 for UTI over OAB indicates mechanistic differences in signaling pathways driving inflammation secondary of infection in UTI compared with a lack of infection in OAB. Urinary chemokines highlight molecular differences in the paracrine signaling driving the overlapping symptoms of UTI and OAB. PMID:27335375

  6. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A nonhazardous urine pretreatment system prototype is proposed that will stabilize urine against biological growth or chemical instabilities without using hazardous...

  7. Mass spectrometry for high-throughput metabolomics analysis of urine

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelrazig, Salah M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Direct electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (direct ESI-MS), by omitting the chromatographic step, has great potential for application as a high-throughput approach for untargeted urine metabolomics analysis compared to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The rapid development and technical innovations revealed in the field of ambient ionisation MS such as nanoelectrospray ionisation (nanoESI) chip-based infusion and liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA...

  8. Metabolomic Biomarkers in Serum and Urine in Women with Preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Austdal; Ragnhild Bergene Skråstad; Astrid Solberg Gundersen; Rigmor Austgulen; Ann-Charlotte Iversen; Tone Frost Bathen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential of magnetic resonance (MR) metabolomics for study of preeclampsia, for improved phenotyping and elucidating potential clues to etiology and pathogenesis. Methods Urine and serum samples from pregnant women with preeclampsia (n = 10), normal pregnancies (n = 10) and non-pregnant women (n = 10) matched by age and gestational age were analyzed with MR spectroscopy and subjected to multivariate analysis. Metabolites were then quantified and compared ...

  9. Psychogenic urine retention during doping controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Schlegel, Marius M.; Brand, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Psychogenic urine retention during doping controls (PURD) refers to an athlete's inability to urinate during a doping control. This paper reports PURD to occur quite frequently in elite athletes, investigates the relationship to the clinical disorder of paruresis (PAR), and investigates its...... and pencil study involving 222 German-speaking athletes from various sports. The results indicate that 60% of these athletes have experienced psychogenic urine retention during doping controls, with only 39% of them showing symptoms of paruresis. PURD impacts athlete recovery and self......-perception of professionalism and athletic excellence. Suggestions for psychological interventions and recommendations for improving the doping control system are given....

  10. Nitrous Oxide Fluxes, Soil Oxygen, and Denitrification Potential of Urine- and Non-Urine-Treated Soil under Different Irrigation Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jen; Clough, Tim J; Laubach, Johannes; Hunt, John E; Venterea, Rodney T; Phillips, Rebecca L

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased use of irrigation to improve forage quality and quantity for grazing cattle ( Linnaeus), there is a lack of data that assess how irrigation practices influence nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from urine-affected soils. Irrigation effects on soil oxygen (O) availability, a primary controller of NO fluxes, is poorly understood. It was hypothesized that increased irrigation frequency would result in lower NO emissions by increasing soil moisture and decreasing soil O concentrations. This would favor more NO reduction to dinitrogen (N). We examined effects of high (3-d) versus low (6-d) irrigation frequency with and without bovine urine addition to pasture. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured daily for 35 d. Soil O, temperature, and water content were continuously measured at multiple depths. Inorganic nitrogen, organic carbon, and soil pH were measured at 6-d intervals. Measurements of denitrification enzyme activity with and without acetylene inhibition were used to infer the NO/(NO + N) ratio. The NO/(NO + N) ratio was lower under high- compared with low-frequency irrigation, suggesting greater potential for NO reduction to N with more frequent irrigation. Although NO fluxes were increased by urine addition, they were not affected by irrigation frequency. Soil O decreased temporarily after urine deposition, but O dynamics did not explain NO dynamics. Relative soil gas diffusivity (/) was a better predictor of NO fluxes than O concentration. On a free-draining soil, increasing irrigation frequency while providing the same total water volume did not enhance NO emissions under ruminant urine patches in a grazed pasture. PMID:27380064

  11. Leukocyte counts in urine reflect the risk of concomitant sepsis in bacteriuric infants: A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harper Marvin B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When urine infections are missed in febrile young infants with normal urinalysis, clinicians may worry about the risk – hitherto unverified – of concomitant invasion of blood and cerebrospinal fluid by uropathogens. In this study, we determine the extent of this risk. Methods In a retrospective cohort study of febrile 0–89 day old infants evaluated for sepsis in an urban academic pediatric emergency department (1993–1999, we estimated rates of bacteriuric sepsis (urinary tract infections complicated by sepsis after stratifying infants by urine leukocyte counts higher, or lower than 10 cells/hpf. We compared the global accuracy of leukocytes in urine, leukocytes in peripheral blood, body temperature, and age for predicting bacteruric sepsis. The global accuracy of each test was estimated by calculating the area under its receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests compared count data. Medians for data not normally distributed were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Two thousand two hundred forty-nine young infants had a normal screening dipstick. None of these developed bacteremia or meningitis despite positive urine culture in 41 (1.8%. Of 1516 additional urine specimens sent for formal urinalysis, 1279 had 0–9 leukocytes/hpf. Urine pathogens were isolated less commonly (6% vs. 76% and at lower concentrations in infants with few, compared to many urine leukocytes. Urine leukocytes (AUC: 0.94 were the most accurate predictors of bacteruric sepsis. Infants with urinary leukocytes Conclusion In young infants evaluated for fever, leukocytes in urine reflect the likelihood of bacteriuric sepsis. Infants with urinary tract infections missed because of few leukocytes in urine are at relatively low risk of invasive bacterial sepsis by pathogens isolated from urine.

  12. On-Demand Urine Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research program will develop a novel surface-enhanced Raman (SER) sensor that will perform real-time chemical analysis of urine. It...

  13. Chlooramfenicol in urine van slachtdieren: een onderzoekmodel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel LA van; Rossum HJ van

    1989-01-01

    Een onderzoekmodel voor de detectie van chlooramfenicol (CAP) in monsters urine, gebaseerd op screening met de enzym immunochemische (Quik Card R) methode en bevestiging met gaschromatografie (GC)- massaspectrometrie (MS) wordt beschreven. Een gemeenschappelijke studie, waaraan zeven Nederlandse

  14. Murine Automated Urine Sampler (MAUS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines planned development for a low-power, low-mass automated urine sample collection and preservation system for small mammals, capable of...

  15. Endothelial function and urine albumin levels among asymptomatic Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic whites

    OpenAIRE

    Sklar Sharon K; Wong Nathan D; Allebban Zuhair; Gardin Julius M; Bess Renee L; Spence M Anne; Pershadsingh Harrihar A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background- Mexican-Americans (MA) exhibit increases in various cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), yet are reported to have lower CVD mortality rates. Our aim was to help explain this apparent paradox by evaluating endothelial function and urine albumin levels in MA and NHW. Methods- One hundred-five MA and 100 NHW adults were studied by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), blood and urine tests. Participants were studied by ul...

  16. Plasma and urine levels of electrolytes, urea and steroid hormones involved in osmoregulation of cetaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Birukawa, Naoko; Ando, Hironori; Goto, Mutsuo; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis A.; Nakatsuji, Hiroki; Hata, Hiroshi; Urano, Akihisa

    2005-01-01

    Cetaceans are well adapted to their hyperosmotic environment by properly developed osmoregulatory ability. A question here is how they regulate water and mineral balances in marine habitats. In the present study, we determined blood and urine levels of various chemicals involved in osmoregulation, compared them with those in artiodactyls, and characterized the values in the whales. Blood and urine samples obtained from baleen whales of common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), sei (B. boreal...

  17. The quantitation of 2-oxo-3-hydroxy lysergic acid diethylamide (O-H-LSD) in human urine specimens, a metabolite of LSD: comparative analysis using liquid chromatography-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, G K; Klette, K L; Anderson, C

    2000-04-01

    This paper compares the potential forensic application of two sensitive and rapid procedures (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry) for the detection and quantitation of 2-oxo-3-hydroxy lysergic acid diethylamide (O-H-LSD) a major LSD metabolite. O-H-LSD calibration curves for both procedures were linear over the concentration range 0-8,000 pg/mL with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.99. The observed limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) for O-H-LSD in both procedures was 400 pg/mL. Sixty-eight human urine specimens that had previously been found to contain LSD by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were reanalyzed by both procedures for LSD and O-H-LSD. These specimens contained a mean concentration of O-H-LSD approximately 16 times higher than the LSD concentration. Because both LC methods produce similar results, either procedure can be readily adapted to O-H-LSD analysis for use in high-volume drug-testing laboratories. In addition, the possibility of significantly increasing the LSD detection time window by targeting this major LSD metabolite for analysis may influence other drug-free workplace programs to test for LSD.

  18. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E;

    2014-01-01

    , and effects of increasing urinary N to 1000 kg N ha−1 or delaying nitrification by amendment of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD). Soil N2O concentration profiles and mineral N dynamics were monitored. The study was a randomized block experiment initiated in May 2012, in which urine deposition...... vegetation index (RVI). Compared to unamended urine, emissions of N2O were significantly higher with urea-amendment, and lower with DCD amendment, also when expressed as proportions of N applied. Soil mineral N dynamics showed that N2O emissions were closely linked to nitrification activity....... There was no close relationship between N2O emissions and concentration profiles of N2O in the soil; instead, emissions were significantly (p amended soil, but not in reference soil. Based on patterns of mineral...

  19. An update on purple urine bag syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadano Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection

  20. Determination of DTPA in urine by paper chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A paper chromatographic assay has been developed for measuring DTPA in urine to within 10% at concentrations greater than 10-5 M. This rapid method is subject to few interferences, needs only 10 to 20 μl of urine, and requires minimal handling of radioactive urine. The method has been tested on in vitro and in vivo DTPA-spiked urine samples

  1. Peningkatan Kandungan Kalium Urin Setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Sari Buah Belimbing Manis (Averrhoa carambola (THE INCREASE OF POTASSIUM URINE CONTENT AFTER ADMINSTRATION OF CARAMBOLA (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA FRUIT JUICE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqiah Ganda Putri Panjaitan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. has been used as medicinal plant. This research has beenconducted to study the potential diuretic of fruit juice carambola extract on male rats. Diuretic activitywas tested by using Cumming’s method. The treatment was administered only once, and the urine up to 24hours after treatment was collected. The result shows that the administration of 1.6 mL/100 g body weightof fruit juice carambola extract resulted in lower urine volume compared to the without treatment orklortalidon at dose 0.315 mg/100 body weight (p>0.05. Furthermore, Na+ content in treatment rats’ wasurine lower compared to the without treatment or klortalidon (p<0.05. in contrast, high content of K+ wasobserveb in treatment  rast’ urine compared to the without treatment or klortalidon (p> 0.05. It is concludedthat the administration of carambola fruit juice extract may increase K+ content in urine and produce moreconcentrated urine. The mechanism of action, however, remains need to be proven, further.

  2. The potential of at-home prediction of the formation of urolithiasis by simple multi-frequency electrical conductivity of the urine and the comparison of its performance with urine ion-related indices, color and specific gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverio, Angelito A; Chung, Wen-Yaw; Cheng, Cheanyeh; Wang, Hai-Lung; Kung, Chien-Min; Chen, Jun; Tsai, Vincent F S

    2016-04-01

    It is important to control daily diet, water intake and life style as well as monitor the quality of urine for urolithiasis prevention. For decades, many ion-related indices have been developed for predicting the formation of urinary stones or urolithiasis, such as EQUILs, relative supersaturation (RSS), Tiselius indices (TI), Robertson risk factor algorithms (RRFA) and more recently, the Bonn risk index. However, they mostly demand robust laboratory analysis, are work-intensive, and even require complex computational programs to get the concentration patterns of several urine analytes. A simple and fast platform for measuring multi-frequency electrical conductivity (MFEC) of morning spot urine (random urine) to predict the onset of urolithiasis was implemented in this study. The performance thereof was compared to ion-related indices, urine color and specific gravity. The concentrations of relevant ions, color, specific gravity (SG) and MFEC (MFEC tested at 1, 10, 100, 5001 KHz and 1 MHz) of 80 random urine samples were examined after collection. Then, the urine samples were stored at 4 °C for 24 h to determine whether sedimentation would occur or not. Ion-activity product index of calcium oxalate (AP(CaOx) EQ2) was calculated. The correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color, SG and MFEC were analyzed. AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color and MFEC (at 5 frequencies) all demonstrated good prediction (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, respectively) for stone formation. The positive correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2 and MFEC is also significant (p = 0.01). MFEC provides a good metric for predicting the onset of urolithiasis, which is comparable to conventional ion-related indices and urine color. This technology can be implemented with much ease for objectively monitoring the quality of urine at points-of-care or at home.

  3. Law of Urination: all mammals empty their bladders over the same duration

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Patricia J; Choo, Jerome; Hu, David L

    2013-01-01

    The urinary system evolved to eject fluids from the body body quickly and efficiently. Despite a long history of successful urology treatments in humans and animals, the physics of urination has received comparatively little attention. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate the hydrodynamics of urination across five orders of magnitude in animal mass, from mice to elephants. Using high-speed fluid dynamics videos and flow-rate measurement at Zoo Atlanta, we discover the "Law of Urination", which states animals empty their bladders over nearly constant duration of average 21 seconds (standard deviation 13 seconds), despite a difference in bladder volume from 100 mL to 100 L. This feat is made possible by the increasing urethra length of large animals which amplifies gravitational force and flow rate. We also demonstrate the challenges faced by the urinary system for rodents and other small mammals for which urine flow is limited to single drops. Our findings reveal the urethr...

  4. Efficacy of Cow Urine as Plant Growth Enhancer and Antifungal Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Jandaik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine antifungal activity of three different concentrations (5, 10, and 15% of cow urine against three fungal pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotium rolfsii isolated from infected plants of Methi and Bhindi that showed symptoms of damping off and wilting disease by poison food technique. The extent of growth of test fungi in plates poisoned with cow urine was lesser when compared with the control plates. Among these concentrations cow urine at 15% concentration was most effective. When the three fungal organisms were compared, maximum growth suppression was observed in Fusarium oxysporum (78.57% at 15% concentration of cow urine followed by Rhizoctonia solani (78.37% and Sclerotium rolfsii (73.84%. Finally we concluded that the cow urine has antifungal activities and the inhibitory activity can be used in the control of fungi. The nutritional effect of cow urine on plant growth was also tested with Trigonella foenum-graecum (Methi and Abelmoschus esculentus (Bhindi plants and the chlorophyll and protein content was also estimated.

  5. Urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, J; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, J;

    2011-01-01

    We examined blood and urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol in relation to the existing cut-off value used in routine doping control. We compared the concentrations in asthmatics with regular use of beta2-agonists prior to study and healthy controls with no previous use...... of beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label study in which subjects inhaled repetitive doses of 400 microgram salbutamol every second hour (total 1600 microgram), which is the permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected...... and the median ranged from 268 to 611 ng×mL (-1). No samples exceeded the WADA threshold value of 1000 ng×mL (-1) when corrected for the urine specific gravity. When not corrected one sample exceeded the cut-off value with urine concentration of 1082 ng×mL (-1). In conclusion we found no differences in blood...

  6. Male panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) urine contains kinship information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU DingZhen; WEI RongPing; ZHANG GuiQuan; YUAN Hong; WANG ZhiPeng; SUN Lixing; ZHANG dianXu; ZHANG HeMin

    2008-01-01

    Chemical communication plays an important role in kin selection and mate choice in mammals. The covariance of odor-genes of rodents has been documented and kinship odor has been proposed and termed, yet little is known of the relationship between genetic relatedness and chemical composition of kinship odors. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) rely substantially on chemical communication to mediate their social interactions. To examine the relationship between genetic relatedness and compounds in the urine/anogenital gland secretions, we compared the similarities between genetic relatedness and the chemical profiles of anogenital gland secretions and urine via lineage construction and GC-MS (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry). We found that information about kinship odors was present only in the urine of male adults in the mating season but absent in the non-mating season. Adult females and all sub-adults did not have such kinship odors in either mating or non-mating season. Therefore, kinship odor in the panda was contingent on age, sex, and season. This is the first report about the condition-dependent expression of kinship odor, which may have a sig-nificant implication in the practice of panda conservation in relation to chemical communication and sexual selection.

  7. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkar Nandita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C ratio ii nuclear pleomorphism iii nuclear margin irregularity iv hyperchromasia and v chromatin abnormalities Conclusion The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.

  8. Surface glycosylation profiles of urine extracellular vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Q Gerlach

    Full Text Available Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs are released by cells throughout the nephron and contain biomolecules from their cells of origin. Although uEV-associated proteins and RNA have been studied in detail, little information exists regarding uEV glycosylation characteristics. Surface glycosylation profiling by flow cytometry and lectin microarray was applied to uEVs enriched from urine of healthy adults by ultracentrifugation and centrifugal filtration. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin microarray profiles was confirmed by competitive sugar inhibition and carbohydrate-specific enzyme hydrolysis. Glycosylation profiles of uEVs and purified Tamm Horsfall protein were compared. In both flow cytometry and lectin microarray assays, uEVs demonstrated surface binding, at low to moderate intensities, of a broad range of lectins whether prepared by ultracentrifugation or centrifugal filtration. In general, ultracentrifugation-prepared uEVs demonstrated higher lectin binding intensities than centrifugal filtration-prepared uEVs consistent with lesser amounts of co-purified non-vesicular proteins. The surface glycosylation profiles of uEVs showed little inter-individual variation and were distinct from those of Tamm Horsfall protein, which bound a limited number of lectins. In a pilot study, lectin microarray was used to compare uEVs from individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to those of age-matched controls. The lectin microarray profiles of polycystic kidney disease and healthy uEVs showed differences in binding intensity of 6/43 lectins. Our results reveal a complex surface glycosylation profile of uEVs that is accessible to lectin-based analysis following multiple uEV enrichment techniques, is distinct from co-purified Tamm Horsfall protein and may demonstrate disease-specific modifications.

  9. Solar thermal evaporation of human urine for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonini, Samantha, E-mail: sam_antonini@uni-bonn.de; Nguyen, Phong Thanh; Arnold, Ute; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    A No Mix sanitation system was installed in a dormitory at the University of Can Tho in Vietnam, with the objective of recycling nutrients from source separated urine. This paper presents a pilot scale evaporation technology, and investigates the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from human urine by solar still for use as fertilizer. After 26 days of sun exposure, 360 g of solid fertilizer material was recovered from 50 L undiluted urine. This urine-derived fertilizer was mainly composed of sodium chloride, and had phosphorus and nitrogen contents of almost 2%. When tested with maize and ryegrass, the urine fertilizer led to biomass yields and phosphorus and nitrogen uptakes comparable to those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Urine acidification with sulfuric or phosphoric acid prior treatment reduced nitrogen losses, improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers, and induced higher biomass yields and nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes than the commercial mineral fertilizer. However, acidification is not recommended in developing countries due to additional costs and handling risks. The fate of micropollutants and the possibility of separating sodium chloride from other beneficial nutrients require further investigation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 360 g of fertilizer was derived from 50 L urine by solar evaporative distillation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fertilizer contained 90% sodium chloride, 3% sulfur, 2% nitrogen, 2% phosphorus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It induced biomass yields comparable to those produced by a commercial fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine acidification improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acidification is not recommended for use in developing countries (costs, safety).

  10. The recycle of water and nitrogen from urine in bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengda; Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The recycle of the wastewater is one of the main factors for realizing a higher closure degree of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), among which the treatment and recovery of the crew's urine are the most difficult and critical issues. Researchers have paid a lot of attention on the desalination of urine in the previous studies, however, if the nitrogen could be recycled simultaneously while desalting the urine, the substance circulation and the closure of BLSS could be improved more significantly. In this study, two-step method was conducted to treat the urine and recycle the water and nitrogen. The urine was hydrolyzed firstly, and then the water vapor and ammonia gas were cooled and collected by using reduced pressure distillation in alkaline condition. High temperature acidification method (HTAM) and immobilized urease catalysis method (IUCM) were investigated in the hydrolysis pretreatment of urine. The treatment conditions of both methods were optimized and the hydrolysis efficiencies were compared. The results showed that the optimum treatment temperature and acidity for HTAM were 99 °C and [H+] =2 mol/L when the reaction time was 7 h, and the maximum nitrogen recycle efficiency was 39.7%. While, the optimum treatment conditions for IUCM were 60 °C, pH=7.0 and 40 min, and the maximum nitrogen recycle efficiency could reach 52.2%. Therefore, compared with HTAM, IUCM has higher hydrolysis efficiency with milder reaction temperature and pH and shorter reaction time which means it could adapt to the heavy urine treatment workload in BLSS. This investigation has provided a promising method to recycle the urine in BLSS, and all the results will contribute to the further BLSS experiments conducted in the stage II of the "Lunar Palace 1".

  11. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution (1961); Les mecanismes de concentration et de dilution de l'urine (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F.; Guinnebault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a problem in the field of renal physiology which has shown many new developments during the course of the last few years. The following are treated successively: a) the data obtained from measurements of free water clearance and their interpretation; b) the data provided by nephron morphology and the comparative anatomy of the kidney ; c) the data relative to the existence of an intrarenal osmotic gradient; d) the principle of concentration multiplication by a counter current technique; e) the present day theory of counter current concentration of urine, and f) the physiological check on dilution and concentration mechanisms in urine. Lastly, the advantages of the modern theory and the unknown factors which remain are discussed. (authors) [French] Cette revue de question est consacree l'analyse d'un probleme de physiologie renale qui, au cours des dernieres annees, a subi un developpement et un renouveau remarquables. Sont successivement exposes: a) les donnees fournies par les mesures de clearance de l'eau libre et leur interpretation; b) les donnees fournies par la morphologie des nephrons et l'anatomie comparee du rein; c) les donnees concernant l'existence d'un gradient osmotique intrarenal; d) le principe de multiplication de concentration par contrecourant; e) la theorie actuelle de concentration de l'urine par contre-courant, et f) le controle physiologique des mecanismes de dilution et de concentration de l'urine. Les avantages de la theorie moderne et les obscurites qui subsistent sont enfin discutes. (auteurs)

  12. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  13. Sequential analysis of selected actinides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitoring of personnel by urinalysis for suspected contamination by actinides necessitated the development and implementation of an analytical scheme that will separate and identify alpha emitting radionuclides of these elements. The present work deals with Pu, Am, and Th. These elements are separated from an ashed urine sample by means of coprecipitation and ion exchange techniques. The final analysis is carried out by electroplating the actinides and counting in a α-spectrometer. Mean recoveries of these elements from urine are: Pu 64%, Am 74% and Th 69%. (auth)

  14. Investigation of Urination Disorder in Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Mei Zhang; Xu-Ping Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Urination disorders are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and respond poorly to medication.This study aimed to analyze the risk factors for urination disorders in PD.Methods:Ninety-one patients with PD (aged 34-83 years old) were recruited.Patients were assessed with the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS),Hoehn and Yahr stage,Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI),Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD),and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA).Micturition number was recorded,and Type B ultrasound was used to evaluate residual urine.Statistics was performed using binary logistic regression,bivariate correlations,and Chi-square and t-tests.Results:Of 91 patients,urinary dysfunction occurred in 55.0%.Among these,49.5% suffered with nocturia,47.3% with pollakiuria.Nocturia number had a positive linear relationship with HAMA score (odds ratio [OR] =0.340,P =0.001),HAMD score (OR =0.323,P =0.002),duration of L-dopa medication (OR =0.328,P =0.001),dose of L-dopa (OR =0.273,P =0.009),UPDRS-Ⅱ (OR =0.402,P =0.000),UPDRS-Ⅲ score (OR =0.291,P =0.005),and PSQI score (OR =0.249,P =0.017).Micturition number over 24 h was positively associated with HAMA (OR =0.303,P =0.004) and UPDRS-Ⅱ scores (OR =0.306,P =0.003).Of patients with residual urine,79.3% had a volume of residual urine <50 ml.Residual urine was present in 44.4% of the patients with nocturia,46.5% of the patients with pollakiuria,and 80.0% of the patients with dysuria.More men than women had residual urine (35.2% male vs.13.3% female;P =0.002).Conclusions:Nocturia and pollakiuria were common micturition symptoms in our participants with PD.Nocturia was associated with depression,anxiety,sleep problems,and severity of PD.Pollakiuria was associated with anxiety and severity of PD.Male patients were more prone to residual urine and pollakiuria.

  15. Solar thermal evaporation of human urine for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Samantha; Nguyen, Phong Thanh; Arnold, Ute; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    A No Mix sanitation system was installed in a dormitory at the University of Can Tho in Vietnam, with the objective of recycling nutrients from source separated urine. This paper presents a pilot scale evaporation technology, and investigates the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from human urine by solar still for use as fertilizer. After 26 days of sun exposure, 360 g of solid fertilizer material was recovered from 50 L undiluted urine. This urine-derived fertilizer was mainly composed of sodium chloride, and had phosphorus and nitrogen contents of almost 2%. When tested with maize and ryegrass, the urine fertilizer led to biomass yields and phosphorus and nitrogen uptakes comparable to those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Urine acidification with sulfuric or phosphoric acid prior treatment reduced nitrogen losses, improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers, and induced higher biomass yields and nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes than the commercial mineral fertilizer. However, acidification is not recommended in developing countries due to additional costs and handling risks. The fate of micropollutants and the possibility of separating sodium chloride from other beneficial nutrients require further investigation. PMID:22172663

  16. Detection of bladder transitional cell carcinoma: urinary hTERT assay versus urine cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahyazadeh SR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC of bladder is the second most common urogenital malignancy and because of its high rate of recurrence (two third of tumors recur vigilant surveillance is necessary. There have been a lot of efforts to find a proper biomarker for detecting urothelial cancers because available methods are expensive and invasive (like cystoscopy or have a low degree of sensitivity (like urine cytology. Urothelial malignancies, like other cancers tend to express a large amount of telomerase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible application of voided urine human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT mRNA assay in detecting low-grade bladder carcinoma in comparison with urine cytology. "nMethods: Voided urine samples were collected from 49 patients who were supposed to go under operation. Samples were examined by both Quantitative Real-time RT-PCR (for measuring hTERT mRNA level and cytology; the results were then compared to the final pathologic studies. "nResults: Regardless of clinical stage and or pathological grade of tumor, sensitivity of telomerase test and urine cytology was 74% and 16% respectively. There was a strong correlation between results of urine cytology and stage and/or grade of tumor; however, sensitivity of telomerase test was acceptable regardless of stage and or grade of tumor. There was a statistically significant difference between sensitivity of urine cytology and telomerase test (p<0.001. "nConclusion: Detection of hTERT-mRNA can potentially be used as a non-invasive method for diagnosis and follow up of bladder carcinoma instead of urine cytology.

  17. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Virginia M., E-mail: vweaver@jhsph.edu [Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615N. Wolfe St., Rm. 7041, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Industrial Medicine, SoonChunHyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Parsons, Patrick J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Spector, June [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Fadrowski, Jeffrey [Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jaar, Bernard G. [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Steuerwald, Amy J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Todd, Andrew C. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2011-11-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) {mu}g/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (r{sub s}=0.5; p<0.001). After adjustment, ln (urine cadmium) was not associated with serum cystatin-C-based measures. However, higher ln (urine cadmium) was associated with higher creatinine-based eGFRs including the MDRD and an equation incorporating serum cystatin C and creatinine (beta-coefficient=4.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinases -8 and -9 in the Airways, Blood and Urine During Exacerbations of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, Jennifer L; Mallia-Millanes, Brendan; Forrester, Douglas L; Knox, Alan J; Bolton, Charlotte E; Johnson, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are elevated in the airways and blood of COPD patients, contributing to disease pathogenesis and tissue remodelling. However, it is not clear if MMP levels in airways, blood and urine are related or if MMP levels are related to disease severity or presence of exacerbations requiring hospitalisation. Seventy-two patients requiring hospitalisation for COPD exacerbations had serum, urine and sputum MMP-8, -9 and active MMP-9 measured by ELISA and gelatin zymography on day one, five and four weeks later (recovery). Clinical history, spirometry, COPD Assessment Test and MRC dyspnoea score were obtained. Twenty-two stable COPD patients had MMP measurements one week apart. During exacerbations, serum and urine MMP-9 were slightly elevated by 17% and 30% compared with recovery values respectively (p = 0.001 and p = 0.026). MMP-8 was not significantly changed. These MMP levels related to serum neutrophil numbers but not to outcome of exacerbations, disease severity measures or smoking status. In clinically stable patients, serum MMP levels did not vary significantly over 7 days, whereas urine MMPs varied by up to nine fold for MMP-8 (p = 0.003). Sputum, serum and urine contained different MMP species and complexes. Median values for sputum active MMP-9 were significantly different from serum (p = 0.035) and urine (p = 0.024). Serum and urine MMPs are only modestly elevated during exacerbations of COPD and unlikely to be useful biomarkers in this clinical setting. Airway, serum and urine MMP levels are independent of each other in COPD patients. Further, MMP levels are variable between patients and do not reflect airflow obstruction.

  19. Protective Effect of Distillate and Redistillate of Cow's Urine in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Challenged With Established Genotoxic Chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. KRISHNAMURTHI; DIPANWITA DUTTA; S. D. SIVANESAN; T. CHAKRABARTI

    2004-01-01

    From the ancient period cow's urine has been used as a medicine. In Veda, cow's urine was compared to the nectar. In Susrut, several medicinal properties of cow's urine have been mentioned and are known to cause weight loss, reversal of certain cardiac and kidney problems, indigestion, stomach ache, edema, etc. However, the literature and scripture did not mention the antigenotoxic properties of cow's urine. Methods In the present investigation, the antigenotoxic/ antioxidant properties of cow's urine distillate and redistillate were studied in vitro. The antioxidant status and volatile fatty acid levels were determined. Actinomycin-D (0.1 μmol/L) and hydrogen peroxide (150 μmol/L) were used for inducing DNA strand break with 0.1% DMSO as negative control. Dose for the antigenotoxic effect of cow's urine was chosen from the dose response study carried out earlier. Results Both actinomycin-D and H2O2 caused statistically significant DNA unwinding of 80% & 75% respectively (P<0.001) as revealed by fluorimetric analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU), and the damage could be protected with the redistilled cow's urine distillate (1, 50 & 100 μL) in simultaneous treatment with genotoxic chemicals. Conclusion The redistillate of cow's urine was found to possess total antioxidant status of around 2.6 mmol, contributed mainly by volatile fatty acids (1500 mg/L) as revealed by the GC-MS studies. These fatty acids and other antioxidants might cause the observed protective effects.

  20. Evaluation of commercial boric acid containing vials for urine culture: Low risk of contamination and cost effectiveness considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma B Appannanavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urine culture is a gold standard in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection. Clean catch midstream urine collection and prompt transportation is essential for appropriate diagnosis. Improper collection and delay in transportation leads to diagnostic dilemma. In developing countries, higher ambient temperatures further complicate the scenario. Here, we have evaluated the role of boric acid as a preservative for urine samples prior to culture in female patients attending outpatient department at our center. Materials and Method: Consecutive 104 urine samples were cultured simultaneously in plain uricol (Control-C and boric acid containing tubes from Becton Dickinson urine culture kit (Boric acid group-BA. Results: In the real-time evaluation, we found that in almost 57% (59/104 of the urine samples tested, it was more effective in maintaining the number of the organisms as compared to samples in the container without any preservative. Our in vitro study of simulated urine cultures revealed that urine samples could be kept up to 12 h before culture in the preservative without any inhibitory effect of boric acid. Though the use of boric acid kit may marginally increase the initial cost but has indirect effects like preventing delays in treatment and avoidance of false prescription of antibiotics. If the man-hours spent on repeat investigations are also taken into consideration, then the economic cost borne by the laboratory would also decrease manifold with the use of these containers.

  1. Application of the assay of urine FSH β-subunit in patients with pubertal disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yu-gui; Song Lin; Yang Xiao-fang; Feng Ting; Jia Yue; Pan Qin-qin; Di Fu-song; Zhou Zuo-min; Sha Jia-hao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic predictive value in the identification of puberty disorders by means of ELISA of β-FSH subunit levels in successively collected urine samples compared to RIA of intact FSH in serum obtained from the normal control subjects and patients with puberty disorders, respectively.Subjects and Methods: Five male and four female volunteers were recruited as controls. Four patients with the hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, five patients with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, four patients with the central precocious puberty and one patient with isosexual peripheral precocious puberty collected successively their early-morning urine samples for 30 to 32 days.The urine β-FSH subunit was assayed with the method of ELISA, then adjusted by creatinine (Cr) concentration.Results:Comparing with their cotemporary groups, patients with the hypogonadotropic hypogonadism had lower levels of urine β-FSH, and patients with idiopathic hypergonadism had higher levels with irregular fluctuation. Meanwhile, patients with the central precocious puberty had much higher levels of urine β-FSH with irregular peaks, and patients with isosexual peripheral precocious puberty had almost normal levels. The patterns were coincident with the clinical characteristics and serum FSH levels.Conclusion: The ELISA of urine β-FSH subunit possesses a number of advantages over the RIA of serum FSH level, such as low cost, simplicity and reliability in the clinical practice. It can be used for the diagnoses of puberty disorders. In addition, it is possible and much easier, comparing with blood samples, to collect successively urine samples for research of pathophysiological dynamics of FSH secretion in puberty disorders and other reproductive dysfunction.

  2. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  3. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  4. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS... aftercare as a condition of release; (2) Who have a known history of drug abuse; or (3) Who are suspected...

  5. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if you know what to expect, it doesn't have to be ... Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  6. The effects of diaper brands, urine volume, and time on specific gravity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, D; Yarandi, H

    1993-02-01

    Nurses use urine specific gravity to assess fluid volume status in pediatric patients. Specific gravity of five leading brands of disposable diapers was measured to determine the effects of diaper brand, urine volume, time elapsed, and method of specific gravity measurement comparing the two methods of refractometry and N-Multistix SG (Ames Division, Miles Inc., Elkhart, IN). Immediately after a baby voided 20 mL of urine into any disposable diaper, the specific gravity by refractometer accurately compared with the control standard. Measurement accuracy by N-Multistix SG was only assured if Pampers (Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, OH) were used. However, both methods were inaccurate at 4 hours with 20 mL of urine. Immediately after a baby voided 40 mL of urine into any disposable diaper, both methods were accurate when compared with the control. At 4 hours, only Pampers and Chux (Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, OH) were accurate by refractometry, and Pampers alone was accurate by N-Multistix SG. PMID:8445512

  7. Efficacy of an enzyme immunoassay with uncentrifuged first-voided urine for detection of gonorrhea in males.

    OpenAIRE

    Rudrik, J T; Waller, J M; Britt, E M

    1984-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (Gonozyme; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antigens was used to screen 184 urethral or uncentrifuged first-voided urine or both specimens from males and 78 cervical specimens. When compared with culture, the sensitivity and specificity of Gonozyme for cervical and urethral specimens were comparable to those in published reports. The sensitivity and specificity for urine specimens were 91.6 and 97.9%, respectively.

  8. Differences in quantitative urine composition in stone-forming versus unaffected mate kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Eisenberg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael L Eisenberg1, Keith L Lee1, Benjamin N Breyer1, Thomas J Walsh2, Badrinath R Konety1, Marshall L Stoller11Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAObjectives: Many patients present with bilateral stones. There is a unique group of patients, however, that presents with stones exclusively on one side. We hypothesize that in such situations, 24-hour urine collections may not reveal specific defects on the affected stone-bearing kidney. We therefore evaluated selective 12-hour urine collections after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL to help determine if there is differential renal excretion.Methods: We collected urine specimens from patients with nephrolithiasis who underwent unilateral PNL. Urine samples were collected and analyzed from nephrostomy tubes, representing the affected kidneys, and from Foley bladder catheters, representing the contralateral mate kidney.Results: Thirty-one patients were studied (14 with unilateral nephrolithiasis and 17 with bilateral. Treated kidneys from patients with unilateral nephrolithiasis displayed lowered urine excretion of uric acid, sodium, chloride, calcium, and total osmoles when compared to patients with bilateral nephrolithiasis. Stone size and length of procedure were not predictive of urine composition after PNL.Conclusions: Treated kidneys from patients with a history of unilateral stone disease revealed marked differences in urine excretion compared to those with bilateral nephrolithiasis after unilateral PNL. These findings could be secondary to the surgical insult, urinary stone disease, or could be a responsible factor for stone pathogenesis.Keywords: percutaneous nephrolithotomy, kidney, stone, nephrolithiasis

  9. Protein-Based Urine Test Predicts Kidney Transplant Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, August 22, 2013 Protein-based urine test predicts kidney transplant outcomes NIH- ... supporting development of noninvasive tests. Levels of a protein in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can ...

  10. Safe Reuse of Urine: Screening of Stored Urine for Pharmaceuticals Using Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Zambeze Kallio, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Urine has a large potential to be used as fertilizer due to the nutrient content in ionic form. As the amount of reused urine grows, the concern with the safety also grows when it comes to the presence of microorganisms and pharmaceuticals. In this paper, the concentrations of the nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium, were determined as well as the presence of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals. The determination nitrogen and phosphorus, was done by Hach-Lange DR...

  11. Production of slow-released nitrogen fertilizer from urine

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Ryusei; Takahashi, Eri; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Human excreta, especially urine is rich in nitrogen that can be utilized for agricultural purposes, while the slow-release fertilizer allows effective utilization of nutrients in agricultural production. The direct formation of slow-release fertilizer - methylene urea - from urine was being proposed in this study. The experiments were tried to prove formation of methylene urea from human urine, and to investigate the effect of pH and salt concentration on the reaction rate. The synthetic urin...

  12. Pregnancy diagnosis from urine in even-toed ungulates

    OpenAIRE

    Kubátová, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis reviewed possible non-invasive pregnancy diagnostic methods in ungulates with special attention to diagnosis from urine. The practical part was focused on pregnancy diagnosis from urine in alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The aims of the thesis were to examine the possibility of catching fresh urine directly from female alpacas and to evaluate three pregnancy diagnostic tests from urine in alpacas – the seed germination test, the barium chloride test, and the Cuboni reaction. The r...

  13. Métodos de tratamento utilizados na incontinência urinária de esforço genuína: um estudo comparativo entre cinesioterapia e eletroestimulação endovaginal Methods of treatment of genuine stress incontinence: a comparative study between a pelvic floor exercise program and a pelvic floor electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole O. Bernardes

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar pacientes portadoras de incontinência urinária de esforço genuína (IUEG que se submeteram a um protocolo de cinesioterapia para reforço perineal àquelas que se submeteram a eletroestimulação endovaginal (EEEV. O objetivo foi traçar uma conduta de tratamento fisioterápico mais adequada para tal enfermidade. Métodos: foram selecionadas 14 pacientes portadoras de IUEG, com idade entre 31 e 64 anos, sendo divididas em dois grupos de 7 mulheres cada. Cada grupo foi submetido a um dos protocolos de tratamento ambulatorial diário durante 10 dias consecutivos. As pacientes foram avaliadas e reavaliadas por somente uma fisioterapeuta. Para as análises estatísticas foram utilizados testes não-paramétricos. Resultados: todas pacientes obtiveram uma melhora parcial ou total da IUEG com 10 sessões fisioterápicas consecutivas, considerando os critérios objetivos e subjetivos de avaliação. Conclusão: tanto a cinesioterapia quanto a EEEV se mostraram efetivas no tratamento da IUEG, porém, a cinesioterapia para reforço perineal apresentou uma tendência para ser o tratamento de escolha.Purpose: to compare patients with genuine stress incontinence (GSI who were submitted to a pelvic floor exercise program (PFEP with those who were submitted to a pelvic floor electrical stimulation (PFES. Methods: fourteen GSI patients, with age between 31-64 years, participated in the study. They were divided into two groups of 7 each. PFEP or PFES was performed for 10 days. The women were evaluated at the first consultation and reevaluated after the ten-day treatment by only one physical therapist. For the statistical analysis nonparametric tests were used. Results: all had a partial or a total improvement of the GSI after the treatment, considering the subjective and objective analysis of the research. Conclusion: both PFEP and PFES showed to be effective to treat GSI, although PFEP showed a tendency to be the better treatment.

  14. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R2 = 0.9483; creatinine: R2 = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs

  15. Felinine stability in the presence of selected urine compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Kitson, T.M.; Woolhouse, A.D.; McGrath, M.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    The stability of felinine, an amino acid present in feline urine, was investigated. Synthetic felinine was unstable in the urine of a selection of mammals. Felinine was found to stable in feline urine in which urea had been degraded. Synthetic felinine was found to react specifically with urea and d

  16. Nitrification and microalgae cultivation for two-stage biological nutrient valorization from source separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Joeri; Lindeboom, Ralph; Muys, Maarten; Coessens, Wout; Alloul, Abbas; Meerbergen, Ken; Lievens, Bart; Clauwaert, Peter; Boon, Nico; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-07-01

    Urine contains the majority of nutrients in urban wastewaters and is an ideal nutrient recovery target. In this study, stabilization of real undiluted urine through nitrification and subsequent microalgae cultivation were explored as strategy for biological nutrient recovery. A nitrifying inoculum screening revealed a commercial aquaculture inoculum to have the highest halotolerance. This inoculum was compared with municipal activated sludge for the start-up of two nitrification membrane bioreactors. Complete nitrification of undiluted urine was achieved in both systems at a conductivity of 75mScm(-1) and loading rate above 450mgNL(-1)d(-1). The halotolerant inoculum shortened the start-up time with 54%. Nitrite oxidizers showed faster salt adaptation and Nitrobacter spp. became the dominant nitrite oxidizers. Nitrified urine as growth medium for Arthrospira platensis demonstrated superior growth compared to untreated urine and resulted in a high protein content of 62%. This two-stage strategy is therefore a promising approach for biological nutrient recovery. PMID:26998796

  17. Comparison of two liquid preservatives for SurePath™ slides prepared from voided urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Shigematsu, Yumie; Irino, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Norimatsu, Yoshiaki

    2014-05-01

    Blood-rich gynecologic specimens can be problematic in the processing of liquid-based cytology. However, little is known about the influence of erythrocytes and protein on urine specimens. In addition, the SurePath™ system has two preservatives for non-gynecologic specimens. In this study, we compared the epithelial cell counts and cytomorphology obtained from CytoRich™ (CR) Red and CR Blue. A total of 98 voided urine samples were processed using both CR Red and CR Blue. We made an assessment of the epithelial cell counts, fixation, and staining quality, and backgrounds of both slides. Urine protein and urine erythrocyte counts were analyzed, and those data were compared with the epithelial cell counts in CR Red and CR Blue slides. Overall, epithelial cell counts were equivalent for both CR Red and CR Blue slides. However, in high-level proteinuria cases, the CR Red slides showed higher epithelial cell counts than the CR Blue slides. On the other hand, in microscopic hematuria cases, the CR Blue slides showed higher epithelial cell counts than the CR Red slides. We have found both CR Red and CR Blue to be available for urine cytology. However, it is important to note that CR Blue is inferior to CR Red in epithelial cell recovery rates in cases of high-level proteinuria.

  18. Detection of Genitourinary Tract Chlamydia trachomatis Infection In Urine specimens by PCR Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪霞; 温泉; 夏迎华; 张林

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of the cervical/urethral swabs with voided urine specimens for the detection of genitourinary tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and determine whether urine specimens can replace the cervical/urethral swabs in detection of C. trachomatis. Methods: The matched cervical/urethral swabs and voided urine specimens were collected from 569 patients of STD clinics.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay specific for C. trachomatis plasmid DNA and rapid antigen testing (Clear view assay) was used to detect C. trachomatis. Standard criteria that defined """"true"""" positive included: 1) positive PCR results both in cervical/urethral swab and voided urine specimen or 2) positive voided urine results both by PCR assay and clear view test or 3)positive results in both PCR assay of cervical/urethral swab and clear view test of voided urine. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test was used. Results: The prevalence of C. trachomatis in patients with symptoms was 12.1% (28/231) in women and 10.4%(10/96) in men, with no significant difference between them (x2=0.21,P>0.05). The prevalence of C. trachomatis in patients with no symptoms was 11.0% (11/100) in women and 15.5% (22/142) in men, with a significant difference existing between them. (x2=4.0, P0.05) existed between PCR testing of swabs (sensitivity 87.3 %; specificity 99.2 %) and PCR testing of urine (sensitivity 88.7%; specificity 98.8%). As for clear view assay, sensitivity was 60.6% and specificity was 100%. Conclusions: PCR assay is superior to clear view in detecting C. trachomatis. Although both PCR testing of swabs and PCR testing of urine specimens both have high sensitivity and specificity, urine specimen testing is more cost-effective, practical and noninvasive. Thus urine specimens can take the place of the swabs in PCR testing for chlamydia.

  19. The determination of radium-226 in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for determining radium-226 in urine that is currently being used by the Bioassay Laboratory has been tested and documented. Radium-226 is coprecipitated from urine by alkaline calcium phosphate. This precipitate is redissolved in hydrochloric acid and the radium purified by cation exchange. Radium is collected by a barium sulphate coprecipitation and then estimated by alpha counting. The method has been tested using radium-226 and cross-contamination studies were performed using Am-24l, Pu-239, Np-237, Th-Nat and U-233. With the exception of Am-24l, cross-contaminations were found to be negligible. The method gives an overall chemical recovery of 80 +- 5α and the detection limit is estimated to be 0.39 mBq - counting time, 72 h; background, 0.05 counts per minute (cpm)

  20. Serum and urine concentrations of flunitrazepam and metabolites, after a single oral dose, by immunoassay and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, H; Schwenzer, K S; Pearlman, R; McNally, A J; Tsilimidos, M; Salamone, S J; Brenneisen, R; ElSohly, M A; Feng, S

    2001-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the ability of commercially available immunoassays to detect flunitrazepam (FNP) in plasma and urine samples and to compare the results with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The clinical study consisted of four individuals (two male and two female) who had taken a single 2-mg dose of FNP. Serum was collected over a 48-h period and urine was collected over a 72-h period. The serum and urine samples were analyzed by the COBAS INTEGRA Serum Benzodiazepines assay (SBENZ), the TDx serum and urine Benzodiazepines assay, and GC-MS. The GC-MS procedure was developed for analysis of FNP and metabolites in plasma and urine using an acid hydrolysis step resulting in the formation of specific benzophenones corresponding to FNP and its metabolites. The relative sensitivities of the assays for the detection of FNP and metabolites in serum and urine were GC-MS > SBENZ > TDx. The immunoassay results for serum samples showed peak concentrations of FNP metabolites at 8 h after FNP ingestion for three individuals and at about 1 h for the fourth individual. The GC-MS, SBENZ, and TDx urine immunoassays detected drug above the stated limit of detection (LOD) in 44, 41, and 35 serial FNP urine samples, respectively. FNP metabolites were detected in urine samples with all three assays for up to 72 h after a 2-mg dose. The improved detection rate with the SBENZ assay as compared to the TDx assay is likely explained by its higher cross-reactivity with the major metabolite, 7-amino-flunitrazepam (7-amino-FNP), and its lower LOD.

  1. Radioimmunoassay of ADH in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple efficient procedure for extracting and concentrating arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP) from urine has been coupled with a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay in order to measure antidiuretic hormone (ADH) excretion in normal human under various physiological stimuli. Antisera have been raised in rabbits injected with lysine-vasopressin (LVP) or AVP coupled with bovine serum albumin. The antiserum selected for the assay which inhibits the antidiuresis induced in the rat by AVP is used at a final dilution of 1 : 50,000 and possesses a high association constant of 1x1011 l.mol-1. The limit of detection of the RIA system is 0.5 μUI/ml of urine (1.25 pg). Urinary ADH has been extracted from urine by Miller and Moses method. Mean recovery of added vasopressin averaged 90.2%+-11 (SD) and assay of serial dilutions of such extracts showed that they behave in the assay system in the same way as synthetic AVP standards. Moreover comparison of the results obtained by the RIA to those given by the biological method using the ethanol anesthetized rat showed excellent correlation (r=0.9p<0.001). Under ad libitum fluid and food intake, mean daily urinary excretion of AVP (uncorrected for recovery) determined in 22 subjects was found to be 30.58+-11.64mU/h with no significant difference between men and women. In response to an oral waterload ADH became undetectable at the peak of diuresis. Following a 16 hr fluid deprivation, ADH rose moderately. A significant correlation has been found between urine osmolality and AVP excretion rate

  2. Psychopathology and urine toxicology in methadone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Sadek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile. The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48, were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44, reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41, of phobic tendencies (r=40, of anxiety (r=0.39, and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38, and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43.

  3. Urine proteomic profiling of uranium nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malard, V.; Gaillard, J.C.; Sage, N. [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBTN, Laboratoire de Biochimie des Systemes Perturbes (LBSP), Bagnols-sur-Ceze, F-30207 (France); Berenguer, F. [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBTN, Laboratoire d' Etude des Proteines Cibles (LEPC), Bagnols-sur-Ceze, F-30207 (France); Quemeneur, E. [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBTN, Bagnols-sur-Ceze, F-30207 (France)

    2009-07-01

    Uranium is used in many chemical forms in civilian and military industries and is a known nephro-toxicant. A key issue in monitoring occupational exposure is to be able to evaluate the potential damage to the body, particularly the kidney. In this study we used innovative proteomic techniques to analyse urinary protein modulation associated with acute uranium exposure in rats. Given that the rat urinary proteome has rarely been studied, we first identified 102 different proteins in normal urine, expanding the current proteome data set for this central animal in toxicology. Rats were exposed intravenously to uranyl nitrate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg and samples were collected 24 h later. Using two complementary proteomic methods, a classic 2-DE approach and semi-quantitative SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS, 14 modulated proteins (7 with increased levels and 7 with decreased levels) were identified in urine after uranium exposure. Modulation of three of them was confirmed by western blot. Some of the modulated proteins corresponded to proteins already described in case of nephrotoxicity, and indicated a loss of glomerular permeability (albumin, alpha-1-anti-proteinase, sero-transferrin). Others revealed tubular damage, such as EGF and vitamin D-binding protein. A third category included proteins never described in urine as being associated with metal stress, such as ceruloplasmin. Urinary proteomics is thus a valuable tool to profile uranium toxicity non-invasively and could be very useful in follow-up in case of accidental exposure to uranium. (authors)

  4. Composition and Morphology of Nanocrystals in Urines of Lithogenic Patients and Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Song Gui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and morphology of nanocrystals in urines of healthy persons and lithogenic patients were comparatively investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. It was shown that the main composition of urinary nanocrystals in healthy persons were calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD, uric acid, and ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite. However, the main compositions of urinary nanocrystals in lithogenic patients were struvite, β-tricalcium phosphate, uric acid, COD, and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM. According to the XRD data, the size of nanocrystals was calculated to be 23∼72 nm in healthy urine and 12∼118 nm in lithogenic urine by Scherer formula. TEM results showed that the nanocrystals in healthy urine were dispersive and uniform with a mean size of about 38 nm. In contrast, the nanocrystals in lithogenic urine were much aggregated with a mean size of about 55 nm. The results in this work indicated that the urinary stone formation may be prevented by diminishing the aggregation and the size differentiation of urinary nanocrystals by physical or chemical methods.

  5. Comparison of estrogens and estrogen metabolites in human breast tissue and urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenstra Timothy D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important aspect of the link between estrogen and breast cancer is whether urinary estrogen levels are representative of the intra-tissue levels of bioavailable estrogens. Methods This study compares 15 estrogen and estrogen metabolite levels in breast tissue and urine of 9 women with primary breast cancer using a quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Results The average levels of estrogens (estrone, 17 beta-estradiol were significantly higher in breast tissue than in urine. Both the 2 and the 16-hydroxylation pathways were less represented in breast tissue than urine; no components of the 4-hydroxypathway were detected in breast tissue, while 4-hydroxyestrone was measured in urine. However, the 2/16 ratio was similar in urine and breast tissue. Women carrying the variant CYP1B1 genotype (Leu/Val and Val/Val showed significantly lower overall estrogen metabolite, estrogen, and 16-hydroxylation pathway levels in breast tissue in comparison to women carrying the wild type genotype. No effect of the CYP1B1 polymorphism was observed in urinary metabolites. Conclusions The urinary 2/16 ratio seems a good approximation of the ratio observed in breast tissue. Metabolic genes may have an important role in the estrogen metabolism locally in tissues where the gene is expressed, a role that is not readily observable when urinary measurements are performed.

  6. Urban nutrient recovery from fresh human urine through cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Lim, Chun Yong; Chen, Chia-Lung; Liu, He; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    High rate food consumption in urban cities causes vast amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus used in agriculture to end up in urban wastewaters. To substantially recover these nutrients, source-separated human urine should be targeted. The present study was to investigate the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus in urine via microalgae cultivation. In concentrated urine, urea hydrolysis and precipitation occur rapidly, making microalgal growth difficult and nutrient recovery ineffective. However, when fresh urine was added as nutrient stock for 1-day growth requirement, biomass of Chlorella sorokiniana grew from 0.44 to 0.96 g L(-1) utilising 62.64 mg L(-1) of N and 10.64 mg L(-1) of P, achieving 80.4% and 96.6% recoveries, respectively in a 1-day non-sterile cultivation cycle. Overall, microalgae grown with urine added as nutrient supplement show no signs of inferiority as compared to those grown in recipe medium BG11 in terms of mass and chlorophyll a growth rates as well as resulting lipids (36.8%) and energy contents (21.0 kJ g(-1)).

  7. Absolute configuration of 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole in male mouse urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaggioni, Andrea; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Zagotto, Giuseppe

    2003-11-01

    The absolute configuration of 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (DHT) in urine of adult male mice was determined through chiral trifluoroacetyl derivative capillary chromatography by comparing the retention time with synthetic standards. (S)-DHT was extracted from fresh urine, while neither (R)-DHT nor the racemization of (S)-DHT were detected. We can conclude that DHT in urine possesses the S configuration, although we cannot exclude a minor component in the R configuration. (S)-DHT was then characterized for binding to the complex of major urinary proteins of male mouse urine (MUP) and for a behavioral response, the competitive scent marking behavior (countermarking). The binding constant of (S)-DHT to MUP (determined by competitive displacement) was 8.2 +/- 0.6 microM (mean +/- SD) and was 10.5 +/- 0.6 microM for R-DHT, thus excluding a relevant difference in binding. (S)-DHT modified countermarking in a peculiar way. Male mice were slow in countermarking urinary spots streaked 2 days earlier and on top of which (S)-DHT was added shortly before the test. This response was not seen when adding (S)-DHT to freshly streaked urinary spots or to clean paper. Unlike (S)-DHT, (R)-DHT prompted countermarking rather than delaying it. We can further conclude that (S)-DHT in male mouse urine is an aversive chemosignal for countermarking. PMID:14654447

  8. Therapeutic efficiency of rhenium-188-HEDP in human prostate cancer skeletal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepe, K; Kropp, J; Runge, R; Kotzerke, J

    2003-08-18

    Rhenium-188-HEDP ((188)Re-HEDP) is a new and attractive radiopharmaceutical for the treatment of metastatic bone pain. As a product of (188)W/(188)Re generator, it is convenient for clinical therapeutic use with a short physical half-life of 16.9 h and a maximal beta-energy of 2.1 MeV. We investigated the effect of (188)Re-HEDP on pain relief, analgesic intake and impairment of bone marrow function in 27 patients with bone metastases induced from prostate cancer. All patients were interviewed using a standardised set of questions before, and after therapy for 12 weeks. The patients were treated with 2700-3459 MBq of (188)Re-HEDP. Blood samples were taken weekly for 12 weeks, and a blood count was performed. Patients described an improvement on the Karnofsky performance scale from 74+/-7 to 85+/-9% 12 weeks after therapy (P=0.001). The pain score showed a maximum decrease from 44+/-18 to 27+/-20% in the third to the eight week after therapy (P=0.009). Seventy-six percent of the patients described a pain relief without increase of analgesic intake. Twenty percent of the patients could discontinue their analgesics and were pain free. Mean platelet count decreased from (286+/-75)*10(3) microl(-1) to (215+/-92)*10(3) microl(-1), and mean leucocyte count from (7.7+/-1.5)*10(3) microl(-1) to (6.0+/-1.9)*10(3) microl(-1) in the second to the fourth week after therapy. The maximal differences between the values of platelets and leucocytes before and after therapy were not statistically significant (P=0.021 and 0.094). In conclusion, (188)Re-HEDP is an effective radiopharmaceutical used in the palliative treatment of metastatic bone pain in prostate cancer and shows minimal bone marrow toxicity. PMID:12915868

  9. Mechanical characterization of benign and malignant urothelial cells from voided urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei-Baghini, Ehsan; Zheng, Yi; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Geddie, William B.; Sun, Yu

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates whether mechanical differences exist between benign and malignant urothelial cells in voided urine. The Young's modulus of individual cells was measured using the micropipette aspiration technique. Malignant urothelial cells showed significantly lower Young's modulus values compared to benign urothelial cells. The results indicate that Young's modulus as a biomechanical marker could possibly provide additional information to conventional urinary cytology. We hope that these preliminary results could evoke attention to mechanical characterization of urine cells and spark interest in the development of biomechanical approaches to enhance non-invasive urothelial carcinoma detection.

  10. Zinc and selenium in serum and urine of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zn and Se levels were measured by the method of neutron activation analysis in serum and urine of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients, comparing them with a well paired control group in order to help defining the phenotype of this pathology and the role these trace elements could have in the physiopathology of this disease. The levels of Zn and Se in serum and urine in DMD patients are higher than in controls. A tendency to higher levels of Zn in serum LDH and CK is observed in patients of lower age. (author)

  11. Biochemical composition of urine from farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus in Botswana : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Mushi

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and qualitative evaluation of the supernatant of urine from hydrated farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus indicated that the urine was comparable to that described by other workers. The disparities obtained between the biochemical constituents in the present and previous studies were partly attributed to the state of hydration influenced by climatic factors. Results of the cytological examination of the supernatant and the sediment concurred with the observations of other workers. It was therefore concluded that parameters from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses could be used as a guideline to monitor the health status of farmed ostriches in Botswana.

  12. Determination of selenium in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: interferences and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.

    1999-01-01

    . Yttrium,; indium and gallium were compared for their use as internal standards. There was no difference in the efficiency of these internal standards and they were all usable. The accuracy of the method was determined using the NIST SRM 2670 Toxic Metals in Freeze-dried Urine (certified value 0.030 +/- 0......The aim of this study was to develop a method for selenium determination in urine and examine the influence of sensitivity enhancement reagents, instrument parameters, internal standards and the salt content of the urine matrix on the determination. Several carbon-containing solutions (methanol...... when the nebulizer gas flow rate was optimized for each solute. The influences of sample uptake rate, nebulizer flow rate and rf power were examined in multivariate experiments. The nebulizer gas flow rate and rf power were found to be interdependent, but the sample pump flow rate was independent...

  13. Effects of Ketamine on Metabolomics of Serum and Urine in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xueying; Zeng, Xiancheng; Hong, Jiehua; Yuan, Congli; Cui, Li; Ma, Jing; Chang, Yan; Hua, Xiuguo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a metabolomics approach based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and pertinent multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the effect of ketamine on metabolic markers in cynomolgus macaques. Principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis showed that ketamine (10 mg/kg) induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, ketamine-treated macaques had lower serum levels of α-glucose, myoinositol, lactate and succinate and lower urine levels of pyruvate and lactate. In contrast, the levels of leucine in serum and arginine in urine were significantly higher in the ketamine group. Our results also demonstrated that a single injection of ketamine influenced the major energy and amino acid metabolic pathways in cynomolgus macaques. Our study suggests that these influences should be considered in the design of experiments and the interpretation related blood and urine data from ketamine-sedated cynomolgus macaques. PMID:27657710

  14. CYFRA 21-1 in urine: a diagnostic marker for endometriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjavotchanoff, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic workup of endometriosis usually involves laparoscopic inspection and histological examination of biopsies. Unequivocal laboratory parameters for this ailment have not been available in routine diagnostic evaluations thus far. In this study, we examined urine concentrations of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA 21-1), a structural protein specific for epithelia. We performed immunoassays for CYFRA 21-1 in urine samples from women afflicted with endometriosis throughout their menstrual cycle. We observed a significant increase in CYFRA 21-1 concentrations, corrected by creatinine levels, in the late follicular phase as compared with the level in healthy controls. We conclude that cyclically increased CYFRA 21-1 concentrations in urine could serve as a valuable noninvasive diagnostic parameter in the workup of clinically manifesting endometriosis. PMID:25709504

  15. Urine Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction in Neonatal Septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B K; Suri, Shipra; Nath, Gopal; Prasad, Rajniti

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study was done to evaluate diagnostic efficacy of urine nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using broad-range 16SrDNA PCR-based amplification, followed by restriction analysis and sequencing in neonatal septicemia. The study included 50 babies; 48% had vaginal delivery, 46% were preterm, 20% had a history of prolonged rupture of membranes and 56% were low birth weight (≤2500 g). Clinical presentations were lethargy (96%), respiratory distress (80%) and bleeding diathesis (16%). Absolute neutrophil count <1800/mm(3) was observed in 60%, and positive C-reactive protein in 46%. Thirty neonates had positive blood culture, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (22%) was the predominant organism. Nested urine PCR was positive in 38 (76%) and detected bacterial DNA in 8 neonates with negative blood cultures. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of nested PCR were 100, 60, 78.9, 100 and 84%, respectively, compared with blood culture. Nested PCR can detect most bacteria in single assay and identify unusual and unexpected causal agents.

  16. Urine metabolomics in rats after administration of ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Congcong Wen,1 Meiling Zhang,2 Jianshe Ma,2 Lufeng Hu,3 Xianqin Wang,2 Guanyang Lin31Laboratory Animal Centre, 2Analytical and Testing Center, 3First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In this study, we developed a urine metabonomic method, based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, to evaluate the effect of ketamine on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminate analysis revealed that ketamine (50 mg/kg induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, at day 7, the level of alanine, butanoic acid, glutamine, butanedioic, trimethylsiloxy, L-aspartic acid, D-glucose, cholesterol, acetamide, and oleic acid of the ketamine group was increased, while the level of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, benzene­acetic acid, threitol, ribitol, xylitol, and glycine decreased. At day 14, the level of alanine, ethanedioic acid, L-proline, glycerol, tetradecanoic acid, l-serine, l-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid, d-glucose, cholesterol, heptadecanoic acid, and acetamide in rat urine of the ketamine group was increased, while the 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, benzeneacetic acid, d-ribose, threitol, ribitol, glycine, pyrazine, and oleic acid levels decreased. Our results indicate that metabonomic methods based on GC-MS may be useful to elucidate ketamine abuse, through the exploration of biomarkers.Keywords: GC-MS, abuse, biomarker, metabolite

  17. Proteomics profiling of urine with surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, Han; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Schepers, Marianne; Landman, Karloes; Vonk, Roel J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Urine consists of a complex mixture of peptides and proteins and therefore is an interesting source of biomarkers. Because of its high throughput capacity SELDI-TOF-MS is a proteomics technology frequently used in biomarker studies. We compared the performance of seven SELDI protein chip

  18. Urine estrogen profiles in European countries with high or low breast cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macmahon, B.; Andersen, A.P.; Brown, J.; Cole, P.; Dewaard, V.; Kauraniemi, T.; Ravhinar, B.; Stormby, N.; Trichopoulos, D.; Westlund, K.

    1980-01-01

    Urine estrogens of women in two age groups, 15 18 and 30-39, were measured in four northern European countries where breast cancer rates are high, two southern European countries where they are low, and in Finland, a northern country where incidence rates are comparable to those of the southern coun

  19. Ion Chromatography Based Urine Amino Acid Profiling Applied for Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer

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    Jing Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Amino acid metabolism in cancer patients differs from that in healthy people. In the study, we performed urine-free amino acid profile of gastric cancer at different stages and health subjects to explore potential biomarkers for diagnosing or screening gastric cancer. Methods. Forty three urine samples were collected from inpatients and healthy adults who were divided into 4 groups. Healthy adults were in group A (n=15, early gastric cancer inpatients in group B (n=7, and advanced gastric cancer inpatients in group C (n=16; in addition, two healthy adults and three advanced gastric cancer inpatients were in group D (n=5 to test models. We performed urine amino acids profile of each group by applying ion chromatography (IC technique and analyzed urine amino acids according to chromatogram of amino acids standard solution. The data we obtained were processed with statistical analysis. A diagnostic model was constructed to discriminate gastric cancer from healthy individuals and another diagnostic model for clinical staging by principal component analysis. Differentiation performance was validated by the area under the curve (AUC of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results. The urine-free amino acid profile of gastric cancer patients changed to a certain degree compared with that of healthy adults. Compared with healthy adult group, the levels of valine, isoleucine, and leucine increased (P<0.05, but the levels of histidine and methionine decreased (P<0.05, and aspartate decreased significantly (P<0.01. The urine amino acid profile was also different between early and advanced gastric cancer groups. Compared with early gastric cancer, the levels of isoleucine and valine decreased in advanced gastric cancer (P<0.05. A diagnosis model constructed for gastric cancer with AUC value of 0.936 tested by group D showed that 4 samples could coincide with it. Another diagnosis model for clinical staging with an AUC value of 0.902 tested by

  20. Production of slow-released nitrogen fertilizer from urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryusei; Takahashi, Eri; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Human excreta, especially urine is rich in nitrogen that can be utilized for agricultural purposes, while the slow-release fertilizer allows effective utilization of nutrients in agricultural production. The direct formation of slow-release fertilizer--methylene urea--from urine was being proposed in this study. The experiments were tried to prove formation of methylene urea from human urine, and to investigate the effect of pH and salt concentration on the reaction rate. The synthetic urine and real urine were used for the urea source of the reaction. As a result, the precipitates were prepared from synthetic urine, while the small molecule fractions generated then they grew into precipitate. The nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, element analyses showed the precipitates in synthetic urine were the same compound found in the urea solution, which was methylene urea. The reaction rate was high at low pH value. The reaction rate in the buffer solution was lower than the synthetic urine at the same pH, because some salts may work as a catalyst. The urea concentration reduction rate in real urine showed the same trend with synthetic urine at the same pH, while the precipitation was quite similar to methylene urea. PMID:24527645

  1. Greenhouse evaluation and environmental impact assessment of different urine-derived struvite fertilizers as phosphorus sources for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Samantha; Arias, Maria Alejandra; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    A selection of six urine-derived struvite fertilizers generated by innovative precipitation technologies was assessed for their quality and their effectiveness as phosphorus sources for crops. Struvite purity was influenced by drying techniques and magnesium dosage. In a greenhouse experiment, the urine fertilizers led to biomass yields and phosphorus uptakes comparable to or higher than those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Heavy metal concentrations of the different struvite fertilizers were below the threshold limits specified by the German Fertilizer and Sewage Sludge Regulations. The computed loading rates of heavy metals to agricultural land were also below the threshold limits decreed by the Federal Soil Protection Act. Urine-derived struvite contributed less to heavy metal inputs to farmland than other recycling products or commercial mineral and organic fertilizers. When combined with other soil conditioners, urine-derived struvite is an efficient fertilizer which covers the magnesium and more than half of the phosphorus demand of crops.

  2. The radioimmunological determination of vasopressin in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin, which can be used for the quantitative measurement of the urinary excretion of the hormone in man during physiological and pathological conditions. The final RIA method, using approximately 5 pg 125I-AVP diluted (1 : 50,000) antiserum 121 and charcoal-dextran separation of the antibody-bound and free fractions, is found to be specific for vasopressin and closely related substances; the sensitivity is 9 pg. The validity is demonstrated and the results of measurements of vasopressin excretion in urine from 39 normal subjects, including 4 children are presented. (Auth.)

  3. PENGARUH APLIKASI URIN KAMBING DAN PUPUK CAIR ORGANIK KOMERSIAL TERHADAP BEBERAPA PARAMETER AGRONOMI PADA TANAMAN PAKAN INDIGOFERA SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abdullah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been done during 6 months period in order to study the effect of goat urine and comersial liquid organic fertilizer (NASA® as fertizers on some agronomic parameters which are related with potential forage production. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment which is consist of PO = control, P1 = 50% goat urine + 50% mineral water, P2= 100% urine, P3= NASA 0.25%, P4 NASA= NASA 0.50% and P5 = NASA 0.75%, with 5 repetitions. Some agronomic parameters observed were biomass production of tajuk, leaves dry matter production, numbers of leafs and leaf square. To observe the effect of goat urine observation were conducted in two growth periodes. The results of the experiment showed that the application of goat urine and comercial liquid organic fertilizer produce better results in all treatments compared to control. 100% goat urine treatment showed that better results in all parameters compared to commercial liquid organic fertilizers

  4. Pneumolysin in urine: A rapid antigen detection method to diagnose pneumococcal pneumonia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshmi B

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Etiological diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia is difficult in small children in whom blood culture cannot be done or who have already been started on antibiotics. A simple technique which can be applied at the bedside or in the outpatient department may help in obviating this problem. Detection of pneumolysin, a product of invasive pneumococci is being exploited as a diagnostic tool. METHODS: An attempt was made to detect this protein in urine of seventy children, clinically suspected and radiologically diagnosed cases of pneumonia. Seventy age and sex matched controls were included in the study. Purified pneumolysin was prepared from clinical isolates of invasive pneumococcal infections. This was used to raise polyclonal antisera in rabbits. The antisera was used to sensitise Cowan 1 Staphylococcus aureus (CoA. A slide agglutination was performed with 25 µL urine and equal quantity of the reagent. RESULTS: Results were compared with CoA reagent sensitised with antisera raised against a genetically derived pneumolysoid and capsular polysaccharide for antigen detection in the urine. Pneumolysin could be detected in 42.9% (30/70 urine samples from cases with pneumonia by the genetically derived antigen and in 37.1% samples by the in house prepared antigen, in contrast to 2.1% in healthy controls and 4.2% in children with infections other than pneumonia. The result was statistically significant. Detection of pneumolysin was slightly better than detection of capsular polysaccharide antigen in urine although the result was not statistically significant. Blood culture proved to be positive in only 29.5% cases. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumolysin detection in urine showed promising results and was found to be simple and rapid. It will help in quickening the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia.

  5. Pyrazine analogues are active components of wolf urine that induce avoidance and freezing behaviours in mice.

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    Kazumi Osada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The common grey wolf (Canis lupus is found throughout the entire Northern hemisphere and preys on many kinds of mammals. The urine of the wolf contains a number of volatile constituents that can potentially be used for predator-prey chemosignalling. Although wolf urine is put to practical use to keep rabbits, rodents, deer and so on at bay, we are unaware of any prior behavioural studies or chemical analyses regarding the fear-inducing impact of wolf urine on laboratory mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three wolf urine samples harvested at different times were used in this study. All of them induced stereotypical fear-associated behaviors (i.e., avoidance and freezing in female mice. The levels of certain urinary volatiles varied widely among the samples. To identify the volatiles that provoked avoidance and freezing, behavioural, chemical, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. One of the urine samples (sample C had higher levels of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (DMP, trimethylpyrazine (TMP, and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl pyrazine (EDMP compared with the other two urine samples (samples A and B. In addition, sample C induced avoidance and freezing behaviours more effectively than samples A and B. Moreover, only sample C led to pronounced expression of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB of female mice. Freezing behaviour and Fos immunoreactivity were markedly enhanced when the mice were confronted with a mixture of purified DMP, TMP, and EDMP vs. any one pyrazine alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current results suggest that wolf urinary volatiles can engender aversive and fear-related responses in mice. Pyrazine analogues were identified as the predominant active components among these volatiles to induce avoidance and freezing behaviours via stimulation of the murine AOB.

  6. Effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in forensic drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Anti-microbial Activity of Urine after Ingestion of Cranberry: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Lean Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the anti-microbial activity of urine specimens after the ingestion of a commercial cranberry preparation. Twenty subjects without urinary infection, off antibiotics and all supplements or vitamins were recruited. The study was conducted in two phases: in phase 1, subjects collected the first morning urine prior to ingesting 900 mg of cranberry and then at 2, 4 and 6 h. In phase 2, subjects collected urine on 2 consecutive days: on Day 1 no cranberry was ingested (control specimens, on Day 2, cranberry was ingested. The pH of all urine specimens were adjusted to the same pH as that of the first morning urine specimen. Aliquots of each specimen were independently inoculated with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Candida albicans. After incubation, colony forming units/ml (CFU ml−1 in the control specimen was compared with CFU ml−1 in specimens collected 2, 4 and 6 h later. Specimens showing ≥50% reduction in CFU ml−1 were considered as having ‘activity’ against the strains tested. In phase 1, 7/20 (35% subjects had anti-microbial activity against E. coli, 13/20 (65% against K. pneumoniae and 9/20 (45% against C. albicans in specimens collected 2–6 h after ingestion of cranberry. In phase 2, 6/9 (67% of the subjects had activity against K. pneumoniae. This pilot study demonstrates weak anti-microbial activity in urine specimens after ingestion of a single dose of commercial cranberry. Anti-microbial activity was noted only against K. pneumoniae 2–6 h after ingestion of the cranberry preparation.

  8. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  9. Tubular reabsorption and local production of urine hepcidin-25

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, H.P.E.; Laarakkers, J.M.M.; Pickkers, P; Masereeuw, R.; Boerman, O C; Eek, A.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Swinkels, D. W.; Wetzels, J F M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepcidin is a central regulator of iron metabolism. Serum hepcidin levels are increased in patients with renal insufficiency, which may contribute to anemia. Urine hepcidin was found to be increased in some patients after cardiac surgery, and these patients were less likely to develop acute kidney injury. It has been suggested that urine hepcidin may protect by attenuating heme-mediated injury, but processes involved in urine hepcidin excretion are unknown. METHODS: To assess the ...

  10. Intellectual performance of children with maple syrup urine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliges, C; Awiszus, D; Wendel, U

    1993-02-01

    The intellectual performance of 22 children aged 3-16 years with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) was assessed and compared to a group of early treated phenylketonuria (PKU) children and normal subjects matched by age, sex, nationality, and socio-economic status. All subjects were tested by one examiner only using the age related versions of the non-verbal Snijders-Oomen intelligence test. The mean IQ (+/- SD) score was 74 +/- 14 (range 50-103) in patients with MSUD, 101 +/- 12 (range 87-125) in early treated PKU patients, and 107 +/- 9 (range 90-122) in normal subjects. Intercorrelations indicated that length of time after birth that plasma leucine concentration remained > 1 mmol/l and quality of long-term metabolic control have important influences on IQ. PMID:8444223

  11. Estudo comparativo entre sling pubovaginal de parede vaginal e sling de fáscia do reto abdominal no tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço Comparative study between vaginal wall sling and rectus fascia pubovaginal sling in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Monteiro de Carvalho Júnior

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cirurgia de sling pubovaginal é utilizada no tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço (IUE do tipo III e como resgate na falha de procedimentos anteriores. Tem índice de sucesso variando de 73 a 89%. Podem ser utilizados diversos materiais autólogos e sintéticos com semelhantes resultados. Nosso objetivo foi comparar o sling de parede vaginal com o de fáscia do reto abdominal quanto à eficácia e às complicações. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 27 pacientes no período de 04/98 a 09/00, divididas em dois grupos: grupo I com nove pacientes submetidas a sling de parede vaginal; grupo II com 18 pacientes submetidas a sling de fáscia do reto abdominal. Todas foram submetidas a um estudo urodinâmico completo, classificadas quanto ao tipo de IUE, e seguidas no ambulatório de urologia. RESULTADOS: grupo I com média de idade de 51,4 anos, tempo de seguimento médio de 14,3 meses. Pressão de Perda aos Esforços (PPE variando de 50 a 100cmH2O com média de 81,1cmH2O. Houve 66% de complicações. Taxa de sucesso de 88,8% e índice de satisfação 85 pontos. Grupo II com média de idade de 54,2 anos, seguimento médio de 19,3 meses. PPE variando de 45 a 92cmH2O, média de 65,5cmH2O. Houve 72% de complicações e sucesso de 88,8%. Índice de satisfação de 74 pontos. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados encontrados estão de acordo com a literatura, sendo os dois grupos comparáveis quanto à eficácia em período curto de seguimento. O grupo II apresentou maior número de complicações, assim como maior tempo de cateter vesical e menor índice de satisfação geral.BACKGROUND: Pubovaginal sling is being currently used for the treatment of type III Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI and for recurrences after previous procedures. Success rates vary from 73 to 89%. Many autologous and allogênic materials have being used with a variable rate of complications. Our objective was to compare the vaginal wall sling to the rectus fascia pubovaginal

  12. Human Urine as a Noninvasive Source of Kidney Cells

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    Fanny Oliveira Arcolino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine represents an unlimited source of patient-specific kidney cells that can be harvested noninvasively. Urine derived podocytes and proximal tubule cells have been used to study disease mechanisms and to screen for novel drug therapies in a variety of human kidney disorders. The urinary kidney stem/progenitor cells and extracellular vesicles, instead, might be promising for therapeutic treatments of kidney injury. The greatest advantages of urine as a source of viable cells are the easy collection and less complicated ethical issues. However, extensive characterization and in vivo studies still have to be performed before the clinical use of urine-derived kidney progenitors.

  13. Comparison of urine with plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in detecting acute kidney injury after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of urine with plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. Study Design: A prospective cohort study. Place and duration of study: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, AFIP from December 2011 to July 2012. Patients and Methods: Ninety three adult patients planned for CPB surgery in AFIC/NIHD were consecutively included. Blood for serum creatinine were collected preoperatively, 4, 24 and 48 hours (h) after CPB surgery. Blood and urine samples for NGAL analysis were collected only at 4 h. Serum creatinine, plasma and urine NGAL samples were analyzed on UniCel at the rate DxC 600 (Beckman), TRIAGE meter pro (Biosite) and ARCHITECT i2000SR analyzer (Abbott) respectively. Results: Out of 93 patients undergoing CPB surgery, 12 (13%) developed AKI. AKI patients had significantly higher median interquartile range (IQR) urine NGAL of 180 ng/ml (105-277 ng/ml) as compared to control of 6 ng/ml (2-15 ng/ml) and median plasma NGAL of 170 ng/ml (126-274 ng/ml) as compared to control of 75 ng/ml (61-131 ng/ml). The patients had increased urine vs plasma NGAL area under curve (AUC) ( 0.91 vs 0.70 (p = <0.001)), better sensitivity (91% vs 82%) and specificity (98% vs 65%). Conclusion: Plasma and urine NGAL values increased significantly in AKI patients as compared to serum creatinine values. Urine in comparison to plasma NGAL revealed more sensitivity and specificity in detecting AKI following CPB surgery. (author)

  14. Age-dependent change in urine proteome of healthy individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrokhotov, Igor; Liudmila Pastushkova, MRS.; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey

    It was analyzed the protein composition of urine samples obtained from twenty Russian cosmonauts and thirty-eight healthy volunteers, that have been selected for the experiments simulating the physiological effects of microgravity. The special sample preparation was performed, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the minor proteins was performed on a nano-HPLC Agilent 1100 system (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) in combination with a LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Germany). List of masses derived peptides and they fragments have used for search and identification of proteins by database IPI-human (international index of protein) using the program Mascot (MS version 2.0.04 , UK) according to the following criteria: 1 - enzyme-trypsin; 2 - peptide tol. ± 5 ppm; 3 - MS / MS tol. 0.5Da. From list of proteins obtained as a result Mascot-search it was selected only those proteins that were identified based on 2 or more peptides with the rating more than 24. Analysis of the list of proteins was performed using software developed in the laboratory of VA Ivanisenko (ICG SB RAS) Age of healthy individuals was ranged from 18 to 54 years. Depending on the age, the data were divided into three groups: those relating to the group of persons under 25 years (youth and mature age 1), 25-40 years (mature age 2) and 40-54 years (mature age 3) It was detected reliable changes in the number of proteins among groups depending of the age. It was found that the minimum number of different proteins were detected in the urine of the group of young patients (under 25 years old) , and the maximum - was observed in the group of middle-aged persons (25 to 40 years). When the proteins were compared according to their molecular mass it was revealed that in the older group (40-54 years ) there is noticeably smaller percentage of high molecular weight proteins than in groups of young and middle aged persons. Thus

  15. Litomosoides sigmodontis: a jird urine metabolome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globisch, Daniel; Specht, Sabine; Pfarr, Kenneth M; Eubanks, Lisa M; Hoerauf, Achim; Janda, Kim D

    2015-12-15

    The neglected tropical disease onchocerciasis affects more than 35 million people worldwide with over 95% in Africa. Disease infection initiates from the filarial parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted by the blackfly vector Simulium sp. carrying infectious L3 larvae. New treatments and diagnostics are required to eradicate this parasitic disease. Herein, we describe that a previously discovered biomarker for onchocerciasis, N-acetyltyramine-O-glucuronide (NATOG) is also present in urine samples of jirds infected with the onchocerciasis model nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis. Increased NATOG values paralleled a progressing infection and demonstrated that quantification of NATOG in this rodent model can be utilized to track its infectivity. Moreover, our findings suggest how NATOG monitoring may be used for evaluating potential drug candidates. PMID:26573416

  16. Detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum DNA in human saliva and urine: loop-mediated isothermal amplification for malaria diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Zahra; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Akhlaghi, Lame; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Farivar, Leila; Razmjou, Elham

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in urine and saliva of malaria patients. From May to November 2011, 108 febrile patients referred to health centers in Sistan and Baluchestan Province of south-eastern Iran participated in the study. Saliva, urine, and blood samples were analyzed with nested PCR and LAMP targeting the species-specific nucleotide sequence of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rRNA) of P. falciparum and P. vivax and evaluated for diagnostic accuracy by comparison to blood nested PCR assay. When nested PCR of blood is used as standard, microscopy and nested PCR of saliva and urine samples showed sensitivity of 97.2%, 89.4% and 71% and specificity of 100%, 97.3% and 100%, respectively. LAMP sensitivity of blood, saliva, and urine was 95.8%, 47% and 29%, respectively, whereas LAMP specificity of these samples was 100%. Microscopy and nested PCR of saliva and LAMP of blood were comparable to nested PCR of blood (к=0.95, 0.83, and 0.94, respectively), but agreement for nested PCR of urine was moderate (к=0.64) and poor to fair for saliva LAMP and urine LAMP (к=0.38 and 0.23, respectively). LAMP assay showed low sensitivity for detection of Plasmodium DNA in human saliva and urine compared to results with blood and to nested PCR of blood, saliva, and urine. However, considering the advantages of LAMP technology and of saliva and urine sampling, further research into the method is worthwhile. LAMP protocol and precise preparation protocols need to be defined and optimized for template DNA of saliva and urine.

  17. SPE-NMR metabolite sub-profiling of urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Spiesser, L.; Garnier, M.; Roo, de N.; Dorsten, van F.; Hollebrands, B.; Velzen, van E.; Draijer, R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    NMR-based metabolite profiling of urine is a fast and reproducible method for detection of numerous metabolites with diverse chemical properties. However, signal overlap in the (1)H NMR profiles of human urine may hamper quantification and identification of metabolites. Therefore, a new method has b

  18. Clinical significance of urine ferritin in patients with cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find an indicator in urine to assist diagnosis of cerebral infarction,we investigated the changes of urine ferritin in patients with cerebral infarction.Methods Collected serum from 30 healthy volunteers and 53 patients with cerebral infarction (CI) ,with ratio ofmales to females

  19. The importance of cooling of urine samples for doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, J.G.; Konings, W.N.

    2009-01-01

    Storing and transporting of urine samples for doping analysis, as performed by the anti-doping organizations associated with the World Anti-Doping Agency, does not include a specific protocol for cooled transport from the place of urine sampling to the doping laboratory, although low cost cooling fa

  20. The importance of cooling of urine samples for doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, J. Gijs; Konings, Wil N.

    2010-01-01

    Storing and transporting of urine samples for doping analysis, as performed by the anti-doping organizations associated with the World Anti-Doping Agency, does not include a specific protocol for cooled transport from the place of urine sampling to the doping laboratory, although low cost cooling fa

  1. Automated biowaste sampling system urine subsystem operating model, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Rosen, F.

    1973-01-01

    The urine subsystem automatically provides for the collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine from six subjects during space flight. Verification of the subsystem design was a primary objective of the current effort which was accomplished thru the detail design, fabrication, and verification testing of an operating model of the subsystem.

  2. DNA stability of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guern, Rémi; Miaux, Brigitte; Pischedda, Patricia; Herwegh, Stéphanie; Courcol, René

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the DNA stability of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 55 urine samples. Crossing threshold (Ct) values were highly similar after 3 to 14 days at room temperature (+0.002, P = 0.99). Consequently, it does not seem necessary to transfer urine specimens into a transport medium in less than 24 hours as recommended by manufacturers. PMID:27130478

  3. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsland, Kristin J; Coe, Fredric L; White, Mark D; Erhard, Michael J; DeFoor, William R; Mahan, John D; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Asplin, John R

    2012-06-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence, treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone-forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-h urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone-forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones, all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH, and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones. PMID:22358148

  4. Evaluation of a nested-pcr for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in blood and urine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Lacerda Alves da Cruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR and its variations, such as the nested-PCR, have been described as promising techniques for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. With the aim of evaluating the usefulness of a nested-PCR method on samples of blood and urine of patients suspected of tuberculosis we analyzed 192 clinical samples, using as a molecular target the insertion element IS6110 specific of M. tuberculosis genome. Nested-PCR method showed higher sensitivity in patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (47.8% and 52% in blood and urine when compared to patients with the pulmonary form of the disease (sensitivity of 29% and 26.9% in blood and urine, regardless of the type of biological sample used. The nested-PCR is a rapid technique that, even if not showing a good sensitivity, should be considered as a helpful tool especially in the extrapulmonary cases or in cases where confirmatory diagnosis is quite difficult to be achieved by routine methods. The performance of PCR-based techniques should be considered and tested in future works on other types of biological specimens besides sputum, like blood and urine, readily obtainable in most cases. The improving of M. tuberculosis nested-PCR detection in TB affected patients will give the possibility of an earlier detection of bacilli thus interrupting the transmission chain of the disease.

  5. Glycogen synthase kinase 3α regulates urine concentrating mechanism in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Rikke; Tao, Shixin; Nilsson, Line;

    2015-01-01

    reduced responsiveness to vasopressin. Gene silencing of GSK3α in mpkCCD cells also reduced forskolin-induced aquaporin-2 expression. When treated with LiCl, an isoform nonselective inhibitor of GSK3 and known inducer of polyuria, WT mice developed significant polyuria within 6 days. However, in GSK3αKO....... To investigate the role of GSK3α in urine concentration, we compared GSK3α knockout (GSK3αKO) mice with wild-type (WT) littermates. Under normal conditions, GSK3αKO mice had higher water intake and urine output. GSK3αKO mice also showed reduced urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 levels but higher urinary...... vasopressin. When water deprived, they failed to concentrate their urine to the same level as WT littermates. The addition of 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin to isolated inner medullary collecting ducts increased the cAMP response in WT mice, but this response was reduced in GSK3αKO mice, suggesting...

  6. Urine β 2-Microglobolin in the Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad Noori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to evaluate the renal tubular function in the patients with congenital heart disease using β2-microglobulin. Methods: In this case-control study, based on oxymetry, the patients with congenital heart disease were divided into two groups of cyanotic (n=20 and acyanotic (n=20. Congenital heart disease was diagnosed by echocardiography. Healthy individuals within the same age and sex groups were used as controls. Na+, β2-micro globulin, creatinine (Cr, and β2-microglobulin/Cr ratio were measured in random urine samples and the results were compared to the same parameters in the control group using Tukey, One-Way ANOVA, and X2 tests. Results: Based on the study results, urine sodium in the patients with cyanotic heart disease was significantly different from that of the controls (P=0.023. The results also revealed a significant difference between the two groups with congenital heart disease regarding urine β2-microglobulin (P=0.045. In addition, the patients with cyanotic heart disease were significantly different from those with acyanotic heart disease and the controls regarding urine β2-micro globulin/Cr ratio (P=0.012 and P=0.026, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that renal tubular dysfunction began in the patients with congenital heart disease, especially in those with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Besides, early diagnosis before cardiac surgery leads to better control of renal tubular disease.

  7. Urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, J; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, J;

    2011-01-01

    beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label study in which subjects inhaled repetitive doses of 400 microgram salbutamol every second hour (total 1600 microgram), which is the permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected at...... median ranged from 268 to 611 ng×mL (-1). No samples exceeded the WADA threshold value of 1000 ng×mL (-1) when corrected for the urine specific gravity. When not corrected one sample exceeded the cut-off value with urine concentration of 1082 ng×mL (-1). In conclusion we found no differences in blood and...... urine concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We found high variability in urine concentrations between subjects in both groups. The variability between subjects was still present after the samples were corrected for urine specific gravity....

  8. Bioassay techniques for 55Fe in urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solvent extraction, ion chromatography and several rapid screening methods were developed and evaluated for 55Fe bioassay applications. Isopropyl ether and TNOA column extractions had radiochemical recoveries exceeding 90%. These were very reproducible with a coefficient of variation less than 5%. Screening techniques investigated included direct counting of ashed urine solids, and Fe(OH)3. precipitated from urine. The sensitivities (2-50 Bq/d urine) of the screening methods were usually limited by the effective urine volume that could be counted in a liquid scintillation counter. The reference isopropyl ether and chromatography methods could easily achieve sensitivities well below the 1 Bq/d urine output target. (author). 49 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  9. PENGARUH STATUS GIZI TERHADAP KADAR YODIUM URIN SETELAH PEMBERIAN KAPSUL YODIUM PADA ANAK SEKOLAH DASAR DI DAERAH GONDOK ENDEMIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Prihatini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available EFFECT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS ON IODINE URINE LEVEL AFTER IODIZED OIL SUPPLEMENTATION OF SCHOOL CHILDREN IN ENDEMIC GOITRE AREA.Background: One of the government strategic to prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD is oral iodized oil supplementation, since it has economic and many practical advantages over injections. However there are high variations in efficacy and the average duration of protection often ranging from 6 month to 1 year. Many factors that influence the absorption and retention of oral iodized oil such  as the nutritional status, the presence of intestinal parasites, sex and age of the subject.Objectives: The objective of this research was to study the effect of nutritional status on iodine urin level after iodized oil supplementation.Methods: The study design was cohort prospective with nutritional status as risk factor. Research population was elementary school children aged 6-10 years in three villages of Cidahu subdistrict, West Java Province.Results: The result showed that average amount of iodine excreted by urine for three days was higher (27% in group of moderate malnutrition compared with good nutrition group (25,5%, but this was not significantly different (p>0,05. Median level of iodine urine after 6 month showed which was 87 ug/l for moderate malnutrition group and 110 ug/l for good nutrition group, and this was significantly different (p<0,05. With urine adequacy level of 100 ug/l, after 6 month, 66% children with moderate malnutrition and 29,3% with good nutrition have mild deficiency (P<0,05.Conclusions: The research concluded that average amount of iodine excreted in urine for three days was higher in group of moderate malnutrition compared with good nutrition group but his was not significantly different. Children with moderate malnutrition have greater iodine deficiency risk than good nutrition after 6 months.Keywords: nutritional status, oral iodized oil, iodine urine level

  10. Fourfold Increase in Pumpkin Yield in Response to Low-Dosage Root Zone Application of Urine-Enhanced Biochar to a Fertile Tropical Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Peter Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A widely abundant and invasive forest shrub, Eupatorium adenophorum, was pyrolyzed in a cost-efficient flame curtain kiln to produce biochar. The resulting biochar fulfilled all the requirements for premium quality, according to the European Biochar Certificate. The biochar was either applied alone or mixed with fresh cow urine (1:1 volume to test its capacity to serve as slow release fertilizer in a pumpkin field trial in Nepal. Treatments included cow-manure compost combined with (i urine-only; (ii biochar-only or (iii urine-loaded biochar. All materials were applied directly to the root zone at a biochar dry matter content of 750 kg·ha−1 before seeding. The urine-biochar treatment led to a pumpkin yield of 82.6 t·ha−1, an increase of more than 300% compared with the treatment where only urine was applied, and an 85% increase compared with the biochar-only treatment. This study showed for the first time that a low-dosage root zone application of urine-enhanced biochar led to substantial yield increases in a fertile silt loam soil. This was tentatively explained by the formation of organic coating of inner pore biochar surfaces by the urine impregnation, which improved the capacity of the biochar to capture and exchange plant nutrients.

  11. Does subdivision of the "atypical" urine cytology increase predictive accuracy for urothelial carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, David G; Hossain, Deloar

    2014-12-01

    Urine cytology is routinely used for early diagnosis and monitoring of patients with hematuria or a history of urothelial carcinoma, but its clinical utility is greatly diminished by a high frequency of "atypical" specimens, reportedly around 20% in the literature. We compared our results with double-stained urine cytology specimens (papanicolaou and acid hematoxylin stains) with published results with only a single or double papanicolaou stain. The acid hematoxylin stain enhanced nuclear chromatin staining, eliminated significant background debris, and improved visibility of diagnostic cells in the presence of obscuring blood. Medical records of all urine cytologies received between 2005 and 2012 in our laboratories were reviewed. The study group consisted of all cases with bladder biopsy follow-up within one year of cytology. Of 43,131 urine cytologies diagnosed in our laboratories, biopsy follow-up results were available within one year in 10,473 cases, including 852 for symptoms and 1,461 for follow-up of bladder cancer. An additional 6,427 cases had cystoscopy results in which no biopsy was obtained. Cases were classified as negative (81.6%), atypical, favor reactive (2.9%), atypical, favor neoplastic (7.3%), suspicious (5.7%), and malignant (2.5%), with subsequent frequencies for urothelial cancer on biopsy of 13.3%, 31.1%, 37.6%, 53.6%, and 74.3%, respectively. No significant difference was found if atypical was subdivided into two categories: favor reactive and favor neoplastic. Subdivision of the atypical category did not improve diagnostic accuracy. Addition of the acid hematoxylin stain decreased the incidence of atypical urine cytologies from about 20% to 10.2%. PMID:24838797

  12. Pychotropic medications in the treatment of feline urine spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Barabara Sherman

    2007-01-01

    Urine spraying (urine marking) is one of the most prevalent feline behavior disorders and a common reason for veterinarian consultation. Although urine spraying is a normal feline communication signal, it is unacceptable behavior for house cats, and, if untreated can lead to relinquishment, relegation outside, or even euthanasia. Urine spraying is associated with a medical disorder in up to 25% of cats that present for treatment; hence all cats that spray should undego clinical examination by a veterinarian to rule out physical causes before a psychogenic cause can be presumed. Behavioral treatment involves litter box management and medication. A variety of psychotropic medications have proven safe and effective for the long-term treatment of psychogenic feline urine spraying, but only if they are prescribed appropriately, monitored judiciously, and coupled therapeutically with environmental management. The goal of such therapy is to reduce the incidence of urine marking to a level acceptable to the owner. Compounding pharmacists perform an essential function in modifying doses of manufactured anxiolytic and antidepressant medications for use in cats whose spraying is psychogenic in origin. In this article, the case is reported of a cat successfully treated with psychotropic medication to reduce the incidence of urine marking, and medications compounded for that purpose are briefly reviewed. The role of the compounding pharmacist in ensuring the success of treatment is also discussed. PMID:23974483

  13. Urine Pretreatment Configuration and Test Results for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stanley G.; Hutchens, Cindy F.; Rethke, Donald W.; Swartley, Vernon L.; Marsh, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    Pretreatment of urine using Oxone and sulfuric acid is baselined in the International Space Station (ISS) waste water reclamation system to control odors, fix urea and control microbial growth. In addition, pretreatment is recommended for long term flight use of urine collection and two phase separation to reduce or eliminate fouling of the associated hardware and plumbing with urine precipitates. This is important for ISS application because the amount of maintenance time for cleaning and repairing hardware must be minimized. This paper describes the development of a chemical pretreatment system based on solid tablet shapes which are positioned in the urine collection hose and are dissolved by the intrained urine at the proper ratio of pretreatment to urine. Building upon the prior success of the developed and tested solid Oxone tablet a trade study was completed to confirm if a similar approach, or alternative, would be appropriate for the sulfuric acid injection method. In addition, a recommended handling and packaging approach of the solid tablets for long term, safe and convenient use on ISS was addressed. Consequently, the solid tablet concept with suitable packaging was identified as the Urine Pretreat / Prefilter Assembly (UPPA). Testing of the UPPA configuration confirmed the disolution rates and ratios required by ISS were achieved. This testing included laboratory controlled methods as well as a 'real world' test evaluation that occurred during the 150 day Stage 10 Water Recovery Test (WRT) conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  14. Interlaboratory Comparison of Lead and Cadmium in Blood, Urine, and Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulev, P. E.; Solgaard, Per Bent; Tjell, Jens Christian

    1978-01-01

    Analysis for lead and cadmium in biological liquids (blood and urine) is difficult. Results of such analyses from five laboratories are compared for samples with known additions of lead and cadmium. The data, evaluated in terms of inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility and accuracy, suggest t...... that laboratories should voluntarily participate in quality control programs. Users of routine laboratories are advised to use their own quality control program...

  15. [Claude Bernard and the "standard European urine"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H

    2010-07-01

    During the nineteenth century the analysis of urine was based on technical tools for the quantification of its constituents. The transformation of diagnostic signs into numbers made reference and normal values indispensable for the verification of the transition point between "normal" and "pathological". It needed the reconfiguration of disease concepts to link measured data and values with specific clinical pictures. Ontological disease concepts were replaced by a gradual understanding of health and disease. During this process the "normal value" became the crucial point of discussion.Taking a statement by Claude Bernard (1813-1878) about the nonsense of chemical mean values as a starting point the paper focuses on the contemporary debate about the role and function of quantification in medical diagnostics. The methodological reference points of the analysis are Georges Canguilhem's considerations about the normal and the pathological and Ludwik Fleck's thought collectives. The acceptance or rejection of normal value concepts is bound to specific thought styles. Permanent challenges to traditional qualifying semiotics resulted in a slow transformation of semiotic thought styles into quantifying diagnostics. The "technisation" of medicine during the nineteenth century fostered this process. The clinical laboratory helped to establish a"mathematisation" of medicine.

  16. Pholcodine interference in the immunoassay for opiates in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenneby, G; Wedege, E; Karlsen, R L

    1983-01-01

    The excretion in urine after single oral therapeutic doses of morphine derivatives was analysed with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) for opiates. In contrast to the rapid excretion of ethylmorphine and codeine, pholcodine showed positive results for opiates 2-6 weeks after intake when the urines were analysed with the RIA-method. When analysed with the EMIT-method, positive results were obtained for pholcodine for approximately 10 days. As pholcodine is a common component in cough mixtures, its prolonged excretion could represent a hazard in interpreting the results from drug analyses of urines.

  17. The optimization of the estimation of carbon-14 in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urinalysis method for carbon-14 currently used by the bioassay laboratory of the Dosimetric Research Branch at CRNL has been tested and optimized for both sensitivity and efficiency. Urine is first treated with an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of urea, the major carbon-containing component of urine; carbon dioxide is then liberated by the measured addition of excess acid and collected in 2-aminoethanol. The aminoethanol can be directly counted by the addition of a liquid scintillation cocktail. This method can be used to measure both the specific activity, (Bq/g-carbon) or the total activity of carbon-14 released from the urine sample

  18. Pholcodine interference in the immunoassay for opiates in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenneby, G; Wedege, E; Karlsen, R L

    1983-01-01

    The excretion in urine after single oral therapeutic doses of morphine derivatives was analysed with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) for opiates. In contrast to the rapid excretion of ethylmorphine and codeine, pholcodine showed positive results for opiates 2-6 weeks after intake when the urines were analysed with the RIA-method. When analysed with the EMIT-method, positive results were obtained for pholcodine for approximately 10 days. As pholcodine is a common component in cough mixtures, its prolonged excretion could represent a hazard in interpreting the results from drug analyses of urines. PMID:6347841

  19. Chemotherapeutic potential of Cow Urine AND#8211; A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur Randhawa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the grim scenario where presently about 70% of pathogenic bacteria are resistant to at least one of the drugs for treatment, cue is to be taken from traditional/ indigenous medicine to tackle it urgently. The Indian traditional knowledge emanates from ayurveda, where Bos indicus is placed at a high pedestal for numerous uses of its various products. Urine is one of the products of cow with many benefits and without inducing toxicity. Various studies have found good antimicrobial activity of CU comparable with standard drugs like Ofloxacin, Cefpodoxime and Gentamycin, against a vast number of pathogenic bacteria, more so against gram positive than negative bacteria. Interestingly antimicrobial activity has also been found against some resistant strains like MDR E coli and K pneumonia. Antimicrobial action is enhanced still further by it being an immunoenhancer and bioenhancer of some antibiotic drugs. Antifungal activity was comparable to Amphotericin B. CU also has anthelmintic and antineoplastic action. CU has in addition antioxidant properties and it can prevent the damage to DNA caused by the environmental stress. In the management of infectious diseases, CU can be used alone or as an adjunctive to prevent the development of resistance and enhance the effect of standard antibiotics. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 180-186

  20. Urine temperature as an index for the core temperature of industrial workers in hot or cold environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanami, Shoko; Horie, Seichi; Inoue, Jinro; Yamashita, Makiko

    2012-11-01

    Workers working in hot or cold environments are at risk for heat stroke and hypothermia. In Japan, 1718 people including 47 workers died of heat stroke in 2010 (Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare, Japan 2011). While the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) recommendation lists the abnormal core temperature of workers as a criterion for halting work, no method has been established for reliably measuring core temperatures at workplaces. ISO 9886 (Ergonomics-evaluation of thermal strain by physiological measurements. ISO copyright office, Geneva, pp 3-14; 2004) recognizes urine temperature as an index of core temperature only at normal temperature. In this study we ascertained whether or not urine temperature could serve as an index for core temperature at temperatures above and below the ISO range. We measured urine temperature of 31 subjects (29.8 ± 11.9 years) using a thermocouple sensor placed in the toilet bowl at ambient temperature settings of 40, 20, and 5˚C, and compared them with rectal temperature. At all ambient temperature settings, urine temperature correlated closely with rectal temperature exhibiting small mean bias. Urine temperature changed in a synchronized manner with rectal temperature at 40˚C. A Bland and Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement (mean bias ± 2SD) between rectal and urine temperatures were -0.39 to +0.15˚C at 40˚C (95%CI -0.44 to +0.20˚C) and -0.79 to +0.29˚C at 5˚C (-0.89 to +0.39˚C). Hence, urine temperature as measured by the present method is a practical surrogate index for rectal temperature and represents a highly reliable biological monitoring index for assessing hot and cold stresses of workers at actual workplaces.

  1. Comparison of urine Gram stain and urine culture to diagnose urinary tract infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia Utami Putri; Oke Rina; Rosmayanti; Rafita Ramayati; Rusdidjas

    2015-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (are due to pathogen invasion of the urinary tract. The upper or lower tract may be affected, depending on the presence of infection in the kidney, or bladder and urethra. Infection of urinary tract affect up to 10% of children and are the most common bacterial infection in infants and young children worldwide. The prevalence of UTI is 3-5% in girls and 1% in boys. Urine culture is considered to be the gold standard diagnostic test for UTI. However, Gram sta...

  2. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high-fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C; Bach Knudsen, Knud E; Serena, Anja;

    2006-01-01

    to a significantly higher content of betaine in WGD plasma samples compared with NWD samples. In an identical study with the same diets, urine samples were collected, and 1H NMR spectra were acquired on these. PLS-DA on spectra obtained for urine samples revealed changes in the intensities of spectral regions, which...... could be ascribed to differences in the content of betaine and creatine/creatinine between the two diets, and LC-MS analyses verified a significantly lower content of creatinine in WGD urine samples compared with NWD urine samples. In conclusion, using an explorative approach, the present studies...... disclosed biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet on plasma betaine content and excretion of betaine and creatinine....

  3. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high fibre rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Bach Knudsen, Knud E.; Serena, Anja;

    2006-01-01

    to a significantly higher content of betaine in WGD plasma samples compared with NWD samples. In an identical study with the same diets, urine samples were collected, and 1H NMR spectra were acquired on these. PLS-DA on spectra obtained for urine samples revealed changes in the intensities of spectral regions, which...... could be ascribed to differences in the content of betaine and creatine/creatinine between the two diets, and LC-MS analyses verified a significantly lower content of creatinine in WGD urine samples compared with NWD urine samples. In conclusion, using an explorative approach, the present studies...... disclosed biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet on plasma betaine content and excretion of betaine and creatinine....

  4. Measurement of Orotic Acid in Urine by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This work presents a simple, rapid and reliable supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) method for a sensitive measurement of orotic acid in human urine. The samples were diluted with deionized water and analyzed directly without any pretreatment.

  5. Dimensional Analysis and the Time Required to Urinate

    CERN Document Server

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Zheng, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    According to the recently discovered 'Law of Urination', mammals, ranging in size from mice to elephants, take, on the average, 21s to urinate. We attempt to gain insights into the physical processes responsible for this uniformity using simple dimensional analysis. We assume that the biological apparatus for urination in mammals simply scales with linear size, and consider the scenarios where the driving force is gravity or elasticity, and where the response is dominated by inertia or viscosity. We ask how the time required for urination depends on the length scale, and find that for the time to be independent of body size, the dominant driving force must be elasticity, and the dominant response viscosity. Our note demonstrates that dimensional analysis can indeed readily give insights into complex physical and biological processes.

  6. EARLY MORNING URINE ESTROGEN-GLUCURONIDE DETERMINATION FOR OVULATION PREDICTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUMei-Guang; TULCHINSKYD

    1989-01-01

    Monitoring of ovulation is necessary for induction of ovulation in clinical trials. Bakerfound that the conoentration of estrogen glucuronides was high in female urine and devel-oped a RIA method for direct measurment. Adlevcrefutz and some other five groups

  7. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  8. Bacterial spectrum of urine in staghorn calculi nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogan М.I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the role of the bacterial spectrum of urine in the development and clinical course of staghorn calculi nephrolithiasis. Patients and Methods. From 2008 to 2010 in the urological department of Rostov State Medical University urine culture was assessed in 86 patients with staghorn calculi. Mean age was 50,4±5,9 (25-73 years. Results: Most of the patients with staghorn calculus (89,5% have microbial contamination of urine, which has a high correlation with leucocituria, and the spectrum of microorganisms often has the various bacterial associations, which caused more infection complications during treatment. Conclusion: In the urine urease-producing bacteria, E. Coli, gram-positive organisms, nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria were predominated

  9. Diagnostic usefulness of CT attenuation coefficients of urine after enteral administration of iodinated water (iohexol) in neonates with NEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jeung Hee; Yun, Eun Joo; Yoon, Dae Young [Hallym University College of Medicine, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-10-15

    We wanted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an increased computed tomography attenuation coefficient (CTAC) of urine after the oral administration of iohexol in neonates who are suspected of suffering with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). During a recent 1 year-period, seventeen neonates were admitted for suspected NEC, and they were divided into the suspected and definite groups based on their clinical signs and radiographic findings; we also included ten normal neonates as the control group. Diluted iohexol was administered and the CTACs of collected urine samples at 8-12 hour intervals were measured. Comparative analysis of the three groups was done and statistical significance was determined by the Scheffe test. Among 17 neonates, there were 13 neonates in the suspect group and 4 neonates in the definite group. The mean CTACs of urine in each group were 2711 HU (control group), 3411 HU (suspected group), and 7625 HU (definite group), respectively. There was a significant difference between the mean CTAC of the definite group and that of the control or suspected groups (Scheffe t >2.65). However, no statistically significant difference was seen between the suspected and control groups (Scheffe t=1.14). Although measurements of the CTAC of urine showed no significant diagnostic efficacy in the suspected group, the CTAC of urine, which reflects the correlated degree of bowel mucosal injury, can be a useful aid for determining the severity and progression of NEC.

  10. Detection of congenital cytomegalovirus infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of saliva or urine specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Shannon A; Ahmed, Amina; Palmer, April L; Michaels, Marian G; Sánchez, Pablo J; Bernstein, David I; Tolan, Robert W; Novak, Zdenek; Chowdhury, Nazma; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh B

    2014-11-01

    Viral culture of urine or saliva has been the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Results of rapid culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of urine and saliva specimens from 80 children were compared to determine the clinical utility of a real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of congenital CMV infection. Results of urine PCR were positive in 98.8% of specimens. Three PCR-positive urine samples were culture negative. Results of saliva PCR and culture were concordant in 78 specimens (97.5%). Two PCR-positive saliva samples were culture negative. These findings demonstrate that PCR performs as well as rapid culture of urine or saliva specimens for diagnosing congenital CMV infection and saliva specimens are easier to collect. Because PCR also offers more rapid turnaround, is unlikely to be affected by storage and transport conditions, has lower cost, and may be adapted to high-throughput situations, it is well suited for targeted testing and large-scale screening for CMV.

  11. Usability application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of microorganisms isolated from urine of patients treated in cancer hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Cybulski, Zefiryn; Schmidt, Katarzyna; Grabiec, Alicja; Talaga, Zofia; Bociąg, Piotr; Wojciechowicz, Jacek; Roszak, Andrzej; Kycler, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was: i) to compare the results of urine culture with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -based detection of microorganisms using two commercially available kits, ii) to assess antimicrobial susceptibility of urine isolates from cancer patients to chosen antimicrobial drugs and, if necessary, to update the recommendation of empirical therapy. Materials and methods. A one-year hospital-based prospective study has been conducted in Greater Poland Cancer Centre...

  12. The hydrogen sulfide metabolite trimethylsulfonium is found in human urine

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam Lajin; Francesconi, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is the third and most recently discovered gaseous signaling molecule following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, playing important roles both in normal physiological conditions and disease progression. The trimethylsulfonium ion (TMS) can result from successive methylation reactions of hydrogen sulfide. No report exists so far about the presence or quantities of TMS in human urine. We developed a method for determining TMS in urine using liquid chromatography-electrospray ion...

  13. Urine Culture in Uncomplicated UTI: Interpretation and Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2016-05-01

    Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical problem, accounting for millions of outpatient visits in the USA annually. Although routinely obtaining urine cultures in UTI is not recommended, there are circumstances in which obtaining a pre-therapy culture may be warranted or chosen by clinicians, such as when indicated by the need for careful antimicrobial stewardship. This review focuses on understanding reasons for obtaining a pre-therapy culture, methods of collection, and appropriately interpreting urine culture data.

  14. Determination of mineral radioactive strontium-90 in urines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical procedure for radioactive strontium in urine is described. As a first step, a precipitation of calcium oxalate performed on the urine, allows to detect the presence of various fission products and particularly of strontium which is carried by the precipitate. Strontium can then be selectively separated on ion exchange resins. By studying the growth curve of β activity, it is possible to determine the activities which may be attributed to 89Sr and 90Sr respectively. (author)

  15. Volatile compounds associated with estrus in mouse urine: potential pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwende, F J; Wiesler, D; Novotny, M

    1984-02-15

    Female mice that had been made estrous through hormone implantation excreted in their urine significantly enhanced levels of n-pentyl acetate, cis-2-penten-1-yl acetate, p-toluidine, 2-heptanone, and 3 unsaturated ketones. The relationship of these volatiles to a signaling function of the estrous urine is postulated. Structural elucidations of these compounds were carried out through capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the synthesis of authentic samples. PMID:6538143

  16. Analysis of uranium in urine of persons occupationaly exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique of uranium analysis in urine of persons occupationaly exposed, using the fluorimetric method is proposed. Two procedures for the determination are presented: the first employs platinum dishes, obtaining a detection limit of 1 ppb and the second one, using aluminium dishes, shows a detection limit of 100 ppb. Uranium and urine physico-chemical characteristics are described, as well as norms for the exposition of workers to uranium. (M.A.C.)

  17. Lorry drivers' work stress evaluated by catecholamines excreted in urine.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Beek, A J; Meijman, T.F; Frings-Dresen, M. H.; Kuiper, J I; Kuiper, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. METHODS--The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline of 32 lorry drivers, who also had loading and unloading activities to perform, was studied for one working day and one rest day. Each driver was asked to provide six urine samples on both days. RE...

  18. Temporal variability in urinary phthalate metabolite excretion based on spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples: Considerations for epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Kranich, Selma K.; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    healthy men each collected two spot, three first-morning, and three 24-h urine samples during a 3-month period. Samples were analyzed for the content of 12 urinary metabolites of 7 different phthalates. Variability was assessed as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). For the metabolites of diethyl...... of exposures for these two phthalates in population studies and hence an attenuation of the power to detect possible exposure-outcome associations. The only slightly higher ICCs for 24-h pools compared to first-morning and spot urine samples does not seem to justify the extra effort needed to collect 24-h...

  19. Novel validated spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of taurine in energy drinks and human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf El Din, M K; Wahba, M E K

    2015-03-01

    Two sensitive, selective, economic and validated spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for the determination of taurine in energy drinks and spiked human urine. Method Ι is based on fluorimetric determination of the amino acid through its reaction with Hantzsch reagent to form a highly fluorescent product measured at 490 nm after excitation at 419 nm. Method ΙΙ is based on the reaction of taurine with tetracyanoethylene yielding a fluorescent charge transfer complex, which was measured at λex /em of (360 nm/450 nm). The proposed methods were subjected to detailed validation procedures, and were statistically compared with the reference method, where the results obtained were in good agreement. Method Ι was further applied to determine taurine in energy drinks and spiked human urine giving promising results. Moreover, the stoichiometry of the reactions was studied, and reaction mechanisms were postulated.

  20. Reusable urine glucose sensor based on functionalized graphene oxide conjugated Au electrode with protective layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Youn Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical based system with multiple layers coated on a functionalized graphene oxide Au electrode was developed to measure glucose concentration in urine in a more stable way. Two types of gold printed circuit boards were fabricated and graphene oxide was immobilized on their surface by chemical adsorption. Multiple layers, composed of a couple of polymers, were uniformly coated on the surface electrode. This device exhibited higher electrochemical responses against glucose, a greater resistivity in the presence of interferential substances in urine, and durable stabilities for longer periods of time than conventional units. The efficiency in current level according to the order and ratio of solution was evaluated during the immobilization of the layer. The fabricated electrodes were then also evaluated using hyperglycemic clinical samples and compared with the patterns of blood glucose measured with commercially available glucose meters. Our findings show that not only was their pattern similar but this similarity is well correlated.

  1. Worker exposures to triclopyr: risk assessment through measurements in urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Nathalie H; Brunet, Robert C; Carrier, Gaétan; Dosso, Amssétou

    2005-07-01

    In the province of Quebec (Canada), the phytocide Garlon 4, whose active ingredient is triclopyr, is often used to prevent trees from reaching electrical conductors. The object of this paper is to assess the potential health risks in workers coming into contact with Garlon 4. Ten workers collected their urine during the 22 h following the beginning of a work shift. Measured urinary amounts of triclopyr varied between 1 and 13 mg. The absorbed daily doses were estimated from the amounts of triclopyr in urine through the use of a kinetic model that links the rates of triclopyr elimination to absorbed doses. These estimated doses were compared with the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) observed in rats: 5 mg per kg of body weight. The upper-bound estimations of the worker's daily absorbed doses were found to be 13.3% or less of the rat NOEL. PMID:15703284

  2. Comparison of uncertainties related to standardization of urine samples with volume and creatinine concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Ase Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    that the uncertainty associated with creatinine standardization (19-35%) was higher than the uncertainty related to volume standardization (up to 10%, when not correcting for deviations from 24 h) for 24 h urine samples. However, volume standardization introduced an average bias of 4% due to missed volumes......When measuring biomarkers in urine, volume (and time) or concentration of creatinine are both accepted methods of standardization for diuresis. Both types of standardization contribute uncertainty to the final result. The aim of the present paper was to compare the uncertainty introduced when using...... the two types of standardization on 24 h samples from healthy individuals. Estimates of uncertainties were based on results from the literature supplemented with data from our own studies. Only the difference in uncertainty related to the two standardization methods was evaluated. It was found...

  3. Primary isolation of Candida species from urine specimens using chromogenic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulicz, J F; Rivard, R G; Conger, N G; Nguyen, M X; Hospenthal, D R

    2008-03-01

    CHROMagar Candida (CaC) is a chromogenic medium that can be used to detect Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and perhaps Candida glabrata. We evaluated the utility of CaC to detect candiduria in high-risk patients and the potential usefulness of this information in directing initial antifungal therapy in those later identified with candidaemia. CaC was compared in parallel to standard laboratory methods (SM) for the detection of Candida from urine collected from high-risk units and wards. Of 893 samples, Candida was recovered by CaC from 104 compared with 35 using SM. No isolates detected by SM were undetected by CaC. More than one Candida species were recovered by CaC in 19 of the 104 (18.3%); only two mixed cultures were detected by SM. The identification was more rapid with CaC. Five of 69 patients with candiduria detected by CaC developed candidaemia on or after the date of urine culture. SM recovered fungus in only two of these patients. CaC can be used as primary media for the detection of Candida species from urine specimens. Primary isolation by CaC may enable clinicians to make earlier, directed selection of antifungal agents and potentially reduce patient morbidity and mortality.

  4. Norepinephrine infusion increases urine output in children under sedative and analgesic infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Piva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effects of early norepinephrine (NE infusion in children submitted to mechanical ventilation (MV requiring continuous sedative and analgesic infusion. Methods: double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolling children (1 month to 12 years of age admitted to a Brazilian PICU and expected to require MV and continuous sedative and analgesic drug infusions for at least five days. Children were randomized to receive either norepinephrine (NE (0.15 mcg/kg/min or normal saline infusion, started in the first 24 hours of MV, and maintained for 72 hours. We compared hemodynamic variables, fluid intake, renal function and urine output between groups. Results: forty children were equally allocated to the NE or placebo groups, with no differences in baseline characteristics, laboratorial findings, PRISM II score, length of MV, or mortality between groups. The average norepinephrine infusion was 0.143 mcg/kg/min. The NE group showed higher urine output (p = 0.016 and continuous increment in the mean arterial pressure compared to the baseline (p = 0.043. There were no differences in the remaining hemodynamic variables, fluid requirements, or furosemide administration. Conclusion: early norepinephrine infusion in children submitted to MV improves mean arterial pressure and increases urine output. These effects were attributed to reversion of vasoplegia induced by the sedative and analgesic drugs.

  5. Urine antigen detection for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Yesenia; Rodriguez, Silvia; García, Hector H; Brandt, Jef; Van Hul, Anke; Silva, Maria; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Portocarrero, Mylagritos; Melendez, D Paolo; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2009-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of seizures and epilepsy. Diagnosis is based on brain imaging, supported by immunodiagnosis in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Lumbar puncture is invasive and painful. Blood sampling is slightly painful and poorly accepted. Urine antigen detection has been used for other parasites and tried in NCC with suboptimal performance. We used a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA to detect Taenia solium antigens in urine from 87 Peruvian neurocysticercosis patients (viable cysts, N = 34; subarachnoid cysticercosis, N = 10; degenerating parasites, N = 7; calcified lesions, N = 36) and 32 volunteers from a non-endemic area of Peru. Overall sensitivity of urine antigen detection for viable parasites was 92%, which decreased to 62.5% in patients with a single cyst. Most patients (30/36, 83%) with only calcified cysticercosis were urine antigen negative. Antigen levels in paired serum/urine samples (evaluated in 19 patients) were strongly correlated. Non-invasive urine testing for T. solium antigens provides a useful alternative for NCC diagnosis.

  6. Captan metabolism in humans yields two biomarkers, tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI) and thiazolidine-2-thione-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, R I; Thongsinthusak, T

    1993-01-01

    Captan fungicide (N-(trichloromethylthio)-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide) metabolism in two human volunteers rapidly yields THPI (tetrahydrophthalimide) and TTCA (thiazolidine-2-thione-4-carboxylic acid). The work was done to evaluate usefulness of TTCA and THPI as biomarkers of occupational exposure and to compare human and rat dermal absorption and metabolism. THPI in 12h urine ranged from MDL (5 ppb) to 640 ppb and was stable for at least one year. TTCA was also a stable metabolite, but the MDL was 50 ppb. THPI was detectable in urine for 72 hours following oral dosages of 1 mg/kg, but most was eliminated 0-24 h. No THPI was detectable in urine following application of a chloroform solution to hands, forearms, or inguinal region. Dermal absorption and metabolism of captan are substantially different in humans and rats.

  7. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Miranda G M; Swann, Jonathan R; Wilson, Ian D; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for anionic metabolic profiling of urine from antibiotic-treated rats to study microbial-host co-metabolism. Rats were treated with the antibiotics penicillin G and streptomycin sulfate for four or eight days and compared t

  8. The assessment of 24 24-h urine volume by measurement of urine specific gravity with dipstick in adults with nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hatef Khorami

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The use of behavioral modification with dipstick is an effective method for control and maintenance of optimal urine volume, and it has resulted in more patient compliance for drinking water and is more effective for prevention of renal stone.

  9. ABSENCE OF MUTAGENICITY IN THE URINE OF AUTOPSY SERVICE WORKERS EXPOSED TO FORMALDEHYDE: FACTORS INFLUENCING MUTAGENICITY TESTING OF URINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study examined the effect of exposure to autopsy workers to formaldehyde using urinary mutagenicity testing with Salmonella typhimurium. A matched control group was also studied. Additional studies including the recovery of histidine from urine samples, the determination of h...

  10. [Activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizoń, Anna; Stasiak, Karolina; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2010-01-01

    increase in the concentration of lead and 10-fold elevation of arsenic level in all groups of smelters in comparison to the control group. The highest cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations were observed in blood and urine of smoking smelters. We have observed a significant increase in the concentrations of lead and cadmium in blood of smoking persons from control group in comparison to the non-smoking persons from this group, which suggest, that tobacco smoking increase the heavy metals concentrations in the organisms. Occupational exposure to heavy metals resulted in an increase of AAP activity in blood and urine of all groups of smelters in comparison to corresponding control groups. The highest value of AAP was observed in serum and urine of smoking smelters. Tobacco smoke also increases the AAP activity the blood and urine of smoking smelters and control group compared to the non-smoking smelters and nonsmoking control group, appropriate. The study was shown that occupational exposure to heavy metals and tobacco. PMID:21360924

  11. A micromethod for quantitation of debrisoquine and 4-hydroxydebrisoquine in urine by liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new simple, selective and sensitive micromethod based on HPLC and fluorescence detection to measure debrisoquine (D and 4-hydroxydebrisoquine (4-OHD in urine for the investigation of xenobiotic metabolism by debrisoquine hydroxylase (CYP2D6. Four hundred µl of urine was required for the analysis of D and 4-OHD. Peaks were eluted at 8.3 min (4-OHD, 14.0 min (D and 16.6 min for the internal standard, metoprolol (20 µg/ml. The 5-µm CN-reverse-phase column (Shimpack, 250 x 4.6 mm was eluted with a mobile phase consisting of 0.25 M acetate buffer, pH 5.0, and acetonitrile (9:1, v/v at 0.7 ml/min with detection at lexcitation = 210 nm and lemission = 290 nm. The method, validated on the basis of measurements of spiked urine, presented 3 ng/ml (D and 6 ng/ml (4-OHD sensitivity, 390-6240 ng/ml (D and 750-12000 ng/ml (4-OHD linearity, and 5.7/8.2% (D and 5.3/8.2% (4-OHD intra/interassay precision. The method was validated using urine of a healthy Caucasian volunteer who received one 10-mg tablet of Declinax®, po, in the morning after an overnight fast. Urine samples (diuresis of 4 or 6 h were collected from zero to 24 h. The urinary excretion of D and 4-OHD, Fel (0-24 h, i.e., fraction of dose administered and excreted into urine, was 6.4% and 31.9%, respectively. The hydroxylation capacity index reported as metabolic ratio was 0.18 (D/4-OHD for the person investigated and can be compared to reference limits of >12.5 for poor metabolizers (PM and <12.5 for extensive metabolizers (EM. In parallel, the recovery ratio (RR, another hydroxylation capacity index, was 0.85 (4-OHD: SD + 4-OHD versus reference limits of RR <0.12 for PM and RR >0.12 for EM. The healthy volunteer was considered to be an extensive metabolizer on the basis of the debrisoquine test.

  12. The effect of urine storage on antiviral and antibiotic compounds in the liquid phase of source-separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Sanna T; Palmroth, Marja R T; Rintala, Jukka A; Tuhkanen, Tuula A

    2016-09-01

    The behaviour of pharmaceuticals related to the human immunodeficiency virus treatment was studied in the liquid phase of source-separated urine during six-month storage at 20°C. Six months is the recommended time for hygienization and use of urine as fertilizer. Compounds were spiked in urine as concentrations calculated to appear in urine. Assays were performed with separate compounds and as therapeutic groups of antivirals, antibiotics and anti-tuberculotics. In addition, urine was amended either with faeces or urease inhibitor. The pharmaceutical concentrations were monitored from filtered samples with solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography. The concentration reductions of the studied compounds as such or with amendments ranged from less than 1% to more than 99% after six-month storage. The reductions without amendments were 41.9-99% for anti-tuberculotics; <52% for antivirals (except with 3TC 75.6%) and <50% for antibiotics. In assays with amendments, the reductions were all <50%. Faeces amendment resulted in similar or lower reduction than without it even though bacterial activity should have increased. The urease inhibitor prevented ureolysis and pH rise but did not affect pharmaceutical removal. In conclusion, removal during storage might not be enough to reduce risks associated with the studied pharmaceuticals, in which case other feasible treatment practises or urine utilization means should be considered. PMID:26804243

  13. The use of saliva as a practical and feasible alternative to urine in large-scale screening for congenital cytomegalovirus infection increasesinclusion and detection rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Santos de Carvalho Cardoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although urine is considered the gold-standard material for the detection of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection, it can be difficult to obtain in newborns. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of detection of congenital CMV infection in saliva and urine samples. METHODS: One thousand newborns were included in the study. Congenital cytomegalovirus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: Saliva samples were obtained from all the newborns, whereas urine collection was successful in only 333 cases. There was no statistically significant difference between the use of saliva alone or saliva and urine collected simultaneously for the detection of CMV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva samples can be used in large-scale neonatal screening for CMV infection.

  14. Mining the Human Urine Proteome for Monitoring Renal Transplant Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Gao, Yuqian; He, Jintang; Wang, Anyou; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Shi, Tujin; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun; Salvatierra, Oscar; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie

    2016-03-04

    The human urinary proteome reflects systemic and inherent renal injury perturbations and can be analyzed to harness specific biomarkers for different kidney transplant injury states. 396 unique urine samples were collected contemporaneously with an allograft biopsy from 396 unique kidney transplant recipients. Centralized, blinded histology on the graft was used to classify matched urine samples into categories of acute rejection (AR), chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), BK virus nephritis (BKVN), and stable graft (STA). Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics using iTRAQ based discovery (n=108) and global label-free LC-MS analyses of individual samples (n=137) for quantitative proteome assessment were used in the discovery step. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was applied to identify and validate minimal urine protein/peptide biomarkers to accurately segregate organ injury causation and pathology on unique urine samples (n=151). A total of 958 proteins were initially quantified by iTRAQ, 87% of which were also identified among 1574 urine proteins detected in LC-MS validation. 103 urine proteins were significantly (p<0.05) perturbed in injury and enriched for humoral immunity, complement activation, and lymphocyte trafficking. A set of 131 peptides corresponding to 78 proteins were assessed by SRM for their significance in an independent sample cohort. A minimal set of 35 peptides mapping to 33 proteins, were modeled to segregate different injury groups (AUC =93% for AR, 99% for CAN, 83% for BKVN). Urinary proteome discovery and targeted validation identified urine protein fingerprints for non-invasive differentiation of kidney transplant injuries, thus opening the door for personalized immune risk assessment and therapy.

  15. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laubach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3 emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 subsequent days. Daily-integrated emission rates peaked on Day 3 of the experiment (last day of cattle presence and declined steadily for five days thereafter. Urine patches were the dominant sources for these emissions. On Day 9, a secondary emissions peak occurred, with dung pats likely to be the main sources. This interpretation is based on simultaneous observations of the pH evolution in urine patches and dung pats created next to the circular plot. Feed and dung samples were analysed to estimate the amounts of nitrogen (N ingested and excreted. Total N volatilised as NH3 was 19.8 (± 0.9% of N intake and 22.4 (± 1.3% of N excreted. The bimodal shape of the emissions time series allowed to infer separate estimates for volatilisation from urine and dung, respectively, with the result that urine accounted for 88.6 (± 2.6% of the total NH3 emissions. The emissions from urine represented 25.5 (± 2.0% of the excreted urine-N, while the emissions from dung amounted to 11.6 (± 2.7% of the deposited dung-N. Emissions from dung may have continued after Day 13 but were not resolved by the measurement technique. A simple resistance model shows that the magnitude of the emissions from dung is controlled by the resistance of the dung crust.

  16. Diagnostic Performance of Triagetrade mark for Benzodiazepines: Urine Analysis of the Dose of Therapeutic Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisaki, Emiko; Hayashida, Makiko; Nihira, Makoto; Ohno, Youkichi; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Okano, Takaaki; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines in 74 urine specimens from outpatients given therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines and compared the results of EMIT assays. Results obtained in all urine samples were confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Overall agreement between results of Triage and EMIT assays was 73%. All of the Triage-positive samples were also positive by EMIT assays. Results of Triage and EMIT assays were different for 20 samples obtained from patients given thienodiazepines (etizolam, brotizolam, and clotiazepam) and nitrobenzodiazepines (nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, and clonazepam). LC-MS confirmed parent drugs in urine specimens, consistent with the prescriptions of drugs. The low agreement between Triage and EMIT results in this study might be due to low sensitivity of Triage for thienodiazepines. Thienodiazines are frequently prescribed benzodiazepines, and Triage panel is the most frequently used screening kit in Japan. It should be noted that negative results obtained by a Triage test might not mean the absence of thienodiazepines. PMID:16297284

  17. Diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines: urine analysis of the dose of therapeutic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisaki, Emiko; Hayashida, Makiko; Nihira, Makoto; Ohno, Youkichi; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Okano, Takaaki; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

    2005-09-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic performance of Triage for benzodiazepines in 74 urine specimens from outpatients given therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines and compared the results of EMIT assays. Results obtained in all urine samples were confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Overall agreement between results of Triage and EMIT assays was 73%. All of the Triage-positive samples were also positive by EMIT assays. Results of Triage and EMIT assays were different for 20 samples obtained from patients given thienodiazepines (etizolam, brotizolam, and clotiazepam) and nitrobenzodiazepines (nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, and clonazepam). LC-MS confirmed parent drugs in urine specimens, consistent with the prescriptions of drugs. The low agreement between Triage and EMIT results in this study might be due to low sensitivity of Triage for thienodiazepines. Thienodiazines are frequently prescribed benzodiazepines, and Triage panel is the most frequently used screening kit in Japan. It should be noted that negative results obtained by a Triage test might not mean the absence of thienodiazepines. PMID:16168176

  18. Rapid determination of nicotine in urine by direct thermal desorption ion trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.B.; Ilgner, R.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of nicotine and cotinine in physiological fluids (urine, blood serum, and saliva) is widely used as a means of assessing human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Although numerous analytical methods exist for these measurements, they generally involve extensive sample preparation which increases cost and decreases sample throughput. We report the use of thermal desorption directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) for the rapid determination of nicotine and cotinine in urine. A 1{mu}L aliquot of urine is injected into a specially designed inlet and flash vaporized directly into an ITMS through an open-split capillary restrictor interface. Isobutane chemical ionization is used to generate (M+H){sup +} ions of the analytes and collision induced dissociation is used to generate characteristic fragment ions which are used to confirm their identity. Quantification is achieved by integrating the ion current for the characteristic ions and comparing with an external working curve. Detection limits are approximately 50 pg per analyte and the sample turnaround time is approximately 3 minutes without the need for extensive sample preparation. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Urine from stressed rats increases immobility in receptor rats forced to swim: role of 2-heptanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Contreras, Carlos M; Mendoza-López, M Remedios; García-Barradas, Oscar; Cruz-Sánchez, J Samuel

    2007-05-16

    The present study was aimed to determine whether the urine from donor rats, which were physically stressed (UD-PS) by unavoidable electric footshocks, produces despair in receptor partner rats (RP) in the long-term. For each trial, an RP rat was placed during 10 min once per day for 21 days in a small non-movement-restricting cage impregnated with the urine collected from a UD-PS rat. Control rats, free of stimulation, maintained their locomotion and immobility scores at basal values throughout the 21-day test. After 21 days of stressing experience [F(2,90)=15.22, Pimmobility [F(2,90)=8.83, Pswim test (RP, r=0.886, P<0.05; UD-PS, r=0.962, P<0.001) compared with the control group (r=-0.307, NS). We conclude that the RP became similarly despaired as the UD-PS group through the action of 2-heptanone, a ketonic compound identified in UD-PS urine by HS-GC/MS techniques. This ketone was found to be increased [F(2,15)=3.50, P<0.05] from the 1st day of unavoidable electric footshocks, and to induce despair, an effect reverted [F(2,21)=16.5, P<0.0001] by imipramine (5.0 mg/kg) in another group of rats.

  20. Determination of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) in urine by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grases, F.; Perello, J.; Isern, B.; Prieto, R.M

    2004-05-10

    Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) is a substance present in urine with an important role in preventing calcium renal calculi development. In spite of this, the use of urinary phytate levels on stone-formers' evaluation and treatment is still notably restricted as a consequence of the enormous difficulty to analyze this substance in urine. In this paper, a simple procedure for routinary urinary phytate determination based on phosphorus determination through inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry is described. The method only requires a previous separation of phytate from other components by column anion exchange chromatography. The working linear range used was 0-2 mg l{sup -1} phosphorus (0-7 mg l{sup -1} phytate). The limit of detection was 64 {mu}g l{sup -1} of phytate and the limit of quantification was 213 {mu}g l{sup -1}. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for 1.35 mg l{sup -1} phytate was 2.4%. Different urine samples were analyzed using an alternative analytical methodology based on gas chromatography (GC)/mass detection used for inositol determination (phytate was previously hydrolyzed), resulting both methods comparable using as criterion to assess statistical significance P<0.05.

  1. Characterization of ions in urine of animal model with acute renal insufficiency using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In last the years, important advances had been obtained in the investigation of the ARI (Acute Renal Insufficiency) what is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function, what is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately, caused by the Ischemia and Reperfusion (I/R). However, the incidence of the mortality had not diminished in the last few decades. This kidney dysfunction includes a complex interaction between the tubular injury, inflammation and alterations in the renal homo dynamic. In this investigation we intend to quantify ions of clinical relevance in urine of Wistar rats of control group, an experimental model for ARI, and in urine of Wistar with ARI, using NAA technique (Neutron Activation Analysis). The use of this technique is an alternative to perform biochemistry analysis when the biological material is scarce. The quantitative knowledge of these elements allows an evaluation of the functions that regulate the kidneys behavior. The measurements in urine were performed before, during and after the ARI caused by ischemia-induced. The results of NAA indicated that the occurrence of the elements K and Mg evaluated in the ARI group (during and after de I/R) have no similarities when compared with control group. (author)

  2. Characterization of ions in urine of animal model with acute renal insufficiency using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pessoa, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In last the years, important advances had been obtained in the investigation of the ARI (Acute Renal Insufficiency) what is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function, what is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately, caused by the Ischemia and Reperfusion (I/R). However, the incidence of the mortality had not diminished in the last few decades. This kidney dysfunction includes a complex interaction between the tubular injury, inflammation and alterations in the renal homo dynamic. In this investigation we intend to quantify ions of clinical relevance in urine of Wistar rats of control group, an experimental model for ARI, and in urine of Wistar with ARI, using NAA technique (Neutron Activation Analysis). The use of this technique is an alternative to perform biochemistry analysis when the biological material is scarce. The quantitative knowledge of these elements allows an evaluation of the functions that regulate the kidneys behavior. The measurements in urine were performed before, during and after the ARI caused by ischemia-induced. The results of NAA indicated that the occurrence of the elements K and Mg evaluated in the ARI group (during and after de I/R) have no similarities when compared with control group. (author)

  3. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL as a biomarker for acute canine kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ya-Jane

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomarkers for the early prediction of canine acute kidney injury (AKI are clinically important. Recently, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL was found to be a sensitive biomarker for the prediction of human AKI at a very early stage and the development of AKI after surgery. However, NGAL has not yet been studied with respect to dog kidney diseases. The application of NGAL canine AKI was investigated in this study. Results The canine NGAL gene was successfully cloned and expressed. Polyclonal antibodies against canine NGAL were generated and used to develop an ELISA for measuring NGAL protein in serum and urine samples that were collected from 39 dogs at different time points after surgery. AKI was defined by the standard method, namely a serum creatinine increase of greater than or equal to 26.5 μmol/L from baseline within 48 h. At 12 h after surgery, compared to the group without AKI (12 dogs, the NGAL level in the urine of seven dogs with AKI was significantly increased (median 178.4 pg/mL vs. 88.0 pg/mL, and this difference was sustained to 72 h. Conclusion As the increase in NGAL occurred much earlier than the increase in serum creatinine, urine NGAL seems to be able to serve as a sensitive and specific biomarker for the prediction of AKI in dogs.

  4. [Urine checks as a supportive measure with drug abuse patients to supplement current therapy models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, G; Leber, D; Weigend, M

    1991-01-01

    Urine samples of 120 heroin-addicted probands who had to take part in urinanalysis tests were analysed during a 26 months' period. Up to 7 substances (morphine/diamorphie, codeine, cocain, LSD, cannabinoides, barbiturates and amphetamines) were tested. The results were compared to the results of a group of 177 cannabies-smokers. The purpose of this study was to find out in how far urinanalysis tests can change drug-consuming behaviour. More than 80% of the cannabis-smokers showed evidently a decrease of THC-positive urine samples at the end of the investigation period. Only about 13% had positive samples during the whole period. 12 out of 120 heroin-addicted probands (= 10%) had morphine-positive urine samples at the beginning of investigations. For 104 out of 1423 tested samples (46 probands) an unmistakable distinction between morphine/diamorphine- or codeine-intake was not possible because the concentrations found were too low. About 20% of the samples indicated a shift to a substitutional used drug like codeine. Further more a slightly significant increase of cannabis-intake was to be observed.

  5. CYFRA 21-1 in urine: a diagnostic marker for endometriosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjavotchanoff R

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Risto Gjavotchanoff1,2 1Department of Laboratory Medicine, Bodenseelabor, Hörbranz, Austria; 2Institute of Anatomy II, University of Jena, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany Abstract: Diagnostic workup of endometriosis usually involves laparoscopic inspection and histological examination of biopsies. Unequivocal laboratory parameters for this ailment have not been available in routine diagnostic evaluations thus far. In this study, we examined urine concentrations of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA 21-1, a structural protein specific for epithelia. We performed immunoassays for CYFRA 21-1 in urine samples from women afflicted with endometriosis throughout their menstrual cycle. We observed a significant increase in CYFRA 21-1 concentrations, corrected by creatinine levels, in the late follicular phase as compared with the level in healthy controls. We conclude that cyclically increased CYFRA 21-1 concentrations in urine could serve as a valuable noninvasive diagnostic parameter in the workup of clinically manifesting endometriosis. Keywords: biomarkers, menstrual cycle, CYFRA 21-1, immunoassay, noninvasive diagnosis

  6. Comparative Analysis of Pollutant-producing Coefficients of N, P, Cu and Zn in Feces and Urine of Adult Dairy Cows in Northwest Areas of China%西北地区成乳牛粪尿中N、P、Cu、Zn产污系数的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振伟; 周玉香; 张巧娥; 闫宏

    2013-01-01

    选择5头健康状况良好、胎次与产奶量相近的中国荷斯坦成乳母牛作为试验对象,采用全收粪尿法来研究成乳母牛在一年四季中N、P、Cu、Zn产污系数的变化情况及规律。结果表明,成乳母牛阶段奶牛N、P、Cu、Zn各种污染物的产污系数受季节因素的影响均表现为显著(P<0.05)或极显著(P<0.01)。其中,P、Zn产污系数在一年四季中的变化规律一致,均为夏季最高、冬季最低,且随季节的变化呈现出先升高后降低的趋势;N、Cu产污系数则为春季最高、冬季最低,且随季节的变化呈现出先降低后升高再降低的趋势。因此,根据季节研究成乳母牛阶段奶牛的适宜营养需要,既可达到满足生产需要、降低饲养成本的目的,又可最大限度地减少污染物的产生。%Choosing 5 Chinese Holstein dairy cows with good health,similar fetal times and milk yield as test objects,the change laws of pollutant-producing coefficients of N,P,Cu and Zn of adult dairy cows in four seasons were studied by the method of feces and urine collection. The results showed that the pollutant-producing coefficients of N,P,Cu and Zn of adult dairy cows was significantly or extremely significantly influenced by different seasons. The change laws of pollutant-producing coefficients of P and Zn in four seasons were consistent. The pollutant-producing coefficients in summer were the highest and that in winter were the lowest. And the pollutant-producing coefficients showed a trend of increasing and decreasing.The change laws of pollutant-producing coefficients of N and Cu in spring were the highest and that in winter were the lowect. And the pollutant-producing coefficients showed a trend of decreasing, increasing and decreasing. Therefore the study on the appropriate nutritional needs of dairy cows in lactating period in different seasons could meet the production demands, reduce the feeding cost and reduce

  7. Performance evaluation of a new rapid urine test for chlamydia in men: prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadala, Elpidio-Cesar; Goh, Beng T; Magbanua, Jose-Paolo; Barber, Penelope; Swain, Alison; Alexander, Sarah; Laitila, Vivian; Michel, Claude-Edouard; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Ison, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of a rapid test for chlamydia with first void male urine samples as a potential tool for diagnosis and screening of chlamydial infection in men. Design Evaluation of test performance in prospective cohort study. Settings A young people’s sexual health centre (site 1) and a genitourinary medicine clinic (site 2) in the United Kingdom. Participants 1211 men aged 16-73 attending either of the two sites. Main outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Chlamydia Rapid Test versus polymerase chain reaction assay. Relation between the visual signal of the Chlamydia Rapid Test and organism load. Results Detection rates for Chlamydia trachomatis infection with polymerase chain reaction were 4.4% (20/454) at site 1 and 11.9% (90/757) at site 2. Compared with polymerase chain reaction assay, the resolved sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Chlamydia Rapid Test was 82.6% (90/109), 98.5% (1085/1102), 84.1% (90/107), and 98.3% (1085/1104), respectively. The organism load in first void urine samples that were positive for chlamydia ranged from 7.28×102 to 6.93×106 plasmids/ml and correlated significantly with the visual signal of the Chlamydia Rapid Test (r=0.7897, P<0.001). Conclusions The performance of the new Chlamydia Rapid Test with first void male urine samples indicates that it would be an effective diagnostic tool for chlamydial infection in men. The availability of test results within an hour allows for immediate treatment and contact tracing, potentially reducing the risks of persistent infection and onward transmission. The test could also provide a simple and reliable alternative to nucleic acid amplification assays for testing of male urine in chlamydial screening programmes in high prevalence settings. PMID:19638650

  8. Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn; Xue, Jun-Fa; Shang, Yun-Feng

    2013-10-15

    The property changes of urinary nanocrystallites in 20 cases of uric acid (UA) stone formers after 1 week of potassium citrate (K{sub 3}cit) intake were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Before K{sub 3}cit intake, the urinary crystallites mainly contained UA and calcium oxalate. After K{sub 3}cit intake, the components changed to urate and UA; the qualities, species, and amounts of aggregated crystallites decreased; urine pH, citrate, and glycosaminoglycan excretions increased; and UA excretion, Zeta potential, and crystallite size decreased. The stability of crystallites followed the order: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Therefore, the components of urinary stones were closely related to the components of urinary crystallites. - Graphical abstract: The relationships among stone components, urinary crystallite components, and urine pH were established. The crystallites stability order was: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Highlights: • Urine crystallite property of uric acid stone former after K{sub 3}cit intake was studied. • The components of crystallites in urine are closely related to type of stones. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the qualities and species of crystallites decreased. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the amount of aggregated crystallites decreased. • The stability of urinary crystallites of UA patients increased after taking K{sub 3}cit.

  9. Determinação simultânea dos ácidos hipúrico e metil-hipúrico urinários por métodos cromatográficos: comparação entre cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e cromatografia gasosa capilar Simultaneous determination of urinary hyppuric and methylhyppuric acids through chromatographic methods: comparation between high performance liquid chromatography and capilary gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelaine Lima Silva

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado objetivando-se comparar a eficiência de dois métodos analíticos, um por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE e outro por cromatografia em fase gasosa com coluna capilar (CG, na determinação conjunta do ácido hipúrico (AH e ácido metil-hipúrico (AMH em urina de indivíduos expostos ocupacionalmente ao tolueno e xileno. Após a validação analítica foi observado que o método CLAE apresentou melhores precisão intra e interensaio, porcentagem de recuperação e sensibilidade. Amostras de urina de trabalhadores expostos aos dois solventes em fábrica de tintas-látex foram analisadas pelos dois métodos validados e os resultados avaliados estatisticamente. Não se encontrou diferença significativa entre os valores de AH superiores a 1,0 g/g de creatinina, quando determinados pelos dois métodos cromatográficos. Esta similaridade não foi repetida quando os níveis de AH eram inferiores a 1,0 g/g de creatinina. Os valores de AMH nas amostras analisadas estavam, na maioria das vezes, abaixo do limite de deteção, razão pela qual não foi realizada a comparação estatística entre os mesmos.High performance liquid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography were compared for simultaneous measurement of hyppuric and methyl hyppuric acids in urine of workers co-exposed to toluene and xilene. Quantitative advantages offered by HPLC over capillary GC method are observed: better average recovery, wider dynamic interval in calibration curve and lower detection and quantification limits mainly when MHA measurement was performed. No significant difference was found between the values of HA higher than 1.0 g/g creatinine measured by the two chromatographic procedures. Regarding to MHA concentration the methods gave similar results and there was no significant difference between the values.

  10. Intra-individual variability in the urine concentrations of inhaled salmeterol in male subjects with reference to doping analysis – impact of urine specific gravity correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Hemmersbach, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Since 2010, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has introduced urinary thresholds for some beta2-agonists. In doping analysis urine samples of beta2-agonists are not corrected for the Urine Specific Gravity (USG) by the WADA laboratories. Several studies have observed high differences in the urine...

  11. Dynamic Assessment of Functional Lipidomic Analysis in Human Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Hannah E; Gao, Fei; Chen, Emily Y; McDaniel, Justice; Sarangarajan, Rangaprasad; Narain, Niven R; Kiebish, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    The development of enabling mass spectrometry platforms for the quantification of diverse lipid species in human urine is of paramount importance for understanding metabolic homeostasis in normal and pathophysiological conditions. Urine represents a non-invasive biofluid that can capture distinct differences in an individual's physiological status. However, currently there is a lack of quantitative workflows to engage in high throughput lipidomic analysis. This study describes the development of a MS/MS(ALL) shotgun lipidomic workflow and a micro liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) workflow for urine structural and mediator lipid analysis, respectively. This workflow was deployed to understand biofluid sample handling and collection, extraction efficiency, and natural human variation over time. Utilization of 0.5 mL of urine for structural lipidomic analysis resulted in reproducible quantification of more than 600 lipid molecular species from over 20 lipid classes. Analysis of 1 mL of urine routinely quantified in excess of 55 mediator lipid metabolites comprised of octadecanoids, eicosanoids, and docosanoids generated by lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450 activities. In summary, the high-throughput functional lipidomics workflow described in this study demonstrates an impressive robustness and reproducibility that can be utilized for population health and precision medicine applications. PMID:27038173

  12. Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L. Fenderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays.

  13. Can Urine Lamivudine Be Used to Monitor Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Agibothu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patient adherence to treatment is an important factor in the effectiveness of antiretroviral regimens. Adherence to treatment could be monitored by estimation of antiretroviral drugs in biological fluids. We aimed to obtain information on the quantity and duration of excretion of lamivudine in urine following oral administration of a single dose of 300 mg and to assess its suitability for adherence monitoring purposes. Spot urine samples were collected before dosing and at 4, 8, 12, 24, 28, 32, 48, 72, and 96 hours post dosing from 10 healthy subjects, and lamivudine was estimated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Lamivudine values were expressed as a ratio of urine creatinine. About 91% of the ingested drug was excreted by 24 hours, and the concentration thereafter in urine was very negligible. A lamivudine value of 0.035 mg/mg creatinine or less at 48 hours is suggestive of a missed dose in the last 24 hours. The study findings showed that estimation of urine lamivudine in spot specimens could be useful in monitoring patient adherence to antiretroviral treatment. However, this needs to be confirmed on a larger sample size and among patients on once-daily and twice-daily treatment regimens.

  14. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  15. Observational study of the effect of individual urination training on urination after renal biopsy%个体化排尿训练对肾穿术后排尿效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 张金萍

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of individual urination training before renal biopsy on urination and comfort for patients after renal biopsy. Methods One hundred and sixty for hospitalized patients under renal biopsy were randomly selected as subjects. Study group included 81 patients who were individually trained with urination. Control group included 83 patients who were routinely educated before renal biopsy. The methods of urination and comfort between two groups were compared. Results The percentage of autonomous urination after renal biopsy in patients individually trained with urination was higher than that in control group (P <0. 01 ). The comfort of study group was also superior to that of control group (P < 0. 01). There was statistically significant difference between two groups. Conclusions Individual urination training could effectively promote autonomous urination, reduce urinary retention and improve the comfort for patients under renal biopsy.%目的 研究术前实施个体化排尿训练对肾穿刺术后患者的排尿方式和舒适度的影响.方法 随机抽取164例肾穿刺患者为研究对象,分为研究组81例,实施个体化排尿训练;对照组83例,常规术前宣教,比较两组患者术后的排尿方式和舒适度.结果 术前实施个体化排尿训练组患者术后自行排尿的比例高于对照组,舒适程度也明显高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 实施个体化排尿训练可有效促进肾穿刺术后患者自行排尿,减少尿潴留的发生,提高患者的舒适度.

  16. A novel UHPLC method for the rapid and simultaneous determination of daidzein, genistein and equol in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redruello, Begoña; Guadamuro, Lucía; Cuesta, Isabel; Álvarez-Buylla, Jorge R; Mayo, Baltasar; Delgado, Susana

    2015-11-15

    This work reports on a novel method involving reverse-phased ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) plus a spectrophotometric photodiode array/fluorescence (FLR) detection system for determining the concentration of equol and major soy isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) in human urine. The proposed method was validated in terms of its linearity, sensitivity, accuracy (recovery) and precision (intra- and inter-day repeatability). The isoflavone profiles of urine samples from a group of menopausal women following oral soy isoflavone supplementation were determined and compared. Screening for equol-producer status was accomplished with high sensitivity (detection limit of the FLR detector 2.93nM). The method involves a short chromatographic run time compared to conventional HPLC methods while allowing for the simultaneous and reliable quantification of daidzein, genistein and equol in human urine. It also allows for the rapid screening of multiple urine samples when testing for equol production status and checking patient adherence to isoflavone treatment regimens. PMID:26444491

  17. Fluorescence And Alternative Methods In Urine Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Naresh C.

    1988-04-01

    Drug abuse has become-one of the most compelling realities _ ot contemporary society. It has penetrated every segment ot our population: trom schools to sports and trom organized crime to board rooms . Drugs in tie w9rkplace allegedly cost government agencies and business millions ot dollars each year in increased absenteeism,. poor work performance, thefts,accidents andwastedtime. The President's Commission on Organized Crime and the federal government are in tavor ot urine drug testing. In fact many employers are now resorting to urine drug testing on current and prospective employees. This presep.tation discusses different laboratory methods used in urine drug.testing, including immunoassays, fluorescence polarization, thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  18. The effect of sleep on nocturnal urine output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren;

    2005-01-01

      Hypothesis / aims of studyAim of this study was to elucidate the impact of sleep on the quantity and quality of the nocturnal urine production in healthy individuals.Our hypothesis was that sleep deprivation is related to excess nocturnal urine production.Study design, materials and methods...... sleep and the sequence was randomized. During these nights with sleep deprivation, participants were in lying position in a dimly lit room and physical activities, food and fluid intake were not allowed. Smoking was not allowed throughout the entire experimental protocol. Determinations of electrolytes...... using an enzyme immunoassay. 6-sulfatoxy-melatonin (MEL) was measured in urine using and ELISA assay. Clearances, excretions and fractional excretions were calculated for electrolytes, creatinine, urea, osmoles and solute free water. Comparisons were made between the nights with and without sleep...

  19. Detection of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae from Urine with Ligase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹经江; 郑和义; 胡维

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of ligase chain reaction(LCR) in the diagnosis of diplococcus gonorrhoeae in urine.Methods: LCR detection of the urine for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and bacteria culture of discharge was per-formed simultaneously to 276 patients with urethritis or cervicitis seeking treatment in sex transmitted dis-eases (STDs) outpatient clinic. For specimens with discordant results, polymerase chain reaction was conducted. The purpose was to detect the respective sensitivity and specificity of bacteria culture and LCR. Results: 24 of 276(8.7%) patients had positive LCR results and 21 of 276(7.6%) were positive for culture.5 specimens had discordant results from LCR and bacteria culture. The sensitivity and specificity of LCR in the diagnosis of gonorrhoeae were 92.3% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that LCR had a higher sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gonorrhoeae from urine.

  20. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carrier, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three different mineral acids were substituted for sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the urine stabilizer solution to eliminate the excess of sulfate ions in pretreated urine and assess the impact on maximum water recovery to avoid precipitation of minerals during distillation. The study evaluated replacing 98% sulfuric acid with 85% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), 37% hydrochloric acid (HCl), or 70% nitric acid (HNO3). The effect of lowering the oxidizer concentration in the pretreatment formulation also was studied. This paper summarizes the test results, defines candidate formulations for further study, and specifies the injection masses required to stabilize urine and minimize the risk of mineral precipitation during distillation. In the first test with a brine ersatz acidified with different acids, the solubility of calcium in gypsum saturated solutions was measured. The solubility of gypsum was doubled in the brines acidified with the alternative acids compared to sulfuric acid. In a second series of tests, the alternative acid pretreatment concentrations were effective at preventing precipitation of gypsum and other minerals up to 85% water recovery from 95th-percentile pretreated, augmented urine. Based on test results, phosphoric acid is recommended as the safest alternative to sulfuric acid. It also is recommended that the injected mass concentration of chromium trioxide solution be reduced by 75% to minimize liquid resupply mass by about 50%, reduce toxicity of brines, and reduce the concentration of organic acids in distillate. The new stabilizer solution formulations and required doses to stabilize urine and prevent precipitation of minerals up to 85% water recovery are given. The formulations in this study were tested on a limited number of artificially augmented urine batches collected from employees at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). This study successfully demonstrated that the desired physical and chemical stability of pretreated urine and brines

  1. Application of the Technicon Chem 1+ chemistry analyzer to the Syva Emit ethyl alcohol assay in plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, F M; Kralik, M; Wozniak, E; Crockett, H; Jennison, T A

    1993-09-01

    The performance of the Technicon Chem 1+ chemistry analyzer with the Syva Emit ethyl alcohol assay in plasma and urine was evaluated. Spiked specimens from 0 to 600 mg/dL were tested, and expected versus measured concentrations were monitored. Linear regression line equations of y = 0.9314x + 5.4 and y = 0.9005x + 4.6, and correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9997 and 0.9995, were obtained for plasma and urine, respectively. A limit of detection of 5 mg/dL for plasma and urine, and a limit of quantitation of 20 mg/dL for plasma and 15 mg/dL for urine were obtained. Recovery was within 10% of expected concentration from 20 to 600 mg/dL. Precision was evaluated, giving the following coefficients of variation: within-run precision: plasma, 1.31-2.20; urine, 1.16-1.21; total precision: plasma, 2.72-3.38; urine, 2.98-4.64. No carry-over was detected when alternating 600 mg/dL and negative specimens. No interference from acetone, isopropanol, or methanol was detected. No significant differences in evaporation of alcohol at two concentrations, or from the two matrices were observed. Evaporation from a small cup (200 microL) was more than twice as great as from a large cup (2 mL). The Chem 1+ was compared to a gas chromatographic method. Plasma specimens of 0-352 mg/dL produced a linear regression line of y = 1.0112x + 6.0, r = 0.9859; urine specimens of 0-313 mg/dL produced a line of y = 1.0493x - 0.3, r = 0.9910. The capability to separate positive and negative specimens at 20% around a cutoff concentration of 20 mg/dL was examined. Four hundred specimens were analyzed, with only one specimen incorrectly classified (a false positive). The Chem 1+ chemistry analyzer demonstrated reliable performance of the Emit ethyl alcohol assay of plasma and urine specimens.

  2. Determination of struvite crystallization mechanisms in urine using turbidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triger, Aurélien; Pic, Jean-Stéphane; Cabassud, Corinne

    2012-11-15

    Sanitation improvement in developing countries could be achieved through wastewater treatment processes. Nowadays alternative concepts such as urine separate collection are being developed. These processes would be an efficient way to reduce pollution of wastewater while recovering nutrients, especially phosphorus, which are lost in current wastewater treatment methods. The precipitation of struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)∙6H(2)O) from urine is an efficient process yielding more than 98% phosphorus recovery with very high reaction rates. The work presented here aims to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of struvite precipitation in order to supply data for the design of efficient urine treatment processes. A methodology coupling the resolution of the population balance equation to turbidity measurement was developed, and batch experiments with synthetic and real urine were performed. The main mechanisms of struvite crystallization were identified as crystal growth and nucleation. A satisfactory approximation of the volumetric crystal size distribution was obtained. The study has shown the low influence on the crystallization process of natural organic matter contained in real urine. It has also highlighted the impact of operational parameters. Mixing conditions can create segregation and attrition which influence the nucleation rate, resulting in a change in crystals number, size, and thus final crystal size distribution (CSD). Moreover urine storage conditions can impact urea hydrolysis and lead to spontaneous struvite precipitation in the stock solution also influencing the final CSD. A few limits of the applied methodology and of the proposed modelling, due to these phenomena and to the turbidity measurement, are also discussed.

  3. Urine Metabolite Profiles Predictive of Human Kidney Allograft Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhre, Karsten; Schwartz, Joseph E; Sharma, Vijay K; Chen, Qiuying; Lee, John R; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Dadhania, Darshana M; Ding, Ruchuang; Ikle, David N; Bridges, Nancy D; Williams, Nikki M; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Karoly, Edward D; Mohney, Robert P; Abecassis, Michael; Friedewald, John; Knechtle, Stuart J; Becker, Yolanda T; Samstein, Benjamin; Shaked, Abraham; Gross, Steven S; Suthanthiran, Manikkam

    2016-02-01

    Noninvasive diagnosis and prognostication of acute cellular rejection in the kidney allograft may help realize the full benefits of kidney transplantation. To investigate whether urine metabolites predict kidney allograft status, we determined levels of 749 metabolites in 1516 urine samples from 241 kidney graft recipients enrolled in the prospective multicenter Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-04 study. A metabolite signature of the ratio of 3-sialyllactose to xanthosine in biopsy specimen-matched urine supernatants best discriminated acute cellular rejection biopsy specimens from specimens without rejection. For clinical application, we developed a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based assay that enabled absolute and rapid quantification of the 3-sialyllactose-to-xanthosine ratio in urine samples. A composite signature of ratios of 3-sialyllactose to xanthosine and quinolinate to X-16397 and our previously reported urinary cell mRNA signature of 18S ribosomal RNA, CD3ε mRNA, and interferon-inducible protein-10 mRNA outperformed the metabolite signatures and the mRNA signature. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the composite metabolite-mRNA signature was 0.93, and the signature was diagnostic of acute cellular rejection with a specificity of 84% and a sensitivity of 90%. The composite signature, developed using solely biopsy specimen-matched urine samples, predicted future acute cellular rejection when applied to pristine samples taken days to weeks before biopsy. We conclude that metabolite profiling of urine offers a noninvasive means of diagnosing and prognosticating acute cellular rejection in the human kidney allograft, and that the combined metabolite and mRNA signature is diagnostic and prognostic of acute cellular rejection with very high accuracy.

  4. An emergency bioassay method for actinides in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiongxin; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila

    2011-08-01

    A rapid bioassay method has been developed for the sequential measurements of actinides in human urine samples. The method involves actinide separation from a urine matrix by co-precipitation with hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO), followed by anion exchange and extraction chromatography column purification, and final counting by alpha spectrometry after cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. The minimal detectable activities for the method were determined to be 20 mBq L(-1) or less for plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes, with an 8-h sample turn-around time. Spike tests showed that this method would meet the requirements for actinide bioassay following a radiation emergency. PMID:21709501

  5. Urine Culture in Uncomplicated UTI: Interpretation and Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2016-05-01

    Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical problem, accounting for millions of outpatient visits in the USA annually. Although routinely obtaining urine cultures in UTI is not recommended, there are circumstances in which obtaining a pre-therapy culture may be warranted or chosen by clinicians, such as when indicated by the need for careful antimicrobial stewardship. This review focuses on understanding reasons for obtaining a pre-therapy culture, methods of collection, and appropriately interpreting urine culture data. PMID:26971335

  6. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  7. X-ray fluorescent analysis of iodin traces in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using XFA method, determination of iodine concentration in urine for 35 children of 10-15 with endocrine pathology (delay of sexual development, diffuse goiter, obesity) and 10 practically healthy children being observed under conditions of the consultative polyclinic and the department of endocrinology of SI ''ISHCJ NAMSU''. The proposed optimized XFA method allows by 1-2 orders increasing detection sensitivity for micro-elements measurements in biology objects and attaining the iodine trace contents in urine in the range from 50 to 200 gg/dm3

  8. The Preliminary Study of Urine by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy%尿液表面增强拉曼光谱的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰斯; 冯尚源; 林居强; 俞允; 邱文强; 伍严安; 潘建基; 陈荣

    2011-01-01

    The absorption spectroscopy of silver colloids and the mixture of silver colloids with urine were measured.The urine' s Raman spectroscopy were tested and analyzed before and after the adding of silver colloids.Based on the technology of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, the intensity of the urine' s Raman signal in the silver colloids was increased obviously and the SERS signal of uric acid in urine was successfully detected.The characteristic Raman bands of urine were tentatively assigned.The SERS of the urine of the morning and the night were compared and analyzed.The detection of morning urine bears higher credibility and SNR.The results showed that the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy might provide a new kind of method for the clinic detection of urine.%利用紫外与可见分光光度计测量银溶胶与尿液的吸收谱,采用拉曼光谱测量系统检测并研究分析了尿液加入银胶前后的拉曼光谱.基于表面增强技术,尿液的拉曼光谱信号得到显著增强,尿液中微弱的尿酸SERS信号被成功检测.文中对尿液的拉曼峰进行了谱峰归属,并分析了晨尿与夜尿的SERS谱.对晨尿的检测具有更高的可信度和信噪比.研究结果表明表面增强拉曼光谱技术有可能发展成为临床尿液检测的一种新方法.

  9. Performance of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA urine-dipsticks for rapid detection of intestinal schistosomiasis in schoolchildren from shoreline communities of Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kariuki HC

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For disease surveillance and mapping within large-scale control programmes, RDTs are becoming popular. For intestinal schistosomiasis, a commercially available urine-dipstick which detects schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (CCA in host urine is being increasingly applied, however, further validation is needed. In this study, we compared the CCA urine-dipstick test against double thick Kato-Katz faecal smears from 171 schoolchildren examined along the Tanzanian and Kenyan shorelines of Lake Victoria. Diagnostic methods were in broad agreement; the mean prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis inferred by Kato-Katz examination was 68.6% (95% confidence intervals (CIs = 60.7-75.7% and 71.3% (95% CIs = 63.9-78.8% by CCA urine-dipsticks. There were, however, difficulties in precisely 'calling' the CCA test result, particularly in discrimination of 'trace' reactions as either putative infection positive or putative infection negative, which has important bearing upon estimation of mean infection prevalence; considering 'trace' as infection positive mean prevalence was 94.2% (95% CIs = 89.5-97.2%. A positive association between increasing intensity of the CCA urine-dipstick test band and faecal egg count was observed. Assigning trace reactions as putative infection negative, overall diagnostic sensitivity (SS of the CCA urine-dipstick was 87.7% (95% CIs = 80.6-93.0%, specificity (SP was 68.1% (95% CIs = 54.3-80.0%, positive predictive value (PPV was 86.1% (95% CIs = 78.8-91.7% and negative predictive value (NPV was 71.1% (95% CIs = 57.2-82.8%. To assist in objective defining of the CCA urine-dipstick result, we propose the use of a simple colour chart and conclude that the CCA urine-dipstick is a satisfactory alternative, or supplement, to Kato-Katz examination for rapid detection of intestinal schistosomiasis.

  10. DIETARY EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM ON HISTAMINE METABOLISM AND URINE ACIDITY IN DOMESTIC FELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiency has been associated with increased histamine production in rats. Limitation of Mg with acidifying foods is common practice for management of urinary tract health in domestic cats. Nine healthy adult female shorthair cats were used in a 3 period random crossover experiment with fixed treatment sequences to test the effects of dietary Mg (0.06, 0.12 and 0.18% DM on histamine in blood and urine. The dry-extruded test foods were fed in sufficient amounts to maintain ideal body weight and obtain a target urine pH of 6.3. Each experimental period was preceded by a 7d wash out period, in which the 0.06% Mg food was fed, followed by a 14d feeding period of the appropriate food. Two 24 h total urine collections were performed (d13: Acidified, d14: Un-acidified; immediately iced and blood was collected on d14. Dry matter intake (p≥0.13 and BW (p≥0.13 were not affected by treatment. Plasma Mg concentration increased linearly with increasing dietary Mg (0.54, 0.56, 0.58 mM; p = 0.001. In contrast, plasma concentrations of threonine, histidine and tryptophan were lower in cats fed 0.12% Mg compare with 0.06 or 0.18% Mg (quadratic, p≤0.03. Urine output (p≥0.17, pH (p≥0.55, NH3 (p≥0.21 and titratable acidity of urine (p≥0.14 were similar across treatments. Urinary histamine excretion responded quadratically (p = 0.02 to treatment (3483, 3369, 3986 ng/d, whereas urinary histamine: Creatinine (p≥0.43 and plasma histamine concentration (p≥0.55 were unaffected. Differences were not detected among treatments in total histamine, cellular + noncellular histamine, (p≥0.11 or antigen-induced (p≥0.21 histamine release in whole blood. These data indicate that dietary Mg concentration, from 0.06-0.18%, does not affect urinary acidity or circulating histamine concentrations, however, supplying Mg at 0.18% may increase urinary histamine excretion.

  11. Normalization to specific gravity prior to analysis improves information recovery from high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic profiles of human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmands, William M B; Ferrari, Pietro; Scalbert, Augustin

    2014-11-01

    Extraction of meaningful biological information from urinary metabolomic profiles obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) necessitates the control of unwanted sources of variability associated with large differences in urine sample concentrations. Different methods of normalization either before analysis (preacquisition normalization) through dilution of urine samples to the lowest specific gravity measured by refractometry, or after analysis (postacquisition normalization) to urine volume, specific gravity and median fold change are compared for their capacity to recover lead metabolites for a potential future use as dietary biomarkers. Twenty-four urine samples of 19 subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort were selected based on their high and low/nonconsumption of six polyphenol-rich foods as assessed with a 24 h dietary recall. MS features selected on the basis of minimum discriminant selection criteria were related to each dietary item by means of orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis models. Normalization methods ranked in the following decreasing order when comparing the number of total discriminant MS features recovered to that obtained in the absence of normalization: preacquisition normalization to specific gravity (4.2-fold), postacquisition normalization to specific gravity (2.3-fold), postacquisition median fold change normalization (1.8-fold increase), postacquisition normalization to urinary volume (0.79-fold). A preventative preacquisition normalization based on urine specific gravity was found to be superior to all curative postacquisition normalization methods tested for discovery of MS features discriminant of dietary intake in these urinary metabolomic datasets.

  12. Salivary type alpha-amylase activity in serum and in urine of patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total alpha-amylase activity in sera and urine of 30 patients with lung adenocarcinoma has been tested. The results were compared with control group of 30 healthy voluntaries. The activity of pancreatic type was differentiated from salivary alpha amylase. Salivary type was inhibited selectively by Triticum aestivum. Higher levels of total and salivary type amylase were noted in patients with lung adenocarcinoma in comparison to healthy control. The increase was significant (p<0.005). Correlation was observed between the activity of salivary type amylase and the stage of adenocarcinoma. (author)

  13. Direct and rapid quantitation of ephedrines in human urine by paper spray ionization/high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Ki Hun; Cha, Eunju; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Cha, Sangwon; Lee, Jaeick

    2016-08-15

    A rapid and direct paper spray ionization/mass spectrometry (PSI/MS) method was developed for quantitative analysis of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, and methylephedrine in human urine. This method involves the use of a triangular filter paper and high-resolution mass spectrometry, where the molecular ions of ephedrines were generated by applying high voltage after loading the spray solvent to the paper which urine sample was pre-loaded. Small amounts (2μL) of urine spiked with an internal standard were directly analyzed for ephedrines. The PSI/MS method was validated for linearity, within- and between-run precision, accuracy, and limit of detection. The results showed good linearity (R(2)≥0.9928) and acceptable precision and accuracy. Furthermore, the accuracy of the method was assessed by analyzing a blind urine sample from World Anti-Doping Agency and comparing the measured concentrations with the nominal concentrations. This test resulted in accuracies ranging from 96.4 to 106.1%, indicating that the PSI/MS method has the potential to be an alternative technique for the fast quantitation of ephedrines in doping control analysis. PMID:27393909

  14. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Valentina F; Nasuti, Cinzia; Piangerelli, Marco; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Ghezzo, Alessandro; Marini, Marina; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M; Visconti, Paola; Giustozzi, Marcello; Rossi, Gerardo; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2016-04-01

    The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides) as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR) children, aged 5-12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054). Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC) analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones. PMID:27482573

  15. Enantiomeric determination of D-, L-lactate in diabetic rat urine using a column-switching HPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Ming; Tsai, Yih-Chiao; Fukushima, Takeshi; Imai, Kazuhiro; Lee, Jen-Ai

    2005-04-01

    A highly sensitive method for the determination of D-lactate in rat urine was developed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an octadecylsilica (ODS) connected to a chiral column. At first, (D+L)-lactate in the urine were derivatized with a fluorescent reagent, 4-nitro-7-piperazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-PZ), and separated on the ODS column and determined fluorimetrically at 547 nm with 491 nm of excitation wavelength. During the separation step on the ODS, the peak fraction of (D+L)-lactate derivative was introduced directly to an amylose tris (3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralpak AD-RH) chiral column by changing the flow of the eluent via 6-port valve. Then, D-lactate derivative was separated enantiomerically from L-lactate derivative, and the enantiomeric ratio was determined from the chromatogram. The accuracy values for the determination of D-lactate in 20 μL of rat urine were 96.93% - 104.85%. The intra- and inter-day precision values were within 0.80% and 14.44%. The proposed method was applied to the urine of diabetic rats induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin, and the significant increases of D-lactate was observed in the diabetic rats as compared to the normal rats.

  16. Direct analysis of anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption-dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-08-11

    Rapid detection of trace level anabolic steroids in urine is highly desirable to monitor the consumption of performance enhancing anabolic steroids by athletes. The present article describes a novel strategy for identifying the trace anabolic steroids in urine using Leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption (LPTD) coupled to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ionization mass spectrometry. Using this method the steroid molecules are enriched within a liquid droplet during the thermal desorption process and desorbed all-together at the last moment of droplet evaporation in a short time domain. The desorbed molecules were ionized using a dielectric barrier discharge ion-source in front of the mass spectrometer inlet at open atmosphere. This process facilitates the sensitivity enhancement with several orders of magnitude compared to the thermal desorption at a lower temperature. The limits of detection (LODs) of various steroid molecules were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1 ng mL(-1) for standard solutions and around two orders of magnitude higher for synthetic urine samples. The detection limits of urinary anabolic steroids could be lowered by using a simple and rapid dichloromethane extraction technique. The analytical figures of merit of this technique were evaluated at open atmosphere using suitable internal standards. The technique is simple and rapid for high sensitivity and high throughput screening of anabolic steroids in urine.

  17. A method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using TEVA resin and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional method used for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples involves anion exchange resin followed by alpha spectrometry, which takes nearly one working week for complete sample analysis. Since the results of the analysis form an important input for decision making by the plant authorities, it is always preferable to reduce overall analysis time for the estimation of Pu-isotopes in bioassay samples. This paper deals with standardization of a relatively faster method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in bioassay samples using TEVA resin and 236Pu tracer for radiochemical recovery. The method involves oxidation of urine followed by co-precipitation of plutonium along with calcium phosphate and separation of Pu was carried out using TEVA resin. Pu-fraction was electrodeposited and activity estimated using tracer recovery by alpha spectrometer. Routine urine samples of radiation workers were analyzed and consistent radiochemical tracer recovery was obtained in the range 65-87 % with a mean and SD of 75 and 7.4 %, respectively. The standardized chromatographic technique reduces the analysis time by about 1 day as compared to conventional method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples. (author)

  18. Evaluation of a Urine Pooling Strategy for the Rapid and Cost-Efficient Prevalence Classification of Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Jean T.; Bendavid, Eran; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer; Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A key epidemiologic feature of schistosomiasis is its focal distribution, which has important implications for the spatial targeting of preventive chemotherapy programs. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a urine pooling strategy using a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test for detection of Schistosoma mansoni, and employed simulation modeling to test the classification accuracy and efficiency of this strategy in determining where preventive chemotherapy is needed in low-endemicity settings. Methodology We performed a cross-sectional study involving 114 children aged 6–15 years in six neighborhoods in Azaguié Ahoua, south Côte d’Ivoire to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of the POC-CCA cassette test with urine samples that were tested individually and in pools of 4, 8, and 12. We used a Bayesian latent class model to estimate test characteristics for individual POC-CCA and quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears on stool samples. We then developed a microsimulation model and used lot quality assurance sampling to test the performance, number of tests, and total cost per school for each pooled testing strategy to predict the binary need for school-based preventive chemotherapy using a 10% prevalence threshold for treatment. Principal Findings The sensitivity of the urine pooling strategy for S. mansoni diagnosis using pool sizes of 4, 8, and 12 was 85.9%, 79.5%, and 65.4%, respectively, when POC-CCA trace results were considered positive, and 61.5%, 47.4%, and 30.8% when POC-CCA trace results were considered negative. The modeled specificity ranged from 94.0–97.7% for the urine pooling strategies (when POC-CCA trace results were considered negative). The urine pooling strategy, regardless of the pool size, gave comparable and often superior classification performance to stool microscopy for the same number of tests. The urine pooling strategy with a pool size of 4 reduced the number of tests and total

  19. Urine marking in male common voles: does behavioural activity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantová, Petra; Brixová, Lenka; Lanta, Vojtěch

    2012-06-01

    Rodent urine provides animals with a large amount of information, from the identity of the animal through its physical condition to social status. Many studies therefore focus on rodent urine-marking behaviour and use marking frequency as an indicator of social status or competitive ability. However, marking, like many other aspects of rodent behaviour, may be affected by individual behavioural activity, a factor that has not been examined so far. We therefore studied a relationship between male urine-marking in reaction to another male's marks (standard opponent) and individual personality profile, characterised by behavioural activity in an open field test (OFT). The marking appeared to be consistent and specific for particular individuals as there was a significant positive relationship between individual markings in two different phases of the experiment. The linkage between behavioural activity in the OFT and urine-marking frequency was non-linear (quadratic), which suggested that males with intermediate activity marked more intensively than males from the extremes of the behavioural spectra. The relationship between the opponent's and the tested males' markings was positive, however, we found no statistically significant evidence that the voles would attempt to overmark the opponent. Marking thus seems to have more of a self-advertising than a competitive function in the common vole. Further, as high marking activity is under strong intra- or intersexual selection, the result might suggest a stabilising selection of the personality trait described as behavioural activity in our study. PMID:22285890

  20. Measurement and meaning of oxidatively modified DNA lesions in urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, Marcus S; Olinski, Ryszard; Loft, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    identified; however, recent cell culture studies suggest that the action of Nudix hydrolase(s) on oxidative modification of the nucleotide pool is a likely candidate for the 8-oxodG found in urine and, potentially, of other oxidized 2'-deoxyribonucleoside lesions. Literature reports suggest that diet and...

  1. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J;

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  2. 76 FR 52644 - Faucets, Showerheads, Water Closets and Urinals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... undertaken as a result of the December 15, 2010 final rule; market data; and any new or emerging water... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Faucets, Showerheads, Water Closets and Urinals AGENCY... respect to any State regulation concerning the water use or water efficiency of faucets,...

  3. Urine cytology of micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Takahiko; Furuta, Michiko; Mimura, Akihiro; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kiyoshi

    2011-11-01

    A case of micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) of urinary bladder is presented, in which the urine smear was studied in detail in an attempt to better characterize the cytologic findings of MPC. When the voided urine was examined in low power, cancer cells were scattered in the specimens as compact papillary/spheroidal clusters composed of pleomorphic cancer cells. Solitary carcinoma cells were occasionally observed. High power view of the smear revealed that the papillae/spheroids consisted of high-grade urothelial carcinoma cells. The cancer cells had pleomorphic nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin and thickened, irregular nuclear membrane, and thick cytoplasm. Histologically, the tumor in the resected bladder appeared as small nests with surrounding hallo both in the luminal surface and in the site of wall involvement. These tightly bound papillary/spheroidal clusters comprised of highly atypical cancer cells were the most specific cytologic finding in the urine of MPC, which were considered as a key diagnostic clue of MPC. The background of the urine smear showed numerous granulocytes and bacilli compatible with cystitis, which is a previously known complication of MPC. Differential diagnoses of MPC from those with pertinent cytologic findings such as conventional UC (including glandular differentiation), and primary/secondary adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder are discussed with a brief review of literature.

  4. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  5. Development and evaluation of immunoassay for zeranol in bovine urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A high affinity polyclonal antibody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of zeranol in bovine urine. On the basis of urine matrix studies, the optimized dilution factors producing insignificant matrix interference were selected as 1:5 in pretreatment. In the improved ELISA, the linear response range was between 0.02 and 1 μg/ml, and the detection limit was 0.02 μg/ml for the assay. The overall recoveries and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were in the range of 82% ~127% and 3.5%~8.8%, respectively. Thirty-six bovine urine samples spiked with zeranol (ranging from 0.2 to 10 μg/ml) were detected by the ELISA and liquid chromatography (LC) method, and good correlations were obtained between the two methods (R2=0.9643). We conclude that this improved ELISA is suitable tool for a mass zeranol screening and can be an alternative for the conventional LC method for zeranol in bovine urine.

  6. Plasma and urine biomarkers in acute viral hepatitis E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Rakesh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV, is endemic to developing countries where it manifests as waterborne outbreaks and sporadic cases. Though generally self-limited with a low mortality rate, some cases progress to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF with high mortality. With no identified predictive or diagnostic markers, the events leading to disease exacerbation are not known. Our aim is to use proteomic tools to identify biomarkers of acute and fulminant hepatitis E. Results We analyzed proteins in the plasma and urine of hepatitis E patients and healthy controls by two-dimensional Differential Imaging Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE and mass spectrometry, and identified over 30 proteins to be differentially expressed during acute hepatitis E. The levels of one plasma protein, transthyretin, and one urine protein, alpha-1-microglobulin (α1m, were then quantitated by enzyme immunoassay (EIA in clinical samples from a larger group of patients and controls. The results showed decreased plasma transthyretin levels (p Conclusion Our results demonstrate the utility of characterizing plasma and urine proteomes for signatures of the host response to HEV infection. We predict that plasma transthyretin and urine α1m could be reliable biomarkers of acute hepatitis E. Besides the utility of this approach to biomarker discovery, proteome-level changes in human biofluids would also guide towards a better understanding of host-virus interaction and disease.

  7. Urine management after treatment with ''153 Sm-EDTMP (QUADRAMET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose was to establish and to evaluate a new protocol of individualized treatment of patient urine after ''153 Sm-EDTMP injection, with a more efficient management of the wastes. Excreted urine was collected in an appropriate container form which, previous to sealing it, an aliquot of 10 ml was obtained. Experimental half-life (t1/2) of the isotope was then determined by measuring the activity at different times, besides the minimum time necessary for disposing of the radioactive wastes as regular trash. The measured half-life adjusted well to the theoretical value of the isotope. The time of considered storage oscillated between 19 and 26 days, based on the activity excreted by each patient. The main idea is the consideration of the set container-urine as solid waste: the evaluation of the minimum storage time necessary to its elimination is made in terms of legal limitation of specific activity by mass unit. The immediate advantages ares: the elimination of disagreeable scents by the storage of urine, it is not necessary a liquid waste disposal to eliminate it, and a more accurate knowledge of the specific activity at the moment of the elimination (dilution factor is not used). (Author) 10 refs

  8. Sysmex UF-1000i performance for screening yeasts in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Riazzo, Cristina; Sanbonmatsu, Sara; de Dios Luna, Juan; Sorlózano, Antonio; Miranda, Consuelo; Navarro, José María

    2014-04-01

    We tested the capacity of the Sysmex UF-1000i system to detect yeasts in urine by screening a total of 22 132 urine samples received for culture in our microbiology laboratory during 1 year. We also analyzed different dilutions of previously filtered urine inoculated with a strain of Candida albicans. With clinical samples, a single cut-off point of 50 yeast-like cells (YLCs)/μL detected candiduria ≥10 000 colony forming units (CFU)/mL and >100 000 CFU/mL with a sensitivity of 87.3%/95.4%, a specificity of 97%, a negative predictive value of 95.9%, and a positive predictive value of 9.3%/5.7%. With the simulated samples, a linear relationship was observed between the dilution factor and the number of cells detected by UF-1000i. This instrument appears to be able to reliably rule out candiduria of a magnitude of at least 10 000 CFU/mL and facilitate urine sample screening, thereby providing fast results. The Sysmex UF1000i system can be adapted for candiduria screening by the use of an appropriate YLCs/μL cut-off point that takes account of the prevalence of candiduria in the population.

  9. Impact of cleaning before obtaining midstream urine samples from children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Ladelund, Steen;

    2014-01-01

    % to 55% (p = 0.018). No significant effect was demonstrated in 10-15-year-old girls (p = 1.0) or in boys, independent of age (p = 0.19). In both periods, 31% of paired MSUs from the same child were without any bacterial or fungal growth. CONCLUSION: Cleaning before collecting urine from girls younger...

  10. Advances in understanding the urine-concentrating mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Jeff M; Layton, Harold E

    2014-01-01

    The renal medulla produces concentrated urine through the generation of an osmotic gradient that progressively increases from the cortico-medullary boundary to the inner medullary tip. In the outer medulla, the osmolality gradient arises principally from vigorous active transport of NaCl, without accompanying water, from the thick ascending limbs of short- and long-looped nephrons. In the inner medulla, the source of the osmotic gradient has not been identified. Recently, there have been important advances in our understanding of key components of the urine-concentrating mechanism, including (a) better understanding of the regulation of water, urea, and sodium transport proteins; (b) better resolution of the anatomical relationships in the medulla; and (c) improvements in mathematical modeling of the urine-concentrating mechanism. Continued experimental investigation of signaling pathways regulating transepithelial transport, both in normal animals and in knockout mice, and incorporation of the resulting information into mathematical simulations may help to more fully elucidate the mechanism for concentrating urine in the inner medulla. PMID:24245944

  11. Radioimmunoassay for immunolobulin G in serum and urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, J.; Floyd, M.; Longley, M.A.; Cannon, D.C.

    1979-12-01

    We describe a radioimmunoassay for immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum and urine. Aliquots of diluted samples and /sup 125/I-labeled IgG were incubated in antibody-coated tubes at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the supernates were decanted, and the radioactivity in tubes containing the bound fraction was counted. The dose-response curve in the range of 0.4-500 mg/L of urine or 640-40 000 mg/L of serum was linear on logit-log transformation and iterative weighted regression. Assay sensitivity was 10 ng of IgG. Validation studies included testing for precision, accuracy, antibody specificity, and parallelism of the dose-response curves for standard and unknown. In a study of 14 apparently normal individuals, serum IgG = 4.0-10.9 gL, urine IgG = 1.1-4.8 mg/24 h, and IgG clearance = 0.2 x 10/sup -4/ to 4.8 x 10/sup -4/ mL/min. In 20 patients with renal allografts, serum IgG = 15.8-66 g/L, urine IgG = 9.6-626 mg/24 h, and IgG clearance = 9 x 10/sup -4/ to 1.99 x 10/sup -1/ mL/min. IgG values correlate well with severity of renal allograft rejection.

  12. Proteomic analysis of the urine of Dirofilaria immitis infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormaeche, Marta; Carretón, Elena; González-Miguel, Javier; Gussoni, Stefania; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Simón, Fernando; Morchón, Rodrigo

    2014-06-16

    Canine cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis habitually develops as a chronic disease affecting pulmonary arteries, lung parenchyma and heart. Other organs like kidneys can also be involved. Renal pathology is a consequence of glomerulonephritis whose main sign is proteinuria. The aim of the present work is to identify proteins excreted in the urine of D. immitis infected dogs showing proteinuria, and the possible contribution of their loss to heartworm disease. Proteinuria is higher in microfilaremic (mf+) than in amicrofilaremic (mf-) dogs. Using bidimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry 9 different proteins from Canis lupus familiaris in the urine of both mf- and mf+ dogs were identified (serotransferrin isoform 6, serum albumin precursor, albumin, immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain D, apolipoprotein A-I, immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 5-like, arginine esterase precursor, inmunoglobulin gamma heavy chain B and hemoglobin subunit alpha). Furthermore, 3 additional proteins were identified only in the urine of mf+ dogs, corresponding to dog fibrinogen alpha chain and immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain A and actin 2 homologous to a protein of Brugia malayi. The loss of these proteins and other in the urine of D. immitis infected dogs could affect the general condition of parasitized dogs through the interference in the cholesterol metabolism and O₂ transport, among other mechanisms. PMID:24566125

  13. LORRY DRIVERS WORK STRESS EVALUATED BY CATECHOLAMINES EXCRETED IN URINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERBEEK, AJ; MEIJMAN, TF; FRINGSDRESEN, MHW; KUIPER, JI

    1995-01-01

    Objectives-To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. Methods-The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline o

  14. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child's medications with your doctor. continue The Procedure Your child will be asked to urinate (pee) into a clean sample cup in the doctor's office or at home. Collecting the specimen should only take a few minutes. If your child isn't potty trained and can't ...

  15. Quantitative selenium speciation in human urine by using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Ying [University of Crete, Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Voutes Campus, Heraklion 71003, Crete (Greece); Rumpler, Alice; Francesconi, Kevin A. [Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens University Graz, Graz (Austria); Pergantis, Spiros A., E-mail: spergantis@chemistry.uoc.gr [University of Crete, Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Voutes Campus, Heraklion 71003, Crete (Greece)

    2012-06-20

    standard for TMSe{sup +}, the standard addition method was applied. Quality control for the accurate quantitation of TMSe{sup +} and SeGalNAc was carried out by analysing spiked human urine samples with appropriate selenium standards over a concentration range of 10-50 {mu}g Se L{sup -1}. The method has achieved a limit of detection in the presence of urine matrix comparable to that of HPLC-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the four selenium species: 1.0 {mu}g Se L{sup -1} for TMSe{sup +}, 5.6 {mu}g Se L{sup -1} for SeMet, and 0.1 {mu}g Se L{sup -1} for both SeGalNAc and SeGluNAc.

  16. Struvite precipitation thermodynamics in source-separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronteltap, Mariska; Maurer, Max; Gujer, Willi

    2007-03-01

    Struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O) precipitation eliminates phosphate efficiently from urine, a small but highly concentrated stream in the total flux of domestic wastewater. Precipitation experiments with hydrolysed urine evaluated the solubility product of struvite. The stored and fully hydrolysed urine had an ionic strength of between 0.33 and 0.56M and required the estimation of activity coefficients. From our data, we identified the Davies approximation with the two constants A=0.509 and B=0.3 as agreeing best with our laboratory results. The standard solubility product K(s)(0)=f(1)[NH4(+)]f(2)[Mg2+]f(3)[PO(4)(3-)] ([ ]=concentration of the species; f(x)=corresponding activity coefficient) of struvite in urine was found to be 10(-13.26+/-0.057) at 25 degrees C and the enthalpy of struvite formation DeltaH was 22.6(+/-1.1) kJmol(-1). The equilibrium calculations required the following dissolved complexes: [MgCO(3)](aq), [MgHCO(3)](+), [MgPO(4)](-), [NH4HPO4and [NaHPO(4)](-) and to a lesser extent [MgSO(4)](aq) and [NH(4)SO(4)](-). Organic complexes do not seem to influence the solubility product substantially. For practical purposes, a conditional solubility product K(s)(cond)=[Mg(aq)].[NH(4)(+)+NH(3)].[P(ortho)]=10(-7.57)M(3) was derived to calculate struvite solubility in urine at 25 degrees C, pH=9.0 and ionic strength I=0.4M directly from measured concentrations. PMID:17258264

  17. Aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor promotes urine prostasin through glomerular barrier injury and not tissue abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Kurt, B.; Schwarzensteiner, I.;

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Low salt intake or infusion with the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone increases the abundance of proteolytically activated gamma ENaC in rat kidney. Prostasin is a serine proteinase GPI-anchored to the apical membrane of renal principal cells. It was hypothesized that the aldoster......Objective: Low salt intake or infusion with the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone increases the abundance of proteolytically activated gamma ENaC in rat kidney. Prostasin is a serine proteinase GPI-anchored to the apical membrane of renal principal cells. It was hypothesized...... that the aldosterone- mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway maintains prostasin abundance in human kidney. Design and method: Urine and plasma prostasin was measured by ELISA in urine and plasma from a cohort of type-2 diabetes patients (n = 112) with treatment resistant hypertension before and after intervention......-i/ANGII receptor blocker compared to patients given no medication; in kidney membranes from adrenalectomized rats compared to control and in kidney and colon membranes from aldosterone synthase-/- mice compared to wild type littermates. Conclusions: Kidney tissue prostasin is not regulated by aldosterone whereas...

  18. Concentrations versus amounts of biomarkers in urine: a comparison of approaches to assess pyrethroid exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchard Michèle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of human exposure to non-persistent pesticides such as pyrethroids is often based on urinary biomarker measurements. Urinary metabolite levels of these pesticides are usually reported in volume-weighted concentrations or creatinine-adjusted concentrations measured in spot urine samples. It is known that these units are subject to intra- and inter-individual variations. This research aimed at studying the impact of these variations on the assessment of pyrethroid absorbed doses at individual and population levels. Methods Using data obtained from various adult and infantile populations, the intra and inter-individual variability in the urinary flow rate and creatinine excretion rate was first estimated. Individual absorbed doses were then calculated using volume-weighted or creatinine-adjusted concentrations according to published approaches and compared to those estimated from the amounts of biomarkers excreted in 15- or 24-h urine collections, the latter serving as a benchmark unit. The effect of the units of measurements (volume-weighted or creatinine adjusted concentrations or 24-h amounts on results of the comparison of pyrethroid biomarker levels between two populations was also evaluated. Results Estimation of daily absorbed doses of permethrin from volume-weighted or creatinine-adjusted concentrations of biomarkers was found to potentially lead to substantial under or overestimation when compared to doses reconstructed directly from amounts excreted in urine during a given period of time (-70 to +573% and -83 to +167%, respectively. It was also shown that the variability in creatinine excretion rate and urinary flow rate may introduce a bias in the case of between population comparisons. Conclusion The unit chosen to express biomonitoring data may influence the validity of estimated individual absorbed dose as well as the outcome of between population comparisons.

  19. The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habash, MB; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Reid, G

    1999-01-01

    In this study, urine was collected from groups of volunteers following the consumption of water, ascorbic acid, or cranberry supplements. Only ascorbic acid intake consistently produced acidic urine. Photospectroscopy data indicated that increased water consumption produced urine with lower protein

  20. Nitrous Oxide Fluxes, Soil Oxygen, and Dentrification Potential from Urine and Non-urine Treated Soil Under Different Irrigation Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite increased use of irrigation to improve forage quality and quantity for grazing cattle (Bos taurus), few studies have assessed how irrigation practices influence nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from urine-impacted soils. In particular, irrigation effects on soil oxygen (O2) availability, one of...

  1. Possibilities for sustainable nutrient recycling by faecal separation combined with urine

    OpenAIRE

    Vinnerås, Björn

    2002-01-01

    Household wastewater can be divided into three fractions by origin; urine, faeces and greywater. The largest nutrient and smallest heavy metal contents are found in the urine, which is easily collected separately using a urine-diverting toilet. The second most nutrient-containing fraction is the faecal matter. This fraction (faeces and toilet paper) has the smallest mass of the three, approximately 60 kg of wet weight per person and year. The nutrients in the urine and faeces have to be recyc...

  2. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine from patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads Nikolaj; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen;

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. METHODS: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma....... No correlation between plasma and urine TIMP-1 was found. Measurement of TIMP-1 in plasma and/or urine is apparently not useful for the identification of bladder cancer....

  3. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine frompatients with bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Andersen, MN; Brunner, N; Nielsen, HJ;

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. Methods: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma....... No correlation between plasma and urine TIMP-1 was found. Measurement of TIMP-1 in plasma and/or urine is apparently not useful for the identification of bladder cancer....

  4. Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Anonymously Collected Urine and Soil samples from a Music Festival in Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Mardal, Marie; Ramin, Pedram; Plósz, Benedek G.; Maurer, Hans H.; Meyer, Markus R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pooled human urine and soil from urinating spots were collected anonymously at a Scandinavian music festival. Samples should be screened for drugs of abuse, particularly novel psychoactive substances (NPS), but also therapeutic drugs and ethanol. Methods: Twenty-one urine samples were collected anonymously from urinal and HMMA-d3 and trimipramin-d3 were added as internal standards. Additionally, 12 soil samples were collected near fences where people urinated. Urine samples were processe...

  5. Capturing urine while maintaining pasture intake, milk production, and animal welfare of dairy cows in early and late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; McLeod, K L M; Glassey, C B; Gregorini, P; Costall, D A; Betteridge, K; Jago, J G

    2010-05-01

    Capturing urine and spreading it evenly across a paddock reduces the risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. This study investigated the effect of 16h/d removal from pasture on the capture of urination events, milk production, pasture intake, and animal welfare from cows grazing fresh pasture in early and late lactation. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows in early [470+/-47kg of body weight (BW); 35+/-9 days in milk] and late (498+/-43kg of BW; 225+/-23 days in milk) lactation were allocated to 3 treatment groups. Cows had access to pasture for either 4h after each milking (2 x 4), for 8h between morning and afternoon milkings (1 x 8), or for 24h, excluding milking times (control). When not grazing, the 2 x 4 and 1 x 8 groups were confined to a plastic-lined loafing area with a woodchip surface. In early lactation, the proportion of urinations on pasture and laneways was reduced from 89% (control) to 51% (1 x 8) and 54% (2 x 4) of total urinations. The 1 x 8 cows ate less pasture [10.9kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day] than the control (13.6kg of DM/cow per day) and 2 x 4 (13.0kg of DM/cow per day) cows, which did not differ from each other. The 1 x 8 and 2 x 4 cows produced less milk (21 and 22kg of milk/cow per day, respectively) compared with control cows (24kg of milk/cow per day). There were no differences in BW or body condition score (BCS) change across treatment groups, with all groups gaining BW and BCS during the experimental period. In late lactation, there was no difference in pasture intake (mean=8.8kg of DM/cow per day), milk production (mean=10kg of milk/cow per day), and BW or BCS change (mean=3.7kg and -0.2U/cow per week, respectively) between treatment groups. As in early lactation, urinations on pasture and laneways were reduced from 85% (control) to 56% (1 x 8) and 50% (2 x 4) of total urinations. These findings highlight an opportunity to maintain performance and welfare of grazing cows in early and late lactation while capturing additional

  6. Evaluation of the Triage PPY on-site testing device for the detection of dextropropoxyphene in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, Alphonse; Poklis, Justin L; Tarnai, Lisa D; Backer, Ronald C

    2004-09-01

    A new point-of-care colloidal metal immunoassay urine drugs-of-abuse testing device, the BIOSITE TRIAGE Plus Propoxyphene (TPP), was evaluated for the rapid detection of dextropropoxyphene (PPY) and/or its primary metabolite, norpropoxyphene (NP), in urine at a total PPY/NP concentration of 300 ng/mL or greater. This assay has been added to the Triage device that tests for commonly abused drugs. Adding to drug-free urine PPY and NP established the linearity of the TPP assay at concentrations of 40%, 80%, 120%, and 160% of the cut-off concentration. No significant cross-reactivity was found at 1.0 g/L for 32 drugs commonly encountered in emergency department admissions. Significant cross-reactivity was observed only with diphenhydramine and tricyclic antidepressants. TPP results from 160 urine specimens screened for PPY and/or NP were compared to those obtained by testing with DRI enzyme immunoassay, Emit II plus immunoassay, Abuscreen Online immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). There was a 98.8% agreement of positive or negative results between TPP and both the DRI and OnLine assays. The two discordant TPP results were due to concentrations of NP below the TPP minimum cross-reactivity value of 400 ng/mL. These two specimens yielded GC-MS NP concentrations of 262 and 359 ng/mL. These NP concentrations were within +/- 20% of the cross-reactivity cut-off value for NP for TPP, DRI, and Online. There was only an 88% agreement of positive or negative results between TPP and the Emit assay. Twenty urine specimens yielding PPY positive results when tested by TPP were negative by Emit testing. The discordant TPP results were due to poor cross-reactivity of Emit to NP. A 98.8% agreement of positive PPY results was observed between TPP and GC-MS. Discordant urines were found to contain PPY concentrations below the cut-off value of the assay. TPP was found to be an accurate device for the detection of PPY and NP in urine. PMID:15516300

  7. Capturing urine while maintaining pasture intake, milk production, and animal welfare of dairy cows in early and late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; McLeod, K L M; Glassey, C B; Gregorini, P; Costall, D A; Betteridge, K; Jago, J G

    2010-05-01

    Capturing urine and spreading it evenly across a paddock reduces the risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. This study investigated the effect of 16h/d removal from pasture on the capture of urination events, milk production, pasture intake, and animal welfare from cows grazing fresh pasture in early and late lactation. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows in early [470+/-47kg of body weight (BW); 35+/-9 days in milk] and late (498+/-43kg of BW; 225+/-23 days in milk) lactation were allocated to 3 treatment groups. Cows had access to pasture for either 4h after each milking (2 x 4), for 8h between morning and afternoon milkings (1 x 8), or for 24h, excluding milking times (control). When not grazing, the 2 x 4 and 1 x 8 groups were confined to a plastic-lined loafing area with a woodchip surface. In early lactation, the proportion of urinations on pasture and laneways was reduced from 89% (control) to 51% (1 x 8) and 54% (2 x 4) of total urinations. The 1 x 8 cows ate less pasture [10.9kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day] than the control (13.6kg of DM/cow per day) and 2 x 4 (13.0kg of DM/cow per day) cows, which did not differ from each other. The 1 x 8 and 2 x 4 cows produced less milk (21 and 22kg of milk/cow per day, respectively) compared with control cows (24kg of milk/cow per day). There were no differences in BW or body condition score (BCS) change across treatment groups, with all groups gaining BW and BCS during the experimental period. In late lactation, there was no difference in pasture intake (mean=8.8kg of DM/cow per day), milk production (mean=10kg of milk/cow per day), and BW or BCS change (mean=3.7kg and -0.2U/cow per week, respectively) between treatment groups. As in early lactation, urinations on pasture and laneways were reduced from 85% (control) to 56% (1 x 8) and 50% (2 x 4) of total urinations. These findings highlight an opportunity to maintain performance and welfare of grazing cows in early and late lactation while capturing additional

  8. Internal Dosimetry Of I-131 For Radiation Workers Based On Analysis Of The Human Urine And Liquid Scintillation Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal dosimetry of I-131 for radiation workers based on analysis of the human urine, measuring radioactivity by the liquid scintillation system, and dose calculation by the specialized code has been firstly studied at the Nuclear Research Institute. Urine samples from the subjects internally contaminated with I-131 through respiratory ways were collected, chemically processed, measured beta radioactivities of I-131 by the liquid scintillation system of ALOKA-LSC-6100, and then thyroid doses and effective ones for whole-body were calculated by using the specialized code of LUDEP 2.0. Based on chemically separation procedure for I-131 in urine samples and the low background HPGe gamma spectrometer of Canberra for measuring radioactivity, efficiency for chemical separation was determined to be (86.1 ± 5.0)%. The experimental results for 9 subjects with urine samples to be collected during 4 operating courses of Dalat nuclear reactor with production of I-131 (from June to September, 2010) were shown that thyroid doses and effective ones for whole-body for each course of I-131 production were in ranges of from 0.11 to 13.00 mSv and from 0.01 to 0.71 mSv, respectively. Therefore, totally average doses per year for thyroid and whole-body were less than the correlative levels of permissible doses. Besides, the liquid scintillation method was also compared experimentally with the gamma spectrometry (measuring directly urine samples by the gamma spectrometer to be carried out at the Institute before) was shown that errors on dosimetric results between them were less than 12%. This was proved the dosimetry has had a confidence, and it could be applied for internal dosimetry for radiation workers contacting with unsealed sources of I-131 in radiation installations as well as for diagnostic and therapeutic patients in health ones. (author)

  9. Short-term effects of human urine fertiliser and wood ash on soil pH and electrical conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Neina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fertiliser value of human urine has been examined on several crops, yet little is known about its effects on key soil properties of agronomic significance. This study investigated temporal soil salinization potential of human urine fertiliser (HUF. It further looked at combined effects of human urine and wood ash (WA on soil pH, urine-NH_3 volatilisation, soil electrical conductivity (EC, and basic cation contents of two Acrisols (Adenta and Toje series from the coastal savannah zone of Ghana. The experiment was a factorial design conducted in the laboratory for 12 weeks. The results indicated an increase in soil pH by 1.2 units for Adenta series and 1 unit for Toje series after one week of HUF application followed by a decline by about 2 pH units for both soil types after twelve weeks. This was attributed to nitrification of ammonium to nitrate leading to acidification. The EC otherwise increased with HUF application creating slightly saline conditions in Toje series and non-saline conditions in Adenta series. When WA was applied with HUF, both soil pH and EC increased. In contrast, the HUF alone slightly salinized Toje series, but both soils remained non-saline whenWA and HUF were applied together. The application ofWA resulted in two-fold increase in Ca, Mg, K, and Na content compared to HUF alone. Hence, WA is a promising amendment of acid soils and could reduce the effect of soluble salts in human urine fertilizer, which is likely to cause soil salinity.

  10. Natural levels of {sup 210}Po in human urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Frances, I.; Manjon, G.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, J. [Departament of Applied Phisic II, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012 Seville (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Departament of Applied Phisic II, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012 Seville (Spain); National Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Since the secret agent Alexander Litvinenko was murdered in 2006 by a {sup 210}Po lethal dose, presumably ingested, there is renovated interest on the toxicity of this radionuclide in humans. {sup 210}Po is a radioactive isotope naturally found in nature, mainly incorporated by humans via food and water ingestion, as well as inhaled through its progenitor, the {sup 222}Rn. The total amount of natural {sup 210}Po in the human body can vary from person to person depending on their lifestyle: dietary habits, drinking water source, place of residence (associated with exposure to {sup 222}Rn), etc- and therefore in the concentrations of this element to be found in urine. To analyze the influence of dietary habits on the amount of {sup 210}Po excreted in urine, two volunteers in Seville had a well-defined and time-varying diet for a month, following a daily collection of their urine and determination of the concentrations therein of this radionuclide. The results obtained and the conclusions derived from them form the core of this communication. {sup 210}Po determinations were performed daily in 200 ml aliquots of urine using the technique of high resolution alpha spectrometry. This has involved the application of a single radiochemical method for the concentration and isolation {sup 210}Po, followed by its auto-deposition on copper planchets for proper measure. Daily {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in voluntary urine analyzed during the month of study show high variability with a difference of up to an order of magnitude between maximum and minimum values obtained, and a clear dependence on the diet type followed in the various stages of the experiment. The lowest concentrations obtained are associated with a diet rich in carbohydrates and proteins 'terrestrial' (pork, beef,...), while the highest concentrations were obtained in the final phase of the experiment when the diet was enriched with presence of marine products in fair correspondence with the

  11. Selenium speciation in pretreated human urine by ion-exchange chromatography and ICP-MS detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.; Bendahl, L.

    2001-01-01

    Urine samples were extracted by benzo-15-crown-5-ether to remove sodium and potassium. More than 90% of the sodium and potassium content of the urine was removed with this extraction. In a cation-exchange system based on oxalic acid at pH 3, chromatography of an untreated urine pool resulted...

  12. Biological monitoring of human exposure to coal tar. Urinary mutagenicity assays and analytical determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Jongeneelen, F; Zordan, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The mutagenicity of urine extracts from anode plant workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles and non-smoking psoriatic patients treated with coal tar applications and UV light (Goeckermann regimen), was determined by the plate incorporation assay and the fluctuation test employing Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the presence of rat liver post-mitochondrial fractions and deconjugating enzymes. The levels of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and of a marker metabolite of pyrene (1-hydroxypyrene) were determined in the urine of the same subjects. Both the occupational and in particular the therapeutic exposure to coal tar resulted in clear increases in urinary levels of PAH metabolites as compared to unexposed subjects. The level of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine samples was comparable to or even greater than the corresponding level of total PAHs, indicating a poor recovery of PAH metabolites for this method. Following treatment with coal tar, most of the psoriatic patients excreted clearly increased levels of mutagens in their urine, while non-smoking anode plant workers showed no increase in urinary mutagenicity. The minimum levels of PAH metabolites corresponding to a significant increase in urinary mutagenicity varied from sample to sample, presumably depending on interfering factors present in different amounts in the extracts. Nonetheless the urine samples which were clearly mutagenic presented elevated levels of PAH metabolites, suggesting that the mutagenicity assays lack sufficient sensitivity to allow their application in the biological monitoring of most occupational exposures to coal tar.

  13. Development of radiolabelled compounds using reactor-produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our investigation ascertained the efficacy of radiopharmaceuticals developed by our research team with the applications into clinical studies and its unwanted effects on the aspects of quality control and safety concerns as well. According to our research, newly developed 166Ho-chitosan complex was verified as a very promising radiopharmaceutical in the future. Clinical studies further approved that its applications could be broadened out for the treatment of other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and liver cancer whose size is larger than 4 cm with highly effective manner compared to other radiopharmaceutical. Investigation on 166Ho-patch as a topical application for skin diseases proved its efficacy and safety through animal experiments. Its efficacy on the treatment of skin cancer was also confirmed by Raman spectrum. Also, 166Ho-Stent and 166Ho-Balloon were developed as one of the effective radioactive medical devices for a treatment of esophageal cancer and for an inhibition of restenosis, respectively. One of the most important achievements from present investigation was a development of 166Ho-coated balloon. With concerns of safety and efficiency related to the leakage of radioactive material into unwanted area due to the worst case of a balloon rupture when using a 166Ho-DTPA filled balloon, the concept of coating skill was introduced. Thereby, a coated balloon was developed and a significantly advanced its safety and efficacy of coated balloon were also affirmed by animal study. A development of radiopharmaceuticals such as 153Sm-CHICO and 188Re-HEDP were also carried out. Especially 53Sm is known to possess longer half-life than 166Ho, therefore, a concept was extended to develop 53Sm-chitosan complex with easy preparation procedure. Results approved theses radiopharmaceuticals could be useful in the treatment of radiosynovectomy, pain induced from metastasized bone cancer, respectively. All of these radiopharmaceuticals are characterized with high

  14. Development of radiolabelled compounds using reactor-produced radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Bae; Shin, Byung Chul; Choi, Sun Ju [and others

    2000-05-01

    Our investigation ascertained the efficacy of radiopharmaceuticals developed by our research team with the applications into clinical studies and its unwanted effects on the aspects of quality control and safety concerns as well. According to our research, newly developed {sup 166}Ho-chitosan complex was verified as a very promising radiopharmaceutical in the future. Clinical studies further approved that its applications could be broadened out for the treatment of other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and liver cancer whose size is larger than 4 cm with highly effective manner compared to other radiopharmaceutical. Investigation on {sup 166}Ho-patch as a topical application for skin diseases proved its efficacy and safety through animal experiments. Its efficacy on the treatment of skin cancer was also confirmed by Raman spectrum. Also, {sup 166}Ho-Stent and {sup 166}Ho-Balloon were developed as one of the effective radioactive medical devices for a treatment of esophageal cancer and for an inhibition of restenosis, respectively. One of the most important achievements from present investigation was a development of {sup 166}Ho-coated balloon. With concerns of safety and efficiency related to the leakage of radioactive material into unwanted area due to the worst case of a balloon rupture when using a {sup 166}Ho-DTPA filled balloon, the concept of coating skill was introduced. Thereby, a coated balloon was developed and a significantly advanced its safety and efficacy of coated balloon were also affirmed by animal study. A development of radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 153}Sm-CHICO and {sup 188}Re-HEDP were also carried out. Especially {sup 53}Sm is known to possess longer half-life than {sup 166}Ho, therefore, a concept was extended to develop {sup 53}Sm-chitosan complex with easy preparation procedure. Results approved theses radiopharmaceuticals could be useful in the treatment of radiosynovectomy, pain induced from metastasized bone cancer

  15. Urine profiles and kidney histology following intravenous diatrizoate and iohexol in the degeneration phase of gentamicin nephropathy in rats. Effects on urine and serum profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, H S; Golman, K; Larsen, S; Hemmingsen, L; Skaarup, P

    1991-11-01

    Urine chemical profiles were followed for three or nine days after intravenous injection of diatrizoate, iohexol, or saline in 30 rats, where a tubulointerstitial nephropathy was induced by gentamicin given over an eight-day period. Another ten rats injected with saline served as controls. Compared to injection of saline, both iohexol and diatrizoate induced dysfunction. The excretion of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase was significantly greater following iohexol than following diatrizoate. No significant differences between the two media were shown by the various serum components examined. Among the gentamicin-treated rats, light microscopy showed prolonged occurrence of tubular necrosis and a more intensive round cell infiltration following iohexol than following diatrizoate and saline. Both contrast media induced further temporary renal dysfunction in rats with gentamicin nephropathy; iohexol induced more morphologic changes than diatrizoate.

  16. Molecularly imprinted polymerization-based surface plasmon resonance sensing for glucose detection in human urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Soame; Peng, Wei; Kim, Yoon-Chang; Booksh, Karl S.

    2006-10-01

    A novel Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor to detect glucose using molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) will be presented in this paper. SPR has been traditionally used as a probe for surface interaction of large molecules but harder to measure small molecules since the effective change in the SPR condition becomes smaller. The accurate measurement of glucose in complex physiological fluids like urine is particularly challenging since the constituents of these fluids vary significantly from person to person and even throughout the day for a particular individual. The polymer was prepared by crosslinking polyallyamine in the presence of Glucose Phosphate, monobarium salt (GPS-Ba) and attached to a 50 nm thin film of gold which had been sputtered on top of a glass slide, via amide coupling. Upon removal of the template, this sensor was used to detect glucose in human urine in physiologically significant levels (1-20 mg/ml). Enhancement of the glucose sensor was made possible by incorporating gold nanoparticles which improved the signal. This study has demonstrated the specific detection of glucose in a complex physiological fluid using SPR spectroscopy. The association of glucose to the imprinted polymer results in the swelling of the polymer that can be tracked by the minima in SPR spectra. The sensitivity of this method, while lower than protein based detection schemes, is sufficient for quantitative measurement of glucose in urine at physiologically significant levels without extensive pre-treatment of the sample. Given the nature of the weak non-covalent binding of glucose to the amine functional groups, the scheme used here can be adapted to detect a number of different molecular species of sizes comparable to that of glucose without the need for extensive sample preparation or use of chemicals with limited shelf life.

  17. Biofilm formation by and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates from urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N; Kohli, R; Cook, E; Gialanella, P; Chang, T; Fries, B C

    2007-03-01

    Biofilm formation (BF) in the setting of candiduria has not been well studied. We determined BF and MIC to antifungals in Candida spp. isolates grown from urine samples of patients and performed a retrospective chart review to examine the correlation with risk factors. A total of 67 Candida spp. isolates were grown from urine samples from 55 patients. The species distribution was C. albicans (54%), C. glabrata (36%), and C. tropicalis (10%). BF varied greatly among individual Candida isolates but was stable in sequential isolates during chronic infection. BF also depended on the growth medium and especially in C. albicans was significantly enhanced in artificial urine (AU) compared to RPMI medium. In nine of the C. albicans strains BF was 4- to 10-fold higher in AU, whereas in three of the C. albicans strains and two of the C. glabrata strains higher BF was measured in RPMI medium than in AU. Determination of the MICs showed that planktonic cells of all strains were susceptible to amphotericin B (AMB) and caspofungin (CASPO) and that three of the C. glabrata strains and two of the C. albicans strains were resistant to fluconazole (FLU). In contrast, all biofilm-associated adherent cells were resistant to CASPO and FLU. The biofilms of 14 strains (28%) were sensitive to AMB (MIC(50) of Candida strains that varies greatly among clinical strains and is dependent on the growth medium. Resistance to AMB is associated with higher BF in AU, which may represent the more physiologic medium to test BF. Future studies should address whether in vitro BF can predict treatment failure in vivo.

  18. Evaluation of a new automated cell analyzer (Sysmex UF-1000i for bacteriological screening of urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Levi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sysmex UF-1000 is a new flow cytometry for the analysis of urine based on a laser diode technology using specific compounds for the staining nucleic acids, characterized by a threshold of detection of bacteria equal to 1000 CFU/ml.The purpose of this study was to compare the positivity or negativity of the urine samples using standard procedures and with the response obtained from the instrument UF-1000i. Methods. During the period May and July 2011, 1024 urine samples obtained from the laboratory of the hospital in Genoa-Voltri were analyzed with the instrument Sysmex UF-1000i.The samples were stored at a temperature of 5°C during transport.The instrument after loading of the sample is able to assess the bacterial load in about 1 minute per sample. Results. 1024 samples were analyzed with Sysmex UF-1000 analyzed in parallel by the hospital laboratory in Genoa Voltri. 228 are positive results for Sysmex UF-1000 (bacterial loads in excess of 1000 CFU/ml.The data obtained were consistent with those recorded with traditional analysis. 18 samples were positive only for our instrument, but not with the traditional system used in the laboratory for comparison. Conclusion. The advantage of Sysmex UF-1000 is certainly due to obtain immediate results after the reading of each individual sample that is higher than any other instrument or method of analysis used. The slight discrepancy of the results obtained may be due to the extremely low calibration of UF-1000. This allows in a very short time to discard all negative samples with enormous saving of time and material. For positive samples and applies the criterion of the routine ie, the bacterial load has a meaning according to the type of patient considered, as in the case of pediatric or catheterized patients

  19. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H C; Hurd, Yasmin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex-a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units β-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x (2) weighting with linear ranges (r(2) > 0.990) of 2.5-100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5-500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7-105.3 %, imprecision 1.4-6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5-92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3-47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

  20. Development of an extraction method based on new porous organogel materials coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the rapid quantification of bisphenol A in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Halle, Alexandra; Claparols, Catherine; Garrigues, Jean Christophe; Franceschi-Messant, Sophie; Perez, Emile

    2015-10-01

    A new method based on the use of porous organogel materials in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was assessed for the quantification of trace contaminants in complex matrices. As a demonstration of the use of these new materials, the contaminant chosen as a model was bisphenol A (BPA) and its extraction was investigated in urine. Organogel materials consist of an organic solvent immobilized by an organogelator. The composition of the organogel materials was optimized in terms of extraction efficiency and compatibility with LC-MS-MS. Porosity was introduced into the organogel by means of the particulate leaching method using sugar crystals. This new absorbing material is simple to use; the extraction method is reduced to a few steps. The originality of the method lies in the complete dissolution of the material for analysis by LC-MS-MS. The matrix effect of the organogel components was studied and was found to be minimal in atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) compared to electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative mode. The influence of matrix components on the extraction was investigated by working with different media (acidified water, synthetic urine, horse urine and human urine). The partition coefficient was not affected within the margin of error (±0.1). After optimization, bisphenol A recoveries from urine samples reached 80%. The actual concentration factor was 10. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n=6) for the extraction and determination of BPA in horse urine spiked at 10ngmL(-1) was 9%. Tests with spiked human urine showed that the extraction performances were the same as with the solutions tested previously. The use of porous organogel allowed a fast, simple, sensitive, robust, green method to be developed for the determination of trace contaminants in complex matrices. PMID:26342874

  1. Partial characterization of endogenous digoxinlike substance in human urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinge, E.; Ekman, R.

    1988-01-01

    Urinary samples were collected from individuals not taking cardiac glycosides. Aliquots of 30 ml were passed through preparative octadecylsilane-bonded phase columns and eluted in fractions by stepwise increasing concentrations of acetonitrile. Eluted fractions were analysed for their contents of endogenous digoxinlike substance (EDLS) by radioimmunoassay of digoxin and by a bioassay of cardiac glycosides, which measures the uptake of rubidium (/sup 86/Rb) by erythrocytes as an index of Na+, K+-ATPase activity. In both assays, digoxinlike activity was found in several fractions, but the highest values were consistently measured in the fractions eluted with 40% acetonitrile. Greater amounts of EDLS were recovered from the urine of pregnant women than from the urine of men and nonpregnant women.

  2. The hydrogen sulfide metabolite trimethylsulfonium is found in human urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajin, Bassam; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is the third and most recently discovered gaseous signaling molecule following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, playing important roles both in normal physiological conditions and disease progression. The trimethylsulfonium ion (TMS) can result from successive methylation reactions of hydrogen sulfide. No report exists so far about the presence or quantities of TMS in human urine. We developed a method for determining TMS in urine using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ), and applied the method to establish the urinary levels of TMS in a group of human volunteers. The measured urinary levels of TMS were in the nanomolar range, which is commensurate with the steady-state tissue concentrations of hydrogen sulfide previously reported in the literature. The developed method can be used in future studies for the quantification of urinary TMS as a potential biomarker for hydrogen sulfide body pools.

  3. [Elimination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine by urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, N; Spatz, H; Mesones Arroyo, H L; Rosan, T; Brengio, F

    1993-09-01

    N,N-dimethiltryptamine (DMT) in urine has been quantified on an 83-psychiatric patient sample. Sample covered patients who had sometimes been administered neuroleptic drugs as well as patients with some particular symptomatology associated to psychotic disorders such as hallucinations, delusions, perception disorders, etc. 43.3% (36 cases) evidenced an abnormally high DMT in urine (0.9-13.5 mcg/24 h). Higher values were more frequently found in both schizophrenic patients, and non-schizophrenic patients with either hallucinations, delusions, anorexia or bulimia. Most patients with DMT normal values (< 0.5 mcg/24 h) presented either mental retardation, cerebral atrophy or dysrhythmias. A very good correlation was found between urinary DMT abnormally high values, and patients' improvement after such patients had been treated with neuroleptic drugs. PMID:7905222

  4. Crystallization processes derived from the interaction of urine and dolostone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    The increase in the number of pets (mostly dogs), homeless people and the more recent open-air drinking sessions organized by young people in historical centers of European cities, derive on the augmentation of urinations on stone façades of the built cultural heritage. Up to now this process has been considered only under an undesirable aesthetical point of view and the insalubrious conditions it creates, together with the cleaning costs that the local governments have to assume. This study aims to confirm urine as a real source of soluble salts that can trigger the decay of building materials, especially of those of built cultural heritage of the historical centers of the cities, which are suffering the new social scenario described above. For this purpose, an experimental setup was designed and performed in the laboratory to simulate this process. 5 cm side cubic specimens of dolostone were subjected to 100 testing cycles of urine absorption by capillarity. The necessary amount of urine was collected by donors and stored following clinical protocol conditions. Each cycle consisted of imbibitions of the specimens in 3 mm high urine sheet for 3 hours, drying at 40°C in an oven for 20 hours and 1 hour cooling in a dessicator. At the end of the 100 cycles, small pieces of the specimens were cut, observed and analyzed with the aid of an environmental scanning electron microscope, which presents the advantage of no sample preparation. The sampled pieces were selected considering there were different sections in height in the specimens: a) a bottom section that corresponds to the section that has been immersed in the urine solution (3 mm); b) an interface section, immediately above the immersed area, which is the area most affected by the urine capillarity process, characterized by a strong yellowish color; c) the section that we have named as section of influence, which is subjected to the capillary absorption, although not so strongly than the interface section

  5. Proteinuria: The diagnostic strategy based on urine proteins differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojimirović Biljana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal glomerular membrane represents mechanical and electrical barrier for passing of the plasma proteins. Mechanical barrier is composed of cylindrical pores and filtration fissure, and negative layer charge in exterior and interior side of basal glomerular membrane, made of heparan sulphate and sialoglicoproteine, provides certain electrical barrier. Diagnostic strategy based on different serum and urine proteins enables the differentiation of various types of proteinuria. Depending on etiology of proteinuria it can be prerenal, renal and postrenal. By analyzing albumin, armicroglobulin, immunoglobulin G and armacroglobulin, together with total protein in urine, it is possible to detect and differentiate causes of prerenal, renal (glomerular, tubular, glomerulo-tubular and postrenal proteinuria. The adequate and early differentiation of proteinuria type is of an immense diagnostic and therapeutic importance.

  6. The Present and Future of Prostate Cancer Urine Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Clark

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to successfully cure patients with prostate cancer (PCa, it is important to detect the disease at an early stage. The existing clinical biomarkers for PCa are not ideal, since they cannot specifically differentiate between those patients who should be treated immediately and those who should avoid over-treatment. Current screening techniques lack specificity, and a decisive diagnosis of PCa is based on prostate biopsy. Although PCa screening is widely utilized nowadays, two thirds of the biopsies performed are still unnecessary. Thus the discovery of non-invasive PCa biomarkers remains urgent. In recent years, the utilization of urine has emerged as an attractive option for the non-invasive detection of PCa. Moreover, a great improvement in high-throughput “omic” techniques has presented considerable opportunities for the identification of new biomarkers. Herein, we will review the most significant urine biomarkers described in recent years, as well as some future prospects in that field.

  7. The Golden Fountain - Is urine the miracle drug no one told you about?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta M. Loeffler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The supposed indications for urine therapy, ancient or contemporary, are too numerous to recite. There is, it seems, virtually nothing urine won’t cure. Modern proponents use pseudoscience to explain the benefits of the various, mostly exaggerated, components of urine. Some hint at a conspiracy by the medical establishment and the pharmaceutical industry to keep the knowledge of the many fantastic healing properties of cheaply available urine a secret. There is no money to be made from urine, well, unless one was to write a book about its many virtues. But, seriously, what do we really know?

  8. [Bacteria isolated from urine and renal tissue samples and their relation to renal histology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, A; Gültekin, E Y; Bakici, M Z; Ozdeşlik, B

    1988-01-01

    The bacteria from the urine and renal biopsy specimens of 40 patients undergoing renal surgery were isolated and their relations with renal histology investigated. The urine cultures were positive in 14 patients, the same organisms being isolated from the renal tissue in 7 cases. In 6 patients with negative urine cultures, bacteria were isolated from renal tissues. Of the 28 cases pathologically diagnosed as chronic pyelonephritis, bacteria were isolated from the renal tissue in 13 cases, the urine cultures being positive in only 11 cases. E. coli was the most commonly encountered bacteria in both the urine and renal tissues.

  9. Chemotherapeutic potential of Cow Urine AND#8211; A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gurpreet Kaur Randhawa; Rajiv Sharma

    2015-01-01

    In the grim scenario where presently about 70% of pathogenic bacteria are resistant to at least one of the drugs for treatment, cue is to be taken from traditional/ indigenous medicine to tackle it urgently. The Indian traditional knowledge emanates from ayurveda, where Bos indicus is placed at a high pedestal for numerous uses of its various products. Urine is one of the products of cow with many benefits and without inducing toxicity. Various studies have found good antimicrobial activi...

  10. Variability in the interpretation of DMSA scintigraphy after urine infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Uren, R.; Irwig, L.; Bernard, E.; Knight, J.; Sureshkumar, P.; Roy, L.P. [New Childrens Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Centre for Kidney Research, Department of Nuclear Medicine]|[University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW. (Australia)

    1997-09-01

    Full text: This study investigated the extent of and potential reasons for interpretation disagreement of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scans after urine infection in children. Methods: 441 scans were selected from children with first urine infection (UTI) from 1993-1995. 294 scans were performed at a median time of seven days after UTI and 147 in children free from infection over one year follow-up. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently reported according to whether renal abnormality was present or absent and used the four level grading system described by Goldraich: grade 1-no more than two cortical defects; grade 2 -more than 2 defects; grade 3-diffuse reduction in uptake with or without defects; grade 4 -shrunken kidney <10% function. Indices for variability used were the percentage of agreement and kappa statistic, expressed as a percentage. For the grading scale used, both measures were weighted with integers representing the number of categories from perfect agreement. Disagreement was analysed for children, kidneys and kidney zones. Results: There was agreement in 86 per cent (kappa 69%) for the normal-abnormal DMSA scan dichotomy, the weighted agreement was 94 per cent (kappa 82%) for the grading scale. Disagreement of DMSA scan interpretation {>=} two grades was present in three cases (0.7%). The same level of agreement was present for the patient, kidney and kidney zones comparisons. Agreement was not influenced by age or the timing of scintigraphy after urine infection. Conclusion: Two experienced physicians showed good agreement in the interpretation DMSA scintigraphy in children after urine infection and using the grading system of Goldraich.

  11. Role of suprapubic catheterization in retention of urine1

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, P H; Gaches, C G C; Green, N A; Shah, P J R; Ashken, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and nine male patients took part in a randomized trial of elective suprapubic or urethral catheterization in retention of urine. The self-retaining trocar suprapubic catheter proved safe and reliable in trained hands and its use was associated with a low incidence of side effects. The suprapubic catheter when used to allow continuous flow resection appeared to lead to decreased blood loss and reduced resection time. No decrease in urinary infection rate over the period of hospital...

  12. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Francesca; Ventura, Laura; Sartori, Nicola; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassan, Matteo; Busund, Lill-Tove; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205) in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage) was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg). Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94). miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  13. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Simonato

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC. Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205 in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg. Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94. miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  14. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone

    OpenAIRE

    Coskun, Ahmet F.; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powe...

  15. Urine proteome of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bakun, Magda; Niemczyk, Mariusz; Domanski, Dominik; Jazwiec, Radek; Perzanowska, Anna; Niemczyk, Stanislaw; Kistowski, Michal; Fabijanska, Agnieszka; Borowiec, Agnieszka; Paczek, Leszek; Dadlez, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is responsible for 10% of cases of the end stage renal disease. Early diagnosis, especially of potential fast progressors would be of benefit for efficient planning of therapy. Urine excreted proteome has become a promising field of the search for marker patterns of renal diseases including ADPKD. Up to now however, only the low molecular weight fraction of ADPKD proteomic fingerprint was studied. The aim of our study was to char...

  16. Evaluation of urine dipstick and cystoscopy in bovine enzootic haematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Pavelski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine haematuria is mainly caused by the chronic ingestion of bracken fern and is still considered an important cause of economic losses in beef herds, particularly in large metropolitan areas of Brazil that are not suitable for agriculture (weak soil, steep hills.The aim of this paper was evaluate if there is a correlation between the degree of haematuria and the presence of lesions in the urinary bladder of cows with bovine enzootic haematuria (BEH.We evaluated the bladder of twenty Nelore cows with bracken fern intoxication using a flexible endoscope to describe the lesions present and we performed a rapid urine test with a chemical multiple-reagent commercial strips (Combur test Roche® – Swiss to check the degree of haematuria; then we correlated both results with the Spearman statistical test. All cows presented lesions in their bladder walls and the urine was visually reddish and positive for haematuria in the strips. Urine dipstick has shown to correlate with bladder lesion number. In the bladders of the euthanised animals, multiple sub-mucosal reddish nodules and multiple ecchymotic haemorrhages were seen macroscopically, and one bladder had a larger tumour with a 3cm diameter, which was determined to be a haemangioma by analysing the histopathology. We concluded that urine dipstick is a valuable device for bovine enzootic haematuria prognostic purposes and to evaluate the severity of lesions from the urinary bladder. Moreover, cystoscopy is an important diagnostic tool to assess bladder lesions in cattle. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the involvement of papillomaviruses and bladder tumour occurrence in these cows.

  17. Microextraction Methods for Preconcentration of Aluminium in Urine Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Farajbakhsh, Mohammad Amjadi, Jamshid Manzoori, Mohammad R. Ardalan, Abolghasem Jouyban

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Analysis of aluminium (Al in urine samples is required in management of a number of diseases including patients with renal failure. This work aimed to present dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME methods for the preconcentration of ultra-trace amount of aluminum in human urine prior to its determination by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS. Methods: The microextraction methods were based on the complex formation of Al3+ with 8-hydroxyquinoline. The effect of various experimental parameters on the efficiencies of the methods and their optimum values were studied. Results: Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection for USAEME-GFAAS and DLLME-GFAAS were 0.19 and 0.30 ng mL−1, respectively and corresponding relative standard deviations (RSD, n=5 for the determination of 40 ng mL−1 Al3+ were 5.9% and 4.9%. Conclusion: Both methods could be successfully used to the analysis of ultra trace concentrations of Al in urine samples of dialysis patients.

  18. Proteomic profiling of urine for the detection of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakelam Michael JO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death in the developed world. To date, no blood or stool biomarkers with both high sensitivity and specificity for potentially curable early stage disease have been validated for clinical use. SELDI and MALDI profiling are being used increasingly to search for biomarkers in both blood and urine. Both techniques provide information predominantly on the low molecular weight proteome ( Results We collected urine from 67 patients with colorectal cancer and 72 non-cancer control subjects, diluted to a constant protein concentration and generated MALDI and SELDI spectra. The intensities of 19 peaks differed significantly between cancer and non-cancer patients by both t-tests and after adjusting for confounders using multiple linear regressions. Logistic regression classifiers based on peak intensities identified colorectal cancer with up to 78% sensitivity at 87% specificity. We identified and independently quantified 3 of the discriminatory peaks using synthetic stable isotope peptides (an 1885 Da fragment of fibrinogen and hepcidin-20 or ELISA (β2-microglobulin. Conclusion Changes in the urine proteome may aid in the early detection of colorectal cancer.

  19. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  20. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from urine culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toka Özer, Türkan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Yula, Erkan

    2016-09-01

    Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed. In this study, 58 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures at Osmaniye State Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013 were included. Urine culture and antifungal susceptibility tests were applied. Incidence rate of Candida spp. was determined as C. albicans (56.9%), Candida glabrata (20.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsilosis (7%), Candida krusei (3.4%), Candida kefyr (1.8%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole. Twenty three (39.7%) Candida strains were isolated from internal medical branches and Intensive Care Unit and 12 (20.6%) from the Surgical Medical Branches. C. albicans and C. glabrata species were isolated most frequently as a candiduria factor in this hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. The analysis of antifungal susceptibility profile shows no significant resistance to antifungals.

  1. Dubowitz syndrome: common findings and peculiar urine odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chehade C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia Chehade,1 Johnny Awwad,2 Nadine Yazbeck,1 Marianne Majdalani,1 Rima Wakim,1 Hala Tfayli,1 Chantal Farra1,31Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Dubowitz syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, severe microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, hyperactivity, eczema, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features. Although many cases have been reported, the cause of this disease is still unknown.Case: We present here the case of a Lebanese girl with Dubowitz syndrome in whom an unpleasant urine odor was persistently reported since birth.Conclusion: Although Dubowitz syndrome has been largely described in the medical literature, this is the first time that a peculiar urine odor was reported. This case report adds a new and unusual feature to the numerous findings related to this rare polymorphous syndrome.Keywords: Dubowitz syndrome, autosomal recessive, developmental delay, odorous urine

  2. Urine Pretreatment History and Perspective in NASA Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Adam, Niklas; Chambers, Antja; Broyan, James

    2015-01-01

    Urine pretreatment is a technology that may seem to have small mass impacts in future spaceflight missions, but can have significant impacts on reliability, life, and performance of the rest of the wastewater management and recovery systems. NASA has experience with several different urine pretreatment systems, including those flow on the space shuttle, evaluated for NASA waste collection systems or used in Russian commodes on ISS, or developed by NASA or industry as alternatives. Each has had unique requirements for shelf life, operational life, and the life or conditions of the stored, treated urine. Each was evaluated under different test conditions depending on mission, and depending on testing experience developed over NASA's history. Those that were flown led to further lessons learned about hardware compatibility and control. As NASA looks forward to human spaceflight missions beyond low Earth orbit, these techniques need to be evaluated in new light. Based on published design reference missions, candidate requirements can be derived for future systems. Initial comparisons between these requirements and previous performance or test results can be performed. In many cases these comparisons reveal data gaps. Successful previous performance is not enough to address current needs.

  3. Crystallographic investigationsof urine at newborns with ischemic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loboda A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the identification of structural markers of ischemic nephropathy by studying facies (dry drops of urine in newborn infants. The study involved two groups of full-term newborns with gestational age 38-41 weeks and signs of ischemic nephropathy: 1st - 75 children who suffered severe asphyxia, 2nd - 75 children with moderate asphyxia. Comparison group consisted of 20 infants without asphyxia at birth. Morphological changes were detected in dry drops by microscopy at 40-fold increase in 1-2 and 7-8 days of life. Asphyxia cause disturbance of renal filtration, tubular reabsorption and secretion that lead to increase levels of organic components and mineral salts in urine, crystallization of which forms a specific picture of facies. By urine’s facies morphology at 1-2 days of life is possible to evaluate renal function in newborns suffered from asphyxia. The number of inclusions in facies, their total area and distribution are depending on the severity of asphyxia. Structural changes in the urine of children with ischemic nephropathy remain till the end of the early neonatal period.

  4. Programmable probiotics for detection of cancer in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Tal; Prindle, Arthur; Kwong, Gabriel A; Skalak, Matthew; Li, Howard; Allen, Kaitlin; Hasty, Jeff; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-05-27

    Rapid advances in the forward engineering of genetic circuitry in living cells has positioned synthetic biology as a potential means to solve numerous biomedical problems, including disease diagnosis and therapy. One challenge in exploiting synthetic biology for translational applications is to engineer microbes that are well tolerated by patients and seamlessly integrate with existing clinical methods. We use the safe and widely used probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to develop an orally administered diagnostic that can noninvasively indicate the presence of liver metastasis by producing easily detectable signals in urine. Our microbial diagnostic generated a high-contrast urine signal through selective expansion in liver metastases (10(6)-fold enrichment) and high expression of a lacZ reporter maintained by engineering a stable plasmid system. The lacZ reporter cleaves a substrate to produce a small molecule that can be detected in urine. E. coli Nissle 1917 robustly colonized tumor tissue in rodent models of liver metastasis after oral delivery but did not colonize healthy organs or fibrotic liver tissue. We saw no deleterious health effects on the mice for more than 12 months after oral delivery. Our results demonstrate that probiotics can be programmed to safely and selectively deliver synthetic gene circuits to diseased tissue microenvironments in vivo.

  5. The behaviour of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals during struvite precipitation in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronteltap, Mariska; Maurer, Max; Gujer, Willi

    2007-05-01

    Separating urine from wastewater at the source reduces the costs of extensive wastewater treatment. Recovering the nutrients from urine and reusing them for agricultural purposes adds resource saving to the benefits. Phosphate can be recovered in the form of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate). In this paper, the behaviour of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals during the precipitation of struvite in urine is studied. When precipitating struvite in urine spiked with hormones and non-ionic, acidic and basic pharmaceuticals, the hormones and pharmaceuticals remain in solution for more than 98%. For heavy metals, initial experiments were performed to study metal solubility in urine. Solubility is shown to be affected by the chemical conditions of stored and therefore hydrolysed urine. Thermodynamic modelling reveals low or very low equilibrium solute concentrations for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). Experiments confirmed Cd, Cu and Pb carbonate and hydroxide precipitation upon metal addition in stored urine with a reaction half-life of ca. 7 days. For all metals considered, the maximum specific metal concentrations per gram phosphate or nitrogen showed to be typically several orders of magnitudes lower in urine than in commercially available fertilizers and manure. Heavy metals in struvite precipitated from normal stored urine could not be detected. Phosphate recovery from urine over struvite precipitation is shown to render a product free from most organic micropollutants and containing only a fraction of the already low amounts of heavy metals in urine. PMID:17368503

  6. Aversive responses of white-tailed deer,Odocoileus virginianus, to predator urines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swihart, R K; Pignatello, J J; Mattina, M J

    1991-04-01

    We tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urine from bobcats (Lyra rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of Japanese yews (Taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. Urine of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting that deer do not respond aversively to odors of nonpredatory mammals or occasional predators with which they lack a long evolutionary association. Bobcat and coyote urine were more effective in tests conducted with eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), which is less palatable to white-tailed deer than Japanese yew. A dichloromethane extract of bobcat urine was as effective as unextracted urine in reducing damage to hemlocks. Testing of the organic components of bobcat urine, particularly the volatile components, may enable identification of the compounds responsible for the repellency we observed. PMID:24258921

  7. Change Curve of Urine HCG and β-HCG Levels in Normal Gestation in Fuzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To draw up the change curve of standardized urine HCG and β-HCG levels in normal gestation women in Fuzhou. The HCG and β-HCG levels in 180 normal pregnant women (gestational week 5-40) urine samples were detected by RIA and the urinary creatinine was also measured by enzymatic analysis. The standardized urine HCG and β-HCG levels were calculated by correction with urinary creatinine, and the change curves of standardized urine HCG and β-HCG throughout normal gestation were made. The results showed that the curves of standardized urine HCG and β-HCG were fitted normally (P<0.05), and the related coefficient (R2) were 0.628 and 0.702 respectively. The change curves of standardized urine HCG and β-HCG in normal gestation and changes of HCG in urine and serum in Fuzhou were matched with early reports in literature. (authors)

  8. Microbe landscape and biological properties of microorganisms revealed from urine of the patients with the uncomplicated infections of urine tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam Khudoyberganov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study considers microbe landscape and basic microbiological characteristics of the revealed infectious agents in acute and chronic uncomplicated infections of the urological tract (UTUI. The E.coli species seem to be prevailed (66.3% as etiological agent of the uncomplicated infections of urinary tract. The microorganisms of this kind were defined in monoculture in 78% of cases and in associations with the other microorganisms in 22%. The distinctions in frequency of isolation of E.coli strains, urine specie (Ur E.coli and fecal specie (Kol E.coli, having only mannose-resistant hemagglutinins, and also combination of manno-resistant and mannose-sensitive hemagglutinins. Presence of only mannose-sensitive hemagglutinins with identical frequency were registered in the cultures E.coli, isolated from the urine of the patients with acute and chronic pyelonephritis and from feces of the healthy people.

  9. Hyperbilirubinemia and urinary tract infection: the effect of indirect hyperbilirubinemia on the in vitro growth of uropathogen Escherichia coli in newborn urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firinci, Fatih; Soylu, Alper; Ozturk, Cengiz; Gulay, Zeynep; Demir, Belde K; Turkmen, Mehmet; Kavukcu, Salih

    2014-02-01

    High serum bilirubin is antioxidant and cytoprotective. We evaluated if urine samples of hyperbilirubinemic newborns impede uropathogenic Escherichia coli growth. Bag-urine samples of hyperbilirubinemic newborns (study group) were cultured at presentation and during remission. Urine sample were obtained only once from healthy newborns (control group). Escherichia coli [2 × 104 colony-forming unit (cfu)/mL] was inoculated into the sterile urine samples and colony counts were determined after 24 h. Bilirubin levels at presentation and remission were also recorded. Escherichia coli colony counts of the control versus study groups and of the presentation versus remission samples in the study group were compared. There were 13 study and 17 control cases. Escherichia coli colony counts were not different in the study group at presentation versus remission (5.4 ± 0.7 vs. 5.5 ± 0.8 log10, respectively; p = 0.659). Escherichia coli colony count of the control group (5.2 ± 0.6 log10) was also not different from the study group. In conclusion, the urine of hyperbilirubinemic newborns did not affect the growth rate of uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:24059809

  10. Methods for analysis of citrinin in human blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Muñoz, Katherine; Degen, Gisela H

    2013-06-01

    Citrinin (CIT), produced by several Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus species, has been detected as contaminant in feeds, grains, and other food commodities. CIT can co-occur with ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin also known for its nephrotoxicity, and this raises concern regarding possible combined effects. But, in contrast to OTA, data on CIT contamination in foods for human consumption are scarce, and CIT biomonitoring has not been conducted so far due a lack of suitable methods for human specimen. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to develop sensitive methods for the analysis of CIT in human blood and urine to investigate human exposure. To this end, we assessed different methods of sample preparation and instrumental analysis for these matrices. Clean-up of blood plasma by protein precipitation followed by LC-MS/MS-based analysis allowed robust detection of CIT (LOD 0.07 ng/mL, LOQ 0.15 ng/mL). For urine, sample clean-up by an immunoaffinity column (CitriTest(®)) proved to be clearly superior to SPE with RP(18) material for subsequent analysis by LC-MS/MS. For CIT and its metabolite dihydrocitrinone (HO-CIT), the LOD and LOQ determined by external calibration curves in matrix were 0.02 and 0.05 ng/mL for CIT, and those for HO-CIT were 0.05 and 0.1 ng/mL urine. The newly developed method was applied in a small pilot study: CIT was present in all plasma samples from 8 German adults, at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 0.26 ng/mL. The molar (nM) concentrations of CIT are similar to those measured for OTA in these samples as a result of dietary mycotoxin intake. CIT was detected in 8/10 urines (from 4 adults and 6 infants) in a range of 0.16-0.79 ng/mL, and HO-CIT was present in 5/10 samples at similar concentrations. Thus, CIT is excreted in urine as parent compound and also as metabolite. These first results in humans point to the need for further studies on CIT exposure. PMID:23354378

  11. Improving anaerobic biodigestion of manioc wastewater with human urine as co-substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kpata-Konan Nazo Edith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated anaerobic co-digestion of cassava liquid waste (very acid and poor in nitrogen and human urine. Three experimental digesters were used: manioc effluent; manioc effluent + urine; manioc effluent + urine + cow dung. All digesters have functioned with mesophilic temperatures between 24.0 and 35.6°C. Digesters without urine have a pH varying between 3 and 4 during experimentation. In reactors containing urine, the pH oscillated between 6.46 and 10.29. The COD/TKN ratios recorded in digesters buffered with human urine are lower than those observed in digester without human urine. Volume of gas produced by the two digesters containing human urine was significantly higher than that of the digester without urine. The additions of human urine and cow dung improve highly the methane potential during anaerobic co-digestion of manioc effluent. The flammability test is positive except for the digester without urine. Using human urine as a co-substrate for anaerobic digestion of cassava wastewater requires a large quantity of urine (40% in terms of proportion for a best productivity. As well as allowing biogas production as a source of renewable energy, this system of co-digestion could help to resolve the sensitive problem of human excreta management in poor area. Indeed, human urine with an alkaline pH and richness in nitrogen can substitute chemicals commonly used to correct the pH during anaerobic biodigestion, in particular for the treatment of cassava wastewater which is very acid.

  12. Diabetic nephropathy is associated with increased urine excretion of proteases plasmin, prostasin and urokinase and activation of amiloride-sensitive current in collecting duct cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik; Friis, Ulla G; Hansen, Pernille B L;

    2015-01-01

    by western immunoblotting, patch clamp and ELISA. Urine exosomes were isolated to elucidate potential cleavage of γENaC by a monoclonal antibody directed against the 'inhibitory' peptide tract. RESULTS: Compared with control, DN patients displayed significantly higher blood pressure and urinary excretion...... with controls. Immunoblotting of urine exosomes showed aquaporin 2 in all patient samples. Exosomes displayed a virtual absence of intact γENaC while moieties compatible with cleavage by furin only, were shown in both groups. Proteolytic cleavage by the extracellular serine proteases plasmin or prostasin...

  13. Optical sensing of phenylalanine in urine via extraction with magnetic molecularly imprinted poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Mei-Hwa; Thomas, James L.; Shih, Ching-Ping; Hung, Tzu-Lin; Whang, Thou-Jen; Lin, Hung-Yin

    2015-07-01

    Incorporation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles into molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) is useful for both bioseparations and for concentration and sensing of biomedically relevant target molecules in physiological fluids, through the application of a magnetic field. In this study, we combined the separation and concentration of a target (phenylalanine) in urine, using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymeric composite nanoparticles, with optical sensing, to improve assay sensitivity. This target is important as a catecholamine precursor, and as an important amino acid constituent of proteins. Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol)s were imprinted with target molecules, and showed a high imprinting effectiveness (target binding compared with binding to non-imprinted polymer particles.) Fluorescence spectrophotometry was used to measure binding of the target, and also binding of possible interfering compounds. These measurements suggest that functional groups on phenylalanine dominate the selectivity of the synthesized MIPs. Finally, the composite nanoparticles were used to separate and sense the target molecule in urine by Raman scattering microscopy.

  14. Analysis of testosterone in human urine using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction and corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmahdieh, Shiva; Mardihallaj, Azam; Hashemian, Zahra; Razavizadeh, Jalal; Ghaziaskar, Hassan; Khayamian, Taghi

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of testosterone was accomplished using corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry. Molecular imprinted polymer was used for the extraction and pre-concentration of testosterone. Analytical parameters including precision, dynamic range and detection limit were obtained. The linear dynamic range was from 10 to 250 ng/mL and the limit of detection was 0.9 ng/mL. The proposed method was used for analysis of testosterone in urine samples. A urine sample from a 3-year-old girl was used as the blank. The RSD was below 10%. The obtained results from the method were also compared with the standard method for analysis of testosterone using SPE-HPLC analysis. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the method. PMID:21171183

  15. Survivin mRNA expression in urine as a biomarker for patients with transitional cell carcinoma of bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jian-quan; HE Jun; WEN Duan-gai; CHEN Zi-xing; ZENG Jian

    2006-01-01

    @@ Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of bladder is the most common malignant tumor in uropoiesis system. Up to date, there is still lack of an ideal marker for the diagnosis of TCC except CT and MRI imaging and cystoscopy. Cystoscopy is an invasive examination, which increases the possibility of urinary tract infection. Urine cytology has low sensitivity (21%-40%) in diagnosis of bladder cancer, especially for those with medium or high differentiation. The specificity is often affected by factors such as specimen collection, urinary tract infection, etc. Detecting the expression of survivin mRNA in urine by real time-PCR is simple in specimen collection and is sensitive and relatively specific, which provides a simple and noninvasive diagnostic method for TCC. Moreover it allows comparing the gene expression levels at different stages and grades of TCC, which can help define malignancy degree of TCC.

  16. Optical sensing of phenylalanine in urine via extraction with magnetic molecularly imprinted poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Mei-Hwa; Thomas, James L; Shih, Ching-Ping; Hung, Tzu-Lin; Whang, Thou-Jen; Lin, Hung-Yin

    2015-07-31

    Incorporation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles into molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) is useful for both bioseparations and for concentration and sensing of biomedically relevant target molecules in physiological fluids, through the application of a magnetic field. In this study, we combined the separation and concentration of a target (phenylalanine) in urine, using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymeric composite nanoparticles, with optical sensing, to improve assay sensitivity. This target is important as a catecholamine precursor, and as an important amino acid constituent of proteins. Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol)s were imprinted with target molecules, and showed a high imprinting effectiveness (target binding compared with binding to non-imprinted polymer particles.) Fluorescence spectrophotometry was used to measure binding of the target, and also binding of possible interfering compounds. These measurements suggest that functional groups on phenylalanine dominate the selectivity of the synthesized MIPs. Finally, the composite nanoparticles were used to separate and sense the target molecule in urine by Raman scattering microscopy.

  17. Blood or Urine IP-10 Cannot Discriminate between Active Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Different from Tuberculosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Petrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10, either in blood or in urine, has been proposed as a tuberculosis (TB biomarker for adults. This study aims to evaluate the potential of IP-10 diagnostics in children from Uganda, a high TB-endemic country. Methods. IP-10 was measured in the blood and urine concomitantly taken from children who were prospectively enrolled with suspected active TB, with or without HIV infection. Clinical/microbiological parameters and commercially available TB-immune assays (tuberculin skin test (TST and QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT were concomitantly evaluated. Results. One hundred twenty-eight children were prospectively enrolled. The analysis was performed on 111 children: 80 (72% of them were HIV-uninfected and 31 (27.9% were HIV-infected. Thirty-three healthy adult donors (HAD were included as controls. The data showed that IP-10 is detectable in the urine and blood of children with active TB, independent of HIV status and age. However, although IP-10 levels were higher in active TB children compared to HAD, the accuracy of identifying “active TB” was low and similar to the TST and QFT-IT. Conclusion. IP-10 levels are higher in children with respiratory illness compared to controls, independent of “TB status” suggesting that the evaluation of this parameter can be used as an inflammatory marker more than a TB test.

  18. Blood or Urine IP-10 Cannot Discriminate between Active Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Different from Tuberculosis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Linda; Cannas, Angela; Aloi, Francesco; Nsubuga, Martin; Sserumkuma, Joseph; Nazziwa, Ritah Angella; Jugheli, Levan; Lukindo, Tedson; Girardi, Enrico; Reither, Klaus; Goletti, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), either in blood or in urine, has been proposed as a tuberculosis (TB) biomarker for adults. This study aims to evaluate the potential of IP-10 diagnostics in children from Uganda, a high TB-endemic country. Methods. IP-10 was measured in the blood and urine concomitantly taken from children who were prospectively enrolled with suspected active TB, with or without HIV infection. Clinical/microbiological parameters and commercially available TB-immune assays (tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT)) were concomitantly evaluated. Results. One hundred twenty-eight children were prospectively enrolled. The analysis was performed on 111 children: 80 (72%) of them were HIV-uninfected and 31 (27.9%) were HIV-infected. Thirty-three healthy adult donors (HAD) were included as controls. The data showed that IP-10 is detectable in the urine and blood of children with active TB, independent of HIV status and age. However, although IP-10 levels were higher in active TB children compared to HAD, the accuracy of identifying “active TB” was low and similar to the TST and QFT-IT. Conclusion. IP-10 levels are higher in children with respiratory illness compared to controls, independent of “TB status” suggesting that the evaluation of this parameter can be used as an inflammatory marker more than a TB test. PMID:26346028

  19. The influence of exercise and dehydration on the urine concentrations of salbutamol after inhaled administration of 1600 µg salbutamol as a single dose in relation to doping analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Christoffer Bjerre; Backer, Vibeke; Kalsen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    -24 h after drug administration. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment. The 2015 WADA decision limit (1200 ng/mL) for salbutamol was exceeded in 23, 31, and 10% of the urine samples during EX, EXD, and R, respectively......, when unadjusted for USG. When adjusted for USG, the corresponding percentages fell to 21, 15, and 8%. During EXD, mean urine concentrations of salbutamol exceeded (1325±599 ng/mL) the decision limit 4 h after administration when unadjusted for USG. Serum salbutamol Cmax was lower (P... in samples collected after inhalation of that maximal permitted (1600 µg) for salbutamol. This should be taken into account when evaluating doping cases of salbutamol. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  20. Multicompartmental nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics: explorative study on the metabolic responses of rye fiber versus refined wheat fiber intake in plasma and urine of hypercholesterolemic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard;

    2013-01-01

    A multicompartmental nontargeted LC–MS metabolomics approach was used to study the metabolic responses on plasma and urine of hypercholesterolemic pigs after consumption of diets with contrasting dietary fiber composition (whole grain rye with added rye bran versus refined wheat). To study...... compounds and dicarboxylic acids were detected in urine of pigs after rye consumption compared to refined wheat. Furthermore, consumption of rye was characterized by lower levels of linoleic acid derived oxylipins and cholesterol in the plasma metabolic profiles. These results indicate that higher...... consumption of nonrefined dietary fiber is reflected in higher excretion of phenolic compounds and dicarboxylic acids in urine and lower levels of linoleic acid derived oxylipins and cholesterol in plasma, which can be linked to beneficial health effects of rye components. On the other hand, pro...

  1. Detection of cytomegalovirus in urine of HIV-infected patients by DNA-DNA hybridization comparison with virus isolation, immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Valdivia

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase test directed against early viral antigens, and DNA-DNA hybridization were compared with viral isolation for their abilities to detect Cytomegalovirus (CVM in the urine of 89 HIV infected patients. From the 100 urine samples collected, 70 were found positive by at least one method. Considering viral isolation as the "gold standard" technique, immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase had a sensitivity of 92.3% and88% respectively, with a specificity in both cases of 95%. DNA-DNA hybridization showed a sensitivity of 90% but with lower (60% specificity. All of the three assays were effective in detecting CVM from urine and the technical advantage of each is discussed.

  2. The effect of Stokes shift in the discrimination of urine of cervical cancer from normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Ramu; Brindha, Elumalai; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-03-01

    Stokes shift spectroscopy has been considered as a potential tool in characterization of multiple components present in tissues and biofluids. Since, the intensity and resolution of the fluorophores depends on the Stokes shift, different opinion has been reflected by the researchers in fixing the Stokes shift. Also, not many studies have been reported on the characterization of biofluids and especially on the diagnosis of cancer. Urine is considered as an important diagnostic biofluid as it is rich in many metabolites where many of them are native fluorophores. In this study, we aimed at characterizing the urine of normal subjects and patients with cervical cancer as function of different Stokes shift. It is observed that Neopterin and Riboflavin are the main fluorophores contribute to the variation between normal and cervical cancer subjects. Ratio variables based linear discriminant analysis shows that the Stokes shift of 40 nm and 60 nm may be considered for better characterization with better signal to noise ratio when compared to others.

  3. Chromogenic medium for direct susceptibility testing of Candida spp. isolated from urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Antônio Alexandre; Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque; Cunha, Francisco Afrânio

    2011-08-01

    Currently, there has been an increased frequency of fungal infections. Candida albicans and other Candida spp. have been proven to be major causes for urinary tract infection. Increased resistance to antifungals indicates the need to develop strategies in order to prevent the spread of resistance. Chromogenic medium have been proven to be useful in the detection of yeasts in clinical specimens containing mixed cultures of Candida. The aim of this study was to compare the results of antifungal susceptibility testing with fluconazole and amphotericin B on strains of Candida spp. isolated from urine, conducted on a Mueller-Hinton Agar with Glucose and Methylene Blue (MHAGMB) medium and on a Hicrome Candida® Agar with 2% Glucose (HCAG) medium. We used 40 samples of Candida spp. isolated from urine samples from inpatients and outpatients. The results showed that both media presented high rates of agreement, above 94%. The use of the HCAG medium decreases the release time of the results by 24-48 h, which may be decisive for initiating the correct drug treatment.

  4. Estratégias de enfrentamento da incontinência urinária por mulheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Altino Delarmelindo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma pesquisa qualitativa mais abrangente que utilizou como referencial teórico-metodológico a Grounded Theory e o Interacionismo Simbólico, resultando no modelo teórico denominado Entre o sofrimento e a esperança: a reabilitação da incontinência urinária como componente interveniente. Com a intenção de comunicar todo o conhecimento produzido, apresenta-se parte desse modelo, referente ao processo de enfrentamento da incontinência urinária por mulheres sem perspectivas de acesso ao tratamento cirúrgico, após falha dos procedimentos conservadores. Ao inter-relacionar os componentes (categorias e subcategorias relativos à experiência dessas mulheres, buscando compará-los e analisá-los para compreender a interação entre eles, notou-se vulnerabilidade moral e psicossocial no movimento da experiência do grupo, suscetibilizando-o a riscos à saúde e ao comprometimento da qualidade de vida. Pesquisas são necessárias para aprofundar a compreensão de experiências em que haja barreira ao tratamento cirúrgico por descrédito do profissional médico sobre sua efetividade.

  5. Uranium isotopes determination in urine samples using alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Maihara, Vera A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tine, Fernanda D.; Santos, Sandra M.C.; Bonifacio, Rodrigo L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2015-07-01

    The action of determining the concentration of uranium isotopes in biological samples, 'in vitro' bioassay, is an indirect method for evaluating the incorporation and quantification of these radionuclides internally deposited. When incorporated, these radionuclides tend to be disposed through excretion, with urine being the main source of data because it can be easily collected and analyzed. The most widely used methods for determination of uranium isotopes ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U) are Alpha Spectrometry and ICP-MS. This work presents a comparative study for the determination of uranium isotopes using these two methodologies in real samples from occupationally exposed workers. In order to validate the methodology, a sample of the intercomparison exercise organized by PROCORAD (Association pour la Promotion du Controle de Qualite des Analyses de Biologie Medicale em Radiotoxicologie) was used, and the results were statistically compared applying the Student's t-test. (author)

  6. Hollow fibre-supported liquid membrane extraction and LC-MS/MS detection for the analysis of heterocyclic amines in urine samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busquets, R.; Jonsson, J. A.; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    2009-01-01

    -1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine being detected from 2 pg/g urine, levels comparable with a normal exposure. Good reproducibility and repeat-ability was obtained for 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, below 9% using isotopic...

  7. First attempt to monitor luteinizing hormone and reproductive steroids in urine samples of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; Graham, Laura H; da Silva, Vera M F; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to validate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine samples of Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis; Mammalia: Sirenia) and to monitor urinary LH and reproductive steroids during the ovarian cycle in this species. Urine samples were collected from two captive males following a hormonal challenge with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. The urinary LH results from hormonal challenge were compared with urinary androgens for the purpose of EIA validation. Furthermore, urine samples were collected daily, over a 12-wk period, from two captive adult females, for 2 consecutive yr. The urinary LH pattern from females was compared with the patterns of urinary progestagens and estrogen conjugates throughout the ovarian cycle. An LH peak was observed in both male Amazonian manatees after the hormonal challenge, occurring prior to or together with peak androgen levels. In the females, the ovarian cycle ranged from 40 to 48 days (mean of 43.7 days). Two distinct peaks of estrogen conjugates were observed across all cycles analyzed, and the urinary LH peaks observed were accompanied by peaks of urinary estrogen conjugates. The EIA was validated as a method for the quantification of urinary LH from Amazonian manatees, as it was able to detect variations in the levels of LH in urine samples. These results suggest that T. inunguis exhibits a peculiar hormonal pattern during the ovarian cycle. Therefore, further studies are desirable and necessary to clarify the relationship between this hormonal pattern and morphological changes, as well as mating behavior, in Amazonian manatee. PMID:25632672

  8. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins and mi

  9. An evaluation of an organically bound tritium measurement method in artificial and natural urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate measurement of tritium in urine in the form of tritiated water (HTO) as well as in organic forms (organically bound tritium (OBT)) is an essential step in assessing tritium exposures correctly. Exchange between HTO and OBT, arising intrinsically in the separation of HTO from urine samples, is a source of error in determining the concentration of OBT using the low-temperature distillation (LTD) bioassay method. The accuracy and precision of OBT measurements using the LTD method was investigated using spiked natural and artificial urine samples. The relative bias for most of the measurements was less than 25%. The choice of testing matrix, artificial urine versus human urine, made little difference: the precisions for each urine type were similar. The appropriateness of the use of artificial urine for testing purposes was judged using a ratio of performance indices. Based on this evaluation, the artificial urine is a suitable test matrix for intercomparisons of OBT in urine measurements. It is further concluded that the LTD method is reliable for measuring OBT in urine samples. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs

  10. Investigating the recheck rules for urine analysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y M; Yao, S W; Huang, Y J; Liang, B S; Liu, H Y

    2016-04-25

    The aim of this study was to establish recheck rules of urinalysis in children by investigating the concordance rate of the results obtained using the LabUMat urine dry chemistry analyzer (referred to as dry chemistry) and the UriSed tangible composition analyzer with that of the microscopic examination. First, 1040 urine samples from children (mean age 6.5 years) were analyzed using LabUMat and UriSed analyzers, and subsequently subjected to microscopic examination. The missed detection rate was evaluated and recheck rules were established to avoid missed diagnoses of abnormal renal function. Finally, clinical validations of the recheck rules were performed on 200 additional specimens. Among the samples used to investigate the recheck rules, the samples with positive microscopic examination results accounted for 58.65% of the total, while the samples with negative results accounted for 41.35%. Of the positive samples, a major portion (>50%) were RBC positive. The samples that were WBC positive and CAST positive accounted for 23.08 and 7.69%, respectively. The concordance rate was 87.5% and the missed detection rate was 2.9%. For the validation of the recheck rules in 200 urine samples, the concordance rate was 87.5% and the missed detection rate was 2.4%. When the detection of occult blood, WBC, and protein by dry chemistry, and the detection of RBC, WBC, and CAST by the UriSed analyzer are inconsistent, or the differences between them greater than 2 levels, recheck by microscopic examination is suggested.

  11. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in the urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~5 min per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5-10 μg mL(-1) (which is more than 3 times lower than the clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23995895

  12. Incontinence of urine of sphincteric origin in the female child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueziere, J

    1976-01-01

    Urine incontinence of sphincteric origin in the little girl can have several origins: epispadias, hypospadias, bilateral single ectopic ureters, isolated sphincteric agenesis, iatrogenic lesion of the sphincter, complications of ureterocele. Creation of a new urethra alone, whatever the technique used, seldom restores continence. In addition, the proximal urethra is supported by means of an aponeurotic flap, the results improve considerably: in this series, 6 good results out of 7. In surgical correction of epispadias in girls, the author recommends combining the technique described by Islam and supporting the bladder neck by the Goebbel Stoeckel's technique. PMID:800988

  13. Role of the brain in the regulation process of urination

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Berdichevskiy; A. A. Sufianov; V. G. Yelishev; D. A. Barashin

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of positron emission tomography of the brain with glucose isotope 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in healthy men and women during the period of accumulation and emptying of the bladder revealed no gender-specific brain activity. The men and women during the accumulation and storage of urine occurs at a standard activity of the brain with the dominance of the left hemisphere. Zone hyperactivity of the brain during this period is the region of the back of the cingulate gyrus.During urinatio...

  14. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA FROM URINE SAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad A. Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital environment is the major cause of variousinfections including cut and burn wounds. Urine Samples are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma, exposing the immunosuppressed patients to early and serious infections. Faster detection of the causative Microbes and institution of proper therapy would help greatly in preventing septic complications. Recent advances in the field of Molecular Biology, including the amplification of genetic material by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technologies have led to faster and more reliable microbial detection methods. Results would help in early detection of causative organisms and treatment regimes in patients with burn wounds.

  15. EFECTS OF PILATES ON LOW BACK PAIN AND URINE CATECHOLAMINE

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMED AMIN ZEADA

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose. The popularity of the Pilates method created by Joseph H. Pilates in the early 1920s has increased worldwide in the last decade, confirming the fact that Pilates is much more than a fitness fad. According to a survey conducted by American Sports Data Inc, more than 10.5 million Americans participated in a Pilate's class in 2004. The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of Pilate's protocol in decreasing of low back pain and urine catecholamine levels. Methods. T...

  16. The measurement of natural uranium in urine by fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fluorometric method of measuring natural uranium in urine that is currently used by the Bioassay Laboratory at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories has been tested, optimized and documented. The method, which measures the fluorescence of uranium in a fused sodium fluoride pellet, has been shown to be quench independent and is routinely used to measure uranium concentrations in the range of 1 μg/L to 90 μg/L. The fluorimeter has a dynamic range of 0.2 μg/L to 200 μg/L

  17. Effects of organohalogen pollutants on haematological and urine clinical-chemical parameters in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja;

    2008-01-01

    and urine clinical-chemical parameters were measured and compared between the bitches and pups form the control and exposed cohorts. Based on existing reference intervals, Arctic mammals may have blood clinical-chemical endpoint levels that differ from comparable species at lower latitudes. The cortisol......:05) in the control group, while glucose was signi.cantly highest (ANCOVA: po0:05) in the exposed group. Furthermore, the blood cholesterol levels indicate that exposure via the diet to marine mammal blubber has a preventive effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases. We therefore suggest...

  18. Paralytic shellfish toxins in clinical matrices: Extension of AOAC official method 2005.06 to human urine and serum and application to a 2007 case study in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Rivera, Victor; Roach, John; White, Kevin; Callahan, John; Couture, Darcie; Simone, Karen; Peredy, Tamas; Poli, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a potentially fatal foodborne illness, is often diagnosed anecdotally based on symptoms and dietary history. The neurotoxins responsible for PSP, collectively referred to as the saxitoxins or paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are natural toxins, produced by certain dinoflagellates, that may accumulate in seafood, particularly filter-feeding bivalves. Illnesses are rare because of effective monitoring programs, yet occasional poisonings occur. Rarely are contaminated food and human clinical samples (e.g., urine and serum) available for testing. There are currently few methods, none of which are validated, for determining PSTs in clinical matrices. This study evaluated AOAC (Association of Analytical Communities) Official Method of Analysis (OMA) 2005.06. [AOAC Official Method 2005.06 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish: Prechormatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International ], validated only for shellfish extracts, for its extension to human urine and serum samples. Initial assessment of control urine and serum matrices resulted in a sample cleanup modification when working with urine to remove hippuric acid, a natural urinary compound of environmental/dietary origin, which co-eluted with saxitoxin. Commercially available urine and serum matrices were then quantitatively spiked with PSTs that were available as certified reference materials (STX, dcSTX, B1, GTX2/3, C1/2, NEO, and GTX1/4) to assess method performance characteristics. The method was subsequently applied successfully to a PSP case study that occurred in July 2007 in Maine. Not only were PSTs identified in the patient urine and serum samples, the measured time series also led to the first report of human PST-specific urinary elimination rates. The LC-FD data generated from this case study compared remarkably well to results obtained using AOAC OMA 2011.27 [AOAC Official

  19. Identification of O-glycosylated Proteins That Are Aberrantly Excreted in the Urine of Patients with Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adawiyah Suriza Shuib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is known to induce or alter the O-glycosylation of selective proteins that may eventually be excreted in the patients’ urine. The present study was performed to identify O-glycosylated proteins that are aberrantly excreted in the urine of patients with early stage ovarian cancer (OCa. These urinary glycoproteins are potential biomarkers for early detection of OCa. In this study, urinary proteins of patients with early stage OCa and age-matched OCa negative women were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and detection using a lectin that binds to the O-glycosylated proteins. Our analysis demonstrated significant enhanced expression of clusterin and leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein, but lower levels of kininogen in the urine of the OCa patients compared to the controls. The different altered levels of these urinary glycoproteins were further confirmed using competitive ELISA. Our data are suggestive of the potential use of the aberrantly excreted urinary O-glycosylated proteins as biomarkers for the early detection of OCa, although this requires further validation in a large clinically representative population.

  20. Safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing human serum albumin from urine metabonomics and fecal bacterial profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaozhe; Chen, Siyuan; Sheng, Yao; Guo, Mingzhang; Liu, Yifei; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2015-02-01

    The genetically modified (GM) rice expressing human serum albumin (HSA) is used for non-food purposes; however, its food safety assessment should be conducted due to the probability of accidental mixture with conventional food. In this research, Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets containing 50% (wt/wt) GM rice expressing HSA or non-GM rice for 90 days. Urine metabolites were detected by (1)H NMR to examine the changes of the metabolites in the dynamic process of metabolism. Fecal bacterial profiles were detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to reflect intestinal health. Additionally, short chain fatty acids and fecal enzymes were investigated. The results showed that compared with rats fed the non-GM rice, some significant differences were observed in rats fed with the GM rice; however, these changes were not significantly different from the control diet group. Additionally, the gut microbiota was associated with blood indexes and urine metabolites. In conclusion, the GM rice diet is as safe as the traditional daily diet. Furthermore, urine metabonomics and fecal bacterial profiles provide a non-invasive food safety assessment rat model for genetically modified crops that are used for non-food/feed purposes. Fecal bacterial profiles have the potential for predicting the change of blood indexes in future.

  1. Evaluation of the Iodine Concentration in Serum and Urine of Hypothyroid Males Using an Inexpensive and Rapid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas Kandhro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the iodine/iodide status in biological samples (serum and urine of 172 male hypothyroid patients (HPs and their supplemental effects on thyroid hormones. For comparison purpose, non-goitrous subjects (n= 220 of same age group and socioeconomic status were also studied. A simple and rapid iodide-ion selective electrode (ISE was used to measure the concentration of iodine in microwave assisted acid digested serum and urine samples. Quality control for the methodology was established with certified samples and with those obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference materials (CRMs and real samples. A linear calibration curve was obtained for a reasonable concentration range of the potassium iodide solutions. The mean concentration of iodine in the serum and urine samples of the HPs was significantly reduced as compared to control male subjects (p< 0.01. The low levels of free triiodothyronine and thyroxin were found in HPs than age matched healthy control (p< 0.005 and 0.002 respectively while high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone were observed in HPs (p< 0.008. The proposed method was relatively efficient as well as cost effective by using inexpensive equipment. It was observed that iodine in biological samples of HPs can play an important role in determining the severity of the hypothyroidism.

  2. Safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing human serum albumin from urine metabonomics and fecal bacterial profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaozhe; Chen, Siyuan; Sheng, Yao; Guo, Mingzhang; Liu, Yifei; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2015-02-01

    The genetically modified (GM) rice expressing human serum albumin (HSA) is used for non-food purposes; however, its food safety assessment should be conducted due to the probability of accidental mixture with conventional food. In this research, Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets containing 50% (wt/wt) GM rice expressing HSA or non-GM rice for 90 days. Urine metabolites were detected by (1)H NMR to examine the changes of the metabolites in the dynamic process of metabolism. Fecal bacterial profiles were detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to reflect intestinal health. Additionally, short chain fatty acids and fecal enzymes were investigated. The results showed that compared with rats fed the non-GM rice, some significant differences were observed in rats fed with the GM rice; however, these changes were not significantly different from the control diet group. Additionally, the gut microbiota was associated with blood indexes and urine metabolites. In conclusion, the GM rice diet is as safe as the traditional daily diet. Furthermore, urine metabonomics and fecal bacterial profiles provide a non-invasive food safety assessment rat model for genetically modified crops that are used for non-food/feed purposes. Fecal bacterial profiles have the potential for predicting the change of blood indexes in future. PMID:25478734

  3. Determination of uranium in urine samples of fuel element fabrication workers by beta-delayed neutron counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabelmann, H.; Lerch, M.; Kratz, K.-L.; Rudolph, W.

    1984-06-01

    Within the health physics examination of fuel element fabrication workers, the control of uranium incorporation is of importance. This is commonly performed by the determination of the alpha activity concentration of uranium excreted in the urine. However, since the chemical separation procedure and the preparation of alpha-counting samples are complicated and time-consuming, this method may imply restrictions on the routine control of large numbers of persons. Therefore, we have investigated the applicability of measuring the beta-delayed neutrons from thermal neutron induced fission of the 235U in the urine samples. The uranium was separated by coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 from the urine samples and irradiated in a rabbit system of the Mainz TRIGA reactor. The neutrons were counted with a 3He long counter. The detection limit of 0.3 to 0.9 pCi 1 -1 is comparable to that of alpha spectrometry, but the time required for one sample, from preparation to data evaluation is less than 25 min.

  4. High-precision measurement of variations in calcium isotope ratios in urine by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J.L.L.; Gordon, G.W.; Arrua, R.C.; Skulan, J.L.; Anbar, A.D.; Bullen, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new chemical separation method to isolate Ca from other matrix elements in biological samples, developed with the long-term goal of making high-precision measurement of natural stable Ca isotope variations a clinically applicable tool to assess bone mineral balance. A new two-column procedure utilizing HBr achieves the purity required to accurately and precisely measure two Ca isotope ratios (44Ca/42Ca and 44Ca/43Ca) on a Neptune multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) in urine. Purification requirements for Sr, Ti, and K (Ca/Sr > 10000; Ca/Ti > 10000000; and Ca/K > 10) were determined by addition of these elements to Ca standards of known isotopic composition. Accuracy was determined by (1) comparing Ca isotope results for samples and standards to published data obtained using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), (2) adding a Ca standard of known isotopic composition to a urine sample purified of Ca, and (3) analyzing mixtures of urine samples and standards in varying proportions. The accuracy and precision of δ44/42Ca measurements of purified samples containing 25 μg of Ca can be determined with typical errors less than ±0.2‰ (2σ).

  5. Effects of accumulated 60Co γ-ray irradiation on the small molecular metabolites in rats urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the effects of accumulated 60Co γ-ray irradiation on small molecular metabolites in rats urine. Methods: Ten healthy male SD rats were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays in 5 days and the accumulated doses were 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 Gy, respectively. The metabolites in urine of different groups were measured with 1H-NMR combined with principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminate analysis (PLS-DA). Results: The metabolites in rat urine were obviously changed after irradiation. Compared with control group, the amount of acetoacetate decreased after irradiation (t=29.7-30.7, P<0.05), but its relative level was stable when the dose increased (P>0.05). Meanwhile,the relative level of hippuric acid increased (t=4.4-21.6, P<0.05) especially when the accumulated dose was higher than 1 Gy (t=21.6, P<0.05). The relative level of proline, taurine and trimethylamine-N-oxide increased after irradiation with the same trend(t=3.5-13.4, 4.7-11.5, 2.9-12.7, P<0.05). Conclusions: The acetoacetate, hippuric acid, proline, taurine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide may be applicable for biomarkers of accumulative irradiation on rat. (authors)

  6. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina F. Domingues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR children, aged 5–12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054. Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones.

  7. Attenuation of Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity by Cow Urine Distillate in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M PGURURAJA; A B JOSHI; HIMANSHU JOSHI; D SATHYANARAYANA; E V S SUBRAHMANYAM; K S CHANDRASHEKHAR

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatoprotective activity in cow urine. Methods Effect of cow urine distillate on liver function was studied in vivo in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Hepatotoxicity was induced by a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of CCl4 in olive oil (5 mL/kg i.p). Protective effect of cow urine distillate (in three dose levels) and standard drug Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o) on liver function were studied in intoxicated rats. Parameters in the study included liver function tests and histological observations. Results The cow urine distillate decreased the levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, and total bilirubin in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05) as sylimarin. Conclusion The observed protective effects of cow urine distillate on liver function might be due to the presence of antioxidants in cow urine.

  8. Evaluation of the in vitro growth of urinary tract infection-causing gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in a proposed synthetic human urine (SHU) medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Deepak S; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-08-01

    Bacteriuria is a hallmark of urinary tract infection (UTI) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which are among the most frequent infections in humans. A variety of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are associated with these infections but Escherichia coli contributes up to 80% of cases. Multiple bacterial species including E. coli can grow in human urine as a means to maintain colonization during infections. In vitro bacteriuria studies aimed at modeling microbial growth in urine have utilized various compositions of synthetic human urine (SHU) and a Composite SHU formulation was recently proposed. In this study, we sought to validate the recently proposed Composite SHU as a medium that supports the growth of several bacterial species that are known to grow in normal human urine and/or artificial urine. Comparative growth assays of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus faecalis were undertaken using viable bacterial count and optical density measurements over a 48h culture period. Three different SHU formulations were tested in various culture vessels, shaking conditions and volumes and showed that Composite SHU can support the robust growth of gram-negative bacteria but requires supplementation with 0.2% yeast extract to support the growth of gram-positive bacteria. Experiments are also presented that show an unexpected but major influence of P. mirabilis towards the ability to measure bacterial growth in generally accepted multiwell assays using absorbance readings, predicted to have a basis in the release of volatile organic compound(s) from P. mirabilis during growth in Composite SHU medium. This study represents an essential methodological validation of a more chemically defined type of synthetic urine that can be applied to study mechanisms of bacteriuria and we conclude will offer a useful in vitro model to investigate the

  9. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-02-05

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy.

  10. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host–microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1–V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  11. Evaluation of the in vitro growth of urinary tract infection-causing gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in a proposed synthetic human urine (SHU) medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Deepak S; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-08-01

    Bacteriuria is a hallmark of urinary tract infection (UTI) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which are among the most frequent infections in humans. A variety of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are associated with these infections but Escherichia coli contributes up to 80% of cases. Multiple bacterial species including E. coli can grow in human urine as a means to maintain colonization during infections. In vitro bacteriuria studies aimed at modeling microbial growth in urine have utilized various compositions of synthetic human urine (SHU) and a Composite SHU formulation was recently proposed. In this study, we sought to validate the recently proposed Composite SHU as a medium that supports the growth of several bacterial species that are known to grow in normal human urine and/or artificial urine. Comparative growth assays of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus faecalis were undertaken using viable bacterial count and optical density measurements over a 48h culture period. Three different SHU formulations were tested in various culture vessels, shaking conditions and volumes and showed that Composite SHU can support the robust growth of gram-negative bacteria but requires supplementation with 0.2% yeast extract to support the growth of gram-positive bacteria. Experiments are also presented that show an unexpected but major influence of P. mirabilis towards the ability to measure bacterial growth in generally accepted multiwell assays using absorbance readings, predicted to have a basis in the release of volatile organic compound(s) from P. mirabilis during growth in Composite SHU medium. This study represents an essential methodological validation of a more chemically defined type of synthetic urine that can be applied to study mechanisms of bacteriuria and we conclude will offer a useful in vitro model to investigate the

  12. MicroRNA-224 is Readily Detectable in Urine of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus and is a Potential Indicator of Beta-Cell Demise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhán Bacon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA are a class of non-coding, 19–25 nucleotide RNA critical for network-level regulation of gene expression. miRNA serve as paracrine signaling molecules. Using an unbiased array approach, we previously identified elevated levels of miR-224 and miR-103 to be associated with a monogenic form of diabetes; HNF1A-MODY. miR-224 is a novel miRNA in the field of diabetes. We sought to explore the role of miR-224 as a potential biomarker in diabetes, and whether such diabetes-associated-miRNA can also be detected in the urine of patients. Absolute levels of miR-224 and miR-103 were determined in the urine of n = 144 individuals including carriers of a HNF1A mutation, participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and normal controls. Expression levels were correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters. miR-224 was significantly elevated in the urine of carriers of a HNF1A mutation and participants with T1DM. miR-103 was highly expressed in urine across all diabetes cohorts when compared to controls. For both miR-224 and-103, we found a significant correlation between serum and urine levels (p < 0.01. We demonstrate that miRNA can be readily detected in the urine independent of clinical indices of renal dysfunction. We surmise that the differential expression levels of miR-224 in both HNF1A-MODY mutation carriers and T1DM may be an attempt to compensate for beta-cell demise.

  13. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  14. Health effects and arsenic species in urine of copper smelter workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halatek, Tadeusz; Sinczuk-Walczak, Halina; Janasik, Beata; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Winnicka, Renata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare indices of exposure in workers employed at different work posts in a copper smelter plant using neurophysiological tests and to evaluate the relationship between urinary arsenic species with the aid of sensitive respiratory and renal biomarkers. We have attempted to elucidate the impact of different arsenic speciation forms on the observed health effects. We focused on the workers (n = 45) exposed to atmospheres containing specific diverse mixtures of metals (such as those occurring in Departments of Furnaces, Lead and Electrolysis) compared to controls (n = 16). Subjective symptoms from the central (CNS) and the peripheral (PNS) nervous system were recorded and visual evoked potential (VEP), electroneurography (ENeG) and electroencephalography (EEG) curves were analysed. Levels of airborne lead (PbA), zinc (ZnA) and copper (CuA) and Pb levels in blood (PbB) and the relationships between airborne As concentrations (AsA) and the urinary levels of the inorganic (iAs); As(+3), As(+5) and the organic; methylarsonate (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinate (DMA(V)) and arsenobetaine (AsB) arsenic species were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Effects of exposure were expressed in terms of biomarker levels: Clara cell protein (CC16) in serum as early pulmonary biomarker and β2-microglobulin (β2M) in urine and serum, retinol binding protein (RBP) as renal markers, measured by sensitive latex-immunoassay (LIA). Abnormal results of neurophysiological tests, VEP, EEG and ENeG showed dominant subclinical effects in CNS and PNS of workers from Departments of Lead and Furnace. In group of smelters from Departments of Furnace exposed to arsenic above current TLV, excreted arsenic species As(+3) and As(+5) seemed to reduce the level of Clara cell protein (CC16), thereby reducing anti-inflammatory potential of the lungs and increasing the levels of renal biomarker (β2M) and copper in urine (CuU). The study confirmed

  15. Urine sampling techniques in symptomatic primary-care patients: a diagnostic accuracy review

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Anne; Aabenhus, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Background Choice of urine sampling technique in urinary tract infection may impact diagnostic accuracy and thus lead to possible over- or undertreatment. Currently no evidencebased consensus exists regarding correct sampling technique of urine from women with symptoms of urinary tract infection in primary care. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of urine culture from different sampling-techniques in symptomatic non-pregnant women in primary care. Methods A systematic review ...

  16. Perceptions of Farmers against Liquid Fertilizer Benefits of Beef Cattle Urine

    OpenAIRE

    Sirajuddin, sitti nurani; kasim, kasim; moh saleh, ikrar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the perception of livestock farmers on the use of liquid organic fertilizer from urine of cattle at Sinjai Regency, South Sulawesi Province. The choice of location for a farmer group manufactures and markets liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine. This research was conducted in May to July 2013.The population were all livestock farmers who use organic liquid fertilizer from cattle urine samples while livestock farmers who are directly involved in the ma...

  17. Technique for the collection of clear urine from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk G. Booyse; Fritz W. Huchzermeyer; Soley, John T; Herman B. Groenewald; Lizette C. Bekker; Jan G. Myburgh; Taisen Iguchi; Louis J. Guillette, Jr

    2012-01-01

    Urine samples can be a very useful diagnostic tool for the evaluation of animal health. In this article, a simple technique to collect urine from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) was described, based on a similar unpublished technique developed for the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) using a canine urinary catheter. With this technique, it was possible to collect relatively clean urine samples from Nile crocodiles of different sizes using canine urinary catheters or s...

  18. Cause-specific mortality according to urine albumin creatinine ratio in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine albumin creatinine ratio, UACR, is positively associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in observational studies. Whether a high UACR is also associated with other causes of death is unclear. We investigated the association between UACR and cause......-cause mortality, endocrine nutritional and metabolic diseases, mental and behavioural disorders, diseases of the circulatory system, and diseases of the respiratory system with hazard ratios 1.56, 6.98, 2.34, 2.03, and 1.91, for the fourth UACR compared with the first, respectively. Using UACR as a continuous...... variable, we also found a statistically significant positive association with risk of death caused by diseases of the digestive system with a hazard ratio of 1.02 per 10 mg/g higher UACR. CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant positive associations between baseline UACR and death from all...

  19. Measurements of purine derivatives and creatinine in spot urine samples of Chinese yellow cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted using 18 Chinese Yellow Cattle located in 5 farms to study how supplementation of fermentable energy to low quality straw-based rations would improve rumen microbial protein synthesis. Within each farm, the animals were fed on five diets. Diets 1-2 were typical rice straw + by-products used by farmers and were low in fermentable energy content; Diets 3- 5 were more balanced, containing a higher content of fermentable energy. Purine derivatives (PD) and creatinine in spot urine samples were measured. The results showed that the PD to creatinine ratio was significantly higher with Diets 3-5 than with Diets 1-2. Organic matter digestibility and thus organic matter intake was also higher with Diets 3-5 compared to Diets 1-2. The results indicted that the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis could be improved by balancing the diet. (author)

  20. Effect of Curcumin Against Proteus mirabilis During Crystallization of Struvite from Artificial Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Prywer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the activity of curcumin against Proteus mirabilis and the struvite crystallization in relation to urinary stones formation. In order to evaluate an activity of curcumin we performed an in vitro experiment of struvite growth from artificial urine. The crystallization process was induced by Proteus mirabilis to mimic the real urinary tract infection, which usually leads to urinary stone formation. The results demonstrate that curcumin exhibits the effect against Proteus mirabilis inhibiting the activity of urease—an enzyme produced by these microorganisms. Addition of curcumin increases the induction time and decreases the efficiency of growth of struvite compared with the absence of curcumin. Interestingly, the addition of curcumin does not affect the crystal morphology and habit. In conclusion, curcumin has demonstrated its significant potential to be further investigated for its use in the case of struvite crystallization induced for the growth by Proteus mirabilis in relation to urinary stone formation.

  1. The human urine virome in association with urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While once believed to represent a sterile environment, the human urinary tract harbors a unique cellular microbiota. We sought to determine whether the human urinary tract also is home to viral communities whose membership might reflect urinary tract health status. We recruited and sampled urine from 20 subjects, 10 subjects with urinary tract infections (UTIs and 10 without UTIs, and found viral communities in the urine of each subject group. Most of the identifiable viruses were bacteriophage, but eukaryotic viruses also were identified in all subjects. We found reads from human papillomaviruses (HPVs in 95% of the subjects studied, but none were found to be high-risk genotypes that are associated with cervical and rectal cancers. We verified the presence of some HPV genotypes by quantitative PCR. Some of the HPV genotypes identified were homologous to relatively novel and uncharacterized viruses that previously have been detected on skin in association with cancerous lesions, while others may be associated with anal and genital warts. On a community level, there was no association between the membership or diversity of viral communities based on urinary tract health status. While more data are still needed, detection of HPVs as members of the human urinary virome using viral metagenomics represents a non-invasive technique that could augment current screening techniques to detect low-risk HPVs in the genitourinary tracts of humans.

  2. Optimization of screening for radioactivity in urine by liquid scintillation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Reese, Robert P.; Preston, Rose T. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-08-01

    Numerous events have or could have resulted in the inadvertent uptake of radionuclides by fairly large populations. Should a population receive an uptake, valuable information could be obtained by using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) techniques to quickly screen urine from a sample of the affected population. This study investigates such LSC parameters as discrimination, quench, volume, and count time to yield guidelines for analyzing urine in an emergency situation. Through analyzing variations of the volume and their relationships to the minimum detectable activity (MDA), the optimum ratio of sample size to scintillating chemical cocktail was found to be 1:3. Using this optimum volume size, the alpha MDA varied from 2100 pCi/L for a 30-second count time to 35 pCi/L for a 1000-minute count time. The typical count time used by the Sandia National Laboratories Radiation Protection Sample Diagnostics program is 30 minutes, which yields an alpha MDA of 200 pCi/L. Because MDA is inversely proportional to the square root of the count time, count time can be reduced in an emergency situation to achieve the desired MDA or response time. Note that approximately 25% of the response time is used to prepare the samples and complete the associated paperwork. It was also found that if the nuclide of interest is an unknown, pregenerated discriminator settings and efficiency calibrations can be used to produce an activity value within a factor of two, which is acceptable for a screening method.

  3. Role of the brain in the regulation process of urination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Berdichevskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of positron emission tomography of the brain with glucose isotope 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in healthy men and women during the period of accumulation and emptying of the bladder revealed no gender-specific brain activity. The men and women during the accumulation and storage of urine occurs at a standard activity of the brain with the dominance of the left hemisphere. Zone hyperactivity of the brain during this period is the region of the back of the cingulate gyrus.During urination in both men and women have the increased activity of the cortex of the brain. Preserved the dominance of the left hemisphere. Hyperactivity zone of the brain during this period is the region of the anterior cingulate gyrus.Thus, the cortical control of the act of accumulation and bladder emptying in healthy people in our studies did not reveal gender differences. However, security features neurohumoral response of spinal centers and peripheral neuroregulation function of the lower urinary tract, may have a man and a woman significant differences.

  4. Metabonomic responses in rat urine following subacute exposure to propoxur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Hui-Ping; Yang, Lin; Li, Wei; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2012-06-01

    Metabolic profiling of urine from pesticide-treated rats was investigated by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic strategy. Twenty-four-hour urine samples of rats were collected after administration with propoxur at doses of 0.85, 1.70, and 8.51 mg/kg, respectively, for 28 consecutive days. Liver tissue was fixed and the histopathological alterations were examined. The results showed that propoxur at high dose induced liver histopathological injury. Metabonomic analysis demonstrated that the levels of creatine and taurine markedly increased together with slight elevation of hippurate, glucose, and amino acids in low- and medium-dose groups. However, concentrations of urinary lactate, acetate, acetone, succinate, citrate, and 2-oxoglutarate increased in high-dose group. All these results suggested that propoxur could inhibit liver function through altering the energy and lipid metabolism. These data also supported the contention that the NMR-based metabonomic approach represents a promising new technology for the development of pesticide toxicity screening and mechanism exploration.

  5. Prenatal lignan exposures, pregnancy urine estrogen profiles and birth outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During pregnancy, human exposure to endogenous estrogens and xenoestrogens (such as lignans) may comprehensively impact the gestational maintenance and fetal growth. We measured the concentrations of 5 lignans and the profile of 13 estrogen metabolites (EMs) in the urine samples of 328 pregnant women and examined their associations with birth outcomes. We found significantly positive associations between gestational age and urinary matairesinol (MAT), enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), as well as 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs. There were consistently positive relationships between END and the 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs. The positive relationships of MAT, END and ENL exposures with the length of gestation were mainly in the low exposure strata of the levels of these EMs. This study reveals that MAT, END and ENL as well as 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs are associated with birth outcomes, and that there are interactive relationships between lignans and 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs with birth outcomes. - Highlights: • We examined relations between prenatal lignan exposures and birth outcomes. • We examined relations between pregnancy urine estrogen profiles and birth outcomes. • MAT, END and ENL are associated with birth outcomes. • 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs are associated with birth outcomes. • There are interactive relationships between ligans and EMs with birth outcomes. - Prenatal lignan exposures and EM levels were interactively related to birth outcomes

  6. Urine Telomerase for Diagnosis and Surveillance of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lamarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer has increased incidence during last decades. For those patients with nonmuscle involved tumors, noninvasive diagnosis test and surveillance methods must be designed to avoid current cystoscopies that nowadays are done regularly in a lot of patients. Novel urine biomarkers have been developed during last years. Telomerase is important in cancer biology, improving the division capacity of cancer cells. Even urinary telomerase could be a potentially useful urinary tumor marker; its use for diagnosis of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients or its impact during surveillance is still unknown. Moreover, there will need to be uniformity and standardization in the assays before it can become useful in clinical practice. It does not seem to exist a real difference between the most classical assays for the detection of urine telomerase (TRAP and hTERT. However, the new detection methods with modified TeloTAGGG telomerase or with gold nanoparticles must also be taken into consideration for the correct development of this diagnosis method. Maybe the target population would be the high-risk groups within screening programs. To date there is no enough evidence to use it alone and to eliminate cystoscopies from the diagnosis and surveillance of these patients. The combination with cytology or FISH is still preferred.

  7. Candida colonization in intensive care unit patients' urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisto Sena Passos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify possible predisposing factors for candiduria in intensive care unit (ICU patients from Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil, during one year. Urine samples from 153 ICU patients were obtained by catheterization on admission day and every seven days. Data such as sex, age, antifungal therapy, and variables as antibiotics, underlying diseases or comorbid conditions and stay in the hospital, were collected from patients who had at least one urine culture that yielded > 10³ yeast colonies/ml. Candiduria was recovered in 68 patients and the commonest predisposing factors were antibiotic therapy (100% and indwelling urinary catheter (92.6%. The percentage of Candida spp. isolation increased during the extended periods in which patients remained in the ICU. C. albicans was isolated in 69.1%, and the other species non-albicans as C. glabrata, C. kefyr, C. parapsilosis, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis were isolated in lower percentage. The high frequency of candiduria and the possible predisposing factors found in ICU patients show that candiduria surveillance should be performed to help reducing nosocomial infections.

  8. Role of the brain in the regulation process of urination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Berdichevskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of positron emission tomography of the brain with glucose isotope 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in healthy men and women during the period of accumulation and emptying of the bladder revealed no gender-specific brain activity. The men and women during the accumulation and storage of urine occurs at a standard activity of the brain with the dominance of the left hemisphere. Zone hyperactivity of the brain during this period is the region of the back of the cingulate gyrus.During urination in both men and women have the increased activity of the cortex of the brain. Preserved the dominance of the left hemisphere. Hyperactivity zone of the brain during this period is the region of the anterior cingulate gyrus.Thus, the cortical control of the act of accumulation and bladder emptying in healthy people in our studies did not reveal gender differences. However, security features neurohumoral response of spinal centers and peripheral neuroregulation function of the lower urinary tract, may have a man and a woman significant differences.

  9. False positivity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase measurement in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellenti, Leandro Zuccolotto; Mesa, Javier Sousa; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Borin Crivellenti, Sofia; Mireya, Edna Gomes; Canola, Julio Carlos; Hatayde, Mário Roberto; Santana, Aureo Evangelista; Dantas, Márcio; Silva, Gyl Eanes Barros

    2014-05-01

    Although enzymuria tends to be associated to renal injury, there are no studies that have evaluated the presence of the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) spectrophotometry in the urine using a non-nephrotoxic agent (Nerium oleander) in order to evaluate the possibility of false positive results. The urinary GGT/urinary creatinine concentration ratio (uGGT/uCr) of 10 healthy dogs was calculated and posteriorly confronted with data from clinical evaluation, hematological and serum biochemical profiles, creatinine clearance (CrC), urinalysis, urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPC), electrocardiogram, systemic blood pressure (SBP) and light and electron microscopy. The results for kidney histology, SBP, UPC and CrC were not significantly different in any of the time-points analyzed. However, uGGT/uCr was significantly higher when measured 4 hours and 24 hours after administration of N. oleander. The measurement of the urinary GGT enzyme, as performed in many studies, yielded false positive results in dogs poisoned by a non-nephrotoxic agent.

  10. Lower intestinal modification of ureteral urine in hydrated house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, D L; Braun, E J

    1986-01-01

    The ureters of birds empty into the posterior portion of the lower intestine, thereby providing the possibility for modification of ureteral urine by this latter organ. We have used in vivo perfusion to measure the transport of Na+, K+, and water across the lower intestine (colon and coprodaeum) of anesthetized house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Na+ was reabsorbed from (Vmax = approximately 22 mu eq . cm-2 . h-1, Km = approximately 69 meq/l) and K+ was secreted (at variable rates) into all saline perfusion fluids. The osmotic permeability of the intestinal epithelium was 0.39 microliter . cm-2 . h-1 . mosM-1 in the mucosal-to-serosal direction and 0.43 microliter . cm-2 . h-1 . mosM-1 in the serosal-to-mucosal direction. At isosmotic perfusion, Na+-linked water transport occurred at a rate of 1.7 microliter/mu eq Na+. In hydrated house sparrows the composition of ureteral urine (osmolarity = 351 mosM, Na+ = 86.5 meq/l, K+ = 60.5 meq/l) was significantly modified by transport in the lower intestine (voided fluid osmolarity = 344 mosM, Na+ = 60 meq/l, K+ = 90 meq/l). Interspecific comparisons of lower intestinal resorptive surface area and transport parameters at the level of the tissue, organ, and whole animal reveal no consistent pattern of adaptation related to habitat. PMID:3942257

  11. Analytical performance of radiochemical method for americium determination in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analytical method developed and adapted for separation and analysis of Plutonium (Pu) isotopes and Americium (Am) in urine samples. The proposed method will attend the demand of internal exposure monitoring program for workers involved mainly with dismantling rods and radioactive smoke detectors. In this experimental procedure four steps are involved as preparation of samples, sequential radiochemical separation, preparation of the source for electroplating and quantification by alpha spectrometry. In the first stage of radiochemical separation, plutonium is conventionally isolated employing the anion exchange technique. Americium isolation is achieved sequentially by chromatographic extraction (Tru.spec column) from the load and rinse solutions coming from the anion exchange column. The 243Am tracer is added into the sample as chemical yield monitors and to correct the results improving the precision and accuracy. The mean recovery obtained is 60%, and the detection limit for 24h urine sample is 1.0 mBq L-1 in accordance with the literature. Based in the preliminary results, the method is appropriate to be used in monitoring programme of workers with a potential risk of internal contamination. (author)

  12. Characterization of tritium exposures by measuring tritiated metabolites in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based method was developed to look for the presence of characteristic urinary metabolites associated with different tritium-exposure situations. Non-volatile metabolites in urine were isolated by evaporating an aliquot of urine samples, at room temperature under nitrogen, from animals percutaneously exposed to tritiated thymidine, tritiated formaldehyde, tritium-gas-contaminated metal surfaces and tritiated pump oil. A total of 40 fractions were collected at 1 min intervals with a flow rate of 1 ml x min-1, and their tritium activities were measured. The activity profile of tritium showed that the ratios of non-volatile tritiated metabolites in fraction I (0-20 min) to fraction II (20-40 min) were noticeably different among the animals exposed to tritiated thymidine (77.2±4.5), tritiated formaldehyde (40.9±3.3), tritium-gas-contaminated metal surfaces (16.5±2.5), or tritiated pump oil (8.7±0.4) 24 h post-exposure. Our results suggest that, if the nature of a tritium exposure is unknown, comparison of the ratio of fraction I to fraction II in non-volatile tritiated metabolites may be useful in characterizing the source and the nature of tritium exposure. (author)

  13. What Can a Urine Drug Screening Immunoassay Really Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Zachary J; Stellpflug, Samuel J; Engebretsen, Kristin M

    2016-10-01

    Urine drug screening has become standard of care in many medical practice settings to assess compliance, detect misuse, and/or to provide basis for medical or legal action. The antibody-based enzymatic immunoassays used for qualitative analysis of urine have significant drawbacks that clinicians are often not aware of. Recent literature suggests that there is a lack of understanding of the shortcomings of these assays by clinicians who are ordering and/or interpreting them. This article addresses the state of each of the individual immunoassays that are most commonly used today in order to help the reader become proficient in the interpretation and application of the results. Some literature already exists regarding sources of "false positives" and "false negatives," but none seem to present the material with the practicing clinician in mind. This review aims to avoid overwhelming the reader with structures and analytical chemistry. The reader will be presented relevant clinical knowledge that will facilitate appropriate interpretation of immunoassays regardless of practice settings. Using this review as a learning tool and a reference, clinicians will be able to interpret the results of commonly used immunoassays in an evidence-based, informed manner and minimize the negative impact that misinterpretation has on patient care.

  14. AUTOMATIC TURBIDIMETRY IN DETECTING PROTEIN IN URINE AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建荣; 李闻捷; 徐德安

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and validate the performance of automatic turbidimetry in detecting protein in urine and cerebrospinal fluid.Methods The detection limits, reportable range of results, precision and accuracy of the method were investigated by using the Roche chemical reagent, benzethonium chloride.Results The functional sensitivity was 0.08g/L of protein, the reportable range of result was between 0.08g/L and 2.0g/L; the intra-batch coefficient of variation(CV) was 1.5% and the inter-batch CV was 2.2%, and the regression relation between new method and routine SSA method in patient sample determination was Y1 = 0.86X+0.068, r=0.972 and Y2=0.86X+0.056, r=0.980 for urine and cerebrospinal fluid respectively.Conclusion This method is simple, accurate, time saving with minimal sample volume 5~15μl, and suitalbe for clinical practice.

  15. NMR Chemical Shift Ranges of Urine Metabolites in Various Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görling, Benjamin; Bräse, Stefan; Luy, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Signal stability is essential for reliable multivariate data analysis. Urine samples show strong variance in signal positions due to inter patient differences. Here we study the exchange of the solvent of a defined urine matrix and how it affects signal and integral stability of the urinary metabolites by NMR spectroscopy. The exchange solvents were methanol, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, chloroform, acetone, dichloromethane, and dimethyl formamide. Some of these solvents showed promising results with a single batch of urine. To evaluate further differences between urine samples, various acid, base, and salt solutions were added in a defined way mimicking to some extent inter human differences. Corresponding chemical shift changes were monitored. PMID:27598217

  16. Culture of Spirulina platensis in human urine for biomass production and O2 evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Dao-lun; WU Zu-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Attempts were made to culture Spirulina platensis in human urine directly to achieve biomass production and O2 evolution, for potential application to nutrient regeneration and air revitalization in life support system. The culture results showed that Spirulinaplatensis grows successfully in diluted human urine, and yields maximal biomass at urine dilution ratios of 140~240.Accumulation of lipid and decreasing of protein occurred due to N deficiency. O2 release rate of Spirulina platensis in diluted human urine was higher than that in Zarrouk medium.

  17. The fascinating story of urine examination: From uroscopy to the era of microscopy and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Diamantis, Aristidis

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the evolution of ideas on the examination of urine from antiquity till our days. A thorough study of texts, medical books from antiquity till twentieth century along with a thorough review of the available literature in PubMed was conducted. The first observation on urine examination can be traced back to the Babylonian and Sumerian texts. Almost all physicians in antiquity including Hippocrates referred to the value of urine examination in the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. The construction of first compound microscope lead to the examination of urine sediment and the development of Urine Cytology which was revolutionized during the twentieth century with the studies of important cytologists such as George Papanicolaou, Geoffrey Krabbe, and Leopold Koss. The introduction of molecular tests in the diagnosis of urothelial cancer inaugurated a new era in the study of urine cytology. The history of urine examination spans a period of 6,000 years. The application of microscope in the examination of urine sediment during the nineteenth century established urine analysis as an important diagnostic tool in clinical practice. PMID:26392002

  18. Dengue Specific Immunoglobulin A Antibody is Present in Urine and Associated with Disease Severity

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zhao; Shuang Qiu; Wen-Xin Hong; Ke-Yu Song; Jian Wang; Hui-Qin Yang; Yong-Qiang Deng; Shun-Ya Zhu; Fu-Chun Zhang; Cheng-Feng Qin

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of dengue virus (DENV)-specific IgA antibody in urine and the potential correlation with disease severity remain elusive. In this study, 262 serial urine samples from 78 laboratory-confirmed patients were assayed by a commercial immunoglobulin A (IgA) kit against DENV. All cases were classified into dengue fever (DF) and severe dengue (SD) according to the 2009 WHO/TDR guideline. The total positive rate of IgA in urine was 59%. DENV-specific IgA was detected in urine from day 2 t...

  19. NMR Chemical Shift Ranges of Urine Metabolites in Various Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Görling

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Signal stability is essential for reliable multivariate data analysis. Urine samples show strong variance in signal positions due to inter patient differences. Here we study the exchange of the solvent of a defined urine matrix and how it affects signal and integral stability of the urinary metabolites by NMR spectroscopy. The exchange solvents were methanol, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, chloroform, acetone, dichloromethane, and dimethyl formamide. Some of these solvents showed promising results with a single batch of urine. To evaluate further differences between urine samples, various acid, base, and salt solutions were added in a defined way mimicking to some extent inter human differences. Corresponding chemical shift changes were monitored.

  20. Steady state fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of normal and diabetic urine at selective excitation wavelength 280 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Anjana; Pachaiappan, Rekha; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-03-01

    Urine is considered diagnostically important for tits native fluorophores and they vary in their distribution, concentration and physiochemical properties, depending upon the metabolic condition of the subject. In this study, we have made an attempt, to characterize the urine of normal subject and diabetic patients under medication by native fluorescence spectroscopy at 280 nm excitation. Further, the fluorescence data were analyzed employing the multivariate statistical method linear discriminant analysis (LDA) using leave one out cross validation method. The results were promising in discriminating diabetic urine from that of normal urine. This study in future may be extended to check the feasibility in ruling out the coexisting disorders such as cancer.

  1. NMR Chemical Shift Ranges of Urine Metabolites in Various Organic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görling, Benjamin; Bräse, Stefan; Luy, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Signal stability is essential for reliable multivariate data analysis. Urine samples show strong variance in signal positions due to inter patient differences. Here we study the exchange of the solvent of a defined urine matrix and how it affects signal and integral stability of the urinary metabolites by NMR spectroscopy. The exchange solvents were methanol, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, chloroform, acetone, dichloromethane, and dimethyl formamide. Some of these solvents showed promising results with a single batch of urine. To evaluate further differences between urine samples, various acid, base, and salt solutions were added in a defined way mimicking to some extent inter human differences. Corresponding chemical shift changes were monitored. PMID:27598217

  2. The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, C.S.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Although serum hormones varied seasonally in all adult animals, only dominant male and female wolves urine-marked. Serum testosterone and urine-marking rates, which increased during the fall/winter breeding season, were positively correlated in both male and female dominant wolves. Estradiol, which increased in conjunction with proestrus and estrus, was not correlated with female urine-marking. These findings suggest that hormonal influence on urine-marking in the wolf is modulated by social factors and contrast with those for both domestic dogs and coyotes, two other members of the genus Canis.

  3. STUDY OF URINE PH, HYPERCALCIURIA, URINARY TRACT INFECTION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH STONE COMPOSITION IN BHOPAL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra

    2015-10-01

    i.e. 1.1±0.7mEq/l in 15.8% of the stone formers as compared to normal control group persons. 21.5% of the stone formers had slightly raised serum uric acid levels i.e. 7.7±0.3. Urine culture was positive in 11/46 stone former i.e. 26%. While in normal control, it was 12% person having positive culture of urine. Proteus isolated in 54% cases of Urinary stones diseases at alkaline pH of urine and Klebsiella were isolated in 18% at pH 7-8 and E. coli was isolated at normal pH of 5-6 with all the stones being composed of mainly calcium oxalate. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study offers better understanding and knowledge of the distribution of urolithiasis condition in this area of Bhopal allowing an estimation of its impact on society and also better planning of various preventing programmes

  4. Monoclonal antibody-based dipstick assay: a reliable field applicable technique for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using human serum and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, Zeinab; Mohamed, Salwa; Hendawy, Mohamed; Rabia, Ibrahim; Attia, Mohy; Shaker, Zeinab; Diab, Tarek M

    2013-02-01

    A field applicable diagnostic technique, the dipstick assay, was evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing human Schistosoma mansoni infection. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) against S. mansoni adult worm tegumental antigen (AWTA) was employed in dipstick and sandwich ELISA for detection of circulating schistosome antigen (CSA) in both serum and urine samples. Based on clinical and parasitological examinations, 60 S. mansoni-infected patients, 30 patients infected with parasites other than schistosomiasis, and 30 uninfected healthy individuals were selected. The sensitivity and specificity of dipstick assay in urine samples were 86.7% and 90.0%, respectively, compared to 90.0% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity of sandwich ELISA. In serum samples, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.3% and 91.7% for dipstick assay vs. 91.7% and 95.0% for sandwich ELISA, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of dipstick assay in urine and serum samples was 88.3% and 90.0%, while it was 90.8% and 93.3% for sandwich ELISA, respectively. The diagnostic indices of dipstick assay and ELISA either in serum or in urine were statistically comparable (P>0.05). In conclusion, the dipstick assay offers an alternative simple, rapid, non-invasive technique in detecting CSA or complement to stool examinations especially in field studies. PMID:23467705

  5. Evaluation of a tunable bandpass reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the determination of selenium in serum and urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, David E.; Neubauer, Kenneth R.; Eckdahl, Steven J.; Butz, John A.; Burritt, Mary F.

    2003-01-01

    A Dynamic Reaction Cell™ inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (DRC-ICP-MS) was evaluated for the determination of selenium in serum and urine. Reaction cell conditions were evaluated for the suppression of Ar 2+ dimer at m/ z 78 and 80 using methane as the reaction gas. A diluent containing 10% ethanol, 1% nitric acid, 0.5% Triton X-100 with gallium and yttrium internal standards was used to dilute urine and serum samples. Instrument response calibration was achieved by using aqueous acidic standards spiked into a urine matrix. Slopes for aqueous inorganic selenium, seleno- DL-cystine, seleno- DL-methionine and trimethylselenonium iodide spiked into urine and serum matrices were nearly identical. In general, reagent blank readings and detection limits were significantly lower in the DRC mode (reaction cell pressurized) than the standard mode (cell vented). Average results for the analysis of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST SRM) 1598 bovine serum (attained over 13 days) are: 43.8±3.6 μg Se/l. Reference concentration is 43.6±3.6 μg Se/l. For NIST SRM 2670 Normal Urine the DRC-ICP-MS results are 30.7±4.6 μg Se/l with a certified concentration of 30±8 μg Se/l. For NIST SRM 2670 Elevated Urine the DRC-ICP-MS results are 463±35 μg Se/l with a certified concentration of 460±30 μg Se/l. The DRC-ICP-MS results for selenium determinations in urine and serum survey samples from the Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec were compared with the reference concentrations and results produced by conventional ICP-MS. While conventional ICP-MS gave acceptable results for survey samples, DRC-ICP-MS gave excellent results for both urine and sera. Closer correlation was observed for DRC-ICP-MS results with target concentrations than with conventional ICP-MS.

  6. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

  7. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in US women. → Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. → Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. → Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

  8. Utilization of Human Urine as Fertilizer with Magnesium Oxide (MgO, Zeolite and Activated Carbon as Absorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijrah Purnama Putra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine is residual fluid excreted by kidneys through urinary tract to outside of the human body, to maintain homeostasis of fluid in the body. Normally urine still contains high amount of nitrogen, which is 87%, phosphor 50%, potassium 54% and low bacterial content. With these contents urine potentially becomes organic fertilizer rich with nitrogen, phosphor and potassium contents and is beneficial to plants. However, until today the utilization or urine in Indonesia is very low. The urine produced is dispose with feces in toilets. This study aimed to utilize urine as solid organic fertilizer using magnesium oxide (MgO, zeolite, and actived carbon as absorbents of ammonium and phosphor. The study started with collecting urine, time variations of urine storage were 24; 48 and 72 hours, and urine was mixed with water as an assumption that urine mixes with water when flushed in urinals. The result showed effectiveness of optimum urine absorption in urine stored for 48 hours by adding 8 gram MgO, producing ammonium and phosphor contents 56.100 ppm and 3.610 ppm, respectively. From environmental perspective, utilization of urine as organic fertilizer was applicable because it satisfied the ecological principle of sanitation to prevent soil pollution, ground and surface water pollution and its utilization as agricultural resources.

  9. Randomized Trial Comparing Two Treatment Strategies Using Prize-Based Reinforcement of Abstinence in Cocaine and Opiate Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Kenzie L.; Ghitza, Udi E.; Schmittner, John P.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Epstein, David H.

    2008-01-01

    We compared two strategies of prize-based contingency management (CM) in methadone-maintained outpatients. Urine was tested thrice weekly for 5 weeks pre-CM, 12 weeks CM, and 8 weeks post-CM. Participants were randomly assigned to a cocaine contingency (four prize draws for each cocaine-negative urine, N = 29) or an opiate-cocaine contingency (one…

  10. Magnetoimpedance studies on urine treated Co{sub 66}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 7}B{sub 20} ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotagiri, Ganesh [Advanced Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Markandeyulu, G., E-mail: mark@iitm.ac.in [Advanced Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Doble, Mukesh; Nandakumar, V. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Magnetoimpedance (MI) response of Co{sub 66}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 7}B{sub 20} ribbons treated with artificial urine with protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), artificial urine without protein BSA and healthy male urine was studied as a function of time of incubation. The maximum MI [(MI){sub m}] values of the ribbons treated with artificial urine without protein (RTAU) after 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h of incubation are 30% (at 4 MHz), 15% (at 5 MHz), 14% (at 10 MHz) and 8% (at 13 MHz) respectively. On the other hand, the respective (MI){sub m} values of the ribbons treated with artificial urine with protein (RTAUP) are 33% (at 4 MHz), 25% (at 5 MHz), 20% (at 8 MHz) and 15% (12 MHz). However (MI){sub m} values of the ribbons treated with healthy male urine (RTHMU) after 4 h, 5 h, 10 h and 15 h of incubation are 71% (at 3 MHz), 57% (at 3 MHz), 25% (at 6 MHz) and 25% (at 5 MHz), respectively. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) values of RTAU after 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h of incubation are 71 emu/g, 65 emu/g, 63 emu/g and 60 emu/g respectively whereas, the respective M{sub s} values of RTAUP are 73 emu/g, 69 emu/g, 67 emu/g and 64 emu/g. The M{sub s} values of RTHMU after 4 h, 5 h, 10 h and 15 h of incubation are 96 emu/g, 90 emu/g, 75 emu/g and 75 emu/g respectively. The decrease in M{sub s} and (MI){sub m} values in RTAU and RTAUP compared to as-quenched ribbon is related to the amounts of various elements etched out from the ribbons and increased surface roughness. The M{sub s} and (MI){sub m} values of RTHMU are seen to have increased after 4 h and 5 h of incubation, due to strain relaxation through removal of strain developed during rapid quenching of the ribbons. On the other hand, the M{sub s} and (MI){sub m} values of RTHMU after 10 h and 15 h have decreased due to deterioration of the surface of the ribbons and thus, increase in magnetic (surface) anisotropy. The decrease in (MI){sub m} and M{sub S} of RTAU with the time of incubation are more rapid compared to that

  11. Detection of herbicides in the urine of pet dogs following home lawn chemical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Deborah W., E-mail: knappd@purdue.edu [Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Purdue University Center for Cancer Research and Purdue Oncological Sciences Center, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Peer, Wendy A.; Conteh, Abass; Diggs, Alfred R. [Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cooper, Bruce R. [Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Glickman, Nita W. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Bonney, Patty L.; Stewart, Jane C. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Glickman, Lawrence T. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Murphy, Angus S. [Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Exposure to herbicide-treated lawns has been associated with significantly higher bladder cancer risk in dogs. This work was performed to further characterize lawn chemical exposures in dogs, and to determine environmental factors associated with chemical residence time on grass. In addition to concern for canine health, a strong justification for the work was that dogs may serve as sentinels for potentially harmful environmental exposures in humans. Experimentally, herbicides [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxypropionic acid (MCPP), dicamba] were applied to grass plots under different conditions (e.g., green, dry brown, wet, and recently mowed grass). Chemicals in dislodgeable residues were measured by LC-MS at 0.17, 1, 24, 48, 72 h post treatment. In a separate study, 2,4-D, MCPP, and dithiopyr concentrations were measured in the urine of dogs and in dislodgeable grass residues in households that applied or did not apply chemicals in the preceding 48 h. Chemicals were measured at 0, 24, and 48 h post application in treated households and at time 0 in untreated control households. Residence times of 2,4-D, MCPP, and dicamba were significantly prolonged (P < 0.05) on dry brown grass compared to green grass. Chemicals were detected in the urine of dogs in 14 of 25 households before lawn treatment, in 19 of 25 households after lawn treatment, and in 4 of 8 untreated households. Chemicals were commonly detected in grass residues from treated lawns, and from untreated lawns suggesting chemical drift from nearby treated areas. Thus dogs could be exposed to chemicals through contact with their own lawn (treated or contaminated through drift) or through contact with other grassy areas if they travel. The length of time to restrict a dog's access to treated lawns following treatment remains to be defined. Further study is indicated to assess the risks of herbicide exposure in humans and dogs. - Highlights: • Lawn chemicals were commonly

  12. Detection of herbicides in the urine of pet dogs following home lawn chemical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to herbicide-treated lawns has been associated with significantly higher bladder cancer risk in dogs. This work was performed to further characterize lawn chemical exposures in dogs, and to determine environmental factors associated with chemical residence time on grass. In addition to concern for canine health, a strong justification for the work was that dogs may serve as sentinels for potentially harmful environmental exposures in humans. Experimentally, herbicides [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxypropionic acid (MCPP), dicamba] were applied to grass plots under different conditions (e.g., green, dry brown, wet, and recently mowed grass). Chemicals in dislodgeable residues were measured by LC-MS at 0.17, 1, 24, 48, 72 h post treatment. In a separate study, 2,4-D, MCPP, and dithiopyr concentrations were measured in the urine of dogs and in dislodgeable grass residues in households that applied or did not apply chemicals in the preceding 48 h. Chemicals were measured at 0, 24, and 48 h post application in treated households and at time 0 in untreated control households. Residence times of 2,4-D, MCPP, and dicamba were significantly prolonged (P < 0.05) on dry brown grass compared to green grass. Chemicals were detected in the urine of dogs in 14 of 25 households before lawn treatment, in 19 of 25 households after lawn treatment, and in 4 of 8 untreated households. Chemicals were commonly detected in grass residues from treated lawns, and from untreated lawns suggesting chemical drift from nearby treated areas. Thus dogs could be exposed to chemicals through contact with their own lawn (treated or contaminated through drift) or through contact with other grassy areas if they travel. The length of time to restrict a dog's access to treated lawns following treatment remains to be defined. Further study is indicated to assess the risks of herbicide exposure in humans and dogs. - Highlights: • Lawn chemicals were commonly

  13. Telomerase Activity, Cytokeratin 20 and Cytokeratin 19 in Urine Cells of Bladder Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of the Study: This work aims to search for markers suitable for the screening of bladder cancer, which should be specific, sensitive, reproducible, non-invasive and at acceptable cost. Patients and Methods: The study included 50 patients diagnosed as bladder cancer (35 TCC, 15 SCC) of different stages and grades, 30 patients with various urothelial diseases, besides 20 apparently healthy subjects of matched age and sex to the malignant group. A random midstream urine sample was collected in a sterile container for the determination of telomerase by RT-PCR, keratin 19 by ELSA CYFRA 21-1 IRMA kit, keratin 20 by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining, and urine cytology. Results: For all parameters (telomerase, K19, K20 and cytology) the malignant group was significantly different from both the benign and the control groups. None of the four studied parameters was correlated to the stage of the disease, and when it comes to grade, only KI9 showed a significant positive correlation with grade both in TCC and SCe. When ROC curves for all parameters were compared, K 19 had the largest area under the curve, and then comes K20 . o Conclusion: K 19 may be used as a biological marker for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. K 19 could not be used for differential diagnosis of different types of bladder cancer, meanwhile it could be a marker for differentiation that decreases in less differentiated tumors. As a tumor marker, K20 reflects inability to differentiate tumor type or grade in TCC, while in SCC of the bladder it is correlated with the grade. As a method, RT-PCR is superior to immunostaining for the detection of bladder cancer, meanwhile K20 immunohistochemistry ([HC) results were much better than urine cytology as a bladder cancer screening test. haematuria and inflammation reduced the specificity of telomerase assay, which reduced its validity as a tumor marker of bladder cancer. K 19 and K20 are the best candidates as screening tests for the diagnosis of bladder

  14. Silicone colonization by non-Candida albicans Candida species in the presence of urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Negri, Melyssa; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2010-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common nosocomial infections and 80 % are related to the use of urinary catheters. Furthermore, Candida species are responsible for around 15 % of UTIs and an increasing involvement of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species (e.g. Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis) has been recognized. Given the fact that silicone is frequently used in the manufacture of urinary catheters, the aim of this work was to compare both the adhesion and biofilm formation on silicone of different urinary clinical isolates of NCAC species (i.e. C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis) in the presence of urine. Several clinical isolates of NCAC species recovered from patients with UTIs, together with reference strains of each species, were examined. Adhesion and biofilm formation were performed in artificial urine and the biofilm biomass was assessed by crystal violet staining. Hydrophobicity and surface charge of cells was determined by measuring contact angles and zeta potential, respectively. The number of viable cells in biofilms was determined by enumeration of c.f.u. after appropriate culture. The biofilm structure was also examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that all isolates adhered to silicone in a species- and strain-dependent manner with C. parapsilosis showing the lowest and C. glabrata the highest levels of adhesion. However, these differences in adhesion abilities cannot be correlated with surface properties since all strains examined were hydrophilic and exhibited a similar zeta potential. Despite a higher number of cultivable cells being recovered after 72 h of incubation, stronger biofilm formation was not observed and CLSM showed an absence of extracellular polymeric material for all isolates examined. In summary, this work demonstrated that all tested NCAC species were able to adhere to and survive on silicone in the presence of urine. Furthermore, C

  15. Student support and perceptions of urine source separation in a university community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2016-09-01

    Urine source separation, i.e., the collection and treatment of human urine as a separate waste stream, has the potential to improve many aspects of water resource management and wastewater treatment. However, social considerations must be taken into consideration for successful implementation of this alternative wastewater system. This work evaluated the perceptions of urine source separation held by students living on-campus at a major university in the Southeastern region of the United States. Perceptions were evaluated in the context of the Theory of Planned Behavior. The survey population represents one group within a community type (universities) that is expected to be an excellent testbed for urine source separation. Overall, respondents reported high levels of support for urine source separation after watching a video on expected benefits and risks, e.g., 84% indicated that they would vote in favor of urine source separation in residence halls. Support was less apparent when measured by willingness to pay, as 33% of respondents were unwilling to pay for the implementation of urine source separation and 40% were only willing to pay $1 to $10 per semester. Water conservation was largely identified as the most important benefit of urine source separation and there was little concern reported about the use of urine-based fertilizers. Statistical analyses showed that one's environmental attitude, environmental behavior, perceptions of support within the university community, and belief that student opinions have an impact on university decision makers were significantly correlated with one's support for urine source separation. This work helps identify community characteristics that lend themselves to acceptance of urine source separation, such as those related to environmental attitudes/behaviors and perceptions of behavioral control and subjective norm. Critical aspects of these alternative wastewater systems that require attention in order to foster public

  16. The significance of cytologic examination of urine in the diagnosis of renal allograft dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatomirović Željka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper presents our experience with cytologic examination of urine in diagnosing renal allograft dysfunction. Methods. The study group included 23 patients with renal allograft dysfunction, selected from 56 patients who underwent renal transplantation. Etiologic diagnosis was made according to the clinical picture, histological findings during allograft biopsy, and cytologic examination of urine. Urine sediment was obtained in cytocentrifuge and was air dried and stained with May Grunwald Giemsa. Results. Out of 23 patients with allograft dysfunction in 18 (78.3% patient it was caused by acute rejection, and in 5 (8.9% patients by allograft infarction, cyclosporine nephrotoxicity, acute tubular necrosis and chronic nephropathy. In eighteen patients (78.3% cytologic examination of urine was pathologic, while in 16 (70% clinical and histology findings coincided with urine cytology findings. Out of 18 patients with acute allograft rejection in 15 patients cytologic examination of urine coincided with acute rejection. Out of 7 patients with expressed cyclosporine nephrotoxicity, in 5 cytologic examination of urine confirmed the cause of allograft dysfunction, as well as in one of 2 patients with acute tubular necrosis. Cytologic examination of urine indicated parenchymal damage in 2 patients with reccurent disease (membranoproliferative and focal sclerosing glomerulonephritis. In 4 of 5 patients suffering from chronic rejection in a year’s monitoring period, urine sediment periodically consisted of lymphocytes, neutrophilic leucocytes, monocyte/macrophages, tubular cells and cilindres, without the predominance of any cell type. In 3 patients allograft dysfunction was caused by infective agents (bacteria, fungus cytomegalovirus. Conclusion. Cytologic examination of urine might be an alternative to histological in diagnosing acute allograft rejection and acute tubular necrosis or nephtotoxicity. Also it might indicate parenchymal

  17. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR FAST AND SAFE COLLECTION OF URINE IN NEW BORNS

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    Pratap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Clean urine samples are necessary to accurately diagnose several diseases in new-borns, especially Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs. A wide range of clinical interventions for urine collection is described in the literature including non-invasive and invasive methods. The most common non-invasive technique is urine collection using sterile bags, which is associated with significant patient discomfort and contamination of samples. Obtaining a clean-catch urine sample is the recommended method for urine collection in children able to co-operate. However, in children lacking sphincter control, urine catch is more difficult and time-consuming and invasive methods (catheterization and needle aspiration of urine from the bladder are sometimes needed. There are some stimulation techniques that facilitate emptying of the bladder in situations of bladder dysfunction. We hypothesized that the use of such methods in new-borns could facilitate the collection of a clean-catch urine sample. The aim of this study was to determine the success rate and safety of a new non-invasive technique to obtain clean-catch urine samples in newborns. AIM To describe and test a new technique to obtain midstream urine samples in newborns. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective, feasible and safety study conducted in Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Warangal, (A secondary centre with a 20-bed neonatal unit, a 130-beded pediatric ward. This study was carried out over 7 months (January-July 2015. Patients consisted of 100 consecutively admitted infants aged less than 30 days who needed a urine analysis according to their attending physician. RESULTS This technique was successful in 72% of newborns. Mean time to sample collection was 56.99 Sec. No complications other than controlled crying were observed. CONCLUSION A new, quick and safe technique with a high success rate is described, whereby the discomfort and waste of time usually associated with bag

  18. Diagnostic value of urine sCD163 levels for sepsis and relevant acute kidney injury: a prospective study

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    Su Longxiang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis is a common syndrome in critically ill patients and easily leads to the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI, with high mortality rates. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of urine soluble CD163 (sCD163 for identification of sepsis, severity of sepsis, and for secondary AKI, and to assess the patients’ prognosis. Methods We enrolled 20 cases with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, 40 cases with sepsis (further divided into 17 sepsis cases and 23 severe sepsis cases admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU, and 20 control cases. Results for urine sCD163 were recorded on the day of admission to the ICU, and AKI occurrence was noted. Results On the day of ICU admission, the sepsis group exhibited higher levels of urine sCD163 (74.8 ng/ml; range: 47.9-148.3 ng/ml compared with those in the SIRS group (31.9 ng/ml; 16.8-48.0, P . The area under the curve (AUC was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.72-0.94, P  the sensitivity was 0.83, and the specificity was 0.75 (based on a cut-off point of 43.0 ng/ml. Moreover, the severe sepsis group appeared to have a higher level of sCD163 compared with that in the sepsis group (76.2; 47.2-167.5 ng/ml vs. 74.2; 46.2-131.6 ng/ml, but this was not significant. For 15 patients with AKI, urine sCD163 levels at AKI diagnosis were significantly higher than those of the remaining 35 sepsis patients upon ICU admission (121.0; 74.6-299.1 ng/ml vs. 61.8; 42.8-128.3 ng/ml, P = 0.049. The AUC for urine sCD163 was 0.688 (95% CI: 0.51-0.87, P = 0.049. Sepsis patients with a poor prognosis showed a higher urine sCD163 level at ICU admission (98.6; 50.3-275.6 ng/ml vs. 68.0; 44.8-114.5 ng/ml, but this was not significant. Patients with AKI with a poor prognosis had higher sCD163 levels than those in patients with a better prognosis (205.9; 38.6-766.0 ng/ml vs. 80.9; 74.9-141.0 ng/ml, but this was not significant. Conclusions This study shows, for the

  19. Water Treatment Unit Breadboard: Ground test facility for the recycling of urine and shower water for one astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Lamaze, Brigitte; Clauwaert, Peter; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Rabaey, Korneel; Vlaeminck, Siegfried; Vanoppen, Marjolein; Demey, Dries; Farinas, Bernabé Alonso; Coessens, Wout; De Paepe, Jolien; Dotremont, Chris; Beckers, Herman; Verliefde, Arne

    2016-07-01

    One of the major challenges for long-term manned Space missions is the requirement of a regenerative life support system. Average water consumption in Western Countries is >100 L d-1. Even when minimizing the amount of water available per astronauts to 13 L d-1, a mission of 6 crew members requires almost 30 ton of fresh water supplies per year. Note that the International Space Station (ISS) weighs approximately 400 ton. Therefore the development of an efficient water recovery system is essential to future Space exploration. The ISS currently uses a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) unit following the addition of chromic and sulphuric acid for the microbial stabilization of urine (Carter, Tobias et al. 2012), yielding a water recovery percentage of only 70% due to scaling control. Additionally, Vapor Compression Distillation of 1.5 L urine cap 1 d-1 has a significantly higher power demand with 6.5 W cap-1 compared to a combination of electrodialysis (ED) and reverse osmosis (RO) with 1.9 and 0.6 W cap-1 respectively (Udert and Wächter 2012). A Water Treatment Unit Breadboard (WTUB) has been developed which combines a physicochemical and biological treatment. The aim was to recover 90% of the water in urine, condensate and shower water produced by one crew member and this life support testbed facility was inspired by the MELiSSA loop concept, ESA's Life Support System. Our experimental results showed that: 1) using a crystallisation reactor prior to the nitrification reduced scaling risks by Ca2+- and Mg2+ removal 2) the stabilization of urine diluted with condensate resulted in the biological conversion of 99% of Total Kjeldahl nitrogen into nitrate in the biological nitrification reactor 3) salinity and nitrate produced could be removed by 60-80% by electrodialysis, 4) shower water contaminated with skin microbiota and Neutrogena soap ® could be mixed with electrodialysis diluate and filtered directly over a ceramic nanofiltration at 93% water recovery and 5

  20. Biomarkers of chronic kidney disease in the urine of diabetic/hypertensive patients by means of Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Elzo Everton de Sousa; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martis; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and arterial hypertension (AH) are common diseases that, if untreated, predispose the patient to renal failure. This study aimed to evaluate possible biomarkers in the urine of patients with DM and AH capable to predict the chronic renal disease, by means of Raman spectroscopy. Urines were obtained from patients with DM and AH, and separated into four groups: no symptoms of diseases related to DM and AH (G1), with low clinical complications (G2), with severe clinical complications (G3), and with chronic kidney disease (G4) arised from DM and AH. It has been used a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830nm, 250mW, 20s accumulation). In the spectra of urine it was identified Raman peaks at 680cm-1 (creatinine), 1004cm-1 (urea) and 1128cm-1 (glucose). The results revealed that G2, G3 and G4 presented the creatinine peak with lower intensity than G1 (p < 0.05). It was observed that G2, G3 and G4 showed lower intensity of the urea peak compared to G1 (p < 0.05) and G4 showed lower intensity compared to G2 and G3 (p < 0.05). Despite not significant, the glucose peak showed lower intensity in G1 when compared to the other groups. A model for classification of groups according to clinical criteria, using Sparse Multinomial Logistic Regression, taking as inputs the intensities of creatine, urea and glucose peaks allowed correct classification of 88.9% for G1, 36.8% for G2, 43.8% for G3 and 84.2% for G4. These results demonstrated the possibility of obtaining diagnostic information for complications of kidney disease associated to DM and AH, particularly the renal failure.

  1. The concept of the urine test and specific reaction of the urine in various diseases according to Enrico Cauchi - member of the medical council of Malta (1933).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Visconti, Luca; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Savica, Vincenzo; Santoro, Domenico; Buemi, Michele; Ricciardi, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    The Study of urine from the outset has always aroused the interest of scientists and physicians all over the world, from ancient Greeks and Romans to Hindus , Hulcos in Mexico, Australian native etc. The urine in such case was considered not only as a waste product but also as a therapeutic product. In the late XIX century scientific knowledge had already identified the function of substances that favor the increase of urinary output, and physicians over the centuries have always tried to analyze urine in various ways. In Cauchis work in 1933 all chemistry and pathophysiological knowledge of the time was condensed. Cauchi signed the preface as Member of the medical council of Malta. He was a medical doctor of the early20thcentury, He wrote about the physiopathology of urine ranging from chemical and physical behavior, to the analysis of sediments and the special reactions of the urine in various pathologies. In particular Cauchi emphasizes the main diseases of the time combines the behavior of the reaction of urine as a diagnostic and prognostic instrument, stressing the importance of the urine test and describing the method used for analysis at the time. The analyses of the text in the issue seems to belong to archaic medicine, and it is difficult to think today, that what was presented as very up-to-date- science at that time, took place only 80 years ago. Reading the full original text with today experience we are led to consider the increasing importance that scientific community gave in the past, and still gives to urine test. PMID:26913892

  2. Analysis of human urine metabolites using SPE and NMR spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis of metabonome/metabolome has widespread applications in biomedical science researches. However, most of NMR resonances for urinary metabolites remain to be fully assigned. In the present study, human urine samples from two healthy volunteers were pre-treated with C18 solid-phase extraction and the resultant 5 sub-fractions were subjected to one- and two-dimensional NMR studies, including 1H J-Resolved, 1H-1H COSY, 1H-1H TOCSY, 1H-13C HSQC, and HMBC 2D NMR. More than 70 low molecular weight metabolites were identified, and complete assignments of 1H and 13C resonances including many complex coupled spin systems were obtained.

  3. Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalleri, F.; Mavilla, L. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Berardi, A.; Ferrari, F. [Servizio di Neonatologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Burlina, A.B. [Dipartimento di Pediatria, Azienda Ospedaliera, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy)

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  4. Urinary balantidiasis: diagnosis at a glance by urine sediment examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maino, Alberto; Garigali, Giuseppe; Grande, Romualdo; Messa, Piergiorgio; Fogazzi, Giovanni B

    2010-01-01

    A 56-year-old Caucasian man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, who had previously been treated with prolonged intensive chemotherapy, was hospitalized for an acute and reversible kidney injury of multifactorial origin. The urinary sediment examination, performed daily, demonstrated the presence of renal tubular cells and renal tubular cell casts. Surprisingly, it also showed the presence of trophozoites of the protozoan Balantidium coli, which were identified on the basis of its characteristic morphology and rapid movements across the slide, and transient leukocyturia. The patient was asymptomatic, his medical history was negative for gastrointestinal disease, and no Balantidium coli was found in the feces. In spite of this, due to the previous chemotherapy, the patient was treated with oral metrodinazole. Only one other case with Balantidium coli in the urine sediment has been described so far and this paper stresses the importance of the examination of the urinary sediment. PMID:20349417

  5. Plasmin in nephrotic urine activates the epithelial sodium channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Bistrup, Claus; Friis, Ulla G;

    2008-01-01

    Proteinuria and increased renal reabsorption of NaCl characterize the nephrotic syndrome. Here, we show that protein-rich urine from nephrotic rats and from patients with nephrotic syndrome activate the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in cultured M-1 mouse collecting duct cells and in Xenopus...... laevis oocytes heterologously expressing ENaC. The activation depended on urinary serine protease activity. We identified plasmin as a urinary serine protease by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of-flight mass spectrometry. Purified plasmin activated ENaC currents, and inhibitors...... of plasmin abolished urinary protease activity and the ability to activate ENaC. In nephrotic syndrome, tubular urokinase-type plasminogen activator likely converts filtered plasminogen to plasmin. Consistent with this, the combined application of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen...

  6. Maple Syrup Urine Disease in a Central Indiana Hereford Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Robarge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD and further cases were identified in herd mates of a small Hereford herd in Indiana based on history, clinical signs, microscopic lesions, and biochemical and genetic testing. This aminoacidopathy has been diagnosed in polled Shorthorn, polled Hereford, and Hereford cattle in Australia, Uruguay, Argentina, and Canada and is the result of a mutation of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The Indiana index calf case was confirmed by showing the classic accumulation of ketoacids in liver that results from a defect in the E1-alpha subunit (248 C/T haplotype in the mitochondrial branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The presence of the mutation was confirmed in the index case, the dam, and four related herd mates that represent the first confirmed cases of bovine MSUD mutation in United States cattle.

  7. Munchausen Syndrome By Proxy Admitting with Bloody Urine and Stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Koca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Munchausen syndrome by Proxy is a severe form of child abuse. Disease symptoms and signs are fabricated or imitated by parents or caregivers The child is usually presented to doctors, persistently. A delay in diagnosis may cause severe negative impact on spiritual, physical, mental and social development of the cases and even death. Symptoms usually disappear in the absence of the perpetrators. The diagnosis is extremely difficult. A 21-month-old boy who had applied to many centers due to bleeding from various parts of the body for last six months, and whose symptoms could not be explained with any physical reason after tests were conducted. Finally he was admitted to our center with bloody urine and stools, and diagnosed Munchausen syndrome by proxy. In cases with recurrent hospital admission in whom no apparent disease is diagnosed, Munchausen syndrome by Proxy should be among the differential diagnosis.

  8. Urine-derived induced pluripotent stem cells as a modeling tool to study rare human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-08-01

    Rare diseases with a low prevalence are a key public health issue because the causes of those diseases are difficult to determine and those diseases lack a clearly established or curative treatment. Thus, investigating the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathology of rare diseases and facilitating the development of novel therapies using disease models is crucial. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are well suited to modeling rare diseases since they have the capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency. In addition, iPSC technology provides a valuable tool to generate patient-specific iPSCs. These cells can be differentiated into cell types that have been affected by a disease. These cells would circumvent ethical concerns and avoid immunological rejection, so they could be used in cell replacement therapy or regenerative medicine. To date, human iPSCs could have been generated from multiple donor sources, such as skin, adipose tissue, and peripheral blood. However, these cells are obtained via invasive procedures. In contrast, several groups of researchers have found that urine may be a better source for producing iPSCs from normal individuals or patients. This review discusses urinary iPSC (UiPSC) as a candidate for modeling rare diseases. Cells obtained from urine have overwhelming advantages compared to other donor sources since they are safely, affordably, and frequently obtained and they are readily obtained from patients. The use of iPSC-based models is also discussed. UiPSCs may prove to be a key means of modeling rare diseases and they may facilitate the treatment of those diseases in the future.

  9. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of glutathione from urine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Renyuan, E-mail: songrenyuan0726@163.com; Hu, Xiaoling; Guan, Ping; Li, Ji; Zhao, Na; Wang, Qiaoli

    2014-11-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) particles for glutathione were synthesized through iniferter-controlled living radical precipitation polymerization (IRPP) under ultraviolet radiation at ambient temperature. Static adsorption, solid-phase extraction, and high-performance liquid chromatography were carried out to evaluate the adsorption properties and selective recognition characteristics of the polymers for glutathione and its structural analogs. The obtained IRPP-MIP particles exhibited a regularly spherical shape, rapid binding kinetics, high imprinting factor, and high selectivity compared with the MIP particles prepared using traditional free-radical precipitation polymerization. The selective separation and enrichment of glutathione from the mixture of glycyl-glycine and glutathione disulfide could be achieved on the IRPP-MIP cartridge. The recoveries of glutathione, glycyl-glycine, and glutathione disulfide were 95.6% ± 3.65%, 29.5% ± 1.26%, and 49.9% ± 1.71%, respectively. The detection limit (S/N = 3) of glutathione was 0.5 mg·L{sup −1}. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 10 replicate detections of 50 mg·L{sup −1} of glutathione were 5.76%, and the linear range of the calibration curve was 0.5 mg·L{sup −1} to 200 mg·L{sup −1} under optimized conditions. The proposed approach was successfully applied to determine glutathione in spiked human urine samples with recoveries of 90.24% to 96.20% and RSDs of 0.48% to 5.67%. - Highlights: • Imprinted polymer particles were prepared by IRPP at ambient temperature. • High imprinting factor, high selectivity, and rapid binding kinetics were achieved. • Selective solid-phase extraction of glutathione from human urine samples.

  10. Characterization of oxygenated metabolites of ginsenoside Rg1 in plasma and urine of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Tong, Tian-Tian; Yau, Lee-Fong; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Bai, Li-Ping; Ma, Jing; Hu, Ming; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-07-15

    This study describes the characterization of oxygenated metabolites of ginsenoside Rg1 in rat urine and plasma. These in vivo metabolites were profiled by using UHPLC-QTOF MS-based method. On the basis of high-resolution MS/MS data, and comparison with chemically synthesized authentic compounds, nine oxygenated metabolites of Rg1 were characterized as vinaginsenosides 21 and 22 (M1 and M2), vinaginsenoside R15 (M3), 6-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-20-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl) 3β, 6α, 12β, 20(S)-tetrahydroxy-24ξ-hydroxydammar-25-ene (M4 and M5), floralginsenoside A (M7 and M8), floralginsenoside B (M9) and epoxyginsenoside Rg1 (M13), respectively. Among these metabolites, M4, M5 and M13 are new ginsenosides and others were detected as in vivo metabolites of Rg1 for the first time. In addition, a series of oxygenated metabolites of Rh1 and deglycosylated metabolite of Rg1, were observed and characterized by comparing with compounds synthesized by us, which revealed an association between C-20 configuration and the extent of oxidation metabolism. Appearance of all these metabolites in blood stream and urine after i.v. dosing and oral administration of Rg1 was further examined, which clearly showed that mono-oxygenated metabolites of Rg1 were major circulating metabolites at the early stage after dosing. Characterization of exact chemical structures of these circulating metabolites contribute greatly to our understanding of chemical exposure after consumption of ginseng products, and provide valuable information for explaining multiple bioactivities of ginseng products. PMID:26809375

  11. Urine Levels of Defensin α1 Reflect Kidney Injury in Leptospirosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haorile Chagan-Yasutan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease whose severe forms are often accompanied by kidney dysfunction. In the present study, urinary markers were studied for potential prediction of disease severity. Urine samples from 135 patients with or without leptospirosis at San Lazaro Hospital, the Philippines, were analyzed. Urine levels of defensin α1 (uDA1 were compared with those of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosidase (uNAG. Serum creatinine (Cr was used as a marker of kidney injury. The levels of uDA1/Cr, uNGAL/Cr, and uNAG/Cr were positive in 46%, 90%, and 80% of leptospirosis patients, and 69%, 70%, and 70% of non-leptospirosis patients, respectively. In leptospirosis patients, the correlation of uDA1/Cr, uNGAL/Cr and uNAG/Cr levels with serum Cr were r = 0.3 (p < 0.01, r = 0.29 (p < 0.01, and r = 0.02 (p = 0.81, respectively. uDA1/Cr levels were correlated with uNGAL/Cr levels (r = 0.49, p < 0.01 and uNAG/Cr levels (r = 0.47, p < 0.0001 in leptospirosis patients. These findings suggest that uDA1, uNGAL, and uNAG were elevated in leptospirosis patients and reflected various types of kidney damage. uDA1 and uNGAL can be used to track kidney injury in leptospirosis patients because of their correlation with the serum Cr level.

  12. Urine-derived induced pluripotent stem cells as a modeling tool to study rare human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-08-01

    Rare diseases with a low prevalence are a key public health issue because the causes of those diseases are difficult to determine and those diseases lack a clearly established or curative treatment. Thus, investigating the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathology of rare diseases and facilitating the development of novel therapies using disease models is crucial. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are well suited to modeling rare diseases since they have the capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency. In addition, iPSC technology provides a valuable tool to generate patient-specific iPSCs. These cells can be differentiated into cell types that have been affected by a disease. These cells would circumvent ethical concerns and avoid immunological rejection, so they could be used in cell replacement therapy or regenerative medicine. To date, human iPSCs could have been generated from multiple donor sources, such as skin, adipose tissue, and peripheral blood. However, these cells are obtained via invasive procedures. In contrast, several groups of researchers have found that urine may be a better source for producing iPSCs from normal individuals or patients. This review discusses urinary iPSC (UiPSC) as a candidate for modeling rare diseases. Cells obtained from urine have overwhelming advantages compared to other donor sources since they are safely, affordably, and frequently obtained and they are readily obtained from patients. The use of iPSC-based models is also discussed. UiPSCs may prove to be a key means of modeling rare diseases and they may facilitate the treatment of those diseases in the future. PMID:27672542

  13. Tumour xenograft detection through quantitative analysis of the metabolic profile of urine in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroz, Jennifer [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Turner, Joan [Department of Experimental Oncology, University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Slupsky, Carolyn [Department of Nutrition, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8598 (United States); Fallone, Gino; Syme, Alasdair, E-mail: alasdair.syme@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2011-02-07

    The metabolic content of urine from NIH III nude mice (n = 22) was analysed before and after inoculation with human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cancer cells. An age- and gender-matched control population (n = 14) was also studied to identify non-tumour-related changes. Urine samples were collected daily for 6 weeks, beginning 1 week before cell injection. Metabolite concentrations were obtained via targeted profiling with Chenomx Suite 5.1, based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra acquired on an Oxford 800 MHz cold probe NMR spectrometer. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to evaluate the significance of the change in metabolite concentration between the two time points. Both the metabolite concentrations and the ratios of pairs of metabolites were studied. The complicated inter-relationships between metabolites were assessed through partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for all variables and the area under the curve (AUC) calculated. The data indicate that the number of statistically significant changes in metabolite concentrations was more pronounced in the tumour-bearing population than in the control animals. This was also true of the ratios of pairs of metabolites. ROC analysis suggests that the ratios were better able to differentiate between the pre- and post-injection samples compared to the metabolite concentrations. PLS-DA models produced good separation between the populations and had the best AUC results (all models exceeded 0.937). These results demonstrate that metabolomics may be used as a screening tool for GBM cells grown in xenograft models in mice.

  14. Tumour xenograft detection through quantitative analysis of the metabolic profile of urine in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Jennifer; Turner, Joan; Slupsky, Carolyn; Fallone, Gino; Syme, Alasdair

    2011-02-01

    The metabolic content of urine from NIH III nude mice (n = 22) was analysed before and after inoculation with human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cancer cells. An age- and gender-matched control population (n = 14) was also studied to identify non-tumour-related changes. Urine samples were collected daily for 6 weeks, beginning 1 week before cell injection. Metabolite concentrations were obtained via targeted profiling with Chenomx Suite 5.1, based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra acquired on an Oxford 800 MHz cold probe NMR spectrometer. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to evaluate the significance of the change in metabolite concentration between the two time points. Both the metabolite concentrations and the ratios of pairs of metabolites were studied. The complicated inter-relationships between metabolites were assessed through partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for all variables and the area under the curve (AUC) calculated. The data indicate that the number of statistically significant changes in metabolite concentrations was more pronounced in the tumour-bearing population than in the control animals. This was also true of the ratios of pairs of metabolites. ROC analysis suggests that the ratios were better able to differentiate between the pre- and post-injection samples compared to the metabolite concentrations. PLS-DA models produced good separation between the populations and had the best AUC results (all models exceeded 0.937). These results demonstrate that metabolomics may be used as a screening tool for GBM cells grown in xenograft models in mice.

  15. FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN EKSKRESI YODIUM DALAM URIN DI KABUPATEN GROBOGAN JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhuta Widagdo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Universal salt iodination (USI is global policy for eliminating iodine deficiency disorder (IDD, and the content of iodine salt was 30-80 ppm. Survey 2003 show that 35% urine iodine excretion (UIE of school children is was high, more than 300 µg/L, survey 2004 in Grobogan district in central Java by Department of Health show that UIE is was high to. The objective of the study is to conduct some factors that related with level of UIE in district of Grobogan, Central Java. Method: This study was comparative cross sectional study. Elementary school children were collected by random and divided into three areas, area I was elementary school children with UIE high level, area II was optimal UIE anda area III was UIE in adequate. Total sample for UIE level was 242 elementary school children, by spectrohptometer. Sample of salt was 242, measured by titration, and 76 samples of drinking water was collected by spectrophotometer. Goitogenic and iodine UIE optimal (area 11 and UIE adequate (area III. Total to sample is 242 school children, 242 sample of salt, 76 sample of drinking water. Goitrogenic and iodine intake were collected by FFQ and recall 24 hour. The data was analysis by univariat, bivariat and regressi multivariate. There are 24,1% adequate iodine in salt at area I, 2,6% at area II and 7,3% at area III. The mean of iodine content in water drinking in area I is 156.74 µg/L, area II is 189.06 µg/L, and area III is 84.03 µg/L. Median UEI in area I is 542 µg/L, area II is 502 µg/L and area III is 467 µg/L. There are significantly factors related to UEI is iodine content in water drinking.   Key words : Urine Iodine Excretion, Iodine Water Drinking, Iodine Salt

  16. Blue Chitin columns for the extraction of heterocyclic amines from urine samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, J.; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Skog, K.

    2004-01-01

    . Blue Chitin columns were used for the extraction and purification of heterocyclic amines from urine samples spiked with 14 different heterocyclic amines. The samples were analysed using LC-MS. The results show that Blue Chitin columns provide a straightforward and rapid means of extracting heterocyclic...... amines from urine samples, and that Blue Chitin column are also useful in the purification of urinary metabolites....

  17. An extensive targeted proteomic analysis of disease-related protein biomarkers in urine from healthy donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Nolen

    Full Text Available The analysis of protein biomarkers in urine is expected to lead to advances in a variety of clinical settings. Several characteristics of urine including a low-protein matrix, ease of testing and a demonstrated proteomic stability offer distinct advantages over current widely used biofluids, serum and plasma. Improvements in our understanding of the urine proteome and in methods used in its evaluation will facilitate the clinical development of urinary protein biomarkers. Multiplexed bead-based immunoassays were utilized to evaluate 211 proteins in urines from 103 healthy donors. An additional 25 healthy donors provided serial urine samples over the course of two days in order to assess temporal variation in selected biomarkers. Nearly one-third of the evaluated biomarkers were detected in urine at levels greater than 1 ng/ml, representing a diverse panel of proteins with respect to structure, function and biological role. The presence of several biomarkers in urine was confirmed by western blot. Several methods of data normalization were employed to assess impact on biomarker variability. A complex pattern of correlations with urine creatinine, albumin and beta-2-microglobulin was observed indicating the presence of highly specific mechanisms of renal filtration. Further investigation of the urinary protein biomarkers identified in this preliminary study along with a consideration of the underlying proteomic trends suggested by these findings should lead to an improved capability to identify candidate biomarkers for clinical development.

  18. Effect of source-separated urine storage on estrogenic activity detected using bioluminescent yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Kivistö, Anniina; Palmroth, Marja R T; Karp, Matti

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to demonstrate that a microbial whole cell biosensor, bioluminescent yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BMAEREluc/ERα) can be applied to detect overall estrogenic activity from fresh and stored human urine. The use of source-separated urine in agriculture removes a human originated estrogen source from wastewater influents, subsequently enabling nutrient recycling. Estrogenic activity in urine should be diminished prior to urine usage in agriculture in order to prevent its migration to soil. A storage period of 6 months is required for hygienic reasons; therefore, estrogenic activity monitoring is of interest. The method measured cumulative female hormone-like activity. Calibration curves were prepared for estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α- ethinylestradiol and estriol. Estrogen concentrations of 0.29-29,640 μg L(-1) were detectable while limit of detection corresponded to 0.28-35 μg L(-1) of estrogens. The yeast sensor responded well to fresh and stored urine and gave high signals corresponding to 0.38-3,804 μg L(-1) of estrogens in different urine samples. Estrogenic activity decreased during storage, but was still higher than in fresh urine implying insufficient storage length. The biosensor was suitable for monitoring hormonal activity in urine and can be used in screening anthropogenic estrogen-like compounds interacting with the receptor.

  19. Effect of source-separated urine storage on estrogenic activity detected using bioluminescent yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Kivistö, Anniina; Palmroth, Marja R T; Karp, Matti

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to demonstrate that a microbial whole cell biosensor, bioluminescent yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BMAEREluc/ERα) can be applied to detect overall estrogenic activity from fresh and stored human urine. The use of source-separated urine in agriculture removes a human originated estrogen source from wastewater influents, subsequently enabling nutrient recycling. Estrogenic activity in urine should be diminished prior to urine usage in agriculture in order to prevent its migration to soil. A storage period of 6 months is required for hygienic reasons; therefore, estrogenic activity monitoring is of interest. The method measured cumulative female hormone-like activity. Calibration curves were prepared for estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α- ethinylestradiol and estriol. Estrogen concentrations of 0.29-29,640 μg L(-1) were detectable while limit of detection corresponded to 0.28-35 μg L(-1) of estrogens. The yeast sensor responded well to fresh and stored urine and gave high signals corresponding to 0.38-3,804 μg L(-1) of estrogens in different urine samples. Estrogenic activity decreased during storage, but was still higher than in fresh urine implying insufficient storage length. The biosensor was suitable for monitoring hormonal activity in urine and can be used in screening anthropogenic estrogen-like compounds interacting with the receptor. PMID:26804108

  20. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.