WorldWideScience

Sample records for 17th century

  1. Dimming of the 17th Century Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Foukal, Peter; Schnerr, Roald

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th - 17th century Sp\\"orer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid- millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared to larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI - effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11- yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20t...

  2. The concept of pain in the 17th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procacci, P; Maresca, M

    1992-01-01

    The 17th century is very important in the history of sensation and pain. Philosophers, as Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, defined a new philosophy of science. Physicians of the iatro-chemical school introduced the first principles of biochemistry, tied to the sensations. Physicians of the iatro-mechanical school postulated a really modern concept: the importance of nerve juices in sensibility and pain.

  3. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola".

  4. Documenting North Netherlandish 17th Century Panel Makers’ House Marks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    accepted panel with the Coat of Arms of Antwerp. This poster shall for the first time present arguments and documentation of a comparable practice of issuing panels with a personal house mark on panels produced in the Northern Netherlands. Especially one panel maker’s mark has been traced a sufficient...... number of times to propose that this practice was established in Dordrecht. It shall further be argued that this may suggest that these incidents would reflect the practice of a few Flemish immigrants who took their native Antwerp tradition with them to the North. This poster is a first attempt...... to present the different North Netherlandish house marks/brands, their design, size, and other characteristics, in chronological order as found on 17th century Netherlandish panels. This information will be presented in conjunction with frequently recorded saw-marks on the back of the panels in conjunction...

  5. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder.

  6. The finger of God : anatomical practice in 17th century Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Tijs

    2008-01-01

    A description of 17th century anatomical activity at the major Dutch university in a cultural context This study offers a history of the Leiden anatomical theatre in the first century of its existence; who were the scientists working there in the 17th century, the Dutch Golden Age. What was the mot

  7. Aspects of negative numbers in the early 17th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaidis, Yannis

    1993-03-01

    This paper argues that the questions, posed by researchers in the field of didactics of mathematics, require new historical research which mainly concerns the problems related to the emergence and evolution of concepts. Motivated by recent historico-didactical studies on negative numbers, the author explores two different types of problems through which these numbers started being used systematically in mathematics. The first problem deals with the correspondence between the terms of an arithmetical and a geometrical progression, which constitutes the theoretical basis of logarithms; the second deals with the application of algebraic syntactical ruies in the theory of equations. In the specific context of these problems, concepts, such as ‘negative logarithm’ or ‘negative root’, were established in the early 17th century, long before the appearance of a general concept of ‘negative quantity’ in mathematical textbooks. The analysis of these problems reveals the conventional character of negative numbers and poses certain questions about the meaning of the various concrete models, traditionally employed in their teaching (via temperature, debits and credits, etc.). Recent, large-scale empirical research has shown a major percentage of failure in understanding negative numbers and their operations; this fact is related to the meanings attributed to negative numbers during their introduction at school. The matter of revising traditional teaching models is considered in connection with a constructive learning hypothesis; there is a need for new problem-situations, which entirely justify the meaning of the concept that must be used and constructed by the pupil and allow a fruitful interaction with it. The case of negative numbers provides an illuminating example of the role historical problems can play in the creation of situations like these.

  8. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: pigments and glazes characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Casimiro, T M; Colomban, Ph

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co(3)O(4) (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co(2)SiO(4), Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the 17th C.) - 824 cm(-1) band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl(2)O(4), Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm(-1) bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  9. Funeral dress and textiles in 17th and 19th century burials in Ostrobothnia, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lipkin; K. Vajanto; T. Kallio-Seppä; T. Kuokkanen; S. Niinimäki; T. Väre; M. van Bommel

    2014-01-01

    The 17th-19th-century burial materials from northern Ostrobothnia are studied in order to consider the value, origin and meaning of textiles especially in child burials. The focus is on the preservation, quality and dyes of burial textiles unearthed at the yard of Oulu Cathedral as well as the cloth

  10. Funeral dress and textiles in 17th and 19th century burials in Ostrobothnia, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipkin, S.; Vajanto, K.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Niinimäki, S.; Väre, T.; van Bommel, M.; Grömer, K.; Pritchard, F.

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-19th-century burial materials from northern Ostrobothnia are studied in order to consider the value, origin and meaning of textiles especially in child burials. The focus is on the preservation, quality and dyes of burial textiles unearthed at the yard of Oulu Cathedral as well as the cloth

  11. 17th century arguments for the impossibility of the indefinite and the definite circle quadrature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The classical problem of the quadrature (or equivalently the rectification) of the circle enjoyed a renaissance in the second half of the 17th century. The new analytic methods provided the means for the discovery of infinite expressions of and for the first attempts to prove impossibility statem...

  12. The search for longitude: Preliminary insights from a 17th Century Dutch perspective

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In the 17th Century, the Dutch Republic played an important role in the scientific revolution. Much of the correspondence among contemporary scientists and their associates is now digitally available through the ePistolarium webtool, allowing current scientists and historians unfettered access to transcriptions of some 20,000 letters from the Dutch Golden Age. This wealth of information offers unprecedented insights in the involvement of 17th Century thinkers in the scientific issues of the day, including descriptions of their efforts in developing methods to accurately determine longitude at sea. Unsurprisingly, the body of correspondence referring to this latter aspect is largely dominated by letters involving Christiaan Huygens. However, in addition to the scientific achievements reported on, we also get an unparalleled and fascinating view of the personalities involved.

  13. Bookkeeping in Manor Farms of Polish Gentry in 17th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolaj TURZYNSKI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The work concerns the bookkeeping solutions used in Polish farms in the 17th century. On the basis of the source texts analysis three approaches to bookkeeping can be distinguished. Bookkeeping was considered to be: • an administrative tool, • a set of reliable solutions for recording and settling accounts with stewards, • a system for recording and establishing money flow and financial gain. The bookkeeping of that time had the following aims: supervision over the resources, reliable registration of quantity and price values for agricultural and animal produce; examining the accountabilities of the property administrators. People responsible for creation of the bookkeeping in 17th century were experienced farm managers. Their views on the processes taking place in the manor farms were in line with the views of the exponents of European mercantilists.

  14. Care of the insane in Lübeck during the 17th and 18th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, Horst; Thomsen, Hans Peter; Hohagen, Fritz

    2010-12-01

    Only selected aspects of the history of the House of the Poor Insane in the Hanseatic Free City of Lübeck have been studied to date.This article presents the results of an entire source study of this small institution in the 17th and 18th centuries, and briefly also during the next 40 years after the opening of a new building. In addition to the minute-book of the Governors, now kept in the Lübeck Municipal Archives, the results are based primarily on the account-books,which illustrate the institution's social history and activities. Examples are given. During most of the 17th century, the House was generally rather like a prison for the insane, but at the end of this century and in the early 18th there was a reform phase.This was followed by phases of repression and 'containment' at the end of the 18th century and in the early 19th century, before a renewed reform by the medical profession.The findings for Lübeck are compared with the development of inpatient care in institutions elsewhere, and the decisive factors in Lübeck are discussed.

  15. LATIN AS A LANGUAGE OF INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIVE STATUS: MEDICINE OF THE 16TH-17TH CENTURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieliaieva, O; Lysanets, Yu; Melaschenko, M

    2017-01-01

    The research paper is of interdisciplinary nature, written at the crossroads of the history of medicine, functional stylistics and terminology science. The choice of the 16th century as a starting point of the study is due to the fact that quality changes in book and manuscript writing that took place during this period led to unprecedented development and dissemination of scientific knowledge, including biomedical. The 16th century embraces the life and work of such prominent figures in the history of medicine, as Andreas Vesalius, Gabriele Fallopian, Bartolomeo Eustachi, and Girolamo Fracastoro. The 17th century, which is called the century of "scientific revolution", left not less honourable names in the history of medicine - William Harvey, Marcello Malpighi, Thomas Willis, Jean Pecquet, Francis Glisson, Thomas Sydenham. In the context of this study, these prominent figures are interesting due to the fact that their works were written in Latin and constitute the prototypes of modern scientific style, in particular of such genres as thesis, monograph, scientific article, scientific report, polemic presentation, textbook. On the basis of extensive factual material, it has been demonstrated that during 16th-17th centuries, Latin acted as a fully developed language with a clearly oriented international status. As one of basic tools in scientific knowledge, Latin not only performed the epistemological function which was the priority for the development of medicine, but also served as a means of accumulation, reception, transmission and popularization of achievements in various areas of medical science.

  16. Multi-analytical study of paint and varnish on a 17th century wooden polychrome antependium

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The antependium of Saint Michael's altar from the church of Saint Catherine in Osič, Croatia, is a work of the 17th century artist Matej Otoni. As a part of her Master's thesis, Aida Grga carried out a complex analysis of the paint layer (binding medium and pigments) and of the resinous varnish found on the object. Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-chemical analysis were used to identify the materials. The investigation was carried out in the Laborat...

  17. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in 17th-18th century remains from Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maca-Meyer, Nicole; Cabrera, Vicente M; Arnay, Matilde; Flores, Carlos; Fregel, Rosa; González, Ana M; Larruga, José M

    2005-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphisms were retrieved (with >80% efficiency) from a 17th-18th century sample of 213 teeth from Tenerife. The genetic composition of this population reveals an important ethnic heterogeneity. Although the majority of detected haplotypes are of European origin, the high frequency of sub-Saharan African haplotypes (15.63%), compared to that of the present-day population (6.6%), confirms the importance of the Canary Islands in the black slave trade of that epoch. The aboriginal substrate, inferred from the U6b1 haplotypes (8.59%), has also decreased due to European input. Finally, the presence of Amerindian lineages (1.5%) reveals that the Canary Islands have also received genetic flow from America.

  18. [Vitalism and mechanism: their meanings in the milieu of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S I

    1993-01-01

    The views on the life in the early modern period (the 17th and 18th centuries) with their socio-cultural backgrounds and their meanings at that time were discussed in this paper. Those views discussed here were the dualistic, mechanistic one of Rene Descartes (1596-1650), the animistic, vitalistic one of Georg Ernst Stahl (1660-1734), and the monistic, mechanistic one of Julien Offray de la Mettrie (1709-1751). Author stressed that the processes of their view formation were influenced by the wide range of the various political and religious factors as well as the scientific, medical facts and opinions at that time, and that not only the contents of the views but also their historical contexts should be pursued in the study on the medical thoughts.

  19. In the sign of Galileo: pictorial representation in the 17th-century Copernican debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmert, Volker R

    2003-03-01

    After Galileo had discovered the four moons of Jupiter in 1609 he became increasingly convinced that the Copernican, heliocentric system of the world was correct. However, this ran against the opinions of the Church and a large number of contemporary astronomers and natural philosophers. The ensuing development culminated in the condemnation of the Copernican system by the Church in 1616 and of Galileo himself, who had propagated the Copernican system in his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632), in 1633. Nevertheless, there was a constant debate about the right world system during the whole 17th century. Pictorial representation played an important role in it and the illustrations used as book frontispieces were a significant medium for the dispute.

  20. Jacob Lorhard’s Ontology: A 17th Century Hypertext on the Reality and Temporality of the World of Intelligibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Schärfe, Henrik; Uckelman, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Jacob Lorhard published his ontology in 1606. In this work the term ontologia ‘ontology’ was used for the first time ever. In this paper, it is argued that Lorhard’s ontology provides a useful key to the understanding of the early 17th-century world view in Protestant Europe. Among other things, ...

  1. Jacob Lorhard's ontology: A 17th century hypertext on the reality and temporality of the world of intelligibles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Øhrstrøm, P.; Schärfe, H.; Uckelman, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Jacob Lorhard published his ontology in 1606. In this work the term ontologia ‘ontology’ was used for the first time ever. In this paper, it is argued that Lorhard’s ontology provides a useful key to the understanding of the early 17th-century world view in Protestant Europe. Among other things, Lor

  2. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

  3. Fan fiction and the author in the early 17th century: The case of Sidney's Arcadia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Simonova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the body of supplements and continuations written during the first half of the 17th century around Sir Philip Sidney's romance, The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia, may usefully be approached as a precedent for fan fiction practice. The incomplete nature of the Arcadia as published left a number of textual gaps that were filled by later writers, with many of their works coming to be included within subsequent reissues of the Arcadia itself. The texts discussed include William Alexander and James Johnstoun's supplements to book 3, Richard Belling's Sixth Booke, Anna Weamys's Continuation, Gervase Markham's English Arcadia, and an anonymous Historie of Arcadia in manuscript. Like contemporary fan fiction, these works adopt Sidney's characters and setting in order to fill apparent gaps, propel the story toward a happy ending, or recast it in an altogether different mold. Moreover, the paratextual materials surrounding these texts—including prefaces, dedications, and commendatory poems—provide important evidence about early modern conceptions of authorship, originality, and literary property.

  4. Book Correction in the 40s of the 17th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Kusmaul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with some of the spelling changes that occurred in the 1640s. Many changes began before Meletius Smotrytsky’s Grammar was published in 1648, and the spelling rules of the Grammar 1648 were formed as a result of corrections in texts produced in the 1640s. At this time, demonstration of word border in writing manifested in clitics separation from autosemantic words, in the appearance of broad grapheme Є and Ѻ, and in changes in the spelling of the conjunction i. The stable orthographic opposition “beginning / not beginning of the word” begins to appear at this time as follows: in the beginning there were Є, Ѻ, ІА, not in the beginning—е, о, ѧ. The distribution of the graphemes ѹ/ȣ was associated with the accent and the position after the vowel o. The article also touches upon the appearance of the lexical homonyms ɪазы́къ ‘nation’—ѧзы́къ ‘tongue’ distinction, changes in the spelling of some borrowed words, and use of the letter Ѕ. Spelling changes of the 1640s are compared with the orthographic norms fixed in the various grammars, as well as in the advice of the Azbukovniks of the early 17th century.

  5. A calendar Quipu of the early 17th century and its relationship with the Inca astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Laurencich-Minelli, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The so-called Miccinelli documents are a set of documents which were written by Jesuit scholars in Peru within the first half of the 17th century. Among such documents, one contains the depiction of a Quipu, that is, a device made out of cords of different nature and colors which, with the help of nodes, were used by the Incas for storing data. This Quipu is claimed by the author, Blas Valera, to be a reproduction of the Inca calendar of the year of the Spanish conquest. We give here a complete analysis of the astronomical events occurred in Cusco in that year, showing that they actually correspond closely to the data reported in the Quipu, and compare the calendrical information - such as the names and the rituals of each month - with those given by other documents, especially the Nuova Coronica by G. Poma de Ayala. The possible relevance of the document for the knowledge of the original Inca lore of the sky is discussed in details.

  6. Radiological Diagnosis of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in 17th Century Korean Mummy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, In Sun; Jung, Go-Un; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Yoo, Dong Su; Lee, Won-Joon; Lee, Eunju; Cha, Soon Chul; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect of the diaphragm resulting in pulmonary sequelae that threaten the lives of infants. In computed tomography (CT) images of a 17th century middle-aged male mummy (the Andong mummy), we observed that the abdominal contents had protruded into the right thoracic cavity through the diaphragmatic defect, accompanied by a mediastinal shift to the left. On autopsy, the defect in the right posterolateral aspect of the diaphragm was reconfirmed, as was the herniation of the abdominal organs. The herniated contents included the right lobe of the liver, the pyloric part of the stomach, a part of the greater omentum, and the right colic flexure connecting the superior part of the ascending colon and the right part of the transverse colon. Taking our CT and autopsy results together, this case was diagnosed as the Bochdalek-type CDH. Herein we make the first ever report of a CT-assisted diagnosis of a pre-modern historical case of CDH. Our results show the promising utility of this modality in investigations of mummified human remains archaeologically obtained. PMID:24988465

  7. The "Divine Design" argument in the English philosophy of nature in the 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Koshelev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of the teleological argument (the design argument as elaborated in the works of the English natural philosophers Robert Boyle and John Ray. The argument in question constitutes one of the most convincing proofs of the existence of the rational design and is primarily known from the “fifth way” of Thomas Aquinas and from the “Natural Theology” by W. Paley. However, the basis for the modern research in this field was created precisely by the above-mentioned natural philosophers in the context of scientific revolution of the 17th century and the mechanistic philosophy that this epoch gave rise to. Recognizing the irrevocability of the conceptualization of the “teleological argument” in Paley for the modern times, the author analyzes the early stages of its formation. The main part of the article is devoted to the analysis of “The Treatise of the Final Causes” by Boyle and “The Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of the Creation” by Ray. Conclusions as to the signifi cance of these works for the consequent development of teleology are given in the final part of the article.

  8. The Shorts of Bury St Edmunds: medicine, Catholicism and politics in the 17th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Francis

    2008-11-01

    The Short family of Bury St Edmunds produced at least eight doctors between the first half of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th. Some of these practised locally and others went on to achieve fame in London or abroad. They included Richard Short (d. 1668), a medical polemicist, and Thomas Short (1635-85) who treated Charles II in his last illness and became the subject of poetry and other literature. The Shorts generated controversy through their adherence to the Roman Catholic faith at a time of persecution and suspicion. Richard Short used medical polemic as a vehicle for advancing his religious views, and his son and nephew became involved in James II's political programme to introduce religious toleration in 1688. After the Revolution the Shorts withdrew from political life but continued in their medical practice and their recusancy. This paper is the first to unravel the family relationships of the Shorts, which previously have eluded most historians.

  9. Multi-analytical study of paint and varnish on a 17th century wooden polychrome antependium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Grga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antependium of Saint Michael's altar from the church of Saint Catherine in Osič, Croatia, is a work of the 17th century artist Matej Otoni. As a part of her Master's thesis, Aida Grga carried out a complex analysis of the paint layer (binding medium and pigments and of the resinous varnish found on the object. Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-chemical analysis were used to identify the materials. The investigation was carried out in the Laboratory for Conservation Research at the Arts Academy of the University of Split, under the supervision of PhD Ivica Ljubenkov.L’antependium de Saint Michel provenant de l’église de Sainte Catherine à Osič, Croatie, est l’œuvre de l’artiste Matej Otoni (XVIIe siècle. Dans le cadre de sa thèse de maîtrise, Aida Grga a exécuté une analyse complexe de la couche picturale (liant et matières colorantes et du vernis trouvés sur l’objet. La chromatographie sur couche mince, la spectroscopie infrarouge (FT-IR et une analyse microchimique ont été utilisés pour identifier les matériaux. La recherche a été effectuée sous la supervision de Dr. Ivica Ljubenkov au Laboratoire de Recherche en Conservation auprès de l’Académie des Beaux Arts de l’Université de Split.

  10. Automatic transcription of 17th century English text in Contemporary English with NooJ: Method and Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Piton, Odile; Pignot, Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006 we have undertaken to describe the differences between 17th century English and contemporary English thanks to NLP software. Studying a corpus spanning the whole century (tales of English travellers in the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century, Mary Astell's essay A Serious Proposal to the Ladies and other literary texts) has enabled us to highlight various lexical, morphological or grammatical singularities. Thanks to the NooJ linguistic platform, we created dictionaries indexing the lexical variants and their transcription in CE. The latter is often the result of the validation of forms recognized dynamically by morphological graphs. We also built syntactical graphs aimed at transcribing certain archaic forms in contemporary English. Our previous research implied a succession of elementary steps alternating textual analysis and result validation. We managed to provide examples of transcriptions, but we have not created a global tool for automatic transcription. Therefore we need to focus on the resu...

  11. The dawning of the theory of equilibrium figures: a brief historical account from the 17th through the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Iurato, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A brief but complete historical survey of the theory of equilibrium figures from its early origins, dating back to 17th-century, until the late 20th-century developments, with a view towards its applications, is carried out.

  12. [The apothecaries of the quartier de la Harpe in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Large families of apothecaries, some of them very famous, lived in the Quartier de la Harpe in Paris, on the left bank of Seine, from the 16th to the 17th century. The study confirms a well-established fact that apothecaries practised endogamy, in others words marriage within the same social class. The biographical research includes ten apothecaries, most of whom lived in the rue Saint-André-des-Arts.

  13. A Statistical Investigation on a Seismic Transient Occurred in Italy Between the 17th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragato, P. L.

    2016-11-01

    According to the historical earthquake catalog of Italy, the country experienced a pulse of seismicity between the 17th century, when the rate of destructive events increased by more than 100%, and the 20th century, characterized by a symmetric decrease. In the present work, I performed a statistical analysis to verify the reliability of such transient, considering different sources of bias and uncertainty, such as completeness and declustering of the catalog, as well as errors on magnitude estimation. I also searched for a confirmation externally to the catalog, analyzing the correlation with the volcanic activity. The similarity is high for the eruptive history of Vesuvius, which agrees on both the main rate changes of the 17th and 20th centuries and on minor variations in the intermediate period. Of general interest, beyond the specific case of Italy, the observed rate changes suggest the existence of large-scale crustal processes taking place within decades and lasting for centuries, responsible for the synchronous activation/deactivation of remote, loosely connected faults in different tectonic domains. Although their origin is still unexplained (I discuss a possible link with the climate changes and the consequent variations of the sea level), their existence and long lasting is critical for seismic hazard computation. In fact, they introduce a hardly predictable time variability that undermines any hypothesis of regularity of the earthquake cycle on individual faults and systems of interconnected faults.

  14. A Statistical Investigation on a Seismic Transient Occurred in Italy Between the 17th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragato, P. L.

    2017-03-01

    According to the historical earthquake catalog of Italy, the country experienced a pulse of seismicity between the 17th century, when the rate of destructive events increased by more than 100%, and the 20th century, characterized by a symmetric decrease. In the present work, I performed a statistical analysis to verify the reliability of such transient, considering different sources of bias and uncertainty, such as completeness and declustering of the catalog, as well as errors on magnitude estimation. I also searched for a confirmation externally to the catalog, analyzing the correlation with the volcanic activity. The similarity is high for the eruptive history of Vesuvius, which agrees on both the main rate changes of the 17th and 20th centuries and on minor variations in the intermediate period. Of general interest, beyond the specific case of Italy, the observed rate changes suggest the existence of large-scale crustal processes taking place within decades and lasting for centuries, responsible for the synchronous activation/deactivation of remote, loosely connected faults in different tectonic domains. Although their origin is still unexplained (I discuss a possible link with the climate changes and the consequent variations of the sea level), their existence and long lasting is critical for seismic hazard computation. In fact, they introduce a hardly predictable time variability that undermines any hypothesis of regularity of the earthquake cycle on individual faults and systems of interconnected faults.

  15. Union catalogue of printed books of 15th, 16th and 17th centuries in European astronomical observatories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, G.

    This catalogue deals with the scientific subjects of that historical period such as astronomy, astrology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, historia naturalis and so forth, and contains extremely rare volumes such as the first printed editions of the eminent Arab, Latin, Greek and Persian scientists Albumasar, Albohazen Aly, Aristoteles, Ptolemaeus, Pliny the Elder and Ulugh Beig. In addition the catalogue contains the first works of such great astronomers of the 16th and 17th centuries as Copernicus, Kepler, Clavius, Regiomontanus, Sacrobosco, Mercator, Newton, Gassendi, Galilei and Hevelius, just to quote the most representative ones. The catalogue is followed by a chronological index and an index of printers and publishers.

  16. Nursing Care Given to the Plague Infected Patients in the Hospital General of Madrid (Spain in the 17th Century.

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    Manuel Jesús García Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the work developed by the nurses of the Hospital general of Madrid (Spain in the treatment of the plague, and the training they received for their welfare tasks in the 17th century. Since the end of the 16th century, nurses knew and implemented a set of techniques and medicines to alleviate the terrible disease of the plague and, despite the scarce knowledge about the disease existing at the time, they sought to prevent the contagion with hygienic and dietary measures, and physical isolation. This study shows through which actions and in which conditions nurses worked to deal with such a terrible disease. All this helps to get a full knowledge of the development of the work done by nurses in the last five centuries and, therefore, to determine the evolution and shaping of the nursing profession in our country.

  17. Tartu as the Eastern Outpost of European Medicine in the First Half of the 17th Century

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    Kaarina Rein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of medicine in Tartu begins with medieval monastic Church, which were probably founded in the middle of the 13th century. The physician who arrived from Tallinn. Up to the beginning of the 17th century, the owners of the pharmacy were the only representatives of academic medicine in Tartu. Academic medical education in Tartu had its beginnings with the academic gymnasium founded in 1630 and the university founded in 1632. One of the three higher faculties at the University of Tartu at that time was the Faculty of Medicine. It was planned to have two professorships, although in reality only one professor of medicine was employed. The model of the University of Paris demanded that all “proper” universities must have a medical faculty. There were very few students studying at the Faculty of Medicine in Tartu in the 17th century. Only two names—David Cunitius and Olaus Oestenius—could be mentioned from among those who studied medicine at Academia Gustaviana and were later active as physicians. There were also students who studied in some other faculty in Tartu and However, the Swedish University of Tartu can be considered an important centre of early modern medical thought in the Eastern Europe. The article tries to give some idea about the medical situation in Tartu before the founding of the University of Tartu and during its early period of existence. The task is to investigate whether the academic medicine of the th century has introduced any changes into the history of medicine of Tartu.

  18. Flash flood occurrences since the 17th century in steep drainage basins in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, A Aurora; Polemio, Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    The historical floods that have occurred since the seventeenth century were collected for a study area in southern Italy. Damages caused by floods, rainfall and the main anthropogenic modifications are discussed all together. The aim was to assess whether the frequency of floods is changing and, if so, whether these changes can be attributed to either rainfall and/or anthropogenic modifications. In 4 % of cases, mainly occurred in past centuries, floods damaged people. Hydraulic works, roads and private buildings were the more frequently damaged elements (25, 18 and 14 % of the cases, respectively). The annual variability of rainfall was discussed using an annual index. Short duration-high intensity rainfalls were characterized considering time series of annual maxima of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h and daily rainfall. The rainfall shows a decreasing trend, in terms of both the annual maximum of short duration and the annual amount. The population has been progressively increasing since the sixteenth century, except during the years following the catastrophic 1908 earthquake. The rate of population growth has been very high since the second half of the twentieth century; the urbanized areas greatly increased, especially following the second half of the twentieth century. At the same time, the trend of damaging floods has been increasing, especially since the seventies. The analysis indicates that, despite a rainfall trend favourable towards a reduction in flood occurrence, floods damage has not decreased. This seems to be mainly the effect of mismanagement of land use modifications.

  19. Recent historiographical trends of the British Studies (17th-18th centuries

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    Mario Caricchio and Giovanni Tarantino (editors

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Seminar index :1. Radicalism and the English revolution Mario CaricchioGlenn BurgessAriel HessayonNicholas McDowell2. Britain 1660-1714: competing historiographiesGiovanni Tarantino Mark Knights3. The Church of England in the eighteenth centuryGuglielmo SannaWilliam GibsonRobert G. IngramRobert D. Cornwall 4. Non-British readings of the English revolutionStefano VillaniGabi MahlbergPietro Messina5. Rediscovering radicalism in the British Isles and Ireland in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth centuries(Selected papers from the Goldsmiths Conference, ed. by Ariel Hessayon

  20. Late Holocene history of Chaitén Volcano: new evidence for a 17th century eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Luis E.; Moreno, Rodrigo; Amigo, Álvaro; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to May 2008, it was thought that the last eruption of Chaitén Volcano occurred more than 5,000 years ago, a rather long quiescent period for a volcano in such an active arc segment. However, increasingly more Holocene eruptions are being identified. This article presents both geological and historical evidence for late Holocene eruptive activity in the 17th century (AD 1625-1658), which included an explosive rhyolitic eruption that produced pumice ash fallout east of the volcano and caused channel aggradation in the Chaitén River. The extents of tephra fall and channel aggradation were similar to those of May 2008. Fine ash, pumice and obsidian fragments in the pre-2008 deposits are unequivocally derived from Chaitén Volcano. This finding has important implications for hazards assessment in the area and suggests the eruptive frequency and magnitude should be more thoroughly studied.

  1. Buckley Sgraffito: a study of a 17th century pottery industry in North Wales, its production techniques and design influences

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    Christine Longworth

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The area around Buckley in north Wales has been associated with the production of pottery since the 13th or 14th centuries. Nineteen different pottery sites have been identified, producing a wide range of ceramic wares in the six-hundred year period up to the mid-20th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries, many of the wares produced were of high quality, on a par with Staffordshire wares of the same date. In the early 17th century, the technique of sgraffito decoration spread to north Devon and Somerset from mainland Europe. Buckley is the only known site to produce early sgraffito wares in northern Britain. This article aims to establish the date of the production and range of early sgraffito wares at Buckley and to examine the derivation of the designs and illustrations on the vessels. An illustrated catalogue has been produced and a comparative study made of sgraffito wares elsewhere to place Buckley into a national and international context. The results show that early sgraffito production at Brookhill pottery, Buckley, was between 1640-1720. Of the excavated pieces, 62% were made between 1640-1680, and the number of sherds by vessel number is also greater within that date range. All the vessels are dishes. The form and designs on the remainder of the sherds, dated up to 1720, are no different from those dated to 1640-1680, which suggests a continuous period of production. The most common themes on the pots – tulips, leaves, mottoes, animals and birds – relate very closely to the designs featured on other objects made in the same period such as textiles, wallpaper, furniture and manuscripts. Some of the designs were available in pattern books for particular groups of objects, for example needlework and pastry decoration. There is an interesting sub-group of pieces with animal and bird motifs and mottoes on the rims. It is possible that the influence for these came from a resurgence of interest in the medieval bestiary texts and

  2. Saint Lucia's worship by fishermans and sailors in Trapani between 16th and 17th centuries

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    Michele Giacalone

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the identification of the whole body of a stony epigraphic and figure document, belonging to the town of Trapani. Up to know this document, of the XVII century, has been considered preserved only partly, and for what regards the prominent remaining part, that was the figure part, it was known only thanks to an Eighteenth century transcription endowed with a drawing. On the one hand, regarding the figure plaque, it is shown the monumental complex which it belongs to i.e. the Church of Santa Lucia in Trapani, today fallen into disuse, in relation to the historical evolution of the urban area of Trapani; on the other hand, it is highlightened its historical-social and historical-religious importance, since it expresses the devotions of the fishermen and seamen social classes of Trapani, who asked this document as memorial of a very lucky coral fishing. The epigraphic and figure text allows to read the most deep-rooted faith trends into some definite social classes of the society of the Trapani society, from the end of the Medieval Age till now. This document can be considered as an extraordinary nautical chart about the whole coast of Trapani, as it equipped with correct indicationsabout distances and paths, and geomorphologic and toponymic exact indications.

  3. Dramatis persona in poetical and practical approach of dramatic text in 17th century French theory of theatre

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    Michał Bajer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the dramatis persona posited by the first French theatre theorists of the Richelieu circle, Jean Chapelain and Jules de la Mesnardiere, emerges as a quite literał implementation of the Aristotelian concepts unfolded in the sixth and fifteenth chapter of his Poetics. In a later period, the third of the aforementioned group of authors, François Hédelin d’Aubignac, dismisses the Aristotelian categories, erecting his theory upon the elements adopted from the Roman theory of rhetoric. The analysis of the Persona in classical drama theory allows to reconstruct the relation between these two 17th century dramatic approaches. The former is the traditional perspective relying on the postulations of the Aristotelian theory. The latter, which is a practical grasp, is new to the 17th century’s dramatic mindset, and was formulated by abbé d’Aubignac. Whereas the axis of poetics is the structural analysis of a work of art, it is the functioning of that work of art in the theatrical process of communication between the stage and the audience that remains the core interest of the practical approach. In this process, the rhetorical effect of presence of the dramatis persona should by created in the imagination of the spectator-auditor. The subject of analysis is common to both perspectives and the discrepancies concem merely aspects of its description. Therefore poetics and practice are neither competitive nor mutually exclusive, but can both legitimately coexist in the description of the very same work of art.

  4. «Zemsky Sobors» of the late 16th – early 17th century in Russia: historiographical stereotypes in the reflection of historical sources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

     In the works on the history of the Russian Zemsky Sobors, there is a tradition to draw a parallel between the Sobors and representative bodies of European countries in the 16th –17th centuries (the English Parliament, the French States General, the Spanish Cortes). It is believed that the end of the 16th – early 17th century, especially the Time of Troubles, was the heyday of Zemsky Sobors (when a weak Central government, in the conditions of the civil war, had to look for support in the org...

  5. Popular Religion in the Periphery. Church Attendance in 17th Century Eastern Finland

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    Kuha Miia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the fringes of post-Reformation Europe, church and state authorities faced problems in enforcing church attendance. In the Swedish kingdom, religious uniformity was seen as vital for the success of the state after the Lutheran confession had been established, and absences from church were punishable by law. The seventeenth century saw significant tightening of legislation relating to church absences and other breaches of the Sabbath, and severe punishments were introduced. Despite considerable deterrents, it was sometimes difficult to control local inhabitants: absence cases were regularly brought before the local courts in Eastern Finland, where authorities were hampered by a combination of geographical distance and a highly mobile population. In this article, popular church-going practices are studied with an approach inspired by historical anthropology. In popular practice church attendance was required only on the most important holy days of the year, whereas on Sundays and prayer days, work or leisure were considered socially acceptable pursuits. Explanations of nonattendance should not only make reference to trying conditions: in certain situations people would travel long distances to church, despite the obvious difficulties they faced. Popular religious traditions and old conceptions of sacred time also affected behaviour among peasants. The great holy days of the year formed a ritual cycle, the aim of which was the maintenance of good relations with the supernatural. For the success of oneself and one’s household, it was more important to follow the norms of popular culture than the orders of the authorities.

  6. European Climate and Pinot Noir Grape-Harvest Dates in Burgundy, since the 17th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourre, Y. M.

    2011-12-01

    Time-series of growing season air temperature anomalies in the Parisian region and of 'Pinot Noir' grape-harvest dates (GHD) in Burgundy (1676-2004) are analyzed in the frequency-domain. Variability of both time-series display three significant frequency-bands (peaks significant at the 5% level) i.e., a low-frequency band (multi-decadal) with a 25-year peak period; a 3-to-8 year band period (inter-annual) with a 3.1-year peak period; and a 2-to-3 year band period (quasi-biennial) with a 2.4-year peak period. Joint sea surface temperature/sea level pressure (SST/SLP) empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analyses during the 20th century, along with spatio-temporal patterns for the above frequency-bands are presented. It is found that SST anomalies display early significant spatial SST patterns in the North Atlantic Ocean (air temperature lagging by 6 months) similar to those obtained from EOF analyses. It is thus proposed that the robust power spectra for the above frequency-bands could be linked with Atlantic climate variability metrics modulating Western European climate i.e., 1) the global Multi-decadal Oscillation (MDO) with its Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) footprint; 2) the Atlantic Inter-Annual (IA) fluctuations; and 3) the Atlantic Quasi-Biennial (QB) fluctuations, respectively. Moreover these specific Western European climate signals have effects on ecosystem health and can be perceived as contributors to the length of the growing season and the timing of GHD in Burgundy. Thus advance knowledge on the evolution and phasing of the above climate fluctuations become important elements for viticulture and wine industry management. It is recognized that anthropogenic effects could have modified time-series patterns presented here, particularly since the mid 1980s.

  7. Reading the Qur,ān in the 17th-Century Sephardi Community of Amsterdam

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    den Boer, Harm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an unknown Spanish translation of the Qur’ān, extant at the Ets Haim/Livraria Montezinos Library of the Portuguese Jewish Community of Amsterdam. The manuscript dates from the seventeenth century and was the work of a Spanish or Portuguese Jew living in Amsterdam or another community of the Sephardi diaspora. In the present contribution, a detailed material description of the manuscript and its contents, as well as of its Italian and Spanish sources, is offered. While the translator claimed that the work was translated “word for word from Arabic,” he actually used the Italian version of the Qur’ān by Giovanni Battista Castrodardo, published by Andrea Arrivabene in Venice in 1547. The short appendix on the life of Muḥammad, on the other hand was based on a Spanish polemical work addressed to the minority of the moriscos: the Confutación del Al corán y secta mahometana by Lope de Obregón, published in Granada in 1555. This translation represents a unique case-study of the re-contextualization of the Qur’ān in early modern Europe and of the History of Reading across European and Mediterranean confessions.Este trabajo presenta una traducción del Corán al castellano, desconocida hasta ahora, conservada en la Ets Haim/Biblioteca Montezinos de la comunidad judío-portuguesa de Amsterdam. El manuscrito data del siglo XVII y fue la obra de un judío español o portugués que vivía en Amsterdam o en otra comunidad de la diaspora Sefardí. En este estudio se ofrece una descripción material detallada del manuscrito y de su contenido, así como un análisis de sus fuentes italianas y españolas. Aunque el traductor dice haber traducido la obra «palabra por palabra del árabe», en realidad, parece haber utilizado la versión italiana del Corán realizada por Giovanni Battista Castrodardo y publicada por Andrea Arrivabene en Venecia (1547. Un corto apéndice sobre la vida de Mahoma, por otro lado, se basa en una

  8. [Principles of order in the color systems of the 17th century. (Franciscus Aguilonius--Athanasius Kircher--Isaac Newton)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, W

    1984-04-01

    Since Aristotle there have been two colour order systems: The first is according to the subjective luminosity of colours, and the second is that which is found in the rainbow. Almost all the medieval concepts of colour order were based on the subjective luminosity of colours. At the beginning of the 17th century Franciscus Aguilonius still described the traditional sequence according to subjective luminosity: white, yellow, red, blue and black in his colour order system. - Athanasius Kircher demonstrated two sequences: The first was the same as Aguilonius 's, completed by lists of symbolic qualities attributed to the respective colours; The second was the sequence of the prismatic spectrum; red, orange, yellow, green and blue. Violet was still missing from his spectrum. For that reason the idea of arranging the colours in a closed circle did not occur to him. - Isaac Newton added violet to the prismatic spectrum. Hence he was able to bring the ends of the spectrum together, forming a colour circle. He completed the colours of his spectrum "with those purple hues which, although not present in the spectrum, were familiar to painters and dyers , and in this way closed up the colour-circle into a band returning on itself" (W. Ostwald). Thus he combined the perceptual concept of the colour wheel, containing pairs of complementary colours, with the physical concept of the prismatic spectrum.

  9. Floods of the Lower Tisza from the late 17th century onwards: frequency, magnitude, seasonality and great flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper is based on a recently developed database including contemporary original, administrative, legal and private source materials (published and archival) as well as media reports related to the floods occurred on the lower sections of the Tisza river in Hungary, with special emphasis on the area of Szeged town. The study area is well-represented by contemporary source evidence from the late 17th century onwards, when the town and its broader area was reoccupied from the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Concerning the applied source materials, the main bases of investigation are the administrative (archival) sources such as town council protocols of Szeged and county meeting protocols of Csanád and Csongrád Counties. In these (legal-)administrative documents damaging events (natural/environmental hazards) were systematically recorded. Moreover, other source types such as taxation-related damage accounts as well as private and official reports, letters and correspondence (published, unpublished) were also included. Concerning published evidence, a most important source is flood reports in contemporary newspapers as well as town chronicles and other contemporary narratives. In the presentation the main focus is on the analysis of flood-rich flood-poor periods of the last ca. 330 years; moreover, the seasonality distribution as well as the magnitude of Tisza flood events are also discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to provide a short overview, in the form of case studies, on the greatest flood events (e.g. duration, magnitude, damages, multi-annual consequences), and their further impacts on the urban and countryside development as well as on (changes in) flood defence strategies. In this respect, especially two flood events, the great (1815-)1816 and the catastrophic 1879 flood (shortly with causes and consequences) - that practically erased Szeged town from the ground - are presented in more detail.

  10. Hydrometeorological extremes reconstructed from documentary evidence for the Jihlava region in the 17th-19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolak, Lukas; Brazdil, Rudolf; Chroma, Katerina; Valasek, Hubert; Belinova, Monika; Reznickova, Ladislava

    2016-04-01

    Different documentary evidence (taxation records, chronicles, insurance reports etc.) is used for reconstruction of hydrometeorological extremes (HMEs) in the Jihlava region (central part of the recent Czech Republic) in the 17th-19th centuries. The aim of the study is description of the system of tax alleviation in Moravia, presentation of utilization of early fire and hail damage insurance claims and application of the new methodological approaches for the analysis of HMEs impacts. During the period studied more than 400 HMEs were analysed for the 16 estates (past basic economic units). Late frost on 16 May 1662 on the Nove Mesto na Morave estate, which destroyed whole cereals and caused damage in the forests, is the first recorded extreme event. Downpours causing flash floods and hailstorms are the most frequently recorded natural disasters. Moreover, floods, droughts, windstorms, blizzards, late frosts and lightning strikes starting fires caused enormous damage as well. The impacts of HMEs are classified into three categories: impacts on agricultural production, material property and the socio-economic impacts. Natural disasters became the reasons of losses of human lives, property, supplies and farming equipment. HMEs caused damage to fields and meadows, depletion of livestock and triggered the secondary consequences as lack of seeds and finance, high prices, indebtedness, poverty and deterioration in field fertility. The results are discussed with respect to uncertainties associated with documentary evidences and their spatiotemporal distribution. Archival records, preserved in the Moravian Land Archives in Brno and other district archives, create a unique source of data contributing to the better understanding of extreme events and their impacts.

  11. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  12. The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century

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    Kozma Ahačič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century Summary The paper provides a sociolinguistic survey of the use of Slovenian in education, the church, and early theatre performances in the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century. The extant studies and primary sources serve to identify the occasions for, and forms of, its use. The practice of elementary education shows no significant changes between the 16th and 17th centuries; there are, however, some changes at the ideological level. There is no explicit request for elementary education in Slovenian, either in the period of the Catholic reformation or later, while the demand for the use of Slovenian in education is primarily limited to catechesis: in catechesis, however, the emphasis was not on reading texts but on listening and on spoken reproduction. Some sources do suggest the use of Slovenian in elementary education at certain “non-Slovenian” schools, but it was not systematic. The same applies to the Ljubljana Jesuit gymnasium, where the use of Slovenian is likely – especially at the early stages – but lacks immediate evidence. On the other hand, the presence of Slovenian can be proved for the theological seminary adjoining the Ljubljana Cathedral, as well as for the educational centre at Gornji Grad. Moreover, the great number of Jesuit gymnasia significantly improved the general language knowledge in their localities as compared to the previous periods. The use of Slovenian in church was concentrated in preaching. All Slovenian priests were encouraged by the bishops to preach, and there were ecclesiastical orders that particularly fostered this activity. Sources testify to the delivery of Slovenian sermons by the Capuchin Friars, Jesuits, and Franciscans, while the role of Slovenian in the sermons by the Dominicans, Augustinians and Cistercians has received less attention. Of

  13. «Zemsky Sobors» of the late 16th – early 17th century in Russia: historiographical stereotypes in the reflection of historical sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vladímirovich LISÉYTSEV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  In the works on the history of the Russian Zemsky Sobors, there is a tradition to draw a parallel between the Sobors and representative bodies of European countries in the 16th –17th centuries (the English Parliament, the French States General, the Spanish Cortes. It is believed that the end of the 16th – early 17th century, especially the Time of Troubles, was the heyday of Zemsky Sobors (when a weak Central government, in the conditions of the civil war, had to look for support in the organs of estate representation. Meanwhile, the analysis of historical sources does not allow to assume that during this period the Zemsky Sobors played a greater role than they did previously. Even the most studied Zemsky Sobors – the elective Sobors of 1598 and 1613 – were held with serious violations of election procedures, and the provinces were not represented to the extent it was described in the official documents. The question of the place of the Zemsky Sobors in the political system of Muscovite state at the beginning of the 17th century requires further analysis.

  14. Sine Labe. Immaculatism in 15th to 17th-Century Spain: The Social Projection of a Religious Imaginary

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    Ruiz-Gálvez Priego, Estrella

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Immaculatism, the devotion to the Virgin Mary, is an area of research of especial relevance for the history of social and religious mentalities. In Spain, it became a Matter of State from the 15th to the 17th centuries. The author aims to unravel how it was that such an abstruse and seemingly foreign-to-everyday-concerns theological subject turned into a social issue. Rooted in the theological discourse concerning human nature as “stained”, the concept of “original sin” began in the 13th century to be understood in terms of “infidelity”. In 1215, the 4th Lateran Council established a system of signs as markers for “infidels”, the first step toward an assimilation of the notions of fidelity/infidelity into those of trustworthiness/unloyalty which would later mean the association of the concept of original sin with that of the sin of the converts. In addition, the jural notions of Pactum and Fides, basis of the Feudal Contract, would inform the relationships between Man and God. Worshiping the Precious Blood of Jesus would impinge upon the so-called statutes for “Cleanliness” and “Nobility” of blood. This statutory definition of one’s blood would pass to one’s descendants, its formulation in terms of purity/impurity determining one’s social integration or exclusion.El inmaculismo, devoción a la Virgen, constituye un campo de investigación particularmente interesante para la historia de las mentalidades sociales y religiosas, llegando a ser asunto de Estado en la España de los siglos XV al XVIII. Nuestro propósito es elucidar cómo pudo llegar a convertirse en cuestión social un asunto de teología tan árduo y aparentemente tan alejado de lo cotidiano. Partiendo del discurso sobre la naturaleza humana “manchada” de los teólogos, llegamos al momento (siglo XIII en que la “mácula original” empieza a traducirse en términos de “infidelidad”. Las marcas decretadas por el IV Concilio de Letrán (1215

  15. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied.

  16. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 2: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes of the three main production centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Ferreira, D P; Conceição, D S; Santos, L F; Pereira, M F C; Casimiro, T M; Ferreira Machado, I

    2015-01-01

    Sherds representative of the three Portuguese faience production centers of the 17th century - Lisbon, Coimbra and Vila Nova were studied with the use of mostly non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence emission (XRF). X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were also performed. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the pastes of the pottery produced Vila Nova and some of the ceramic pastes from Lisbon, in accordance with documental sources that described the use of Lisbon clays by Vila Nova potters, at least since mid 17th century. Quartz and Gehlenite are the main components of the Lisbon's pastes, but differences between the ceramic pastes were detected pointing out to the use of several clay sources. The spectroscopic trend exhibited Coimbra's pottery is remarkably different, Quartz and Diopside being the major components of these pastes, enabling one to well define a pattern for these ceramic bodies. The blue pigment from the Lisbon samples is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix, which enables the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals in most productions of the second half of the 17th century. No micro-Raman cobalt blue signature could be detected in the Vila Nova and Coimbra blue glazes. This is in accordance with the lower kiln temperatures in these two production centers and with Co(2+) ions dispersed in the silicate matrix. In all cases the white glaze is obtained with the use of tin oxide. Hausmannite was detected as the manganese oxide mineral used to produce the purple glaze (wine color "vinoso") in Lisbon.

  17. Traditional costume as a migration phenomenon on the part of the Adriatic coast in the 17th and 18th century

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    Radojičić Dragana S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrations from Herzegovina and Montenegro to the Herceg Novi region, during the period from the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries, were the reasons for investigation (thanks to the preserved archive material of female "traditional costumes" involved in these migrations. Clothing retained the influence of Balkan, Slav, Oriental and Mediterranean cultures. The function of clothing (for work and ceremonial occasions was studied, as well as changes within the generation, regardless of whether the individual items were in constant use or only used on one occasion.

  18. [The magic universe of cures: the role of magic practices and witchcraft in the universe of 17th century Mato Grosso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the role of healing agents played by practitioners of magic and witchcraft in Mato Grosso society during the 17th century. It observes that magic and witchcraft were developed as competitors, alternatives or associated with other forms of healing (official and lay). It points out how such roles contributed to the process of subjugating its practitioners, especially Africans, Indians and their descendents, and were appropriated as an opportunity for survival in the colonial slave society. The pastoral visit made by Bruno Pinna in 1785 to Cuiabá and nearby areas served as the principal source of knowledge regarding the practices and practitioners of magic and witchcraft.

  19. Visualizing the 17th century underpainting in Portrait of an Old Man by Rembrandt van Rijn using synchrotron-based scanning macro-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfeld, Matthias; Janssens, Koen [University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry, Antwerpen (Belgium); Siddons, D.P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source, Upton, NY (United States); Dik, Joris [Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, Delft (Netherlands); Woll, Arthur [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca, NY (United States); Kirkham, Robin [CSIRO, Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Wetering, Ernst van de [Rembrandt Research Project, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    In 17th century Old Master Paintings, the underpainting generally refers to the first sketch of a composition. The underpainting is applied to a prepared ground using a monochrome, brown oil paint to roughly indicate light, shade and contours. So far, methods to visualize the underpainting - other than in localized cross-sections - have been very limited. Neither infrared reflectography nor neutron induced autoradiography have proven to be practical, adequate visualization tools. Thus, although of fundamental interest in the understanding of a painting's genesis, the underpainting has virtually escaped all imaging efforts. In this contribution we will show that 17th century underpainting may consist of a highly heterogeneous mixture of pigments, including copper pigments. We suggest that this brown pigment mixture is actually the recycled left-over of a palette scraping. With copper as the heaviest exclusive elemental component, we will hence show in a case study on a Portrait of an Old Man attributed to Rembrandt van Rijn how scanning macro-XRF can be used to efficiently visualize the underpainting below the surface painting and how this information can contribute to the discussion of the painting's authenticity. (orig.)

  20. [[The apothecaries of the district of Les Halles in Paris in the 17th century. Molière's ancestors in Les Halles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warolin, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Les Halles were created by King Louis VI at the begining of the 12th century as a central market for food and trade. Apothecaries conducted their trade there from that time. In the 17th century, eleven apothecaries were established in this district, bordered on the south by the rue Saint-Honoré, on the east by the rue Saint-Denis, on the west by the rue de la Tonnellerie, and the north by the rue Montmartre. Their biographies have been analysed, and the data that has been collected has enabled their précise location to be fixed on a map of 1700. Molière's ancestors, both maternal (the Cressé family) and paternal (the Pocquelin's), lived in this district. Details of their relationships with their apothecary neighbours have been revealed.

  1. The Ballet-Pantomime Technique of Passions: Constructing Knowledge of Dance during the 17th and 18th Centuries

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    Juan Ignacio VALLEJOS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the fundamentals of the pantomime-ballet dance technique, which was characteristic of the eighteenth century. In particular, it explores how knowledge developed with regard to the representation of passions and expressive gestures. Our hypothesis proposes the existence of a correlation between the regulation of the theatrical practice of dance in the seventeenth century, during the reign of Louis XIV, and the discourses on the dancing-body that accompanied the zenith of the pantomime-ballet project between 1760 and 1776. In this way, we show that the passage from baroque ballet to pantomimeballet represents a breakthrough in body encoding as well as a development of the aesthetic framework for the theatrical expression of the dancer.

  2. The puzzle of human emotions: some historical considerations from the 17th to the 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Caterina

    2008-07-01

    Emotions are both central to life experience itself and highly pertinent to various disciplines, including neuroscience, psychology, social studies, philosophy, and the arts. The definition of emotion lies at the interface of nature and culture reflecting an understanding of the components that shape emotional states and experiences across time and cultures. This review describes how the concept of emotion developed in Western thought, from the Renaissance notion of the passions to the 19th century idea of 'emotion'.

  3. Composition of Façon de Venise glass from early 17th century London in comparison with luxury glass of the same age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagno, S.; De Raedt, I.; Jeffries, T.; Janssens, K.

    SEM-EDX and LA-ICP-MS analyses were performed on a set of early 17th century London glass fragments. The samples originate from two archaeological sites (Aldgate and Old Broad Street) where glass workshops were active in this period. The great majority of the samples are made of soda glass. Two distinct compositional groups are observed, each typical of one site of provenance. The samples originating from the Old Broad Street excavation feature a silica-soda-lime composition, with a moderate amount of potash. The samples from Aldgate are richer in potassium and feature higher amounts of trace elements such as Rb, Zr and Cu. The distinction between the two groups stems from different flux and silica sources used for glassmaking. A comparison with different European glass compositions of that time reveals no resemblance with genuine Venetian production, yet the composition of the Old Broad Street glass shows a close similarity to that of fragments produced `à la façon de Venise' in Antwerp at the end of the 16th century. This coincides with historical sources attesting the arrival of glassworkers from the Low Countries in England and suggests that a transfer of technology took place near the turn of the century.

  4. Distinguished figures in descriptive geometry and its applications for mechanism science from the middle ages to the 17th century

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book consists of chapters that focus specifically on single figures that worked on Descriptive Geometry and also in Mechanisms Sciences and contain biographical notes, a survey of their work and their achievements, together with a modern interpretation of their legacy. Since Vitruvius in ancient times, and with Brunelleschi in the Renaissance, the two disciplines began to share a common direction which, over the centuries, took shape through less well-known figures until the more recent times in which Gaspard Monge worked. Over the years, a gap has been created between Descriptive Geometry and Mechanism Science, which now appear to belong to different worlds. In reality, however, there is a very close relationship between the two disciplines, with a link based on extremely solid foundations. Without the theoretical foundations of Geometry it would not be possible to draw and design mechanical parts such as gears, while in Kinematics it would be less easy to design and predict the reciprocal movements of ...

  5. Russian Representative Institutions of the 16th-17th Centuries in the European Context: A Historiographical Perspective

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    Vladislav Dmítrievich NAZÁROV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of the origins and development of Zemsky Sobors – Russian representative institutions, their main features and differences from corresponding bodies in Western Europe. It marks out those traits of Russian history that determined the character and development dynamics of Zemsky Sobors, shows a connection between their heyday and specific condition of Russian society and state during the Time of Troubles, and describes some sources for this subject. The focus of the article is on Russian research of the history of representative institutions in Russia and Western Europe. It also investigates a close attention to European historical experience, inherent in the Russian social thought. In this context reasons for the origin and existence of the term of «estaterepresentative monarchy», characteristic for the Russian historiography, are analysed. And the main periods of the study of representative institutions from the mid-19th century to the present day are determined and characterised. The article considers the outcome of a Moscow conference of 2013 devoted to the representative Institutions of Russia in the european context and outlines perspectives of further research.

  6. Trusteeship and Cooperation in the Flemish merchants community in Cadiz: The brotherhood of “San Andrés de los Flamencos” (17th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr Ana Crespo Solana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents information on the development, over the centuries, of a little known aspect of the communities of foreign Merchants who settled in Spanish cities during the Modern Age. Using previously unpublished documents, relating to the “Ilustre y Antigua Nación Flamenca” of Seville and Cádiz, the article aims to give a description of the charitable activities carried out by the colony of merchants in Seville and, especially, in Cádiz, who were natives of the Southern Low Countries and the Dutch Republic. This merchant community had assigned the administration of a “Patronato” to their brotherhood, which included the control of numerous items of furniture and properties of great value. The description of this religious and benevolent activity gives a no less interesting view, when compared with the purely economic one, of its importance on the integration of these communities into the Spanish society of the 17th and 18th centuries. This research has been made with historical documents from Spanish Archives (Cádiz, Madrid and Alcalá de Henares.

  7. Trusteeship and Cooperation in the Flemish merchants community in Cadiz: The brotherhood of “San Andrés de los Flamencos” (17th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr Ana Crespo Solana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available  This article presents information on the development, over the centuries, of a little known aspect of the communities of foreign Merchants who settled in Spanish cities during the Modern Age. Using previously unpublished documents, relating to the “Ilustre y Antigua Nación Flamenca” of Seville and Cádiz, the article aims to give a description of the charitable activities carried out by the colony of merchants in Seville and, especially, in Cádiz, who were natives of the Southern Low Countries and the Dutch Republic. This merchant community had assigned the administration of a “Patronato” to their brotherhood, which included the control of numerous items of furniture and properties of great value. The description of this religious and benevolent activity gives a no less interesting view, when compared with the purely economic one, of its importance on the integration of these communities into the Spanish society of the 17th and 18th centuries. This research has been made with historical documents from Spanish Archives (Cádiz, Madrid and Alcalá de Henares.

  8. The Register of Slovenian-Language Manuscripts from the 17th and 18th Centuries: Repository, Digital Library and Research Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Ogrin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper gives a thorough examination of the Register of Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries from different points of view: it is presented as a digital repository in humanities disciplines available for searching (digital library and as a methodological framework of further scholarly research and discoveries in the field. Manuscripts, especially the manuscripts of Slovenian literature, have not been sufficiently taken into consideration so far. They have always been given but a sketchy treatment serving merely to illustrate the general outlines of the nation’s literary and cultural development. They have rarely been dealt with in specialised studies or scientific publications. This is the reason why they have not been registered and recorded in archival and library collections. Different guides to manuscripts offer only basic and limited information from which it is often impossible to identify the language, the content, and the history of a manuscript. With regard to the state-of-the- art of Slovenian manuscript research in the field of Slavic studies, archival studies and codicology, it was indispensable to thoroughly record and research the preserved manuscripts by the use of a uniform, rational and consistent method. In reference to these premises a new research project has been started resulting in accurate, thorough and rigorously structured descriptions of manuscripts. The idea of Slovenian manuscript register was developed comprising manuscript descriptions complemented by digital images or facsimiles thus visually presenting the manuscripts and facilitating further research in the field.The 3-year work resulted in the portal: Unknown Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18 th centuries. The main project result was the register of Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries. To date, it contains detailed descriptions of the first 100 manuscripts and over 7

  9. A XANES study of cobalt speciation state in blue-and-white glazes from 16th to 17th century Chinese porcelains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, M.O., E-mail: ondina.figueiredo@lneg.pt [CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); National Laboratory of Energy and Geology (LNEG), Apartado 7586, 2721-866 Alfragide (Portugal); Silva, T.P. [National Laboratory of Energy and Geology (LNEG), Apartado 7586, 2721-866 Alfragide (Portugal); CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Veiga, J.P. [CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Speciation of cobalt in ancient Chinese porcelain glazes studied by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue pigmenting role of tetrahedral Co{sup 2+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainties in deducing a formal valence state for cobalt ions from the edge energy. - Abstract: The composition of cobalt blue pigments used in ancient blue-and-white Chinese glazes is known to have changed between the 14th and the 17th century and ratios of some main chemical components plus trace elements are relevant guide-lines to establish the porcelain manufacture period. Once archaeological findings of Chinese porcelains can contribute to set up dating processes, a study of blue-and-white porcelain shards recovered during recent excavations in Lisbon Old-City was carried out by non-destructive laboratory X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for chemical characterization, combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) using synchrotron radiation to ascertain the formal valence and coordination of pigmenting cobalt ions. Following a preliminary extended X-ray absorption fine-structure study that revealed a coordination of divalent cobalt ions slightly above four, a detailed analysis of the near-edge region of Co 1s X-ray absorption spectra (XANES) was carried out on the blue-and-white glazes from those archaeological Chinese porcelain fragments. Pre-edge features and edge details are discussed in comparison with XANES spectra obtained from model compounds with well known crystal structure - Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, plus a cobalt-based blue pigment (cerulean). Present chemical data validate the manufacture period of studied Chinese porcelains advanced by Art Historians on the single basis of stylistic features (late 16th and medium 17th century). Spectroscopic results confirm a coordination environment of pigmenting Co{sup 2+} ions close to tetrahedral and

  10. Quantification of the early small-scale fishery in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in the late 17th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aare Verliin

    Full Text Available Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses.

  11. Identification of resinous materials on 16th and 17th century reverse-glass objects by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick; Koller, Johann

    2009-07-01

    Objects of hinterglasmalerei, reverse-glass paintings, are painted on the back side of glass panels. Obviously, the paint layers are applied in reverse order, starting with the uppermost layer. The finished hinterglas painting is viewed through the glass, thus revealing an impressive gloss and depth of colour. The binding media of two precious objects of hinterglasmalerei from the 16th and 17th century have been identified as almost exclusively resinous. Identification was performed by a special optimised analysis procedure, which is discussed in this paper: solvent extracts are analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, both with and without derivatisation or hydrolysis. In an additional step, oxalic acid is added to the methanol extracts prior to injection. This attenuates the peaks of the non-acidic compounds, whereas the acids elute with good resolution. The non-acidic compounds are emphasised after injection of the underivatised extracts. This approach minimises compositional changes caused by the sample preparation and derivatisation steps. Chromatograms of aged samples with a very complex composition are simplified, which allows a more reliable and straightforward identification of significant markers for various materials. The binding media of the hinterglas objects were thus shown to consist of mixtures of different natural resins, larch turpentine, heat-treated Pinaceae resin or mastic. Typical compounds of dragon's blood, a natural red resin, were also detectable in red glazes by the applied analysis routine. Identification of the binding media provides valuable information that can be used in the development of an adequate conservation treatment.

  12. The features of choosing an institutional development trajectory in Eastern Europe in the 16th—17th centuries: Moscovy and the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovin M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed an increase in the number of works dedicated to the analysis of effects of historical events on the choice of institutions and further economic and social development of regions. This article employs the new institutional economic theory approach to consider the choices regarding title to land and serfdom in Moscovy and the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth (earlier the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 16th—17th centuries. The author emphasizes the factors, which affected the choice of institutional development trajectory, and considers the influence exerted by these institutes on the political and military development of these states. This article shows how the contingent property rights in Moscovy turned out to be competitive in the conditions of a considerable contribution of decentralization factors to defence capacity and, opposite to the situation in the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth, ensured the formation of large and efficient troops. This work contributes to the research on the property rights and Russian economic history.

  13. The features of choosing an institutional development trajectory in Eastern Europe in the 16th—17th centuries: Moscovy and the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovin Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed an increase in the number of works dedicated to the analysis of effects of historical events on the choice of institutions and further economic and social development of regions. This article employs the new institutional economic theory approach to consider the choices regarding title to land and serfdom in Moscovy and the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth (earlier the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 16th—17th centuries. The author emphasizes the factors, which affected the choice of institutional development trajectory, and considers the influence exerted by these institutes on the political and military development of these states. This article shows how the contingent property rights in Moscovy turned out to be competitive in the conditions of a considerable contribution of decentralization factors to defence capacity and, opposite to the situation in the Polish — Lithuanian Commonwealth, ensured the formation of large and efficient troops. This work contributes to the research on the property rights and Russian economic history.

  14. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  15. BLACK-LETTER PROLOGUE OF THE 17TH CENTURY IN N. S. LESKOV'S CREATIVE WORK: THE RECONSTRUCTION OF A LITERARY MISHAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Nikolaevna Mineeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with N. S. Leskov's perception of the 17th century Prologue. From 1870 to 1890s the writer gave conflicting characteristics of the functional purpose of the Prologue, the history of its existence and publications in Russia, from the book, appointed by the church for godly edifying reading and helping to “comprehend the Word of God”, to the deprivation of its ecclesiastical authority at all. Since 1886s, Leskov defi ned the Prologue as a “renounced”, “non-canonical” book. The analysis of archival materials has confirmed a supposition previously expressed in science that the writer called the fully printed version of Prolog, published in Synod printing in 1642-1643s, as “renunciation”. This edition was the one that was not subjected to book correcting (“knizhnaya sprava” during Nikon's reforms. Antiquity and preservation of monuments always were determinative criteria for the writer. Such characteristics are not lacking in tangible ground and are based on the scientifi cally proven observations of the 19th century. It was found that the monograph of Kiev Theological Academy Professor N. I. Petrov, “On the origin and composition of the Slavic-Russian printed Prologue (The foreign sources” (Kiev, 1875, had a signifi cant impact on the development of Leskov's own position. Leskov made a simple creative move. He transferred the scientifi c fact, the “non-canonicity” of “pre-Peter” Prologue, in the literary fact. Not only the heuristic search of Leskov in the history of its publications lies within the strategy to provide the Prologue of 1642-1643s edition by the status of “renounced”, but also the creative quest. Given the “accountability” of his works written on the subjects of the Prologue, on the part of the censorship, the writer had to fi nd an access to the new language of “cryptography”. An appeal to the “non-canonical” Prologue as a literary source turned out for him as the

  16. “Greek” Secular Migration to Russia: Priorities and Regulation (End of 16th – First Half of 17th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oparina Tatyana A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the problem of the attitude of the Russian authorities to the “Greek” migration. The author tracks the general and specific features of the Orthodox christians’ migration from the Ottoman Empire and from its vassal states. It was revealed that the “Greeks”, like other foreigners, were willingly turned to the Russian citizenship. However, in peacetime the need for foreigners sharply decreased. The admission of military and other experts to Russia who provoked doubts concerning their allegiance was banned. These prohibitions referred mainly to the immigrants from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, not the “Greeks”. The authorities had always been ready to engage the “Greeks” in the service. The precedent effort of the migration of Greek jeweler Alexander Dmitriev changed the situation for a short period. All the “Creeks” were allowed to cross the border without coordination with Moscow departments (Diplomatic or Internal Affair. But then the master asked a too large sum for his services. The authorities were extremely disappointed and refused to employ him in the Royal workshops. This was the only example during the first half of the 17th century when a “Greek” was rejected from the Russian citizenship. However, the incident of Alexandr Dmitriev had not changed the authorities’ politics, he became the reason for moving back to the old rules of coordination before allowing the “Greeks” to cross the Russian border. Besides, it was forbidden to hire foreigners, including the “Greeks”, who had violated the oath and fled from Russia. After that they had no chance to return.

  17. Epidemics and its responsive measures in Great Britain in 16th-17th centuries%16-17世纪英国的瘟疫及其应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹翔

    2008-01-01

    Historically,epidemics mean personal misery and social catastrophe in the history of humankind,and is another kind of living experience of the people.In 16th-17th century,confronting the epidemics,British society had various reactions and responsive measures,which were influenced by various factors,including medicine,religion,politics and economy.Though the religious beliefs had negative influence,to certain extent,on the reactions and medical development,the responsibility of the government was strengthened,replacing religious organization to undertake works in public health,demonstrating that this is an advancement.%在人类历史上,瘟疫既意味着个人的痛苦,也意味着社会的灾难,是历史中人类的另外一种生活体验.16-17世纪英国社会在面对瘟疫之时,反映是多方面的,应对措施也受着医学、宗教以及社会政治经济等方面因素的制约.虽然宗教观念在一定程度上对应对措施和医学科学的发展有消极的影响,但是政府医疗责任感增强并代替宗教机构承担起公共卫生的责任本身就表明了这是一种进步.

  18. Glacier length fluctuations in southern Norway back to the 17th century based on historical data: opposite behaviour compared to the Alps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, S. U.; Luterbacher, J.; Nesje, A.; Wanner, H.; Zumbühl, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    The understanding of past and present glacier variations is a key task for evaluating current climate change. Historical and proxy-records have documented a partly asynchronous evolution in temperature, precipitation and glacial variations between European regions during the Little Ice Age (LIA), with the causes of these temporal anomalies yet being poorly understood. The comparison between the Alps and Scandinavia allows an assessment of the spatial distribution of glacier fluctuations in the studied areas during the last few centuries. Here we present temporally high-resolved glacier reconstructions for southern Norway covering the period back to the 17th century, based on newly discovered historical material. Length changes were determined by the interpretation of high-quality historical documents such as drawings, paintings, prints, photographs, maps and written sources that are abundant for selected glaciers in the area (Folgefonna, Jostedalsbreen). Historical material is only available in adequate quantity for those glaciers which drew the attention of travellers, scientists and artists through their reputation and scenic attraction, reflecting also the glacier perception at that time. A critical quality check of the documentary data was necessary in order to get reliable information on past glacier extents. The glacier extents obtained were finally compared with existing moraine findings in the glacier forefield. Results from outlet glaciers from Folgefonna (Bondhusbreen, Buerbreen) and Jostedalsbreen (Briksdalsbreen, Bøyabreen, Suphellebreen, Bergsetbreen, Nigardsbreen, Lodalsbreen) indicate a highly different glacier evolution compared to the Alps. According to the historical record, the maximum glacier extent occurred at Folgefonna at around 1890, and at Jostedalsbreen at around 1750, respectively. In the Alps, existing glacier length records (e.g. for Unterer Grindelwaldgletscher, Switzerland, or Mer de Glace, France) show glacier advances around 1600

  19. [Spanish authors in the ideal library of G. Naudé (1627): a European view of the Spanish culture and science at the beginning of the 17th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Evaristo álvarez

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyze a European view of the 17th century Spanish culture. Naudé's "Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque" (1627) - translated twice into English: "Instructions concerning erecting of a library" (1661) and "Advice on establishing a library" (1950) - represents a wide set of bibliographic recommendations that constitute, among many other things, an excellent observatory of the Spanish culture in such a delicate time.

  20. Evolution of Tonal Organization in Music Optimizes Neural Mechanisms in Symbolic Encoding of Perceptual Reality. Part-2: Ancient to 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey eNikolsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation.Part-1 of this paper described the origin of tonal organization from verbal speech, its progress from indefinite to definite pitch, and the emergence of two main harmonic orders: heptatonic and pentatonic, each characterized by its own method of handling tension at both domains, of tonal and social organization. Part-2, here, completes the line of historic development from Antiquity to 17th century. Vast archeological data is used to identify the perception of music structures that tells apart the temple/palace music of urban civilizations and the folk music of village cultures. The mega-pitch-set (MPS organization is found to constitute the principal contribution of a math-based music theory to a new diatonic order. All ramifications for psychology of music are discussed in detail. Non-octave hypermode is identified as a peculiar homogenous type of MPS, typical for plainchant.The origin of chromaticism is thoroughly examined as an earmark of art-music that opposes earlier forms of folk music. The role of aesthetic emotions in formation of chromatic alteration is defined. The development of chromatic system is traced throughout history, highlighting its modern implementation in hemiolic modes.The connection between tonal organization in music and spatial organization in pictorial art is established in the Baroque culture, and then tracked back to prehistoric times. Both are shown to present a form of abstraction of environmental topographic schemes, and music is proposed as the primary medium for its cultivation through the concept of pitch. The comparison of stages of tonal organization and typologies of musical texture is used to define the overall course of tonal evolution. Tonal organization of pitch reflects the culture

  1. Milton and the ’New Philosophy’: An Historical-Literary Exploration of the Relationship between Science and the Humanities in the 17th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-20

    Christianity was first tested in the crucible of initial persecutions and then nurtured with the ai, -’ the Christian emperors . The early Christians reacted to...the sixth century, the court of Charlemagne in France in the ninth century, the court of Pope Sylvester III in Rc&e in the tenth century are all

  2. Brazilian medicinal plants used by the Dr. João Ferreyra da Rosa according to his “Treatise on Pestilence in Pernambuco” at the end of the 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Alves Tavares Marques

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available João Ferreyra da Rosa’s “Treatise on Pestilence in Pernambuco”, published in 1694 was the first document on yellow fever, its symptoms and treatment, and it described the phytomedicines used at the time. Rosa described a hundred medicinal plants used to treat the epidemic; most of them came already prepared from Europe, since the majority of Portuguese physicians rejected the indigenous therapeutic knowledge. However, later, due to the lenght and adverse conditions of maritime trevel, leading to losses in the effectiveness of the active ingredients of such phytotherapeutic products, doctors were obliged to employ native medicinal plants in their treatments. The Brazilian medicinal plants used in the treatment of the first epidemic of yellow fever in Brazil (17th century had been brought up to date from the taxonomic point of view, and were comparable with those used in popular medicine today. As part of the phytotherapeutic treatment of yellow fever at the end of the 17th century, Rose made use of the following medicinal plants: copaíba, macela, maracujá-mirim, red aroeira, angélico and almécega.

  3. THE MURMAN COAST AND THE NORTHERN-DVINA DELTA AS ENGLISH AND DUTCH COMMERCIAL DESTINATIONS IN THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELUWENKAMP, JW

    1995-01-01

    In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Murman coast trade and the Northern Dvina trade were two clearly distinct branches of Western European commerce. The Murman coast trade involved the commerce with the regional economy of the Kola Peninsula, and the Northern Dvina trade coincided with t

  4. The rise of the country house in the Dutch Republic : Beyond Johan Huizinga's narrative of Dutch civilisation in the 17th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Yme; Stobart, Jon; Hann, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Was the rise of the country house in the Golden Age of the Dutch Republic above all a 'bourgeois' phenomenon, as Johan Huizinga argued in his famous long essay on Dutch civilisation in the seventeenth century. The article shows that not only the merchants and regents of the city of Amsterdam but als

  5. On the telescopic disks of stars - a review and analysis of stellar observations from the early 17th through the middle 19th centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Graney, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    Since the dawn of telescopic astronomy astronomers have observed and measured the "spurious" telescopic disks of stars, generally reporting that brighter stars have larger disks than fainter stars. Early observers such as Galileo Galilei interpreted these disks as being the physical bodies of stars; later observers such as William Herschel understood them to be spurious; some, such as Christian Huygens, argued that stars show no disks at all. In the early 19th century George B. Airy produced a theoretical explanation of star images sufficient to explain all historical observations, but astronomers were slow to fully recognize this. Even today conventional wisdom concerning stars and telescopes stands at odds to both historical observations and Airy's theory. We give a detailed analysis of both historical observations and Airy's theory, illustrating how Airy's theory explains the historical observations, from Galileo to Huygens to Herschel. We argue that the observations themselves appear in all cases to be va...

  6. [The Protomedicato Tribunal and minorities in Castile at the end of the 17th century: the case of surgeon Roldán Solimán].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizabalaga, J

    1996-01-01

    This note aims to provide a small set of documents which report the vicissitudes of a North-African Muslim surgeon who tried to settle professionally during the late seventeenth century in the Kingdom of Castile. The four letters exchanged between the Royal Palace and the Castilian tribunal of the Protomedicato reveal that the Spanish king Charles II (1661-1700) resoluted supported the surgeon's aspirations, and the Protomedicato's concerted resistence to the royal will. These eloquent documents shed light on the history of the Castilian Protomedicato during the final years of the reign of the last Habsburg king in Spain by providing evidence about the role of this institution in the process of segregation/exclusion of ethnic minorities from the practice of health professions.

  7. Introduction.Treasury and Economy in 17th century Castile Presentación. hacienda y economía en la castilla del siglo XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio ANDRÉS UCENDO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax system has been held accountable for the Castilian economic crisis in the seventeenth century. The tax burden probably was not greater than in other countries, but other factors like new taxes, the use and abuse of extraordinary receipts, and the changes in the ways of collections did not give incentives for commercial and urban activities, that was the base for the development of the markets. The articles included in this Dossier analyze some interesting questions about the consequences of the tax system upon the rural and urban economies, the donation of 1629, the public debt and the spend of local communities in infrastructures, that explain us how economy was upset by the Royal fiscal policy.La fiscalidad ha sido la gran culpable de la suerte que siguió la economía castellana en el siglo XVII. La presión fiscal no fue probablemente más acusada que en otros países, pero junto con la aparición de nuevas figuras fiscales, el uso y abuso de expedientes y los cambios en las formas de recaudación crearon poderosos desincentivos económicos que incidieron negativamente sobre las actividades comerciales y urbanas, de las que dependía el desarrollo de los mercados. Los trabajos incluidos en este Informe analizan algunas cuestiones de gran interés acerca de las repercusiones de la fiscalidad sobre las economías rurales y urbanas, el donativo de 1629, la deuda pública y el gasto en infraestructuras de las haciendas locales, que nos dan una idea de cómo la economía pudo verse afectada por la política fiscal de la Monarquía.

  8. Natural Vegetation Pattern over Northeast China in Late 17th Century%中国东北地区17世纪后期的自然植被格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学珍; 王维强; 方修琦; 叶瑜; 李蓓蓓

    2011-01-01

    We collected multiple historical documents including gazettes, government archives, traveling notes and so on, from which the primary natural vegetation information is complied. Using the information, the primary natural vegetation pattern prior to significant agriculture (i. e. late 17th century) was reconstructed. The results show that woodland and grassland were dominant vegetation over the Northeast China in the late 17th century.Woodland occupied the mountain areas, of which the northem of the Da Higgan Mountains was occupied by boreal forest, southern of the Changbai Mountains were covered by temperate broadleaf deciduous forest and the other mountains were occupied by mixed forest. Grassland covered Northeast China Plain and Inner Mongolia Plateau.The boundaries between woodland and grassland were nearly consistent with topography contour lines. Besides,swamp had small area and nearly covered the whole Sanjiang Plain. The macro pattern of historical nature vegetation was similar with the potential natural vegetation; however, the boundaries of woodland and grassland from the two datasets were evidently different and there was no swamp in potential natural vegetation dataset.%通过整理、分析历史文献中的自然植被记录,复原了中国东北地区近代大规模农垦前(17世纪后期)的自然植被格局.结果表明,当时的主导植被类型是森林和草地,森林主要分布于山区,其中大兴安岭北端主要是寒温带落叶针叶林,长白山南端主要是温带落叶阔叶林,其余山区是针阔混交林,草地主要分布于东北平原和内蒙古高原,林-草的分界线与地表等高线有很好的对应关系;在三江平原分布有大面积的沼泽.潜在植被格局与历史自然植被格局基本一致,但是林-草分界线有明显差异,且潜在植被图中没有沼泽.

  9. Liberalismo e humanismo: as linguagens da consciência cívica na Inglaterra do século XVII Liberalism and humanism: the languages of the civic conscience in 17th century England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O surgimento da consciência cívica na Inglaterra do século XVII esteve vinculado à controvérsia constitucional nas décadas que precederam a guerra civil. O conflito político provocou uma intensa exploração intelectual, dando lugar ao surgimento de ideias e conceitos que se transformariam em dominantes no discurso e no pensamento políticos modernos. O texto tem como foco a análise dessas linguagens que contribuíram para o desenvolvimento dessa consciência cívica. Analisaremos, portanto, a linguagem do direito e os elementos nesta linguagem que contribuíram para o desenvolvimento da consciência cívica moderna. Se for verdade que a linguagem do direito foi um dos principais legados políticos do século XVII, o texto sugere que a linguagem da virtude também teve uma importância decisiva e analisa a existência de uma articulação complexa e contraditória entre ambas no surgimento da moderna consciência cívica.The emergence of civic consciousness in 17th century England was linked to constitutional controversy in the decades preceding the civil war. The political conflict sparked an intense intellectual exploration, giving rise to the emergence of ideas and concepts that became dominant in modern political thought. The text focuses on the analysis of these languages that contributed to the development of civic consciousness. We will analyze, therefore, the language of law and the elements that contributed to the development of modern civic consciousness. If it is true that the language of law was one of the main political legacies of the 17th century, the text suggests that the language of virtue also had a crucial importance and we discuss the existence of a complex and contradictory articulation between both in the emergence of modern civic consciousness.

  10. 17th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Cryocoolers 17 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 17th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Los Angeles, California, on July 9-12, 2012. The program of this conference consisted of 94 papers; of these, 71 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  11. Spanish authors in the ideal library of G. Naudé (1627: a european view of the spanish culture and science at the beginning of the 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Muñoz, Evaristo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze a European view of the 17th century Spanish culture. Naude’s Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque (1627 —translated twice into English: Instructions concerning erecting of a library (1661 and Advice on establishing a library (1950— represents a wide set of bibliographic recommendations that constitute, among many other things, an excellent observatory of the Spanish culture in such a delicate time.

    Se analizan las sugerencias bibliográficas de autores españoles mencionados en Advis pour dresser une bibliotheque (1627 de Gabriel Naudé, excelente observatorio de la cultura europea que ofrece un interesante reflejo de la ciencia y la cultura españolas a comienzos del siglo XVII. Este artículo repasa una visión extranjera de la cultura española en un momento histórico crucial.

  12. 17至18世纪欧人舆图上的苏岩海域及其名称%Suyan Sea Area and Its Name on Europeans' Maps from the 17th to the 18th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘显洁

    2016-01-01

    随着被世界贸易和跨洋殖民推动的大航海时代的到来,进入远东的欧洲人凭借先进的航海和测绘技术,逐渐认识和描绘了苏岩海域.17世纪后,欧人地图上的苏岩海域内容日益丰富,周边的地理特征也渐次准确.他们绘制的地图记录了他们对苏岩海域的观察和认知.欧人地图中所记载的苏岩海域名称,反映了当时东亚海域的人文地理与政治地理,为今日的海洋文化史研究和海疆分划等提供了重要的文献学实证.%With the advent of the Age of Discovery impelled by world trade and transoceanic colonization, by means of advanced navigation and mapping technology, Europeans who reached the Far East, gradually recognized and depicted Suyan sea area. After the 17th century, the content of Suyan sea area on Europeans' maps was increasingly rich, and its surrounding geographical features were also gradually accurate. The maps they drew recorded their observation and knowledge of Suyan sea area. The name of Suyan sea area recorded in Europeans' maps reflected the cultural geography and political geography of the East Asian seas at that time, having provided an important empirical philolo-gy for today's research of ocean culture and history and coastal division.

  13. VOTOS A FAVOR DEL REGALISMO EN EL ALTO CLERO CHARQUEÑO (SIGLO XVII Votes in favour of the Regalism in the High Clergy of Charcas (17th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Eichmann Oehrli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La reflexión sobre el mejor modo de gobernar y de armonizar las potestades civiles y eclesiásticas tuvo particular impulso en La Plata (hoy Sucre, Bolivia, a fines del siglo XVII. El escrito más importante de ese tiempo es un voluminoso tratado del sardo Pedro Frasso, fiscal de dicha Real Audiencia. Algunos de los más encumbrados personajes de la ciudad (entre ellos cinco eclesiásticos elogian a este jurista por medio de cartas que son publicadas en los preliminares de ambos volúmenes del tratado. Me interesa: 1 situar estos paratextos en relación con las controversias en torno al regalismo; 2 delinear el perfil de sus autores; 3 poner a la vista sus argumentos; 4 ensayar respuestas a la pregunta por las motivaciones de su adhesión, así, como por las del silencio de otros.In La Plata (nowadays Sucre, Bolivia, reflections on the best way of governing and harmonizing civil and ecclesiastical authority were of particular interest at the end of the 17Th century. The most important text of that time is a voluminous treatise written by the Sardinian Pedro Frasso, a public prosecutor of the Royal Audience mentioned above. Some of the highest personages of the city (among them five ecclesiastics eulogized this jurist by means of letters published within the preliminaries to the two volumes of the treatise. I would like 1 to situate these paratexts with regard to the controversies about the regalismo; 2 to outline the profile of the authors; 3 to make their argumentation visible; and 4 to explain the motivations of their adhesion while others remained silent.

  14. The glass furnace of the 17th Century of Sa Gerreria (Palma, Mallorca): Historical context and preliminary analysis of the materials; El horno de vidrio del siglo XVII de Sa Gerreria (Palma, Mallorca): contextualizacion historica y analisis preliminar de los materiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capella Galmes, M. A.; Albero Santacreu, D.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper the materials of the glass furnace of Sa Gerreria (Palma) dated in the second half of the 17th Century A.D. are analysed. On the one hand, we discuss the available information regarding this glass workshop as well as the raw material management strategies made during the studied period. On the other hand, we focus on the materials produced by this workshop and we carry out a preliminary archaeometrical analysis of the glass lumps, frits and slags recovered as well as some glass pieces by means of scanning electron microscope and X-ray dispersive energy. The final aim is to characterise the chemical composition and the properties of the raw materials used in this workshop as well as to approach some of the technical processes put in practice by the glass makers who inhabited Mallorca during the 17th Century. (Author)

  15. La elección del método contable: el caso del Cabildo Catedral de Sevilla, siglo XVI = Choosing an accounting method in the 17th century: the case of the Cathedral Council of Sevilla, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julián Hernández Borreguero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gracias al avanzado estado de las investigaciones en Historia de la Contabilidad podemos situar en qué momento temporal aparecieron sucesivamente los distintos métodos contables que hoy conocemos. A pesar de ello, son pocos los estudios que analizan por qué los contadores elegían uno u otro para gestionar una determinada entidad económica. En nuestra opinión existen una serie de restricciones y condicionantes a la hora de la decisión sobre el método contable a implantar en un determinado negociado. En este trabajo centramos esta problemática en una entidad eclesiástica, concretamente el Cabildo Catedral de Sevilla. En el siglo XVII, cuando el uso de la partida doble estaba plenamente difundido en la ciudad y en el país, observamos cómo en la mayoría de los negociados del Cabildo no se utilizó este método, sino diversas variantes de la partida simple. A lo largo de esta comunicación analizamos los casos en los que se utilizan los distintos métodos; en nuestra opinión hay una buena correspondencia entre los métodos utilizados y la realidad económica que se gestionaba.Thanks to the advanced state of research about the history of accounting, we can exactly date the moment in which the present accounting methods were first used. However, there are few studies focusing on the reasons to choose a specific accounting method to manage an institution. This study reviews those reasons in an ecclesiastical institution, the Cathedral Council of Seville. In the 17th century, when double entry was widely used in town and throughout the country, we can see how the Cathedral Council used instead versions of the single entry method. This paper addresses the cases in which the different methods were used. We think that there is a good correspondence between the method chosen and the economic reality managed.

  16. 17th Dalian International Garment Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Basic Information of 17th Dalian International Garment Fair The 17th Dalian International Garment Fair will be held from September 10 to 13, 2005at Xinghai Convention and Exhibition Center (old hall) and newly-built World Expo Square(new hall) simultaneously. The fair area is about 50,000 m2, 2.5 times than the last one.

  17. 17世纪日本2次重大台风事件的路径重建%Reconstruction of 2 signiifcant typhoon paths in the 17th century Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小林雄河; 潘威

    2014-01-01

    Western North Paciifc (WNP), especially China and Japan included, is a typhoon-prone area. Change of typhoon tracks in this area would raise acute influence. There are almost no quantitative meteorological data existed in Japan before Meiji Restoration, typhoon events can only be rebuilt with historical documents. There are a limited number of historical documents in the 17th century in Japan, author also used typhoon records in the modern instrumental observation period at the same time of using historical documents and speculated the historical typhoon tracks and its size. In the context of global climate change, there is currently no consensus whether typhoon trajectory in the East Asia will be changes. Through the reconstruction of typhoon tracks on the history, we can have in-depth discussion of this issue. Author has estimated typhoon track inlfuenced on Japan on 11 Sep., AD 1650 and 15 to 17 Sep., AD 1674. The main disaster-causing factor of the typhoon inlfuenced on Japan on 11 Sep., AD 1650 was the tides;the worst-hit area was the northern coast of the Ariake-kai bay. The typhoon paths inlfuenced on Japan on 17—18 Sep., AD 1828, 25 Aug., AD 1914 and 27 Sep., AD 1991 similar to this typhoon, those typhoon also caused tidal disaster in the Ariake-kai. Typhoons inlfuenced on the Ariake-kai frequently from now Yamaguchi Prefecture into the sea, this typhoon also about 3~5 hours after landed into the Sea of Japan. The effect area of the typhoon inlfuenced on Japan on 15 to 17 Sep., AD 1674 was wide, much of the Western half of Japan and the Eastern half which of nearly the typhoon track had caused wind damage;some places of the Eastern half of Japan also had caused lfood damage. This is typical disaster situation of typhoon in Japan. This typhoon from the Northern Kyushu region to the Hokuriku region took about 1day. On the basis of reconstruction of the typhoon case study, author make clear that the existing compilation data were embodied incompletely and

  18. A combined Raman microscopy, XRF and SEM-EDX study of three valuable objects - A large painted leather screen and two illuminated title pages in 17th century books of ordinances of the Worshipful Company of Barbers, London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tracey D.; Clark, Robin J. H.; Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2010-07-01

    Raman microscopy has been used to identify the pigments decorating three valuable items owned by the Worshipful Company of Barbers (established in 1308 in London), one being a large leather screen dating to before 1712, the other two being illuminated title pages of books of ordinances of the Company dating to 1605 and 1658. Pigments which could not be fully characterised by this technique (particularly the green paints) have also been subject to XRF or SEM-EDX analysis. The combined analytical approach has shown that the pigments identified on all three items are typical of those in use as artists' pigments in the 17th C and include azurite, indigo, vermilion, red lead, pink and yellow lakes, verdigris, lead white, calcite (and chalk), gypsum, carbon-based black, and gold and silver leaf. However in the case of the screen alone, restoration in the 1980s has been carried out with different pigments - haematite, phthalocyanine green, rutile, and a mixture of azurite, malachite and barium sulfate. This work constitutes the first in-depth study of painted leatherwork and demonstrates that the palette used for this purpose is similar to that used on other works of art of the same date. It has also allowed the original colour schemes of the decorations to be determined where pigment degradation has occurred. The combined analysis has also provided a more complete understanding of the materials used for, or on, objects to which access is limited.

  19. Imagens e figuras de um rei sonhador: representações do milagre de Ourique e do juramento de Afonso Henriques no século XVII Images and figures of a dreaming king: representations of Ourique’s miracle and Afonso Henriques’ oath in the 17TH century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Filipe Silvério Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a iconografia do Milagre de Ourique, a partir do Juramento de Afonso Henriques, observando a questão da representação dos sonhos em imagens no século XVII. Busca traçar as tópicas e exemplos principais que fundamentaram a iconografia do Milagre bem como da representação dos sonhos em Portugal.The article analyses the iconography of the Ourique’s Miracle, based on Afonso Henrique’s Oath, observing the representation of dream images in the 17th century. It intends to trace the major topics and examples on which were based the Miracle iconography as well as the dream representation in Portugal.

  20. A plebe do açúcar: a população livre na retomada da jurisdição portuguesa na capitania de Pernambuco (séc. xvii-xviii The sugar populace: free people in the recovery of the portuguese jurisdiction of the captaincy of Pernambuco - Brazil 17th to 18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Vanderlei Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende apresentar um panorama da estrutura social açucareira a partir da retomada da jurisdição portuguesa sobre a capitania de Pernambuco em 1654, observando especificamente os grupos sociais livres urbanos que vivenciaram um crescimento significativo durante o governo holandês e a partir dele. Considerando o discurso dos cronistas, dados inquisitoriais e correspondência administrativa, buscamos analisar as modificações sociais ocorridas então.This paper is an analysis of the social structure of the Pernambucan sugar society stemming from the recovery of the Portuguese jurisdiction of the captaincy of Pernambuco in 1654, and focusing specifically on the free urban social groups that had developed significantly under Dutch administration. Taking into consideration chroniclers' accounts, inquisitorial data and official documents, we seek to analyze the social changes that had surged during the new Portuguese government of the late 17th century in Pernambuco.

  1. Alteraciones del paisaje ecológico araucano por la asimilación mapuche de la agroganadería hispano-mediterránea (siglos XVI y XVII Araucanian ecological landscape disturbances by the mapuche assimilation of the Hispanic-Mediterranean farming (16th and 17th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO TORREJÓN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las características biogeográficas de la América templada favorecieron la introducción y propagación de especies animales y vegetales que sustentaron al modelo agroganadero hispano-mediterráneo. Los efectos de este fenómeno generaron alteraciones ecológicas, especialmente en los territorios habitados por aborígenes carentes de actividades productivas intensivas, como fue el caso de la Araucanía. Mediante un análisis histórico documental, la presente investigación reconoció las principales características del proceso de alteración del paisaje ecológico araucano entre los siglos XVI y XVII: (i en el siglo XVI, la introducción de especies exóticas desarticuló el sistema económico mapuche, (ii tanto la relativa pristinidad de la Araucanía como el proceso bélico de los siglos XVI y XVII, favorecieron la introducción y propagación de las nuevas especies, (iii durante el siglo XVI coexistieron especies nativas e introducidas, sin embargo, durante el siglo XVII preponderaron las exóticas, y (iv este predominio habría generado la extinción local de especies animales y vegetales nativas, alterando definitivamente el paisaje ecológico araucanoThe bio-geographic characteristics of the temperate America favored the introduction and spreading of exotic plant and animal species that supported the Hispanic-Mediterranean farming model. The effects of this situation produced ecological alterations on the territories inhabited by Indians without intense productive systems; as the Araucanía case. Through a historical and documental analysis this paper reports the main characteristics of the Araucanian ecological landscape disruption process during the 16th and 17th centuries: (i during the 16th century, the introduction of exotic species dislocated the Mapuche economic system, (ii both the relative Araucanía pristine conditions and the warlike process, occurred between the 16th and 17th centuries, favored the introduction and

  2. 17th STAB/DGLR Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Gerd; Kreplin, Hans-Peter; Nitsche, Wolfgang; Peltzer, Inken

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the contributions to the 17th Symposium of STAB (German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association). STAB includes German scientists and engineers from universities, research establishments and industry doing research and project work in numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for aerospace but also for other applications. Many of the contributions collected in this book present results from national and European Community sponsored projects. This volume gives a broad overview of the ongoing work in this field in Germany and spans a wide range of topics: airplane aerodynamics, multidisciplinary optimization and new configurations, hypersonic flows and aerothermodynamics, flow control (drag reduction and laminar flow control), rotorcraft aerodynamics, aeroelasticity and structural dynamics, numerical simulation, experimental simulation and test techniques, aeroacoustics as well as the new fields of biomedical flows, convective flows, aerodynamics and acoustics of high-s...

  3. Fine particles and carbon monoxide from wood burning in 17th-19th century Danish kitchens: Measurements at two reconstructed farm houses at the Lejre Historical-Archaeological Experimental Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Clausen, Geo; Chowdhury, Zohir; Smith, Kirk R.

    2010-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM 2.5) were measured in two reconstructed Danish farmhouses (17-19th century) during two weeks of summer. During the first week intensive measurements were performed while test cooking fires were burned, during the second week the houses were monitored while occupied by guest families. A masonry hearth was located in the middle of each house for open cooking fires and with heating stoves. One house had a chimney leading to the outside over the hearth; in the other, a brickwork hood led the smoke into an attic and through holes in the roof. During the first week the concentration of PM 2.5 averaged daily between 138 and 1650 μg m -3 inside the hearths and 21-160 μg m -3 in adjacent living rooms. CO averaged daily between 0.21 and 1.9 ppm in living areas, and up to 12 ppm in the hearths. Highest concentrations were measured when two fires were lit at the same time, which would cause high personal exposure for someone working in the kitchens. 15 min averages of up to 25 400 μg m -3 (PM 2.5) and 260 ppm CO were recorded. WHO air quality guidelines were occasionally exceeded for CO and constantly for PM 2.5. However, air exchange and air distribution measurements revealed a large draw in the chimney, which ensured a fast removal of wood smoke from the hearth area. The guest families were in average exposed to no more than 0.21 ppm CO during 48 h. Based on a hypothetical time-activity pattern, however, a woman living in this type of house during the 17-19th century would be exposed to daily averages of 1.1 ppm CO and 196 μg m -3 PM 2.5, which exceeds WHO guideline for PM 2.5, and is comparable to what is today observed for women in rural areas of developing countries.

  4. The Printing of Yiddish Books in Frankfurt-on-the-Main (17th and 18th Centuries L’impression de livres yiddish à Frankfort aux xviie et xviiie siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baumgarten

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the development of books and reading in Europe during the 18th century, we have chosen to analyze three representative works of books printed in Frankfurt: an edifying treatise containing many mystical sources, Kav ha-yashar by Tsvi Hirsh Koidanover published in 1709 by Matthaüs Andreae; a Yiddish adaptation of narrative and ethical portions of the Zohar, Nahalat Tsvi by Tsvi Hirsh ben Yerahmiel Chotsch, printed in 1711 by Anton Heinscheidt; and an ethical treatise, Derekh ha-yashar le-olam ha-ba by Yehiel Mikhl ben Abraham Epstein, printed in 1717 by Anton Kellner. The study of the preparatory printing phase, the analysis of the books’ visual spaces, page layouts, technical choices, and the reception of the works provide important testimony on the cultural habits of traditional Jewish society and on the religious mutations that accompanied the process of printing.Afin de mesurer l’évolution du livre et de la lecture en Europe au xviiie siècle, nous analyserons trois ouvrages représentatifs de la production imprimée à Francfort : un traité éthique contenant des sources mystiques, le Kav ha-yashar, de Tsvi Hirsh Koidanover, imprimé en 1709 chez Matthaüs Andreae ; une adaptation en yiddish des parties narratives et éthiques du Zohar, le Nahalat Tsvi par Tsvi Hirsh ben Yerahmiel Chotsch, imprimée en 1711 chez Anton Heinscheidt ; un ouvrage édifiant le Derekh ha-yashar le-olam ha-ba de Yehiel Mikhl ben Abraham Epstein, imprimé en 1717 chez Anton Kellner. L’étude de la phase préparatoire à l’impression, l’analyse de l’espace visuel du livre, entre autres, la mise en textes, les choix techniques, et de la réception des ouvrages permet, en fait, de collecter de précieux témoignages sur les habitudes culturelles propres à la société juive traditionnelle et sur les mutations religieuses qui accompagnèrent la diffusion de l’imprimerie.

  5. Propaganda e crítica social nas cronologias dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII Propaganda and social criticism in the chronologies of the astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in 17 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma ampla investigação sobre a utilização dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII como veículo de propaganda e crítica social. Durante esse conflito, havia astrólogos partidários das forças parlamentaristas, como John Booker, e outros partidários das forças realistas, como George Wharton. O presente trabalho analisa algumas dessas publicações, mostrando como o envolvimento político dos autores se manifestava de forma explícita (e, algumas vezes, não tão direta nos referidos almanaques.This article is part of an extensive investigation carried out concerning the use of astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in the 17th century as a medium for propaganda and social criticism. During that conflict there were astrologers who were partisans of the Parliament, such as John Booker, and other who supported the King, such as George Wharton. This work analyses some of those publications, showing that the political commitment of the authors was noticeable in an explicit form (and sometimes in an indirect way in those almanacs.

  6. The description of Ilokano in the 17th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Fernández Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    The grammar Arte de la lengua ilocana (1627) was written by the Augustinian Francisco López (?-1627) in order to learn the language and to be able to spread the Christian doctrine in the Philippines. It is the first description of this Austronesian language. It is written in Spanish and based on dat

  7. Influence of the Society of Foreign Missions of Paris on Diplomatic Relations Between France and Siam in the 17th Century%17世纪法国和暹罗邦交过程中的巴黎外方传教会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢子卿

    2015-01-01

    法兰西第一殖民帝国的势力在17世纪80年代曾扩展至阿瑜陀耶王朝统治下的暹罗,一个隶属于罗马教廷的法国天主教传教组织于17世纪中叶最早抵达暹罗,它的全名叫巴黎外方传教会,这个组织的传教士开拓并且引领两国邦交,不过由于暹罗纳莱王身边的宠臣华尔康以及耶稣会士塔查尔的介入使得巴黎外方传教会在两国结盟谈判中的地位一落千丈,致使法国当局无法获得准确的信息因而鲁莽出兵暹罗,最终导致1688年的暹罗政变使得除巴黎外方传教会以外所有法国人的政治经济军事势力都被驱逐出去。%The french power during the reign of Louis XIV in the late 17th century had extended to Siam in the reign of Phra-Narai. The Society of Foreign Missions of Paris arrived in Siam in 1662 and guided the France to establish diplomat-ic relations with the Siam, but Constantin Phaulkon, the favored minister of Phra Narai seduced the jesuit guy Tachard con-tre them, resulting in the wrong information obtained in France, which had Louis XIV make a reckless decision to send troops to Siam, leading to the Siamese Revolution in 1688 that caused the French influence in Siam expelled.

  8. 17th IEEE NPSS Real Time Conference – RT-2010

    CERN Multimedia

    Carlos Varandas

    2010-01-01

    Congress Centre of “Instituto Superior Técnico”, Lisboa, Portugal, 24-28 May, 2010 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION OPEN Abstract Submission Deadline: March 1st, 2010 Dear Sir/Madam, We are pleased to announce that abstract submission for the 17th IEEE NPSS Real Time Conference is now open on our web site. The deadline for submitting an abstract is 1st March 2010. Full conference details General Chairman

  9. EDITORIAL The 17th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2011-02-01

    . The uncertainty relations for photon quadratures were also checked for the thermal photon state using experimental values of optical tomograms and avoiding the reconstruction procedure of the Wigner function and its associated precision constrains. In the tomographic-probability representation of quantum mechanics and quantum optics, tomograms are used for the description of quantum states as an alternative to the wave function and density matrix. The purity, fidelity, entropy and photon temperature associated with quantum states are expressed in terms of tomograms. This provides the possibility of measuring these characteristics directly by taking optical tomograms and checking basic inequalities like entropic uncertainty relations, temperature-dependent quadrature uncertainty relations, etc. The better understanding that quantum states can be identified with measurable probability distributions like optical tomograms opens new prospects in quantum optics, for example, to check experimentally the uncertainty relations for higher quadrature momenta and to control the precision with which the fundamental inequalities of quantum mechanics are experimentally confirmed. This Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented at the 17th Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO10) held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK, 6-11 June 2010. The other collaborators from different scientific centers who could not, due to different reasons, come to St Andrews but participated in the previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs also contributed to this issue. The paper by Ulf Leonhardt and Natalia Korolkova, the CEWQO10 Organizers, opens this issue. The order of the following papers corresponds to the alphabetical order of the first author of the paper. The history of CEWQOs can be found in the Preface to the Proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (2009 Phys. Scr. T135 011005). The Proceedings of the 16th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO09

  10. 17th National Conference on Sensors and Microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Vittorio; Ponzoni, Andrea; Sberveglieri, Giorgio; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the 17th AISEM (“Associazione Italiana Sensori e Microsistemi”) National Conference on Sensors and Microsystems, held in Brescia, 5-7 February, 2013. The conference highlighted state-of-the-art results from both theoretical and applied research in the field of sensors and related technologies. This book presents material in an interdisciplinary approach, covering many aspects of the disciplines related to sensors, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications.  ·         Provides a selection of the best papers from the 17th National Conference on Sensors and Microsystems; ·         Covers a broad range of topics relating to sensors and microsystems, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications; ·         Offers interdisciplinary coverage, aimed at defining a common ground for sensors beyond the specific differences among the different particular implementation of senso...

  11. 17th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Günther, Michael; Marheineke, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry, ECMI2012, held in Lund, Sweden, July 2012, at which ECMI celebrated its 25th anniversary. It covers mathematics in a wide range of applications and methods, from circuit and electromagnetic devices, environment, fibers, flow, medicine, robotics and automotive industry, further applications to methods and education. The book includes contributions from leading figures in business, science and academia who promote the application of mathematics to industry and emphasize industrial sectors that offer the most exciting opportunities. The contributions reinforce the role of mathematics as being a catalyst for innovation as well as an overarching resource for industry and business. The book features an accessible presentation of real-world problems in industry and finance, provides insight and tools for engineers and scientists which will help them to solve similar problems, and offers modeling and simulation techniques ...

  12. A Mediterranean derecho: Catalonia (Spain), 17th August 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. Manuel

    2007-02-01

    At approximately 6:10 UTC in the morning of 17th August 2003, a squall line developed over south Catalonia (the northeast region of Spain). During the next 9 h, the squall moved rapidly northeast and crossed Catalonia and the French regions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Province, damaging and uprooting hundreds of trees and blocking trains in the region. Wind gusts reached were recoded up to 52 m/s with evidence of F2 intensity damage. This case study shows the characteristics of a derecho (widespread convectively induced windstorm). Radar observations of the evolving squall line show signatures often correlated with damaging surface winds, including: Bow echoes, Rear inflow notches, Rear inflow jets, Medium altitude radial convergence, Narrow gradient of very marked reflectivity, Development of isolated cells ahead of the convective line, A band of convection off the northern end of the line known as a "warm advection wing". When examining the different surface observations, satellite, radar imagery and cloud-to-ground lightning data, this case shows many similarities to those investigated in the United States. The derecho is a hybrid case, but has many characteristics of warm season derechoes. This emanates from a mesoscale convective complex (MCC) moving along a quasi-stationary, low-level thermal boundary in an environment characterized by high potential instability and relatively strong mid-tropospheric winds.

  13. 文学视域下东西方文化语境比较--以《鲁宾逊漂流记》与“三言”“二拍”经商题材小说为例%Comparison of the East-West Cultural Context from the Perspective of Literature in 17th and 18th Centuries---Taking Business Novels Robinson Crusoe and “San Yan” “Er Pai”as Examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁

    2013-01-01

    文学是社会生活的镜像,深刻地反映出文化的特质。笛福的《鲁宾逊漂流记》和冯梦龙的“三言”、凌濛初“二拍”经商题材小说,深刻地反映了十七、十八世纪东西方商业的发展以及文化的各自特点。这一时期东西方世界对个人价值肯定、对自由人格重视遥相呼应,有很大的相似性。在创作目的上,他们都是想通过作品来疗救人的灵魂或社会,但由于东西方文化的巨大差异,虽然同是对生命与个体的意义、价值取向的关注,西方是指向宗教,而中国则是指向史学。鲁宾逊和“三言”“二拍”中的商人群体都是特定时代的特写人物,这些作品围绕其文化内核在人物形象、义利之辨等方面而极具民族特色,反映出了东西文化的差异。%Literature reflects the cultural characteristics profoundly as a mirror of social life .Business novels like Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, Feng Menglong’s“Sanyan” and Ling Mengchus’“Er Pai” reflect the East-West develop-ment of business and characteristics of culture in the 17th and 18th centuries.There is a lot of similarity in the Eastern and Western world which affirmed personal values and emphasized free personality echoes during this period .In the purpose of writing , they wanted to work to save the soul of and society , but because of the huge cultural differences between the East and the West , the West pointed to religion , while China pointed to history .Robinson and merchants in“San Yan” “Er Pai”are feature characters of the specific times .These works focus on the ethnic cultural charac-teristic about character image and justice , reflecting the cultural differences .

  14. The public works in 17thCastile: an onerous and unknown tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier VELA SANTAMARÍA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The studies of the public works in Golden Age Spain were focused on its technical and artistic aspects, but not on its economic consequences. But the urban infrastructure maintenance and the building of bridges, what required frequently the contribution of thousand of places, were expensive. Its financing, what needed the authorization of Council of Castile, increased the oppressive taxation of the 17th century, and its management had its same nature of privatization, lack of control and fraud.

  15. As Casas de Deus, as igrejas de doutrina no Novo Reino de Granada, séculos XVI e XVII (The Houses of God: churches of doctrine in New Kingdom of Granada, in the 16th and 17th centuries - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n31p991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Suarez

    2013-09-01

    the main project in the religious enterprise and unification of Spanish Crown through the construction of sturdy churches and concentration of this population around them. The church was the start point for urban conformation of new indigenous settlements named “povoados de índios”, upon the responsibility of a priest. The force of Spain’s secular project left its mark in the shape of such “churches of doctrine” constructed across the territory in the XVII century, which allow today a reflection about the symbolic imposition of a new ecclesial hierarchy in Colombia during this period. Keywords: Religious architecture. New Kingdom of Granada. Charles Borromeo. Churches of Doctrine.

  16. ICOS-based chimeric antigen receptors program bipolar TH17/TH1 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Guedan, Sonia; Chen, Xi; Madar, Aviv; Carpenito, Carmine; McGettigan, Shannon E.; Frigault, Matthew J.; Lee, Jihyun; Posey, Avery D.; Scholler, John; Scholler, Nathalie; Bonneau, Richard; June, Carl H.

    2014-01-01

    ICOS-based CARs program bipolar TH17/TH1 cells with augmented effector function and in vivo persistence.The expression of selected CAR endodomains can program T cells for their subsequent differentiation fates and effector functions.

  17. Sericulture in Boka Kotorska Bay (17th-20th

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    Crnić-Pejović Marija

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 19th century Boka Kotorska, sericulture - silk-worm breeding and processing -was highly developed. Based on unpublished arhivalia from the Montenegro National Archives, - Records Department of Herceg Novi - and on published materials from the Historic Archives of Kotor and the Historic Archives of Zadar, along with the related literature, the paper deals with the silk-worm breeding, scope of silk production, operation of spinner mills, planting and cultivation of mulberry trees, whose leaves were used for silk-worm feeding. The Austrian authorities, ranging from the Zadar Regency and the Kotor County Hall, with local councils, through the Silk-Worm Breeding Society and the Bay of Kotor Economy Association, were actively engaged in developing the silk production and enhancing the quality of this economic activity. According to what has been said, it appears that silk-worm breeding was practiced in both rural and urban settlements of the entire Boka Kotorska Bay. The silk-worm breeding entailed the planting of mulberry trees which survived even after the silk-worm breeding had ceased to exist, as mulberry fruit was used to feed pigs and poultry, to make brandy, and because the wood - mulberry lumber - was highly valued in ship building. Mulberry trees were grown in urban settlements as they provided a reliable shade. The silk-worm breeding was discontinued towards and during World War One, whereas the mulberry tree planting persisted until World War Two.

  18. The Lecture as Experiential Education: The Cucumber in 17th-Century Flemish Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenkinsop, Sean; Nolan, Carrie; Hunt, Jasper; Stonehouse, Paul; Telford, John

    2016-01-01

    This article uses an unconventional format to problematize a common dichotomy found in the theory and practice of experiential education. The article comprises the contributions of five authors and begins with one author's description of a potential real-life scenario that provokes the question of whether an art history lecture might be understood…

  19. Genome-wide ancestry of 17th-century enslaved Africans from the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Avila-Arcos, Maria C.; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo

    2015-01-01

    Between 1500 and 1850, more than 12 million enslaved Africans were transported to the New World. The vast majority were shipped from West and West-Central Africa, but their precise origins are largely unknown. We used genome-wide ancient DNA analyses to investigate the genetic origins of three...

  20. How Modern Science Came into the World : Four Civilizations, One 17th-Century Breakthrough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, H. Floris

    2010-01-01

    Floris Cohen vernieuwt in How Modern Science Came into the World het begrip ‘de Wetenschappelijke Revolutie van de zeventiende eeuw’ radicaal. Hij vertelt het verhaal op een manier die van de grond af opnieuw is doordacht. Een beschavingsbrede aanpak, consequent volgehouden vergelijkingen en een nie

  1. Chapter 8: the development of neurology and the neurological sciences in the 17th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Hansruedi

    2010-01-01

    Circa 1660 several favorable factors, instrumental to the invention of neurology, converged at the University of Oxford. Animals and men were believed to have a material soul whose functions throughout the nervous system were accessible to research. In 1659 inductive methods were introduced in clinical medicine by Thomas Willis, the founder of English epidemiology and biochemistry. The Vertuosi,who later founded the Royal Society, performed chemical experiments in teams, and Willis, head of their laboratory, gained experience in teamwork. In 1658 J.J. Wepfer published his method of dye injection in cerebral vessels at autopsy, and Christopher Wren had already experimented with intravenous injections. William Petty had performed dissections at Leiden, training with Francis Sylvius's brain and comparative anatomy. Petty came to Oxford in 1650, began to study chemistry with Willis, and instructed him in Sylvius's methods of cerebral and comparative anatomy. Willis continued this work with a team of highly qualified colleagues, Wren included, and published the first monograph on brain anatomy, Cerebri anatome, in 1664. This Latin book, illustrated by Wren, came out in four editions in the first year, and was reprinted up to 1720. It contained a definition of reflex action, the recognition of the general functions of cortex, white matter, and brain tracts, a complete description of the autonomic nervous system, Willis's new term "Neurologia," and his promise to follow up with his "Psychologia." He presented the latter in 1672 as De anima brutorum, a book on the material soul of animals and man as the carrier of all functions of the nervous system. There was a physiological part, a textbook of neurophysiology, and a pathological part, a compendium of neurological and psychiatric syndromes, with early descriptions of myasthenia, restless legs, narcolepsy, dissociative and bipolar disease, and general paralysis of the insane. In 1667 he published a book on convulsive diseases, in which he described the blood-brain barrier, epileptic and hysterical brain disorders, and Parkinson's disease. Thus Willis recognized and presented the key themes of the future specialty.

  2. Blurring Boundaries: Drama as a Critical Multimodal Literacy for Examining 17th-Century Witch Hunts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Sara; Wager, Amanda C.

    2017-01-01

    This article illustrates how critical multimodal literacy practices engage secondary students to further explore differences and similarities between past and present instances of discrimination within a process drama, where students and teachers explore a topic through unscripted role-play. Data from a classroom-based ethnography are drawn on to…

  3. The order of st. John of god in the Philippines. 16th -17th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rocher

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the Brothers Hospitallers of St. John of God in the Philippines is little known, in contrast to the prolific existing historiography on the performance of the different ecclesiastical corporations in the archipelago. This work tries to study the processes that allowed their expansion and development on the islands, their hospital work, the concept of hospitality that served as a guide and the peculiarities adopted in the management of the hospitals and religious, located thousands of kilometers from their headquarters in Mexico City.

  4. Merchants and councilors: intellectual divergences in early 17th century British economic thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Suprinyak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Durante o início da década de 1620, a Inglaterra enfrentou um período de intensas dificuldades econômicas que despertou o interesse de muitos pela reflexão acerca dos fenômenos em curso. A década testemunhou o surgimento das mais relevantes obras econômicas do início do período Stuart; porém, o debate não esteve restrito às confrontações abstratas dos autores especializados. A questão fundamental em disputa nas controvérsias entre Malynes, Misselden e Mun – como integrar a moeda e o comércio internacional em uma explicação coerente dos fenômenos econômicos – foi também objeto de muita atenção na esfera pública, em sentido amplo. A Sessão Parlamentar de 1621, em particular, colocou em evidência não apenas a relevância fundamental do tema para a compreensão dos problemas econômicos da Inglaterra, mas também a enorme complexidade envolvida em sua investigação. Ao reunir todos esses elementos, o artigo busca articular um retrato mais denso a respeito do estado corrente das ideias econômicas na Inglaterra do início do século XVII.

  5. John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael G.

    Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

  6. 6th Congress of Croatian and Hungarian and 17th Congress of Hungarian Geomathematicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Tutek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this year's 6th Congress of Croatian and Hungarian and 17th Congress of Hungarian Geomathematicians was Geomathematics – from theory to practice and its key topics were • Applied geomathematics (geosciences, environmental science • Geomathematics in reservoir characterization and modelling • Hydrological and hydrogeological modelling • Theoretical geomathematics (geostatistics, neural networks, statistics • Geoinformatics (including GIS.

  7. Molecular Medicine - CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference: Mastering Medicinal Chemistry - CHI's Seventh Annual Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Graeme

    2010-04-01

    CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference on Molecular Medicine, held in San Francisco, included topics covering the drug discovery process, with an emphasis on lead optimization. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the development of several launched and investigational drugs, including Plerixafor, Trox-1 (CombinatoRX Inc), lorcaserin (Arena Pharmaceuticals Inc), vorapaxar (Merck & Co Inc) and ulimorelin (Tranzyme Pharma Inc).

  8. Proceedings of the 17th EDINEB Conference: Crossing borders in Education and Work-based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    17th EDINEB Conference Crossing borders in Education and Work-based Learning June 9 - 11, 2010 Thames Valley University, London, UK During the last few years economics and business education have emerged as one of the largest fields of study in higher education. Simultaneously, the pressing concern for improving the quality of higher education in these fields has led to a definite need for more knowledge about effective instruction methods and tools, as well as about innovation (in terms of b...

  9. 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2007-08-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 5-8, 2007. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Expanding Technology for a Future Powered by Si Photovoltaics.'

  10. Os jardins de Friburgo em Recife/PE, Brasil, seu traçado e significado: as experimentações de uma corte europeia nos tropicos no século XVII / The Park of Friburgo in Recife, Brazil: plan and meaning of a european court in a tropical setting in the 17th centuryVII /Los Jardines de Friburgo en Recife, Brasil: su trazado y significado, la experiencia de una corte europea en en el trópico en el siglo XVII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Augusta Leão Barros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O Palácio de Friburgo e seu jardim foi desde sempre uma experiência única na história da América portuguesa – o translado de uma corte inteira européia para os trópicos no século XVII, estabelecendo-se ali durante vários anos, implantando um plano urbanístico que incluía entre outros elementos, dois palácios reais – Friburgo e Boa Vista, sendo o primeiro emoldurado por um belo jardim.Feito muito comentado e conhecido, mas pouco estudado com profundidade e amadurecimento, e de escassa bibliografia gráfica (com imagens a respeito. Aproveito a oportunidade de um trabalho de conclusão do Curso de Especialização em Reabilitação de Jardins Históricos para reabrir mais uma vez a discussão sobre o Jardim de Friburgo e trazer exemplos de jardins de palácios e castelos europeus desta época, que tivessem semelhanças com este jardim, ou que pudessem ter servido de inspiração, no todo ou em alguns de seus elementos. Jardim cujo traçado e espécies trazia, por um lado, um vocabulário reconhecido e utilizado na época – a transposição e adaptação de modelos de jardins reais para os trópicos; e por outro lado, misturava ingredientes do exótico, do fantasioso e pouco conhecido até então Novo Mundo./The Park of Friburgo and its garden is a very special experience in the american history, a translation of an European court (from Netherlands to the tropics in the 17th century, standing there for many years, implanting an urbanistic plan, including two palaces –Friburgo and Boa Vista- among other urban elements. The well known garden, hasn't been studied in depth, and no graphic bibliography is available. This paper shows the conclusions from a specialization course in Restoration of Historical Gardens. This study brings study cases of european royal gardens of colonial time, which could had been inspiration to the project.

  11. 17th Online World Conference on Soft Computing in Industrial Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krömer, Pavel; Köppen, Mario; Schaefer, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at WSC17, the 17th Online World Conference on Soft Computing in Industrial Applications, held from December 2012 to January 2013 on the Internet. WSC17 continues a successful series of scientific events started over a decade ago by the World Federation of Soft Computing. It brought together researchers from over the world interested in the ever advancing state of the art in the field. Continuous technological improvements make this online forum a viable gathering format for a world class conference. The aim of WSC17 was to disseminate excellent research results and contribute to building a global network of scientists interested in both theoretical foundations and practical applications of soft computing.   The 2012 edition of the Online World Conference on Soft Computing in Industrial Applications consisted of general track and special session on Continuous Features Discretization for Anomaly Intrusion Detectors...

  12. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  13. Visible Stars as Apparent Observational Evidence in Favor of the Copernican Principle in the Early 17th Century

    CERN Document Server

    Graney, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    The Copernican Principle (which says the Earth and sun are not unique) should have observational consequences and thus be testable. Galileo Galilei thought he could measure the true angular diameters of stars with his telescope; according to him, stars visible to the naked eye range in diameter from a fraction of a second to several seconds of arc. He used this and the Copernican Principle assumption that stars are suns as a method of determining stellar distances. The expected numbers of naked eye stars brighter than a given magnitude can be calculated via Galileo's methods; the results are consistent with data obtained from counting naked eye stars. Thus the total number of stars visible to the naked eye as a function of magnitude would appear to Galileo to be data supporting the Copernican Principle.

  14. Way to Pray the Rosary: One Form of Directed Contemplation in New Spain of the 17th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Krutitskaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The subjetc of this text is the review of rosary’s History from its oriental tradition to the secularization of its use by several ecclesiastic congregations. The different ways in wich the Rosary gained religious significations are explored as a colective scope regarding supernatural events refered on the Bible or those ocurred in quotidian life, and as an individual scope by the spiritual approach of the believer by the means of contemplation and meditation. Like wise these praxis are discovered as a guided form of contemplation inside the religious dogma with the purpose of guilt atonement and redemption. This will be usedas a benefit during the Counter-Reformation in order to guide the believer through the permitted paths of Catholic religion and prevent their deviation along the dark routes of Protestantism.

  15. Spatial-temporal analysis on climate variation in early Qing dynasty (17th -18th century) using China's chronological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Hui Elaine; Wang, Pao-Kuan; Fan, I.-Chun; Liao, Yi-Chun; Liao, Hsiung-Ming; Pai, Pi-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change in the form of extreme, variation, and short- or mid-term fluctuation is now widely conceived to challenge the survival of the human beings and the societies. Meanwhile, improving present and future climate modeling needs a comprehensive understanding of the past climate patterns. Although historical climate modeling has gained substantive progress in recent years based on the new findings from dynamical meteorology, phenology, or paleobiology, less known are the mid- to short-term variations or lower-frequency variabilities at different temporal scale and their regional expressions. Enabling accurate historical climate modeling would heavily rely on the robustness of the dataset that could carry specific time, location, and meteorological information in the continuous temporal and spatial chains. This study thus presents an important methodological innovation to reconstruct historical climate modeling at multiple temporal and spatial scales through building a historical climate dataset, based on the Chinese chronicles compiled in a Zhang (2004) edited Compendium of Chinese Meteorological Records of the Last 3,000 Years since Zhou Dynasty (1100BC). The dataset reserves the most delicate meteorological data with accurate time, location, meteorological event, duration, and other phonological, social and economic impact information, and is carefully digitalized, coded, and geo-referenced on the Geographical Information System based maps according to Tan's (1982) historical atlas in China. The research project, beginning in January 2015, is a collaborative work among scholars across meteorology, geography, and historical linguistics disciplines. The present research findings derived from the early 100+ years of the Qing dynasty include the following. First, the analysis is based on the sampling size, denoted as cities/counties, n=1398 across the Mainland China in the observation period. Second, the frequencies of precipitation, cold-warm temperature, flood and drought with an index of social unrest are counted in an interval of a year, five years, ten years, and twenty years to gain their running mean(s) for every cites/counties to depict their temporal variations. Third, the cities and counties are divided into seven zones based on their meteorological and geographical characteristics, in order to interpret the regional expressions of the climate variations. Finally, the Ordinary Least Square regression model is used to estimate the coefficients among precipitation, temperature, flood and drought. Significantly, it is found that in general all these indices fluctuated in past 100+ years. However, the occurrence of drought and flood all have significant correlation with lower (colder) temperature (P=0.00) and also with precipitation (P<0.05). This implies that cold temperature tends to have higher meteorological extremes, and both flood and drought can occur approximately in the same year with abundant precipitation at different time. Among seven geographical zones, North China is found more vulnerable to the temperature changes considering these extreme weathers. Temperature change in Central and South China however are less significant. Central China on the other hand is more sensitive to the precipitation that are both correlated with drought and flood.

  16. An Overview of Surveys of Paris Meridian Arc Section Lengths in the 17th and 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief introduction is followed by description of the spread of the Paris meridian in France. Following is description of the survey of Paris meridian arc section lengths and production of contemporary maps of France: by Jean Picard, Philippe de la Hire, Jean-Dominique Cassini (Cassini I, Cassini II, Cassini III and Cassini IV.

  17. The embassy of Spain in the court of Rome in the 17th century. Ceremonial and practice of good government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano BARRIO GOZALO

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the embassy of the Catholic King before the Cut of Rome was one of the most important by the many interests that were in play, its study does not stir up a lot of attention. Because of it dedicate these pages to study their ritual and to draw some general lines of the main functions of the ambassador and their form of government, according to the relations that are conserved in the Library of the Embassy.

  18. 17th-Century Author Celebrated in Latin America Begins to Win the Attention of U.S. Scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angus

    1988-01-01

    Increasing attention to women writers and to Latin American literature has helped focus attention on Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, a nun who produced some of the most important poetry and prose of the 1600s. Her greatness is seen in the abundance, variety, and excellence of her writing. (Author/MSE)

  19. Kurdistan in the 16th and 17th centuries, as reflected in Evliya Çelebi’s Seyahatname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Some sixty years after Sharaf Khan Bidlisi completed his Sharafname, the celebrated Turkish traveller Evliya Çelebi travelled extensively in Kurdistan. The ten thick volumes of his Book of Travels (Seyahatname) constitute a unique work almost unparalleled in the travel literature. The account of his

  20. The Adventures of an Amsterdam Spaniard: Nation-building in a 17th-century Dutch Pseudo-translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Y.; van Doorslaer, L.; Flynn, P.; Leerssen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Translations are not produced in a void, but in a continuum of textual and extra-textual constraints. The history of translation is rich in examples of the ways translation can be used in the service of ideological agendas. Particularly interesting is the genre of pseudo-translations, since they att

  1. The power of laughter: humor, violence and consensus in New Spain. 17th and 18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Lipsett-Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Joking and teasing permeated all aspects of life in New Spain. Using court records from Mexico City and its surrounding communities, this article explores the ways that laughter was deployed within New Spain’s culture of masculinity. Humor was both a means for to relate to each other but also to mark differences. It was a normal part of the day to day interactions of men in New Spain between friends who joked and teased but it could also fall flat when one person did not have the right tone. Yet the border between joking and insulting comments was imprecise and thus often led to conflicts. Laughter brought people together when they were of the same social class but when it was used in an offensive manner, it was transformed into a weapon to assert social distance. Such humor was also part of seductions and similarly had political overtones when it was used in satirical songs. Humor brought people together and created groups of insiders and outsiders. Laughter was a powerful tool within social interactions and provides an alternate way to understand the culture of masculinity in colonial Mexico.

  2. [The health of cardinal Gaston de Rohan. The sickness, the diplomat in the noble class of the 17th century?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Claude

    2011-01-01

    The few elements concerning health and medicine discovered during the exhaustive study of the numerous documents evoking the Rohan family are presented here. They concern essentially Gaston de Rohan (1674-1749). Born in Paris the 27th of June 1674, son of François de Rohan, Prince of Soubise, lieutenant-general of the French royal army, and of Anne Julienne de Rohan-Chabot, Gaston de Rohan was elected canon of the great-chapter in Strasbourg in 1690, then coadjutor of the Prince-bishop of Strasbourg in 1701. He became Prince-bishop of Strasbourg in 1704 and cardinal in 1712. He died in Paris the 19th of July 1749. The "gout" of the cardinal is omnipresent in the life of this man of the Church. Moreover, gout imposes upon the life of this statesman, preventing him from going to a given place which doesn't fill him with enthusiasm. His gout also allows to impose etiquette, since it obliges to go at the cardinal place, who receives. The illness becomes non diplomatic, but diplomacy.

  3. Aspects of 17th century Binding Medium: inclusions in Rembrandt’s Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noble, Petria; Wadum, Jørgen; Groen, Karin

    2000-01-01

    During the recent restoration of Rembrandt's Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp minuscule crater-like holes, which cover the surface of the painting, were studied. Whitish material within the holes was identified as lead chloride hydroxide and a variety of lead soaps. These inclusions, which in ...

  4. [Fermentation as the origin of life: discussions on blood in Italy in the late 17th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the correspondence (1701) between the Neapolitan mathematician Giacinto De Cristofaro and Domennico Guglielmini, professor of theoretical medicine at Padua, on the role of blood and on the fermentative process in the 'origin' of life. The discussion is set against the background of the lively Italian medical debates and experimentations on the function and composition of the blood. Works by Marcello Malpighi, Giacomo Sandri, Giovanni Maria Lancisi, Giorgio Baglivi, Giovanbattista Morgagni and Nicola Cirillo - all of them taking into account Robert Boyle's Natural History of the Blood (1683-4) - show that blood composition and heart motion were described in different ways, ranging from the adoption of chemical theories and experimentation to that of strictly mechanical explanations. Different positions about the role of the blood and of its fermentative motion reflect different views about the relationship between matter and life.

  5. The distribution of silver specimens from the Kongsberg Silver Mines, Norway, 17th and 18th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B.I.; Nordrum, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Specimens of native silver from the Kongsberg mines in Norway are world famous and have been distributed through sales and gifts during the whole period of mining from 1623 to 1958. Names of customers, the number of sold specimens and their silver content are documented in accounts which are preserv

  6. [The apothecaries of the rue de l'Arbre-Sec in Paris in the 17th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warolin, Christian

    2014-06-01

    The mud tax imposed by the king in 1637 to pay for street-cleaning is a useful tool for identifying the people who were liable for the tax, their profession, and whether they were owners or tenants. The survey of the Rue de l'Arbre-Sec, a very old street in Paris close to the Louvre, reveals that seven apothecaries lived there in 1637. Two of them were particularly important: Hiérosme Lambert, who had an apothecary'shop near the church of Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois, and Michel Dansse, apothecary to Queen Anne of Austria. The two families established links through the marriage of Marie Lambert, the daughter of Hiérosme Lambert and Marie Gauche, to Michel Dansse. One of their sons, Jean Dansse, was also apothecary to Anne of Austria and then to Queen Marie-Thérèse.

  7. Humphrey Ridley (1653-1708): 17th century evolution in neuroanatomy and selective cerebrovascular injections for cadaver dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jai Deep; Sonig, Ashish; Chittiboina, Prashant; Khan, Imad Saeed; Wadhwa, Rishi; Nanda, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Humphrey Ridley, M.D. (1653-1708), is a relatively unknown historical figure, belonging to the postmedieval era of neuroanatomical discovery. He was born in the market town of Mansfield, 14 miles from the county of Nottinghamshire, England. After studying at Merton College, Oxford, he pursued medicine at Leiden University in the Netherlands. In 1688, he was incorporated as an M.D. at Cambridge. Ridley authored the first original treatise in English language on neuroanatomy, The Anatomy of the Brain Containing its Mechanisms and Physiology: Together with Some New Discoveries and Corrections of Ancient and Modern Authors upon that Subject. Ridley described the venous anatomy of the eponymous circular sinus in connection with the parasellar compartment. His methods were novel, unique, and effective. To appreciate the venous anatomy, he preferred to perform his anatomical dissections on recently executed criminals who had been hanged. These cadavers had considerable venous engorgement, which made the skull base venous anatomy clearer. To enhance the appearance of the cerebral vasculature further, he used tinged wax and quicksilver in the injections. He set up experimental models to answer questions definitively, in proving that the arachnoid mater is a separate meningeal layer. The first description of the subarachnoid cisterns, blood-brain barrier, and the fifth cranial nerve ganglion with its branches are also attributed to Ridley. This historical vignette revisits Ridley's life and academic work that influenced neuroscience and neurosurgical understanding in its infancy. It is unfortunate that most of his novel contributions have gone unnoticed and uncited. The authors hope that this article will inform the neurosurgical community of Ridley's contributions to the field of neurosurgery.

  8. Equatorial All Sky Imager Images from the Seychelles during the March 17th, 2015 geomagnetic storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, B.

    2015-12-01

    An all sky imager was installed in the Seychelles earlier this year. The Seychelles islands are located northeast of Madagascar and east of Somalia in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The all sky imager is located on the island of Mahe (4.6667°S, 55.4667°E geographic), (10.55°S, 127.07°E geomagnetic), with filters of 557.7, 620.0, 630.0, 765.0 and 777.4 nm. Images with a 90 second exposure from Seychelles in 777.4nm and 630.0nm from the night before and night of the March 17th geomagnetic storm are discussed in comparison to solar wind measurements at ACE and the disturbance storm time (Dst) index. These images show line-of-sight intensities of photons received dependent on each filters wavelength. A time series of these images sometimes will show the movement of relatively dark areas, or depletions, in each emission. The depletion regions are known to cause scintillation in GPS signals. The direction and speed of movement of these depletions are related to changes observed in the solar wind.

  9. The 17th Annual Magnet Technology Conference Hosted By CERN Is Proving That Opposites Attract...

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Hundreds were drawn together by the 17th Magnet Technology Conference, the largest conference devoted to magnets in the world. Thirty-six years ago about 50 physicists and engineers came together at SLAC, Stanford, to have a symposium on magnet technology. Simple as it seemed at the moment, it was the first time that anyone seriously considered building superconducting magnets and was the birth of the Magnet Technology (MT) conference. The conference has occurred every two years since that time and had its most recent incarnation, MT-17, hosted by CERN just last week at the International Conference Centre here in Geneva. With so much innovative work being done with magnets in the LHC and its experiments (ATLAS, CMS, Alice and LHCb), having an MT conference hosted by CERN in Geneva was expected. However, what was not expected was the level of interest with which MT-17 was met. 'We are victims of our own success', says Romeo Perin who was one of the 50 physicists/engineers who attended the Stanford symposium a...

  10. A summary of ground motion effects at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) resulting from the Oct 17th 1989 earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1990-08-01

    Ground motions resulting from the October 17th 1989 (Loma Prieta) earthquake are described and can be correlated with some geologic features of the SLAC site. Recent deformations of the linac are also related to slow motions observed over the past 20 years. Measured characteristics of the earthquake are listed. Some effects on machine components and detectors are noted. 18 refs., 16 figs.

  11. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (μg) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 μg in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 μg, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels. A total of 32 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the August 11–24, 2011, assessment in the northern study

  12. Invitation to the 17th international congress on photosynthesis research in 2016: photosynthesis in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2016-02-01

    The 17th International Congress on Photosynthesis will be held from August 7 to 12, 2016 in Maastricht, The Netherlands. The congress will include an opening reception, 15 plenary lectures, 28 scientific symposia, many poster sessions, displays by scientific companies, excursions, congress dinner, social activities, and the first photosynthesis soccer world championship. See http://www.ps2016.com/ . The congress is organized as an official event of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (see http://www.photosynthesisresearch.org/).

  13. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, T.; Midgley, P. A.

    2011-11-01

    This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 17th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at Churchill College, University of Cambridge, on 4-7 April 2011. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Institute of Physics and supported by the Royal Microscopical Society as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and related techniques with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 131 delegates from 25 countries world-wide, a record in terms of internationality. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes of device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, the electronic structure, the chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two examples of topics at this meeting that have attracted a number of interesting studies were: the correlation of microstructural, optical and chemical information at atomic resolution with nanometre-scale resolved maps of the local electrical fields in (In,Al)GaN based semiconductors and tomographic approaches to characterise ensembles of nanowires and stacks of processed layers in devices Figure 1 Figure 1. Opening lecture by Professor Sir Colin J Humphreys. Each manuscript submitted for publication in this proceedings volume has been independently reviewed and revised

  14. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The 17th edition of the International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2014) was held in San Carlos de Bariloche, in the southern region of Argentina known as Patagonia, from August 31 to September 5, 2014. This meeting corresponds to a series of HCI conferences, which has been held every other year since 1982 in cities in Europe, USA, Japan and China. This was the first time that the conference took place in Latin America. This edition was organized by a Local Committee made up of physicists mainly from the cities of Bariloche and Rosario and also from Buenos Aires and Bahía Blanca, all sites where research on Atomic Collisions is developed. The conference was attended by delegates coming from 18 countries, more that 23% of whom were women. The field of highly charged ions has seen in recent years a promising evolution originating from bold progress in theory and significant advances in experimental techniques. The HCI conferences aim at bringing together experimentalists and theoreticians from as wide a range of fields as, for instance, Fundamental Aspects, Structure and Spectroscopy, Collisions with Electrons, Ions, Atoms and Molecules, Interaction with Clusters, Surfaces and Solids, Interactions with Photons and Plasmas, Strong Field Processes, and Production, Experimental Developments and Applications. The Scientific Programme, selected by an International Advisory Board, included 5 Review Lectures, 11 Progress Reports, 1 Local Report and 24 Special Reports. In addition, the results of 132 contributed works were presented as poster communications and a Public Lecture on 'The wonders of the Southern Skies' was delivered by an Argentinean expert. Thus, a wide range of subjects comprising a balanced mix of topics was covered throughout the course of the conference. The HCI 2014 was a resounding success for the international and local communities, from both the scientific and social aspects, considering that the attendees and accompanying

  15. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg

    2015-04-01

    The 17th International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM 17) took place in Dresden, Germany, August 24-29, 2014. It belongs to the "triennial" series of ICOTOM meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1969 - Clausthal, 1971 - Cracow, 1973 - Pont-à-Mousson, 1975 - Cambridge, 1978 - Aachen, 1981 - Tokyo, 1984 - Noordwijkerhout, 1987 - Santa Fe, 1990 - Avignon, 1993 - Clausthal, 1996 - Xian, 1999 - Montreal, 2002 - Seoul, 2005 - Leuven, 2008 - Pittsburgh, 2011 - Mumbai, 2014 - Dresden. ICOTOM 17 was hosted by the Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Structural Physics. Following the tradition of the ICOTOM conferences, the main focus of ICOTOM-17 was to promote and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the basic processes that govern the formation of texture and its relation to the properties of polycrystalline materials. Nonetheless, it was the aim to forge links between basic research on model materials and applied research on engineering materials of technical importance. Thus, ICOTOM 17 provided a forum for the presentation and discussion of recent progress in research of texture and related anisotropy of mechanical and functional properties of all kinds of polycrystalline materials including natural materials like rocks. Particular attention was paid to recent advances in texture measurement and analysis as well as modeling of texture development for all kinds of processes like solidification, plastic deformation, recrystallization and grain growth, phase transformations, thin film deposition, etc. Hence, ICOTOM 17 was of great interest to materials scientists, engineers from many different areas and geoscientists. The topics covered by ICOTOM 17 were: 1. Mathematical, numerical and statistical methods of texture analysis 2. Deformation textures 3. Crystallization, recrystallization and growth textures 4. Transformation textures 5. Textures in functional materials 6. Textures in advanced materials 7. Textures in rocks 8. Texture

  16. New Height in A New Stage Interpretation of the 17th China International Man-Made Fiber Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2011-01-01

    The 17th China International Man-Made Fiber Conference (Wujiang) held on Sep. 1st, 2011 discussed in depth the world chemical fiber changes and the predictable development of China's chemical fiber industry during the "12th Five-Year Program" period. In order to help readers fully understand China's chemical fiber industry's development priorities during that period, the article will give an interpretation on the two themes of the conference "Innovation-Driven" and "Green & Low Carbon"

  17. 17th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    SNPD 2016

    2016-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 17th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2016) which was held on May 30 - June 1, 2016 in Shanghai, China. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.

  18. The Other 7/8--The application of “Iceberg Principle” in the 17th chapter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟璠

    2013-01-01

    Based on “Iceberg Principle”, the paper briefly introduces the development of this theory in the area of literature, and also gives a brief introduction of Hemingway’s classic novel The Sun Also Rises. The paper studies take the 17th chapter of this novel as an example, analyzing the application of “Iceberg principle” in this chapter from the perspective of both the storyline and characterization and summarizes the effect that “Iceberg Principle” have in this chapter. It will be beneficial for the readers to understand of“Iceberg Principle” in a specific context, and to understand the thoughts and emotion of the novel from a much deeper level.

  19. Changes of serum thyroid hormone and plasma catecholamine of 16 th and 17 th Chinese Expeditioners in Antarctic environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐成丽; 朱广瑾; 薛全福; 祖淑玉

    2003-01-01

    The serum thyroid hormone and plasma catecholamine were examined in 18 male and 2 female members of the Chinese Antarctic Expedition ( who spent the 2000 or 2001 austral winter at the Great Wall Station). The changes of serum thyroid hormone i.e. total thyroxine ( TT4 ) and free T4 ( FT4 ) , total triodothyronine ( TT3 )and freeT3 ( FT3 ), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and plasma eateeholamine,including norepinephrine ( NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DA) , were investigated by Chemoluminescenee Immunoassay (CLIA) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Samples were taken at different time: (1) 1 day before departure to Antarctica (16th expedition 1999/12/09; 17th expedition 2000/12/06). (2) 1 day after returned to China after living 54 weeks in Antarctica ( 16th expedition 2000/12/25; 17th expedition 2001/12/25 ).Comparing the data of before departure and returned, results showed that there was a significant decrease in the contents of TT4 ( P < 0.01 ) with no significant change in the content of TT3, FT3 and FT4. It was also found that the content of TSH increased significantly (P <0. 001 ); No significant changes of plasma NE and DA were found but the content of E decreased significantly ( P < 0. 001 ). The results indicated that the special Antarctic environment led to a restrain effect on the thyroid function and the level of plasma E in Antarctic expedition members. Both the thyroid and adrenal medulla system were associated in response to the Antarctic systemic stress.

  20. Acute Abdomen in the 17th Week of Twin Pregnancy due to Ovarian Torsion – A Late Complication of IVF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, D.; Bauman, R.; Rukavina Kralj, L.; Hafner, T.; Turudic, T.; Vujisic, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A 32-year-old woman with tubal factor infertility due to bilateral laparoscopic salpingectomy conceived twins with in vitro fertilization (IVF). She developed moderate ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome which was treated with anticoagulant therapy. The subsequent course of the twin pregnancy was normal until the 17th week of gestation when she presented to hospital because of a sharp pain in the right lower abdomen which ceased after admission. Case: Except for a single incident of vomiting, patient had no other subjective symptoms. The clinical examination showed tenderness of the lower right abdominal segment on palpation. The surgeon and the urologist found no signs of an acute surgical or urologic condition, and laboratory findings were within normal reference ranges for pregnant women. Two days after admission the pain reappeared; it was now much stronger and colic-like. The pain was initially located supraumbilically but subsequently spread diffusely across the lower abdomen. Abdominal guarding was present and laboratory findings showed an increase in inflammatory parameters. An enlarged and edematous right ovary was found on transvaginal ultrasound. Conclusion: Exploratory laparotomy via a vertical midline abdominal transection revealed a torqued necrotic right ovary with elements of inflammation and inflammatory adhesions involving the entire pelvis. The patient underwent right-sided ovariectomy and adhesiolysis. Recovered was normal and the patient was delivered of healthy twins in the 37th week of gestation. PMID:28017976

  1. Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister Categories of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Kenneth Marshall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is a settlement agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister categories; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and potential issues in retrieval and processing of the waste containers.

  2. Summary of EC-17: the 17th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (Deurne, The Netherlands, 7-10 May 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.; Austin, M. E.; Kubo, S.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Plaum, B.

    2013-01-01

    An overview is given of the papers presented at the 17th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH). The meeting covered all aspects of the research field ranging from theory to enabling technologies. From the workshop, advanced control by ele

  3. The relativistic solar particle event of May 17th, 2012 observed on board the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrilli Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available High-energy charged particles represent a severe radiation risk for astronauts and spacecrafts and could damage ground critical infrastructures related to space services. Different natural sources are the origin of these particles, among them galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles and particles trapped in radiation belts. Solar particle events (SPE consist in the emission of high-energy protons, alpha-particles, electrons and heavier particles from solar flares or shocks driven by solar plasma propagating through the corona and interplanetary space. Ground-level enhancements (GLE are rare solar events in which particles are accelerated to near relativistic energies and affect space and ground-based infrastructures. During the current solar cycle 24 a single GLE event was recorded on May 17th, 2012 associated with an M5.1-class solar flare. The investigation of such a special class of solar events permits us to measure conditions in space critical to both scientific and operational research. This event, classified as GLE71, was detected on board the International Space Station (ISS by the active particle detectors of the ALTEA (Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts experiment. The collected data permit us to study the radiation environment inside the ISS. In this work we present the first results of the analysis of data acquired by ALTEA detectors during GLE71 associated with an M5.1-class solar flare. We estimate the energy loss spectrum of the solar particles and evaluate the contribution to the total exposure of ISS astronauts to solar high-energy charged particles.

  4. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Kepler's supernova (SN1604)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  5. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Keplers supernova (SN1604)

    CERN Document Server

    van Gent, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper Sule et al. (Astronomical Notes, vol. 332 (2011), 655) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  6. Regarding the Potential Impact of Double Star Observations on Conceptions of the Universe of Stars in the Early 17TH Century

    CERN Document Server

    Graney, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    Galileo Galilei believed that stars were distant suns whose sizes measured via his telescope were a direct indication of distance -- fainter stars (appearing smaller in the telescope) being farther away than brighter ones. Galileo argued in his Dialogue that telescopic observation of a chance alignment of a faint (distant) and bright (closer) star would reveal annual parallax, if such double stars were found. This would provide support both for Galileo's ideas concerning the nature of stars and for the motion of the Earth. However, Galileo actually made observations of such double stars, well before publication of the Dialogue. We show that the results of these observations, and the likely results of observations of any double star that was a viable subject for Galileo's telescope, would undermine Galileo's ideas, not support them. We argue that such observations would lead either to the more correct idea that stars were sun-like bodies of varying sizes which could be physically grouped, or to the less correc...

  7. Don Juan in Italy of 17th Century%唐璜传说在17世纪的意大利

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘久明

    2006-01-01

    蒂尔索以唐璜传说为题材创作的剧本一经问世,很快便从西班牙流传到了意大利,并在意大利戏剧界引起了强烈反响.多种不同的改编本相继出现,其中包括希科尼尼的和吉利贝托失传的同名剧本.这一时期在意大利十分流行的即兴喜剧也对唐璜题材表现出了极大兴趣,据此改编的戏剧甚至成为了许多即兴喜剧剧团演出的保留剧目.唐璜传说在意大利的"成功",一方面归因于文艺复兴运动的影响,另一方面应归因于传说所包含的"奇妙"因素适应了这一时期意大利观众欣赏趣味的需要.

  8. Mariological paintings in the Chapel of Our Lady's Tomb in the Kalwaria Zebrzydowska compound. From studies on the reception of graphics in Polish 17th century painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Dzik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chapel of Our Lady's Tomb in Brody, complete with valuable interior furnishing, in terms of history and territory belongs to the architectural landscape concept of the Marian- and Passion-themed compound in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska. In the fields of the late-Renaissance choir parapet and the galleries of the chapel there are a series of paintings showing hitherto unspecified Marian themes. The items have never been referred to in literature on Kalwaria or mentioned in guidebooks or maintenance records. The article analyses, in a broad context, the symbolism of 37 Marian scenes presenting Mary and symbolic objects (e.g. a heart, a building, a garden.

  9. Stefano Mozzi Scolari «stampadore e miniatore di stampe di rame» in 17th century Venice: life, activity and successors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Giachery

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Born around Brescia around 1612, Stefano Mozzi Scolari was active in Venice between 1644 and 1687 as printer. He was among the firsts to devote his activity entirely to illustrated editions. It is possible to distinguish three fields of his activity: the reproduction of already published copperplates, mainly geographical; the collaboration with Giacomo Piccini and Giovanni Merlo as editor and printer of images commissioned by himself; the one as printer of images drawn by himself. Scolari’s enterprise had two specific features, such as the reproduction of already existing works –more favourable for his printer shop- and the production of images from the city life and the contemporary events. Geographically, his professional activity developed in Venice around the parish church of San Zulian, where he also probably had lived since 1642. He was an active member of the guilds “dei Pittori” between 1660 and 1683 and regular participant in the Capitoli della Scuola del Santissimo Sacramento of San Zulian between 1660 and 1691. The analysis of his three wills provides with several information regarding his family and his professional acquaintances. His personal condition results as that of a well-off craftsman, owner of a printer shop but not more. He died in 1691. Three years before his death, he wrote, together with Francesco Busetto and Giacomo Zini, the inventory of the bookshop of Giovanni Battista Scalvinoni. Further archival records confirm that his nephew, Stephan, was active in the same area as trader of engravings.

  10. Riccioli Measures the Stars: Observations of the telescopic disks of stars as evidence against Copernicus and Galileo in the middle of the 17th century

    CERN Document Server

    Graney, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    G. B. Riccioli's 1651 Almagestum Novum contains a table of diameters of stars as measured by Riccioli and his associates with a telescope. The star diameters are spurious, caused by the diffraction of light waves through the circular aperture of the telescope, but astronomers of the time, Riccioli and Galileo Galilei among others, were unaware of this phenomenon and believed that they were seeing the physical bodies of stars. Riccioli used these telescopically measured disks to determine the sizes of stars under both geocentric (or geo-heliocentric/Tychonic) and heliocentric/Copernican hypotheses. The sizes obtained under the Copernican system were immense - dwarfing the Earth, Sun, the Earth's orbit, and even exceeding the distances to the stars given by Tycho Brahe. Thus Riccioli felt that telescopic observations were an effective argument against the Copernican system.

  11. Characterization of the deterioration of bone black in the 17 th century Oranjezaal paintings using electron-microscopic and micro-spectroscopic imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Annelies; Boon, Jaap J.

    2004-10-01

    A whitish deterioration product was observed on the dark paint in a number of large-scale oil paintings that are part of the Oranjezaal interior decoration in the Royal Palace Huis ten Bosch (The Hague). The whitened areas of a painting by Pieter Soutman dating from 1648 were micro-sampled and compared with "healthy" black paint using different analytical imaging techniques. The dark paint was identified as bone black in linseed oil with a lead drier added. Microscopic images of the cross-section revealed a white top layer of 10-20 μm in the black paint layer. Imaging the cross-section surface with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and specular reflection Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) showed homogeneous distributions of phosphate, phosphorus and calcium over the black and the white degraded bone black. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the presence of calcium phosphate hydrate (Ca 3(PO 4) 2· xH 2O), monetite (CaHPO 4) with possibly some poorly crystalline or amorphous hydroxyapatite (Ca 5(OH)(PO 4) 3). The EDX maps of lead and carbon, however, showed some discontinuity between the degraded and non-degraded bone black. There was an increase in the lead concentration in the white top layer, and a slight decrease of carbon. Transmission FTIR demonstrated that aromatic network polymers from the carbon black are markedly diminished in the white deterioration product. It is proposed that the carbonized organic matter in the bone black is vulnerable to photo bleaching in the presence of a lead catalyst under these circumstances.

  12. Stable isotopic reconstructions of adult diets and infant feeding practices during urbanization of the city of Edo in 17th century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutaya, Takumi; Nagaoka, Tomohito; Sawada, Junmei; Hirata, Kazuaki; Yoneda, Minoru

    2014-04-01

    The urbanization of the city of Edo, the capital of premodern Japan, has been assumed to be not as a result of natural increase but that of in-migration although this assumption has never been verified. To obtain information on natural fertility in Edo, we analyzed stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in 46 adult and 84 subadult human skeletons excavated from the Hitotsubashi site (1657-1683 AD: the early Edo period), Tokyo, Japan and reconstructed their breastfeeding period, one of the most important determinants of fertility. Adult females are significantly more depleted in (15) N by 0.7‰ than adult males, suggesting a dietary differentiation between sexes and/or the effect of pregnancy. The changes in the nitrogen isotope ratios of subadults suggest that supplementary foods were introduced around the age of 0.2 years and weaning ended around 3.1 years, which agrees with descriptions in various historical documents of the period. The duration of breastfeeding in the Hitotsubashi population was relatively longer than those in modern industrial and traditional societies and four previously reported populations in medieval and in the industrial England. As later weaning closely associates with longer inter-birth interval for mothers, our data suggest a lower natural fertility for the Hitotsubashi population. Assuming that the proportion of married people was also lower in the major cities of the earlier Edo period, our results support the assumption that Edo developed and increased its population by attracting immigrants during urbanization.

  13. [Rural healthcare in the 17th and 18th centuries: types of conducción (contract) for health professionals in Aragon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Doctor, Asunción; Arcarazo Garcia, Luis A

    2002-01-01

    In order to ensure continuous health care for the population, Town Councils of the rural areas of Aragon offered contracts to health professionals. The contract was known as a "conducta médica" or "conducción". In this study, we review the legislation of the time, the types of contracts and the procedures followed, in addition to the fees and duties of the health professionals (conducidos) hired. Finally, the problems arising from this system are considered and some relevant sources are given.

  14. Furniture and paintings in the houses of the marqueses de Santa Cruz de Marcenado (Asturias between the 17th and 18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laca Menéndez de Luarca, Luis Ramón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using unpublished archival documents, the author studies and analyses in detail the collections of furniture and paintings left at the time of their deaths by Sebastián Vigil de Quiñones y la Rúa and his daughter Jacinta in their houses in the town of Pola de Siero and the capital, Oviedo (Asturias. Both furniture and paintings were destroyed —or perhaps dispersed— during the Napoleonic Wars, when la Rúa’s house in Oviedo was repeatedly sacked. Nevertheless, the inventories here transcribed perfectly demonstrate the wealth displayed by the Asturian nobility of the period, which can be verified by comparing these inventories with those of other families related to the Vigil de Quiñones, for example the Miranda, marqueses de Valdecarzana.

    A través de documentos inéditos de archivo, se analizan y estudian en detalle los conjuntos de muebles y la colección de pintura que quedaron a la muerte de don Sebastián Vigil de Quiñones y la Rúa y de su hija Jacinta, en sus casas de la villa de Pola de Siero y Oviedo (Asturias. Tanto los muebles como los cuadros se destruyeron o quizá dispersaron durante la Guerra de Independencia, cuando la Casa de la Rúa de Oviedo fue saqueada en reiteradas ocasiones. No obstante, los inventarios transcritos en este artículo ilustran perfectamente la riqueza de la que hacía gala en Asturias la nobleza de la época, como se comprueba comparando los inventarios estudiados con los de otras familias emparentadas con los Vigil de Quiñones, por ejemplo los Miranda, marqueses de Valdecarzana.

  15. Miraculous Image of Christ Carrying Crucifix in Discalced Carmelites Church in Lviv. From Studies on Reception of Graphic Art in Polish Painting of 17th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Frey-Stec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In one of the side altars in the Cracow church of the Calced Carmelites ‘Na Piasku’ there is a miraculous image of Christ carrying a crucifix, brought after World War II from the Discalced Carmelites church in Lviv. The painting is one of the many examples o f using graphic models by painters as it was painted from a drawing made according to a composition of Peter de Witte, called Candid (born ca 1548 in Bruges, died in 1628 in Munich by Raphael Sadeler I (born 1561 in Antwerp, died 1632 in Prague.

  16. NGVs: Driving to the 21st Century. 17th National Natural Gas Vehicle Conference and Exhibition, October 3-5, 1999 [conference organizational literature and agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-10-05

    By attending the conference, participants learn about new and planned OEM vehicle and engine technologies; studies comparing Diesel and gasoline emissions to natural gas; new state and federal legislation; and innovative marketing programs they can use to help sell their products and services.

  17. FROM TRADITIONAL PRACTICES TO REDUCTION PRACTICES: RITUALS OF HEALING, GRIEF AND BURIAL AT THE JESUIT-GUARANI REDUCTIONS (JESUIT PROVINCE OF PARAGUAY, 17TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Deckmann Fleck

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to evince and analyze the impact of the Christian conceptions of sickness and death on the Guarani indian sensibility and its translation in terms of representations and social practices in the Jesuitical reductions. The analysis of the records made by the missionaries, especially the Cartas Ânuas of the Jesuitical Province of Paraguay regarding the period from 1609 to 1675, revealed that, on the one hand, the Guarani kept traditional practices of their religious sensibility – as is evinced in the resignification of the "copious crying" and the funereal laments –, and, on the other hand, that the missionaries, besides incorporating the native pharmacopoeia and many of the indian healing practices, skillfully manipulated the cures and the "bien morir", a strategy that was fundamental to the success of the civilization-conversion project of the Companhia de Jesus alongside the Guarani.

  18. Rapid coastal subsidence in the central Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh) since the 17th century deduced from submerged salt-producing kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanebuth, T. J.; Kudrass, H.; Linstädter, J.; Islam, B.; Zander, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The densely populated low lying Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta is highly vulnerable to the global sea-level rise. In order to estimate the subsidence of the delta over historical time scales, we examined submerged salt-producing kiln sites in the coastal Sundarbans. These kilns were built just above the previous winterly spring high-tide level, but are currently located ~155 × 15 cm below the corresponding modern level. According to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, the kilns were ultimately fired ~300 years ago (1705 × 35 AD) and salt production was terminated abruptly by a catastrophic event (major cyclone), which affected the kiln sites at different levels and locations. Two particular buried mangrove root horizons 80 cm below this kiln level also indicate catastrophic scenarios (probably subsidence events related to a regional earthquake). AMS-14C ages measured on the charcoal layers at the kiln's bases and on these associated mangrove stump horizons support the OSL dates. Based on the respective elevations of these kiln and mangrove palaeo-horizons and on the ages, the 300-year-average rate of sinking of the outer delta is 5.2 × 1.2 mm/a, which includes 0.8 mm/a of eustatic sea-level rise over this historical period. Expecting further acceleration of the eustatic sea-level rise of up to 7 mm/a, we calculate a rise in relative sea level of up to 8.9 × 3.3 mm/a for the next few decased, which will dramatically aggravate the already present problematic situation. Only a prudently-managed control of sediment accretion will keep southern Bangladesh above the sea level. (Hanebuth et al., Geology, Sept 2013, doi: 10.1130/G34646.1.)

  19. Influence of mercury ore roasting sites from 16th and 17th century on the mercury dispersion in surroundings of Idrija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gosar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first decade of mercury mining in Idrija the ore was roasted in piles. After that the ore was roasted for 150 years, until 1652, in earthen vessels at various sites in the woods around Idrija. Up to present 21 localities of ancient roasting sites were established.From the roasting areas Frbej‘ene trate, lying on a wide dolomitic terrace on the left side of the road from Idrija to ^ekovnik, 3 soil profiles are discussed. In all three profiles in the upper, organic matter rich soil horizon very high mercury contents (from 3 to 4,000mg/kg were found. In two profiles the contents rapidly decrease with depth, to about 10- times lower values already at 0.5 m. Below that, the mercury contents decrease slowly, to reach at the 1.3 m depth a few mg/kg metal. In the third profile the upper humic layer is followed downward by an additional humic layer containing very abundant pottery fragments. In this layer the maximum mercury contents were determined, 7.474 mg/kg Hg. The underlying loamy soil contains between 1000 and 2000 mg/kg mercury. Pšenk is one of the larger localities of roasting vessels fragments. It is located at Lačna voda brook below Hlev{e, above its confluence with the Padar ravine. The most abundant pottery remains are found in the upper western margin of the area, just below the way to Hleviše. The considered geochemical profile P{enk contains at the top a 45 cm thick humic layer with 4,000 to 5,000 mg/kg mercury. Deeper the contents fall to around 100 mg/kg mercury. The alculations result in an estimated amount of 1.4 t mercury still present at the P{enk locality, and in about 40 t of mercury on all roasting sites described up to present.The determined mercury contents in soils at old roasting sites are very high, and they surpass all hitherto described localities at Idrija and in the surroundings.

  20. Elevated Frequencies of Circulating Th22 Cell in Addition to Th17 Cell and Th17/Th1 Cell in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang; Ting Wang; Xiao-qi Wang; Rui-zhi Du; Kai-ning Zhang; Xin-guang Liu; Dao-xin Ma; Shuang Yu; Guo-hai Su; Zhen-hua Li; Yu-qing Guan; Nai-li Du

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by immune cells. Th22 cells are CD4(+) T cells that secret IL-22 but not IL-17 or IFN-γ and are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease. The roles of Th22 cells in the pathophysiologic procedures of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the profile of Th22, Th17 and Th17/Th1 cells in ACS patients, including unstable angina (UA) and acute myocardial infarcti...

  1. No Evidence for an Early Seventeenth-Century Indian Sighting of Kepler's Supernova (SN1604)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification

  2. 17th May 2011 - Minister of Natural Resources of the Kingdom of Lesotho M. Moleleki signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and in the ATLAS visitor centre with Deputy Collaboration Spokesperson A. Lankford.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    17th May 2011 - Minister of Natural Resources of the Kingdom of Lesotho M. Moleleki signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and in the ATLAS visitor centre with Deputy Collaboration Spokesperson A. Lankford.

  3. American veterinary history: before the nineteenth century. 1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, Bert W

    2014-11-01

    With the development of our present day domesticated animals in America (during the 16th and 17th centuries), it was not long before animal diseases became troublesome and destructive (especially during the latter half of the 18th century). Though veterinary medicine became rather firmly established in many European countries (including England) during the latter half of the 18th century, veterinary medicine was relatively nonexistent in America, with only self-styled animal doctors and farriers (with their empirical and often destructive remedies).

  4. Recurrent cerebral fever in the seventeenth and twenty first centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A N; Sunderland, R

    2004-01-01

    The development of modern neuroscience away from the concepts of Hippocrates and Galen can be traced to the writings of some 17th century clinicians, especially Thomas Willis. His exceptional skills in observation and description allow a window into the experiences of our medical forebears. His approach to the management of infection-related coma in a child is amenable to modern interpretation and comparison with modern management because of the clarity of his clinical descriptions. Modern clinicians may benefit from this historical perspective into influences on the origins of neuroscience. The different outcome for a child presenting in the 17th and 21st century encourage grateful reflection on our current privileged position.

  5. Collaborations in population-based health research: the 17th annual HMO Research Network Conference, March 23-25, 2011, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Tracy A; Hinrichsen, Virginia L; Moreira, Andrea; Platt, Richard

    2011-11-01

    The HMO Research Network (HMORN) is a consortium of 16 health care systems with integrated research centers. Approximately 475 people participated in its 17(th) annual conference, hosted by the Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School. The theme, "Collaborations in Population-Based Health Research," reflected the network's emphasis on collaborative studies both among its members and with external investigators. Plenary talks highlighted the initial phase of the HMORN's work to establish the NIH-HMO Collaboratory, opportunities for public health collaborations, the work of early career investigators, and the state of the network. Platform and poster presentations showcased a broad spectrum of innovative public domain research in areas including disease epidemiology and treatment, health economics, and information technology. Special interest group sessions and ancillary meetings provided venues for informal conversation and structured work among ongoing groups, including networks in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, medical product safety, and mental health.

  6. From History of Ukrainian Advocacy: Ways and Methods of Conflicts Dissolving in Volyn and Kyiv Region (Late 16th — Early 17th Ct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dovbyshchenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of conflicts dissolving by the advocates of Volyn and Kyiv region in late 16th — early 17th ct. is investigated. A question about the features of advocacy functioning during a mentioned historical period is reflected. The role of «institute of friends» in everyday life of the Ukrainian gentry and its influence on Ukrainian advocacy becoming in 16th ct. is underlined. Author analysed the ways of judicial contradictions and conflict situations dissolving. In their number, functioning of friendly courts, influence of friends are mentioned on motion of trial as «representatives of public», and others like that. The special attention was spared to entering into world contracts, as the most effective method of conflict situations and judicial contradictions arranging. It is underlined, that exactly due to these agreements considerable part of cases had an acceptable finale for both parties of conflict.

  7. Sloths of the Atlantic Forest in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Danielle O; Mendes, Sérgio L

    2016-01-01

    Sloths were a curiosity item for Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries, and several descriptions of them exist in bestiaries and texts of that time. Here, we assemble the descriptions and drawings of sloths from the travellers and naturalists of those centuries in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sloth was a novelty to the European audience, and it was described in many strange and inaccurate ways: as a monster, a beast, or an odd child. It served as a source of admiration, amusement, and confusion among naturalists and travellers of the 16th and 17th centuries. We also raised the question about the identity of Carolus Clusius' sloth, a drawing published in Exoticorum libri decem (1605). We compared his drawing with earlier depictions and descriptions, from André Thevet (1516-1590) to George Marcgrave (1610-1644). We present evidence to validate the first drawing of the maned sloth, completed 206 years before the official taxonomic description.

  8. 17th International AEIPRO Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, José; Capuz-Rizo, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Project Management and Engineering is an emergent area. Every day more projects have bigger size, more stakeholders involved, more environmental, organizational and technological complexity, and a better degree of fulfilment requirements. The foregoing causes greater demands on the effectiveness of Project Engineering and the efficiency of Project Management. This volume puts together a collection of recent works of researchers and professionals in the Project Management and Engineering fields of Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Energy Efficiency, Rural Development, Production and Process Engineering, Industrial Design and Information Technology and Communication.

  9. Excerpts from the 1st international NTNU symposium on current and future clinical biomarkers of cancer: innovation and implementation, June 16th and 17th 2016, Trondheim, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Ana I; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Tsui, Dana W T; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Creaney, Jenette; Dobra, Katalin; Vyberg, Mogens; Minato, Nagahiro; Anders, Robert A; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zhou, Jianwei; Sætrom, Pål; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Kirschner, Michaela B; Krokan, Hans E; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; Røe, Oluf D

    2016-10-19

    The goal of biomarker research is to identify clinically valid markers. Despite decades of research there has been disappointingly few molecules or techniques that are in use today. The "1st International NTNU Symposium on Current and Future Clinical Biomarkers of Cancer: Innovation and Implementation", was held June 16th and 17th 2016, at the Knowledge Center of the St. Olavs Hospital in Trondheim, Norway, under the auspices of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the HUNT biobank and research center. The Symposium attracted approximately 100 attendees and invited speakers from 12 countries and 4 continents. In this Symposium original research and overviews on diagnostic, predictive and prognostic cancer biomarkers in serum, plasma, urine, pleural fluid and tumor, circulating tumor cells and bioinformatics as well as how to implement biomarkers in clinical trials were presented. Senior researchers and young investigators presented, reviewed and vividly discussed important new developments in the field of clinical biomarkers of cancer, with the goal of accelerating biomarker research and implementation. The excerpts of this symposium aim to give a cutting-edge overview and insight on some highly important aspects of clinical cancer biomarkers to-date to connect molecular innovation with clinical implementation to eventually improve patient care.

  10. XVII CENTURY TURKISH DIVAN POETS WHOSE WORKS HAVE BEEN COMPOSED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri PARMAKSIZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical Turkish poetry and classical Turkish music have been inseparable art branches for centuries. The best examples of music and poems created in the same periods have been the most prominent proof of this. One of these periods without doubt have been 17th century. It has been observed that composers demand divan poetry of 17thand 18thcentury greatly. Mystical poems constitute most of the poems composed in these centuries. Almost all of the poems in the divans of some mystic divan poets have been composed. In this study, the poets in the mentioned century have been determined and then the poems in the new and previous repertoires of these poets have been tried to reveal with screening and comparasion methods .

  11. The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2011-01-01

    The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon…

  12. PREFACE: 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2012-12-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. Like prior events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saints Constantine and Helena near Varna, going back to the refurbished facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 17 different countries delivered 31 invited lecturers and 78 posters, contributing through three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the accepted papers illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not least significant factor for the success of the 17 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. Visits to the Archaeological Museum (rich in valuable gold treasures of the ancient Thracian culture) and to the famous rock monastery Aladja were organized for the participants from the Varna Municipality. These Proceedings are published for the second time by the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for supporting this idea. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saints Constantine and Helena, 1-5 September 2014. It will be entitled: Challenges of the Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials and Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Emilia Pecheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa Editors

  13. Stellar Occultations by Large TNOs on 2012: The February 3rd by (208996) 2003 AZ84, and the February 17th by (50000) Quaoar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga Ribas, Felipe; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Lecacheux, J.; Colas, F.; Vachier, F.; Tanga, P.; Sposetti, S.; Brosch, N.; Kaspi, S.; Manulis, I.; Baug, T.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ganesh, S.; Jain, J.; Mohan, V.; Sharma, A.; Garcia-Lozano, R.; Klotz, A.; Frappa, E.; Jehin, E.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Behrend, R.; Roques, F.; Widemann, T.; Morales, N.; Thirouin, A.; Mahasena, P.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Daassou, A.; Rinner, C.; Ofek, E. O.

    2012-10-01

    On February 2012, two stellar occultation's by large Trans-neptunian Objects (TNO's) were observed by our group. On the 3rd, an event by (208996) 2003 AZ84 was recorded from Mont Abu Observatory and IUCAA Girawali Observatory in India and from Weizmann Observatory in Israel. On the 17th, a stellar occultation by (50000) Quaoar was observed from south France and Switzerland. Both occultations are the second observed by our group for each object, and will be used to improve the results obtained on the previous events. The occultation by 2003 AZ84 is the first multi-chord event recorded for this object. From the single chord event on January 8th 2011, Braga-Ribas et al. 2011 obtained a lower limit of 573 +/- 21 km. From the 2012 occultation the longest chord has a size of 662 +/- 50 km. The other chords will permit to determine the size and shape of the TNO, and derive other physical parameters, such as the geometric albedo. The Quaoar occultation was observed from south of France (Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, TAROT telescope and Valensole) and from Gnosca, Switzerland. Unfortunately, all three sites in France are almost at the same Quaoar's latitude, so in practice, we have two chords that can be used to fit Quaoar's limb. The resulting fit will be compared with the results obtained by Braga-Ribas et al. 2011. Braga-Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.

  14. Social differences in oral health: Dental status of individuals buried in and around Trakai Church in Lithuania (16th-17th c.c.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliauskienė, Žydrūnė; Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of social differences in dental health is based on the assumption that individuals belonging to a higher social class consumed a different diet than a common people. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare dental health of 16(th) - 17(th) c. individuals, buried inside and around the Roman Catholic Church in Trakai (Lithuania). All material (189 adult individuals) was divided in two samples of a presumably different social status: the Churchyard (ordinary townsmen) and the Presbytery (elite). Dental status analysis included that of tooth loss, tooth wear, caries, abscesses and calculus. Results revealed higher prevalence of dental disease in the Churchyard sample compared to the Presbytery. Individuals buried around the church had statistically higher prevalence of caries, antemortem tooth loss and abscesses compared to those who were buried inside the church. The Churchyard sample was also characterised by a higher increase in severity of caries with age, and a more rapid tooth wear. Differences in dental health between the samples the most probably reflect different dietary habits of people from different social groups: poor quality carbohydrate based diet of laymen buried in the churchyard and more varied diet with proteins and of a better quality of local elite, buried inside the church. Substantial sex differences in dental health were found only in the Churchyard sample: males had statistically higher prevalence of abscesses and calculus, while females had higher prevalence of caries and AMTL (antemortem tooth loss). Females were also characterised by a higher increase in the number of dental decay and tooth loss with age and had higher prevalence of gross caries, which indicates a more rapid progression of the disease. Worse dental health of females could be a result of culturally based dietary differences between females (more carbohydrates) and males (more proteins) and different physiological demands (hormonal fluctuations and

  15. Th17及Th17型细胞因子与炎症性肠病%Th17, Th17 cvtokines and inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李呈贞; 陈广洁

    2012-01-01

    Th17细胞已被划分为一个不同于Th1、Th2和Treg的新的T细胞亚群,以分泌IL-17为主要特征.Th17在防御胞外细菌感染、介导慢性炎症和自身免疫性疾病的发病机制中发挥重要作用.炎症性肠病属于自身免疫性疾病的一种,免疫调节紊乱是其发病的关键因素.免疫学和基因学的发现表明Th17及Th17效应因子在炎症性肠病发病机理中起重要作用.对Th17的进一步深入研究可以加深我们对相关疾病发病机制的认识并指导临床治疗.%T helper 17 (Th17) cells, a newly classified T cell subset, characterized by the production of IL-17, play crucial roles in the defense of extracellular bacterial infections, the mediated chronic inflammation and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease, whose key pathogenic factor is immune regulation disturbance. Evidences suggest that Th17 and its effectors play an important role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Thus further investigation of Th17 could reveal the pathogenesis of related diseases and guide the clinical treatment.

  16. Asientos and Military Contractors in the Seventeenth Century: The Example of the Bread and the Gunpowder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José RODRÍGUEZ HERNÁNDEZ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This text approaches the importance of the Asientos inside the expense of the armies that fought in Spain during the 17th century. For it we analyze the management of the supply of bread whose quantity was the most outstanding expense of any army, which was always in private hands. We also analyze the production of gunpowder in Spain, and their transformation in a monopoly in private hands in the form of Asientos Generales.

  17. MicroRNA-155 may be involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis by modulating the differentiation and function of T helper type 17 (Th17) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L; Xue, H-B; Wang, F; Shu, C-M; Zhang, J-H

    2015-07-01

    Our aims were to identify the differential expression of microRNA (miR)-155, as well as to explore the possible regulatory effects of miR-155 on the differentiation and function of T helper type 17 (Th17) cells in atopic dermatitis (AD). The Th17 cell percentage and expression levels of miR-155, retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt, interleukin (IL)-17 and suppressor of cytokine signalling-1 (SOCS1) in peripheral CD4(+) T cells, plasma and skin specimens were detected and compared in AD patients and healthy subjects. A miR-155 mimic and an inhibitor were transfected separately into AD CD4(+) T cells to confirm the in-vivo data. The Th17 cell percentage, miR-155 expression, RORγt mRNA expression, IL-17 mRNA expression and plasma concentration were increased significantly in AD patients compared with healthy subjects. Conversely, SOCS1 mRNA expression and plasma concentration were decreased significantly. Similar results were detected in cultured CD4(+) T cells transfected with the miR-155 mimic compared with a miR-155 inhibitor or a negative control. Additionally, there was a sequential decrease in miR-155 expression, as well as RORγt and IL-17 mRNA expression, but an increase in SOCS1 mRNA expression, from AD lesional skin and perilesional skin to normal skin. Positive correlations were found between miR-155 expression and AD severity, Th17 cell percentage, RORγt mRNA expression and IL-17 mRNA expression and plasma concentration, while negative correlations were observed between miR-155 expression and SOCS1 mRNA expression and plasma concentration in AD peripheral circulation and skin lesions. In conclusion, miR-155 is over-expressed and may be involved in AD pathogenesis by modulating the differentiation and function of Th17 cells.

  18. Significance of the balance between regulatory T (Treg and T helper 17 (Th17 cells during hepatitis B virus related liver fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus-related liver fibrosis (HBV-LF always progresses from inflammation to fibrosis. However, the relationship between these two pathological conditions is not fully understood. Here, it is postulated that the balance between regulatory T (Treg cells and T helper 17 (Th17 cells as an indicator of inflammation may predict fibrosis progression of HBV-LF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The frequencies and phenotypes of peripheral Treg and Th17 cells of seventy-seven HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients who underwent liver biopsies and thirty healthy controls were determined by flow cytometry. In the periphery of CHB patients, both Treg and Th17 frequencies were significantly increased and correlated, and a lower Treg/Th17 ratio always indicated more liver injury and fibrosis progression. To investigate exact effects of Treg and Th17 cells during HBV-LF, a series of in vitro experiments were performed using purified CD4(+, CD4(+CD25(+, or CD4(+CD25(- cells from the periphery, primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs isolated from healthy liver specimens, human recombinant interleukin (IL-17 cytokine, anti-IL-17 antibody and HBcAg. In response to HBcAg, CD4(+CD25(+ cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and cytokine production (especially IL-17 and IL-22 by CD4(+CD25(- cells in cell-contact and dose-dependent manners. In addition, CD4(+ cells from CHB patients, compared to those from HC subjects, dramatically promoted proliferation and activation of human HSCs. Moreover, in a dramatically dose-dependent manner, CD4(+CD25(+ cells from CHB patients inhibited, whereas recombinant IL-17 response promoted the proliferation and activation of HSCs. Finally, in vivo evidence about effects of Treg/Th17 balance during liver fibrosis was obtained in concanavalin A-induced mouse fibrosis models via depletion of CD25(+ or IL-17(+ cells, and it's observed that CD25 depletion promoted, whereas IL-17 depletion

  19. Siting epidemic disease: 3 centuries of American history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Charles E

    2008-02-15

    Epidemics of infectious disease have always played a role in American history, and such epidemics are sited in time and place and configured in terms of ecology and demography, available medical knowledge, and cultural values and collective experience. The mix of these variables has changed dramatically since the theocratic world of 17th-century New England, but the relevance of each remains. Avian influenza already exists virtually in Western society in terms of planning, global networks, laboratory research, social expectations, media representations, and a specific shared history based on the memory of the 1918 influenza pandemic.

  20. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Hyperfine Interactions and 17th International Symposium on Nuclear Quadrupole Interactions (HFI/NQI 2004) Bonn, Germany, 22–27 August 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, K; HFI/NQI 2004

    2005-01-01

    Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Hyperfine Interactions and 17th International Symposium on Nuclear Quadrupole Interactions, HFI/NQI 2004, held in Bonn, Germany, 22-27 August, 2004 Researchers and graduate students interested in the Mössbauer Effect and its applications will find this volume indispensable. The volume presents the most recent developments in the methodology of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Reprinted from Hyperfine Interactions (HYPE) Volume 158/159.

  1. Distribution and significance of Th17/Th1 cells in the peripheral blood and tumor tissue from patients with cervical caner%宫颈癌患者外周血及肿瘤组织中Th17/Th1细胞分布及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付婷; 杨佩芳; 焦志军

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To explore the clistribution and significance of Th 17 and Th1 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tumor tissue from patients with cervical caner . Methods: The frequency of Th17 and Th1 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear and tumor tissue from patients with cervical cancer and health people was determined by intracelluar staining with flow cytometry . The correlation between Th17 and Th1 was assessed by using bivariate correlation analysis . Results : The expression levels of Th17 and in patients was higher than control groups ( P < 0. 01 ) , while Th1 levels was lower than controls ( P <0. 01 ) . There was a negative correlation between Th 17 and Th1 cells in tumor tissue from patients with cervical caner. Conclusion : There was an unbalance of Th17/Th1 cells in tumor tissue from cervical caner , which may be involved in the development of cervical cancer .%目的:探讨宫颈癌患者外周血、肿瘤局部组织中Th17、Th1细胞的分布特征及其在宫颈癌发病机制中的意义.方法:采用流式细胞术细胞内染色技术检测宫颈癌患者外周血、肿瘤组织标本和健康对照组外周血及子宫组织中Th17、Th1细胞;采用直线相关检验方法对Th17、Th1细胞进行相关性分析.结果:宫颈癌患者外周血、肿瘤组织中Th17细胞显著高于健康对照组(P<0.01),外周血中Th1细胞显著低于健康对照组(P<0.01),肿瘤组织中Th17、Th1细胞比例呈负相关.结论:宫颈癌患者局部肿瘤组织中存在Th17/ Th1细胞失衡现象,这种失衡可能是宫颈癌发生发展的机制之一.

  2. World of Learning, Sociability and City  in early Eighteenth Century France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Van Damme

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this last paper, I wish to present the research project I am currently working on, which is about the connection between the world of learning and scholars and the emergence of urban identities in Europe in the first half of the 18th century. To speak in broader terms, what I would like to grasp is how the circulation of knowledge shaped the making of the great cultural metropolises in the period between the 17th and the 18th century, mainly in a few sites : Paris, Lyon, London, Edinburgh,...

  3. Juan Mayorga's adaptations of Lope: La dama boba in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Molanes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptations made by one of today’s most eminent playwrights, Juan Mayorga, on the texts by Lope de Vega which were represented during the first decade of the 21st century allow us to analyse some of the most relevant aspects in the reception, canonization and theatrical interpretation of 17th century theatre. This study will thus focus on Lope’s La Dama Boba and the adaptation offered by Juan Mayorga for the Compañía Nacional de Teatro Clásico, directed by Helena Pimenta in 2002.

  4. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  5. Alimentación, ocio y cultura en el pazo de Goiáns en el siglo XVIII = Feeding, leisure time and culture in the pazo of Goians (17th and 19th centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Lijó, José María

    2011-01-01

    En esta comunicación se analizan algunos aspectos del micro cosmos cultural de un pazo gallego, el de Goiáns, cuya excepcional ubicación a orillas de la ría de Arousa dota de alto valor añadido a este solar con espacios singulares como pesquera y embarcadero. Los inventarios de bienes de la casa informan de varios indicadores culturales de las elites (libros, juegos, obras artísticas, instrumentos musicales) y otros, como la alimentación, pueden estudiarse gracias a la documentación contable....

  6. On the Development of the British Mercantilism Colonial Thoughts in the 17th Century%论17世纪英国重商主义殖民思想的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光耀

    2010-01-01

    17世纪是英第一帝国形成时期.第一帝国建立的思想动力源于重商主义思想的发展.在英国重商主义发展史上,托马斯·孟、威廉·配第及达维南特占据十分重要的地位,他们所提出的重商主义的贸易扩张和殖民帝国理论构成了英国殖民扩张和建立帝国的基本指导思想和理论基础,并赋予了英第一帝国鲜明的重商主义特色.

  7. A Utopian Paradise, the Chinese Image in German Literature Of the 17th Century%乌托邦式的人间天堂——17世纪德国文学中的中国形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄骅

    2009-01-01

    17世纪,以"礼仪之争"为发端,中国的历史、哲学和文化传入欧洲,成为当时哲学家热烈讨论的对象.一些并不全面熟悉中国文化也不精通汉语的德国作家从中国文化汲取了灵感和启迪,把中国形象当成乌托邦式的人间天堂,借以对比德国当时困苦的现实生活.德国巴洛克文学中出现的乌托邦式人间天堂的中国形象,跟现实中的中国形象差之千里.这种中国形象的误读、改写和重建恰恰表明了文化传播和碰撞的过程中人们对异国文化的研究和吸取往往取决于自身的处境和条件.

  8. Analysis of Factors that have Influenced Outcomes of Battles and Wars: A Data Base of Battles and Engagements. Volume 2. Wars from 1600 through 1800. Part 1. Wars of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    A.1;B.8.1; B.2S; B.33. S76 INE DUTCH WAR, 1672-1678 Fehrbellin, 28 June 1675 In January 1675 a Swedish army commanded by Count Carl Gustav Wrangel...galloped forward to steady his troops and received a mortal wound. Moreau immediately assumd command, and succeeded in re-establishing the position. By...for the defenders. They fell back, slowly at first, then in considerable confusion. The whole French line then collapsed. Moreau withdrew the remnants

  9. Een verkeerde loop in ’t vuur: an initial investigation into what Dutch archival sources can tell us about techniques and problems in the production of 17th and 18th century Dutch tin-glaze tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lookeren Campagne, K.; Delgado Rodrigues, J.; Mimoso, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Technical art-historical archival sources can be invaluable for our knowledge and understanding of the origin and preparation of materials as well as the production techniques used to make ceramic objects. The information provided could also aid our understanding of the factors that influence suscep

  10. Studies on elephant tusks and hippopotamus teeth collected from the early 17th century Portuguese shipwreck off Goa, West coast of India: Evidence of maritime trade between Goa, Portugal and African countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Godfrey, I.

    in Africa (Figure 2). The Portuguese generated huge revenue and wealth by trading with these centres, with ivory being one of their most profitable commodities. Ivory brought to Goa was dispatched to Cambay, Surat and other places in Gujarat because..., wood and ivory in Goa and elsewhere. Hippopotamus are large aquatic mammals that live in the wetlands of southern, western and Central Africa. They were once found throughout Africa, but now they are ex- tinct in northern Africa. Over...

  11. Social y culturalmente ambiguos: criollos-mestizos de Tucumán, siglo XVII Socially and culturally ambiguous: criollo-mestizo population of Tucumán (Argentina, 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Noli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la influencia de las sociedades indígenas sobre los descendientes de conquistadores españoles, los criollos. Se estudiará el caso de Juan Jordán de Trejo y los impedimentos presentados por una facción del cabildo de San Miguel de Tucumán a su admisión como teniente de gobernador. Este individuo descendía de una familia encomendera de Tafí, llamada Melián de Leguizamo y Guevara, pero pertenecía a una rama no favorecida del linaje y se desempeñaba como administrador de ese pueblo. Se indagará sobre las características de su mestizaje en el que destaca, a modo de espejo -de la españolización u occidentalización de los indios-, el manejo fluido de la lengua indígena, el conocimiento de las sociedades prehispánicas y sus territorios y el analfabetismo. Se analizará su rol como mediador interétnico (passeur culturel y las ventajas y obstáculos de este perfil en distintas coyunturas para el desempeño social y político en el grupo dominante.This article analyzes the influence of indigenous societies on the descendants of Spanish conquistadors, known as criollos. The subject is approached through a case study which shows how a faction of San Miguel de Tucumán town council (cabildo tried to prevent the admission of Juan Jordán de Trejo as deputy governor (teniente de gobernador. He belonged to the Melián de Leguizamo y Guevara family, owners of encomiendas in Tafí, but his lower lineage made him served as the town's administrator. Specific characteristics of his intercultural persona resembling a mirror image -referred to as Spanishization or Westernization of the Indians- will be studied, including his fluency in the indigenous language, his knowledge of pre-Hispanic societies and their territories and his illiteracy. His role as interethnic mediator (passeur culturel, and the advantages and drawbacks such a profile presents at different junctures, for social and political participation in the dominant group, will also be analyzed.

  12. Bibliotecas y libros en la cultura universitaria de Córdoba durante los siglos XVII y XVIII Libraries and Books in the University Culture of Córdoba during the 17th and 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano G. A. Benito Moya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el proceso de conformación del sistema de bibliotecas universitario colonial en Córdoba (Argentina, aproximadamente entre 1609 fecha en que se estableció el Colegio Máximo jesuita y la primera década revolucionaria de 1810. Dos etapas quedan bien definidas, el período de administración jesuítica (1609-1767, caracterizado por el lento proceso de construcción de las bibliotecas y, luego de la expulsión, el período franciscano (1767-1807 en que las mismas quedaron bajo la administración de la Junta de Temporalidades. La organización física; la concepción mental de clasificar el conocimiento; los servicios que prestaban; y el rol de los bibliotecarios, son algunos de las temáticas relacionadas que se abordan.This is a study of the process of the development of library systems in colonial Córdoba (Argentina from around 1609, the date in which the Jesuit Collegium Maximum was founded, to 1810 (the first decade of the Revolutionary period. Two stages of development are clearly defined, the period of Jesuit administration (1609-1767 characterized by the slow process of constructing the libraries, and later the expulsion, the Franciscan period (1797-1807 in which these orders came under the administration of the Junta de Temporalidades. The physical organization; the mental conception of the categorization of knowledge, the services that they provided and the role of librarians are some of the topics that are addressed.

  13. [The union of three families of apothecaries in Paris in the 17th and 18th centuries--The apothecaries François Pihoué, François Regnault, Henry Charas and Marie Fourneau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-06-01

    The family network started with Marie Fourneau, daughter of the apothecary Jacques Fourneau, married successively two apothecaries first François Pihoué and then François Regnault and whose only daughter Marie Anne married the apothecary Henry Charas grandson of the famous apothecary Moyse Charas.

  14. Fine particles and carbon monoxide from wood burning in 17th-19th century Danish kitchens: Measurements at two reconstructed farm houses at the Lejre Historical-Archaeological Experimental Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Clausen, Geo; Chowdhury, Z.;

    2010-01-01

    lit at the same time, which would cause high personal exposure for someone working in the kitchens. 15 min averages of up to 25 400 mu g m(-3) (PM2.5) and 260 ppm CO were recorded. WHO air quality guidelines were occasionally exceeded for CO and constantly for PM2.5. However, air exchange and air...

  15. Analysis of Factors that have Influenced Outcomes of Battles and Wars: A Data Base of Battles and Engagements. Volume 3. Wars from 1805 through 1900. Part 1. Wars of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Government Agencies only; Software Documentation; 6 Nov 1984. Other requests referred to: Dir/USACAA, 8120 Woodmont Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814-2797...16 Janary. 1809 In reaction to aseries of French military disasters an the Peninsula, Napoleon crossed the Pyrenees in November 1808 at the head of...pursued the. defeated army into ** the highlands east of Lima, Bolivar entered Lima and established a government . Source: D.14.3. 81 THE LATIN AMRICAN WARS

  16. 人工智能国际研究进展——第17届国际人工智能联合大会评述%Advances of International Artificial Intelligence Research ——Report of 17th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志华; 史忠植

    2001-01-01

    This report briefly introduces the 17th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-01), including the issued awards, technical programs, and other activities. Also some is sues of future research directions are involved.

  17. Einstein's Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeremy Laurance; 贾庆文

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein began working at the patent office in Bern, Switzerland, a little more than a century ago. He had flunked the entrance exam for the Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology and took the job evaluating inventions because it paid a regular salary.

  18. Breakthrough cancer medicine and its impact on novel drug development in China:report of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) and Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) Joint Session at the 17th CSCO Annual Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Roger Luo; Ge Zhang; Li Xu; Pascal Qian; Li Yan; Jian Ding; Helen X. Chen; Hao Liu; Man-Cheong Fung; Maria Koehler; Jean Pierre Armand; Lei Jiang; Xiao Xu

    2014-01-01

    The US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) teamed up with Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) to host a joint session at the17th CSCO Annual Meeting on September 20th, 2014 in Xiamen, China. With a focus on breakthrough cancer medicines, the session featured innovative approaches to evaluate breakthrough agents and established a platform to interactively share successful experiences from case studies of 6 novel agents from both the United States and China. The goal of the session is to inspire scientific and practical considerations for clinical trial design and strategy to expedite cancer drug development in China. A panel discussion further provided in-depth advice on advancing both early and ful development of novel cancer medicines in China.

  19. Sloths of the Atlantic Forest in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELLE O. MOREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sloths were a curiosity item for Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries, and several descriptions of them exist in bestiaries and texts of that time. Here, we assemble the descriptions and drawings of sloths from the travellers and naturalists of those centuries in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sloth was a novelty to the European audience, and it was described in many strange and inaccurate ways: as a monster, a beast, or an odd child. It served as a source of admiration, amusement, and confusion among naturalists and travellers of the 16th and 17th centuries. We also raised the question about the identity of Carolus Clusius' sloth, a drawing published in Exoticorum libri decem (1605. We compared his drawing with earlier depictions and descriptions, from André Thevet (1516-1590 to George Marcgrave (1610-1644. We present evidence to validate the first drawing of the maned sloth, completed 206 years before the official taxonomic description.

  20. century drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  1. John Milton: Puritan Tradition and Political Languages in XVIIth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MITAROTONDO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not simple to place John Milton in a specific political current of the English historical context of 17th century. In detail, we want to study Milton’s prose works to extract the topics of the English civic and political tradition in the First Revolution age. In these terms, we’ll analyze the Commonplace Book, a collection of commentaries about texts and authors, and about various subjects: the interpretations of Machiavelli in the Old English tradition of the Modern age, the idea of man’s freedom and his relationship with natural law and political authority, according to the general perspective of the Puritan religion, which characterizes Milton’s political language.

  2. Mining equipment manufacturers; 17th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The report analyses and compares the financial ratios of mining equipment manufacturers in the United Kingdom. It includes companies who produce equipment for the mining industry such as cutting tools, drilling equipment, crushers, screens, centrifuges, tunnelling equipment, conveyors and other materials handling equipment, hydraulic equipment, filtration, pumping, and mixing equipment and ventilation equipment. The report presents business ratios analysing profitability, efficiency, liquidity, employee-based ratios and a series of figures on growth rate. Accounting data for the individual companies are given, together with principal ratios, areas of activity, names of directors and company secretary, trading address and holding companies.

  3. 17th Living Buddha Garmaba Visits Hinterland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    17thLivingBuddhaGarmabaVisitsHinterlandbyOurCorrespondentsWhentensofthousandsofpeoplegatheredatBeijing′sTiananmencelebratethe...

  4. 17th Poincaré Seminar 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Duplantier, Bertrand; Raimond, Jean-Michel; Rivasseau, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    This fourteenth volume in the Poincaré Seminar Series is devoted to Niels Bohr, his foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory and their continuing importance today. This book contains the following chapters: - Tomas Bohr, Keeping Things Open; - Olivier Darrigol, Bohr's Trilogy of 1913; -John Heilbron, The Mind that Created the Bohr Atom; - Serge Haroche & Jean-Michel Raimond, Bohr's Legacy in Cavity QED; - Alain Aspect, From Einstein, Bohr, Schrödinger to Bell and Feynman: a New Quantum Revolution?; - Antoine Browaeys, Interacting Cold Rydberg Atoms: A Toy Many-Body System; - Michel Bitbol & Stefano Osnaghi, Bohr´s Complementarity and Kant´s Epistemology. Dating from their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience these seven chapters are of high educational value. This volume is of general interest to physicists, mathematicians and historians.

  5. 17th International Conference on RF Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    RF superconductivity is the key technology of accelerators for particle physics, nuclear physics and light sources. SRF 2015 covered the latest advances in the science, technology, and applications of superconducting RF. There was also an industrial exhibit during the conference with the key vendors in the community available to discuss their capabilities and products.

  6. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  7. The proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Chelation: application of effective chelation therapies in iron loading and non iron loading conditions, and the gap in the prevention and treatment policies on thalassemia between developed and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2009-01-01

    Substantial progress in the use of chelating drugs for the treatment of iron overload and of non iron loading conditions has been presented during the 17th International Conference on Chelation (ICOC) held in November 2007 at Shenzhen, China. Major challenges lie ahead for the prevention and treatment of thalassemia in China, India, Thailand, Indonesia and many other developing countries where millions of heterozygote thalassemia carriers live and thousands of homozygote thalassemia patients are born annually. The progressive improvement of the economic climate in developing countries will increase the demand and resources for more prenatal and antenatal diagnoses, transfusions and chelation therapy in forthcoming years. Despite the major advances in diagnosis and treatment in developed countries, the vast majority of thalassemia patients in developing countries die untreated because they cannot afford the cost of transfusions and chelation therapy. New approaches and infrastructures and more efforts are needed to overcome the difficulties of supplying new techniques and treatments to patients in developing countries. International and local organizations need to be persuaded to act collectively and effectively to improve chelation and related treatments for thalassemia and other conditions, especially at this time that universally effective and inexpensive chelation therapies can be applied.

  8. 17th September 2010 - Signature of a joint declaration by CERN represented by Director-General R. Heuer and the Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (CBPF) represented by R. Shellard, witnessed by the Ambassador to the United Nations Office M. N. Farani Azevêdo, signing the guest book.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    17th September 2010 - Signature of a joint declaration by CERN represented by Director-General R. Heuer and the Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (CBPF) represented by R. Shellard, witnessed by the Ambassador to the United Nations Office M. N. Farani Azevêdo, signing the guest book.

  9. 17th April 2008 - W. W. Tichenor, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva visiting the ATLAS cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and AMS Collaboration Spokesperson S.C.C.Ting.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    17th April 2008 - W. W. Tichenor, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva visiting the ATLAS cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and AMS Collaboration Spokesperson S.C.C.Ting.

  10. Hallmarks in the history of enteral and parenteral nutrition: from antiquity to the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilyadi, Frank; Panteliadou, Alkistis-Kira; Panteliadis, Christos

    2013-04-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) have a very long history, emerging in the ancient world and developing throughout the common epoch. This history dates back as far as 3500 bc to the ancient Egyptians, Indians, and Chinese. Their medical practices were the first reports of enteral feeding therapy, provided via rectum with enemas of wine, milk, whey, wheat, and barley. Hippocrates and Plato, in ancient Greece, were the first personalities to emphasize the importance of diet on health. In the following centuries, Erasistratus and Herophilus described the first notion of the circulatory system, and Oribasius and Celsus described the role of nutrition and disease. There is a great historical gap between the times of Galen (2nd century), who elaborated on the circulatory system; Ibn Zuhr (12th century), who constructed the first model of PN; and Capivacceus (16th century), who placed the first tube for EN. The 17th-19th centuries showed major developments in modern nutrition elements. Steps toward artificial nutrition began in 1628 with the detailed description of blood circulation by William Harvey; however, most of the advances in enteral and parenteral feeding techniques, solutions, and formulas took place in the 20th century. Over the last decade of the 20th century, research focused on metabolic control, multitude formulas, timing and the combination of EN and PN for intensive care patients.

  11. [Origin of animal experimentation legislation in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocard, M

    1999-01-01

    The first legislation in the world, designed to protect animals used in research, was passed in England in 1876, and is still in force today. It is one of the strictest in Europe. At the same period, France had no such law, and was the country conducting the greatest amount of animal experimentation. Comparing, these two countries, in the middle of the 19th century, can account for this difference. The most important difference seems to be related to the theological question: are animals endowed with a soul? Saint Augustine, claimed, in the 4th century, perhaps because of an experiment with the centipede, that animals do not have a soul. In the 17th century, René Descartes, using a different philosophical system, reached a similar conclusion, in France. On the other hand, under the influence of Charles Darwin, England rejected the Roman Catholic conclusion, about the soul of animals. The industrial revolution, occurring earlier in England than in France, also changed the society, developing urban areas, where people were cut off from rural life and changing human relationships with animals. The industrial revolution enabled the development of the press, giving impetus to public opinion. These facts, combined with a caution of science, which was more developed in England than in France, brought about the first important "anti-doctor" campaign.

  12. An analysis on reasons of failure of Chinese men's basketball in the 17th Asian Games%第17届亚运会中国男篮失利原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄必刚

    2015-01-01

    运用文献资料、录像观察和数理统计等方法,对第17届男篮亚运会中国队与竞赛对手的攻防能力进行对比分析,结果表明:在基本情况方面,中国队队员普遍年轻,比赛缺乏经验,不适应比赛节奏,对战术的执行不明确;在进攻能力方面,中国队场均投篮命中率和罚球命中率低,特别是在罚球命中率指标上与对手差异非常显著(P0.05);在防守能力方面,中国队场均犯规次数多于对手,差异显著(P0.05)。%By using the methods of documents,mathematical statistics andvideo observation, the article comparative analyzes the ability of offense and defense between Chinese men's basketball and opponentin the 17th Asian Games. The result shows that in the side of fundamental state, Chinese men's basketball athletes are generally young, short of experience, not adapted togame tempo, and not clear in executing of tactics;in the side of attack ability, China has low percentages in field-goal and free throw especially in free throwpercentage has big difference between offense (p0.05), and in the side of defensive ability, averaging fouls are more than offense, there is not significant difference of the data index of averaging a defensive rebound, steal and block(p>0.05).

  13. South-Eastern Policy of Russia in the Middle of the 18th Century in the Light of Orientalist Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aznabaev B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The correctness of application of orientalist discourse of E. Said to the colonial policy of the Russian Empire is analyzed in the article on the example of P. I. Rychkov research. By studying integration of Bashkirs in the structure of the Russian state, the author came to the conclusion that Russia's policy in the East was based on the experience of the management of non-Russian peoples, which was developed in the 16-17th centuries. The establishment of “cultural distance” is typical only for a small group of educated administrators of past-Petrine era. Most of the officials of the region, as in the preceding period, and during the time of Rychkov and Tatishchev preferred to rely on traditional methods of Bashkir management, which was developed in the period of their voluntary accession. Managerial stereotypes of 16-17th centuries, had significant influence on policy towards South-Eastern peoples of Russia even in the 19th century. The Russian administration inherent in the desire to integrate the non-Russian peoples in the General class structure of the state on the basis of analogies or correspondences, the objective of which was social and cultural rapprochement of the two societies.

  14. The environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal: ten centuries of whale and dolphin records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded.

  15. The environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal: ten centuries of whale and dolphin records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Brito

    Full Text Available The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded.

  16. Spanish Mystic Women of the Golden Century within the Ottoman Empire: Seven Arabic Manuscripts Found in Aleppo (Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fernando del Río Sánchez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on the existence of seven manuscripts conserved in three different collections of Aleppo (Syria: the Greek-Catholic/Melkite, the Georges and Mathilde Salem Foundation and the Maronite libraries. These seven co­pies contain the Arabic translations of some mystical works written by two mystic women of the Spanish Golden Century, Teresa de Ávila and María de Ágreda. The history of these Arabic versions, translated right in the heart of the Ottoman Arabic provinces, constitutes an interesting object of study that is directly linked with the manner in which many  European Western works passed to the Mediterranean Levant during the 16th and 17th centuries.

  17. Twentieth Century Moral Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, Rowland

    2008-01-01

    Despite being somewhat long in the tooth at the time, Aristotle, Hume and Kant were still dominating twentieth century moral philosophy. Much of the progress made in that century came from a detailed working through of each of their approaches by the expanding and increasingly professionalized corps of academic philosophers. And this progress can be measured not just by the quality and sophistication of moral philosophy at the end of that century, but also by the narrowing of s...

  18. Tuberculosis epidemiology and selection in an autochthonous Siberian population from the 16th-19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabernat, Henri; Thèves, Catherine; Bouakaze, Caroline; Nikolaeva, Dariya; Keyser, Christine; Mokrousov, Igor; Géraut, Annie; Duchesne, Sylvie; Gérard, Patrice; Alexeev, Anatoly N; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of most ancient diseases affecting human populations. Although numerous studies have tried to detect pathogenic DNA in ancient skeletons, the successful identification of ancient tuberculosis strains remains rare. Here, we describe a study of 140 ancient subjects inhumed in Yakutia (Eastern Siberia) during a tuberculosis outbreak, dating from the 16(th)-19(th) century. For a long time, Yakut populations had remained isolated from European populations, and it was not until the beginning of the 17(th) century that first contacts were made with European settlers. Subsequently, tuberculosis spread throughout Yakutia, and the evolution of tuberculosis frequencies can be tracked until the 19(th) century. This study took a multidisciplinary approach, examining historical and paleo-epidemiological data to understand the impact of tuberculosis on ancient Yakut population. In addition, molecular identification of the ancient tuberculosis strain was realized to elucidate the natural history and host-pathogen co-evolution of human tuberculosis that was present in this population. This was achieved by the molecular detection of the IS6110 sequence and SNP genotyping by the SNaPshot technique. Results demonstrated that the strain belongs to cluster PGG2-SCG-5, evocating a European origin. Our study suggests that the Yakut population may have been shaped by selection pressures, exerted by several illnesses, including tuberculosis, over several centuries. This confirms the validity and necessity of using a multidisciplinary approach to understand the natural history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease.

  19. Tuberculosis epidemiology and selection in an autochthonous Siberian population from the 16th-19th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Dabernat

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of most ancient diseases affecting human populations. Although numerous studies have tried to detect pathogenic DNA in ancient skeletons, the successful identification of ancient tuberculosis strains remains rare. Here, we describe a study of 140 ancient subjects inhumed in Yakutia (Eastern Siberia during a tuberculosis outbreak, dating from the 16(th-19(th century. For a long time, Yakut populations had remained isolated from European populations, and it was not until the beginning of the 17(th century that first contacts were made with European settlers. Subsequently, tuberculosis spread throughout Yakutia, and the evolution of tuberculosis frequencies can be tracked until the 19(th century. This study took a multidisciplinary approach, examining historical and paleo-epidemiological data to understand the impact of tuberculosis on ancient Yakut population. In addition, molecular identification of the ancient tuberculosis strain was realized to elucidate the natural history and host-pathogen co-evolution of human tuberculosis that was present in this population. This was achieved by the molecular detection of the IS6110 sequence and SNP genotyping by the SNaPshot technique. Results demonstrated that the strain belongs to cluster PGG2-SCG-5, evocating a European origin. Our study suggests that the Yakut population may have been shaped by selection pressures, exerted by several illnesses, including tuberculosis, over several centuries. This confirms the validity and necessity of using a multidisciplinary approach to understand the natural history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease.

  20. Three centuries of protozoology: a brief tribute to its founding father, A. van Leeuwenhoek of Delft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, J O

    1975-02-01

    It was exactly 300 years ago this month (August 1974) that the 17th century modest draper from Delft, Holland--Antony van Leeuwenhoek--discovered protozoa. Describing them, often with amazing accuracy considering the optical equipment he was using (simply a home-made "glorified" hand lens), in letters to the Royal Society of London, he established himself, certainly, as the founding father of protozoology. It is particularly appropriate for an assemblage of protozoologists to pay homage to this intrepid "philosopher in little things," a man with an insatiable curiosity about his wee animalcules, on the tricentenary of his discovery of them, since it was an event of such long-lasting significance.

  1. Nineteenth-Century English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...

  2. Comet of the Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Fred; Ottewell, G.

    The present century has been a disappointing one for comets, but past centuries often featured spectacular, unforgettable comet shows that dominated the night (and even daytime) sky for months: comets that outshone Venus or even the Moon, whose spectacular tails stretched more than halfway across the sky or were weirdly split, and whose apparition was held responsible for everything from wars to unusually good wine vintages. Published to coincide with the first naked-eye appearance of Comet Hale-Bopp, perhaps our own comet of the century, this book is an irresistible guide to comet facts and lore throughout history.

  3. Floods of the Maros river in the early modern and modern period (16th-20th centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In the poster presentation a series of historical and recent floods of the Maros river, with special emphasis on the flood events occurred on the lower sections, are presented. Similar to the Hungarian flood databases of the Middle-Danube and Lower-Tisza, the main sources of investigations are the institutional (legal-administrative) documentary evidence (e.g. Szeged and Makó town council protocols and related administrative documentation, Csanád County meeting protocols) mainly from the late 17th-early 18th century onwards. However, in case of the Maros river there is an increased importance of narrative sources, with special emphasis on the early modern period (16th-17th century): in this case the (mainly Transylvanian) narratives (chronicles, diaries, memoires etc.) written by aristocrats, other noblemen and town citizens have particular importance. In the presentation the frequency of detected flood events, from the mid-16th century onwards (with an outlook on sporadic medieval evidence), is provided; moreover, a 3-scaled magnitude classification and a seasonality analysis are also presented. Floods of the Maros river, especially those of the lower river sections, often cannot be understood and discussed without the floods of the (Lower-)Tisza; thus, a comparison of the two flood series are also a subject of discussion. Unlike the Lower-Tisza, the Maros is prone to winter and early spring ice jam floods: since the floods that belonged to this type (similar to those of the Middle-Danube at Budapest) were the most destructive among the flood events of the river, this flood type, and the greatest flood events (e.g. 1751-1752, 1784) are also presented in more detail.

  4. The idea of time among 18th century missionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Polić Bobić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores with the notion of time among the missionaries in 17th and 18th century Spanish America. First, we provide a brief introduction to the nature of the missions, and highlight the aspects of the mission relevant for the present analysis, focusing on the two basic ideas of time that coexisted in parallel in the missions and among missionaries during the almost two centuries life of the Jesuit missionary project. On the one hand, there was the medieval idea of time as a repetition of the accustomed models of life, work and prayer, best expressed in the Benedictine ora et labora, which resisted the element of progress. On the other, there was the modern, Renaissance idea of time in which the world outside the mission walls emphasized progress. Colonial ways of life outside the mission never really showed strong dynamics of change and progress in comparison with European societies. The missionaries had to take part in all the models of behaviour imposed by the outside world in order to be able to take all necessary measures in the social, economic, political and diplomatic milieus of the outside world, thus ensuring the continued existence of the mission. This meant that they actually shared the other (Renaissance idea and experience of time with the world outside the mission walls. They therefore lived a sort of “double life”, as far as time was concerned. In the conclusion, the importance of the insight into the life of the mission from the perspective of time is justifi ed because it enables a clearer view of the bases of the missionary idea as a whole.

  5. 21st Century Ergonomic Education, From Little e to Big E

    CERN Document Server

    Barsky, Constance K

    2014-01-01

    Despite intense efforts, contemporary educational systems are not enabling individuals to function optimally in modern society. The main reason is that reformers are trying to improve systems that are not designed to take advantage of the centuries of history of the development of today's societies. Nor do they recognize the implications of the millions of years of history of life on earth in which humans are the latest edition of learning organisms. The contemporary educational paradigm of "education for all" is based on a 17th century model of "printing minds" for passing on static knowledge. This characterizes most of K-12 education. In contrast, 21st Century education demands a new paradigm, which we call Ergonomic Education. This is an education system that is designed to fit the students of any age instead of forcing the students to fit the education system. It takes into account in a fundamental way what students want to learn -- the concept "wanting to learn" refers to the innate ability and desire to...

  6. Arterial Stiffening in Perspective: Advances in Physical and Physiological Science Over Centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Michael F; O'Brien, Caroline; Edelman, Elazer R

    2016-07-01

    Arterial stiffening is not a new issue in medicine or research but was the prime concern of Richard Bright in the early 19th century and of the prominent London physicians and pathologists who tried to unscramble the relationship between kidney, heart, and cerebrovascular disease and hardness of the pulse in the late 19th century. It was of major concern to medical educators including Osler and Mackenzie who were still active in practice 100 years ago. It is all too easy (when dependent on the Internet) to consider arterial stiffness to be a new issue. The terms arterial stiffness, aortic stiffness, or wave reflection do not appear as categories for articles such as this in respectable journals, nor in categories for meetings of specialized physicians. Yet as described in this article, the subject was of interest to clinicians, to investigators such as Harvey in the 17th century, and to physicists who developed laws and principles of elasticity from the study of biological materials including ligaments and arteries. This paper provides a perspective on arterial stiffness from the time of William Harvey and Isaac Newton to the present, with a glance into the future.

  7. Century Tide Nicotine Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Century Tide Nicotine Patch, a hi-tech smoking control therapy, is designed in accordance with the scientific principle of nicotine replacement. The therapy is promoted by the World Health Organization. Meanwhile, it also integrates traditional Chinese medical therapy and adopts advanced TTS technology.

  8. Alteraciones del paisaje ecológico araucano por la asimilación mapuche de la agroganadería hispano-mediterránea (siglos XVI y XVII) Araucanian ecological landscape disturbances by the mapuche assimilation of the Hispanic-Mediterranean farming (16th and 17th centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDO TORREJÓN; MARCO CISTERNAS

    2002-01-01

    Las características biogeográficas de la América templada favorecieron la introducción y propagación de especies animales y vegetales que sustentaron al modelo agroganadero hispano-mediterráneo. Los efectos de este fenómeno generaron alteraciones ecológicas, especialmente en los territorios habitados por aborígenes carentes de actividades productivas intensivas, como fue el caso de la Araucanía. Mediante un análisis histórico documental, la presente investigación reconoció las principales car...

  9. 从被动移民到主动移民——17世纪上半叶英国对北美移民的动因%From Forced Emigration to Volunteer Emigration——On the Motivation of England to North-America Emigration in the First Half of the 17th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中宝; 洪霞

    2008-01-01

    17世纪是英帝国发展史上的关键时段.英国在欧洲以外地区从事殖民扩张虽然始于16世纪后半叶,但真正具有划时代意义并取得重大进展的殖民开拓和商业扩张则始于17世纪.17世纪中期是英国发生急剧变动的时代,其殖民扩张和对外战略方面也表现出重大调整和转换.17世纪上半叶,英国对北美的移民可以分为被动移民和主动移民,两者都有其深刻的动机.

  10. 17-18世纪巴黎奢侈生活方式的扩散传播 --对"创新与扩散"理论的一种验证%Diffusion of the Luxury Vogue in Paris between 17th and 18th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林益楷

    2006-01-01

    通过对17-18世纪巴黎宫廷奢侈风气的产生及其扩散的过程的考察,文章认为,在这个漫长的传播过程中,这种风气的产生同技术的传播一样,也依次出现了五类创新采用者,也具有技术扩散的诸种特点.随后,文章从传播学、社会学、心理学等多个角度探究了此种传播现象发生的原因.

  11. Seeking Answers to “Joseph Needham's Problem” ——A Probe into the Reasons Why China Falls Behind the West in Science and Technology After the 17th Century%破解"李约瑟难题" --17世纪后中国科学技术落后于西方原因探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单淮

    2002-01-01

    "李约瑟难题"是真而不是伪."李约瑟难题"之解在于17世纪以后中国与欧洲在社会形态上的"非同态性"、中国社会生产力和经济形态对科学技术的低内在需求、封建社会长期形成的对知识分子以及对知识劳动价值社会认同的"缺失性"和满清统治者游牧民族的局囿性.

  12. 17世纪西方传教士对东方占星术的认识——对陆若汉《日本教会史》的解读%The Western Missionaries' Recognization towards the Eastern Astrology in the 17th Century: An Analysis on Jo(a)o Rodrigues' The Ecclesiastical History of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小珊

    2010-01-01

    大航海时代的地理大发现和新航路的开辟促使两条原本互不相交的东西文化河流开始汇流,两个伟大的文明开始第一次真正的接触.耶稣会传教士陆若汉的对东方文化的剔透解析,足以说明这一时期西方文化的"西学东渐"和东方文化的"西方渗透"极富成效.研讨16世纪传教士留下的这批著作,了解西方人对东方文化的认识程度,以及东西方文化的差异性,避免由此引发的文化冲突和对抗,对增进现代东西方文化交流仍具有积极的意义.

  13. Word and image in 17th century preaching: a sermon of Antonio Vieira / A palavra e a imagem na pregação do século XVII: um sermão de Antônio Vieira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Douglas de Souza Pimenta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzes the use of metaphors, allegories, comparisons and examples, rhetoric resources addressed to the senses, passions and imagination of listeners, in Vieira's sermons "As Cinco Pedras da Funda de Davi". The figures compel the incitation of the listener's psychic dynamism. It was found that the images used are coherent with the Lenten liturgy and the sacramental hermeneutic reading of reality oriented by teleology. It was also verified that the use is based on Aristotelian-Thomistic rhetoric and philosophic-psychology, a knowledge of understanding man as totality, and that the power of word, figuratively, provides the elaboration of experience and behavioral change.

  14. Shaping of the Yunnan-Burma Frontier by Secret Societies since the End of the 17th Century Comment les sociétés secrètes ont façonné la frontière birmano-yunnanaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jianxiong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available After the 1680s, Big Vehicle Religion gradually developed on the Yunnan-Burma frontier. It was banned by the Qing government and became a sect of Chinese secret societies. The founders of this religion combined various Buddhist and Taoist elements together and claimed this to be the route to their salvation. They also trained many students to be monks. After the Sino-Burma wars these monks established a Five Buddha Districts system among the Lahu and some Wa villages in western Mekong River, until the system was destroyed by the Qing government in the 1880s. The monks became leaders of the Luohei/Lahu through millenarianism and many Han immigrants also became involved in the movements to become the Lahu or the Wa. The monks performed critical roles as social activists in Lahu cultural reconstruction. As a shaping power, their human agency was deeply integrated into secret societies and they formulated regional political centers as well as a network mechanism for the floating indigenous populations. Secret societies clearly shaped a historical framework for local politics and economic flux in the Yunnan-Burma frontier and became a cross-border mechanism for contemporary life after the border between Yunnan, Burma and Thailand was decided. However, it used to be a networking dynamic linked with silver and copper minefields, Sino-Burma wars, and anti-Qing millenarianism. Local people could also use this frontier space for their negotiations with different states before the coming of European colonialism.Après les années 1680, le bouddhisme du grand véhicule se développa sur la frontière birmano-yunnanaise. Le gouvernement des Qing l’interdit mais il devint une secte diffusée par des sociétés secrètes. Les fondateurs de cette religion combinèrent des éléments bouddhistes et taoïstes et prétendirent que c’était la voie du salut. Ils formèrent également des élèves pour en faire des moines. Après les guerres sino-birmanes, ces moines établirent un système de cinq districts du Bouddha parmi les Lahu et certains villages Wa de l’ouest du Mékong, jusqu’à ce que ce système soit détruit par le gouvernement des Qing dans les années 1880. Ces moines devinrent des leaders des Luohei/lahu dans des mouvements millénaristes et de nombreux immigrants Han participèrent à ces mouvements pour devenir des Lahu ou des Wa. Ces moines tinrent des rôles critiques comme activistes sociaux dans la reconstruction culturelle lahu. En tant que pouvoir actif, leur action humaine fut profondément liée à des sociétés secrètes et ils instituèrent des centres politiques régionaux ainsi qu’un mécanisme de réseau pour des populations indigènes fluctuantes. À l’évidence, des sociétés secrètes donnèrent forme à un cadre historique pour la politique locale et les flux économiques à la frontière birmano-yunnanaise et devinrent un mécanisme transfrontalier pour la vie quotidienne après l’établissement de frontières entre le Yunnan, la Birmanie et la Thaïlande. Il s’agissait de fait d’un réseau dynamique lié aux mines d’argent et de cuivre, aux guerres sino-birmanes, ainsi qu’à un millénarisme anti-Qing. Les populations locales pouvaient également utiliser cet espace frontalier pour négocier avec les divers États avant l’établissement du colonialisme européen.

  15. REPRESENTACIONES DEL ESPACIO PATAGÓNICO: UNA INTERPRETACIÓN DE LA CARTOGRAFÍA JESUÍTICA DE LOS SIGLOS XVII Y XVIII REPRESENTATIONS OF THE PATAGONIAN SPACE: AN INTERPRETATION OF 17TH- AND 18TH-CENTURY JESUIT CARTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis I de Lasa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La cartografía jesuítica constituye una fuente privilegiada para acceder a las formas de producción y uso del conocimiento geográfico y cartográfico referido a las fronteras australes del imperio español. Considerando que los mapas elaborados por los misioneros de la Compañía de Jesús son los primeros en integrar explícitamente el conocimiento espacial de los habitantes del territorio, indagamos sobre las condiciones de obtención de la información, las estrategias de apropiación y organización de los saberes indígenas y la compatibilización de distintas concepciones y representaciones del espacio en la elaboración del mapa. Atendiendo al uso de la producción de los jesuitas, identificamos los principales beneficiarios de este saber calificado. En este estudio examinamos los mapas generales de Patagonia de Alonso de Ovalle (1646, José Cardiel (1746-1747, 1749 y 1751 y Thomas Falkner (1772.Jesuit cartography serves as an exceptional sourcefor gaining access to the ways of production and use of the geographical and cartographic knowledge related to the southern borders of the Spanish empire. Taking into account that the maps produced by the missionaries from the Society ofJesus were the first to explicitly incorporate the spatial knowledge of the local inhabitants, we examined the conditions for collecting information, the strategiesfor appropriation and organization ofindigenous lore and the reconciliation ofdifferent spatial conceptions and representations upon producing the map. Considering the use made of the Jesuit production, we have identified the main beneficiaries from this intimate knowledge. At the present study we examine the general maps ofPatagonia produced by Alonso de Ovalle (1646, José Cardiel (1746-1747, 1749y 1751 and Thomas Falkner (1772.

  16. The Renaissance Kidney-Nephrology in and about the Sixteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-07-01

    The endeavor to understand the workings of the human body is as old as civilization; but it is in the intellectual movement of the Renaissance that its actual scientific study began in earnest and has not ceased growing since then. It was in the 16th century that the study of organs was launched and with it that of the kidney, which was then conceived as an accessory organ to clear the excess water ingested with food. The study of the structural basis of kidney function was launched by Bartolomeo Eustachio (1514-1574); the elements of its physiology and pathology were promulgated by Jean Fernel (1497-1558), and that of the chemical study of urine and of the principal cause of kidney disease then, calculi, instigated by Joan Baptista Van Helmont (1577-1644). The methodological approaches of these and their contemporary investigators, which were crystallized and formulated by Francis Bacon (1561-1626), opened the gates of the Scientific Revolution that followed in the 17th century, beginning with that of describing the circulation in 1628 by William Harvey (1564-1657) that would finally free the kidney from the shackles imposed on it as a mere accessory organ to the liver in Galen's physiology.

  17. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1998-01-01

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  18. Statisticians of the centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Seneta, E; Crépel, P; Fienberg, S; Gani, J

    2001-01-01

    Statisticians of the Centuries aims to demonstrate the achievements of statistics to a broad audience, and to commemorate the work of celebrated statisticians. This is done through short biographies that put the statistical work in its historical and sociological context, emphasizing contributions to science and society in the broadest terms rather than narrow technical achievement. The discipline is treated from its earliest times and only individuals born prior to the 20th Century are included. The volume arose through the initiative of the International Statistical Institute (ISI), the principal representative association for international statistics (founded in 1885). Extensive consultations within the statistical community, and with prominent members of ISI in particular, led to the names of the 104 individuals who are included in the volume. The biographies were contributed by 73 authors from across the world. The editors are the well-known statisticians Chris Heyde and Eugene Seneta. Chris Heyde is Pro...

  19. WHEELING THROUGH THE CENTURIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO; JIANYING

    2002-01-01

    IN an excavated pit at the side of an expressway in Shandong’s Linzi are visible 2,000-year-old remains of horses and wooden carriages. The horse skeletons are on their side, in an attitude of motion. The pit was discovered in the late 20th century, when the expressway was being built. These early ancestors of modern transport, no longer "road-worthy," are now protected historic artifacts.

  20. Yersinia pestis DNA from skeletal remains from the 6(th century AD reveals insights into Justinianic Plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Harbeck

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19(th and 20(th centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14(th-17(th centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6(th-8(th centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.

  1. Yersinia pestis DNA from skeletal remains from the 6(th) century AD reveals insights into Justinianic Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M; Scholz, Holger C

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14(th)-17(th) centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6(th)-8(th) centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.

  2. New Century, New Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XULONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nuclear weapons changed the world of the 20th century. Their powerful force rewrote history. Nuclear bombs dropped on Japan by the United States accelerated the collapse of Japanese militarism and hastened the end of World War Ⅱ. The West led by the United States and the East bloc led by the Soviet Union started a bitter nuclear arms race that mutually assured destruction. The balance of terror between the two blocs stabilized in the Cold War and prevented the world from actual armed conflict, thus maintaining a long-term but occasionally uneasy peace in Europe and the world.

  3. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  4. Final Report: 17th international Symposium on Plant Lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoph Benning

    2007-03-07

    This meeting covered several emerging areas in the plant lipid field such as the biosynthesis of cuticle components, interorganelle lipid trafficking, the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and the utilization of algal models. Stimulating new insights were provided not only based on research reports based on plant models, but also due to several excellent talks by experts from the yeast field.

  5. 17th edition IEE wiring regulations inspection, testing and certification

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This popular guide clarifies the requirements for inspection and testing, explaining in clear language those parts of the Regs that most need simplifying. In addition to the usual descriptive and diagrammatic test methods that are required, explanations of the theory and reasoning behind test procedures are given, together with useful tables for test results comparison. The book also provides essential information on the completion of electrical installation certificates, with a step-by-step guide on the entries that need to be made and where to source data.It i

  6. IL-17/Th17 pathway is activated in acne lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna-Leena Kelhälä

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19 were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20, Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ, T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18 were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy.

  7. A century of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bromley, D Allan

    2002-01-01

    In this amazing tour d'horizon, D. Allan Bromley uses the occasion of the centenary of the American Physical Society to reflect upon the growth of physics over the past 100 years, its fragmentation into numerous subdisciplines, the impact physics has had upon modern technology, and the re-emergence of the fundamental unity of the discipline in recent years. Hundreds of historical illustrations accompany the text. Bromley conveys much of the excitement and wonder that research in physics generated in the 20th century and asks what new things are in store in the next century. He covers such topics as relativity and quantum mechanics, the Manhattan project, superconductivity, transistors and the revolution brought about by solid-state electronics, protein folding, the uses of nuclear and atomic physics in biology and medicine, plate tectonics, the expansion of the universe and the Big Bang, and gravitational radiation. Bromley, the Sterling Professor of the Sciences and Dean of Yale University, served as Assista...

  8. The management century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it.

  9. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  10. Mapping the Cosmos on a Ceiling: Reflection Sundials from the Seventeenth Century to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III

    2012-01-01

    Ceiling reflection sundials employ a small horizontal mirror, say on a south-facing window sill, to cast a spot of sunlight to the ceiling and/or walls of a room or gallery. In this way the linear scale of the daily and annual motions of the sun are greatly amplified, allowing a plethora of information to be displayed and read. Besides the time of day and the date, typical quantities included the altitude and azimuth of the sun, the declination of the sun, the number of hours since sunrise, the length of daylight, the sign of the zodiac, the sidereal time, etc. The principles for planning and calculating these sundials were first laid out in detail in 17th century Italy by the Jesuit scholars Athanasius Kircher and Emmanuel Maignan: two reflection dials of the latter still survive today in Rome, at Trinità dei Monti (1637) and Palazzo Spada (1644). A third extant example can be found at the Lycée Stendhal in Grenoble, built by a Jesuit priest named Bonfa in 1673. This talk will describe and illustrate these complex sundials, as well as a recently completed ceiling dial, inspired by their example, in the New World (Seattle).

  11. Image , Ritual and Urban Form: Porto in the 16th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferrão Afonso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the early 17th Century, the Spanish painter Francisco Pacheco railed against his apprentices, telling them that the image should stand out of the picture. The topic was the one most debated in the art of the Counter-Reformation, whose main directives, outlined in the Council of Trent, would be put in motion simultaneously with urban "Christianisation". They presupposed a social contract, established between producer and receiver, implying maximum clarity of the message, which involved an ambiguous grey area that would be reserved for the outside of the focus. In painting, which sacrificed everything that was incidental or extraneous to the story, showing the essential and neglecting the accessory, the binary radicalism of the concept became more explicit, through the Caravaggian illumination or in the case above, the Spanish tenebrism of Velásquez, to whom Pacheco's admonition was addressed. In our Doctoral Thesis presented at the School of Architecture in Barcelona2 , we sought to demonstrate that the Plastic Arts were not the only field for the application of Luminist principles. In this article we aim to summarise this thesis by exposing the important relationships between image, ritual and urban form in 16th Century Porto, after a time, therefore, the late Middle Ages, which Huizinga classified as deeply iconophile , in which image and ritual were put at the service of the reformulation of a State becoming increasingly centralised and interventionist, whose action extended to the sphere of the Church: with King João II, and especially King Manuel I, the Crown was an active sponsor of religious reform that was pursued with redoubled energy and systematisation, from the reign of "the Pious", then already within the political system of close bilateral cooperation that was designated the Confessional State. We therefore believe that this type of approach to anthropological and symbolic components, which seeks to take into account the

  12. White Macael marble: a key element in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia for over 25 centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Sol Cruz, Ana; Arriaga, Lourdes; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Marble from Macael (Andalusia) is one of the most important natural stones in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia; in particular the variety commercially known as "White Macael". This natural stone has been used outdoors as well as indoors for decorative, ornamental or structural purposes. During the 7th century (B.C.) the Phoenicians began to systematically extract these quarries to be used in their more social important elements such as sarcophagus. During the Roman period this rock had a greater importance in construction; we find columns, pavements, tombstones… in many historical buildings such as the Roman amphitheatre in Mérida (1st century B.C.) and the city of Itálica in Seville (3rd century B.C.). But it is during the Muslim period when marble from Macael is more widely used: the Mosque of Córdoba (8th century), the Lions Court in the Alhambra palace, the Alcazaba in Almería, the Medina-Azahara palace in Córdoba (10th century). Other important buildings using the white marble are: Carlos V palace or the Royal Chapel in Granada (15th century), the Almería cathedral or El Escorial monastery in Madrid (16th century), San Telmo palace in Seville (17th century) or The Royal Palace in Madrid (18th century). Uncountable number of buildings, both historical and contemporary, show different elements made of this marble. From a geological point of view, the quarries are located in the upper part of the Nevado-Filábride Complex, the lowest nappe of the Internal Zones of the Betic Chains. Under the "White Macael" name is also possible to include another commercial denominations such "White Macael Río" or "White Macael Río Veteado". It is a clear white coloured, calcitic marble (up than 97% calcite), with average grain size between 0,16 y 3,2 mm in a mosaic texture with a very homogenous aspect. Regarding the main physical and mechanical properties, this rock has an open porosity value between 0,1-0,6%, bulk density 2,50-2,75 g/cm3, water absorption at

  13. [The Piscine Probatica, a painted canvas of the Hotel-Dieu of Rheims, documentation of an epidemic at the end of the 15th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ségal, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The Piscina Probatica theme is the highly distinctive iconography in an impressive painted canvas from the ancient Rheims hôtel-Dieu, dating back to the late 15th or early 16th century. In the first place, it is interesting to note that the actual site of the pool has been located, so that archaeological findings bring confirmation to testament scriptures. Through the choice of the painted-canvas medium, and thanks to his great pictorial skill, the anonymous Rheims artist has given us a document of exceptional value, concerning the signs and symptoms of an illness which wrought havoc in the Rheims area in his own lifetime, namely ignis plaga or "mal des ardents". Other great artists of the same period, such as J. Bosch, have testified to the horror of the illness. As a matter-of-fact, the illness has been fully documented, from the 17th century onwards, and the medical expert H.A. Tessier, also acting as an agricultural expert, has demonstrated that ergotized rye is responsible for the fatal condition known as ergotism, and for the heavy toll it has levied on human lives in the course of centuries.

  14. 第17届世界女排锦标赛美国、巴西与中国竞技实力比较研究%Study on the Competitive Strength of Chinese, American and Brazilian Volleyball Teams in the 17th Women’s World Championship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金凤

    2015-01-01

    运用录像观察法、文献法和数据统计法,对第17届世界女排锦标赛总决赛6强阶段相关数据进行分析,结果显示:巴、美女排技战术既沿用美洲高大化风格,又融合亚洲快攻打法,强调四号位和一号位的强攻和网上控制力,采用快速多变的打法;具有攻守平衡、技术动作细腻、战术目的明确等特征。相比较而言,中国女排技战术攻强拦弱,攻守不平衡,拦网及防守反击环节的效果较差。因此,中国女排面对此类风格的球队,应采用针对性拦网与防守区域相结合,提高防守反击成功率,坚持“高”、“全”、“快”、“变”的进攻原则,增加进攻点,丰富进攻结构。%By using video observation, literature and statistics, the competition data of Chinese Women’ s Volleyball team and A-merican and Brazilian teams’ skills of serve and attack, block and counter-attack in the finals of 17th Women’s World Champi-onship (2014) are analyzed. It shows that American and Brazilian teams have adopted American high style and Asian quick at-tack, emphasizing position No. 2 and No. 4 and control of the net. They are featured with all-round skills, fine skilled move-ments, clear aims, quick and changeable. Competing with such teams, Chinese team is easy? to be? overwhelmed. Chinese team is poor in defense block and counterattack. To be top team in the world, the Chinese women’ s team should be strong in block and counterattack, accentuate its strengths rather than manage its? weaknesses, increase attack spots and enrich the attack construction.

  15. 从十七届女排世锦赛中国队与世界强队技战术比较分析%From the 17th Women’s World Championship to Examine the Competitive Condition of The New Chinese Women’s Volleyball Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨管; 黄浩耿

    2015-01-01

    Using the method of video observation, mathematical statistics, literature, and comparative analysis to compare the technical indicators with non-technical indicators of Chinese women’s volleyball team and its opponents in the 17th women’s volleyball world championship, to reflect the assets and defects about China and rivals from the connectional data, then analyzing the deficiencies of the Chinese in games, and to discuss its competitive condition currently comparing the Chinese with its opponents, in addition to get the conclusions;simultaneously, offering the rational advices based on conclusions, in order to improve the level of technical and tactic of the Chinese making some explicit measures content with its development, and to supply some conducive references for the Chinese to the World Cup in Japan and the Olympic games of Rio in Brazil .%运用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法和比较分析法,对第17届女排世锦赛中国女排及其对手的各项技术指标及非技术指标进行对比分析,以便从相关数据上反映出中国女排与对手之间存在的优势和差距,进而剖析中国女排在比赛中的不足之处,并进一步探讨中国女排与世界强队相比,其目前所处的竞技状况,从而得出结论;同时,根据结论提出合理化建议,以便为提高中国女排的技战术水平制定出适合其发展的具体措施,并为2015年日本世界杯赛和2016年里约奥运会排球赛提供有益借鉴。

  16. 第17届仁川亚运会中国男篮主要技术指标分析%On the Key Technical Indices of the Chinese Men’s Basketball Team at the 17 th ASIAN GAMES INCHEON 20 1 4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗梦菲

    2015-01-01

    运用录像观察法、录像统计法等,对第17届亚运会中国男篮各场比赛进行技术统计分析。结果显示:这届亚运会中国男篮在2分球得分、篮板球能力、助攻能力上与对手相比处于优势;但在罚球能力、抢断能力上与对手相比处于劣势;在具体的比赛中,缺乏经验,缺乏磨合,对比赛的反应调整能力不足。为此认为中国男篮应加大罚球练习力度,减少犯规与失误,探索出适合中国男篮运动员身体素质和技术特点的篮板球技战术,中国篮协在男篮主教练选聘上谨慎行事,选择好主教练,促进中国的篮球运动更好的发展。%Video observational Method,video statistics method were adopted in conducting a technical analysis of the Chinese Men’s Basketball in the 17th Asian Games,Incheon 2014.The results showed that the Chinese Men’s basketball team excels in the 2 pointer,rebounds,assistances;while they are weak in free throw shot,steals;in the games,the Chinese play-ers were found to be rather inexperienced,weak in their teamwork and adj ustment capability.Therefore some suggestions are put forth:the strengthening of free throw practice;the reduction of fouls and turnovers;the exploration of strategies and tac-tics for improving the basketball rebounds which fit the Chinese players’physique and skill features;More prudence in the choice of coaches;so as to prompt the development of basketball.

  17. New archeointensity data from French Early Medieval pottery production (6th-10th century AD). Tracing 1500 years of geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevey, Agnès; Gallet, Yves; Jesset, Sébastien; Thébault, Erwan; Bouillon, Jérôme; Lefèvre, Annie; Le Goff, Maxime

    2016-08-01

    Nineteen new archeointensity results were obtained from the analysis of groups of French pottery fragments dated to the Early Middle Ages (6th to 10th centuries AD). They are from several medieval ceramic production sites, excavated mainly in Saran (Central France), and their precise dating was established based on typo-chronological characteristics. Intensity measurements were performed using the Triaxe protocol, which takes into account the effects on the intensity determinations of both thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate. Intensity analyses were also carried out on modern pottery produced at Saran during an experimental firing. The results show very good agreement with the geomagnetic field intensity directly measured inside and around the kiln, thus reasserting the reliability of the Triaxe protocol and the relevance of the quality criteria used. They further demonstrate the potential of the Saran pottery production for archeomagnetism. The new archeointensity results allow a precise and coherent description of the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe during the Early Medieval period, which was until now poorly documented. They show a significant increase in intensity during the 6th century AD, high intensity values from the 7th to the 9th century, with a minimum of small amplitude at the transition between the 7th and the 8th centuries and finally an important decrease until the beginning of the 11th century. Together with published intensity results available within a radius of 700 km around Paris, the new data were used to compute a master curve of the Western European geomagnetic intensity variations over the past 1500 years. This curve clearly exhibits five intensity maxima: at the transition between the 6th and 7th century AD, at the middle of the 9th century, during the 12th century, in the second part of the 14th century and at the very beginning of the 17th century AD. Some of these peaks are smoothed, or

  18. Avaliação da assistência farmacêutica básica nos municípios de abrangência da 17ª Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde do Rio Grande do Sul Evaluation of pharmaceutical assistance in cities of the 17th Regional Health Department/Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. B. De Bernardi

    2006-04-01

    objective of this study is to evaluate the basic pharmaceutical assistance, using indicators, in the twenty cities that are part of the 17th CRS/RS. METHODS: cross-sectional study using indicators of the pharmaceutical assistance, proposed by the Health Department of the "Rio Grande do Sul" State (SES/RS, in each Local Health Department of the twenty cities that are part of the 17thCRS/RS from the city of Ijuí. In each city a person in charge of the pharmacy was interviewed. RESULTS: Only five cities had a pharmaceutical in charge of the pharmacy. Only 25% of the health workers have already participated in any sort of capacity building or training courses. Only 15% of the cities had a basic list of medicines fixed in a visible place. The control of stored medicines was done in 90% of the cities. Concerning the medicines used as indicators, 78% were available. The average of medicines by prescription is 2,0. Considering only the prescribed medicines, 76% belonged to the basic list of medicines, and 64% were prescribed according to the Brazilian Common Denomination or the International Common Denomination. Effectively, 88% of the prescribed medicines were distributed. CONCLUSIONS: The Basic Pharmaceutical Assistance in the cities requires a larger investment in human, physical and material resources. The absence of pharmaceuticals in the health team of the cities is one of the main reasons of the pharmaceutical low efficiency of health actions in this scope.

  19. ‘When Going to Saint James’: An Old Russian Graffito from the 12th Century in Aquitania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Gordin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 in Pons, in the former province of Saintonge, an Old Russian pilgrim graffito was found on the wall of the parish church of St. Vivien, a monument of the mid-12th century. It is the second graffito found in France after the one discovered at St. Gilles Abbey. The town of Pons is located on the westernmost route of Santiago de Compostela (via Turonensis and is noteworthy because of the preserved pilgrim almshouse of the latter half of the 12th century. On the walls of its long archway are horseshoe drawings made by medieval pilgrims, the latest of which, dating from the 16th–17th centuries, bends around a name that is also apparently written in Cyrillic script. The earlier inscription, which appears at the base of the northern end wall of the original façade of the St. Vivien church, is made in the name of one Ivan Zavidovich: “Ivano ps[а]lo Zavi|doviche ida ko | svętomu Ię|kovu” (= ‘Ivan Zavidovich wrote this when going to Saint James’. The most probable palaeographic dating is in the 1160s–1180s. As suggested by birch bark manuscripts, the name of Ivan’s father, Zavid, was popular among Novgorod boyars. Novgorod is also the place with the greatest indirect evidence of the occurrence in Old Russia of the western cult of St. James. This well preserved inscription is an important epigraphic discovery, but its main value lies in the direct evidence of pilgrimages by Russians to the shrine of St. James in Galicia.

  20. Talladega College: The First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Maxine D.; Richardson, Joe M.

    The book presents the history of the growth, development, and significance of Alabama's Talladega College, a black liberal arts college, from its inception in the 1860s through the student protest movement more than a century later. The historical account emphasizes such college issues as finance, enrollment, students, educational policy, and the…

  1. Selenography in the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, E. A.

    Contents: 1. Pre-telescopic observations. 2. The first telescopic observations. 3. Galileo's lunar observations. 4. Two new selenographical programmes. 5. A flurry of activity. 6. Hevelius and his Selenographia. 7. Riccioli, Grimaldi, and nomenclature. 8. Robert Hooke and selenology. 9. Cassini and La Hire. 10. Other seventeenth-century selenography. 11. Conclusion.

  2. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  3. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis P.

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, three intertwined ambitions drove federal legislation over wildlife and biodiversity: establishment of multiple-use federal lands, the economic development of natural resources, and the maintenance of option values. We examine this federal intervention...

  4. Immigration and the American century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles

    2005-11-01

    The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.

  5. A comparative study on the attack effects of China and foreign countries’woman volleyball teams in the 17th World Volleyball Championship%第17届排球世锦赛中外女排进攻效果对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文刚; 杨管

    2016-01-01

    运用录像观察、数理统计和对比分析等方法,对中外女排在第17届世锦赛中扣球技战术运用情况进行研究。结果表明:中国女排是以两边拉开进攻为主并结合高度与速度等快变战术为一体的技战术打法;进攻战术的总体运用效果十分理想,与其他各国相比扣死率较高且失误率低;后排攻在比赛中展现出了强大的实力,但在强攻和快攻方面与巴西、美国等欧美强队相比还存在一定差距。建议中国女排应进一步加强对强攻能力的训练,尤其要努力丰富年轻队员的大赛阅历以保证其技术发挥的稳定性;在面对欧美强队时应努力提高一传到位率,并加强进攻队员之间的掩护配合,使各种快变战术能够在比赛中得到有效发挥,并尽量避免自身进攻方式及手段的单一化。%By using the methods of documents, video observation and statistics, this paper comparatively analyzes the techniques and tactics of China and foreign countries’woman volleyball teams’smashes in the 17th World Volleyball Championship, and gets the results that the attacking plays of China mainly depend on two sides combined with the diversified and changeable plays of height and speed. The total effects of China are excellent, the successful rate beyond opponents and the error rate being low, and the advantages are very apparent. The back-row attack shows the powerful competition in games but there are still some spaces compared with the powerful teams such as Brazil and United States in terms of power and quick attack. The research deems that the China should intensely the drill of the ability to power attack especially enrich the competition experiences for the young players in order to assure the ability of techniques;facing he powerful teams the China should improve the service reception and strengthen the cooperation in response to get better performance used in various attacking plays and

  6. mpact of ice conditions to the navigation in the Novaya Zemlya and Spitsbergen region in XVI–XVII centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Derzhavin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 16th–17th centuries, West European navigators made numerous but mostly unsuccessful efforts to open a new way, i.e. the North-East Passage, to China and India. Among three possible routes of that time the basic one ran through straits of the Vaigach Island but it was almost impassable due to heavy ice situation. At the same time Russian merchants regularly went on their ships from Pomorie to Siberian river mouths, and in the opposite direction, though they did also meet complicated ice situations. Russian navigator and geographer F.P. Litke (1797–1882 noticed that the ice situation in one or another region of the Barents Sea seriously changed from year to year. Russian navigation started in the Russian Pomorie (littoral region of the Russian Arctic not earlier than at end of June – beginning of July but Europeans knew nothing about this. Because of this, their ships came to the Vaigach region either earlier or later of the time when it was possible to go through the straits. Most often, they came here in the first half- and mid-August. Thus, western sailors could not get this quite narrow navigation «window» of pomors (Russian navigators. And if sometimes (rather rarely they could catch the right time and go through the strait Yugorski Shar they met extremely heavy ice situation in the Kara Sea. Perhaps for this reason, almost all European expeditions of that time failed.

  7. Unruly Plebeians and the Forzado System: Convict Transportation between New Spain and the Philippines during the Seventeenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawson, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the phenomenon of convict transportation between Mexico and the Philippines during the 17th century. Utilising sources located within the Archivo General de la Nación (México and the Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla, I argue that was this convict transportation both helped the Spanish extend their power within the Pacific and functioned as a criminal justice measure in response to the emergence of an unruly and disobedient plebeian underclass in the cities and along the highways of New Spain.Este artículo examina el fenómeno del transporte de soldados forzados entre México y las Filipinas durante el siglo XVII. Utilizando fuentes del Archivo General de la Nación (México y del Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla, sostengo que este tipo de transporte forzado ayudó a los españoles a ampliar su poder en el Pacífico. Así mismo, actuó como una medida de justicia penal en respuesta a la aparición de plebeyos rebeldes y desobedientes dentro las ciudades y en las carreteras de la Nueva España.

  8. Estimation on the response of glaciers in China to the global warming in the 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Glaciers in China can be categorized into 3 types, i.e. the maritime (temperate) type, sub-continental (sub-polar) type and extreme continental (polar) type, which take 22%, 46% and 32% of the total existing glacier area (59 406 km2) respectively. Researches indicate that glaciers of the three types show different response patterns to the global warming. Since the Maxima of the Little Ice Age (the 17th century), air temperature has risen at a magnitude of 1.3°C on average and the glacier area decreased corresponds to 20% of the present total glacier area in western China. It is estimated that air temperature rise in the 2030s, 2070s and 2100s will be of the order of 0.4-1.2, 1.2-2.7 and 2.1-4.0 K in western China. With these scenarios, glaciers in China will suffer from further shrinkage by 12%, 28% and 45% by the 2030s, 2070s and 2100s. The uncertainties may account for 30%-67% in 2100 in China.

  9. WORK AND ORGANIZATION IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: NOTES ON THE TRADE GUILDS OF SIXTEENTH- AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURY BURSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ömer DÜZBAKAR

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of artisans’ and commercial guilds was toperform and maintain daily activities of economic life in harmony andsocial consolidation with minimal conflict. Thus, the state would get ridof the heavy burden of bureaucratic procedures on the one hand, and yetwould also have the guilds yield to a standard of production as well aseliminate unfair competition through their autonomous internal workingson the other. Through such an auto-control mechanism the guilds wouldsolve their own problems with minimum resort to administrative andjudicial institutions. This article sheds light on the origins of Ottomanguild system, workings of trade guilds of Bursa and the supervisoryfunctions of their managers as well as on the various roles and activitiesplayed by the guilds in imperial public life. It also examines the conflictsof interest, unruly acts and forms of resolution taking place within andacross the guilds, with or without having recourse to judicial and otherimperial authorities. The study is based on a set of original historical documents surveyed from the Shari’a Court records of Bursa in the 16thand 17th centuries.

  10. Manuel Tamayo y Baus’s Un Drama Nuevo (1867 and the Reception of Hamlet in 19th-Century Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío G. Sumillera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses how Tamayo y Baus appropriates and refashions in Un drama nuevo (1867 the figures of Shakespeare and Yorick, as well as different elements of a number of tragedies by Shakespeare (Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Othello, in order to render homage to Shakespearean drama by means of a play that, even if set at the beginning of 17th-century England, particularly addresses the tastes and concerns of 19th-century Spanish audiences. Additionally, this article considers the extent to which the contemporary audience of Tamayo y Baus was acquainted with Shakespeare and Hamlet, taking into account both the translations into Spanish of the play and its performances in Spain up until 1867. The purpose of such an analysis is to speculate on the reception and interpretation of Un drama nuevo at the time of its release, and on the role it had in raising or renewing interest in Hamlet within the Spanish-speaking world.

  11. Seventeenth-century indivisibles revisited

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous success of indivisibles methods in geometry in the seventeenth century, responds to a vast project: installation of infinity in mathematics. The pathways by the authors are very diverse, as are the characterizations of indivisibles, but there are significant factors of unity between the various doctrines of indivisible; the permanence of the language used by all authors is the strongest sign. These efforts do not lead to the stabilization of a mathematical theory (with principles or axioms, theorems respecting these first statements, followed by applications to a set of geometric situations), one must nevertheless admire the magnitude of the results obtained by these methods and highlights the rich relationships between them and integral calculus. The present book aims to be exhaustive since it analyzes the works of all major inventors of methods of indivisibles during the seventeenth century, from Kepler to Leibniz. It takes into account the rich existing literature usually devoted to a singl...

  12. New Century,Broad Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    During his recent visit to the United States,Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi delivered a speech entitled "Broaden China-U.S. Cooperation in the 21st Century" at the Center for Strategic and International Studies(CSIS) in Washington,D.C. on March 12. John Hamre,President and Chief Executive Officer of the CSIS,and John Frisbie,President of the U.S.-China Business Council,hosted the event. Yang’s remarks follow:

  13. Critique of War Reason. A Perspective on Self-referential Systems, 11th-21st Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorm Harste

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a summary of my 700-page very academic thesis, in Danish, to be published by Aarhus University Press (AUP. A shorter booklet based on it was published by AUP too (November 2014, 250 pages and so were a number of shorter articles in English, French and German. In Luhmann’s systems theory and in sociology at large there is a missing link consisting in the lack of a sociology of war. A number of German systems theoreticians use Luhmann’s theory to fill that gap. Yet Luhmann (born 1927, who was a soldier and a prisoner of war from age 15-17, would not write a “Der Krieg der Gesellschaft”. The attempt to narrow this lacuna is indeed a heavy burden and a difficult task, in which it is decisive firstly to get the basic distinctions right about a second order observation of war as a conflict system – to be distinct from a military organisational system. This, I do by beginning with a reconceptualization of Carl von Clausewitz’ form analysis and self-description of war from Vom Kriege (1832. The central point is to observe the self-reference of war, or how war became war about war. Conflict is basically a problem of essentially contested communication. Once this historical self-reference established around the 17th century was in place, war became delimited by its structural couplings to religion, mass media (propaganda, finance, welfare for victims and veterans, law, politics and other functional systems. The costs of war increased, reconstituted and transformed modern society in a way that has formed a range of risks and – of course – neglected blind spots.

  14. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th-18th centuries ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.180+/-0.003). The mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181+/-0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183+/-0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172+/-0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975+/-15 years) deposit ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.148+/-0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.181+/-0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore).

  15. «Possino tante belle curiosità vedersi, prima che in Torino, in Firenze»: relazioni tra Medici e Savoia nel secondo Seicento attraverso Donato Rossetti / «Possino tante belle curiosità vedersi, prima che in Torino, in Firenze» (Could such a lot of beautiful curiosities be seen in Turin earlier than in Florence : relationships between the Medici and the Savoia during the second half of the 17th Century through Donato Rossetti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Piccinelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio presenta alcuni risultati dell’indagine archivistica condotta sulle filze Savoia del fondo Mediceo del Principato dell’Archivio di Stato di Firenze. I documenti, letti criticamente e selezionati attraverso una prospettiva storico artistica, permettono di mettere in luce nuovi aspetti della figura dell’ingegnere livornese Donato Rossetti, il quale svolge il ruolo di intermediario informativo artistico tra Torino e Firenze. Attraverso suoi dispacci da Torino e missive inviate da Francesco Bondicchi da Milano a Firenze emergono sia alcuni aspetti inediti delle relazioni tra le due corti, sia il rapporto biunivoco tra centri e periferie che si precisa nel corso del Seicento. A metà secolo il ruolo di modello svolto da Firenze fa sentire ancora la propria influenza al di fuori dei confini del granducato e contemporaneamente Firenze guarda con vivo interesse alla scena artistica e urbanistica torinese. Relations between the Savoia and the Florentine court were very intense during the early modern age. Almost every day, diplomatics and residents in the Savoia court sent letters and avvisi to Florence by revealing interesting details on the everyday life and by shedding light on a range of relevant political, diplomatic, familiar and artistic dynamics. Florentine ambassadors’ or intermediaries’ reports - such as Donato Rossetti’s letters - focus on the first concern of the Savoia court, after settling in Turin, that was to build a fortified citadel and to redraw the plan of the city. During my systematic analysis of Florentine court documents at the Florence State Archive, I uncovered compelling evidence of these intricate affairs regarding the rebuilding of Turin, and these unpublished documents shed new light both on the expansion of the city and on relations between Savoia and Medici courts. This paper provide evidence to suggest that Florence was considered by the Savoy Court as the leading innovator in visual arts and architecture, and that Turin was viewed in Florence as a model for city planning. The development of close relations between the two cities can be attributed mainly to the diplomatic and cultural activities of Donato Rossetti in Turin on behalf of the Florentine court.

  16. Elizabeth Gaskell’s and George Eliot’s Common Interest in Two Literary Women of 17th-Century France: Madame de Sablé and Madame de Sévigné L’intérêt d’Elizabeth Gaskell et de George Eliot pour deux femmes de lettres françaises du XVIIe siècle : Mme de Sablé et Mme de Sévigné

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Jumeau

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En 1854, Elizabeth Gaskell était déjà une romancière célèbre, mais George Eliot n’avait pas encore mis à l’épreuve ses talents de romancière. Elle n’en était qu’aux débuts de sa carrière littéraire. Marian Evans (comme elle s’appelait, avant d’adopter le nom de plume de George Eliot était encore rédactrice de la Westminster Review. Par une coïncidence intéressante, les deux grandes romancières victoriennes rédigèrent toutes les deux, cette année-là, des articles sur Madame de Sablé, parlant aussi de Madame de Sévigné, deux femmes de lettres remarquables de la France du XVIIe siècle. L’article de Gaskell, « Company Manners », fut publié dans le magazine de Dickens, Household Words ; et celui d’Eliot, « Woman in France : Madame de Sablé », dans la Westminster Review. Le présent article tente d’expliquer l’intérêt de ces deux romancières anglaises pour ces femmes de lettres françaises, qui ont vécu deux siècles avant elles.

  17. Nineteenth-century aether theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffner, Kenneth F

    2013-01-01

    Nineteenth-Century Aether Theories focuses on aether theories. The selection first offers information on the development of aether theories by taking into consideration the positions of Christiaan Huygens, Thomas Young, and Augustin Fresnel. The text then examines the elastic solid aether. Concerns include Green's aether theory, MacCullagh's aether theory, and Kelvin's aether theory. The text also reviews Lorentz' aether and electron theory. The development of Lorentz' ideas of the stagnant aether and electrons; Lorentz' theorem of corresponding states and its development; and Lorentz' respons

  18. Synovial fluid over the centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the most meaningful historical topics on the study of synovial fluid, by starting from the Greco- Roman Medicine, up to Paracelsus (1493-1541, who introduced the term “synovia” to name the intra-articular humour. Afterwards, some till now unreported historical sources are recorded, e.g., a short text by the Italian XVIII century physician Giambattista Contoli (“Breve Instruzione sopre il Glutine, ò Colla…, 1699”. Then, in keeping with some recent researches, a brief history of arthrocentesis is outlined, by considering the first procedures, which should have been performed in Mexico, during the precolonial period. Moreover, the first chemical analysis of synovial fluid, as carried out by the French chemist Jean-Louis Margueron (1792, and the first modern study on the synovial membrane by Marie-François-Xavier Bichat (1800 are explained. Finally, some XIX century investigations concerning the synovial pharmacodynamics, in particular an Italian one based on the elimination of certain chemical substances through the synovial membrane, are discussed.

  19. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term conseque......We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term...... consequences affecting current resource allocations arose from disparities between broadly dispersed benefits and locally concentrated socio-economic and geo-physical (spatial) costs. We show that a primary intent of public land management has become to preserve multiple-use option values and identify...... important factors in computing those option values. We do this by demonstrating how the willingness to forego current benefits for future ones depends on the community’s resource endowments. These endowments are defined not only in terms of users’ current wealth accumulation but also from their expected...

  20. The representation of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood in Sixteenth-and-Seventeenth-Century Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri T. Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilwood was the first product found in Terra de Santa Cruz, and the first explored by Portuguese colonization of Brazil. This study aims at the Occidental Cartography and the historical files represented by Portugal's interest on mapping the marketed product found in Brazil. There presentation of Brazilwood in maps was possible due to scientific advancements, new land discoveries, and technological improvement during the 15th century, which all have taken cartography to a whole new period, stressing Portuguese hegemony in Asia and in the New World. The goal of this research was to identify and analyze maps from 16th and 17th centuries that represented the geographical distribution of Brazilwood, and its trade. Brazilwood was represented in many maps by illumination and detailed by different cartographers. The maps and other evidence for this research were found in historical files held in both Brazil and Portugal.O pau-brasil foi o primeiro produto encontrado na Terra de Santa Cruz e o primeiro a ser explorado pela colonização portuguesa no Brasil. Este estudo enfocou a Cartografia Ocidental e os arquivos históricos que representassem o interesse de Portugal em mapear esse produto comercial encontrado no Brasil. A representação do pau-brasil nos mapas foi possível devido aos avanços científicos, aos descobrimentos de novas terras e aos avanços tecnológicos alcançados durante o século XV, os quais deram à cartografia um papel de destaque no novo período, enfatizando a hegemonia Portuguesa na Ásia e no Novo Mundo. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar e analisar os mapas dos séculos XVI e XVII que representassem a distribuição geográfica do pau-brasil e seu comércio. O pau-brasil foi representado em muitos mapas por iluminuras e detalhes feitos por diferentes cartógrafos. Os mapas e outras fontes presentes nesta pesquisa foram encontrados nos arquivos históricos sediados em ambos os países, Brasil e Portugal.

  1. A century of Dutch neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, P J; Bruyn, G W; Moffie, D

    1998-12-01

    The Netherlands Society of Neurology evolved from the Society of Psychiatry founded in 1871. The name was changed into Netherlands Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (NSPN) in 1897. In the same year, the word neurology was also added to the name of the journal. The Society steadily blossomed, but in 1909 the first signs of dissatisfaction occurred: the Amsterdam Neurologists Society was founded. A few split-offs would follow. The number of members of the NSPN increased from 205 in 1920 to 585 in 1960. In the early 1960s, the Society was reorganised and would consist of two sections, one for psychiatry and one for neurology. However, this would not last, as a full separation was established in 1974. For several reasons, the name of the journal was changed four times until it assumed its present name in 1974. The 100th volume of CNN was not published, as expected. in 1996, but in 1998, because of two skipped publication years, one during WWII and another in the 1970s. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, teaching of neurology was mostly given within the frame of psychiatry, following the German tradition of 'brainpsychiatry' (organic or biologic psychiatry). The first official chair of psychiatry was founded at Utrecht, 1893 (Winkler). In Amsterdam, private teachers such as Delprat taught 'electro-therapy and nervous diseases' since the 1880s. The first extraordinary chair of neurology and electrotherapy was founded for his successor, Wertheim Salomonson in 1899. The first university clinic for psychiatry and neurology started at the Amsterdam Municipal University, when Winkler became professor of psychiatry and neurology in Amsterdam in 1896. Around the turn of the century, chairs of psychiatry and neurology were also founded in Groningen and Leiden. Separate chairs for neurology and psychiatry appeared in Amsterdam in 1923 and in Utrecht in 1936. Following an initiative of Brouwer, the first neurological university clinic opened its doors in

  2. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    The United States and its Allies confront an increasingly volatile world where threats range from traditional state-on-state challenges to non-state transnational networks. To successfully combat these 21st Century problems, in an era of resource and geo-political power constraints, the U......), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...... (UW). Other obstacles such as resolving tensions in U.S. statutory law between traditional military and intelligence activities, bridging the gap with non-security Departments and Agencies, and developing the necessary trust with bilateral and multilateral partners are components that need...

  3. Twentieth Century Internationalism in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiermann, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The 20th century saw the transformation of international law into a legal discipline concerned with the practical  application of law. It was fuelled by a manifold variety of treaties, procedures and institutions. Still, international lawyers persisted in conceiving and judging their discipline...... against a background coloured by national legal traditions. International lawyers did not overcome the optimist and evolutionary tradition based on the assumption that international law is but an ever closer approximation of national legal systems; nor did lawyers escape the fl ip side of this tradition......, i.e., doubt and insecurity about international law and its basis. Rather than facilitating international law as a practical discipline, a superfi cial understanding of internationalism reinforced fetishisms of the discipline's theoretical past, not least the axiom that states only are proper...

  4. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  5. Women in Eighteenth-century Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    2013-01-01

    he eighteenth century looms large in the Scottish imagination. It is a century that saw the doubling of the population, rapid urbanisation, industrial growth, the political Union of 1707, the Jacobite Rebellions and the Enlightenment - events that were intrinsic to the creation of the modern nation...

  6. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  7. An Unfashionable Rhetoric in the Fifteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Marjorie Curry

    1989-01-01

    Reveals the continued importance of medieval rhetorical pedagogy throughout the high Middle Ages and early Renaissance by exploring the fifteenth-century popularity, uses of, and references to Geoffrey of Vinsauf's "Poetria nova" (a thirteenth-century verse treatise on the composition of poetry according to rhetorical principles). (SR)

  8. Hashimoto thyroiditis: a century later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rania; Al-Shaikh, Safa; Akhtar, Mohammed

    2012-05-01

    More than a century has passed since the first description of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) as a clinicopathologic entity. HT is an autoimmune disease in which a breakdown of immune tolerance is caused by interplay of a variety of immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors. Thyrocyte injury resulting from environmental factors results in expression of new or hidden epitopes that leads to proliferation of autoreactive T and B cells. Infiltration of thyroid by these cells results in HT. In addition to the usual type of HT, several variants such as the fibrous type and Riedal thyroiditis are also recognized. The most recently recognized variant is immunoglobulin G4(+) HT, which may occur as isolated thyroid limited disease or as part of a generalized Ig4-related sclerosing disease. The relationship between HT and Riedel thyroiditis remains unclear; however, recent evidence seems to suggest that it may also be part of the spectrum of Ig4-related sclerosing disease. HT is frequently associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and may indeed be a risk factor for developing this type of cancer. The relationship between thyroid lymphoma and HT on the other hand appears well established.

  9. Medicine in 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangBinghui

    2001-01-01

    An ancient Chinese theme of "Shen Nong tasted hundred herbs and confronted seventy toxicities a day" means generally that medicine was created by the ancient labor people, although there's no trace of the real Shen Nong. Accordingly some animals would take certain herbs for stopping traumatic bleeding just as our ancestors done. Medicine iniated a long time ago but the development of modern medicine is really a little bit more than hundred years, Pasteur discovered bacteria and reported in 1857, not yet 150 years from now. Virchow discovered cell cleavage and thus founded modern basic cellular pathology somewhat a year later than the former. Mendels bean test opened a new era for genetic research and concluded in 1863. Roentgen discovered X-ray in 1895 and We've celebrated the 100th anniversary of the X-ray discovery several years ago. The earliest application of penicillin was in 1940, not yet 60 years ago. The medicine possesses a jumping development during the recent half century in association with the advancement of synthetic chemistry, electronic and bioscientific technolgy.

  10. Compassionate Play in The Ludic Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dyer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 game designer Eric Zimmerman wrote a provocative manifesto entitled ‘Manifesto for a Ludic Century’ (2013a, in which Zimmerman declares the 21st Century’s dominant cultural form to be games. Consequently, Zimmerman proposes that the individual occupant of the century is therefore in a continuous state of game engagement. As such, this re-contextualisation of game space and play, indefinitely articulates the individual as a constant player and character, and thusly challenges the notions of selfhood. Importantly it should be noted, the state of a ludic century is explicitly assumed as a truth, however superficial it may appear. Accordingly, this paper is then afforded to be an extended hypothesis of the proposed ludic century, rather than a critical dissection and response to Zimmerman’s manifesto. This enables a hermeneutic framing of the questions: ‘What does it mean to live in a ludic century?’and ‘in what capacity may the self exist in the ludic century?’ These questions will attempt to distinguish play as an inherent cultural logic that extends beyond the limitations of explicit ‘gamification’ or instrumental play (Stenros et al., 2009; Zichermann, 2010. Concluding, it is claimed that the ludic century elicits a sustained delusion of self, as the player is confined to the designed game structure, which inhibits authentic engagement and interaction with environment and self. It is proposed that this evokes a form of suffering, the compassionate play within the ludic century.

  11. Nuclear computational science a century in review

    CERN Document Server

    Azmy, Yousry

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear engineering has undergone extensive progress over the years. In the past century, colossal developments have been made and with specific reference to the mathematical theory and computational science underlying this discipline, advances in areas such as high-order discretization methods, Krylov Methods and Iteration Acceleration have steadily grown. Nuclear Computational Science: A Century in Review addresses these topics and many more; topics which hold special ties to the first half of the century, and topics focused around the unique combination of nuclear engineering, computational

  12. A saúde bucal em pauta: análise de registros dos Conselhos Municipais de Saúde de municípios pertencentes à 17ª Regional de Saúde do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Oral health on the public agenda: an analysis of Municipal Health Council records in cities from the 17th Regional Health Division in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosani Aparecida Alves-Souza

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo a análise das intervenções em saúde bucal, registradas em atas de reuniões, de 15 Conselhos Municipais de Saúde, próprios de municípios pertencentes à 17ª Regional de Saúde do Estado do Paraná. A análise documental deu-se a partir da identificação das temáticas em saúde, com ênfase na categorização por assunto das intervenções em saúde bucal. Os resultados evidenciaram os registros relativos à programação e organização da prestação de serviços, seguida pelo orçamento em saúde, como sendo os mais freqüentes do conjunto de temáticas analisadas. Pôde-se identificar, em 90 atas das 591 estudadas, o total de 134 registros de intervenções em saúde bucal. Por meio da análise desses últimos, percebeu-se que as intervenções em saúde bucal eram relatos de ações já concretizadas, desprovidas de características propositivas quando analisadas sob a dimensão do planejamento em saúde. Sinaliza-se para a necessidade da categoria odontológica de adquirir um maior padrão de representatividade nesses espaços, de forma a possibilitar vínculos importantes no processo de planejamento e de fortalecimento da saúde bucal enquanto direito de cidadania.The present study analyzes interventions pertaining to oral health recorded in the minutes of meetings held by 15 Municipal Health Councils in cities from the 17th Regional Health Division of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Document analysis was performed by identifying health themes, emphasizing categorization of issues related to interventions in oral health. The most frequently analyzed themes were records concerning the programming and organization of oral health services, followed by health budget issues. In 90 of the 591 minutes studied, 134 records pertaining to oral health interventions were identified. An analysis of the latter showed that oral health interventions involve reports of actions already implemented and lack the

  13. Correctly Grasping the Fundamental Relations in the Construction of Socialist Culture to Advance the Flourishing Development of Socialist Cultural Undertakings——Studying the Spirit of the Sixth Plenary Session of the 17th CPC Central Committee%正确把握社会主义文化建设中的基本关系,繁荣发展社会主义文化事业——学习党的十七届六中全会精神

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海洋

    2012-01-01

    党的十七届六中全会强调,要进一步推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣,进一步兴起社会主义文化建设新高潮,这是基于我国文化改革发展的丰富实践和宝贵经验提出的重大文化发展战略。文化事业大发展是国家"十二五"纲要的重要组成部分。在进一步加强社会主义文化建设过程中,从理论、历史、现实等诸多角度对文化建设问题进行多角度分析,明确广义文化与狭义文化的关系、文化继承与文化创新的关系、文化交流与文化自觉的关系等,是推进文化建设的前提,是社会主义文化繁荣与发展的需要。%The 6th Plenary Session of the 17th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party lays store by the strategic move of promoting the great development and prosperity of socialist culture so as to usher in a new upsurge in socialist cultural construction.This is an important cultural development strategy advanced on the basis of the rich practice and valuable experience accumulated in China's cultural reform and development,and it has also been incorporated into the 12th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development.In the process of further strengthening the construction of socialist culture,it is not only a precondition for furthering China's cultural construction but also a necessity of prospering and developing China's socialist culture to analyze issues concerning socialist cultural construction and to nail down the relationships between broad-sense culture and narrow-sense culture,between cultural succession and cultural innovation,between cultural exchange and cultural self-knowledge,from multiple perspectives,theoretically,historically and factually.

  14. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2009-01-01

    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  15. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  16. Training Ranges in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    warfighting tactical principles established during the early 19th Century. In making training as real as possible, in the spirit of “Train As We Fight...few use restrictions. Early on, installations were established in rural areas, but, during the last century, the population exploded, and some...CMTC), Hohenfels Training Area ( HTA ), Germany; and the Joint Readiness Training Center, Fort Polk, Louisiana. o MCTCs focus on brigade task force

  17. St. Augustine in Twentieth-Century Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2012-01-01

    A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine.......A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine....

  18. Comparison of 19th century ship log wind data and adjoining land-based Royal Observatory data (1843 to 1855): Spot the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexa; Lennard, Chris; Grab, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    /climate records between the mid-17th century and the present, in an attempt to construct an annual chronology spanning almost 400 years.

  19. The Problem of Longitude in the 18th Century: Jorge Juan, Antonio de Ulloa and the Expedition of the Paris Academy of Sciences to the Kingdom of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, naval officers of the Spanish Navy in the Midshipmen's Royal Academy were appointed to take part in one of the most important scientific expeditions of the 18th century. The question of the shape of the Earth, of vital importance for navigation, was solved by the Paris Academy of Sciences by request of Louis XV of France in 1735. The aim was to determine the form of the ellipsoid that Newton had described in the 17th century for any spherical and homogeneous body in rotation about an axis. Two expeditions were prepared for the geodetic measures of meridian arc both in high latitudes (Lapland, Finland) and in the equatorial zone (the Kingdom of Peru); Pierre Louis Maupertuis took charge of the northern expedition whereas the second one was charged to La Condamine, along with Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. The results obtained by the Spaniards were gathered in a publication: Observaciones astronómicas y físicas hechas en los Reinos del Perú. In it, they dedicate a chapter to the determination of astronomic longitude with the only technology that was providing certain precision at the moment: the simultaneous observation of the same astronomic phenomenon in two different places. Specifically, they explain in detail in Book III: Las Observaciones de la Inmersiones y Emersiones de los satélites de Júpiter, como asimismo de los eclipses de Luna; de las cuales de deduce la Longitud de los Lugares, incluyendo las correcciones a efectuar por la variación de la declinación diaria del Sol.

  20. Symptom removal: the twentieth century experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenhoffer, André M

    2004-01-01

    The twentieth century hypnosis literature regarding the use of direct symptom removal with hypnosis is in strong contrast with that of the nineteenth. It shows much ambivalence about the use of symptom removal. Objections, largely based on conclusions drawn from psychoanalytic theory, led many twentieth century psychotherapists to reject direct symptom removal. However, a certain amount of empirical evidence, scattered through the literature, has accumulated during the twentieth century to support this rejection. The lack of satisfactory twentieth century statistics and of nineteenth century details concerning hypnotic interventions that were used, makes it impossible to satisfactorily account for the discrepancy in experiences of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although therapists did not altogether abandon working directly with symptoms, many opted instead for modifying and manipulating them by suggestion instead of completely removing them, usually allowing the patient to retain a psychodynamically suitable substitute. Here again a lack of adequate statistics prevents one from being able to properly appraise the effectiveness of this approach which has remained the preferred one for a number of therapists.

  1. Geodetic Imaging: Expanding the Boundaries of Geodesy in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Diaz, J. C.; Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Glennie, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    High resolution (sub-meter) geodetic images covering tens to thousands of square kilometers have extended the boundaries of geodesy into related areas of the earth sciences, such as geomorphology and geodynamics, during the past decade, to archaeological exploration and site mapping during the past few years, and are now poised to transform studies of flora and fauna in the more remote regions of the world. Geodetic images produced from airborne laser scanning (ALS), a.k.a. airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) have proven transformative to the modern practice of geomorphology where researchers have used decimeter resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to determine the spatial frequencies of evenly spaced features in terrain, and developed models and mathematical equations to explain how the terrain evolved to its present state and how it is expected to change in the future (Perron et al., 2009). In geodynamics researchers have used ';before' and ';after' geodetic images of the terrain near earthquakes, such as the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake, to quantify surface displacements and suggest models to explain the observed deformations (Oskin et. al., 2012). In archaeology, the ability of ALS to produce ';bare earth' DEMs of terrain covered with dense vegetation, including even tropical rain forests, has revolutionized the study of archaeology in highly forested areas, finding ancient structures and human modifications of landscapes not discovered by archaeologists working at sites for decades (Chase et al., 2011 & Evans et al., 2013), and finding previously unknown ruins in areas that ground exploration has not been able to penetrate since the arrival of the conquistadors in the new world in the 17th century (Carter et al., 2012). The improved spatial resolution and ability of the third generation ALS units to obtain high resolution bare earth DEMs and canopy models in areas covered in dense forests, brush, and even shallow water (steams, lakes, and

  2. Life Sciences in the 21 st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Chenglu (C. L. Tsou)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a retrospective of the achievements of life sciences in the 20th century and a prospective in the 21 st century.primarily,because of the emergence of molecular biology in the 20th cetury,life sciences have grown up from a descriptive discipline to an exact science.Biology in the 21st century features a unification between analysis and integration,i.e.the unification of analysis and func-tional research.More and more interdisciplinary integration will be based on works of penetrating analyses.Secondly.the deeper understanding of all living phenomena will lead to a unified connition of the essence of life so that general biology in the genuine sese of the term will come into being.finally,basic research on the life sciences will produce an unprecedented influence on all aspects of human life.

  3. Beyond denial and exclusion: The history of relations between Christians and Muslims in the Cape Colony during the 17th–18th centuries with lessons for a post-colonial theology of religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning from the past prepares one for being able to cope with the future. History is made up of strings of relationships. This article follows a historical line from colonialism, through apartheid to post-colonialism in order to illustrate inter-religious relations in South-Africa and how each context determines these relations. Social cohesion is enhanced by a post-colonial theology of religions based on the current context. By describing the relationship between Christians and Muslims during the 17th–18th centuries in the Cape Colony, lessons can be deduced to guide inter-religious relations in a post-colonial era in South Africa. One of the most prominent Muslim leaders during the 17th century in the Cape Colony was Sheik Yusuf al-Makassari. His influence determined the future face of Islam in the Cape Colony and here, during the 18th century, ethics started playing a crucial role in determining the relationship between Christians and Muslims. The ethical guidance of the Imams formed the Muslim communities whilst ethical decline was apparent amongst the Christian colonists during the same period. The place of ethics as determinative of future inter-religious dialogue is emphasised. Denial and exclusion characterised relationships between Christians and Muslims. According to a post-colonial understanding of inter-religious contact the equality and dignity of non-Christian religions are to be acknowledged. In the postcolonial and postapartheid struggle for equality, also of religions, prof Graham Duncan, to whom this article is dedicated, contributed to the process of acknowledging the plurality of the religious reality in South Africa.

  4. La predicación dominicana del Rosario: el Rosario de la aurora de Zafra en el siglo XVIII = Dominican preaching of the rosary: the dawn rosary of Zafra in 18 th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Mensaque, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El Rosario, signo de identidad misional de la Orden de Predicadores, desborda los cauces conventuales ya desde el siglo XVI al universalizarse el rezo y devoción. Los dominicos predican el Rosario en sendas misiones y fundan numerosas hermandades adscritas a la Orden en parroquias e iglesias diocesanas, pero ya en el siglo XVII el rezo avemariano rebasa incluso los espacios sagrados para ser predicado en las calles. El proceso culmina en el siglo XVIII con un protagonismo del pueblo en la predicación del rosario, asumiendo en gran parte la responsabilidad de la misión que comenzaran los dominicos. En el extremo de la Provincia Bética, Zafra se convierte en escenario de esta Misión Popular con el Rosario de la Aurora y su hermandad, una corporación claramente misional y asistencial, que no duda en dar mayoría de edad a la mujer en su gobierno = Abstract: The rosary is an important sign of missionary identity for the Dominican Order, whose use has not been limited to the convent since the 16th century when preach and devotion became universal. Dominic monks preach the rosary in all their missions and found several brotherhoods affiliated with the Order in parishes and diocesans churches, but in the 17th century the Hail Mary can be found outside sacred places, it is preached even in the streets. This process end up in the 18th century when common people take a bigger responsibility and continue with the mission started by Dominic monks. Zafra, situated at the limit of the Baetica Province, becomes the stage of this Popular Mission thanks to the dawn rosary and its brotherhood, which clearly was a corporation dedicated to the mission and the assistant of people in need. This brotherhood does not hesitate before giving majority of age to the women in their government, even though they faced a strong social exclusion. ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

  5. [Evaluation of vital constants. 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez González, Natividad; Ortega Martínez, Carmen

    2002-05-01

    The evaluation of patients' vital statistics is part of health care and in many cases this is the first step in knowing what is the health status of a patient. Therefore, we are interested in analysing what knowledge nurses had regarding these vital statistics during the 18th century, how they evaluated these statistics and what treatment they applied in order to maintain or balance them whenever they became unstable. A manual written by a nurse in the 18th century in order to aid her colleagues in their treatment of patients is the source of the authors' research material.

  6. A Century of Human Capital and Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Restuccia; Guillaume Vandenbroucke

    2012-01-01

    An average person born in the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century completed 7 years of schooling and spent 58 hours a week working in the market. By contrast, an average person born at the end of the twentieth century completed 14 years of schooling and spent 40 hours a week working. In the span of 100 years, completed years of schooling doubled and working hours decreased by 30 percent. What explains these trends? We consider a model of human capital and labor supply t...

  7. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience.

  8. Statistics in the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Martin T; Wells, Martin T

    2001-01-01

    Exactly what is the state of the art in statistics as we move forward into the 21st century? What promises, what trends does its future hold? Through the reflections of 70 of the world's leading statistical methodologists, researchers, theorists, and practitioners, Statistics in the 21st Century answers those questions. Originally published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, this collection of vignettes examines our statistical past, comments on our present, and speculates on our future. Although the coverage is broad and the topics diverse, it reveals the essential intell

  9. The 21st Century: The Century of Biology on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill C.; SETI Team

    2017-01-01

    In a bold 2004 paper, Craig Venter and Daniel Cohen* claimed that whereas the 20th century had been the Century of Physics (Special and General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Big Bang Cosmology, Dark Matter and Dark Energy, the Standard Model of Particle Physics…) the 21st century would be the century of biology. They outlined the fantastic potential of genomic research to define the current century. Wondrous as these predictions were, and as rapidly as they have played out and over-delivered during this past decade, these predictions were too parochial. This century will permit us the first opportunities to study biology beyond Earth; biology as we don’t yet know it, and biology that we have exported off the surface of our planet.The technologies needed for discovering biology beyond Earth are different depending on whether you are searching for microbes or mathematicians, and depending on whether you are searching in-situ or remotely. In many cases the necessary technologies do not yet exist, but like genomics, they will probably develop more rapidly, and in more ways, than anyone of us can now imagine. The developing toolkit of the astronomers (stellar, planetary, and exoplanetary) will be shaped and improved as a result of this focus for at least the rest of this century.* New Perspectives Quarterly, Vol 21, pp. 73-77, 2004

  10. Shapes and geometries underlying the religious architecture in the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Giuliano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern Sicily , the 18th century was deeply characterized by an artistic renovation linked to the rebuilding fervor following  the catastrophic events which hit the NOTO VALLEY at the end of the 17th century. It was also characterized by the new needs of the counterreformation spirit.As far as this period is concerned, the research work tends to develop a new methodology of critical review on the works that, both on small and big scales, have characterized the inner and outer spaces of religious buildings, their altars and their facades.These works testify the circulation of cultural shapes and models, in both regional and national areas, in a dimension which widely overflows the local area and all its limited elaborations.It is difficult to diachronically read these works which are apart from important cultural centres, because there are very few historical documents which can testify the architectural design.The research work is based on a double analysis which, taking into account the deeply symbolic elements of the religious architectural expression, traces, on one hand the possible references to the literature of that period in order to identify its models; on the other hand it tries to find out connections among the typical elements of the surveyed area through a geometrical investigation.The aim is to promote a more and more effective preserving and developing action  of a less famous religious heritage. Thanks to the collection of cultural information, it is possible to gather valuable elements, on both small and big scales, in less famous areas which are apart from the most popular tracks.For this reason the first part of this study focuses its attention on the development of an analysis system which makes it possible to read in a syncretic way, the inevitable contaminations with the literature dating back to the Renaissance, which can be found in the religious architecture of the Noto Valley during that peculiar, cultural period

  11. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country...

  12. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country...

  13. Mozart and medicine in the eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J S

    1995-07-01

    Over the years the medical history and death of Mozart have been the subject of many studies, but in spite of all this attention much remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the difficulty it is useful to see his life, and that of his family as recorded in their letters, in the context of medicine in eighteenth-century Europe.

  14. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  15. Surviving 1000 centuries can we do it?

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, Roger-Maurice

    2010-01-01

    This full color book provides a quantitative view of our civilization over the next 100,000 years. The authors present the dangers and stress the importance of taking decisions in the 21st century to ensure the long-term survival of people on Earth.

  16. PR in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, Dan; Toon, John

    1994-01-01

    The ways in which advancing technology will affect college and university public relations and the mass media in the next century are examined, and a survey of 60 campus public relations specialists and 40 journalists concerning predicted changes is reported. Implications for campus communications with the media are also discussed. (MSE)

  17. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  18. A Day in the Nineteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanton, Ann Halpenny

    1982-01-01

    Describes a living history program on life in nineteenth-century San Diego for secondary students. During tours of a restored Victorian house, students view slides of historical photographs, study clothing and furniture styles, and participate in typical sewing, cooking, and cleaning chores. (AM)

  19. Black Women Workers in the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Debra Lynn

    1986-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century one-third of black women worked; most did agricultural or domestic work. Gradually as employment benefits increased and anti-discrimination laws were enforced, work opportunities for black women became more varied and better paying. (VM)

  20. Learning Analytics for 21st Century Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Crick, Ruth Deakin

    2016-01-01

    Many educational institutions are shifting their teaching and learning towards equipping students with knowledge, skills, and dispositions that prepare them for lifelong learning, in a complex and uncertain world. These have been termed "21st century competencies." Learning analytics (LA) approaches in general offer different kinds of…

  1. Wackernagel's Law in Fifth-Century Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the distribution of the pronominal clitics and the modal particle [Special characters omitted.] in fifth-century Greek (more specifically in Herodotus, the tragedians, and Aristophanes), which is typically assumed to be governed by Wackernagel's Law. It argues for a prosody-dominant model of clitic distribution,…

  2. The "Casa dei Bambini": A Century Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the early history of Montessori education from the Italian State Orthophrenic School to the opening of the original Casa dei Bambini in San Lorenzo, Italy on January 6, 1907. Includes a synopsis of Maria Montessori's progressive revelations of the child's developing self over the past century. (JPB)

  3. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  4. Making Sense of the Eighteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Pressures on curriculum time force us all to make difficult choices about curriculum content, but the eighteenth century seems to have suffered particular neglect. Inspired by the tercentenary of the accession of the first Georgian king and the interest in the Acts of Union prompted by this year's referendum on Scottish independence, Katharine…

  5. Defining War for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    over the centuries. It adapted to medievalism , the rise of the nation state, and the emergence of international organizations, so it can adapt to a...Dr. Vlahos has published over 80 articles, appearing in, among oth- ers, Foreign Affairs, Washington Quarterly, The Times Literary Supplement

  6. Phonetics of English in the nineteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    grew. This was reflected in the appearance of a large number of books and other publications dealing with speech sound, and also in the application of phonetics to such diverse areas as language teaching, elocution, teaching the deaf, shorthand writing and dialectology. The nineteenth century can...

  7. Toward the 21st Century for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Ruth H.

    1975-01-01

    The International Women's Year Conference decided that the key to the future for women throughout the world was continuing education enabling women to gain a sense of self realization, promote family life, increase options, and to contribute their talents to a better world in the 21st century. (Author/BP)

  8. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material...

  9. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  10. Soaring into the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, John

    1993-01-01

    Describes the implementation of ideas from the National Congress on Catholic Schools for the 21st Century at Saint Thomas Aquinas School in the South Bronx. Discusses Catholic identity, school spirit, social change, and school development with respect to the school's long-range planning for success in an economically depressed neighborhood. (MAB)

  11. Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, David

    1983-01-01

    Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

  12. 20th-Century Gold Rush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    Presents Nevada's gold rush activities spurred by technological advancements in search methods. Describes the events that led to the twentieth-century gold rush, the techniques for finding deposits and the geological formation process of disseminated gold deposits. Vignettes present the gold extraction process, cross-section, and profile of a…

  13. Twentieth-Century Art: Issues of Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Julie

    1990-01-01

    Presents lesson plans designed for secondary students that assess the role of naturalistic representation in twentieth-century art by examining the artwork of four artists: Pablo Picasso, Rene Magritte, David Smith, and Jackson Pollock. Provides background information on each illustration, and outlines discussion and art production activities for…

  14. EDITORIAL: 17th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies (VEIT 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Ghelev, Chavdar

    2012-03-01

    The International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT) has been organized biennially since 1977, when the VEIT Summer School series was launched by the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The aim was to act as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas on the latest developments in electron-, ion- and plasma-assisted technologies. The organizers of the 2011 edition of the event were the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria and the Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Whilst the school initially provided a meeting place for researchers mainly from Eastern and Central European countries, its importance has grown issue by issue. The school is now a major scientific event and a meeting place for young scientists from Eastern and Western Europe involved in research and development associated with high-tech industries. Many former school participants have gone on to become leading scientists in research establishments and companies throughout the world. Leading international companies, such as High Voltage Engineering, Balzers, Varian, and Hauzer have used the VEIT forum to present their products through oral presentations, poster contributions and exhibits. The School Proceedings have been published in special issues of the international journals Vacuum, Plasma Processes and Polymers and Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Seventeenth edition of VEIT was held in the Black Sea resort of Sunny Beach, Bulgaria on 19-23 September 2011. It was attended by 96 participants from 18 countries: Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK and USA. Following the tradition of publishing the VEIT Proceedings, a selection of papers presented at the event is published in this special issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, under the originality and quality criteria of acceptance by the journal, including peer reviewing. The school comprised thirteen plenary and three poster sessions. At the plenary sessions, 21 invited talks of general interest were presented by highly-renowned international experts in the field, as well as thirteen progress reports by young scientists. In total, 60 contributed papers were presented during the poster sessions. There were several scientific highlights, covering the fundamentals of interaction of fast particles with solids, and challenging practical applications. These ranged from novel techniques for creating hard coatings, optical/protective layers and biocompatible materials, to nanosized structures produced by evaporation, sputtering or external irradiation. The latest results were presented on ion-beam synthesis and modification in both low-energy (deposition and film growth) and high-energy (sputtering, implantation) regimes, the processing of solid materials aimed at surface patterning, and the creation of nanophase systems for electronic or tribological/wear resistant applications. Despite the busy scientific program, the atmosphere was relaxed and informal. The early afternoons of most conference days were free to stimulate both scientific and social interaction between participants, which often took place on the beach. The social program included a welcome party, an official dinner, and an outing to historical landmarks in the vicinity of Nessebar. VEIT 2011 owes its success to many people. The International Advisory Committee shaped the scientific program and ensured high-quality plenary presentations by their careful selection of the invited speakers. The Local Committee bore the brunt of the organization, both at the conference site and in dealing with correspondence, abstracts, and manuscripts for these proceedings. We are grateful to our sponsor, the Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, for its generosity that enabled us to support the attendance of students, and provided support dealing with mailing, printing, renting the conference site, etc. We are also grateful to the members of the International Advisory Committee: G Dinescu, A Ehiasarian, N Guerassimov, D Mataras, W Möller, I Petrov, Z Petrovic, B Rauschenbach, M C M (Richard) van de Sanden and M Ürgen, for their continuous concern for the high scientific level and the future of the event, and for their contribution to the development of a new generation of scientists and experts in the field. And, last but not least, we would also like to thank all authors for their valuable contributions to these proceedings and to the school, and all reviewers for their hard and tedious, but very important, work. The next conference in the series will be held in September 2013. M C M van de Sanden, Miglena Dimitrova and Chavdar Ghelev Guest Editors

  15. Aging of Asphalt Symposium, September 17th 2014, Delft, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, S.M.J.G.; Scarpas, A.; Blab, R.; Glaser, R.; Glover, C.; Oeser, M.; Porot, L.; Soenen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Technical specifications for the asphalt concrete properties are developed to be able to specify mixtures that will perform well in pavement applications. Being able to identify and determine properties related to pavement performance in practice is crucial for both road authorities and contractors,

  16. Aging of Asphalt Symposium, September 17th 2014, Delft, the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Erkens, S.M.J.G.; Scarpas, A.; Blab, R.; Glaser, R; Glover, C.; Oeser, M.; Porot, L.; Soenen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Technical specifications for the asphalt concrete properties are developed to be able to specify mixtures that will perform well in pavement applications. Being able to identify and determine properties related to pavement performance in practice is crucial for both road authorities and contractors, since it allows for design and risk management by determining design life times and reliability. However, the properties of Asphalt Concrete (AC) change over its lifetime and since most pavement l...

  17. Transducer Workshop (17th) Held in San Diego, California on June 22-24, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    EctronJohn Huecke, President Walter Hanford , Vice-President, Marketing 215 Mason Circle 8159 Engineering Rd. Concord, CA 94520 San Diego, CA 92111CocrA...amplifier, the response could be extended below 0.1 Hz if needed for seismic measurement, etc. 6 Response Time and Slew Rate Real amplifiers have other...amplifier sensing element Seismic mass Hermetic sealed Preload ring connector Base Figure 2. Typical triangular shear ICP accelerometer, 206 3.0 SMART

  18. Proceedings: 17th Asilomar conference on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, R.G.; Meier, C.A. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the 1983 conference was to provide for the technical exchange of ideas relating to the science and technology of the immediate effects of nuclear weapon explosions. Separate abstracts were prepared for 39 of the papers.

  19. PREFACE: 17th Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy (PhysicA.SPb/2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averkiev, Nikita S.; Poniaev, Sergey A.; Sokolovskii, Grigorii S.

    2015-12-01

    The seventeenth Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy (PhysicA.SPb) was held from 28-30 October 2014 in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The Conference continues the tradition of Saint Petersburg Seminars on Physics and Astronomy originating from the mid-1990s. Since then PhysicA.SPb maintains both the scientific and educational quality of contributions delivered to the young audience. This is the main feature of the Conference that makes it possible to combine the whole spectrum of modern Physics and Astronomy within one event. PhysicA.SPb/2014 has brought together more than 200 students, young scientists and their professor colleagues from many universities and research institutes across the whole of Russia as well as from Belarus, Ukraine, Finland, the Netherlands, France and Germany. Oral and poster presentations were combined into the well-defined sections of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Optics and spectroscopy, Physics of ferroics, Nanostructured and thin-film materials, Mathematical physics and numerical methods, Biophysics, Plasma physics, hydro- and aero-dynamics, and Physics of quantum structures. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series presents the extended contributions from participants of PhysicA.SPb/2014 that were peer-reviewed by expert referees through processes administered by the Presiders of the Organising and Programme Committees to the best professional and scientific standards.

  20. HUMAN IMPACT ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN WEST ANTARCTICA (17th Symposium on Polar Biology)

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Examples of synanthropization of flora in the South Shetland Islands (West Antarctica) are presented. Investigations on man's impact were carried out between 1986 and 1993. Human impact on plant cover takes place in two parallel processes: some species (plantae hemerophobae) decrease their geographical range, as a result of direct and indirect habitat destruction; while others extend their area of occurrence (plantae hemerophilae) due to man's activity. The latter process is a consequence of ...

  1. Up for Mischief? IL-17/Th17 in the tumour microenviroment

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The role of IL-17 and the IL-17 producing Th17 cells in cancer has recently become the focus of extensive investigation. An expanding body of literature implicate Th17 cells and their hallmark cytokine in both pro and anti-tumourigenic processes. In this review we describe their biological activities and outline the reciprocal interactions between Th17 cells and other cells of the immune system. We also discuss the evidence regarding their dual role in the tumour microenvironment. An understa...

  2. Up for Mischief? IL-17/Th17 in the tumour microenviroment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniati, Eleni; Soper, Robin; Hagemann, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    The role of IL-17 and the IL-17 producing Th17 cells in cancer has recently become the focus of extensive investigation. An expanding body of literature implicate Th17 cells and their hallmark cytokine in both pro and anti-tumourigenic processes. In this review we describe their biological activities and outline the reciprocal interactions between Th17 cells and other cells of the immune system. We also discuss the evidence regarding their dual role in the tumour microenvironment. An understanding of the processes that regulate the pro or anti-tumour activities of Th17 cell and IL-17 will allow the development of more effective means for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:20729908

  3. 17th edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Pasaje, Julio

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the seventeenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which took place on October 14-16, 2014, in Munich, Germany.  FDL is a well-established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modeling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems.   •Covers Assertion Based Design, Verification & Debug; •Includes language-based modeling and design techniques for embedded systems; •Covers design, modeling and verification of mixed physical domain and mixed signal systems; •Includes formal and semi-formal system level design methods for complex embedded systems based on the Unified Modelling Language (UML) and Model Driven Engineering (MDE); •Covers parallel architectures – both as platforms f...

  4. PREFACE: 17th Pan-American Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Conference SRI2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gwyn P.; Revesz, Peter; Arp, Uwe

    2014-03-01

    These proceedings are a collection of the articles presented at the seventeenth Pan-American Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Conference SRI2013, held on the campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), located in Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States of America, 19-21 June, 2013. SRI2013 was jointly hosted by the Cornell University Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), and the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) at NIST. This meeting's focus was clearly on instrumentation, thus fulfilling the intent of this SRI meeting series, which was initiated at NIST, then the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), in 1979. SRI2013 hosted more than 150 delegates, despite the new US governmental travel restrictions. This proceedings series aims to be an essential reference work for practitioners in the field. It primarily documents the evolution and development of techniques, but also recent scientific advances, that were presented during the two and a half days of the conference. We are extremely thankful to all the authors who contributed to making these proceedings a volume of reference as well as to the reviewers for their careful reading and constructive recommendations for improving the articles. Great thanks go to Robert Dragoset at NIST, for creating and maintaining the conference website and generating the conference logo. We are also thankful for the excellent support we received from the Conference Program at NIST, especially Kathy Kilmer and Angela Ellis. And we would like to dedicate these proceedings to the memory of Kathy Kilmer, who passed away on 15 October, 2013. NIST will not be the same without her. The Co-Editors: Uwe Arp (SURF/NIST) Peter Reversz (CHESS) Gwyn P Williams (Jefferson Lab)

  5. Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 17th International Conference, Galway, Ireland, 2007

    CERN Document Server

    O'Dowd, Colin D

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere: they form the seeds for cloud droplets and they form haze layers, blocking out incoming radiation and contributing to a partial cooling of our climate. They also contribute to poor air quality and health impacts. A large fraction of aerosols are formed from nucleation processes – that is a phase transition from vapour to liquid or solid particles. Examples are the formation of stable clusters about 1 nm in size from molecular collisions and these in turn can grow into larger (100 nm or more) haze particles via condensation to the formation of ice crystals in mixed phase or cold clouds. This book brings together the leading experts from the nucleation and atmospheric aerosols research communities to present the current state-of-the-art knowledge in these related fields. Topics covered are: Nucleation Experiment & Theory, Binary, Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation, Ion & Cluster Properties During Nucleation, Aerosol Characterisation & P...

  6. A practical guide to the 17th edition of the wiring regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    This book covers all the basics of inspection and testing and clearly explains all the legal requirements. It not only tells you what tests are needed but also describes all of them step-by-step with the help of colour photos. Sample forms show how to verify recorded test results and how to certify and fill in the required documentation. The book is also packed with handy advice on how to avoid and solve common problems encountered on the job.With its focus on the practical side of the actual inspection and testing rather than just the requirements of the regula

  7. 17th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events

    CERN Document Server

    Cerquitelli, Tania; Chiusano, Silvia; Guerrini, Giovanna; Kämpf, Mirko; Kemper, Alfons; Novikov, Boris; Palpanas, Themis; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Vakali, Athena

    2014-01-01

    This book reports on state-of-art research and applications in the field of databases and information systems. It includes both fourteen selected short contributions, presented at the East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS 2013, September 1-4, Genova, Italy), and twenty-six papers from ADBIS 2013 satellite events. The short contributions from the main conference are collected in the first part of the book, which covers a wide range of topics, like data management, similarity searches, spatio-temporal and social network data, data mining, data warehousing, and data management on novel architectures, such as graphics processing units, parallel database management systems, cloud and MapReduce environments. In contrast, the contributions from the satellite events are organized in five different parts, according to their respective ADBIS satellite event: BiDaTA 2013 - Special Session on Big Data: New Trends and Applications); GID 2013 – The Second International Workshop ...

  8. 17th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and Future Neutrino Facilities Search

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    NuFact15 is the seventeenth in a series that started in 1999 as an important yearly workshop with emphasis on future neutrino projects. This will be the first edition in Latin America, showing the scientific growth of this field. The main goals of the workshop are to review the progress on studies of future facilities able to improve on measurements of the properties of neutrinos and charged lepton flavor violation as well as new phenomena searches beyond the capabilities of presently planned experiments. Since such progress in the neutrino sector could require innovation in neutrino beams, the role of a neutrino factory within future HEP initiatives will be addressed. The workshops are not only international but also interdisciplinary in that experimenters, theorists and accelerator physicists from the Asian, American and European regions share expertise with the common goal of designing the next generation of experiments.

  9. BUZZ PHRASES FROM THE 17TH NATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Socialism With Chinese Characteristics Socialism with Chinese Characteristics refers to building a socialist system under the leadership of the Communist Party of China(CPC) and in light of China’s basic condition.It contains five basic components:a peo- ple-oriented approach,a market econo- my,common prosperity,Chinese culture and socialist democracy.

  10. 17th General Conference of the International Association for Research in Income and Wealth

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    Those familiar with input-output analysis know well that compilation of input-output tables is a difficult statistical work. The very first input-output tables (e.g. such as those for the United States economy in 1919 and 1929 or for the Federal Republic of Germany in the fifties) were the results of applied economic research. But soon after, official statistical bodies, who understood that input-output tables consistent with national accounts can very much improve the quality of economic statistics, started systematic work in this field. It was also obvious that international exchange of experience can be useful. The two main internatio­ nal fora in which discussion of input-output compilation took place were the international input-out­ put conferences and United Nations bodies. Already at the First International Conference on Input-Output Techniques (Driebergen 1950) several authors analysed the relations between input-output tables and national accounts. The topic was also on the programme of the Second...

  11. IL-17/Th17 targeting: On the road to prevent chronic destructive arthritis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Lubberts (Erik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractInterleukin-17A (IL-17A) contributes to the pathogenesis of arthritis. Data from experimental arthritis indicate IL-17 receptor signaling as a critical pathway in turning an acute synovitis into a chronic destructive arthritis. The identification of six IL-17 family members (IL-17A-F) ma

  12. TH17, TH22 and Treg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Wolff

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of CD4(+ T cell populations leads to intestinal inflammation, but the regional distribution of these populations throughout the intestinal tract in healthy individuals remains unclear. Here, we show that T(H17, T(H22 and T(Reg cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum compared to the terminal ileum and sigmoid colon, whereas T(H1 and T(H2 cells do not significantly vary by location. Transcriptional profiling analysis of paired pinch biopsies from different regions of the intestine identified significant differences in the metabolic state of the terminal ileum, cecum, and sigmoid colon. An increased proportion of T(H17 cells was positively associated with expression of resistin (RETN and negatively associated with expression of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1. These results suggest that CD4(+ T helper cells that are important in maintaining mucosal barrier function may be enriched in the cecum as a result of metabolic differences of the surrounding microenvironment.

  13. Vision & Strategy: Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Vision & Strategy: Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century Daniel L. Villeneuve* and Natàlia Garcia-Reyero In the 20th century, predicting...2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...century ecotoxicology can do Researchers have, for the first time, identi- fied the mechanisms of action of two toxins released by certain microalgae

  14. Heliportable drilling in the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argue, F. [Academy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Korach, D. [Nabors Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States); Read, M. [Nabors Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The access season for conventional ice roads has been reduced. Therefore, efficient drilling programs are required for a short winter drilling, and long wells are not able to compete in one season. Heliportable drilling provides non-ice access. This presentation outlined the merits of heliportable drilling in the twenty-first century. Conventional heliportable drilling was discussed and several images of current and past heliportable drilling rigs were presented. New technologies were also illustrated and discussed, with particular reference to the Mi26T enabler, a Russian super heavy lift helicopter, leased to Airborne Energy Solutions. Operating data for the Mi26T was also presented and the heli-drill system was explained. Several twenty-first century heli-rigs were also illustrated and described, including rig 119H, rig 103AC, rig 106E, rig 99AC, and rig 105E. Last, the presentation identified the next steps for heli-rigs. tabs., figs.

  15. Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, J M; Shen, Chuanjian

    2000-01-01

    The past century of interstellar dust has brought us from first ignoring it to finding that it plays an important role in the evolution of galaxies. Current observational results in our galaxy provide a complex physical and chemical evolutionary picture of interstellar dust starting with the formation of small refractory particles in stellar atmospheres to their modification in diffuse and molecular clouds and ultimately to their contribution to star forming regions. Observations of the properties of dust in very young galaxies will be an important probe of the rates of star formation in terms of the production and destruction of dust grains. Future observations of dust at high spectral and spatial resolution will provide detailed information on processes in collapsing clouds up to star formation. Space missions to comets in the next century will first study them in situ but ultimately will bring back pristine nucleus material which will contain the end product of the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud at ...

  16. Detergents of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Tan Tai Louis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  17. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 21st century, human reproduction increasingly involves decisions about which gametes to fertilize, which embryos to implant, or which fetuses to abort. The term ‘selective reproduction’ refers to these increasingly widespread efforts to bring specific kinds of children into being....... To this end, selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) have been developed and routinized over the last few decades. In today’s world, selective reproduction is taking place on a historically unprecedented scale; through sex-selective abortions following ultrasound scans, termination of pregnancies following...... detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening and testing programs, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century provides unique ethnographic insights...

  18. A new neuropsychology for the XXI century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Regardless of the significant interest in comparing neuropsychological syndromes across cultures, little interest is observed in comparing these syndromes across time. Most of the neuropsychological syndromes were described during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (e.g., aphasia, alexia, agraphia, acalculia, etc.). However, living conditions have so dramatically changed during the last 100 years that those classical neuropsychological syndromes have to be re-stated and reconsidered; eventually, new syndromes could be proposed. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of the new living conditions in spoken language, written language, numerical abilities, memory, spatial orientation, people recognition, and executive functions is presented. It is concluded that it is time to re-analyze and re-interpret the classical neuropsychological syndromes; and develop new assessment procedures, more in accordance with the twenty-first century living conditions.

  19. Nineteenth Century Public And Private Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMA REMINA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate the public and private spheres. The former represents the area in which each of us carries out their daily activities, while the latter is mirrored by the home. Kate Chopin and Charlotte Perkins Gilman are two salient nineteenth-century writers who shape the everyday life of the historical period they lived in, within their literary works that shed light on the areas under discussion.

  20. Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The past century of interstellar dust has brought us from first ignoring it to finding that it plays an important role in the evolution of galaxies. Current observational results in our galaxy provide a complex physical and chemical evolutionary picture of interstellar dust starting with the formation of small refractory particles in stellar atmospheres to their modification in diffuse and molecular clouds and ultimately to their contribution to star forming regions. Observations of the prope...

  1. Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The author concludes that the world will most probably remain rife with conflict even in the twenty first century and that the traditional role of intelligence will not only continue but will increase in importance. He characterizes the international situation as being "more of the same historically"; that is, the existence of several different centers of power and mutual conflicts based solely on national interests. In order to protect and promote one's national interests, sovereign states w...

  2. Egyptian Agriculture in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, C; Hillel, D.

    1994-01-01

    In order to perform a proper, integrated assessment of potential climate change impacts on Egypt it was necessary to accurately identify important and impending issues and problems which are and will be facing the Egyptian agriculture sector into the next century. To this aim, two experts in the fields of Agronomy and Irrigated Agriculture in the Middle East were asked to travel to Egypt in order to assess the current state of Egyptian agriculture and pose possible questions and scenarios tha...

  3. The 21st century chemistry journal

    OpenAIRE

    Bachrach, Steven M

    1999-01-01

    Internet publication will radically alter how chemists will publish their research in the next century. In this article, we describe two fundamental changes: enhanced chemical publication which allows chemists to publish materials that cannot be published on paper and end-user customization which allows readers to read articles prepared to meet their specifications. These concepts have been implemented within the Internet Journal of Chemistry, a new journal designed to employ the latest techn...

  4. Irish return migration in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, M

    1985-01-01

    This study is concerned with return migration to Ireland from the United States during the nineteenth century. The author first notes that the rate of return migration was relatively low. Reasons for returning are then considered, including inheritance and poor health. Data on 671 Irish returnees from passenger lists of ships arriving in the United Kingdom from the United States between 1858 and 1867 are analyzed with regard to sex, marital status, age, occupations, and impact of returnees.

  5. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  6. Dance Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Anne Green

    2005-01-01

    Margaret H'Doubler brought the magic of dance to the 20th century, yet the 21st century has yet to find a person to rekindle the same public desire for dance education. Consequently, the future of dance education in the next century is hard to predict. Based on an informal survey of fellow advisory board members of Dance and the Child…

  7. Science for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  8. A Century of Progress in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Discoveries and the Next Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Eduardo; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Chen, Gilad

    2017-02-16

    In a century of research published in the Journal of Applied Psychology, we have seen significant advances in our science. The results of this science have broad applications to the workplace and implications for improving organizational effectiveness through a variety of avenues. Research has focused on understanding constructs, relationships, and processes at multiple levels, including individual, team, and organizational. A plethora of research methods and questions have driven this work, resulting in a nuanced understanding of what matters in the workplace. In this paper, we synthesize the most salient discoveries, findings, and/or conclusions in 19 domains. We seek to summarize the progress that has been made and highlight the most salient directions for future work such that the next century of research in industrial and organizational psychological science can be as impactful as the first century has been. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Women in Chemistry: Their Changing Roles from Alchemical Times to the Mid-Twentieth Century (by Marelene Rayner-Canham and Geoffrey Rayner-Canham)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserio, Marjorie C.

    1999-07-01

    Women who made significant contributions in the chemical sciences prior to the 20th century do not come readily to mind. Yet, as this book relates so engagingly, women have been influential in chemistry since the earliest period of recorded history. However, Women in Chemistry is more than a dated collection of biographical sketches of notable women scientists. The book highlights the main periods of history when it was possible for women to have some measure of success in the chemical sciences and focuses on their changing roles from alchemical times to the mid-20th century. By glimpsing into the life and work of individuals in the context of the time in which they lived, the authors impart a credible and moving image of the restraints imposed on aspiring women scientists and the obstacles that confronted them-making the extent of their contributions all the more remarkable. Each chapter has a theme into which are woven selected biographical sketches. Chapter 1 offers a whirlwind tour of the centuries from Babylonian times (1200 B.C.E.) through the Middle Ages and into the 17th century, giving perspective on how the various civilizations did (or did not) consider women capable of intellectual achievement or permit such of them. This short but powerful chapter invokes appreciation for the major contributions made by women in the face of enormous obstacles of prejudice, superstition (witchcraft), monastic reprisals, pseudoscience (alchemy), and denial of education. The women featured include Maria Hebraea (around 300 C.E.famed for the water bath, bain Marie), Hypatia (mathematician, 400 C.E.), Western alchemists (de Gourney and Meudrac), and Chinese alchemists. By the 18th century, science had progressed and alchemy was at an end. Though enlightened scientifically, western society still considered women's intellect inferior. But, as Chapter 2 relates, the literary salons of France nurtured intellectual discussion in society women, and it was in this context that

  10. 19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Öztekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A city is a place whose meaning is found in the poetry created there. In Kevin Lynch’s words, a city presents the imagination with an unlimited potential for “readability”. If we consider this unlimited readability through poetry, it can be said that attempts to find the zeitgeist of a city at a certain time through literary texts must evaluate the poetry, the city and the time. This is because poetry (or literature in general, just like a city, has an important memory which oscillates through ideas of its past and future. In this sense, divan poetry and one particular example of it—historical “manzume” poems—are memories which richly illustrate the ‘continuity’ and ‘change’ within a period. This work, on 19th century Ankara, aims to evaluate the traces reflected in historical manzume poems of the time they were written. Five historical manzume poems in three texts out of seventy 19th century divan collections scanned for this work were found to be about Ankara. Two of these manzumes are by Cazib, one by Ziver Pasha, and one by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha. The first of these is on Ankara’s dervish lodge; the second on a barracks being built in Ankara; the third on Vecihi Pasha’s governorship of Ankara; the fourth on the the Mayoral Residence. In addition to these, a manzume on the construction of Hamidiye Caddesi by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha is discovered with in scope of the work. The aim of this work is to provide a contribution to city history through a commentary on elements of 19th century poetry concerning Ankara.

  11. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country....... The duties on grain in Malta were therefore not protectionist, but rather for revenue purposes, in contrast to the UK Corn Laws. Taxing an inelastic demand for foreign wheat by Maltese, who were unable to grow enough food to support themselves, was certainly an effective way of raising revenue, but probably...

  12. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country....... The duties on grain in Malta were therefore not protectionist, but rather for revenue purposes, in contrast to the UK Corn Laws. Taxing an inelastic demand for foreign wheat by Maltese, who were unable to grow enough food to support themselves, was certainly an effective way of raising revenue, but probably...

  13. Inspiring facility fuses a century of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-04-01

    Creating a 21st Century mental healthcare facility which would soon be world-renowned both for its quality of care, and for the high standard of its buildings, was the overriding goal of the project team behind the new pound 75 million, 312-bed Roseberry Park mental healthcare facility in Middlesbrough. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie visited the new PFI facility to discover more about the sizeable new mental healthcare "village", which was highly commended at the 2010 Building Better Healthcare Awards, from MAAP Architects lead designer and director Raechal Ferguson, and project director at the Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys (TEWV) NHS Foundation Trust John Ord.

  14. Haphazard Reality Half a Century of Science

    CERN Document Server

    Casimir, HBG

    2010-01-01

    Casimir, himself a famous physician, studied and worked with three great physicists of the twentieth century: Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli and Paul Ehrenfest. In his autobiography, the brilliant theoretician lets the reader witness the revolution that led to quantum physics, whose influence on modern society turned out to be many times larger than the first atomic physicists could have imagined. Through his involvement in the technical-scientific and the business aspects of physics, through management positions at Philips Research Laboratory and as a member of the Board of Directors of Philips,

  15. Mammalian developmental genetics in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-12-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas.

  16. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  17. A century of Levi-Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a critical overview of the life and career of Claude Lévi Strauss, who turned 100 on 28 November 2008. He has been labelled as one of the most influential anthropologists of the last century, and this paper presents a brief outline of the methodology associated with structural anthropology. The author emphasizes important shift from the total social fact to the actual understanding of the fundamentals of human society, as well as mentioning some of his key works.

  18. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  19. Teratology in Mexico. 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Frida

    2014-01-01

    It was not until the last third of the 19th century, the period in which, according to historiography, the country definitely inserted itself into modernity, that anomalies and monstrosities had a presence in Mexico. Therefore, what I present here are four moments of teratology in Mexico, four dates in which I try to recount how teratology, which still occupied a marginal place within the main themes of national science, not only reached to cover the realm of medical discussions at the time, but also laid the foundations for new disciplines like biology and anthropology.

  20. Linguistics in the 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷

    2017-01-01

    In the 20th century, linguistics flourished in western countries. Many schools and linguists came into 0being so that theories of modern linguistics were put forward at that age. Some schools and their thoughts exerted an influence on the development of modern linguistics. What is even more important is that Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, who made a discipline which was caled modern linguistics. And he is described the father of modern linguistics. A lot of schools added color to the modern linguistics. Therefore, modern linguistics started to take center stage.

  1. Werkwoordvolgordes in het Amsterdams van de 17e eeuw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Versloot; H. Hengst; M. Huisman

    2012-01-01

    The early 17th century comedies by Amsterdam authors Bredero, Tengnagel and Coster are written in a vernacular-like style resembling the variety spoken in Amsterdam at the time. The 17th century Amsterdam vernacular in those texts both morphologically and phonologically resembles 20th century Hollan

  2. Poverty in the first-century Galilee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari Häkkinen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Ancient world poverty was a visible and common phenomenon. According to estimations 9 out of 10 persons lived close to the subsistence level or below it. There was no middle class. The state did not show much concern for the poor. Inequality and disability to improve one’s social status were based on honour and shame, culture and religion.In order to understand the activity of Jesus and the early Jesus movement in Galilee, it is essential to know the social and economic context where he and his followers came. The principal literary source in first-century Galilee is Josephus, who provides a very incomplete glimpse of the political and economic character of the Galilee and his account is both tendentious and selfserving. There is no consensus among the scholars on the conditions of ordinary people in Galilee at the time of Jesus and the early Jesus movement. The evidence can be interpreted either so that first-century Galilee was peaceful and people had somewhat better times economically because of the large building projects, or just the opposite – the building projects demanded a lot more taxes and forced labour and made life even more difficult. In this article it is argued that the latter conditions explain better the birth and rapid increase of the early Jesus movement in Galilee.

  3. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  4. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbyshire Philip

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice.

  5. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  6. POLITICAL ISLAM IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Izquierdo Brichs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, political Islam or Islamism has created enormous concern both in the political media and the news media. The revolution in Iran in the late 1970s and the election victory by FIS in Algeria in the late 1980s represented two decisive points in the popular and ideological mobilisation by Islamist groups. Immediately after that, the civil war in Algeria and terrorist violence left their mark on the 1990s. The perception of Islamism today is still associated, in many cases, with the dynamics of the end of the past century, and with the jihadism of a few fundamentalist groups, without taking into account the fact that the majority of Islamist groups have undergone an enormous evolution, and that the context in which they are operating is also very different. As we will see, instead of the jihadism or the ideological radicalness of the past century, today’s political Islam is much better represented by the moderation (both ideological and in terms of political activity of Turkey’s AKP party, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Morocco’s PJD, Tunisia’s al-Nahdah and most of the parties and large groups. Central factors in this dynamic of moderation are, on one hand, the link between Islamist groups with regimes and, on the other, the claims for and acceptance of liberal democracy as a strategy in their political struggle.

  7. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  8. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  9. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  10. History of twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1995-01-01

    The meaning and message of the history of science will be discussed with relevance to XX century physics. This decisive period began in 1894-95 with the discoveries of the electron,X-rays and radioactivity,with the consequent development of relativity and quantumphysics. Connections of the development of science and society in XX century with culture and the influence on industry will be examined. Finally, the corruption of physics by the military will be considered. The influence of physics on chemistry and biology will be briefly treated and the impact of the approach and method of physics on modern thinking will be assessed. It should be kept in mind that the history of science is not a way of getting a simplified or adulterated presentation of the subject ,in this case of physics and so some understanding of general physics will be assumed. On the other hand, the broader generalisations of the history of ideas and events are illustrated (if not proven) by the facts (and myths) of science. Finally,as an e...

  11. Nineteenth-Century Anglo-Irish Cervantine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Altuna-García de Salazar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available To commemorate the fourth centenary of the publication of the first part of the Spanish masterpiece of all times Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes, this article approaches in an introductory manner some of the literary productions which sprang from Cervantes’s original within the Irish context. In the case of Ireland the Cervantine inspiration, albeit minor and neglected, has also been present; and, it is most probably the nineteenth century which provides the most ample and varied response to Cervantes’s masterpiece in many a different way. Our aim is to see briefly how the legacy of Don Quixote found distinct expression on the Emerald Isle. Indeed, all these Cervantine contributions from Ireland during the nineteenth century were also deeply imbued with the politics of literature and society in a country which experienced historical, social and cultural turmoil. The reference to Cervantes as a key writer in Spanish letters will not only be reduced to his masterpiece of all times; but, will also be tackled in critical pieces of importance in Ireland.

  12. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ted G

    2014-01-01

    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  13. Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David R.

    Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could…

  14. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  15. Imagining the Twentieth Century: Retrospective, Myth, and the Colonial Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B MacDonald

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectives on the twentieth century often portray it as the most atrocious century in human history, in terms of totalising ideologies, moral abandonment, technological horror, and mass death. The nineteenth and earlier centuries, by contrast, emerge as progressive and enlightened eras, characterised by morality, rationalism, and the absence of war. Creating a dramatic contrast between old and new centuries ignores the historical reality of colonialism and violence outside Europe’s borders. This article problematises twentieth century retrospectives and their nostalgia for the past, comparing these with recent histories of colonialism and genocide. Rather than see the twentieth century as a decisive break from the past, there are important elements of continuity and evolution which should not be ignored.

  16. Boosting 21st Century Skills through Moroccan ELT Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Ait Bouzid

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that the changing realities of the 21st century necessitate a fundamental shift in language education towards promoting 21st Century Skills. This paper investigates the extent to which three Moroccan ELT textbooks currently used in teaching second year Baccalaureate students in public high school provide activities that help learners build skills that match the needs of the 21st century. It also explores the types of activities that are used to promote these skills and eventual...

  17. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  18. Osteogenic Sarcoma: A 21st Century Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osasan, Stephen; Zhang, Mingyong; Shen, Fan; Paul, Paulose J; Persad, Sujata; Sergi, Consolato

    2016-09-01

    Compared to other bone tumors, bone osteogenic sarcoma (BOS) continues to confer a much grimmer prognosis as the survival benefit of traditional chemotherapy treatment regimens is still unsatisfactory. Chemotherapy was demonstrated to be effective in eradicating both primary tumor and pulmonary metastases in the last century, with effective agents used in various combination regimens having changed the survival rate from less than 10% to 75%. The most common primary bone cancer, BOS is conventionally a primary intramedullary high-grade malignant tumor characterized by malignant cells forming immature bone or osteoid. BOS is a disease with diverse morphological presentations. The treatment of all morphological variants seem to have been the same for over 30 years. The introduction of antiproliferative agents such as insulin growth factor-binding protein 3 hold promise of a potentially veritable therapeutic target. In this review, we highlight recent data on osteosarcoma to consolidate a platform able to connect bench and bedside.

  19. Unmarried motherhood in twentieth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thane, Pat

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of unmarried mothers who kept and tried to raise their children between World War One and the end of the twentieth century. It argues that there has not been a simple progression from their experiencing social stigma and ostracism to more enlightened attitudes since the 1970s. Rather there is a great deal that has hitherto been unknown about what the evidence suggests were very diverse experiences and attitudes throughout the period. A major change since the 1970s has been from pervasive secrecy about unmarried motherhood, cohabitation, adultery and similar 'irregular' practices, especially among the middle classes, to greater openness. The article uses a variety of sources, including the records of the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and Her Child (founded in 1918, now One Parent Families), oral histories, contemporary interviews and official and unofficial investigations.

  20. Interventional radiology: a half century of innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Richard A; Baum, Stanley

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of modern interventional radiology began over half century ago with a simple question. Was it possible to use the same diagnostic imaging tools that had revolutionized the practice of medicine to guide the real-time treatment of disease? This disruptive concept led to rapid treatment advances in every organ system of the body. It became clear that by utilizing imaging some patients could undergo targeted procedures, eliminating the need for major surgery, while others could undergo procedures for previously unsolvable problems. The breadth of these changes now encompasses all of medicine and has forever changed the way we think about disease. In this brief review article, major advances in the field, as chronicled in the pages of Radiology, will be described.

  1. Space Biology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Krauss, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Biology is poised to make significant contributions to science in the next century. A carefully crafted, but largely ground-based, program in the United States has evolved major questions that require answers through experiments in space. Science, scientists, and the new long-term spacecrafts designed by NASA will be available for the first time to mount a serious Space Biology effort. The scientific challenge is of such importance that success will provide countless benefits to biologically dependent areas such as medicine, food, and commerce in the decades ahead. The international community is rapidly expanding its role in this field. The United States should generate the resources that will allow progress in Space Biology to match the recognized progress made in aeronautics and the other space sciences.

  2. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths.

  3. A Half-century of SETI Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuch, H. Paul

    We begin our journey with a brief review of half a century of SETI science. The material in this introductory chapter is offered for the benefit of those educated laypersons whose enthusiasm for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence exceeds their detailed knowledge of the relevant technologies. It is my hope that readers of this volume will better appreciate the material which follows if they first have a basic understanding of SETI concepts. Hence, I offer an overview, which is intended not to be exhaustive, but rather representative. Together, we will explore the nature of radio telescopes, experimental design strategies, SETI instrumentation, signal analysis, and the hallmarks of artificiality that allow us to differentiate between natural astrophysical emissions and intelligent interstellar transmissions. If you are already a technical specialist in these areas, feel free to bypass this introduction, and proceed directly to the subsequent chapters.

  4. Architectural restoration: different conceptions during centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Lorusso

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The work reassumes the fundamental phases, in reference to the historical changes, of the conceptions related to the restoration and to the maintenance of the architectural works of art. It is opportune to reassume the evolution of the methods and the techniques applied to the restoration of the aforesaid manufactured articles, also in relationship to the theoretical conceptions. The explication of the routine of restoration has concerned particularly the actual applications. Close to the theory and to the routine of the restoration it has been set in evidence the development of the concept of "maintenance", understood as preliminary and complementary to the restoration itself: such concept has been express referring to the Charters of restoration from the beginning of the last century to today. It is intended, therefore, to follow a historical-critical path conceived in the different, and also complementary, phases of historical, aesthetical and technological development.

  5. Cooperative learning in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century brings four important challenges in which cooperation plays a central role: (1 a rapidly increasing global interdependence that will result in increasing local diversity as well as more frequent and intense conflicts, (2 the increasing number of democracies throughout the world, (3 the need for creative entrepreneurs, and (4 the growing importance of interpersonal relationships that affect the development of personal identity. The tools for meeting these challenges include cooperative learning. In this article the nature of cooperative learning will be reviewed, the underlying theory of social interdependence will be discussed, and the results of the research on cooperative learning will be briefly reviewed. The way in which cooperative learning contributes to meeting the four challenges will then be discussed.

  6. Six centuries of changing oceanic mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxu; Jaeglé, Lyatt; Thompson, LuAnne; Streets, David G.

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global and persistent contaminant, affecting human health primarily via marine fish consumption. Large anthropogenic releases of Hg to the atmosphere by mining and coal combustion have resulted in a significant perturbation to the biogeochemical cycling of Hg. The magnitude of this perturbation and the relative roles of the ocean and land as sinks for anthropogenic Hg remain unclear. Here we use a 3-D global ocean biogeochemical model to show that surface ocean Hg concentrations have increased fourfold over the last 600 years. We find that anthropogenic Hg enters the ocean's interior predominantly by absorption onto sinking organic matter particulates, which decompose and release Hg at a depth of 500-800 m, implying that the human perturbation is largest in subsurface waters of biologically productive regions. Our model simulation predicts that over the last six centuries half of emitted anthropogenic Hg has accumulated in the oceans and marine sediments.

  7. Financial crises of XIX century in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Moshenskyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article systematically examines the course of major financial crises of the late nineteenth century (the crises of 1848, 1857, 1873 in the financial centers of Ukraine at that time, namely Kуiv, Lviv, Odessa. The paper shows the specifics of these financial centers connected with the investments in profitable sugar industry of Kyiv; with the international trade and massive exports of grain in Odessa; with the beginning of Galician oil extraction and the creation of numerous oil companies in Lviv. After brief description of these crises in the world the author provides the numerous examples for each of the financial centers revealing their specificity inUkraine. The main emphasis is given on the impact of the crises on securities markets, particularly on the dynamics of stock prices.

  8. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  9. Eight Sages over Five Centuries Share Oxygen's Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinghaus, John W.

    2016-01-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color.…

  10. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  11. Software Engineering Technology for the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the software engineering technologyfor the 21 st century. First we review development over the last half-century, overview application re quirement and environment, accept a challenge. Then we outline following software engineering techniques: 1) Process;2) Analysis;3) Design;4) UML;5) Component;6) Java +XML;7) Integrated;8) Quality(ISO9000&CMM).

  12. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude

    2016-01-01

    in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over...... the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest...... and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries....

  13. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  14. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  15. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Kasyanov, V [Riga Stradins University, Riga (Latvia); Little, S [South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Swaja, R [South Carolina Bioengineering Alliance, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  16. Infectious diseases in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumate, J

    1997-01-01

    Infecto-contagious diseases in the twenty-first century with respect to precedent will see themselves deprived of smallpox, dracunculiasis and very probably of paralyzing poliomyelitis. Vaccination-preventable diseases, such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, some forms of meningitis, yellow fever and episodes of disseminated tuberculosis will greatly diminish in their rates of morbi-lethality; the elimination of some, and the eradication of measles, are expected. Other diseases such as diarrhea (including cholera), geo-helminthiasis, some severe respiratory tract infections and the majority of vector-transmitted infectious diseases will decrease due to improvements in potable water services, drainage, sanitary food control, living quarters, and individual and community anti-vector action. Leprosy, onchocerciasis and several parasitoses will be controlled by the available antimicrobial drugs. Infectious diseases will continue to be an important health problem due to: Reduction in the immunocompetence resulting from the aging of the population, chemotherapies necessary for neoplasms, and autoimmune pathology and the survival of persons with primary immunodeficiencies; lifestyles prone to infectious pathology, such as mega-city urbanization, children in day care centers, industrialized foods, intravenous drug addiction, sexual liberation, global commerce, and tourism; antibiotic-multiresistant microbial flora; environmental disturbances as a result of global warming, deforestation, the settling of virgin areas, dams, the large-scale use of pesticides, fertilizers and antimicrobials, and natural/social disasters generators of poverty, violence and deprivation will result in emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases already controlled in the past.

  17. Economic and Organisational Wisdom for Asian Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup BARMAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian Century is rich and already 14 years old. Today, Asia is in the middle of a historic transformation which has brought both challenges and opportunities. To meet these challenges, Asian leaders need to devise bold and innovative national policies for pursuing avenues for regional and global cooperation. In the similar way organisation and business in Asia will transform. This transformative whirlpool calls the Asian private sector and public sector organisations for absorption of new wisdom, values and principles in place of 20th century’s management. Overall, the capacity to respond to the changing global economic landscape through flexibility and adaptivness will carry a high premium. This paper delve the issues how Asian Organisations have already been used the wisdom during the global chaos. Deriving from the examples of Asia in the midst of global chaos in many points of time, this present paper attempts to re-focus on organisational wisdom of commitment and ability for Asian organisation, modernization, governance and helping to retool institutions, for enhancing transparency, and finally to develop accountability for organisational resilience and survival.

  18. Psycholinguistics: a half century of monologism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2003-01-01

    The contention of this article is that, since its inception in the mid-twentieth century, mainstream psycholinguistics has been monologistic, that is, has concentrated on monologue as its source of empirical material and has, largely implicitly, involved a monologistic epistemology. The article is not a comprehensive history of psycholinguistics but does attempt to establish a historical perspective. Monologism has been the historical bias of Cartesianism, positivism, behaviorism, and cognitivism. Monologism is concerned only with the person in whom cognition takes place and from whom communication proceeds. It is essentially asocial. By contrast, the merits of dialogism include an openness to the sociocultural, interactive nature of all cognition and communication and an empirical engagement of contextualized discourse situations. Dialogism is presented here not as a supplement to mainstream psycholinguistics but as a radical innovation that construes mainstream psycholinguistics as "strongly misleading if presented as a full theory of communication through spoken interaction" (Linell, 1998, p. 23). Some approaches to dialogism and research on dialogue are critically reviewed.

  19. The Future of Fossil Fuels: A Century of Abundance or a Century of Decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelder, C.

    2012-12-01

    Horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and other advanced technologies have spawned a host of new euphoric forecasts of hydrocarbon abundance. Yet although the world's remaining oil and gas resources are enormous, most of them are destined to stay in the ground due to real-world constraints on price, flow rates, investor appetite, supply chain security, resource quality, and global economic conditions. While laboring under the mistaken belief that it sits atop a 100-year supply of natural gas, the U.S. is contemplating exporting nearly all of its shale gas production even as that production is already flattening due to poor economics. Instead of bringing "energy independence" to the U.S. and making it the top oil exporter, unrestricted drilling for tight oil and in the federal outer continental shelf would cut the lifespan of U.S. oil production in half and make it the world's most desperate oil importer by mid-century. And current forecasts for Canadian tar sands production are as unrealistic as their failed predecessors. Over the past century, world energy production has moved progressively from high quality resources with high production rates and low costs to lower quality resources with lower production rates and higher costs, and that progression is accelerating. Soon we will discover the limits of practical extraction, as production costs exceed consumer price tolerance. Oil and gas from tight formations, shale, bitumen, kerogen, coalbeds, deepwater, and the Arctic are not the stuff of new abundance, but the oil junkie's last dirty fix. This session will highlight the gap between the story the industry tells about our energy future, and the story the data tells about resource size, production rates, costs, and consumer price tolerance. It will show why it's time to put aside unrealistic visions of continued dependence on fossil fuels, face up to a century of decline, and commit ourselves to energy and transportation transition.

  20. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  1. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  2. Pediatrics in 21(st) Century and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meharban

    2016-11-01

    Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21(st) century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution. There will be reduced burden of genetic diseases because of selective abortions of "defective" fetuses and replacement of "bad" genes with "good" ones by genetic engineering. Availability of totipotent stem cells and developments in transplant technology are likely to revolutionize the management of a variety of hematologic cancers and life-threatening genetic disorders. The possibility of producing flawless designer babies by advances in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is likely to be mired by several ethical and legal issues.The availability of newer vaccines by recombinant technology for emerging infective and for non-infective lifestyle diseases is likely to improve survival and quality of life. There is going to be a greater focus on the "patient" having the disease rather than "disease" per se by practicing holistic pediatrics by effective utilization of alternative or complementary strategies for health care. Due to advances in technology, pediatrics may get further dehumanized. A true healer cannot simply rely on technology; there must be a spiritual bond between the patient and the physician by exploiting the concept of psycho-neuro-immunology and body-mind interactions. In the years to come, physicians are likely to play "god" but medicine can't achieve immortality because anything born must die in accordance with nature's recycling

  3. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  4. Genome Evolution in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, James

    2006-03-01

    Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

  5. Los dominicos y los sermones cuaresmales en el cabildo municipal de Córdoba durante el siglo XVII = The Dominicans and the Lenten sermons in the municipal council of Cordoba during the XVIIth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda Doncel, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El trabajo tiene como objetivo el estudio del importante papel jugado en Córdoba por los dominicos y el conjunto de las órdenes religiosas en los sermones instituidos por el concejo en su sala de sesiones durante los jueves de cuaresma. A lo largo del siglo XVII todos los hijos espirituales de santo Domingo de Guzmán invitados pertenecen al influyente y prestigioso convento de San Pablo el Real. Un caso excepcional es el del beato fray Francisco de Posadas, miembro de la comunidad de Scala Coeli, quien goza de un gran ascendiente en la sociedad cordobesa de su tiempo por la encomiable labor pastoral y testimonio de vida. La valiosa información contenida en las actas capitulares del municipio constituye la principal fuente documental utilizada = Abstract: This work has as a target the study of the significant role of the Dominicans in Cordoba and the rest of the religious orders in the sermons established by the council in the meeting room during the Thursdays of Lent. Throughout 17th century, all the spiritual children of Saint Domingo of Guzman invited belong to the influential and prestigious convent of Saint Paul the Royal. One exceptional case is the blessed friar Francis of Posadas, member of the Scala Coeli comunity, who has a great ancestor in the Cordobesian society of his time due to his commendable pastoral work and his life witness. The valuable information contained in the records chapters of the council constitutes the main documentary source used.

  6. Drought assessment and trends analysis from 20th century to 21st century over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. L.; Ren, L. L.; Tong, R.; Liu, Y.; Cheng, X. R.; Jiang, S. H.; Yuan, F.

    2015-06-01

    Droughts are becoming the most expensive natural disasters in China and have exerted serious impacts on local economic development and ecological environment. The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) provides a unique opportunity to assess scientific understanding of climate variability and change over a range of historical and future period. In this study, fine-resolution multimodel climate projections over China are developed based on 7 CMIP5 climate models under RCP8.5 emissions scenarios by means of Bilinear Interpolation and Bias Correction. The results of downscaled CMIP5 models are evaluated over China by comparing the model outputs with the England Reanalysis CRU3.1 from 1951 to 2000. Accordingly, the results from the output of downscaled models are used to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Time series of SPI has been used to identify drought from 20th century to 21st century over China. The results show that, most areas of China are projected to become wetter as a consequence of increasing precipitation under RCP8.5 scenarios. Detailed examination shows that the SPI show a slightly increasing trend in the future period for the most parts of China, but drought in Southwest region of China will become the norm in the future RCP8.5 scenarios.

  7. Boeren op het Drentse zand 1600-1910. Een nieuwe visie op de 'oude' landbouw.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, J.

    1987-01-01

    This study reveals the character of farming mainly in the es-dorpen (open-field villages) area in the Dutch province of Drenthe from the 17th century onwards. It shows the change farming went through after the end of the 17th century, when a former extensive type of arable farming with a large numbe

  8. Redrawing the map: science in twentieth-century China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fa-ti

    2007-09-01

    This essay argues that science in twentieth-century China is a rich topic that can be productively integrated into research and teaching on the history of modern science. It identifies major issues of science in twentieth-century China and demonstrates that they can prove useful to any scholar who wishes to consider science in a comparative and trans/international context. The essay suggests two important steps for a fruitful investigation into the topic of science in twentieth-century China: first, revising the historiographic assumptions and categories that underlie much of the conventional historical narrative of modern science; and, second, breaking free from the tunnel history of national science. To illustrate these points, the essay examines a series of case studies of science in modern China and discusses the relevance of such subjects as scientific nationalism, Maoist mass science, and transnational scientific networks for the understanding of science in the twentieth-century world.

  9. Seaweed technology for India for the twentyfirst century

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.

    Some of the concepts regarding seaweed technology which require particular attention for its effective utilization during the twentyfirst century are discussed. Major thrust areas would be application of different techniques like remote sensing...

  10. Texting While Parenting: a 21st Century Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Texting While Parenting: A 21st Century Trap Smartphones can get in the way of family life, and stress is the result, study finds To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news ...

  11. Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

  12. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  13. Alan Turing: person of the XXth century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Ron, José M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available “Time” magazine chose Albert Einstein as “Person of the Century.” This was undoubtedly a reasonable choice, but as I will argue in this article, there are also good reasons for contending that Turing might have received this honor. One such reason I consider here is his purely scientific work, which stems from the greatest mathematical tradition, and how it affected the development of mathematics itself and was finally instrumental in shaping a new technological world. This is true both as regards the computation and treatment of information as well as the establishment of new forms of social relations. In relation to the foregoing, we have Turing’s contributions to the deciphering of secret codes during the Second World War, which in a somewhat metaphorical sense may be regarded as a new tool for undermining personal privacy, that civil right whose denial finally ruined his lifeEn diciembre de 1999, la revista Time eligió a Albert Einstein “The Person of the Century”. Fue, no cabe duda, una elección razonable, pero, como se argumenta en este artículo, existen también buenos argumentos para sostener que Turing podría haber recibido tal honor. En apoyo de semejante tesis están sus trabajos puramente científicos, que se esbozan aquí, trabajos que entroncan con la mejor tradición matemática, y cómo afectaron al desarrollo matemático, siendo finalmente instrumentales en la configuración de un nuevo mundo tecnológico, tanto en lo que al cálculo y manejo de información se refiere, como en lo relativo al establecimiento de nuevas formas de relaciones sociales. Relacionadas con lo anterior, se encuentran las aportaciones que hizo durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial al desciframiento de códigos secretos, que, en cierto sentido, metafórico, se pueden considerar como una nueva herramienta para socavar la privacidad, ese derecho civil cuya negación arruinó su propia vida.

  14. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  15. Radically Rethinking Agriculture for the 21st Century

    KAUST Repository

    Fedoroff, N. V.

    2010-02-11

    Population growth, arable land and fresh water limits, and climate change have profound implications for the ability of agriculture to meet this century\\'s demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel while reducing the environmental impact of their production. Success depends on the acceptance and use of contemporary molecular techniques, as well as the increasing development of farming systems that use saline water and integrate nutrient flows. © 2010 American Association for the Advancement for Science. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Power and Influence: Global Dynamics in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    publications/WorkingPapers/WP165.pdf>. Nuńez, Joseph R. A 21st Century Security Architecture for the Americas: Multilateral Cooperation, Liberal Peace...2005) Sheth, Jagdish N. and Rajendra S. Sisodia. Tectonic Shift: The Geoeconomic Realignment of Globalizing Markets. Thousand Oaks: Response, 2006...Joseph R. A 21st Century Security Architecture for the Americas: Multilateral Cooperation, Liberal Peace, and Soft Power. Carlisle Barracks: U.S

  17. Blending Worship for the 21st Century Military Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-13

    SUBTITLE Blending Worship for the 21st Century Military Force 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jim...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Blending Worship for the 21st Century Military Force 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...outsiders, inclusion of cultural diversity and intergenerational fellowship.43 Sam Harris saw the benefit of faith and worship and contends that we need

  18. Militares en el Mundo Urbano Fronterizo Castellano (siglos XVI-XVII Soldiers within the frontier urban communities of Castile (XVI-XVII centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana TRUCHUElO GARCÍA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudian diversos espacios urbanos fronterizos y costeros que albergaban presidios reales en Castilla en los siglos XVI y XVII. Se valoran las prácticas de gobierno que relacionaron, por una parte, a los vecinos, sujetos a la jurisdicción de los alcaldes y el corregidor, y, por otra, a los soldados, beneficiados por el fuero militar. Muchas de las discordias estuvieron causadas por las competencias de jurisdicción entre los distintos poderes, por el aumento de atribuciones de los militares en los contextos bélicos, por el control ejercido por los militares en las milicias concejiles y por la participación de los soldados en las instituciones de gobierno de la ciudad. Este estudio nos permite comprender el proceso de definición de una identidad particular en las ciudades fronterizas, sustentada en la exclusión de la comunidad de todo elemento que intentara segregarse del marco de acción de las autoridades urbanas y de la jurisdicción ordinaria.From different viewpoints, this article analyzes urban frontier coastal spaces in early modern Castile (16th and 17th centuries. The central focus is on the government practices that had to deal with quite different affairs, but mainly on arbitration of conflicts between urban neighbors and soldiers. The first were under the main magistrate so-called Corregidor jurisdiction, helped in this task by alcaldes (a special variety of mayors. The soldiers had specific military jurisdiction apart from that ordinary for the neighborhood. Many disputes were jurisdictional conflicts due to military special competences in war contexts, when the army widened its powers to control council regiments (milicias concejiles, and also to deal with the military participation in urban in institutions and government. These problems analysis points out the features that create a particular urban-frontier identity, based on the definition of urban community with the exclusion of individuals, groups and

  19. [Artur Wołyński--A forgotten Polish historian in Italy in the second half of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskurewicz, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Artur Wołyński (1844-1893) was, undoubtedly, one of the most interesting personages of Polish émigrés after January Uprising. He belonged to these circles of Polish émigrés, who were able to reconcile their patriotic aspirations with realities and interest of the countries that entertained them. As far as Wołyński is concerned, it found its expression in the efforts that were made in order to assimilate two nations--Polish and Italian people--appealing to the common history and familiar cultural traditions. An important element of integrating all the above-discussed actions was his scientific activity. The mentioned activity included, first of all, his studies on Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei. In the article were analyzed more comprehensive scientific descriptions dedicated to Copernicus and Galileo prepared by Wołyński, and their significance and opinions on them of the learned, whose works treated on Copernicus and Galileo as well. Secondly, in the field of scientific activity of Wołyńiski, one can also observe his researches and the process of elaborating sources for Polish and Italian his tory, particularly concerning the 17th century. However, most of his attention Wołyński paid to collecting and working out the materials concerning January Uprising. Speaking a modern language, one can say that Wołyński in a way polled the insurgents of January Uprising sending to them an appropriate list of questions, additionally allowing for their biographies. In the paper was also included a detailed description of this broad initiative together with its results. Up till now, not much attention has been paid to this significant scientific activity and its contexts. So, the present article is to remind of meritorious personage of Wołyński, and particularly of his output within the realm of history of science, history of Polish and Italian relationships, and of the role he played in bequeathing memory of January Uprising.

  20. YI Suki's Yŏksimanpil and the Professional Identity of a Chung'in Medical Official in Eighteenth Century Chosŏn Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kiebok

    2013-08-01

    About one hundred years after the publication of Tongŭibogam (1613), a physician at the court YI Suki (1664-?) wrote a medical manuscript titled Yŏksimanpil (Miscellaneous Jottings on Medical Experiences and Tests, 1734). As indicated in its title, Yŏksimanpil was a medical essay composed of 130 medical case histories, drawing on what YI Suki himself had experienced in his medical practices. This paper examines the messages YI Suki in Yŏksimanpil tried to address to his fellow Korean doctors, and by doing so illuminates an aspect of the medicine in the late Chosŏn period. The argument goes that YI Suki wrote Yŏksimanpil as a vehicle for promulgating his professional identity as a bureaucratic physician who belonged to the network of the chung'in technical officials-a group of government technical functionaries in late Chosŏn Korea. Throughout the late Chosŏn period, the chung'in technical officials had been discriminated, institutionally and socioculturally, against the yangban literati, while their promotion to honored higher positions was blocked. It was in the late 17th and early 18th century that a group of chung'in officials tried to secure their sociocultural places for their professional activity, thus bringing to light their social and professional identity in Chosŏn society. A member of the network of the chung'in technical officials in the early 18th century, YI Suki was in an effort to position himself as a doctor somewhere between the medical tradition and the Confucian literary tradition. In these sociocultural contexts, we can see more clearly what YI Suki tried to speak of in his book and the historical meaning of the medical writing Yŏksimanpil. First, the way he practiced medicine was testing and confirming what the received medical textbooks had asserted (Chŭnghŏmkobang). This style of practicing medicine could be viewed as a reflection of the comprehensivity trait of bureaucratic court physicians network YI Suki belonged to. Also this

  1. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  2. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  3. From Sentiment to Sentimentality: A Nineteenth-Century Lexicographical Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Banfield

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The brief account of the lexicographical history of the word ‘sentiment' in the nineteenth century, and the table of definitions which follows it, grew from my increasing sense of the shifting and ambivalent nature of the term in the literature of the period, despite the resonance and the proverbial solidity of phrases such as ‘Victorian sentiment' and ‘Victorian sentimentality'. The table is self explanatory, representing the findings of a search, among a wide range of nineteenth-century dictionaries over the period, for the changing meanings accrued by the word ‘sentiment' over time, its extensions and its modifications. The nineteenth-century lexicographical history of the word ‘sentiment' has its chief roots in the Eighteenth-century enlightenment, with definitions from Samuel Johnson and quotations from John Locke, chiefly based on intellect and reason. The nineteenth century generated a number of derivatives of the word over a period of time to express altered modes of feeling, thought and moral concern. The history of the word ‘sentiment' offers a psychological as well as a linguistic narrative.

  4. Marl Prairie Vegetation Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Willard, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted geochronologic and pollen analyses from sediment cores collected in solution holes within marl prairies of Big Cypress National Preserve to reconstruct vegetation patterns of the last few centuries and evaluate the stability and longevity of marl prairies within the greater Everglades ecosystem. Based on radiocarbon dating and pollen biostratigraphy, these cores contain sediments deposited during the last ~300 years and provide evidence for plant community composition before and after 20th century water management practices altered flow patterns throughout the Everglades. Pollen evidence indicates that pre-20th century vegetation at the sites consisted of sawgrass marshes in a peat-accumulating environment; these assemblages indicate moderate hydroperiods and water depths, comparable to those in modern sawgrass marshes of Everglades National Park. During the 20th century, vegetation changed to grass-dominated marl prairies, and calcitic sediments were deposited, indicating shortening of hydroperiods and occurrence of extended dry periods at the site. These data suggest that the presence of marl prairies at these sites is a 20th century phenomenon, resulting from hydrologic changes associated with water management practices.

  5. A century of trends in adult human height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.

  6. Early 20th century conceptualization of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2016-05-06

    This historical analysis of the term 'health promotion' during the early 20th century in North American journal articles revealed concepts that strongly resonate with those of the 21st century. However, the lineage between these two time periods is not clear, and indeed, this paper supports contentions health promotion has a disrupted history. This paper traces the conceptualizations of health promotion during the 1920s, attempts to operationalize health promotion in the 1930s resulting in a narrowing of the concept to one of health education, and the disappearance of the term from the 1940s. In doing so, it argues a number of factors influenced the changing conceptualization and utilization of health promotion during the first half of the 20th century, many of which continue to present times, including issues around what health promotion is and what it means, ongoing tensions between individual and collective actions, tensions between specific and general causes of health and ill health, and between expert and societal contributions. The paper concludes the lack of clarity around these issues contributed to health promotion disappearing in the mid-20th century and thus resolution of these would be worthwhile for the continuation and development of health promotion as a discipline into the 21st century.

  7. Accelerating 21st Century Economic Growth by Implementation of the Lunar Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The World Energy Council (1) makes this declaration. "Given this dramatically uneven distribution and the limited evidence of improvement in economic growth in many developing countries, WEC at the 17th World Congress in Houston in September 1998 concluded that the number one priority in sustainable energy development today for all decision-makers in all countries is to extend access to commercial energy services to the people who do not now have it and to those who will come into the world in the next two decades, largely in developing countries, without such access." By ~2050 the global systems should supply 10 billion people approximately 6.7 kilowatts of thermal power per person or 61,360 kWt-h/y-person of energy. The economic equivalent is ~2 - 3 kWe of electric power per person. The energy must be environmentally clean. The energy must be sufficiently low in cost that the 2 billion poorest people, who now make 1,000 /y-person, can be provided with the new power. A survey of twenty-five options for providing adequate commercial electric power, including solar power satellites in orbit about Earth, concludes that only the Lunar Solar Power System can meet the WEC challenge (2, 3, 4, 5). Maurice Strong is the former CEO of Ontario Hydro and organizer of the 1992 Rio Environmental Summit. Quoting Strong - "I have checked it (LSP System) out with a number of experts, all of whom confirmed that the idea, which has been mooted for some time, may now be ripe to carry forward. --- The project would deliver net new energy to the Earth that is independent of the biosphere, would produce no CO2 or other polluting emissions and have minimal environmental impact compared with other energy sources." (6). Electric energy provided by the LSP System can accelerate terrestrial economic growth in several ways. A cost of less than 1 cent per kilowatt electric hour seems achievable. This allows poor nations to buy adequate energy. Increasing per capita use of electric power is

  8. The Long-term Pattern of Maritime Trade in Java from the Late Eighteenth Century to the Mid-Nineteenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMADA, Ryuto

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the trade pattern of Java from the late eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century from a long-term perspective. There is no comprehensive data on Javanese trade during the period in question, with information on local and regional trade being particularly scarce. To fill in the missing pieces and identify a broad trend, this paper attempts to examine data on both the late eighteenth century and the second quarter of the nineteenth century and put them together...

  9. University library and the new challenges of the XXI century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Liduvina Medina del Sol

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available University libraries face the new challenges and kind of work of this century and turn into centres for the research and learning. This bibliographic review is focused on the changes that have marked the transition to the new paradigm of scientific-informative activity, with the arrival of information and communication technologies and the transformation of higher education which have an impact on other kinds of teaching and learning process in the information and knowledge society of the XXI century. We discuss the necessity of developing skills and knowledge among the librarians as part of a process of informational alphabetization. Some styles of work in these institutions are described, which help strengthen the information and knowledge management and the learning process. The main objective is to inform about the work the university library and its transformation into a knowledge industry facing the challenges of this century.

  10. Eleventh Century Astronomical Events as Recorded in Contemporary European Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghignoli, A.; Polcaro, V. F.

    The eleventh century was exceptionally rich in very prominent astronomical events, such as the SN 1006 (probably the brightest Supernova in historical times|), the great comet of 1066, the SN 1054. These events were recorded in numerous chronicles throughout the world and in particular in Europe and need to be carefully analyzed with the appropriate instruments of the philological criticism. This work will present a certain number of sources from the European Middle Ages that are unknown or less studied. They describe events spanning from the end of the tenth century to the end of the eleventh century. These texts have been selected because they are homogeneous and, in some way, representative of u number of astronomical phenomena. They prove that medieval chronicles can be extremely accurate in their descriptions.

  11. THE DANCING SCULPTURES OF THE 19TH CENTURY EUROPEAN ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel ALMELEK ISMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dance has been an indispensable element of human life for centuries. Painters and sculptors have created the dynamism of dance steps either on the canvas or stone with the same excitement. Charits, Nymphs, Bacchantes and Satyrs, the Greek and Roman mythological figures who attract attention with their dances have been a source of inspiration for artists. In this research, the dancing sculptures of the 19th century which is an interesting period in European art because of its witnessing of long term styles like Neoclassicism and Romanticism and short term movements such as Realism and Impressionism are examined. Examples of sculptures which brings dance to life before and after the 19th century have also been mentioned. The likenesses as well as dissimilarities in the way the arts of painting and sculpture approach to the theme of dance has been briefly evaluated.

  12. A History of the Danubian Costume in the XIXth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Partenie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we attach a great importance to the clothes we wear from the moment we buy or make them, to the moment we decide if they are appropriate with our personal style, the place where we wear them or when we use them. If the XIXth century tries to preserve the tradition with great accuracy the way it was transmitted from generation to generation, in the tumultuous XXth century we attend to the birth of a real industry of fashion. Some reminiscences remain, however, which gives us the opportunity to draw up a study in this regard. The present paper intends to add information regarding the folk costumes in Galati County, especially in the XIXth century. It is a short presentation of some of the most traditional clothes such as: skirt, apron, hood, shirt male and shirt female, decorative designs, footwear; without claiming to have finished the subject we intend to go on with further research.

  13. Theories of Space and the Nineteenth-Century Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel Armstrong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the construction of a spatial and interspatial subject in the nineteenth-century novel, examining initially the epistemologies of space developed by Kant and Hegel, and concluding with discussion of two further theorists of space, Bachelard and Lefebvre. It deploys this rich array of theorization to illuminate strategies through which the nineteenth-century novelist creates situatedness in language, asking how 'does' the novel represent space, and arguing that if we take away this almost miraculous verbal construction of space there is not much left to the novel.

  14. Empiricism and Rationalism in Nineteenth-Century Histories of Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper traces the ancestry of a familiar historiographical narrative, according to which early modern philosophy was marked by the development of empiricism, rationalism, and their synthesis by Kant. It is often claimed that this narrative became standard in the nineteenth century because of the influence of Thomas Reid, Kant and his disciples, or German and British idealists. I argue that the narrative became standard at the turn of the twentieth century. Among the factors that allowed it to become standard are its aptness to be adopted by philosophers of the most diverse persuasions, its simplicity and suitability for teaching.

  15. Galvanic cultures: electricity and life in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morus, I R

    1998-01-01

    Electricity has long proved to be a powerful tool for investigating the properties of life. Towards the beginning of the nineteenth century new discoveries and inventions in electricity stimulated a new popular fascination with such questions. Electricity seemed a good way of understanding the machinery of life. It was the key to unlocking the secrets of vitality. Looking at these early nineteenth-century debates and discussions provides a good way of focusing on the cultural connections and ramifications of science. As electricity provided tools for understanding life, it provided tools for understanding culture also.

  16. Carl Rogers' Responses in the 17th Session with Miss Mun: Comments from a Process-Experiential and Psychoanalytic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundrum, Monica; Lietaer, Germain; Van Hees-Matthijssen, Christiane

    1999-01-01

    Reproduces the transcript of one of Carl Rogers' filmed therapeutic sessions with Miss Mun, followed by an empirical and clinical-qualitative analysis. Five task oriented processes are examined in detail: the evocative impact of reflections of feeling; empathic affirmation as a marker of intense vulnerability; focusing reflections; working with…

  17. Logic, language and meaning: 17th Amsterdam Colloquium, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, December 16-18, 2009: Revised selected papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aloni, M.; Bastiaanse, H.; de Jager, T.; Schulz, K.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains the revised papers presented at the Amsterdam Colloquium 2009, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in December 2009. The 41 refereed and revised contributions presented together with the revised abstracts of 5 invited talks are organized in five sections: the first section contain

  18. Department of Defense Annual Cost Analysis Symposium (17th) Held at Arlington, Virginia on 12-15 September 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Analysis Symposium (ADODCAS) 12-15 September 1982 Sheraton National Hotel Arlington, Virginia Prepared by J. WATSON NOAH, INC. 1401 Wilson Boulevard...Sheraton National Hotel Columbia Pike Arlington, Virginia 22204 Cq. 0 PRODUCTION RATE ADJUSTMKENT FACTORS (PRAF) COST MODEL ARNOLD V. ARCONAT...time, HQ USAF/ LEYE developed SJ,,11y a similar system to report O&S costs for Communications, Electronics and d (:EM) equipment at the TMS level

  19. ESSDERC (European Solid State Device Research Conference) 17th Held in Bologna, Italy on 14-17 September 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-17

    microstrip detector) has already been strips,but only the strips collecting the char- designed and produced in NNOS tecnology . Single ges give a signal...those of an undoped one REFERENCES and it consists of only X peaks without [1] Bell, R.O., Hemat ,N. and Wald,F., Phys. excitonic emissions. This...continuous flow of Ar/H1 . At this stage the contact resistance with good thermal stability. TLMs are ready for automated test. In this work, the

  20. Proceedings of the 17th Conference on Toxicology Held in Dayton, Ohio on 3-5 November 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    look at chemicai disoosition (i.e., pharmacokinetics); a program whose first champions were Dr. Ken Back, Dr Vern Car er, ano Ms. Marilyn George...experimentally [23, 24, 25,26]. (2: Tendency of the epoxide to undergo oxygen protonatio-i. Protonation of an epoxide oxygen is known tu wec ken the C-O bonds and...University Press, Baltimore, MD, pp. 23-42. 79 Wilber , L.A. (1979) Threshold measurement methods and special considerations. In: W.F. Rintelmann (Ed

  1. International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (17th) Held in San Francisco, California on August 6-10, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-30

    Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales - UNAM. Apartado Postal 70-360, Cd. Universitaria 04510 Delegaci6n de Coyoac~n M4xico, D. F. ++Departamento...67084 Stras- +.bourg, France (LA 232 du CNRS) Instituto de Fisica del Estado S61ido CSIC-UAM, Fa- cultad de Ciencias , Cantoblanco, Madrid-34, Spain

  2. Growth variation, final height and secular trend. Proceedings of the 17th Aschauer Soiree, 7th November 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanussen, M.; Godina, E.; Rühli, F.J.; Blaha, P.; Boldsen, J.L.; Buuren, S. van; MacIntyre, M.; Aßmann, C.; Ghosh, A.; Stefano, G.F. de; Sonkin, V.D.; Tresguerres, J.A.F.; Meigen, C.; Scheffler, C.; Geiger, C.; Lieberman, L.S.

    2010-01-01

    Growth and body height have always been topics interesting to the public. In particular, the stupendous increase of some 15-19. cm in final adult height during the last 150 years in most European countries (the " secular trend" ), the concomitant changes in body and head proportions, the tendency to

  3. Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (17th) Held at Sacramento, California on 16-18 November 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    as the major cause of the waterhyacinth reduction in Louisiana. c. Sameodes albiguttalis. Although S. albiguttalis ( Argentine waterhyacinth moth) is a...fungus endemic to the United States. b. Sameodes albiguttali-the Argentine waterhyacinth moth imported from South America. c. Neochetina bruchi-The...including S. albiguttalis larvae, weevil adults and larvae, pickerelweed borer larvae, water- hyacinth mites, spider mites, various pathogens, frosts

  4. A Nation at War. Annual Strategy Conference (17th) Held at Carlisle Barracks, PA on 11-13 April 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    the worker. See Howard Lewis III, and J. David Richardson, Why Global Commitment Really Matters! Washington, DC: The Institute for International...of Admiral Yamamoto? Can those two cases be distinguished from the Soviet/Bulgarian London assassination of dissident Georgi Markov? Or from the...e.g., Samantha Maiden, “ Howard Begins Tour with Warning to North Korea,” The Advertiser (Australia), July 14, 2003, p. 7 (quoting the official

  5. Presentations from the Workshop on Data Collection in Organic Agriculture, held at the 17th IFOAM Organic World Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga; Mitchell, Alexandra; Ong, Kung Wai

    2011-01-01

    At this workshop the following papers were presented and discussed * Data collection on organic agriculture world-wide Status of collection activities, tools developed. Helga Willer, FiBL * Collection of data on the domestic market: Case Study Japan. Heinz Kuhlmann, BioFach Japan * Collection of data on the domestic market: Case study Australia. Alexandra Mitchell, University of Armidale Australia * Data collection on organic agriculture in Asia. Current status. Ong Kung Wai, I...

  6. The devaluation controversy in eighteenth-century Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Stapelbroek (Koen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractFollowing the Succession Wars of the early eighteenth-century, political economists across Italy discussed a range of possible reforms. Among the issues drawing most attention was the complicated problem whether devaluation policies were appropriate means for boosting economic growth. No

  7. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  8. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinheimer, F.D.

    2005-01-01

    The paper lists the whereabouts of surviving pre-nineteenth century bird collections containing altogether about 1500-3000 specimens. They are found in more than 50 institutions world-wide, with Berlin, Leiden, Paris, Stockholm, Tring and Vienna museums each holding more than 200 bird specimens from

  9. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2 (20CRV2)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the entire...

  10. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  11. Factors Strengthening School Geography's Curricular Position in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Zachary A.; Boehm, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of geography in the United States' K-12 education system throughout the Nineteenth Century to understand the causes of variations, shifts in focus, and relative importance placed on geography. A broad theoretical framework, based on the work of sociologists of education and education…

  12. [Half century of botany publishing in Revista de Biologia Tropical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Over its first half century the Revista de Biología Tropical published many papers and supplements dealing with the botany. However, the Revista is not a primary botanical journal. A wide variety of topics and geographic sources have been included, taking into consideration species from the Neotropics, but also from India and Nigeria. A complete index of botanical papers is presented.

  13. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild Ingvor A; Zimmermann, Esther

    2016-01-01

    in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over...

  14. The rise of homogamy in 19th century Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, F.W.A.; Vanassche, S.; Sanchez, M.; Jidkova, S.; Eeckhaut, M.; Oris, M.; Matthijs, K.

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of Western Europe the age at first marriage and the level of celibacy declined in the second half of the 19th century. This weakening of the European marriage pattern (EMP) can be interpreted as a ‘‘classic’’ response to the increase of the standard of living, but a more far-reaching i

  15. Understanding China's Curriculum Reform for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2014-01-01

    This article uses curriculum-making frameworks to analyse and reconstruct the Chinese curriculum-making model and unpack the dynamics, complexity and constraints of China's curriculum reform since the early 1990s. It argues that curriculum reform is China's main human capital development strategy for coping with the challenges of the 21st century,…

  16. Material Evaluation on Century Business English Comprehensive Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan-yuan

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports a survey on material evaluation on Century Business English comprehensive course of 80 students of Business English majors in Normal College. The survey covers students’and teachers’opinions and suggestions of the CBE. The result is helpful for Business English teachers to effectively improve the students’Business English learning.

  17. Pharmacists and medical doctors in nineteenth‐century Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, R.

    1988-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In this article the main areas of conflict between the medical and the pharmaceutical professions in Belgium in the 19th century are outlined. The medical profession was dominant in the division of labour and the pharmacists were not allowed to threaten its position. However, ph

  18. Reproducing an Early-20th-Century Wave Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Physics students often have problems understanding waves. Over the years numerous mechanical devices have been devised to show the propagation of both transverse and longitudinal waves (Ref. 1). In this article an updated version of an early-20th-century transverse wave machine is discussed. The original, Fig. 1, is at Creighton University in…

  19. Scientific Instruments for Education in Early Twentieth-Century Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castell, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    1898 marked a crucial point in the end of the nineteenth-century Spanish crisis. The military defeat ending the Spanish-American War was seen as proof that the country was in terminal decline. With the ideals of regeneration spreading throughout Spanish society, the State became more interested in supporting and sponsoring science and technology,…

  20. Projecting twenty-first century regional sea-level changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.; Carson, M.; Katsman, C.A.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Köhl, A.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.; Stammer, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present regional sea-level projections and associated uncertainty estimates for the end of the 21 (st) century. We show regional projections of sea-level change resulting from changing ocean circulation, increased heat uptake and atmospheric pressure in CMIP5 climate models. These are combined wi