WorldWideScience

Sample records for 15th century

  1. Introducing death: a 15th century Croatian Glagolitic literary text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrigl, M A; Fatović-Ferencić, S

    2001-12-01

    We explored the notions of life and death as perceived and presented in a 15th century Croatian literary text, Slovo Mestra Polikarpa, in which master Polikarp, a well-learned man of medieval times, engages in a lengthy dialogue with Death itself. This contrast/debate is a rare piece of medieval literature, not only by its Old Croatian language, but also by the angular Glagolitic script in which it was written. As a part of Croatian cultural heritage, it is deeply rooted in and clearly belongs to the common context of Western European medieval views on life, health, ailing, and death. A medieval perspective on such issues might be interesting to broad readership and, in many aspects, to medical professionals, whose everyday practice necessarily involves not only practical and scientific, but also moral, philosophical, and religious deliberations about life and death.

  2. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume I: 15th-19th Centuries. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This VHS videotape recording is the first in a two-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It focuses on the 15th-19th centuries, including Renaissance nobility, Baroque extravagance, Regency refinement, and Victorian romanticism. Each era reflects the changing relationships between men and women through the…

  3. Were Pneumothorax and Its Management Known in 15th-Century Anatolia?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Karatepe, Mustafa; TOK, Turgut; Onem, Gokhan; Dursunoglu, Nese; Goksin, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard, a student of René Laennec's, first recognized pneumothorax in 1803, and Laennec himself described the full clinical picture of the condition in 1819. Treatment of pneumothorax was not begun as a standard procedure until World War II, but we think that Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu recognized the condition and applied treatment in the 15th century.

  4. Florence and the Florentine State in the 14th and 15th centuries

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    Gian Maria Varanini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dealing primarily with the 14th and 15th centuries, this article examines the collection of essays Florence et la Toscane, XIVe-XIXe siècles. Les dynamiques d’un État italien edited by J.Boutier, S. Landi, O. Rouchon (Rennes 2004. It argues that the focus on the city, the first term in the title, prevails on the attention to the subjected territory, following an interpretative framework that is extended to the modern age as well.

  5. Microbiological study of bulls of indulgence of the 15th-16th centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, V.; Porca, E. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Pastrana, M.P. [Centro de Conservacion y Restauracion de Bienes Culturales, Junta de Castilla y Leon, Simancas (Spain); Cuezva, S.; Fernandez-Cortes, A. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Saiz-Jimenez, C., E-mail: saiz@irnase.csic.es [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-08-01

    During the restoration of the church of 'San Esteban' in Cuellar (Segovia, Spain) a few sepulchres were opened. Among them was that of Dona Isabel de Zuazo, from the 16th century. Together with the corpse was found a series of printed documents from the 15th-16th centuries, most of which were bulls of indulgence. A microbiological study of the documents was carried out using techniques of isolation and molecular microbiology, together with scanning electron microscopy. Most of the identified bacteria were highly suggestive of a human origin, particularly the predominance of Clostridium species consistent with the flora of the human intestinal tract. Our results demonstrate that appreciable post-mortem migration of bacteria has taken place from the corpse to the historic documents. This can be explained considering that the documents were found on pelvic region, and were contaminated by body fluids and putrefaction.

  6. Were pneumothorax and its management known in 15th-century anatolia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Karatepe, Mustafa; Tok, Turgut; Onem, Gokhan; Dursunoglu, Nese; Goksin, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard, a student of René Laennec's, first recognized pneumothorax in 1803, and Laennec himself described the full clinical picture of the condition in 1819. Treatment of pneumothorax was not begun as a standard procedure until World War II, but we think that Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu recognized the condition and applied treatment in the 15th century.Sabuncuoglu (1385-1470) was a surgeon who lived in Amasya (in Anatolia). In 1465, he completed Cerrahiyyetül Haniyye (Imperial Surgery), the 1st illustrated surgical textbook in the Turkish-Islamic medical literature. We describe the highlights of the book's recommendations concerning treatment of thoracic trauma, particularly of pneumothorax. We reproduce 2 of the colored miniature illustrations and add our comments regarding the advice of Sabuncuoglu. Most notably, he advocated "mihceme," a cupping therapy, as a simple technique of thoracic aspiration.

  7. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuee, Omidreza, E-mail: okakuee@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathollahi, Vahid; Oliaiy, Parvin; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad [Nuclear Science Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, Raziyeh; Jafarian, Hosseinali A. [The Library, Museum and Documentation Center of the Islamic Republic of Iran Parliament, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135 Degree-Sign while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar K{sub {alpha}} X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  8. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Oliaiy, Parvin; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad; Taheri, Raziyeh; Jafarian, Hosseinali A.

    2012-02-01

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135° while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar K α X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  9. From and to Portugal. The circulation of nobles in Medieval Hispania (12th-15th centuries

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    de Sotto Mayor Pizarro, José Augusto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the circulation of nobles among the various peninsular realms, from the 12th to the 15th century, can be an excellent and helpful observatory to a better understanding of the evolution of nobiliary and regal powers, as well as the links between them, in a period marked by the gradual affirmation of national monarchies. Besides these issues, and with a special emphasis on the relationship between Portugal and Castille, it can be of great interest to verify until when, to the nobility, the links of blood and the interest of lineage were superposed to the growing importance of the definition of the political frontiers in medieval Hispania.[pt] A análise da circulação de nobres entre os diferentes reinos peninsulares, desde o século XII até ao século XV, poderá revelar-se um excelente observatório para se compreender melhor, quer a evolução dos poderes nobiliárquico e régio quer a forma como ambos se articularam, num período marcado pela gradual afirmação das monarquias nacionais. Para além destas questões, e com um enfoque especial nas relações entre Portugal e Castela, poderá ser muito interessante verificar até quando, para a nobreza, os laços de parentesco e os interesses das linhagens se sobrepuseram à cada vez maior definição das fronteiras políticas dentro da Hispânia medieval.

  10. Public sources for the history of the Este state (15th and 16th centuries

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    Laura Turchi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In its first part, this article dwells upon the pluralism and the complex nature of the documentary system in the Este dominion between the fifteenth and the sixteenth century: both are well shown by the structure of the princely archive and the control exerted on their archives by the governed communities. Nevertheless, what is afterwards underlined is the importance of institutional, documentary and administrative links; through them, territorialization and reciprocal legitimation practices took place among the varied political agents. Special stress is laid on the existence of ducal territorial chanceries, on their interaction with urban chanceries and on the creation of specular series of registers, with particular reference to the evolution of urban copialettere, where a shared elaboration of norms occurred between the fifteenth and the sixteenth century.

  11. Historical development of administration architecture in Malaysia (15th-21st century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohidin, H. H. B.; Ismail, A. S.

    2014-02-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to document the development of the state administration building in Malaysia before and after the independence era, in relation to the evolutionary period of Malaysia's political, social and economic history. Multiple case study approach [19] is applied by referring to six prominent case studies to represent state administrative buildings from various phases of Malaysian history beginning from 14th century to 21st century as exemplar. Since this paper formulates new ways to approach and describes state administrative building design and factors that influence them, it uses interpretivism paradigm and (semiotics) as methodological approach to study the relationship between the building design and contextual elements. This paper, therefore, offers new insights, which not only add to knowledge in this field by widening and strengthening the understanding of state administrative architecture in Malaysia, but also are valuable for range of associated fields including architectural semiotics and non verbal communication. This is because this paper reveals deep understandings of the built form and material environment operating as a sign in a cultural and social context.

  12. Tristano Caracciolo and his “question” about nobility. The regis servitium in the Neapolitan 15th century

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    Luigi Tufano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts from the central position of the concept of regis servitium as a constitutive element of the Southern Italy Humanism’s thought about the theme of nobilitas, deepening the particular situation of Tristano Caracciolo. It catches both the aspects of originality and continuity in the political treatise tradition between the 15th and the 16th centuries. For this purpose it shows how the noble humanist Tristano Caracciolo, in contrast with the thesis of Bracciolini’s de vera nobilitate, has claimed a behavior model for the Neapolitan nobility in which the regis servitium is the condition of nobility, is the synonym of activism, is the workshop of glory and wealth.

  13. Wall paintings from the late 15th century in the Monastery church of St. Paraskeve - Brajčino

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    Popovska-Korobar Viktorija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monastery of St. Paraskevy is located above the village Brajčino, on the east shore of Lake Prespa in the Republic of Macedonia. In accordance with the incomplete donor’s inscription this one aisle church with a pitched roof was built and decorated at the same time. Reparations came around 1800, when rebuilding was done on the longitudinal walls and the narthex (without fresco decoration. The fresco paintings from the 15th century are preserved on the west facade, and on the east and west wall of the naos. The decorative program in the interior was common for the small type monastery churches without narthex. From the old edifice, on the corner of the outside southwest wall visible are remains of figures, a monk and a man in laymen’s attire facing eastward. The iconographic program of the west facade is interesting for the scenes which encompass the patrons niche: a reduced Last Judgment (Royal Deesis, Hell and Paradise, where the monk Pahomios above the gate is depicted in prayer and the equestrian figures of St. George and St. Mena. A parallel for the rare iconography of St. Mena with the tamed beasts is found in an unpublished icon, which most probably was painted in the last quarter of the 15th century, and is kept presently on the iconostasis of the church of Panagia tou Apostolaki in Kastoria. In accordance with all the considered characteristics by means of comparative analysis, we assume that the anonymous master could be an individual who belonged to the painting workshops which are credited for painting the church of St. Nicholas of the nun Eupraxia in Kastoria. We suppose the painter worked in Brajčino soon after the year 1486 and before 1493, when the decoration of the church in Kremikovci was completed, in which he most likely took part as a member of another large workshop. Regarding the question about the origins of the style of the 'master from the 1480’s', the paper articulates an opinion that they should be traced

  14. Deacon Oleshka Pavlov and Bookwriting in Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery in the First Half of the 15th Century

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    Shibaev Mikhail A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the writers who created the books for Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery. Deacon Oleshka Pavlov was the teacher of grammar and the booklore mentor of Martinian of Belozersk who later became reverend as well as some other monks. The analysis of the acts and the hagiographical texts allows to reconstruct the biography of the scriber and to come to the conclusion, that the deacon of the parish temple Oleshka had not got the direct connection with Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, he lived outside, in Feodosjin town with his father, priest Pavel. The article includes the autographs of Oleshka and determines the chronological borders of the books, which were rewritten by him: from the 1410s to the second half of 1440s. In the article the earlier works of the predecessors – R. Romanchuk, E.E. Shevchenko, I. Ševčenco, etc. were critically analyzed. Besides, the books with the inscriptions of Oleshka, four books, which were written with participation of deacon, were identified. Oleshka had half-uncial handwriting of not very good quality and, clearly, he wasn’t a professional calligrapher. Moreover, some manuscripts were commissioned to him, and not only by Kirillo-Belozersky monastery. Most of the books which were written by Oleshka were not noted in the monasterial register of the books by the middle of the 1480s. The codicological observations on the one of the manuscripts allowed to come to the conclusion that the deacon was able to contact with the monasterial direction only sporadically, he received the written orders. So, it is not likely, that Oleshka was the director of the junior school for the young inhabitants of Kirillo-Belozersky monastery. In the first half of the 15th century, Kirillo-Belozersky monastery was forced to use the local clerics as well as brothers for book writing. The research on Oleshka’s biography allowed to come to the conclusion, that the organization of book writing in Kirillo

  15. The first list of Malayalam words at the end of 15th century by a Portuguese seaman

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    Gonçalo Fernandes

    Full Text Available Abstract MS-804 from the Municipal Library of Porto, Portugal, is a unique copy of the journal of the first voyage to India under Vasco da Gama’s (ca. 1460–1524 command. It describes the voyage subsequent to the departure from the Tagus River, Portugal, on 8 July 1497 until the return up the shallows of the Grande River de Buba, Guinea, on 25 April 1499. The author of the original of this account is probably Álvaro Velho (fl. 1497/1507, born in Barreiro, but the arguments are still weak, being only achieved by deduction. The copyist is also probably John Theotonius, CRSA. The great merit of this document is the fact that the author was a direct eyewitness of all events. In the last appendix, at folio 45, it has a list of 122 useful daily words and expressions in Portuguese and their translation into Malayalam, a provincial Dravidian language spoken in Kerala State, India. It is a relevant testimony of a variety of Malayalam at the end of the 15th century, despite certain transcription mistakes and the scribe’s censorship of some vulgarisms. In this new semi-diplomatic edition, I applied rigorous transcription criteria and corrected earlier editions, adding English translations and Malayalam equivalences.

  16. Funding of 15th Century Altars in St. Mary’s Church in Cracow and Providing for their Upkeep till 1529

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    Elżbieta Piwowarczyk

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The altars described in the article were the last - according to the preserved records – to be funded in the 15th century inside St. Mary’s Church. Procuring a new main altar for the church in Cracow testified, as it were, to the standing that this church gained at the end of the century. There is no doubt whatsoever that Cracow burghers treated the basilica with exceptional care manifested through their generosity when it came to funding altars and providing for ministers at the altars. Unquestionably, the most magnificent of all 15th century altars - and one that was at the same time an expression o f care of all burghers for the interior decoration of the church - was the main altar of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary (1477-1489, made by Wit Stwosz. At the end of the 15th century Cracow burghers were able to participate in services held at the main altar or any of the 32 side altars (11 of which were funded in the 14th and 21 in the 15thcentury or in services in chapels. The altars were religious or votive offerings by Cracowburghers, who provided for the old and made new provisions in their legacies as well asmaintained the existing ones and made provisions for new ministers.

  17. Sine Labe. Immaculatism in 15th to 17th-Century Spain: The Social Projection of a Religious Imaginary

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    Ruiz-Gálvez Priego, Estrella

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Immaculatism, the devotion to the Virgin Mary, is an area of research of especial relevance for the history of social and religious mentalities. In Spain, it became a Matter of State from the 15th to the 17th centuries. The author aims to unravel how it was that such an abstruse and seemingly foreign-to-everyday-concerns theological subject turned into a social issue. Rooted in the theological discourse concerning human nature as “stained”, the concept of “original sin” began in the 13th century to be understood in terms of “infidelity”. In 1215, the 4th Lateran Council established a system of signs as markers for “infidels”, the first step toward an assimilation of the notions of fidelity/infidelity into those of trustworthiness/unloyalty which would later mean the association of the concept of original sin with that of the sin of the converts. In addition, the jural notions of Pactum and Fides, basis of the Feudal Contract, would inform the relationships between Man and God. Worshiping the Precious Blood of Jesus would impinge upon the so-called statutes for “Cleanliness” and “Nobility” of blood. This statutory definition of one’s blood would pass to one’s descendants, its formulation in terms of purity/impurity determining one’s social integration or exclusion.El inmaculismo, devoción a la Virgen, constituye un campo de investigación particularmente interesante para la historia de las mentalidades sociales y religiosas, llegando a ser asunto de Estado en la España de los siglos XV al XVIII. Nuestro propósito es elucidar cómo pudo llegar a convertirse en cuestión social un asunto de teología tan árduo y aparentemente tan alejado de lo cotidiano. Partiendo del discurso sobre la naturaleza humana “manchada” de los teólogos, llegamos al momento (siglo XIII en que la “mácula original” empieza a traducirse en términos de “infidelidad”. Las marcas decretadas por el IV Concilio de Letrán (1215

  18. Makam descriptions, classifications ın 15th century music manuscripts during ottoman period and a theorist of passing period: Ladikli Mehmet Çelebi

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    N. Oya Levendoğlu Öner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of makam descriptions goes back to Pre-Ottoman Empire period. In this period, makam phenomenon which is often studied in the middle age manuscripts of Islamic world was considered as a part of mathematic science. First Turkish music manuscripts had written in 15th Century during Otoman period. This study is aimed to put forward how considered makam descriptions and classifications by author in this period. Eight manuscript have analyzed and compared with each other which are Arabic, Persian and ancient Turkish. It is seen that makams were described with short seyir (melodic development, makam circles and on the accord system of instruments in Turkish manuscripts which are written in 15th century. These description ways are different more than Arabic and Persian manuscripts. Makams were described with alphabetic notation gave their scale and interval in those manuscripts. There are also some differences with regard to makam classifications between these two schools. It is concluded that Ladikli Mehmet Çelebi who is one of this period’s aouthor improved an characteristic makam description synthesizing each two description way.

  19. Union catalogue of printed books of 15th, 16th and 17th centuries in European astronomical observatories.

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    Grassi, G.

    This catalogue deals with the scientific subjects of that historical period such as astronomy, astrology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, historia naturalis and so forth, and contains extremely rare volumes such as the first printed editions of the eminent Arab, Latin, Greek and Persian scientists Albumasar, Albohazen Aly, Aristoteles, Ptolemaeus, Pliny the Elder and Ulugh Beig. In addition the catalogue contains the first works of such great astronomers of the 16th and 17th centuries as Copernicus, Kepler, Clavius, Regiomontanus, Sacrobosco, Mercator, Newton, Gassendi, Galilei and Hevelius, just to quote the most representative ones. The catalogue is followed by a chronological index and an index of printers and publishers.

  20. Iconographic analysis of the theme of "Bathsheba Bathing" in Books of Hours of 15th and 16th Century

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    Elsa Guyot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the light of biblical exegesis and medieval literature, this paper proposes an iconographic analysis of the theme of "Bathsheba Bathing" as it appears in Books of Hours. From the fifteenth to the sixteenth century, pictorial representations of this Old Testament scene experienced a boom justified by the underlying eroticism of this episode in which David surprises Bathsheba as she is performing a ritual purification bath. The illuminations that we study reflect the encounter between the Christian tradition and humanistic culture.

  1. Transmission of musical knowledge and history of European culture in the early decades of the 15th century

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    Matteo Nanni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of music history in the first half of the 14th century is characterized by an internationalization of European musical culture, as a continuation of the cultural process of early Humanism. The category of ‘evolution’, and the very idea of ‘rebirth’, or the “legend of progress” (Martin Le Franc, Johannes Tinctoris as discussed by Reinhard Strohm, must be read today not only in terms of stylistic standardization, but also as one of the hallmarks of a search for cultural identity. Even from a historical-musical point of view, what we see is the building of a new European taste from the combination of local styles and practices, thanks to the spread of handwritten collections all over the continent. Even composers from more distant regions embraced the new style, although less regularly. The Council of Basel was not only a historical event confined to the years during which the synod took place, just as it cannot be regarded as a mere empirical fact that only affected one city in northern Switzerland. It should rather be taken as a paradigmatic event in the cultural history of the 14th century. The encounters between intellectuals and artists, the interaction between musicians from different European regions, who met thanks to the frequent travels of the courts and chapels, turned the Council into a virtual platform for both the search for a new cultural identity, and the birth of new musical repertories and practices. The Council therefore transcends the material boundaries of the city of Basel, turning into a true ‘cultural generator’, where each individual contributed to the constant transmission and fusion of musical experiences, which became vectors for a new musical vision that reached to even the farthest corners of Europe.

  2. [The Piscine Probatica, a painted canvas of the Hotel-Dieu of Rheims, documentation of an epidemic at the end of the 15th century].

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    Ségal, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The Piscina Probatica theme is the highly distinctive iconography in an impressive painted canvas from the ancient Rheims hôtel-Dieu, dating back to the late 15th or early 16th century. In the first place, it is interesting to note that the actual site of the pool has been located, so that archaeological findings bring confirmation to testament scriptures. Through the choice of the painted-canvas medium, and thanks to his great pictorial skill, the anonymous Rheims artist has given us a document of exceptional value, concerning the signs and symptoms of an illness which wrought havoc in the Rheims area in his own lifetime, namely ignis plaga or "mal des ardents". Other great artists of the same period, such as J. Bosch, have testified to the horror of the illness. As a matter-of-fact, the illness has been fully documented, from the 17th century onwards, and the medical expert H.A. Tessier, also acting as an agricultural expert, has demonstrated that ergotized rye is responsible for the fatal condition known as ergotism, and for the heavy toll it has levied on human lives in the course of centuries.

  3. Shades of green in 15th century paintings: combined microanalysis of the materials using synchrotron radiation XRD, FTIR and XRF

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    Salvadó, Nati; Butí, Salvador; Cotte, Marine; Cinque, Gianfelice; Pradell, Trinitat

    2013-04-01

    A representative selection of green paintings from fifteenth century Catalonia and the Crown of Aragon are analyzed by a combination of synchrotron radiation microanalytical techniques including FTIR, XRD, and XRF. The green pigments themselves are found to be a mixture of copper acetates/basic copper acetates and basic copper chlorides. Nevertheless, a broader range of green shades were obtained by mixing the green pigment with yellow, white, and blue pigments and applied forming a sequence of micrometric layers. Besides the nature of the pigments themselves, degradation and reaction products, such as carboxylates, formates and oxalates were also identified. Some of the copper based compounds, such as the basic copper chloride, may be either part of the original pigment or a weathering product. The high resolution, high brilliance, and small footprint of synchrotron radiation proved to be essential for the analysis of those submillimetric paint layers made of a large variety of compounds heterogeneous in nature and distribution and present in extremely low concentrations.

  4. Casane and casanieri: Lombards’ activity and property in in the Burgundian Low Countries (14-15th Century

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    Federico Cannelloni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this contribution is dedicated to outline the different aspects of the credit granted by the Lombards in the Burgundian Low Countries (1384-1482. The second part of the article will deal with the localization of the buildings used by the piedmontese moneylenders in Bruges, Ghent and Antwerp both as private residences and as business edifices. This dual approach will follow the most recent historiography related to the Lombards, and more generally to the presence of foreigners in the late medieval urban society. It will be then possible to show how the Lombards modified their settlement and economic strategies after the progressive retirement of businessmen from Asti and their substitution in the running of the banchi by bankers from Chieri during the XV century. Secondly, it will be demonstrated that the Piedmont communities were not marginalized but, rather, an organic part of the economic, financial and social life of the hosting cities. Moreover, the settlement choices of the Piedmontese businessmen reflected evaluations aimed both to tackle the peculiarities of the different cities and to stay in the commercial hearth of the cities in order to maximize the visibility and the economic performance of their activities.

  5. Shades of green in 15th century paintings: combined microanalysis of the materials using synchrotron radiation XRD, FTIR and XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvado, Nati; Buti, Salvador [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. d' Enginyeria Quimica, EPSEVG, Barcelona (Spain); Cotte, Marine [CNRS UMR8220, LAMS, Laboratoire d' Archeologie Moleculaire et Structurale, 3 rue Galilee, 94200, Ivry-Sur-Seine (France); Polygone Scientifique Louis Neel-6, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Cinque, Gianfelice [Diamond Light Source, Oxon (United Kingdom); Pradell, Trinitat [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, ESAB, Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    A representative selection of green paintings from fifteenth century Catalonia and the Crown of Aragon are analyzed by a combination of synchrotron radiation microanalytical techniques including FTIR, XRD, and XRF. The green pigments themselves are found to be a mixture of copper acetates/basic copper acetates and basic copper chlorides. Nevertheless, a broader range of green shades were obtained by mixing the green pigment with yellow, white, and blue pigments and applied forming a sequence of micrometric layers. Besides the nature of the pigments themselves, degradation and reaction products, such as carboxylates, formates and oxalates were also identified. Some of the copper based compounds, such as the basic copper chloride, may be either part of the original pigment or a weathering product. The high resolution, high brilliance, and small footprint of synchrotron radiation proved to be essential for the analysis of those submillimetric paint layers made of a large variety of compounds heterogeneous in nature and distribution and present in extremely low concentrations. (orig.)

  6. A Hanged From the Past: Medical Consideration on the Judas Iscariot Fresco-Chapelle Notre-Dame-des-Fontaines, La Brigue (15th Century).

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    Gaeta, Raffaele; Fornaciari, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    The medieval chapel of Notre Dame-des-Fontaines (Our Lady of the Fountains), in the French Maritime Alps, is entirely covered by the fresco cycle of the Passion (15th century) that depicts the last days of Jesus from the Last Supper to the Resurrection. Under a small window, there is the brutal representation of the suicide of Judas Iscariot, hanging from a tree, with the abdomen quartered from which his soul, represented by a small man, is kidnapped by a devil. The author, Giovanni Canavesio, represented the traitor's death with very detailed anatomical structures, differently thus from other paintings of the same subject; it is therefore possible to assume that the artist had become familiar with the human anatomy. In particular, the realism of the hanged man's posture, neck bent in an unnatural way, allows us to hypothesize that it probably comes from direct observation of the executions of capital punishment, not infrequently imposed by the public authorities in low medieval Italy.

  7. Blue pigment colors from wall painting churches in danger (Portugal 15th to 18th century): identification, diagnosis, and color evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Milene; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Longelin, Stephane; Ribeiro, Isabel; Valadas, Sara; Mirão, José; Candeias, António Estevão

    2011-07-01

    Samples of blue wall paint layers from selected 15th to 18th century religious mural paintings from southern Portugal (Alentejo) have been analyzed using a multi-analytical methodology involving the combination of in situ visible spectro-colorimetry with microanalytical techniques such as optical and scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In situ analyses and micro-sampling were carried out in nine different churches, many in an advanced state of deterioration. The objectives of this study were: (a) to identify and compare the pigments that were used in the blue paint layers across the Alentejo region and through time by analysis of the elemental and mineralogical composition and pictorial techniques, and (b) to correlate the data between the actual color of the paint layer and the state of conservation of the pigments. For the paintings dated from the 16th century forward, the results show a generalized use of smalt blue. To a lesser extent, natural azurite was used despite the geological richness of the region in copper and pyrite ores. In only one painting was an optical blue made of carbon black and lime found. The pigments, pure or mixed with red and yellow ochres, were coarsely ground and used in different concentrations to create three-dimensional effects. These parameters as well as the presence of iron oxides in underlayer paints influence the colorimetric coordinates in the more transparent smalt blue paint layers. The state of conservation of the pigments plays an important role in the alteration of the paint color. A clear example of this is the fading of the smalt blue in several paintings due to lixiviation processes.

  8. 15th Cluster workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, C. Philippe; The Cluster Active Archive : Studying the Earth’s Space Plasma Environment

    2010-01-01

    Since the year 2000 the ESA Cluster mission has been investigating the small-scale structures and processes of the Earth's plasma environment, such as those involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetospheric plasma, in global magnetotail dynamics, in cross-tail currents, and in the formation and dynamics of the neutral line and of plasmoids. This book contains presentations made at the 15th Cluster workshop held in March 2008. It also presents several articles about the Cluster Active Archive and its datasets, a few overview papers on the Cluster mission, and articles reporting on scientific findings on the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the magnetopause and the magnetotail.

  9. “Like a virgin”: Absence of rheumatoid arthritis and treponematosis, good sanitation and only rare gout in Italy prior to the 15th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coppa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Origin of disease has special interest for rheumatologists, for whom absence of etiologic information generally mandates empirical approaches. Hypotheses have been offered that rheumatoid arthritis and syphilis were New World diseases, only transmitted to the Old World subsequent to the passages of Christopher Columbus (1-7. The pertinent search is for polyarticular erosive disease, sparing axial joints (8-10 and for oligostotic or polyostotic periosteal reaction (3, 4. The phenomenon of interest is not the focal periosteal reaction that occurs secondary to trauma (9, 10, but rather the more diffuse reaction indicative of pres- “Like a virgin”: Absence of rheumatoid arthritis and treponematosis, good sanitation and only rare gout in Italy prior to the 15th century “Come una vergine”: in Italia, niente artrite reumatoide o sifilide, solo poca gotta, e buona sanità prima del XV secolo BM. Rothschild1, A. Coppa2, PP. Petrone3 1Arthritis Center of Northeast Ohio, Youngstown, OH; Department of Internal Medicine, Northeast Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH; Department of Earth Sciences, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA; 2Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell'Uomo, Sede di Antropologia, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Roma; 3Museo di Antropologia, Centro Musei di Scienze Naturali, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli RUBRICA LA REUMATOLOGIA NELLA LETTERATURA… Reumatismo, 2004; 56(1:61-66 Reumatismo, 2004; 56(1:61-66 RIASSUNTO Obiettivi: Lo studio è stato condotto con lo scopo di compiere alcune valutazioni e di verificare, anche indirettamente, una serie di ipotesi: 1. che l’artrite reumatoide e la sifilide siano malattie originate nelle Americhe e che siano state trasmesse nel Vecchio Continente successivamente ai viaggi di Cristoforo Colombo; 2. che l’intossicazione da piombo, causa di iperuricemia e quindi di

  10. Pasture customs, collective resources, and development of State structures in the Republic of Siena (15th century. Fruitful ground for an interdisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The institution of Dogana dei Paschi in the Republic of Siena among the second half of fourteenth century and the first half of fifteenth century, similar in various aspects to the ones of the State of the Church and the Kingdom of Sicily, determined a reduction of the pastures of local communities and an intensification of territorial control of the central power, meaningful if read in the context of long period of the slow modern State’s birth. Nevertheless it is necessary to notice that Dogana’s pasture implied the typical medieval conception of coexisting separeted ownerships, with more rights that insisted on the same good, and the conception of demanium influenced by feudal law. So we must not imagine the territories included in Dogana as full properties and exclusive domains of the State, but as situations in which the usual interlacement of coexistent real rights was complicated by the graft of a further type of dominion, connected with the eminent one that was up to the holder of superior jurisdiction. From the point of view of the juridical base, the Dogana seems to lean not so much on new hegemonic State’s powers, how much on “extensive application” of principles of feudal law: in fact they were the vassals to have on their territories a dominium directum and a dominium utile on natural resources surpluses to the needs of local population, resources that they could also grant in enjoyment to strangers.

  11. The Hidden Face of Hospital Economy. The Hospital of Sant’Andrea of Vercelli in 14th and 15th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Olivieri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of four fourteenth- and fifteenth-century registers of hospital of San Andrea of Vercelli allows to shine a light on some aspects of property management and hospital economy. On one hand, it is possible to see a technical evolution of the recordings of rents payment; on the other hand one can understand the nature of economic connection between the hospital and his tenants. It changed depending on the location of property together with the origin of the tenants, urban (above all craftsmen or rural. The careful accounting of the actual payment of rents ‒ with accounts of delays, of debts accumulation charging on tenants, of replacements of kind or money rents with manufactured goods or (in the case of peasants labour services ‒ enlightens the specific features of the hospital economy, aimed to product wealth in view of the nurture of the hospital life in its whole.

  12. H TOY θEOY ΔIA TΩN ARHONTΩN PROMHθEIA - Byzantine 15th century archontes and religious endowments: Two examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constantinopolitan aristocracy of the XV century was, in the different ways and for the various reasons, attached to many of the city's monasteries and churches. The article is about two capital monasteries, St. John The Forerunner in Petra and Christ Philanthropos Soter, and the connection of the illustrious families of Lascaris Leontares and Asanes/Philanthropenos to them. Two epitaphs, composed by John Eugenikos for their ktetors, Demetrios Lascaris Leontares and Isaakios Asanes, shed more light on the matter. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177032: Tradicija, inovacija i identitet u vizantijskom svetu i br. 177015: Hrišćanska kultura na Balkanu u srednjem veku: Vizantijsko carstvo,Srbi i Bugari od 9. do 15. veka

  13. Merchants in Florence, Knights under the rule of the kings of Aragon. The Tecchini-Taquí between the 14th and the 15th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldani, Maria Elisa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The path of the Tecchinis is a relevant example of a Florentine family’s naturalization in the Catalan-Aragonese kingdoms. In contrast to many of their conationals, the record of Tecchini-Taquí is characterized by their long presence and by establishing a unique integration process, which involved a transgression of social rank from merchants to knights in less then a century. The key to their achievements was double identity and the coexistence of the Tuscan merchant’s typical skills with the involvements of the great mercantile Catalan families. As a result they could cover the role of intermediates between Florentine companies and the local world. The members of this family also made use of a direct and privileged relation with the Crown, established due to the professional services they offered to the monarchs.

    La traiettoria dei Tecchini costituisce un esempio significativo di naturalizzazione di una famiglia fiorentina in ambito catalano-aragonese. I Tecchini- Taquí, al contrario di molti dei loro connazionali, furono caratterizzati da una presenza di lunga durata e dall’avviarsi di un processo d’integrazione che avrebbe comportato, in meno di un secolo, anche un passaggio di status da mercanti a cavalieri. La chiave del loro successo fu la doppia appartenenza, il coesistere delle caratteristiche tipiche del mercante toscano con gli interessi delle grandi famiglie mercantili catalano-aragonesi, che gli consentì di ricoprire il ruolo di mediatori tra compagnie fiorentine e mondo locale. Gli esponenti di questa famiglia si avvalsero anche di un rapporto diretto e privilegiato con la Corona, stretto grazie ai servizi di natura professionale offerti ai monarchi.

  14. 15th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    This is the 15th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocooler Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  15. Signori e città nella Marca di Ancona. I Cima e Cingoli fra Tre e Quattrocento / Princes and cities in the Marca of Ancona. The Cima family and Cingoli between the 14th and the 15th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pirani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Il testo analizza le principali vicende politiche e istituzionali di un centro minore delle Marche, Cingoli, nel periodo compreso fra il secondo Trecento e la metà del Quattrocento. Tali vicende furono segnate dalla stabile presenza al potere di una famiglia signorile, i Cima. Il saggio intende indagare, anche attraverso la documentazione inedita, il ruolo rivestito dai Cima nelle dinamiche storiche locali e ne esamina alcuni fattori qualificanti: le funzioni politiche, le forme di legittimazione, le strategie economiche, la coesione familiare, i fattori perturbanti che condussero alla fine della signoria, la questione dell’eredità storica. Ne emerge una connotazione assai peculiare del caso in esame, che invita metodologicamente a rifuggire da modellizzazioni e postula la necessità di indirizzare la ricerca sulla multiforme concretezza delle dinamiche locali.   This essay inquires major political and institutional affairs of Cingoli, a small town in the Marche, between the 14th and 15th Centuries. The events were marked by stable presence in power of signori, the Cima. This essay inquires the role played by Cima in local context, also through original sources. The key factors were: political function, legitimateness, economic strategies, family cohesion, external factors that led to the end of signoria, the question of heritage. The feature of this case study is highly singular, so that encourage both to avoid theoretical models, and demand to approach the research into the reality of local dynamics.

  16. Les charpentes à entrait retroussé moisé : exemples orléanais des XVe et XVIe siècles Braced collar-beam roofs: examples from 15th and 16th century Orleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Alix

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La ville d’Orléans possède un ensemble important et inédit de charpentes à pannes des XVe et XVIe s. présentant la particularité de posséder un entrait retroussé moisé. Attesté dès le premier quart du XVe siècle, ce procédé innovant, constitué de deux pièces jumelées venant enserrer les principaux éléments de la ferme, va largement se diffuser dans les édifices religieux mais surtout dans l’habitat domestique, de la maison polyvalente en pan-de-bois au riche hôtel particulier. Ce mode de construction, démontrant une parfaite maîtrise de la statique de la charpente dès sa conception en vue de renforcer la triangulation de la ferme, s’impose donc rapidement dans un contexte architectural local marqué par la rareté de l’emploi de structures à chevrons-formant-fermes. Ainsi, on le retrouve également dans les charpentes à enrayure (tourelle d’escalier, toiture en pavillon, abside. L’utilisation généralisée de la moise à Orléans, et de manière plus ponctuelle en val de Loire et dans certaines régions de France, amène aussi à s’interroger sur l’origine de ce procédé connu sous d’autres formes dans des charpentes dès les XIIe-XIIIe s.The town of Orleans possesses an important and unpublished collection of timber-framed roof structures of the 15th and 16th centuries, with a braced collar-beam. Known since the first quarter of the 15th century, this innovative process, involving two twinned pieces clasping the main elements of the frame, became widely spread in religious buildings but particularly in domestic housing, from the multipurpose timber-framed home to the elaborate town house. This method of construction, demonstrating a perfect mastery of the statics of a roof structure from its design with a view to reinforcing the triangulation of the truss, rapidly established itself in a local architectural context marked by the rare use of “chevrons-formant-fermes” (common rafters forming a

  17. 12—15 世纪英国交换经济发展原因探%Reasons of Exchange Economy Development in England from 12th to 15th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马泽民

    2015-01-01

    Medieval England has been taken grand as self-sufficient economy on the base of manor for a long time.With sor-ting out important sources of manor accounts and the in-depth discussion of estate management, the opinion of self-sufficient econo-my as only a part of meideval development is extensively agreed with.In fact, There is a great progress in the development of ex-change economy in England from12th to 15th century.As far as reasons, four facors are important.Firstly, Division, especially non-aricultural industries seperating from agricultural sections, provides prime condition for exchange development.Secondly, a com-plete system of currency is established as a convenient tool of mediation .Thirdly, Both the foundation of various of markets and exten-sive use of horse stead of cattle as the main means of transport contribute a lot to reduce the distance and time to deal, and therefor, decline the transaction cost.Finally, needs of governance and economy form the source of exchange economy development.%英国中世纪曾长期被认为是以庄园为基础的自给自足经济. 随着对庄园账簿资料的挖掘和对庄园管理的深入探讨, 自给自足只是中世纪经济发展的一个阶段. 12—15世纪, 领主和农民普遍卷入了广泛的市场交易, 交换经济取得迅速发展. 究其原因, 主要有四个方面: 一是分工获得了较快发展, 非农产业从农业中分离, 为交换经济发展提供了前提; 二是形成了完整的货币体系, 为交换提供了便利的中介工具; 三是市场和集市的广泛建立, 马代替牛成为了主要运输工具, 减少了交易的距离和时间, 降低了交易成本, 是交换经济发展的助推剂; 四是政治经济发展的需求是交换经济持续发展的动力源泉.

  18. Manuscript Documentation and Conservation Treatment: A Mamluk Manuscript from the 15th Century El Yazmalarında Belgeleme ve Konservasyon Çalışması: 15. Yüzyıldan Bir Memluk El Yazması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil Baydar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The conservation treatment of a 15th century Mamluk manuscript decorated in a manner suitable to the period is considered in three parts. First, with the goal of establishing the manuscript's technical and material characteristics, a "definition" is made; second, under the heading "the pre-conservation condition", the damage observed in the object and its causes are researched; finally, "the conservation treatments" carried out on the object are explained. The history of prophets, written in black and red ink on handmade paper, is explained in the manuscript. The object's covers and envelope flap are made of laminated paper board covered with goat leather. Some of the kinds of damage observed in the object were: The binding and text block were on the point of separating from each other; it suffered considerable losses because of the "jengar" (copper containing pigments on the object's pages; old restorations had lost their function. During conservation treatment, in the work undertaken separately on the binding and text block, consolidation, filling and mending was done. Guided by macro and micro examinations, this conservation work was carried out in the laboratory of Ankara University, Başkent Vocational School. Bu makalede, dönemine uygun biçimde süslenmiş olan 15. yüzyıl Memluk el yazmasının konservasyon çalışmaları üç bölümde ele alınacaktır. İlk olarak el yazmasının teknik ve hammadde özelliklerini saptamak amacıyla "tanımlama" yapılmıştır. İkinci olarak, "konservasyon öncesi durum" başlığı altında objede tespit edilen bozulmalar ve nedenleri irdelenmiş, son olarak da objeye uygulanan "konservasyon işlemleri" anlatılmıştır. El yapımı kağıt üzerine siyah ve kırmızı mürekkeple yazılmış olan el yazmasında peygamberler tarihi anlatılmaktadır. Objenin kapakları ve mıklebi murakka kartondan olup üstü keçi derisi ile kaplanmıştır. Cilt ile metin kısmının birbirinden ayrılmak

  19. 15th WPC Closes in Success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ The 15th World Petroleum Congress (WPC) was held in Beijing on Oct. 12, 1997, more than 4600 participants from 91 countries and regions attended the congress. The 15th WPC had shown a strong desire to achieve sustainable development for the petroleum industry worldwide. The global oil industry,propelled by extensive international cooperation and farreaching technological progress, is expected to enter a new era.

  20. 15th Beijing International Book Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 15th Beijing Intemational Book Fair(BIBF)is to be held in Tianjin on September 1-4.It is the first time that the fair is held outside of Beijing. The change of venue is because the book fair coincides with the closing of the Beijing Olympic Games and the open-

  1. 15th International Symposium of Robotic Research

    CERN Document Server

    Khatib, Oussama

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of papers presented at the 15th International Symposium of Robotic Research (ISRR). ISRR is the biennial meeting of the International Foundation of Robotic Research (IFRR) and its 15th edition took place in Flagstaff, Arizona on December 9 to December 12, 2011. As for the previous symposia, ISRR 2011 followed up on the successful concept of a mixture of invited contributions and open submissions. Therefore approximately half of the 37 contributions were invited contributions from outstanding researchers selected by the IFRR officers and the program committee, and the other half were chosen among the open submissions after peer review. This selection process resulted in a truly excellent technical program which featured some of the very best of robotic research. The program was organized around oral presentation in a single-track format and included for the first time a small number of interactive presentations. The symposium contributions contained in this volume report on a ...

  2. Zwischen Wallfahrt und Jahrmarkt. Die Gnadenkapelle am Marienberg bei Lenzen (Kr. Prignitz, Land Brandenburg, Deutschland im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert (Pilgrimage and Country Fair. The Chapel of Mercy at Marienberg near Lenzen in the 15th and 16th Centuries [Prignitz county, Brandenburg region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Goßler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available During excavations at the Marienberg near Lenzen which were organized by the German Research Foundation (DFG project "Slavs at the lower Central Elbe river", remains of a medieval chapel were discovered. The chapel was surrounded by a cemetery. In the 15th century the chapel was the aim of pilgrimage from the vicinity, the whole complex was related to a chapel of Holy Mary. Together with the pilgrimage, there was a fair held every year after Pentecost. The findings from the Marienberg at Lenzen include many traces of the late medieval and early modern pilgrimage and the contemporaneous fair; the finds are well suited to connect the history of pilgrimage with its mainly written sources to aspects of material culture.

  3. Review on the 15th SPINEXPO Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Peng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 15th edition of SPINEXPO Shanghai,held at the Shanghai Pudong Expo Centre from 9th to 11th March,2010,has just come to a successful close.It showed that the success of an international textile exhibition was not linked to an over-inflated Euro,worldwide financial crisis or a slump in global consumption but to what could be offered by a truly international free-of-charge entrance exhibition,with a range based on quality,fostering creativity regardless of geographic origin.

  4. Review on the 15th SPINEXPO Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 15th edition of SPINEXPO Shanghai,held at the Shanghai Pudong Expo Centre from 9th to 11th March,2010,has just come to a successful close.It showed that the success of an international textile exhibition was not linked to an over-inflated Euro,worldwide financial crisis or a slump in global consumption but to what could be offered by a truly international free-of-charge entrance exhibition,with a range based on quality,fostering creativity regardless of geographic origin.

  5. 15th International Conference on Thermal Conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    1978-01-01

    Once again, it gives me a great pleasure to pen the Foreword to the Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Thermal Conductivity. As in the past, these now biannual conferences pro­ vide a broadly based forum for those researchers actively working on this important property of matter to convene on a regular basis to exchange their experiences and report their findings. As it is apparent from the Table of Contents, the 15th Conference represents perhaps the broadest coverage of subject areas to date. This is indicative of the times as the boundaries between disciplines be­ come increasingly diffused. I am sure the time has come when Con­ ference Chairmen in coming years will be soliciting contributions not only in the physical sciences and engineering', but will actively seek contributions from the earth sciences and life sciences as well. Indeed, the thermal conductivity and related properties of geological and biological materials are becoming of increasing im­ portance to our way of life. As...

  6. 15th International Congress on Mathematical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    New Trends in Mathematical Physics

    2009-01-01

    This book collects selected papers written by invited and plenary speakers of the 15th International Congress on Mathematical Physics (ICMP) in the aftermath of the conference. In extensive review articles and expository texts as well as advanced research articles the world leading experts present the state of the art in modern mathematical physics. New mathematical concepts and ideas are introduced by prominent mathematicalphysicists and mathematicians, covering among others the fields of Dynamical Systems, Operator Algebras, Partial Differential Equations, Probability Theory, Random Matrices, Condensed Matter Physics, Statistical Mechanics, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Quantum Information and String Theory. All together the contributions in this book give a panoramic view of the latest developments in mathematical physics. They will help readers with a general interest in mathematical physics to get an update on the most recent developments in their field, and give a broad ov...

  7. 15th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 15th ICMBE held from 4th to 7th December 2013, Singapore. Biomedical engineering is applied in most aspects of our healthcare ecosystem. From electronic health records to diagnostic tools to therapeutic, rehabilitative and regenerative treatments, the work of biomedical engineers is evident. Biomedical engineers work at the intersection of engineering, life sciences and healthcare. The engineers would use principles from applied science including mechanical, electrical, chemical and computer engineering together with physical sciences including physics, chemistry and mathematics to apply them to biology and medicine. Applying such concepts to the human body is very much the same concepts that go into building and programming a machine. The goal is to better understand, replace or fix a target system to ultimately improve the quality of healthcare. With this understanding, the conference proceedings offer a single platform for individuals and organisations working i...

  8. La géographie légendaire d’un « camp royal » éthiopien du XVe siècle. Histoire d’une construction mémorielle The legendary geography of a 15th century Ethiopian “royal camp”: The history of the construction of a memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Derat

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dire l’espace dans la région de Mesḥāla Māryām (Manz, Éthiopie, c’est décrire, à partir de vestiges au sol et de points remarquables du paysage, un camp royal qui se serait implanté dans la région au milieu du xve siècle. Cette géographie légendaire est une concrétion de la mémoire à partir de différentes strates historiques. Le propos de cet article est de comprendre comment espace et mémoire se sont articulés pour fabriquer ce camp royal légendaire, en se fondant notamment sur l’analyse des généalogies recueillies sur place. Celles-ci témoignent de deux moments forts dans l’histoire du Manz : l’installation d’un roi chrétien dans la région, fondateur de l’église de Mesḥāla Māryām, au milieu du xve siècle, et la reconquête de la région à la fin du xviie siècle par un certain Gērā après le jihad mené par l’imam d’un sultanat voisin, suivi des migrations de populations qui s’en sont suivies et qui ont transformé le paysage religieux et politique de la région pendant un peu plus d’un siècle.Describing space in Mesḥāla Māryām (Manz, Ethiopia entails relating remains on the ground and features of the landscape to an old royal camp, which was said to have been set up there in the mid-15th century. This legendary geography has settled out of several historical layers of memory. An analysis of genealogies collected in the field helps us understand how space and memory were brought together to create this legendary royal camp. These genealogies present two important periods in local history: first of all, the settlement of a Christian king in the area, who founded the Mesḥāla Māryām church in the mid-15th century, and secondly the reconquest of the area in the late 17th century by Gērā after a neighboring sultanate’s imam had waged a jihad with, as consequence, human migrations that reshaped the religious and political landscape for more than a century.

  9. MedlinePlus Marks its 15th Anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/anniversary.html MedlinePlus Marks its 15 th Anniversary To use the sharing features ... people across the country and around the world. It now includes: Over 950 pages providing links to ...

  10. 15th International Workshop "What Comes Beyond the Standard Models"

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Holger Bech; Lukman, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    The contribution contains the preface to the Proceedings to the 15 th Workshop What Comes Beyond the Standard Models, Bled, July 9 - 19, 2012, published in Bled workshops in physics, Vol.13, No. 2, DMFA-Zaloznistvo, Ljubljana, Dec. 2012, and links to the published contributions.

  11. China Ranks 15th for 2001 Natural Gas Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ China's natural gas output totaled 30.302 billion cubic meters in 2001, an 11 percent increase as compared with the previous year. However, China ranked 15th in the world for its natural gas production last year while Malaysia jumped to the 12th place in the ranking since the country saw a considerable increase in gas production.

  12. 15th WPC - Teamwork of International Petroleum Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Guangming

    1997-01-01

    @@ The 15th World Petroleum Congress (WPC) closed on October 17, 1997, has achieved a great and fruitful success. The main reason is that Mr. D. van der Meer, Mr. Paul Tempest and other WPC officials have made fully supports and efforts from the very beginning to the end.In addition, many companies worldwide made a great contribution to WPC. As secretary-general of Chinese Organizing Committee, I would like to extend cordial thanks to all of them.

  13. 15th International Headache Congress: basic science highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrer, F Michael; Smith, Jonathan H

    2012-05-01

    The 15th Congress of the International Headache Society was held in Berlin from June 23rd to 26th of 2011. Interesting new data from several areas of the basic sciences of headache were presented. This is a review of some of the most exciting platform and poster presentations of the meeting. Research addressing 3 general areas of interest is presented in this review: pathophysiology, pharmacology, and genetics.

  14. 15th National Conference on Nuclear Structure in China

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ning; Zhou, Shan-Gui; Nuclear Structure in China 2014; NSC2014

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a collection of the contributions to the 15th National Conference on Nuclear Structure in China (NSC2014), held on October 25-28, 2014 in Guilin, China and hosted by Guangxi Normal University. It provides an important updated resource in the nuclear physics literature for researchers and graduate students studying nuclear structure and related topics. Recent progress made in the study of nuclear spectroscopy of high-spin states, nuclear mass and half-life, nuclear astrophysics, super-heavy nuclei, unstable nuclei, density functional theory, neutron star and symmetry energy, nuclear matter, and nuclear shell model are covered.

  15. 15th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Živčák, Jozef; Aspects of Computational Intelligence Theory and Applications

    2013-01-01

    This volume covers the state-of-the art of the research and development in various aspects of computational intelligence and gives some perspective directions of development. Except the traditional engineering areas that contain theoretical knowledge, applications, designs and projects, the book includes the area of use of computational intelligence in biomedical engineering. „Aspects of Computational Intelligence: Theory and Applications” is a compilation of carefully selected extended papers written on the basis of original contributions presented at the 15th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems 2011, INES 2011 held at June 23.-26. 2011 in AquaCity Poprad, Slovakia.    

  16. Gold Rush in Mol at the 15th ASCERI Atomiade

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Haen, Konrad Jende & Rachel Bray, Atomiade organizers and athletes for the CERN team

    2015-01-01

    What initially began as a football tournament between German institutes involved in nuclear research has developed into ASCERI (Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes), which aims to contribute to a united Europe through regular sport meetings, bringing together members of public research institutes at the European level. The members come from over 40 research institutes (see here) spanning 16 countries.     CERN team going for Gold at the summer Atomiade!   One of the main sport events organised by ASCERI, the 15th Atomiade was held from 5 to 8 June 2015 (organisational committee JRC Geel) in Mol, in the Kempen region of Belgium. CERN participated by sending 40 athletes from 15 countries to compete in a variety of disciplines: Athletics, Basketball, Cycling, Mountain Bike Race, Canoeing/Kayak, S.U.P., Swimming, Table Tennis, Tennis, Triathlon, Volleyball. The 1200 athletes from 36 European research institutes were housed in th...

  17. Overview of the August 15th, 2007 Pisco Earthquake (Mw=8.0), Central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera, H.; Perfettini, H.; Audin, L.; Bernal, I.; Farber, D.; Bondoux, F.; Sladen, A.; Avouac, J.

    2007-12-01

    With 7 subduction related earthquakes of ~Mw=8.0 during the 20th century, Central Peru is one of the most seismogenic areas in the world. On August 15th, 2007 a large subduction related earthquake (Mw=8.0, GCMT), occurred along the coast of Central Peru, near the town of Pisco. The earthquake was felt as far as 600km away from the epicenter and produced extensive damage in Pisco, where the intensity reached a maximum of Imax=VII (MM), and. Accelerometric records in Lima, 250 km, away from the epicenter, indicate up to 110 cm/s2 peak acceleration. Records from Ica, 80 km from the epicenter, indicate a peak acceleration of 488 cm/s2 on the EW component. Closer to the epicentral area ground shaking was severe enough to produce extensive liquefaction and ground rupture along the coast. First motion polarities indicate a thrust event with a dip angle of about 14°, which is somewhat steeper than the estimated dip angle of the subduction interface in the area. Waveform modeling shows that in fact, the source consists of 2 sub-events. The early afershock distribution well delineates these events which ruptured a portion of the trench that was left unbroken by the more recent 1942 earthquake (Mw 8) to the south, and the 1974 earthquake (Mw 8) to the north. Historic records indicate that the portion of the subduction zone which ruptured August 15th, 2007 had not experienced any comparable or larger rupture since at least 1746 and possibly 1687, which is remarkable given that the local convergence rate between the Nazca and South America plate ( 6-8 cm/yr).

  18. PREFACE: The 15th International Couette-Taylor Worskhop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Crumeyrolle, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    The 15th International Couette-Taylor Worskhop (ICTW15) was held in Le Havre, France from 9-12 July 2007. This regular international conference started in 1979 in Leeds, UK when the research interest in simple models of fluid flows was revitalized by systematic investigation of Rayleigh-Bénard convection and the Couette-Taylor flow. These two flow systems are good prototypes for the study of the transition to chaos and turbulence in closed flows. The workshop themes have been expanded from the original Couette-Taylor flow to include other centrifugal instabilities (Dean, Görtler, Taylor-Dean), spherical Couette flows, thermal convection instabilities, MHD, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, transition to turbulence, development of numerical and experimental techniques. The impressive longevity of the ICTW is due to the close interaction and fertile exchanges between international research groups from different disciplines: Physics and Astrophysics, Applied Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering. The present workshop was attended by 100 participants, the program included over 83 contributions with 4 plenary lectures, 68 oral communications and 17 posters. The topics include, besides the classical Couette-Taylor flows, the centrifugal flows with longitudinal vortices, the shear flows, the thermal convection in curved geometries, the spherical Couette-Taylor flow, the geophysical flows, the magneto-hydrodynamic effects including the dynamo effect, the complex flows (viscoelasticity, immiscible fluids, bubbles and migration). Selected papers have been processed through the peer review system and are published in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Workshop has been sponsored by Le Havre University, the Region Council of Haute-Normandie, Le Havre City Council, CNRS (ST2I, GdR-DYCOEC), and the European Space Agency through GEOFLOW program. The French Ministry of Defense (DGA), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of

  19. Detección de indicios de manipulación contable y posible práctica “fraudulenta” en el gremio del comercio textil de Londres en los siglos XIV y XV = Evidences in detection of accounting manipulation and potential “fraud” in the textile industry in London during the 14th and 15th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Ballarín Garnica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El gremio del comercio textil de Londres es una institución con más de 710 años de historia que todavía sigue ejerciendo su actividad. Desde el siglo XIV dispone de registros contables detallados que reflejan su actividad económica. Este trabajo pretende obtener indicios de manipulación contable en dicha institución mediante técnicas forenses (Ley de Benford en el periodo 1390-1435. La aplicación de esta técnica ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de indicios de una posible manipulación contable que confirma la existencia de prácticas “fraudulentas” (pagos a un parlamentario, alcalde…. The Mercers’ of London is an institution with more than 710 years of history which is exercising still today. Since the XIV century it has kept thorough accounting records showing its economic activity. This paper’s goal is to obtain indications of accounting manipulation in this institution during the period 1390 to 1435, by using forensic techniques (Benford’s Law. The use of this technique has revealed the presence of indications of a possible accounting manipulation, which confirms the existence of ‘fraudulent’ practices such as payments to a MP and the mayor of London.

  20. EDITORIAL: The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita; Arsenovic, Dusan

    2009-07-01

    The development of quantum optics was part and parcel of the formation of modern physics following the fundamental work of Max Planck and Albert Einstein, which gave rise to quantum mechanics. The possibility of working with pure quantum objects, like single atoms and single photons, has turned quantum optics into the main tool for testing the fundamentals of quantum physics. Thus, despite a long history, quantum optics nowadays remains an extremely important branch of physics. It represents a natural base for the development of advanced technologies, like quantum information processing and quantum computing. Previous Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) took place in Palermo (2007), Vienna (2006), Ankara (2005), Trieste (2004), Rostock (2003), Szeged (2002), Prague (2001), Balatonfüred (2000), Olomouc (1999), Prague (1997), Budmerice (1995, 1996), Budapest (1994) and Bratislava (1993). Those meetings offered excellent opportunities for the exchange of knowledge and ideas between leading scientists and young researchers in quantum optics, foundations of quantum mechanics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, photonics, atom optics, condensed matter optics, and quantum informatics, etc. The collaborative spirit and tradition of CEWQO were a great inspiration and help to the Institute of Physics, Belgrade, and the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, as the organizers of CEWQO 2008. The 16th CEWQO will take place in 2009 in Turku, Finland, and the 17th CEWQO will be organized in 2010 in St Andrews, United Kingdom. The 15th CEWQO was organized under the auspices and support of the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia, the Serbian Physical Society, the European Physical Society with sponsorship from the University of Belgrade, the Central European Initiative, the FP6 Program of the European Commission under INCO project QUPOM No 026322, the FP7 Program of the European Commission under project NANOCHARM, Europhysics Letters (EPL), The European

  1. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Osamu; Saito, Nagahiro; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Terashima, Chiaki; Ueno, Tomonaga; Sakai, Osamu; Miyazaki, Seiichi; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Akamatsu, Kensuke; Ito, Takahiro; Yogo, Toshinobu; Inoue, Yasushi; Ohtake, Naoto; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Tosa, Masahiro; Takai, Madoka; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Matsuda, Naoki; Teshima, Katsuya; Seki, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Daisuke

    2013-03-01

    The International Conference on Thin Films is the most established conference for all researchers and persons interested in thin films and coatings. It is one of the tri-annual conference series endorsed and co-organized by the Thin Film Division of the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Applications (IUVSTA), a union of national member societies whose role is to stimulate international collaboration in the fields of vacuum science, techniques and applications and related multi-disciplinary topics including solid-vacuum and other interfaces. The 15th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-15) is organized by The Vacuum Society of Japan (VSJ) and held at Kyoto TERRSA in Kyoto, Japan on 8-11 November 2011, following the 14th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-14), which was held in Ghent, Belgium in 2008. Thin films and coatings are daily becoming increasingly important in the fields of various industries. This International Conference provides a multi-disciplinary forum for recent advances in basic research, development and applications of thin films and coatings. This conference will present a unique opportunity for researchers, engineers and managers to acquire new knowledge of thin films and coatings. We hope that our understanding on thin films and coatings will be deepened through this conference. The conference site, 'Kyoto TERRSA' is located in the historical heart of the old capital Kyoto. Kyoto is an ancient city with a 1200-year history. It was established as Japan's capital under the name 'Heian-kyo' in the year 794. Although many transformations have taken place over the years, Kyoto has always embraced the most advanced standards of the times. It has greatly contributed to the nation's industrial, economic and cultural development. The dauntless spirit of leadership of Kyoto's past as a capital city is still felt here today. Kyoto also preserves the beloved examples of its culture as testimonials of time. This is shown

  2. Murders, Injuries, Altercations: Verbal and corporal violence in the 15th century Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Colesanti, Gemma

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The finding, in the “Archivio di Stato” of Napoli, of the only surviving Justitiae register belonging to the “Cancelleria aragonese” serie ‘s (1453-1454, led to insight into the Calabria society thruough the analysis of the denunciations of crimes, such as: crimes against government, administration or people and sexuals crimes.

    Il ritrovamento, presso l’Archivio di Stato di Napoli, dell’unico registro superstite della serie Justitiae della Cancelleria aragonese (1453-1454, ha permesso attraverso l’analisi delle denunce —reati contro l’amministrazione, contro la persona, reati di natura sessuale e contro lo stato— di ricostruire uno spaccato della società calabrese.

  3. Bioremoval of Sulphate Layer from a 15th Century Polychrome Marble Artifact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Martino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study shows the application of viable bacterial cells for removing undesired deposits from the surface of a stone polychrome bas-relief, exhibited at the Interdisciplinary Gallery of Sicily Palazzo Abatellis (Palermo. Diagnostic studies carried out during the restoration were aimed at characterizing the technique of execution and understanding the degradation processes. The results of the XRF and FTIR investigations showed that on large areas of the artifact’s surface, stratified deposits with a significant presence of sulfates were present. For bioremoval of the deposits, viable bacterial cells belonging to the species Desulfovibrio vulgaris, were utilized in gelled solution form, evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of this cleaning with that of the desulfating agents usually employed. The results demonstrate that by using the colonised substrate as a nutritional source in their natural metabolic processes, this bacterial species can be used to obtain high efficiency and selectivity of action, representing a valid alternative to the use of traditional chemical agents.

  4. The Actors of the Maghribian Diplomacy with the Christian World (12th-15th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérian, Dominique

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the originalities of the diplomatic practice of the Maghrebian sovereigns with northern Christian States resides in the use of very different types of ambassadors. Whereas the embassies sent to other sovereigns of the world of Islam are all Moslem, eventually Jewish, one finds many Christians as ambassadors sent for missions to Iberian or Italian States. As mercenaries or merchants mostly, they have certainly a good knowledge of the international relations of the time. But they have also a very ambiguous statute within the framework of the Islamo-Christian relations in the Mediterranean. The Maghrebian sovereigns actually use, according to needs for the mission, Christian or Moslem agents, still keeping an effective control on important political decisions.

    Une des originalités de la pratique diplomatique des souverains maghrébins en direction des Etats chrétiens du nord réside dans l’envoi d’ambassadeurs de profils très variés. Alors que les ambassades envoyées à d’autres souverains du monde de l’Islam sont tous musulmans, éventuellement juifs, on trouve de nombreux chrétiens comme ambassadeurs chargés de missions auprès des puissances ibériques ou italiennes. Mercenaires ou marchands le plus souvent, ils ont certes une bonne connaissance des relations internationales de l’époque. Mais ils n’en ont pas moins un statut ambigu dans le cadre des relations islamo-chrétiennes en Méditerranée. Les souverains maghrébins utilisent en réalité, selon les besoins de la mission, des agents chrétiens et musulmans, mais tout en gardant un contrôle efficace sur les décisions prises.

  5. Mechanisms of Language Change. Vowel Reduction in 15th Century West Frisian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, Arianus Pieter

    2008-01-01

    How does language change take place and could developments be predictable? In this study, Arjen Versloot evaluates these questions, supported by analysis of the decline in the use of unstressed vowels in the Frisian language between 1300 and 1550. This decline is found, for example, in the words: Ol

  6. Mechanisms of language change : vowel reduction in 15th century West Frisian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, Arianus Pieter

    2008-01-01

    How does language change take place and could developments be predictable? In this study, Arjen Versloot evaluates these questions, supported by analysis of the decline in the use of unstressed vowels in the Frisian language between 1300 and 1550. This decline is found, for example, in the words: Ol

  7. Mechanisms of Language Change: Vowel Reduction in 15th century West Frisian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    How does language change take place and could developments be predictable? In this study, Arjen Versloot evaluates these questions, supported by analysis of the decline in the use of unstressed vowels in the Frisian language between 1300 and 1550. This decline is found, for example, in the words: Ol

  8. AILA 2008—The 15th World Congress of Applied Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>AILA 2008-The 15th World Congress of Applied Linguistics will be held in Essen,Germany on August 24-29,2008.The congress is hosted by the German Association of Applied Linguistcs(GAL e.V)in co-operation with the University Duisburg-Essen and Congress Centre Essen(CCE).The Theme of AILA 2008 is Multilingualism:Challenges and Opportunities.

  9. Qatar Airways Official Partner of China Team At 15th Doha Asian Games 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Asian Games was held from Dec.1-15 this year in Qatar's capital Doha,which attracted more than 10,500 athletes and team officials from 45 countries competing in 39sports.As Official Airline of the 15th Asian Games,Qatar Airways delivers its award-winning Five Star service to visitors to the Games,whether they are participating or are spectators.

  10. Technology and globalization: the 15th World Petroleum Congress as viewed by German industry; Technologie und Globalisierung: Der 15. Welt-Erdoel-Kongress aus deutscher Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitkamp, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie I

    1998-03-01

    For the 15th World Petroleum Congress, held from 12 to 16 October 1997 in Peking, the programme committee had chosen the following central motto: `Technology and globalization - Leading the Petroleum Industry into the 21st Century`. For the petroleum and natural gas industry, this congress represents the most important international forum for discussing technical, economic, and increasingly also ecological issues. (orig./HS) [Deutsch] Fuer den 15. Welt-Erdoel-Kongress, der vom 12. bis 16. Oktober 1997 in Peking abgehalten wurde, hatte das Programmkomitee als Leitthema `Technology and Globalisation - Leading the Petroleum Industry into the 21st Century` gewaehlt. Der Kongress stellt fuer die Erdoel- und Erdgasindustrie das bedeutendste internationale Forum fuer eine Diskussion technischer, oekonomischer und zunehmend auch oekologischer Fragen. (orig./HS)

  11. The Early Spectral Evolution of the Classical Nova ASASSN-15th in M33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. Mark; Neric, Marko; Darnley, Matt J.; Williams, Steven; Starrfield, Sumner; Woodward, Charles E.; Prieto, Jose Luis

    2016-06-01

    During the course of the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) a new transient source designated ASASSN-15th was identified on images of the nearby galaxy M33 obtained with the 14 cm Brutus telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii on 2015 Dec 1.4 UT at V ~ 16.5 mag. Given the location of the transient in M33 and its apparent V magnitude at discovery, the implied absolute visual magnitude was about -8.5 mag suggesting that the transient was a new classical nova outburst in M33. Optical spectroscopy obtained by us on 2015 Dec 2.3 showed broad emission lines of Balmer, Fe II, and Na I D with P Cygni-type line profiles superposed on a blue continuum. The spectrum was consistent with a Fe II-type classical nova in M33 discovered early in the outburst. Subsequent spectra obtained by us on 2015 Dec 10.9 UT showed significant evolution since our first spectrum in that the deep P Cygni-type line profiles seen earlier were now extremely shallow or had almost completely disappeared with the emission component growing in strength. Additional emission lines from O I, Si II, and possibly He I were also present. We obtained optical spectroscopy of ASASSN-15th on 17 epochs between 2015 Dec 1 and 2016 Feb 11 UT with the 2.4 m Hiltner telescope (+OSMOS) of the MDM Observatory, the 2 m fully robotic Liverpool Telescope (+SPRAT), and the 2 x 8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope (+MODS). We will present our spectroscopy and discuss the early evolution of ASASSN-15th in the context of Galactic Fe II-class novae.

  12. 15th International Conference on Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Passante, Roberto; Trapani, Camillo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics, held in Palermo, Italy, from 18 to 23 May 2015. Non-Hermitian operators, and non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in particular, have recently received considerable attention from both the mathematics and physics communities. There has been a growing interest in non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in quantum physics since the discovery that PT-symmetric Hamiltonians can have a real spectrum and thus a physical relevance. The main subjects considered in this book include: PT-symmetry in quantum physics, PT-optics, Spectral singularities and spectral techniques, Indefinite-metric theories, Open quantum systems, Krein space methods, and Biorthogonal systems and applications. The book also provides a summary of recent advances in pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians and PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, as well as their applications in quantum physics and in the theory of open quantum systems.

  13. Metallic nano-particles in lustre glazed ceramics from the 15th century in Seville studied by PIXE and RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polvorinos del Rio, A. [Departamento de Cristallografia, Mineralogia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Sevilla, avenida Reina Mercedes s/n (Spain); Castaing, J. [Laboratoire du centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France C2RMF CNRS UMR 171, Plais du Louvre, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)]. E-mail: jacques.castaing@culture.fr; Aucouturier, M. [Laboratoire du centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France C2RMF CNRS UMR 171, Plais du Louvre, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2006-08-15

    Lustre ceramics, found in a workshop located in Triana (Sevilla), have been analysed to determine the composition of glazes including the metallic particle layers giving rise to the lustre effect. PIXE and RBS were used for the elemental composition and the sub-surface concentration profiles, respectively. Copper and silver at the origin of the lustre are detected by PIXE. RBS gives access to the detailed distribution of the elements in the surface layers. The simulation of RBS spectra confirms the occurrence of thin layers (less than 300 nm) containing metallic silver and/or copper. The results are compared with those obtained on other types of lustre ceramics.

  14. mtDNA from hair and nail clarifies the genetic relationship of the 15th century Qilakitsoq Inuit mummies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Djurhuus, Durita; Melchior, Linea

    2007-01-01

    DNA from hair and nail, we have reanalyzed the mummies. The results allowed the unambiguous assignment of each of the mummies to one of three mtDNA haplogroups: A2b (I/5); A2a (I/2, I/3, II/6, II/8); A2a-311 (I/1, I/4, II/7), excluded some of the previous relations, and pointed to new ones. I/5...

  15. Nobles and monks: the Osorios from Villafranca and the monasteries in El Bierzo (14th-15th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoria Cavero Domínguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the Middle Ages, in the northwest of the present day province of León, there occurred a special alliance between the nobility, represented by the Osorios, from the Count House of Lemos, and the traditional monasticism and mendicant friars. The powerful nobility would reach the peak of their economic growth and find a place for the eternal rest of their members in the numerous Bierzo monastic centres, whether male or female, urban or rural, like Santa María de Carracedo and San Francisco de Villafranca, among others.

  16. Works of Russian scholars of the 15th to 20th centuries in the field of notation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Podoba raziskovanja notacije je v Rusiji v premem sorazmerju z zgodovino pisanja o glasbi v naši deželi. Dela o nevmatski notaciji postavljajo začetek tradicije muzikologije v Rusiji v 15. stoletje. Na samem začetku 19. stoletja so nevme raziskovali kot zgodovinski fenomen. Njihov izvor je postal osrednje vprašanje v 19. stoletju in njihovo razreševanje centralni problem raziskovanja v 20. stoletju. Na začetku 21. stoletja se raziskovalci ukvarjajo z delno notiranimi rokopisi, ki kažejo na us...

  17. Seismological and Geodetic Observations of the 15th August 2007 Pisco, Peru Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, J.; Psencik, K.; Norabuena, E.; Robinson, D.; Dixon, T.

    2007-12-01

    On 15th August 2007, a M8.0 earthquake occurred on the interface between the Nazca and South American Plates causing widespread damage in the towns of Chincha Alta, Ica and Pisco, with 514 casualties and 35,500 buildings reported destroyed. The 2007 Pisco earthquake occurred in a region between two large recent earthquakes: the 1996 M7.7 Nazca earthquake to the south and, in 1974, a M8.1 earthquake to the north. The existing local GPS network was resurveyed within 2 weeks of the earthquake and significant displacements measured at 8-10 sites. Co-seismic and postseismic InSAR data has been collected from several satellites, including Envisat, ERS-2, Radarsat and ALOS. In the two weeks following the mainshock, 42 aftershocks were recorded teleseismicly with magnitudes in the range 4-6.3. We will present results from the analysis of this geodetic data along with seismological analysis of teleseismic recordings of the mainshock and aftershocks.

  18. Impact of payroll taxes for small shoe manufacturing enterprises profit generation in Bogota city 15th district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Armando Hernández Bernal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we illustrate the financial difficulties that payroll taxes would impose on small shoe manufacturing enterprises in Bogota City 15th district and how this would impose some restrictions for firms profit generation, when such contributions turns out to be a fixed cost. We present a brief on the legal framework as well as an econometric exercise that shows the relations between labor costs and profit generation for the footwear industry in the 15th urban district of Bogotá city.

  19. PREFACE: 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxiong

    2014-06-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2013) which took place on 16-21 May 2013 at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. The workshop series brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 120 participants from all over the world. 18 invited speakers presented key topics on the universe in computer, Computing in Earth Sciences, multivariate data analysis, automated computation in Quantum Field Theory as well as computing and data analysis challenges in many fields. Over 70 other talks and posters presented state-of-the-art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. The round table discussions on open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration stimulate us to think over the issue in the respective areas. ACAT 2013 was generously sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NFSC), Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA (BNL), Peking University (PKU), Theoretical Physics Cernter for Science facilities of CAS (TPCSF-CAS) and Sugon. We would like to thank all the participants for their scientific contributions and for the en- thusiastic participation in all its activities of the workshop. Further information on ACAT 2013 can be found at http://acat2013.ihep.ac.cn. Professor Jianxiong Wang Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science Details of committees and sponsors are available in the PDF

  20. 15th Chapter of Surgeons Lecture: Surgeon of the new millennium--surgeon, scientist and scholar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S K

    2004-11-01

    The surgeon of the new millennium has come a long way from his humble beginnings in the Middle Ages as the lowly barber-surgeon. The skills and techniques developed by outstanding surgeons like Astley Cooper of the 19th century have withstood the test of time and have been refined by subsequent generations of surgical masters. The scientific basis of modern surgery was put on a firm footing in the early 19th century through the discovery of anaesthesia and microorganisms as a cause of many diseases and surgical complications. The 20th century brought about rapid progress in medicine, information technology (IT) and the life sciences, and closed with a big bang with the completion of the sequencing of the human genome. For the surgeon of the 21st century to remain relevant, he must embrace the concept of the Total Surgeon. Not doing so will render him irrelevant in the course of time, for having good surgical technique alone is insufficient. He must also lead in scientific endeavours to push the frontiers of the life sciences in attempts to solve the insoluble, and be scholarly in thought, attitude and behaviour. In other words, he must be a Surgeon-Scientist-Scholar.

  1. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaming; Hutton, Roger

    2011-07-01

    This issue contains papers presented at the 15th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions, HCI2010. The conference was held at Fudan University, Shanghai, 29 August-3 September 2010. HCI is a biannual conference series going back to the very first conference held in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982. Previous editions in this millennium were held in Berkeley, USA, 2000; Caen, France, 2002; Vilnius, Lithuania, 2004; Belfast, UK, 2006, and Tokyo, Japan, 2008. The physics of highly charged ions, HCIs, is of great interest due to their key role in testing quantum electrodynamics in strong fields, and possible testing of parity non-conservation. However, HCIs also play crucial roles in the physics of hot plasmas, for example those produced in tokamak fusion devices and in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Much of the diagnostics of matter under such extreme environments relies very heavily on high quality atomic data of HCIs. The field of x-ray astronomy hinges almost entirely on the use of spectral lines from HCIs to provide information from distant astrophysical plasmas and objects. Given these fundamental interests and the current rapid developments in fusion and x-ray astronomy, it is clear that the physics of HCIs is a rich area of research with strong and important connections to many important subfields of physics. New application areas of HCI physics are also under development: two examples are (a) to provide 13.5 nm—and later half of this wavelength—radiation for lithography and (b) applications in medical research. The need for high quality atomic data of HCIs is as important now as it has ever been. HCI2010 was attended by over 200 scientists from around 20 countries; see the following table. Over 70 of the participants were students, which is very encouraging for the future of HCI related physics. The academic programme was organized based on the suggestions from the International Advisory Board, and consisted of six review lectures

  2. The 15th Meeting of China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research held in Busan%The 15th Meeting of China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research held in Busan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 15th Meeting of the China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research was successfullyheld in Busan, Korea on June 16, 2011. 33 bilateral cooperative projects were selected by the Committee forFY2011, including 21 joint research projects and 12 joint seminars. The Committee members made indepth discussions on the issues of strengthening future cooperation and topics for the Northeastern Asian Symposium.

  3. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on the Strength of Materials (ICSMA-15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg; Biermann, Horst; Heilmaier, Martin

    2010-04-01

    The 15th International Conference on the Strength of Materials (ICSMA 15) took place in Dresden, Germany, August 16-21, 2009. It belongs to the triennial series of ICSMA meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1967 - Tokyo, 1970 - Asilomar, 1973 - Cambridge, 1976 - Nancy, 1979 - Aachen, 1982 - Melbourne, 1985 - Montreal, 1988 - Tampere, 1991 - Haifa, 1994 - Sendai, 1997 - Prague, 2000 - Asilomar, 2003 - Budapest, 2006 - Xian. ICSMA 15 was hosted by the Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Structural Physics. Following the tradition of this conference series, it was the main focus of ICSMA 15 to promote and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the basic processes that govern the strength of materials. Nonetheless, it was the aim to forge links between basic research on model materials and applied research on engineering materials of technical importance. Thus, ICSMA 15 provided a forum for the presentation and discussion of research on the mechanical properties of all materials which are of interest to materials scientists and engineers from many different areas. The topics covered by ICSMA 15 were: 1.Atomistic and microstructural aspects of plastic deformation 2.Atomistic and microstructural aspects of fracture 3.Adhesion and interfacial strength 4.Cyclic deformation and fatigue 5.High temperature deformation and creep 6.Mechanical properties related to phase transformations 7.Large and severe plastic deformation 8.Nano- and microscale phenomena in plasticity and fracture 9.Strength issues in biological systems and biomaterials 10.Mechanical behaviour of glasses and non-crystalline solids 11.Multiscale modelling and experimental validation 12.Insight through new experimental methods 13.Other new developments related to the field While there was large interest in the new topics 7 and 8, contributions to topic 9 were much less than expected. ICSMA 15 attracted 352 scientists from 30 countries with one fourth of the participants being students

  4. National Computer Security Conference (15th) held in Baltimore, Maryland on October 13-16, 1992. Volume 1: Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-16

    Security, Inc. XEROX Information Systems AT&T Bell Laboratories Referees Professor Sushil Jajodia John Keenan Dr. Richard Kemmerer Dr. Steven Kent...congratulate all who have earned these awards. in 15th National Computer Security Conference Table of Contents Refereed Papers 1 Accreditation: Is it...rules]. Eric Leighninger of DRC recommends the Backus Naur Form (BNF) for policy representation. Our earlier work[1] sketched several possible

  5. PREFACE: The 15th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z. Y.

    2013-04-01

    The 15th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS15) was held on 22-28 July 2012 in Beijing, P. R. China. About 340 scientists from 34 countries attended this important international event. Main hall Figure 1. Main hall of XAFS15. The rapidly increasing application of XAFS to the study of a large variety of materials and the operation of the new SR source led to the first meeting of XAFS users in 1981 in England. Following that a further 14 International Conferences have been held. Comparing a breakdown of attendees according to their national origin, it is clear that participation is spreading to include attendees from more and more countries every year. The strategy of development in China of science and education is increasing quickly thanks to the large investment in scientific and technological research and infrastructure. There are three Synchrotron Radiation facilities in mainland China, Hefei Light Source (HLS) in the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSRL), Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) in the Institute of High Energy Physics, and Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) in the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics. More than 10000 users and over 5000 proposals run at these facilities. Among them, many teams from the USA, Japan, German, Italy, Russia, and other countries. More than 3000 manuscript were published in SCI journals, including (incomplete) Science (7), Nature (10), Nature Series (7), PNAS (3), JACS (12), Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (15), Nano Lett. (2), etc. In XAFS15, the participants contributed 18 plenary invited talks, 16 parallel invited talks, 136 oral presentations, 12 special talks, and 219 poster presentations. Wide communication was promoted in the conference halls, the classical banquet restaurant, and the Great Wall. Parallel hallCommunicationPoster room Figure 2. Parallel hallFigure 3. CommunicationFigure 4. Poster room This volume contains 136 invited and contributed papers

  6. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics

  7. 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2014) held on June 30 – July 2, 2014 in Las Vegas Nevada, USA. The aim of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas, research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the 13 outstanding papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference.

  8. Progress of International Low-Temperature Plasma Research Overview of the 15th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴承康

    2001-01-01

    International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (ISPC) is the most influencial international symposium on science and technology research of low-temperature plasma, especially in the fields related to materials processing. People can be rightly informed of the current devel oping trend of this field from the contents of these symposia. This paper vill introduce briefly a general overview of the 15th ISPC. As viewed from the number of papers and their contents, there is still abundant research on thermal plasma, and the needs for micro-electronic technology and high performance films have driven forward continuous and intensive development of the research on low-pressure, non-equilibrium plasmas, while the research on normal pressure, non-equilibrium plasma has become a new highlight in this field.``

  9. 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Extended Abstracts and Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2005-11-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 7-10, 2005. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV silicon, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell designs, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Providing the Scientific Basis for Industrial Success.' Specific sessions during the workshop included: Advances in crystal growth and material issues; Impurities and defects in Si; Advanced processing; High-efficiency Si solar cells; Thin Si solar cells; and Cell design for efficiency and reliability module operation. The topic for the Rump Session was ''Si Feedstock: The Show Stopper'' and featured a panel discussion by representatives from various PV companies.

  10. The Gender Balance of the Australian Space Research Community: A Snapshot From The 15th ASRC, 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Horner, Jonathan; Cairns, Ann; Short, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the striking gender imbalance in the physical sciences has been a topic for much debate. National bodies and professional societies in the astronomical and space sciences are now taking active steps to understand and address this imbalance. In order to begin this process in the Australian Space Research community, we must first understand the current state of play. In this work, we therefore present a short 'snapshot' of the current gender balance in our community, as observed at the 15th Australian Space Research Conference. We find that, at this year's conference, male attendees outnumbered female attendees by a ratio of 3:1 (24% female). This gender balance was repeated in the distribution of conference talks and plenary presentations (25 and 22% female, respectively). Of the thirteen posters presented at the conference, twelve were presented by men (92%), a pattern repeated in the awards for the best student presentations (seven male recipients vs one female). The program and organising c...

  11. Structural and dynamical patterns on online social networks: the Spanish May 15th movement as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Borge-Holthoefer

    Full Text Available The number of people using online social networks in their everyday life is continuously growing at a pace never saw before. This new kind of communication has an enormous impact on opinions, cultural trends, information spreading and even in the commercial success of new products. More importantly, social online networks have revealed as a fundamental organizing mechanism in recent country-wide social movements. In this paper, we provide a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emerging from the activity of an online social network around the ongoing May 15th (15M movement in Spain. Our network is made up by users that exchanged tweets in a time period of one month, which includes the birth and stabilization of the 15M movement. We characterize in depth the growth of such dynamical network and find that it is scale-free with communities at the mesoscale. We also find that its dynamics exhibits typical features of critical systems such as robustness and power-law distributions for several quantities. Remarkably, we report that the patterns characterizing the spreading dynamics are asymmetric, giving rise to a clear distinction between information sources and sinks. Our study represents a first step towards the use of data from online social media to comprehend modern societal dynamics.

  12. Visible and near-infrared observations of asteroid 2012 DA14 during its closest approach of February 15th, 2013

    CERN Document Server

    de Leon, J; Pinilla-Alonso, N; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Alvarez-Candal, A; Morales, N; Duffard, R; Santos-Sanz, P; Licandro, J; Perez-Romero, A; Lorenzi, V

    2013-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 made its closest approach on February 15th, 2013, when it passed at a distance of 27,700 km from the Earth's surface (inside the geosynchronous satellite ring). It was the first time an asteroid of moderate size was predicted to get that close to the Earth, becoming bright enough to permit a detailed study from ground based telescopes. Asteroid 2012 DA14 was poorly characterized before its closest approach. The main objective of this work was to obtain new and valuable data to better understand its physical properties, and to evaluate the effects of such a close approach on the object. We acquired data using several telescopes on four Spanish observatories: the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the 3.6m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, both in "El Roque de los Muchachos" Observatory (ORM, La Palma); the 2.2m CAHA telescope, in "Calar Alto2 Observatory (Almeria); the f/3 0.77m telescope in "La Hita" Observatory (Toledo); and the f/8 1.5m telescope in "Sierra Nevada" Observatory (Gra...

  13. The USCACA hosted symposiums at the 7th CACA annual meeting and the 15th CSCO annual meeting in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Shi; Wancai Yang; Pascal Qian; Li Yan

    2012-01-01

    In September 2012,the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) hosted two symposiums in Beijing.The USCACA hosted the first joint session at the 7th annual meetings of the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA),themed on "Collaboration between the US and China in Cancer Research." Six experts from the United States and China presented their latest work on basic and translational cancer research.During this symposium,5 young Chinese scholars,returnees after their training in the United States,were honored the "AFCR-USCACA Scholarships Award." The USCACA hosted a second symposium during the 15th annual meeting of the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO),focused on the "US-China Collaboration in Cancer Drug Clinical Development." An international delegation of oncology experts presented the innovative clinical trial strategies and discussed the biomarkers for cancer early detection and clinical trials,targeted therapy,and new drug development.The Oncology Drug Clinical Development and Safety Evaluation Committee was also launched to promote an innovative environment and to provide a collaborative platform for anti-cancer drug development in China.

  14. Transmission of the property and its market. Artisanship’s household in the “vila” of Alzira during the 14th and 15th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Araque, Ivan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The artisanship was a very important group into the bourgs that belonged to the kingdom of Valence in the Later Middle Ages. This was also true in Alzira. The aim of this essay is to analyze this varied social group using one of the main places in which they developed their activity, the workshop or the house. And it all from the location of most of the artisans in the urban center and also from the tasks that they developed in their domestic sphere, including the transmission of the property and the characteristics of the Property Market. In conclusion, we want to ask ourselves about how families included the household in their strategies and what was its role in the rules that allowed the social reproduction of the artisanship.

    [ca] L'artesanat fou un col??lectiu destacat en l'àmbit del conjunt de viles que formaven el País Valencià en la baixa Edat Mitjana, també en el cas d'Alzira. En el següent article tractem d'oferir una anàlisi d'aquest heterogeni grup social mitjançant un dels principals espais on desenvolupava la seua activitat, l'obrador o la casa. I això a partir de la localització de bona part de la menestralia en el centre urbà, també de les tasques que portava a terme en l'àmbit domèstic, passant per la transmissió del patrimoni o en quines condicions accedia al mercat immobiliari. En definitiva, pretenem interrogar-nos sobre com s'inseria l'habitatge en les estratègies familiars i quin paper jugava en les lògiques que permetien la reproducció social de l'artesanat.

  15. The medieval peasantry : on the social and religious position of the rural natives in southern Livonia (13th-15th centuries) / Andris Šnē

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Šnē, Andris, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Liivimaa Läti alade sotsiaalsest, poliitilisest ja usulisest olukorrast 13.-15. sajandil. Kuni pärisorjuse kehtestamiseni 15. sajandil jäid agraarsed struktuurid Liivimaal sarnasteks vallutuseelsete struktuuridega. Kohalikud rahvad säilitasid oma eelajaloolise paganliku pärandi läbi keskaja kuni uusajani välja

  16. Mathematics Education. Selected Papers from the Conference on Stochastic Processes and Their Applications. (15th, Nagoya, Japan, July 2-5, 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Takeyuki; Shimizu, Akinobu

    This volume contains the papers and comments from the Workshop on Mathematics Education, a special session of the 15th Conference on Stochastic Processes and Their Applications, held in Nagoya, Japan, July 2-5, 1985. Topics covered include: (1) probability; (2) statistics; (3) deviation; (4) Japanese mathematics curriculum; (5) statistical…

  17. EAS spectrum in the primary energy region above 10 to the 15th power eV by the Akeno and Yakutsk array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, D. D.; Knurenko, S. P.; Krasilnikov, A. D.; Pavlov, V. N.; Sleptsov, I. Y.; Yegorova, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The extensive air showers spectrum on scintillation desity Rko in primary energy region E sub approx. 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 20th power eV on the Yakutsk array data and recent results of the Akeno is given.

  18. Muon groups and primary composition at 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budko, E. V.; Chudakov, A. E.; Dogujaev, V. A.; Mihelev, A. R.; Padey, V. A.; Petkov, V. A.; Striganov, P. S.; Suvorova, O. V.; Voevodsky, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    The data on muon groups observed at Baksan underground scintillation telescope is analyzed. In this analysis we compare the experimental data with calulations, based on a superposition model in order to obtain the effective atomic number of primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV.

  19. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (15th, Assisi, Italy, June 29-July 4, 1991), Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furinghetti, Fulvia, Ed.

    This document, the first of three volumes, reports on the 15th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) held in Italy 1991. Plenary addresses and speakers are: "Social Interaction and Mathematical Knowledge" (B. M. Bartolini); "Meaning: Image Schemata and Protocols" (W.…

  20. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C) origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orton, D.C.; Makowiecki, D.; de Roo, T.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern...

  1. Towards the Chalonge 16th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2012: Highlights and Conclusions of the Chalonge 15th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chalonge 15th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2011 was held on 20-22 July in the historic Paris Observatory's Perrault building, in the Chalonge School spirit combining real cosmological/astrophysical data and hard theory predictive approach connected to them in the Warm Dark Matter Standard Model of the Universe: News and reviews from Herschel, QUIET, Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), South Pole Telescole (SPT), Planck, PIXIE, the JWST, UFFO, KATRIN and MARE experiments; astrophysics, partic...

  2. 15th March 2011 - Singapore National Research Foundation Permanent Secretary(National Research and Development)T. M. Kian signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and visiting CMS control centre with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    15th March 2011 - Singapore National Research Foundation Permanent Secretary(National Research and Development)T. M. Kian signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and visiting CMS control centre with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

  3. Towards the Chalonge 16th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2012: Highlights and Conclusions of the Chalonge 15th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2011

    CERN Document Server

    de Vega, H J; Sanchez, N G

    2012-01-01

    The Chalonge 15th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2011 was held on 20-22 July in the historic Paris Observatory's Perrault building, in the Chalonge School spirit combining real cosmological/astrophysical data and hard theory predictive approach connected to them in the Warm Dark Matter Standard Model of the Universe: News and reviews from Herschel, QUIET, Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), South Pole Telescole (SPT), Planck, PIXIE, the JWST, UFFO, KATRIN and MARE experiments; astrophysics, particle and nuclear physics warm dark matter (DM) searches and galactic observations, related theory and simulations, with the aim of synthesis, progress and clarification. Philippe Andre, Peter Biermann, Pasquale Blasi, Daniel Boyanovsky, Carlo Burigana, Hector de Vega, Joanna Dunkley, Gerry Gilmore, Alexander Kashlinsky, Alan Kogut, Anthony Lasenby, John Mather, Norma Sanchez, Alexei Smirnov, Sylvaine Turck-Chieze present here their highlights of the Colloquium. Ayuki Kamada and Sinziana Paduroiu present here their poster hi...

  4. Developing consumer involvement in primary dental care. Report of a half-day seminar held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 15th September 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Kenneth A; Batchelor, Paul; Johns, David J

    2009-01-01

    The seminar on developing consumer involvement in primary dental care, held during the morning of 15th September 2008, was a collaboration between the Lay Advisory Group and Research Committee of the Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK) (FGDP[UK]). As Professor Mike Mulcahy (immediate past Dean of the Faculty) remarked during his address of welcome, it marked a new and exciting development in the Faculty's role in setting and maintaining professional standards for the benefit of patients. It brought together nearly 50 representatives of national bodies, such as the National Audit Office, consumer groups, the Faculty's Lay Advisory Group and Research Committee, the media and others. Many of the national bodies represented at the seminar had published reports on primary dental care during the last five years.

  5. Scratching the surface of tomorrow's diagnostics: the Editor-in-Chief's opinion at the 15th year of Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Attila; Raison, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Interview with Attila Lorincz by Claire Raison (Commissioning Editor) To mark the beginning of the 15th year of Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, the journal's Editor-in-Chief shares his expert knowledge on translational diagnostics, his opinion on recent controversies and his predictions for molecular diagnostics in 2015 and beyond. Attila Lorincz received his doctorate from Trinity College, Dublin, Republic of Ireland, and went on to become a research fellow at the University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA. During Professor Lorincz's research on human papillomavirus (HPV), he found several important and novel carcinogenic HPV types and pioneered the use of HPV DNA testing for clinical diagnostics. In 1988, Professor Lorincz's team produced the first HPV test to be FDA-approved for patients and in 2003, for general population cervical precancer screening. Now Professor of Molecular Epidemiology at the Centre for Cancer Prevention, Queen Mary University of London, UK, he and his team are furthering translational research into DNA methylation assays for cancer risk prediction.

  6. Brain Tumor Epidemiology - A Hub within Multidisciplinary Neuro-oncology. Report on the 15th Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) Annual Meeting, Vienna, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woehrer, Adelheid; Lau, Ching C; Prayer, Daniela; Bauchet, Luc; Rosenfeld, Myrna; Capper, David; Fisher, Paul G; Kool, Marcel; Müller, Martin; Kros, Johan M; Kruchko, Carol; Wiemels, Joseph; Wrensch, Margaret; Danysh, Heather E; Zouaoui, Sonia; Heck, Julia E; Johnson, Kimberly J; Qi, Xiaoyang; O'Neill, Brian P; Afzal, Samina; Scheurer, Michael E; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Nousome, Darryl; Bahassi, El Mustapha; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-01-01

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an open scientific forum, which fosters the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations. BTEC aims to develop a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors (http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/btec/). The 15th annual Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Meeting, hosted by the Austrian Societies of Neuropathology and Neuro-oncology, was held on September 9 - 11, 2014 in Vienna, Austria. The meeting focused on the central role of brain tumor epidemiology within multidisciplinary neuro-oncology. Knowledge of disease incidence, outcomes, as well as risk factors is fundamental to all fields involved in research and treatment of patients with brain tumors; thus, epidemiology constitutes an important link between disciplines, indeed the very hub. This was reflected by the scientific program, which included various sessions linking brain tumor epidemiology with clinical neuro-oncology, tissue-based research, and cancer registration. Renowned experts from Europe and the United States contributed their personal perspectives stimulating further group discussions. Several concrete action plans evolved for the group to move forward until next year's meeting, which will be held at the Mayo Clinic at Rochester, MN, USA.

  7. Brain Tumor Epidemiology – A Hub within Multidisciplinary Neuro-oncology. Report on the 15th Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) Annual Meeting, Vienna, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woehrer, Adelheid; Lau, Ching C.; Prayer, Daniela; Bauchet, Luc; Rosenfeld, Myrna; Capper, David; Fisher, Paul G.; Kool, Marcel; Müller, Martin; Kros, Johan M.; Kruchko, Carol; Wiemels, Joseph; Wrensch, Margaret; Danysh, Heather E.; Zouaoui, Sonia; Heck, Julia E.; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Qi, Xiaoyang; O’Neill, Brian P.; Afzal, Samina; Scheurer, Michael E.; Bainbridge, Matthew N.; Nousome, Darryl; El Bahassi, Mustapha; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an open scientific forum, which fosters the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations. BTEC aims to develop a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors (http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/btec/). The 15th annual Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Meeting, hosted by the Austrian Societies of Neuropathology and Neuro-oncology, was held on September 9 – 11, 2014 in Vienna, Austria. The meeting focused on the central role of brain tumor epidemiology within multidisciplinary neuro-oncology. Knowledge of disease incidence, outcomes, as well as risk factors is fundamental to all fields involved in research and treatment of patients with brain tumors; thus, epidemiology constitutes an important link between disciplines, indeed the very hub. This was reflected by the scientific program, which included various sessions linking brain tumor epidemiology with clinical neuro-oncology, tissue-based research, and cancer registration. Renowned experts from Europe and the United States contributed their personal perspectives stimulating further group discussions. Several concrete action plans evolved for the group to move forward until next year’s meeting, which will be held at the Mayo Clinic at Rochester, MN, USA. PMID:25518914

  8. The 15th Conference of Automotive Safety Technology%第15届汽车安全技术学术会议即将召开

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The 15th Conference of Automotive Safety Technology will be hold in August 22-24, 2012 in Wuhu, Anhui, China, organized by the Vehicle Safety Technology Committee of Society of Automotive Engineers of China, hosted by Chery Automobile Corporation Limited. World renowned experts and scholars from the automotive safety area will attend and discuss automotive safety technologies and applications. Selected papers of the conference will be recommended for publishing in journals.%由中国汽车工程学会汽车安全技术分会主办,奇瑞汽车股份有限公司承办的“第15届汽车安全技术学术会议”定于2012年8月22-24日在安徽芜湖召开。汽车安全技术领域的国内外知名学者、企业人士将出席并就汽车安全技术研究及应用的最新进展展开研讨和推介。会议论文将择优推介到正式刊物上发表。

  9. Acute kidney injury in the era of big data: the 15(th) Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Sean M; Goldstein, Stuart L; Ronco, Claudio; Kellum, John A

    2016-01-01

    The world is immersed in "big data". Big data has brought about radical innovations in the methods used to capture, transfer, store and analyze the vast quantities of data generated every minute of every day. At the same time; however, it has also become far easier and relatively inexpensive to do so. Rapidly transforming, integrating and applying this large volume and variety of data are what underlie the future of big data. The application of big data and predictive analytics in healthcare holds great promise to drive innovation, reduce cost and improve patient outcomes, health services operations and value. Acute kidney injury (AKI) may be an ideal syndrome from which various dimensions and applications built within the context of big data may influence the structure of services delivery, care processes and outcomes for patients. The use of innovative forms of "information technology" was originally identified by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) in 2002 as a core concept in need of attention to improve the care and outcomes for patients with AKI. For this 15(th) ADQI consensus meeting held on September 6-8, 2015 in Banff, Canada, five topics focused on AKI and acute renal replacement therapy were developed where extensive applications for use of big data were recognized and/or foreseen. In this series of articles in the Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease, we describe the output from these discussions.

  10. Feedback on floods in Var, south of France, 15th June 2010 : different societal impacts and responses linked to levels of prevention, organization and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2010-09-01

    Observing the last dramatical floods in Var in south of France on 15th June 2010, very differents responses and impacts can be identified. 23 death, people missing, more than 50 communities impacted, 700 Millions Euros of damages were to declare after the event. Most of human loss, 12 people, were to deplore in Draguignan in Var were 270 mm of rainfall were registered in the city center. This tragedy reminds all the necessity of prevention, organization and communication. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. To manage these kinds of crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. While many damages were observed in Draguignan, the event was different in Hyères, Sainte-Maxime, Cogolin, Grimaud or Toulon who behaved to face it by minimizing the effects, and economic impacts of the flood. The fact is that they had prepared their organization to face flood crisis, they had informed the population of what had to be done, they had given security advices, they had reacted from the vigilance information and kept on being informed during the event to adapt their plans and actions: opening security centers, closing roads before they get flooded, evacuating when necessary. The most relevant example is in Sainte-Maxime where 260 mm of rainfall were registered in the city center, a volume close to the 270 mm registered in Draguignan during the same event. In Sainte-Maxime, no human loss was to deplore, the community was informed, had the information of rainfall intensity and rainfall effects in anticipation and could inform the citizen with the help of the police circulating and communicating in the streets. Getting informed the citizen could elevate and protect their property, evacuate their cars on the hights of the community, and secure themselves and family. Comparing this event with what happened in

  11. NCSE's 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Ellen [National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-08

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) held its 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, on January 27-29, 2015, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Crystal City, VA. The National Conference: Energy and Climate Change developed and advanced partnerships that focused on transitioning the world to a new “low carbon” and “climate resilient” energy system. It emphasized advancing research and technology, putting ideas into action, and moving forward on policy and practice. More than 900 participants from the scientific research, policy and governance, business and civil society, and education communities attended. The Conference was organized around four themes: (1) a new energy system (including energy infrastructure, technologies and efficiencies, changes in distribution of energy sources, and low carbon transportation); (2) energy, climate and sustainable development; (3) financing and markets; and (4) achieving progress (including ideas for the 21st Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The program featured six keynote presentations, six plenary sessions, 41 symposia and 20 workshops. Conference participants were involved in the 20 workshops, each on a specific energy and climate-related issue. The workshops were designed as interactive sessions, with each workshop generating 10-12 recommendations on the topic. The recommendations were prepared in the final conference report, were disseminated nationally, and continue to be available for public use. The conference also featured an exhibition and poster sessions. The National Conference on Energy and Climate Change addressed a wide range of issues specific to the U.S. Department of Energy’s programs; involved DOE’s scientists and program managers in sessions and workshops; and reached out to a broad array of DOE stakeholders.

  12. Transition to an IP Environment. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Conference on Telecommunications Policy (15th, Aspen, Colorado, August 12-16, 2000) with Thoughts on the Implications of Technological Change for Telecommunications Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entman, Robert M.; Katz, Michael L.

    The Aspen Institute's Communications and Society Program convened leaders and experts in the telecommunications and related fields to address telecommunications regulation in an IP (Internet Protocols) environment at the 15th annual Aspen Institute Telecommunications Policy Conference (Aspen, Colorado, August 12-16, 2000). The report from this…

  13. Shear Wave Velocity Profiles Determined from Surface Wave Measurements at Sites Affected by the August 15th, 2007 Earthquake in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblad, B. L.; Bay, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    The shear wave velocity (Vs) profile of near-surface soils is a critical parameter for understanding recorded ground motions and predicting local site effects in an earthquake. In structural design, the Vs profile in the top 30 m is used to modify design response spectra to account for local soil effects. In addition, knowledge of the near- surface Vs profile at strong motion stations can be used to account for changes in frequency content and amplification caused by the local site conditions. Following the August 15th, 2007 earthquake in Peru, a field testing program was performed to measure Vs profiles in the top 20 to 30 m at twenty-two locations in the affected region. The measurements were performed primarily at the sites of damaged school buildings but were also performed at several strong motion station sites as well as a few locations where evidence of soil liquefaction was observed. Nineteen of the sites were located in the severely affected cities of Chincha, Ica, Pisco and Tambo de Mora, with the remaining three sites located in, Lima, Palpa and Paracus. The Vs profiles were determined from surface wave velocity measurements performed with an impact source. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss the range of Vs profile conditions encountered in the regions affected by the Pisco-Peru earthquake. In the city of Ica, the profiles generally exhibited gradually increasing velocities with depth, with velocities which rarely exceeded 400 m/s in the top 30 m. In contrast, the profiles measured in Pisco, often exhibited strong, shallow velocity contrasts with Vs increasing from less than 200 m/s at the surface to over 600 m/s at some sites. The profiles measured in Chincha generally fell in between the ranges measured in Ica and Pisco. Lastly, soil liquefaction was evident throughout Tambo de Mora on the coast of Peru. Measurements indicated very low shear wave velocities of 75 to 125 m/s in the top 4 m, which is consistent with the observed

  14. CSEM IMAGING OF THE NEAR SURFACE DYNAMICS AND ITS IMPACT FOR FOUNDATION STABILITY AT QUARTER 27, 15th OF MAY CITY, HELWAN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hemali Ibrahim A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we involve the Control Source Electromagnetic (CSEM Technique to image the dynamic migration center of the near surface fractures, fissures, and cracks in a new dwelling area at 15th of May city close to Cairo. This area forms the center of the zonal weakness of the subsoil, which in turn, interact with the weight center of the construction leading to catastrophiccollapses.The control source electromagnetic technique has been developed recently to monitor the migration of the weakness center represented as the accumulative fissures and cracks in thenear surface. Three composite profiles of wide and planshet mesh data have been collected in 2008. This survey has been followed by performing two profiles in 2010; one of these profiles has been repeated to observe the situation changes, and the second profile has been measured between the other two profiles of2008. The last profile had been performed to study the mutual relation between the measurements of the two cycles. The objectives of the whole process are to validate the capability of the technique to pick the minor changes of the weakness center, consequently, study its relation to the weight center of the adjacent construction to produce a recommended procedure to minimizethe destruction resources at the site of investigation.The measured data has been interpreted and represented in graphs showing the distribution of the heterogeneity of the geoelectric parameters in the subsoil, furthermore, in a series of geoelectric cross section representing the applied frequencies used during the survey. The study concludes that (1 the center of the cracked zone is moving upward closer to the surface of the ground and heaver, (2 the water content is moving downward producing soil dryness at the shallow depths, and (3 the site became more stable in 2010 than 2008, however, the destruction resources remain warning with collapse events. Furthermore, the situation reflects

  15. Einstein's Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeremy Laurance; 贾庆文

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein began working at the patent office in Bern, Switzerland, a little more than a century ago. He had flunked the entrance exam for the Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology and took the job evaluating inventions because it paid a regular salary.

  16. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for

  17. Physical localization of molecular markers and assignment of the 15th linkage group to chromosome 11 of the karyotype in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by primed in situ labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, J F; Yin, H; Gao, H Q; Zhuang, N S; Liu, J P

    2015-07-28

    Physical localization of molecular markers and assignment of the 15th linkage group to chromosome 11 of the karyotype in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) were achieved using primed in situ labeling. Amplified signals for both the EST507-1 and SSRY13-5 markers were consistently observed in different stages of cell division. A comparison of the length, arm ratio, and other morphological characteristics of somatic metaphase chromosomes in karyotype analysis indicated that the EST507-1 and SSRY13-5 markers were localized on the short and long arm of cassava chromosome 11 with the relative map positions of 41.67 and 23.07, respectively. The physical localization of the 2 markers on chromosome 11 of the karyotype corresponds to their positions on the 15th linkage group in cassava.

  18. PREFACE: The 15th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, C.; Velásquez-García, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Greetings, and welcome to Boston, MA and PowerMEMS 2015 - the 15th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications! The objective of PowerMEMS 2015 is to catalyze innovation in micro- and nano-scale technologies for the energy domain. The scope of the meeting ranges from basic principles, to materials and fabrication, to devices and systems, to applications. The many applications of Power MEMS range from the harvesting, storage, conversion and conditioning of energy, to integrated systems that manage these processes, to actuation, pumping, and propulsion. Our Conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, as well as the development of new ideas, in the Power MEMS field. Our goal is to allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering, as well as energy, policy, and entrepreneurial specialists interested in the commercialization of Power MEMS technologies. Since the first PowerMEMS in Sendai, Japan in 2000, the Conference has grown in size, reputation, impact, and technical breadth. This continuing growth is evident in this year's technical program, which includes an increasing number of papers on nanomaterials, additive manufacturing for energy systems, actuators, energy storage, harvesting strategies and integrated energy harvesting systems, for example. This year's technical program is highlighted by six plenary talks from prominent experts on piezoelectrics, robotic insects, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, nanocomposite cathodes, and thermal energy conversion systems. The contributed program received a large number of abstract submissions this year, 169 in total. After careful review by the 34-member Technical Program Committee, a total of 135 papers were selected for presentation. The 60 contributed oral presentations are arranged in two parallel sessions. The 75 posters

  19. Life history of the individuals buried in the St. Benedict Cemetery (Prague, 15th-18th centuries): insights from (14)C dating and stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salesse, Kevin; Dufour, Élise; Castex, Dominique; Velemínský, Petr; Santos, Frédéric; Kuchařová, Hedvika; Jun, Libor; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2013-06-01

    Funerary practices and bioarchaeological (sex and age) data suggest that a mortality crisis linked to an epidemic episode occurred during the fifth phase of the St. Benedict cemetery in Prague (Czech Republic). To identify this mass mortality episode, we reconstructed individual life histories (dietary and mobility factors), assessed the population's biological homogeneity, and proposed a new chronology through stable isotope analysis (δ(13)C, δ(18)O and δ(15)N) and direct radiocarbon dating. Stable isotope analysis was conducted on the bone and tooth enamel (collagen and carbonate) of 19 individuals from three multiple graves (MG) and 12 individuals from individual graves (IG). The δ(15)N values of collagen and the difference between the δ(13)C values of collagen and bone carbonate could indicate that the IG individuals had a richer protein diet than the MG individuals or different food resources. The human bone and enamel carbonate and δ(18)O values suggest that the majority of individuals from MG and all individuals from IG spent most of their lives outside of the Bohemian region. Variations in δ(18)O values also indicate that all individuals experienced residential mobility during their lives. The stable isotope results, biological (age and sex) data and eight (14)C dates clearly differentiate the MG and IG groups. The present work provides evidence for the reuse of the St. Benedict cemetery to bury soldiers despite the funeral protest ban (1635 AD). The Siege of Prague (1742 AD) by French-Bavarian-Saxon armies is identified as the cause of the St. Benedict mass mortality event.

  20. Laissez faire or faire mourir. The significance of participation of the clergy in the contract of purchase and sale of annuities in Central Europe between the 14th and the 15th century / Krzysztof Olendzki ; komment. Tiina Kala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olendzki, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Rendiseostust ja -müügist ning kiriklike institutsioonide osalusest selles. Raha tulu saamise eesmärgil väljalaenamist kritiseeriti. Intressi suurust üritati piirata või rendiselepinguid tühistada.

  1. An Iconological Study on the Convex Mirror in Netherlandish Paintings in the 15th and 16th Century%15、16世纪尼德兰绘画中凸面镜的图像学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺静

    2009-01-01

    在15—16世纪的尼德兰绘画中,每一件物品或事物都可能具有象征意义,或者说可以赋予某种象征意义,这就是象征主义的内涵。这种形式和内容紧密相连造成图像上丰富的喻义,一直是15世纪尼德兰艺术的最高成就。看似简单易懂的风俗画描绘,其背后蕴涵着丰富的象征喻义,正如中世纪的基督教神学家托马斯·阿奎那(Thomas Aquinas,1225—1274)的一句名言:“精神性事物的物质性隐喻。”

  2. Carpintero y maestro constructor en la arquitectura gótica valenciana (siglos XIV–XV) = Carpenters and building mason in the Gothic architecture in Valencia (14th–15th centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo Aranda, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Desde finales del siglo XIII hasta el último cuarto del siglo XV, la corporación de oficio de carpinteros de Valencia englobaba todas aquellas especialidades vinculadas con el trabajo en madera, por ello incluso los albañiles estaban agrupados en est

  3. century drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  4. General Khalid Bin Waleed: Understanding the 7th Century Campaign against Sassanid Persian Empire from the Perspective of Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    practice of planning and conducting campaigns and major operations aimed at accomplishing strategic and operational objectives in a given theatre of...English renaissances , or rebirths of classical learning, in the 15th and 16th centuries. Britannica Encyclopedia: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked...reminded. While many thousands of books have been written since the Renaissance on the subject of the Roman Empire, yet the number of standard works in

  5. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  6. Improved dating of a mid-fifteenth century volcanic marker in ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Dai, J.; Ferris, D. G.; McConnell, J. R.; Sigl, M.; Gao, C.

    2013-12-01

    Ice cores are dated with a variety of techniques with varying degrees of accuracy and precision. Recent advances in ice core chemical analysis have enabled high resolution (i.e., sub-annual) measurements that allow many ice cores to be dated with the technique of annual layer counting (ALC). Dating by ALC, when applied to appropriate ice cores, provides accuracy and precision that are not possible with other dating techniques. Two recent ice cores, one from Antarctica and one from Greenland and dated with the ALC technique, yield an 800 year (1200-2007 C.E.) bipolar record of explosive volcanic eruptions. The age uncertainties of volcanic signals in the period of 1400-2007 are no more than ×1 year. A prominent volcanic signal in the 15th century appears in the layers of 1459-1461 of both ice cores, indicating an eruption date of 1458. The mid-15th century eruption of the Kuwae volcano in the tropical Pacific is believed to be the most explosive in the last 700 years and to have impacted global climate. Examination of previous ice core records found 1454-1457 to be the date range of the prominent volcanic signal, presumed to be from the Kuwae eruption, in most Antarctica ice cores. This led to the suggestion that 1452 or 1453 is the probable eruption date for Kuwae. The new bipolar record places 1458×1 as the date of the eruption responsible for the prominent volcanic signal. The date of 1458 appears to be an improvement of the previously suggested date (1452 or 1453) for the eruption responsible for the prominent volcanic signal in the mid-15th century. However, the presence of another, less prominent signal at 1453-1454 in the new bipolar record makes it difficult at this point to attribute either signal to the Kuwae eruption, although current evidence suggests the later (1458) eruption is probably that of Kuwae.

  7. 国务院15号文件指引会展业在新常态下改革发展%On Innovation of Exhibition Industries Guided by the 15th Document Issued by the State Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽炎

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the significance of the 15th document issued by the State Council of China, describes the innovation affairs of the exhibition industries and reveals the interrelationship of “Internet +”with exhibitions, which are the hot topics recently in the exhibition circle of China.%文章研讨了国务院15号文件的重要意义,论述了我国会展业在新常态下的改革发展,讨论了“互联网+”与会展业的相互关系。这些都是当前我国会展业界比较关注的热点话题。

  8. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2011-07-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010) both agreed to hold this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, considering the celebration of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of its official program, within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial activities. This event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project `Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4', supported by the National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya in 1980, and was followed by: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006) and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss recent progress and outlooks in plasma science, covering fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, plasma applications, etc. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005) and Caracas (2007). The purpose of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is to provide a forum in which the achievements of the Latin American plasma physics communities can be displayed, as well as to foster collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The Program of ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included

  9. Dimming of the 17th Century Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Foukal, Peter; Schnerr, Roald

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th - 17th century Sp\\"orer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid- millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared to larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI - effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11- yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20t...

  10. A study of the German ‘Gothic’ 15th-century equestrian armour (A21) in the Wallace Collection, London

    OpenAIRE

    Edge, David; Williams, Alan

    2001-01-01

    The most famous, indeed iconic, armour in the Wallace Collection, London, is the late 15th century German armour for man and horse (inventory number A21). Unfortunately for the historian of armour, it is also one of the most composite, having been assembled in its present form in the 19th century from elements of at least five armours. Archival research in the Wallace Collection has been combined with metallography in the Conservation Department to attempt to cast some further light upon its ...

  11. The cause and thought of the 15th World Athletics Championships pattern change%第15届北京世界田径锦标赛格局变化的成因与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋洋; 郑宏伟

    2016-01-01

    以第15届世界田径锦标赛官方网站公布的赛果为统计对象,对洲际产生的奖牌数和总分进行统计。描述本届世锦赛格局的变化,探究两个推动(科技革命和运动训练学理论的演进)及四种差异(人种、文化传统和信仰、运动员文化素养、经济发展水平)导致的格局变化,中国田径队取得突破的原因以及对中国田径运动发展的启示。%By taking the official website results of the 15th World Athletics Championships as study object,this paper carried on the statistics of the number of medals and score on a continental scale. The paper described the change in the pattern of the championships,explores the 2 drivers-the e-volution of scientific and technological revolution and the theory of sports training and 4 differences-ethnic cultural traditions and beliefs,cultural awareness,economic development level,the breakthrough reason of Chinese track and field team and enlightenment to the development of athlet-ics in China.

  12. Twentieth Century Moral Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, Rowland

    2008-01-01

    Despite being somewhat long in the tooth at the time, Aristotle, Hume and Kant were still dominating twentieth century moral philosophy. Much of the progress made in that century came from a detailed working through of each of their approaches by the expanding and increasingly professionalized corps of academic philosophers. And this progress can be measured not just by the quality and sophistication of moral philosophy at the end of that century, but also by the narrowing of s...

  13. Nineteenth-Century English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...

  14. Comet of the Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Fred; Ottewell, G.

    The present century has been a disappointing one for comets, but past centuries often featured spectacular, unforgettable comet shows that dominated the night (and even daytime) sky for months: comets that outshone Venus or even the Moon, whose spectacular tails stretched more than halfway across the sky or were weirdly split, and whose apparition was held responsible for everything from wars to unusually good wine vintages. Published to coincide with the first naked-eye appearance of Comet Hale-Bopp, perhaps our own comet of the century, this book is an irresistible guide to comet facts and lore throughout history.

  15. A Brief Introduction to 15th French Conference of Meat Science and Technology (JSMTV)%第15届法国肉类科技大会(JSMTV)简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-François HOCQUETTE

    2015-01-01

    The 15th French Conference of Meat Science and Technology (JSMTV) was held in 2014 and attended by 240 people, of which 20% are businessmen and 18% come from countries other than France. A delegation from the Sino-French Research and Development Center for Beef Cattle also attended the conference. Considering the multiple challanges (environmental issues, animal and human health, and equal access to food) faced by the animal husbandry industry, this conference was focused on the methods used to analyze the environmental impact of meat production, the economic and sociological factors affecting meat consumption, and how to increase the competitiveness of the meat industry. From a nutritional point of view, meat consumed in reasonable amounts is safe for human health. Regarding the efficiency of meat cutting, processing and quality grading, the focus of research is on the importance of innovations and marketing and sales strategies in the meat industry.%2014年共有240人参加了法国第15届肉类科技大会,其中20%是企业界人士,18%来自法国以外的国家。中法肉牛研究与发展中心也组织代表团参加了本次会议。鉴于畜牧产业面临的多重挑战(环境问题、动物和人类健康以及获取食物权利的问题),大会着重介绍了肉类生产造成环境影响的分析方法、影响肉类消费的经济学和社会学因素,以及提高肉类产业竞争力等议题。在人类营养方面,提出了适量吃肉对人体健康不造成威胁的结论。在提高胴体优质切块比率、肉类加工、产品细分等方面,各项研究都着重强调了创新和市场营销的重要性。

  16. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F., E-mail: LuisFilipeVF@ist.utl.pt [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira Machado, I. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Department of Technology and Design, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, P-7300-110 Portalegre (Portugal); Ferraria, A.M. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Casimiro, T.M. [Instituto de Arqueologia e Paleociências da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de História, Avenida de Berna 26-C, 1069-061 Lisboa (Portugal); Colomban, Ph. [Laboratoire de Dynamique, Interaction et Réactivité, UMR7075 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie-Curie, Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, C49 batF, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-11-15

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO{sub 2}. All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  17. Toward a space-time scale framework for the study of everyday life activity's adaptation to hazardous hydro-meteorological conditions: Learning from the June 15th, 2010 flash flood event in Draguignan (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruin, Isabelle; Boudevillain, Brice; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Lutoff, Céline

    2013-04-01

    environmental perturbations requires an integrated approach, sensitive to the spatial and temporal dynamics of geophysical hazards and responses to them. Such integrated approaches of the Coupled Human and Natural System have been more common in the environmental change arena than in risk studies. Nevertheless, examining interactions between routine activity-travel patterns and hydro-meteorological dynamics in the context of flash flood event resulted in developing a space-time scale approach that brought new insights to vulnerability and risk studies. This scaling approach requires suitable data sets including information about the meteorological and local flooding dynamics, the perception of environmental cues, the changes in individuals' activity-travel patterns and the social interactions at the place and time where the actions were performed. Even if these types of data are commonly collected in various disciplinary research contexts, they are seldom collected all together and in the context of post-disaster studies. This paper describes the methodological developments of our approach and applies our data collection method to the case of the June 15th, 2010 flash flood events in the Draguignan area (Var, France). This flash flood event offers a typical example to study the relation between the flood dynamics and the social response in the context of a sudden degradation of the environment.

  18. Century Tide Nicotine Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Century Tide Nicotine Patch, a hi-tech smoking control therapy, is designed in accordance with the scientific principle of nicotine replacement. The therapy is promoted by the World Health Organization. Meanwhile, it also integrates traditional Chinese medical therapy and adopts advanced TTS technology.

  19. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1998-01-01

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  20. Statisticians of the centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Seneta, E; Crépel, P; Fienberg, S; Gani, J

    2001-01-01

    Statisticians of the Centuries aims to demonstrate the achievements of statistics to a broad audience, and to commemorate the work of celebrated statisticians. This is done through short biographies that put the statistical work in its historical and sociological context, emphasizing contributions to science and society in the broadest terms rather than narrow technical achievement. The discipline is treated from its earliest times and only individuals born prior to the 20th Century are included. The volume arose through the initiative of the International Statistical Institute (ISI), the principal representative association for international statistics (founded in 1885). Extensive consultations within the statistical community, and with prominent members of ISI in particular, led to the names of the 104 individuals who are included in the volume. The biographies were contributed by 73 authors from across the world. The editors are the well-known statisticians Chris Heyde and Eugene Seneta. Chris Heyde is Pro...

  1. WHEELING THROUGH THE CENTURIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO; JIANYING

    2002-01-01

    IN an excavated pit at the side of an expressway in Shandong’s Linzi are visible 2,000-year-old remains of horses and wooden carriages. The horse skeletons are on their side, in an attitude of motion. The pit was discovered in the late 20th century, when the expressway was being built. These early ancestors of modern transport, no longer "road-worthy," are now protected historic artifacts.

  2. Kilns of Glass in Barcelona and its surroundings (14th-16th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañellas i Martínez, Silvia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the municipal regulations of the Middle Ages about the prohibition of setting up kilns of glass in the cities, some remained for a long time. Barcelona is a clear example. This article is about our kilns and the information has been taken from the Archives of Barcelona. The kiln of Viladalls worked in Barcelona from the early 14th century to the end of the 15th century. Other kilns of glass could be found on the outskirts of the city or some were linked with some glaziers masters of Barcelona who worked here. We can see it in the kilns of Mallorca (1352, Badalona (1360, St. Pere de Bigues (1407-1513, St. Vicenç de Vallromanes (1439-84, and Montcada (1486- 89. A new kiln set up in Pla d’en Llull, Barcelona, in the 15th century, was the only one which had the Royal permission until the mid 16th century.

    Malgrat les disposicions municipals medievals sobre la prohibició d’installar forns de vidre dins les ciutats, alguns establiments van estar actius durant un temps considerable. La ciutat de Barcelona n’és un clar exemple. El present article se centra en les dades documentals trobades en els arxius barcelonins. A la ciutat de Barcelona, el forn de vidre de Viladalls va funcionar des de les primeries del segle XIV fins a finals del XV. Altres forns de vidre van néixer a l’entorn de la ciutat o vinculats a mestres vidriers procedents d’aquesta. És el cas dels forns de Mallorca (1352, Badalona (1360, St. Pere de Bigues (1407-1513, St. Vicenç de Vallromanes (1429-84 i Montcada (1486- 89. Al segle XV, un nou forn de vidre, situat al Pla d’en Llull, tingué l’exclusivitat en la producció de vidre a Barcelona, situació que es va mantenir fins a mitjan segle XVI.

  3. New Century, New Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XULONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nuclear weapons changed the world of the 20th century. Their powerful force rewrote history. Nuclear bombs dropped on Japan by the United States accelerated the collapse of Japanese militarism and hastened the end of World War Ⅱ. The West led by the United States and the East bloc led by the Soviet Union started a bitter nuclear arms race that mutually assured destruction. The balance of terror between the two blocs stabilized in the Cold War and prevented the world from actual armed conflict, thus maintaining a long-term but occasionally uneasy peace in Europe and the world.

  4. A century of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bromley, D Allan

    2002-01-01

    In this amazing tour d'horizon, D. Allan Bromley uses the occasion of the centenary of the American Physical Society to reflect upon the growth of physics over the past 100 years, its fragmentation into numerous subdisciplines, the impact physics has had upon modern technology, and the re-emergence of the fundamental unity of the discipline in recent years. Hundreds of historical illustrations accompany the text. Bromley conveys much of the excitement and wonder that research in physics generated in the 20th century and asks what new things are in store in the next century. He covers such topics as relativity and quantum mechanics, the Manhattan project, superconductivity, transistors and the revolution brought about by solid-state electronics, protein folding, the uses of nuclear and atomic physics in biology and medicine, plate tectonics, the expansion of the universe and the Big Bang, and gravitational radiation. Bromley, the Sterling Professor of the Sciences and Dean of Yale University, served as Assista...

  5. The management century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it.

  6. Evolution of forest cover in Portugal:A review of the 12th-20th centu-ries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fernando Reboredo; João Pais

    2014-01-01

    Portugal’s forests in the 12th century were dominated by the Fagaceae represented by Quercus and Castanea, and several pine species. From the 12th century onwards, forests underwent changes in their man-agement starting with protection and ultimately leading to intense ex-ploitation. The massive naval construction during the maritime expansion (mainly in the 15th-16th centuries) involved felling of approximately 5 million trees mainly Quercus suber, Pinus pinea and other Quercus species. Cumulative fuel-wood consumption of 959 Mm3 during 1300-1854 was attributed to demographic expansion while the deforesta-tion rate during 1636-1854 accounted for a minimum of 72.6% and a maximum of 96% of total forest cover. The volume of timber used in railway sleepers from 1856 onwards might have reached 0.5 Mm3. The last quarter of the 20th century increased the forest cover of Portugal through the World Bank program of Eucalyptus globulus reforestation.

  7. Moneychanging and Urban Elites: the Rise of Antonio de Paredes and his Family in Valladolid at the Beginning of the Sixteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David CARVAJAL DE LA VEGA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 15th century, Valladolid went through a period of prosperity that strengthened its position as one of the most significant towns in the Crown of Castile during the 16th century. This propitious context, favouring the development of commercial and financial businesses, prompted the appearance of individuals who, alongside their families, began to increase their economic power and to reinforce their social links, leading them to occupy a position among the urban elite. The aim of this paper is to trace the figure of Antonio de Paredes, a moneychanger, considering both his financial activities and his growing presence among Valladolid’s urban elite. This greater presence, along with his economic status and his well-earned reputation, paved the road for his sons to become part of the town’s local council.

  8. 泾、浜发展与吴淞江流域的圩田水利(9-15世纪)%The development of Jin-Bang and the Wei-field irrigation in Wusong river valley 9th-15th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建革

    2009-01-01

    自宋代的塘浦系统开始瓦解以来,吴淞江流域的泾浜体系开始发展.泾浜水系和以后溇的出现,基本上人为形成的.在不断的历史发展中,泾浜体系形成具有干枝结构的网状水系,这种结构非常稳定地存在了近500年.这种结构下的圩田水利模式一般是小圩模式.在冈身感潮地区,泾浜体系比较密集,且末端水系有弯曲化现象;在低地地区,为了排水的方便,河道的干枝体系较为顺直.在这种体系下,治水必须与治田相结合.到后期,随着圩田治理的深化,进一步出现了称为漤的末端水系.

  9. ICOM commitee for conservation, 15th Triennial Conference New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A l’automne dernier s’est tenue, à New-Delhi, la 15 session d’ICOM-CC, le plus important des groupes de travail d’ICOM. Plusieurs ateliers ont fonctionné simultanément et ont rassemblé une moisson d’informations relatives à tous les champs de la conservation-restauration. Traditionnellement, les Preprints du symposium mettent l’ensemble des communications à disposition du lecteur. La version électronique de la publication nous étant parvenue alors que l’édition du présent numéro était en cour...

  10. 15TH Annual International College of Performance Management Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    content at its June conference in San Antonio . And those are only the major events. EVM now is included in conferences nominally devoted to topics...581-4385 King 9200 RGS Spares Fred Burgess (303) 581-4240 King A100 SW DP Depot Kile (303) 581-4385 King B100 Training Equipment Barrios (303) 581-4566...King B200 Training Services Barrios (303) 581-4566 King B300 Training Facilities Barrios (303) 581-4566 King D110 Site Activation Bloom (303) 581-4388

  11. Abstracts from the 15th International Myopia Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Benavente-Perez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Table of contents O1 Changes in peripheral refraction associated with decreased ocular axial growth rate in marmosets Alexandra Benavente-Perez, Ann Nour, Tobin Ansel, Kathleen Abarr, Luying Yan, Keisha Roden, David Troilo O2 PPARα activation suppresses myopia development by increasing scleral collagen synthesis--a new drug target to suppress myopia development Chanyi Lu, Miaozhen Pan, Min Zheng, Jia Qu, Xiangtian Zhou O3 Evidence and possibilities for local ocular growth regulating signal pathways Christine F Wildsoet O4 Myopia researches at Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University Fan Lu, Xiangtian Zhou, Jie Chen, Jinhua Bao, Liang Hu, Qinmei Wang, Zibing Jin, Jia Qu O5 Color, temporal contrast and myopia Frances Rucker, Stephanie Britton, Stephan Hanowsky, Molly Spatcher O6 The impact of atropine usage on visual function and reading performance in myopic school children in Taiwan Hui-Ying Kuo, Ching-Hsiu Ke, I-Hsin Kuo, Chien-Chun Peng, Han-Yin Sun O7 Increased time outdoors prevents the onset of myopia: evidence from randomised clinical trials Ian G Morgan O8 Environmental risk factors and gene-environment interactions for myopia in the ALSPAC cohort Jeremy A. Guggenheim, Rupal L. Shah, Cathy Williams O9 Retinal metabolic profiling identifies declines in FP receptor-linked signaling as contributors to form-deprived myopic development in guinea pigs Jinglei Yang, Peter S. Reinach, Sen Zhang, Miaozhen Pan, Wenfeng Sun, Bo Liu, Xiangtian Zhou O10 The study of peripheral refraction in moderate and high myopes after one month of wearing orthokeratology lens Jun Jiang, Haoran Wu, Fan Lu O11 Axial length of school children around the earth’s equatorial area and factors affecting the axial length Kazuo Tsubota, Hiroko Ozawa, Hidemasa Torii, Shigemasa Takamizawa, Toshihide Kurihara, Kazuno Negishi O12 Processing of defocus in the chicken retina by retinal ganglion cells Klaus Graef, Daniel Rathbun, Frank Schaeffel O13 Blue SAD light protects against form deprivation myopia in chickens, by local signaling within the retina Ladan Ghodsi, William K. Stell O14 Contributions of ON and OFF pathways to emmetropization and form deprivation myopia in mice Machelle T. Pardue, Ranjay Chakraborty, Han na Park, Curran S. Sidhu, P. Michael Iuvone O15 Response of the human choroid to defocus Michael J Collins O16 What can RNA sequencing tell us about myopic sclera? Nethrajeith Srinvasalu, Sally A McFadden, Paul N Baird O17 Overview of dopamine, retinal function, and myopia P. Michael Iuvone O18 The eye as a "robust" optical system and myopia Pablo Artal O19 Effect of discontinuation of orthokeratology lens wear on axial elongation in children Pauline Cho, SW Cheung O20 Myopia prevention in Taiwan Pei-Chang Wu O21 Alternatives to ultraviolet light and riboflavin for in vivo crosslinking of scleral collagen Quan V. Hoang, Sally A. McFadden O22 Absence of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC alters normal refractive development in mice Ranjay Chakraborty, Duk C. Lee, Erica G. Landis, Michael A. Bergen, Curran Sidhu, Samer Hattar, P. Michael Iuvone, Richard A. Stone, Machelle T. Pardue O23 Scleral micro-RNAs in myopia development and their potential as therapeutic targets Ravi Metlapally O24 Effects of the long-wavelength filtered continuous spectrum on emmetropization in juvenile guinea pigs Ruiqin Li, Qinglin Xu, Hong Zhon, Chenglin Pan, Weizhon Lan, Xiaoning Li, Ling Chen, Zhikuan Yang O25 Ocular and environmental factors associated with eye growth in childhood Scott A. Read O26 Overview- prevention and prediction of myopia and pathologic myopia Seang-Mei Saw O27 New insights into the roles of retinal dopamine in form-deprivation myopia and refractive development in C57BL/6 mice Shi-Jun Weng, Xiao-Hua Wu, Kang-Wei Qian, Yun-Yun Li, Guo-Zhong Xu, Furong Huang, Xiangtian Zhou, Jia Qu, Xiong-Li Yang, Yong-Mei Zhong O28 The effects of the adenosine antagonist, 7-methylxanthine, on refractive development in rhesus monkeys Earl L Smith III, Baskar Arumugam, Li-Fang Hung, Lisa A. Ostrin, Klaus Trier, Monica Jong, Brien A. Holden O29 Application of SWATH™ based next generation proteomics (NGP in studying eye growth: opportunities and challenges Thomas Chuen Lam, Bing Zuo, Samantha Shan, Sally A. McFadden, Dennis Yan-yin Tse, Jingfang Bian, King-Kit Li, Quan Liu, Chi-ho To O30 How could emmetropization make use of longitudinal chromatic aberration? Timothy J. Gawne, John T. Siegwart Jr., Alexander H. Ward, Thomas T. Norton O31 Balance effect of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor subtype activation on refraction development Xiangtian Zhou O32 BMP gene expression changes in chick rpe in response to visual manipulations Yan Zhang, Yue Liu, Carol Ho, Eileen Phan, Abraham Hang, Emily Eng, Christine Wildsoet

  12. 15th Incontri di Fisica delle Alte Energie

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    La XV Edizione di IFAE - Incontri di Fisica delle Alte Energie - si terrà presso il Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Università di Genova L'edizione 2016 comprenderà numerose sessioni dedicate alla discussione degli aspetti di maggiore interesse attuale e di prospettiva nella fisica delle alte energie.

  13. MANAGEMENT BOARD MEETING OF 15th JANUARY 2003

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Progress Report on Earned Value Management (EVM) In his capacity as EVM Project Leader, J. Ferguson, Leader of AS Division, presented a progress report on the implementation of the EVM system, focussing on recent measures adopted to accelerate completion of the data collection phase. He announced that, at a general meeting in December 2002 attended by representatives of the 23 groups and 5 divisions concerned, it had been agreed to apply the efficient data collection model used by the LHC-MMS group to the remaining groups, with a view to finalising that stage of the preparations for EVM by the end of March 2003. The model, which consisted of a concerted burst of effort lasting three weeks, would be taken up by two new groups each week in accordance with an ambitious but feasible schedule, so that by the time the exercise was in full swing a total of six groups would be taking part at any one time. Once all of its data had been submitted, each group would then enter the reporting cycle within a month. Given t...

  14. Preliminary Proceedings 15th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The EXPRESS workshops aim at bringing together researchers interested in the relations between various formal systems, particularly in the field of Concurrency. More specifically, they focus on the comparison between programming concepts (such as concurrent, functional, imperative, logic and object...

  15. 15th International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Sang; Al-Sharhan, Salah; Liu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the hybridization of intelligent systems which is a promising research field of modern computational intelligence concerned with the development of the next generation of intelligent systems. This Volume contains the papers presented in the Fifteenth International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2015) held in Seoul, South Korea during November 16-18, 2015. The 26 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 paper submissions. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  16. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  17. Estudo da soroprevalência do AgHBs em gestantes da 15ª Regional de Saúde e da imunoprofilaxia para os recém-nascidos das gestantes AgHBs positivo = Study into the HBsAg seroprevalence in pregnant women from the 15th Health Regional and the immunoprophylaxia on the newborns of these HBsAg-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Kaori Miyamoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinar a prevalência do AgHBs nas gestantes da 15ª Regional de Saúde (15ª R.S. atendidas no Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Análises Clínicas (Lepac, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, e verificar se foi solicitada a imunoprofilaxia para hepatite B aos recém-natos das gestantes AgHBs positivo, no período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2002. A pesquisa do AgHBs foi realizada pela técnica imunoenzimática IMxHBsAg e Axsym HBsAg (Laboratório Abbott. As solicitações de imunobiológicos especiais para a imunoprofilaxia da hepatite B ao CRIE foram obtidas na Seção de Epidemiologia da 15ª R.S. Foram analisadas 12.274 gestantes e a prevalência do AgHBs foide 1,0%. Dentre as 125 gestantes AgHBs positivo, foram solicitadas imunoprofilaxia para 32 (25,6% recém-nascidos. Ainda que a prevalência encontrada indique ser esta uma área de baixa endemicidade, os resultados reafirmam a importância da realização do diagnóstico da hepatite B no atendimento pré-natal, para adoção da imunoprofilaxia no recém-nascido.To determine HBsAg prevalence among pregnant women from the 15th Health Regional assisted in the Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Análises Clínicas (Lepac, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, and verify whether immunoprophylaxis with vaccine and immunoglobulin was requested for the newborns of HBsAg-positive women during the period from January 1998 to December 2002. The research about HBsAg was conducted using the immunoenzymatic IMxHBsAg (Abbot Lab and Axsym HBsAg (Abbot Lab techniques. The requests to the CRIE for specialimmunobiologic agents for Hepatitis B immunoprophylaxis were obtained in the Department of Epidemiology from the 15th Health Regional. The analysis includes 12,274 pregnant women, and the HBsAg prevalence was 1.0%. Among 125 HBsAg positive pregnant women, immunoprophylaxis was requested for 32 (25.6% newborns. Although the prevalence detected demonstrates this to be a low endemic area, the

  18. Highlights from the 15th International Congress of Twin Studies/Twin Research: Differentiating MZ Co-twins Via SNPs; Mistaken Infant Twin-Singleton Hospital Registration; Narcolepsy With Cataplexy; Hearing Loss and Language Learning/Media Mentions: Broadway Musical Recalls Conjoined Hilton Twins; High Fashion Pair; Twins Turn 102; Insights From a Conjoined Twin Survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-02-01

    Highlights from the 15th International Congress of Twin Studies are presented. The congress was held November 16-19, 2014 in Budapest, Hungary. This report is followed by summaries of research addressing the differentiation of MZ co-twins by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), an unusual error in infant twin-singleton hospital registration, twins with childhood-onset narcolepsy with cataplexy, and the parenting effects of hearing loss in one co-twin. Media interest in twins covers a new Broadway musical based on the conjoined twins Violet and Daisy Hilton, male twins becoming famous in fashion, twins who turned 102 and unique insights from a conjoined twin survivor. This article is dedicated to the memory of Elizabeth (Liz) Hamel, DZA twin who met her co-twin for the first time at age seventy-eight years. Liz and her co-twin, Ann Hunt, are listed in the 2015 Guinness Book of Records as the longest separated twins in the world.

  19. Talladega College: The First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Maxine D.; Richardson, Joe M.

    The book presents the history of the growth, development, and significance of Alabama's Talladega College, a black liberal arts college, from its inception in the 1860s through the student protest movement more than a century later. The historical account emphasizes such college issues as finance, enrollment, students, educational policy, and the…

  20. Selenography in the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, E. A.

    Contents: 1. Pre-telescopic observations. 2. The first telescopic observations. 3. Galileo's lunar observations. 4. Two new selenographical programmes. 5. A flurry of activity. 6. Hevelius and his Selenographia. 7. Riccioli, Grimaldi, and nomenclature. 8. Robert Hooke and selenology. 9. Cassini and La Hire. 10. Other seventeenth-century selenography. 11. Conclusion.

  1. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  2. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis P.

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, three intertwined ambitions drove federal legislation over wildlife and biodiversity: establishment of multiple-use federal lands, the economic development of natural resources, and the maintenance of option values. We examine this federal intervention...

  3. Immigration and the American century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles

    2005-11-01

    The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.

  4. White Macael marble: a key element in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia for over 25 centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Sol Cruz, Ana; Arriaga, Lourdes; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Marble from Macael (Andalusia) is one of the most important natural stones in the architectonic heritage of Andalusia; in particular the variety commercially known as "White Macael". This natural stone has been used outdoors as well as indoors for decorative, ornamental or structural purposes. During the 7th century (B.C.) the Phoenicians began to systematically extract these quarries to be used in their more social important elements such as sarcophagus. During the Roman period this rock had a greater importance in construction; we find columns, pavements, tombstones… in many historical buildings such as the Roman amphitheatre in Mérida (1st century B.C.) and the city of Itálica in Seville (3rd century B.C.). But it is during the Muslim period when marble from Macael is more widely used: the Mosque of Córdoba (8th century), the Lions Court in the Alhambra palace, the Alcazaba in Almería, the Medina-Azahara palace in Córdoba (10th century). Other important buildings using the white marble are: Carlos V palace or the Royal Chapel in Granada (15th century), the Almería cathedral or El Escorial monastery in Madrid (16th century), San Telmo palace in Seville (17th century) or The Royal Palace in Madrid (18th century). Uncountable number of buildings, both historical and contemporary, show different elements made of this marble. From a geological point of view, the quarries are located in the upper part of the Nevado-Filábride Complex, the lowest nappe of the Internal Zones of the Betic Chains. Under the "White Macael" name is also possible to include another commercial denominations such "White Macael Río" or "White Macael Río Veteado". It is a clear white coloured, calcitic marble (up than 97% calcite), with average grain size between 0,16 y 3,2 mm in a mosaic texture with a very homogenous aspect. Regarding the main physical and mechanical properties, this rock has an open porosity value between 0,1-0,6%, bulk density 2,50-2,75 g/cm3, water absorption at

  5. Seventeenth-century indivisibles revisited

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous success of indivisibles methods in geometry in the seventeenth century, responds to a vast project: installation of infinity in mathematics. The pathways by the authors are very diverse, as are the characterizations of indivisibles, but there are significant factors of unity between the various doctrines of indivisible; the permanence of the language used by all authors is the strongest sign. These efforts do not lead to the stabilization of a mathematical theory (with principles or axioms, theorems respecting these first statements, followed by applications to a set of geometric situations), one must nevertheless admire the magnitude of the results obtained by these methods and highlights the rich relationships between them and integral calculus. The present book aims to be exhaustive since it analyzes the works of all major inventors of methods of indivisibles during the seventeenth century, from Kepler to Leibniz. It takes into account the rich existing literature usually devoted to a singl...

  6. New Century,Broad Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    During his recent visit to the United States,Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi delivered a speech entitled "Broaden China-U.S. Cooperation in the 21st Century" at the Center for Strategic and International Studies(CSIS) in Washington,D.C. on March 12. John Hamre,President and Chief Executive Officer of the CSIS,and John Frisbie,President of the U.S.-China Business Council,hosted the event. Yang’s remarks follow:

  7. Research on Men's Basketball Game of Northeast Normal University in 15th CUBA%东北师范大学男篮参加第十五届CUBA 东北赛区比赛技术统计分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱焱; 吴红雪

    2014-01-01

    本文采用了文献法、数理统计法和逻辑分析法,对东北师范大学男子篮球队参加第十五届CUBA东北赛区所有比赛的技术统计数据进行分析,选取了队员在比赛中的技术统计数据作为研究指标,对东北师大男子篮球队与比赛对手之间的进攻与防守两大方面进行比较分析,找出存在的差异,探求导致其比赛结果的原因。研究结果表明:东北师范大学男子篮球队,队员的身体条件在CUBA东北赛区的各支球队当中处于相对落后的位置,特别是外线队员与比赛对手相比较差异显著,球队进攻多以内线进攻为主、外线进攻为辅,内外线进攻不平衡、进攻方式单一、缺少突破分球、外线进攻命中率低、失误多、球队的防守能力弱,主力队员和替补队员的能力差距较大进攻效率低等问题。针对东北师范大学男子篮球队在本次比赛中出现的问题,结合球队比赛中的技术统计数据和球队的实际情况,提出以下几点建议:提高队员的身体条件,加强素质及力量练习;保持内线优势,加强外线攻击力;提高防守水平,是东北师范大学在今后比赛和训练中应重点提高的方向。%This paper probes into the strengths and weaknesses of Men's Basketball game of Northeast Normal University in 15th CUBA northeast division , explores the existing problems and provides theoretical basis for future training and developing .Through using the method of literature , mathematical statistics and logical analysis , this paper makes an analysis on all technical statistic data of Men's Basketball game of Northeast Normal University in 15th CUBA northeast division , selects the statistic dada as research indexes to make a comparative analysis on offensive and defensive aspects between Northeast Normal University and its rivals , finds out the differences and explores the reasons .The research shows that the physical

  8. Nineteenth-century aether theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffner, Kenneth F

    2013-01-01

    Nineteenth-Century Aether Theories focuses on aether theories. The selection first offers information on the development of aether theories by taking into consideration the positions of Christiaan Huygens, Thomas Young, and Augustin Fresnel. The text then examines the elastic solid aether. Concerns include Green's aether theory, MacCullagh's aether theory, and Kelvin's aether theory. The text also reviews Lorentz' aether and electron theory. The development of Lorentz' ideas of the stagnant aether and electrons; Lorentz' theorem of corresponding states and its development; and Lorentz' respons

  9. Synovial fluid over the centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the most meaningful historical topics on the study of synovial fluid, by starting from the Greco- Roman Medicine, up to Paracelsus (1493-1541, who introduced the term “synovia” to name the intra-articular humour. Afterwards, some till now unreported historical sources are recorded, e.g., a short text by the Italian XVIII century physician Giambattista Contoli (“Breve Instruzione sopre il Glutine, ò Colla…, 1699”. Then, in keeping with some recent researches, a brief history of arthrocentesis is outlined, by considering the first procedures, which should have been performed in Mexico, during the precolonial period. Moreover, the first chemical analysis of synovial fluid, as carried out by the French chemist Jean-Louis Margueron (1792, and the first modern study on the synovial membrane by Marie-François-Xavier Bichat (1800 are explained. Finally, some XIX century investigations concerning the synovial pharmacodynamics, in particular an Italian one based on the elimination of certain chemical substances through the synovial membrane, are discussed.

  10. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term conseque......We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term...... consequences affecting current resource allocations arose from disparities between broadly dispersed benefits and locally concentrated socio-economic and geo-physical (spatial) costs. We show that a primary intent of public land management has become to preserve multiple-use option values and identify...... important factors in computing those option values. We do this by demonstrating how the willingness to forego current benefits for future ones depends on the community’s resource endowments. These endowments are defined not only in terms of users’ current wealth accumulation but also from their expected...

  11. The Subj ective Crime of Dangerous Driving:An Analysis Based on the 14th and 15th Articles of Criminal Law%论危险驾驶罪的主观罪过--以《刑法》第十四、十五条为切入点的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石奎; 胡启忠

    2015-01-01

    对于《刑法》第一百三十三条之一的危险驾驶罪主观罪过认定,一些学者基于各自的理解,构建了相应理论,但均无法自圆其说。笔者以《刑法》第十四、十五条为切入点,指出争议的根本症结是对主观罪过理论的不同理解;争议的实质是违背《刑法》总则精神来构建理论;认定的难点是该罪罪过处于间接故意与过于自信过失之间的游离状态。鉴于该罪罪过之性状,可行之路径是切实恪守罪过形式的“一元性”原则,以危害结果为考量点,并结合所掌握的证据进行具体分析。唯此,才能既贯彻宽严相济的刑事政策,也能彰显人权保障的精神。%Many researchers have constructed corresponding theories based on their own un-derstanding on the subjective crime of dangerous driving in the 133rd article of criminal law;however all of which are unable to be justified.The author takes the 14th and 15th articles of the criminal law as the starting point,noting that the fundamental crux of the dispute lies in differ-ent understandings of the theory of subj ective crime.The essence of the dispute is the construc-tion of theory contrary to the general principles of the criminal law;the difficulty of crime deter-mination is due to the free state of the crime between indirect intentional faults and self-confi-dence fault.Given the characteristics of the crime,the feasible path is to strictly follow the sole principle of crime forms,take the result of the crime into consideration,and analyze the specific case based on proofs.Only in this way can we implement the criminal policy of combining punish-ment with leniency,but also guarantee human rights.

  12. A century of Dutch neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, P J; Bruyn, G W; Moffie, D

    1998-12-01

    The Netherlands Society of Neurology evolved from the Society of Psychiatry founded in 1871. The name was changed into Netherlands Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (NSPN) in 1897. In the same year, the word neurology was also added to the name of the journal. The Society steadily blossomed, but in 1909 the first signs of dissatisfaction occurred: the Amsterdam Neurologists Society was founded. A few split-offs would follow. The number of members of the NSPN increased from 205 in 1920 to 585 in 1960. In the early 1960s, the Society was reorganised and would consist of two sections, one for psychiatry and one for neurology. However, this would not last, as a full separation was established in 1974. For several reasons, the name of the journal was changed four times until it assumed its present name in 1974. The 100th volume of CNN was not published, as expected. in 1996, but in 1998, because of two skipped publication years, one during WWII and another in the 1970s. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, teaching of neurology was mostly given within the frame of psychiatry, following the German tradition of 'brainpsychiatry' (organic or biologic psychiatry). The first official chair of psychiatry was founded at Utrecht, 1893 (Winkler). In Amsterdam, private teachers such as Delprat taught 'electro-therapy and nervous diseases' since the 1880s. The first extraordinary chair of neurology and electrotherapy was founded for his successor, Wertheim Salomonson in 1899. The first university clinic for psychiatry and neurology started at the Amsterdam Municipal University, when Winkler became professor of psychiatry and neurology in Amsterdam in 1896. Around the turn of the century, chairs of psychiatry and neurology were also founded in Groningen and Leiden. Separate chairs for neurology and psychiatry appeared in Amsterdam in 1923 and in Utrecht in 1936. Following an initiative of Brouwer, the first neurological university clinic opened its doors in

  13. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    The United States and its Allies confront an increasingly volatile world where threats range from traditional state-on-state challenges to non-state transnational networks. To successfully combat these 21st Century problems, in an era of resource and geo-political power constraints, the U......), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...... (UW). Other obstacles such as resolving tensions in U.S. statutory law between traditional military and intelligence activities, bridging the gap with non-security Departments and Agencies, and developing the necessary trust with bilateral and multilateral partners are components that need...

  14. Twentieth Century Internationalism in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiermann, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The 20th century saw the transformation of international law into a legal discipline concerned with the practical  application of law. It was fuelled by a manifold variety of treaties, procedures and institutions. Still, international lawyers persisted in conceiving and judging their discipline...... against a background coloured by national legal traditions. International lawyers did not overcome the optimist and evolutionary tradition based on the assumption that international law is but an ever closer approximation of national legal systems; nor did lawyers escape the fl ip side of this tradition......, i.e., doubt and insecurity about international law and its basis. Rather than facilitating international law as a practical discipline, a superfi cial understanding of internationalism reinforced fetishisms of the discipline's theoretical past, not least the axiom that states only are proper...

  15. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  16. Women in Eighteenth-century Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    2013-01-01

    he eighteenth century looms large in the Scottish imagination. It is a century that saw the doubling of the population, rapid urbanisation, industrial growth, the political Union of 1707, the Jacobite Rebellions and the Enlightenment - events that were intrinsic to the creation of the modern nation...

  17. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  18. An Unfashionable Rhetoric in the Fifteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Marjorie Curry

    1989-01-01

    Reveals the continued importance of medieval rhetorical pedagogy throughout the high Middle Ages and early Renaissance by exploring the fifteenth-century popularity, uses of, and references to Geoffrey of Vinsauf's "Poetria nova" (a thirteenth-century verse treatise on the composition of poetry according to rhetorical principles). (SR)

  19. A study of the German ‘Gothic’ 15th-century equestrian armour (A21 in the Wallace Collection, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edge, David

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The most famous, indeed iconic, armour in the Wallace Collection, London, is the late 15th century German armour for man and horse (inventory number A21. Unfortunately for the historian of armour, it is also one of the most composite, having been assembled in its present form in the 19th century from elements of at least five armours. Archival research in the Wallace Collection has been combined with metallography in the Conservation Department to attempt to cast some further light upon its origins.

    La armadura más famosa y emblemática de la Wallace Collection de Londres es un arnés para hombre y caballo de finales del siglo XV (inv. A.21. Desafortunadamente para la historia del arte de la armadura es también una de las más heterogéneas, compuesta en el siglo XIX con piezas procedentes de al menos otras cinco armaduras. La investigación archivística en la Wallace Collection se ha compaginado con el estudio metalográfico del Departamento de Conservación para intentar arrojar algo más de luz sobre sus orígenes.

  20. Hashimoto thyroiditis: a century later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rania; Al-Shaikh, Safa; Akhtar, Mohammed

    2012-05-01

    More than a century has passed since the first description of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) as a clinicopathologic entity. HT is an autoimmune disease in which a breakdown of immune tolerance is caused by interplay of a variety of immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors. Thyrocyte injury resulting from environmental factors results in expression of new or hidden epitopes that leads to proliferation of autoreactive T and B cells. Infiltration of thyroid by these cells results in HT. In addition to the usual type of HT, several variants such as the fibrous type and Riedal thyroiditis are also recognized. The most recently recognized variant is immunoglobulin G4(+) HT, which may occur as isolated thyroid limited disease or as part of a generalized Ig4-related sclerosing disease. The relationship between HT and Riedel thyroiditis remains unclear; however, recent evidence seems to suggest that it may also be part of the spectrum of Ig4-related sclerosing disease. HT is frequently associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and may indeed be a risk factor for developing this type of cancer. The relationship between thyroid lymphoma and HT on the other hand appears well established.

  1. Medicine in 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangBinghui

    2001-01-01

    An ancient Chinese theme of "Shen Nong tasted hundred herbs and confronted seventy toxicities a day" means generally that medicine was created by the ancient labor people, although there's no trace of the real Shen Nong. Accordingly some animals would take certain herbs for stopping traumatic bleeding just as our ancestors done. Medicine iniated a long time ago but the development of modern medicine is really a little bit more than hundred years, Pasteur discovered bacteria and reported in 1857, not yet 150 years from now. Virchow discovered cell cleavage and thus founded modern basic cellular pathology somewhat a year later than the former. Mendels bean test opened a new era for genetic research and concluded in 1863. Roentgen discovered X-ray in 1895 and We've celebrated the 100th anniversary of the X-ray discovery several years ago. The earliest application of penicillin was in 1940, not yet 60 years ago. The medicine possesses a jumping development during the recent half century in association with the advancement of synthetic chemistry, electronic and bioscientific technolgy.

  2. Compassionate Play in The Ludic Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dyer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 game designer Eric Zimmerman wrote a provocative manifesto entitled ‘Manifesto for a Ludic Century’ (2013a, in which Zimmerman declares the 21st Century’s dominant cultural form to be games. Consequently, Zimmerman proposes that the individual occupant of the century is therefore in a continuous state of game engagement. As such, this re-contextualisation of game space and play, indefinitely articulates the individual as a constant player and character, and thusly challenges the notions of selfhood. Importantly it should be noted, the state of a ludic century is explicitly assumed as a truth, however superficial it may appear. Accordingly, this paper is then afforded to be an extended hypothesis of the proposed ludic century, rather than a critical dissection and response to Zimmerman’s manifesto. This enables a hermeneutic framing of the questions: ‘What does it mean to live in a ludic century?’and ‘in what capacity may the self exist in the ludic century?’ These questions will attempt to distinguish play as an inherent cultural logic that extends beyond the limitations of explicit ‘gamification’ or instrumental play (Stenros et al., 2009; Zichermann, 2010. Concluding, it is claimed that the ludic century elicits a sustained delusion of self, as the player is confined to the designed game structure, which inhibits authentic engagement and interaction with environment and self. It is proposed that this evokes a form of suffering, the compassionate play within the ludic century.

  3. Nuclear computational science a century in review

    CERN Document Server

    Azmy, Yousry

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear engineering has undergone extensive progress over the years. In the past century, colossal developments have been made and with specific reference to the mathematical theory and computational science underlying this discipline, advances in areas such as high-order discretization methods, Krylov Methods and Iteration Acceleration have steadily grown. Nuclear Computational Science: A Century in Review addresses these topics and many more; topics which hold special ties to the first half of the century, and topics focused around the unique combination of nuclear engineering, computational

  4. The representation of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood in Sixteenth-and-Seventeenth-Century Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri T. Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilwood was the first product found in Terra de Santa Cruz, and the first explored by Portuguese colonization of Brazil. This study aims at the Occidental Cartography and the historical files represented by Portugal's interest on mapping the marketed product found in Brazil. There presentation of Brazilwood in maps was possible due to scientific advancements, new land discoveries, and technological improvement during the 15th century, which all have taken cartography to a whole new period, stressing Portuguese hegemony in Asia and in the New World. The goal of this research was to identify and analyze maps from 16th and 17th centuries that represented the geographical distribution of Brazilwood, and its trade. Brazilwood was represented in many maps by illumination and detailed by different cartographers. The maps and other evidence for this research were found in historical files held in both Brazil and Portugal.O pau-brasil foi o primeiro produto encontrado na Terra de Santa Cruz e o primeiro a ser explorado pela colonização portuguesa no Brasil. Este estudo enfocou a Cartografia Ocidental e os arquivos históricos que representassem o interesse de Portugal em mapear esse produto comercial encontrado no Brasil. A representação do pau-brasil nos mapas foi possível devido aos avanços científicos, aos descobrimentos de novas terras e aos avanços tecnológicos alcançados durante o século XV, os quais deram à cartografia um papel de destaque no novo período, enfatizando a hegemonia Portuguesa na Ásia e no Novo Mundo. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar e analisar os mapas dos séculos XVI e XVII que representassem a distribuição geográfica do pau-brasil e seu comércio. O pau-brasil foi representado em muitos mapas por iluminuras e detalhes feitos por diferentes cartógrafos. Os mapas e outras fontes presentes nesta pesquisa foram encontrados nos arquivos históricos sediados em ambos os países, Brasil e Portugal.

  5. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2009-01-01

    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  6. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  7. Training Ranges in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    warfighting tactical principles established during the early 19th Century. In making training as real as possible, in the spirit of “Train As We Fight...few use restrictions. Early on, installations were established in rural areas, but, during the last century, the population exploded, and some...CMTC), Hohenfels Training Area ( HTA ), Germany; and the Joint Readiness Training Center, Fort Polk, Louisiana. o MCTCs focus on brigade task force

  8. St. Augustine in Twentieth-Century Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2012-01-01

    A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine.......A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine....

  9. Symptom removal: the twentieth century experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenhoffer, André M

    2004-01-01

    The twentieth century hypnosis literature regarding the use of direct symptom removal with hypnosis is in strong contrast with that of the nineteenth. It shows much ambivalence about the use of symptom removal. Objections, largely based on conclusions drawn from psychoanalytic theory, led many twentieth century psychotherapists to reject direct symptom removal. However, a certain amount of empirical evidence, scattered through the literature, has accumulated during the twentieth century to support this rejection. The lack of satisfactory twentieth century statistics and of nineteenth century details concerning hypnotic interventions that were used, makes it impossible to satisfactorily account for the discrepancy in experiences of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although therapists did not altogether abandon working directly with symptoms, many opted instead for modifying and manipulating them by suggestion instead of completely removing them, usually allowing the patient to retain a psychodynamically suitable substitute. Here again a lack of adequate statistics prevents one from being able to properly appraise the effectiveness of this approach which has remained the preferred one for a number of therapists.

  10. Life Sciences in the 21 st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Chenglu (C. L. Tsou)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a retrospective of the achievements of life sciences in the 20th century and a prospective in the 21 st century.primarily,because of the emergence of molecular biology in the 20th cetury,life sciences have grown up from a descriptive discipline to an exact science.Biology in the 21st century features a unification between analysis and integration,i.e.the unification of analysis and func-tional research.More and more interdisciplinary integration will be based on works of penetrating analyses.Secondly.the deeper understanding of all living phenomena will lead to a unified connition of the essence of life so that general biology in the genuine sese of the term will come into being.finally,basic research on the life sciences will produce an unprecedented influence on all aspects of human life.

  11. [Evaluation of vital constants. 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez González, Natividad; Ortega Martínez, Carmen

    2002-05-01

    The evaluation of patients' vital statistics is part of health care and in many cases this is the first step in knowing what is the health status of a patient. Therefore, we are interested in analysing what knowledge nurses had regarding these vital statistics during the 18th century, how they evaluated these statistics and what treatment they applied in order to maintain or balance them whenever they became unstable. A manual written by a nurse in the 18th century in order to aid her colleagues in their treatment of patients is the source of the authors' research material.

  12. A Century of Human Capital and Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Restuccia; Guillaume Vandenbroucke

    2012-01-01

    An average person born in the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century completed 7 years of schooling and spent 58 hours a week working in the market. By contrast, an average person born at the end of the twentieth century completed 14 years of schooling and spent 40 hours a week working. In the span of 100 years, completed years of schooling doubled and working hours decreased by 30 percent. What explains these trends? We consider a model of human capital and labor supply t...

  13. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience.

  14. Statistics in the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Martin T; Wells, Martin T

    2001-01-01

    Exactly what is the state of the art in statistics as we move forward into the 21st century? What promises, what trends does its future hold? Through the reflections of 70 of the world's leading statistical methodologists, researchers, theorists, and practitioners, Statistics in the 21st Century answers those questions. Originally published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, this collection of vignettes examines our statistical past, comments on our present, and speculates on our future. Although the coverage is broad and the topics diverse, it reveals the essential intell

  15. The 21st Century: The Century of Biology on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill C.; SETI Team

    2017-01-01

    In a bold 2004 paper, Craig Venter and Daniel Cohen* claimed that whereas the 20th century had been the Century of Physics (Special and General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Big Bang Cosmology, Dark Matter and Dark Energy, the Standard Model of Particle Physics…) the 21st century would be the century of biology. They outlined the fantastic potential of genomic research to define the current century. Wondrous as these predictions were, and as rapidly as they have played out and over-delivered during this past decade, these predictions were too parochial. This century will permit us the first opportunities to study biology beyond Earth; biology as we don’t yet know it, and biology that we have exported off the surface of our planet.The technologies needed for discovering biology beyond Earth are different depending on whether you are searching for microbes or mathematicians, and depending on whether you are searching in-situ or remotely. In many cases the necessary technologies do not yet exist, but like genomics, they will probably develop more rapidly, and in more ways, than anyone of us can now imagine. The developing toolkit of the astronomers (stellar, planetary, and exoplanetary) will be shaped and improved as a result of this focus for at least the rest of this century.* New Perspectives Quarterly, Vol 21, pp. 73-77, 2004

  16. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country...

  17. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country...

  18. Mozart and medicine in the eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J S

    1995-07-01

    Over the years the medical history and death of Mozart have been the subject of many studies, but in spite of all this attention much remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the difficulty it is useful to see his life, and that of his family as recorded in their letters, in the context of medicine in eighteenth-century Europe.

  19. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  20. Surviving 1000 centuries can we do it?

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, Roger-Maurice

    2010-01-01

    This full color book provides a quantitative view of our civilization over the next 100,000 years. The authors present the dangers and stress the importance of taking decisions in the 21st century to ensure the long-term survival of people on Earth.

  1. PR in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, Dan; Toon, John

    1994-01-01

    The ways in which advancing technology will affect college and university public relations and the mass media in the next century are examined, and a survey of 60 campus public relations specialists and 40 journalists concerning predicted changes is reported. Implications for campus communications with the media are also discussed. (MSE)

  2. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  3. A Day in the Nineteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanton, Ann Halpenny

    1982-01-01

    Describes a living history program on life in nineteenth-century San Diego for secondary students. During tours of a restored Victorian house, students view slides of historical photographs, study clothing and furniture styles, and participate in typical sewing, cooking, and cleaning chores. (AM)

  4. Black Women Workers in the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Debra Lynn

    1986-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century one-third of black women worked; most did agricultural or domestic work. Gradually as employment benefits increased and anti-discrimination laws were enforced, work opportunities for black women became more varied and better paying. (VM)

  5. Learning Analytics for 21st Century Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Crick, Ruth Deakin

    2016-01-01

    Many educational institutions are shifting their teaching and learning towards equipping students with knowledge, skills, and dispositions that prepare them for lifelong learning, in a complex and uncertain world. These have been termed "21st century competencies." Learning analytics (LA) approaches in general offer different kinds of…

  6. Wackernagel's Law in Fifth-Century Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David Michael

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the distribution of the pronominal clitics and the modal particle [Special characters omitted.] in fifth-century Greek (more specifically in Herodotus, the tragedians, and Aristophanes), which is typically assumed to be governed by Wackernagel's Law. It argues for a prosody-dominant model of clitic distribution,…

  7. The "Casa dei Bambini": A Century Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the early history of Montessori education from the Italian State Orthophrenic School to the opening of the original Casa dei Bambini in San Lorenzo, Italy on January 6, 1907. Includes a synopsis of Maria Montessori's progressive revelations of the child's developing self over the past century. (JPB)

  8. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  9. Making Sense of the Eighteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Pressures on curriculum time force us all to make difficult choices about curriculum content, but the eighteenth century seems to have suffered particular neglect. Inspired by the tercentenary of the accession of the first Georgian king and the interest in the Acts of Union prompted by this year's referendum on Scottish independence, Katharine…

  10. Defining War for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    over the centuries. It adapted to medievalism , the rise of the nation state, and the emergence of international organizations, so it can adapt to a...Dr. Vlahos has published over 80 articles, appearing in, among oth- ers, Foreign Affairs, Washington Quarterly, The Times Literary Supplement

  11. Phonetics of English in the nineteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    grew. This was reflected in the appearance of a large number of books and other publications dealing with speech sound, and also in the application of phonetics to such diverse areas as language teaching, elocution, teaching the deaf, shorthand writing and dialectology. The nineteenth century can...

  12. Toward the 21st Century for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Ruth H.

    1975-01-01

    The International Women's Year Conference decided that the key to the future for women throughout the world was continuing education enabling women to gain a sense of self realization, promote family life, increase options, and to contribute their talents to a better world in the 21st century. (Author/BP)

  13. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material...

  14. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  15. Soaring into the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, John

    1993-01-01

    Describes the implementation of ideas from the National Congress on Catholic Schools for the 21st Century at Saint Thomas Aquinas School in the South Bronx. Discusses Catholic identity, school spirit, social change, and school development with respect to the school's long-range planning for success in an economically depressed neighborhood. (MAB)

  16. Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, David

    1983-01-01

    Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

  17. 20th-Century Gold Rush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    Presents Nevada's gold rush activities spurred by technological advancements in search methods. Describes the events that led to the twentieth-century gold rush, the techniques for finding deposits and the geological formation process of disseminated gold deposits. Vignettes present the gold extraction process, cross-section, and profile of a…

  18. Twentieth-Century Art: Issues of Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Julie

    1990-01-01

    Presents lesson plans designed for secondary students that assess the role of naturalistic representation in twentieth-century art by examining the artwork of four artists: Pablo Picasso, Rene Magritte, David Smith, and Jackson Pollock. Provides background information on each illustration, and outlines discussion and art production activities for…

  19. Análise epidemiológica de lesões no futebol de salão durante o XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Seleções Sub 20 Análisis epidemiológico de las lesiones en el fútbol de salón durante el XV Campeonato Brasileño de Selecciones Sub 20 Epidemiologic analysis of injuries occurred during the 15th Brazilian Indoor Soccer (Futsal Sub20 Team Selection Championship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Nogueira Ribeiro

    2006-02-01

    para investigar la ocurrencia de lesiones durante las salidas. La tasa de respuesta fue de 100%. RESULTADOS: Un total de 32 lesiones fueron registradas durante los 23 partidos con una incidencia de 1.39 lesion para salida o 208.6 lesiones para 1.000 horas/juego. Aproximadamente 1 a 3 lesiones por partido provocaron la salida de jugadores en partidos o entrenamientos. Las lesiones por contacto eran predominantes en 65.62% (21 de las 32 lesiones, y la mayoría de esas lesiones no producía la salida de los jugadores. CONCLUSIONES: El estudio presente observó que la incidencia de las lesiones durante el XV Campeonato Brasileño de Fútbol de salón Sub 20 fue similar a la incidencia observada en los torneos de Fútbol de salón pero superior a los hallazgos en los torneos del fútbol, caracterizando la especificidad del deporte. Sin embargo, las circunstancias y características son similares entre ellos debido a la similitud de demanda del deporte.INTRODUCTION: Several authors have investigated the incidence of injuries occurred in the outdoor soccer game. However, there are only few works analyzing injuries occurred in the indoor soccer game (futsal. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence, circumstances, and characteristics of injuries recorded in the indoor soccer during the 15th Brazilian Sub20 Futsal Championship. METHODS: Physiotherapists and doctors of every team selection participating in the 15th Brazilian Sub20 Futsal Championship answered a questionnaire with the purpose to investigate the occurrence of injuries during the games. The answering rate was 100%. RESULTS: 32 total injuries were recorded along 23 games, with a 1.39 injury incidence per game, or 208.6 injuries per 1,000/game. Approximately 1 to 3 injuries per game resulted in removal of players from gaming or training. Contact injuries were predominant in 65.62% (21 out of 32 injuries, and most of these injuries did not result in removal of the players. CONCLUSIONS: The present study

  20. Vision & Strategy: Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Vision & Strategy: Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century Daniel L. Villeneuve* and Natàlia Garcia-Reyero In the 20th century, predicting...2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...century ecotoxicology can do Researchers have, for the first time, identi- fied the mechanisms of action of two toxins released by certain microalgae

  1. Heliportable drilling in the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argue, F. [Academy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Korach, D. [Nabors Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States); Read, M. [Nabors Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The access season for conventional ice roads has been reduced. Therefore, efficient drilling programs are required for a short winter drilling, and long wells are not able to compete in one season. Heliportable drilling provides non-ice access. This presentation outlined the merits of heliportable drilling in the twenty-first century. Conventional heliportable drilling was discussed and several images of current and past heliportable drilling rigs were presented. New technologies were also illustrated and discussed, with particular reference to the Mi26T enabler, a Russian super heavy lift helicopter, leased to Airborne Energy Solutions. Operating data for the Mi26T was also presented and the heli-drill system was explained. Several twenty-first century heli-rigs were also illustrated and described, including rig 119H, rig 103AC, rig 106E, rig 99AC, and rig 105E. Last, the presentation identified the next steps for heli-rigs. tabs., figs.

  2. Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, J M; Shen, Chuanjian

    2000-01-01

    The past century of interstellar dust has brought us from first ignoring it to finding that it plays an important role in the evolution of galaxies. Current observational results in our galaxy provide a complex physical and chemical evolutionary picture of interstellar dust starting with the formation of small refractory particles in stellar atmospheres to their modification in diffuse and molecular clouds and ultimately to their contribution to star forming regions. Observations of the properties of dust in very young galaxies will be an important probe of the rates of star formation in terms of the production and destruction of dust grains. Future observations of dust at high spectral and spatial resolution will provide detailed information on processes in collapsing clouds up to star formation. Space missions to comets in the next century will first study them in situ but ultimately will bring back pristine nucleus material which will contain the end product of the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud at ...

  3. Detergents of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Tan Tai Louis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  4. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 21st century, human reproduction increasingly involves decisions about which gametes to fertilize, which embryos to implant, or which fetuses to abort. The term ‘selective reproduction’ refers to these increasingly widespread efforts to bring specific kinds of children into being....... To this end, selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) have been developed and routinized over the last few decades. In today’s world, selective reproduction is taking place on a historically unprecedented scale; through sex-selective abortions following ultrasound scans, termination of pregnancies following...... detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening and testing programs, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century provides unique ethnographic insights...

  5. A new neuropsychology for the XXI century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Regardless of the significant interest in comparing neuropsychological syndromes across cultures, little interest is observed in comparing these syndromes across time. Most of the neuropsychological syndromes were described during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (e.g., aphasia, alexia, agraphia, acalculia, etc.). However, living conditions have so dramatically changed during the last 100 years that those classical neuropsychological syndromes have to be re-stated and reconsidered; eventually, new syndromes could be proposed. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of the new living conditions in spoken language, written language, numerical abilities, memory, spatial orientation, people recognition, and executive functions is presented. It is concluded that it is time to re-analyze and re-interpret the classical neuropsychological syndromes; and develop new assessment procedures, more in accordance with the twenty-first century living conditions.

  6. Nineteenth Century Public And Private Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMA REMINA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate the public and private spheres. The former represents the area in which each of us carries out their daily activities, while the latter is mirrored by the home. Kate Chopin and Charlotte Perkins Gilman are two salient nineteenth-century writers who shape the everyday life of the historical period they lived in, within their literary works that shed light on the areas under discussion.

  7. Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The past century of interstellar dust has brought us from first ignoring it to finding that it plays an important role in the evolution of galaxies. Current observational results in our galaxy provide a complex physical and chemical evolutionary picture of interstellar dust starting with the formation of small refractory particles in stellar atmospheres to their modification in diffuse and molecular clouds and ultimately to their contribution to star forming regions. Observations of the prope...

  8. Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The author concludes that the world will most probably remain rife with conflict even in the twenty first century and that the traditional role of intelligence will not only continue but will increase in importance. He characterizes the international situation as being "more of the same historically"; that is, the existence of several different centers of power and mutual conflicts based solely on national interests. In order to protect and promote one's national interests, sovereign states w...

  9. Egyptian Agriculture in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, C; Hillel, D.

    1994-01-01

    In order to perform a proper, integrated assessment of potential climate change impacts on Egypt it was necessary to accurately identify important and impending issues and problems which are and will be facing the Egyptian agriculture sector into the next century. To this aim, two experts in the fields of Agronomy and Irrigated Agriculture in the Middle East were asked to travel to Egypt in order to assess the current state of Egyptian agriculture and pose possible questions and scenarios tha...

  10. The 21st century chemistry journal

    OpenAIRE

    Bachrach, Steven M

    1999-01-01

    Internet publication will radically alter how chemists will publish their research in the next century. In this article, we describe two fundamental changes: enhanced chemical publication which allows chemists to publish materials that cannot be published on paper and end-user customization which allows readers to read articles prepared to meet their specifications. These concepts have been implemented within the Internet Journal of Chemistry, a new journal designed to employ the latest techn...

  11. Irish return migration in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, M

    1985-01-01

    This study is concerned with return migration to Ireland from the United States during the nineteenth century. The author first notes that the rate of return migration was relatively low. Reasons for returning are then considered, including inheritance and poor health. Data on 671 Irish returnees from passenger lists of ships arriving in the United Kingdom from the United States between 1858 and 1867 are analyzed with regard to sex, marital status, age, occupations, and impact of returnees.

  12. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  13. Dance Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Anne Green

    2005-01-01

    Margaret H'Doubler brought the magic of dance to the 20th century, yet the 21st century has yet to find a person to rekindle the same public desire for dance education. Consequently, the future of dance education in the next century is hard to predict. Based on an informal survey of fellow advisory board members of Dance and the Child…

  14. Science for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  15. Groundhog Day: Expectation Management by Examining Warfare in the Early Twentieth Century Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Serbian. 86 hern ict h s e le ayton Peace Accords, signed in December 1991 and the subsequ people ir to ere willing to burn the house or...Croats and Slovenes after World War I. On June 12th, the European Union recognized the new nation and the United States followed on June 15th.12 elt

  16. A Century of Progress in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Discoveries and the Next Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Eduardo; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Chen, Gilad

    2017-02-16

    In a century of research published in the Journal of Applied Psychology, we have seen significant advances in our science. The results of this science have broad applications to the workplace and implications for improving organizational effectiveness through a variety of avenues. Research has focused on understanding constructs, relationships, and processes at multiple levels, including individual, team, and organizational. A plethora of research methods and questions have driven this work, resulting in a nuanced understanding of what matters in the workplace. In this paper, we synthesize the most salient discoveries, findings, and/or conclusions in 19 domains. We seek to summarize the progress that has been made and highlight the most salient directions for future work such that the next century of research in industrial and organizational psychological science can be as impactful as the first century has been. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. 19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Öztekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A city is a place whose meaning is found in the poetry created there. In Kevin Lynch’s words, a city presents the imagination with an unlimited potential for “readability”. If we consider this unlimited readability through poetry, it can be said that attempts to find the zeitgeist of a city at a certain time through literary texts must evaluate the poetry, the city and the time. This is because poetry (or literature in general, just like a city, has an important memory which oscillates through ideas of its past and future. In this sense, divan poetry and one particular example of it—historical “manzume” poems—are memories which richly illustrate the ‘continuity’ and ‘change’ within a period. This work, on 19th century Ankara, aims to evaluate the traces reflected in historical manzume poems of the time they were written. Five historical manzume poems in three texts out of seventy 19th century divan collections scanned for this work were found to be about Ankara. Two of these manzumes are by Cazib, one by Ziver Pasha, and one by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha. The first of these is on Ankara’s dervish lodge; the second on a barracks being built in Ankara; the third on Vecihi Pasha’s governorship of Ankara; the fourth on the the Mayoral Residence. In addition to these, a manzume on the construction of Hamidiye Caddesi by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha is discovered with in scope of the work. The aim of this work is to provide a contribution to city history through a commentary on elements of 19th century poetry concerning Ankara.

  18. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country....... The duties on grain in Malta were therefore not protectionist, but rather for revenue purposes, in contrast to the UK Corn Laws. Taxing an inelastic demand for foreign wheat by Maltese, who were unable to grow enough food to support themselves, was certainly an effective way of raising revenue, but probably...

  19. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country....... The duties on grain in Malta were therefore not protectionist, but rather for revenue purposes, in contrast to the UK Corn Laws. Taxing an inelastic demand for foreign wheat by Maltese, who were unable to grow enough food to support themselves, was certainly an effective way of raising revenue, but probably...

  20. Inspiring facility fuses a century of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-04-01

    Creating a 21st Century mental healthcare facility which would soon be world-renowned both for its quality of care, and for the high standard of its buildings, was the overriding goal of the project team behind the new pound 75 million, 312-bed Roseberry Park mental healthcare facility in Middlesbrough. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie visited the new PFI facility to discover more about the sizeable new mental healthcare "village", which was highly commended at the 2010 Building Better Healthcare Awards, from MAAP Architects lead designer and director Raechal Ferguson, and project director at the Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys (TEWV) NHS Foundation Trust John Ord.

  1. Haphazard Reality Half a Century of Science

    CERN Document Server

    Casimir, HBG

    2010-01-01

    Casimir, himself a famous physician, studied and worked with three great physicists of the twentieth century: Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli and Paul Ehrenfest. In his autobiography, the brilliant theoretician lets the reader witness the revolution that led to quantum physics, whose influence on modern society turned out to be many times larger than the first atomic physicists could have imagined. Through his involvement in the technical-scientific and the business aspects of physics, through management positions at Philips Research Laboratory and as a member of the Board of Directors of Philips,

  2. Mammalian developmental genetics in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-12-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas.

  3. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  4. A century of Levi-Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a critical overview of the life and career of Claude Lévi Strauss, who turned 100 on 28 November 2008. He has been labelled as one of the most influential anthropologists of the last century, and this paper presents a brief outline of the methodology associated with structural anthropology. The author emphasizes important shift from the total social fact to the actual understanding of the fundamentals of human society, as well as mentioning some of his key works.

  5. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  6. Teratology in Mexico. 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Frida

    2014-01-01

    It was not until the last third of the 19th century, the period in which, according to historiography, the country definitely inserted itself into modernity, that anomalies and monstrosities had a presence in Mexico. Therefore, what I present here are four moments of teratology in Mexico, four dates in which I try to recount how teratology, which still occupied a marginal place within the main themes of national science, not only reached to cover the realm of medical discussions at the time, but also laid the foundations for new disciplines like biology and anthropology.

  7. Linguistics in the 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷

    2017-01-01

    In the 20th century, linguistics flourished in western countries. Many schools and linguists came into 0being so that theories of modern linguistics were put forward at that age. Some schools and their thoughts exerted an influence on the development of modern linguistics. What is even more important is that Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, who made a discipline which was caled modern linguistics. And he is described the father of modern linguistics. A lot of schools added color to the modern linguistics. Therefore, modern linguistics started to take center stage.

  8. Poverty in the first-century Galilee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari Häkkinen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Ancient world poverty was a visible and common phenomenon. According to estimations 9 out of 10 persons lived close to the subsistence level or below it. There was no middle class. The state did not show much concern for the poor. Inequality and disability to improve one’s social status were based on honour and shame, culture and religion.In order to understand the activity of Jesus and the early Jesus movement in Galilee, it is essential to know the social and economic context where he and his followers came. The principal literary source in first-century Galilee is Josephus, who provides a very incomplete glimpse of the political and economic character of the Galilee and his account is both tendentious and selfserving. There is no consensus among the scholars on the conditions of ordinary people in Galilee at the time of Jesus and the early Jesus movement. The evidence can be interpreted either so that first-century Galilee was peaceful and people had somewhat better times economically because of the large building projects, or just the opposite – the building projects demanded a lot more taxes and forced labour and made life even more difficult. In this article it is argued that the latter conditions explain better the birth and rapid increase of the early Jesus movement in Galilee.

  9. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  10. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbyshire Philip

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice.

  11. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  12. POLITICAL ISLAM IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Izquierdo Brichs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, political Islam or Islamism has created enormous concern both in the political media and the news media. The revolution in Iran in the late 1970s and the election victory by FIS in Algeria in the late 1980s represented two decisive points in the popular and ideological mobilisation by Islamist groups. Immediately after that, the civil war in Algeria and terrorist violence left their mark on the 1990s. The perception of Islamism today is still associated, in many cases, with the dynamics of the end of the past century, and with the jihadism of a few fundamentalist groups, without taking into account the fact that the majority of Islamist groups have undergone an enormous evolution, and that the context in which they are operating is also very different. As we will see, instead of the jihadism or the ideological radicalness of the past century, today’s political Islam is much better represented by the moderation (both ideological and in terms of political activity of Turkey’s AKP party, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Morocco’s PJD, Tunisia’s al-Nahdah and most of the parties and large groups. Central factors in this dynamic of moderation are, on one hand, the link between Islamist groups with regimes and, on the other, the claims for and acceptance of liberal democracy as a strategy in their political struggle.

  13. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  14. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  15. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  16. History of twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1995-01-01

    The meaning and message of the history of science will be discussed with relevance to XX century physics. This decisive period began in 1894-95 with the discoveries of the electron,X-rays and radioactivity,with the consequent development of relativity and quantumphysics. Connections of the development of science and society in XX century with culture and the influence on industry will be examined. Finally, the corruption of physics by the military will be considered. The influence of physics on chemistry and biology will be briefly treated and the impact of the approach and method of physics on modern thinking will be assessed. It should be kept in mind that the history of science is not a way of getting a simplified or adulterated presentation of the subject ,in this case of physics and so some understanding of general physics will be assumed. On the other hand, the broader generalisations of the history of ideas and events are illustrated (if not proven) by the facts (and myths) of science. Finally,as an e...

  17. Nineteenth-Century Anglo-Irish Cervantine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Altuna-García de Salazar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available To commemorate the fourth centenary of the publication of the first part of the Spanish masterpiece of all times Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes, this article approaches in an introductory manner some of the literary productions which sprang from Cervantes’s original within the Irish context. In the case of Ireland the Cervantine inspiration, albeit minor and neglected, has also been present; and, it is most probably the nineteenth century which provides the most ample and varied response to Cervantes’s masterpiece in many a different way. Our aim is to see briefly how the legacy of Don Quixote found distinct expression on the Emerald Isle. Indeed, all these Cervantine contributions from Ireland during the nineteenth century were also deeply imbued with the politics of literature and society in a country which experienced historical, social and cultural turmoil. The reference to Cervantes as a key writer in Spanish letters will not only be reduced to his masterpiece of all times; but, will also be tackled in critical pieces of importance in Ireland.

  18. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ted G

    2014-01-01

    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  19. Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David R.

    Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could…

  20. Imagining the Twentieth Century: Retrospective, Myth, and the Colonial Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B MacDonald

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectives on the twentieth century often portray it as the most atrocious century in human history, in terms of totalising ideologies, moral abandonment, technological horror, and mass death. The nineteenth and earlier centuries, by contrast, emerge as progressive and enlightened eras, characterised by morality, rationalism, and the absence of war. Creating a dramatic contrast between old and new centuries ignores the historical reality of colonialism and violence outside Europe’s borders. This article problematises twentieth century retrospectives and their nostalgia for the past, comparing these with recent histories of colonialism and genocide. Rather than see the twentieth century as a decisive break from the past, there are important elements of continuity and evolution which should not be ignored.

  1. Boosting 21st Century Skills through Moroccan ELT Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Ait Bouzid

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that the changing realities of the 21st century necessitate a fundamental shift in language education towards promoting 21st Century Skills. This paper investigates the extent to which three Moroccan ELT textbooks currently used in teaching second year Baccalaureate students in public high school provide activities that help learners build skills that match the needs of the 21st century. It also explores the types of activities that are used to promote these skills and eventual...

  2. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  3. Osteogenic Sarcoma: A 21st Century Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osasan, Stephen; Zhang, Mingyong; Shen, Fan; Paul, Paulose J; Persad, Sujata; Sergi, Consolato

    2016-09-01

    Compared to other bone tumors, bone osteogenic sarcoma (BOS) continues to confer a much grimmer prognosis as the survival benefit of traditional chemotherapy treatment regimens is still unsatisfactory. Chemotherapy was demonstrated to be effective in eradicating both primary tumor and pulmonary metastases in the last century, with effective agents used in various combination regimens having changed the survival rate from less than 10% to 75%. The most common primary bone cancer, BOS is conventionally a primary intramedullary high-grade malignant tumor characterized by malignant cells forming immature bone or osteoid. BOS is a disease with diverse morphological presentations. The treatment of all morphological variants seem to have been the same for over 30 years. The introduction of antiproliferative agents such as insulin growth factor-binding protein 3 hold promise of a potentially veritable therapeutic target. In this review, we highlight recent data on osteosarcoma to consolidate a platform able to connect bench and bedside.

  4. Unmarried motherhood in twentieth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thane, Pat

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of unmarried mothers who kept and tried to raise their children between World War One and the end of the twentieth century. It argues that there has not been a simple progression from their experiencing social stigma and ostracism to more enlightened attitudes since the 1970s. Rather there is a great deal that has hitherto been unknown about what the evidence suggests were very diverse experiences and attitudes throughout the period. A major change since the 1970s has been from pervasive secrecy about unmarried motherhood, cohabitation, adultery and similar 'irregular' practices, especially among the middle classes, to greater openness. The article uses a variety of sources, including the records of the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and Her Child (founded in 1918, now One Parent Families), oral histories, contemporary interviews and official and unofficial investigations.

  5. Interventional radiology: a half century of innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Richard A; Baum, Stanley

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of modern interventional radiology began over half century ago with a simple question. Was it possible to use the same diagnostic imaging tools that had revolutionized the practice of medicine to guide the real-time treatment of disease? This disruptive concept led to rapid treatment advances in every organ system of the body. It became clear that by utilizing imaging some patients could undergo targeted procedures, eliminating the need for major surgery, while others could undergo procedures for previously unsolvable problems. The breadth of these changes now encompasses all of medicine and has forever changed the way we think about disease. In this brief review article, major advances in the field, as chronicled in the pages of Radiology, will be described.

  6. Space Biology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Krauss, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Biology is poised to make significant contributions to science in the next century. A carefully crafted, but largely ground-based, program in the United States has evolved major questions that require answers through experiments in space. Science, scientists, and the new long-term spacecrafts designed by NASA will be available for the first time to mount a serious Space Biology effort. The scientific challenge is of such importance that success will provide countless benefits to biologically dependent areas such as medicine, food, and commerce in the decades ahead. The international community is rapidly expanding its role in this field. The United States should generate the resources that will allow progress in Space Biology to match the recognized progress made in aeronautics and the other space sciences.

  7. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths.

  8. A Half-century of SETI Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuch, H. Paul

    We begin our journey with a brief review of half a century of SETI science. The material in this introductory chapter is offered for the benefit of those educated laypersons whose enthusiasm for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence exceeds their detailed knowledge of the relevant technologies. It is my hope that readers of this volume will better appreciate the material which follows if they first have a basic understanding of SETI concepts. Hence, I offer an overview, which is intended not to be exhaustive, but rather representative. Together, we will explore the nature of radio telescopes, experimental design strategies, SETI instrumentation, signal analysis, and the hallmarks of artificiality that allow us to differentiate between natural astrophysical emissions and intelligent interstellar transmissions. If you are already a technical specialist in these areas, feel free to bypass this introduction, and proceed directly to the subsequent chapters.

  9. Architectural restoration: different conceptions during centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Lorusso

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The work reassumes the fundamental phases, in reference to the historical changes, of the conceptions related to the restoration and to the maintenance of the architectural works of art. It is opportune to reassume the evolution of the methods and the techniques applied to the restoration of the aforesaid manufactured articles, also in relationship to the theoretical conceptions. The explication of the routine of restoration has concerned particularly the actual applications. Close to the theory and to the routine of the restoration it has been set in evidence the development of the concept of "maintenance", understood as preliminary and complementary to the restoration itself: such concept has been express referring to the Charters of restoration from the beginning of the last century to today. It is intended, therefore, to follow a historical-critical path conceived in the different, and also complementary, phases of historical, aesthetical and technological development.

  10. Cooperative learning in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century brings four important challenges in which cooperation plays a central role: (1 a rapidly increasing global interdependence that will result in increasing local diversity as well as more frequent and intense conflicts, (2 the increasing number of democracies throughout the world, (3 the need for creative entrepreneurs, and (4 the growing importance of interpersonal relationships that affect the development of personal identity. The tools for meeting these challenges include cooperative learning. In this article the nature of cooperative learning will be reviewed, the underlying theory of social interdependence will be discussed, and the results of the research on cooperative learning will be briefly reviewed. The way in which cooperative learning contributes to meeting the four challenges will then be discussed.

  11. Six centuries of changing oceanic mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxu; Jaeglé, Lyatt; Thompson, LuAnne; Streets, David G.

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global and persistent contaminant, affecting human health primarily via marine fish consumption. Large anthropogenic releases of Hg to the atmosphere by mining and coal combustion have resulted in a significant perturbation to the biogeochemical cycling of Hg. The magnitude of this perturbation and the relative roles of the ocean and land as sinks for anthropogenic Hg remain unclear. Here we use a 3-D global ocean biogeochemical model to show that surface ocean Hg concentrations have increased fourfold over the last 600 years. We find that anthropogenic Hg enters the ocean's interior predominantly by absorption onto sinking organic matter particulates, which decompose and release Hg at a depth of 500-800 m, implying that the human perturbation is largest in subsurface waters of biologically productive regions. Our model simulation predicts that over the last six centuries half of emitted anthropogenic Hg has accumulated in the oceans and marine sediments.

  12. Financial crises of XIX century in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Moshenskyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article systematically examines the course of major financial crises of the late nineteenth century (the crises of 1848, 1857, 1873 in the financial centers of Ukraine at that time, namely Kуiv, Lviv, Odessa. The paper shows the specifics of these financial centers connected with the investments in profitable sugar industry of Kyiv; with the international trade and massive exports of grain in Odessa; with the beginning of Galician oil extraction and the creation of numerous oil companies in Lviv. After brief description of these crises in the world the author provides the numerous examples for each of the financial centers revealing their specificity inUkraine. The main emphasis is given on the impact of the crises on securities markets, particularly on the dynamics of stock prices.

  13. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  14. 15th International Conference on Man–Machine–Environment System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Balbir

    2015-01-01

    This research topic was first established in China by Professor ShengZhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, XueSen Qian. In a letter to ShengZhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, XueSen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science subject and technology in China!” MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between Man, Machine and Environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “Man” refers to working people as the subject in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “Machine” is the general name for any object controlled by Man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “Environment” describes the specific working conditions under which Man and Machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization are to ensure safety, efficiency and economy. These proceedings are an academic showcase of t...

  15. A Rapidly Evolving Active Region NOAA 8032 observed on April 15th, 1997

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shibu K. Mathew; Ashok Ambastha

    2000-09-01

    The active region NOAA 8032 of April 15, 1997 was observed to evolve rapidly. The GOES X-ray data showed a number of sub-flares and two C-class flares during the 8-9 hours of its evolution. The magnetic evolution of this region is studied to ascertain its role in flare production. Large changes were observed in magnetic field configuration due to the emergence of new magnetic flux regions (EFR). Most of the new emergence occured very close to the existing magnetic regions, which resulted in strong magnetic field gradients in this region. EFR driven reconnection of the field lines and subsequent flux cancellation might be the reason for the continuous occurrence of sub-flares and other related activities.

  16. Report on LEReC Recombination Monitor APEX Study on June 15th 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Curcio, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-21

    During the prospective Low Energy RHIC electron Cooling (LEReC) operation, the electron beam will overlap and interact with the low energy ion beam to provide transverse cooling. Cooling is needed to facilitate reaching the BES-2 (Beam Energy Scan 2) program goals of an average store luminosity of 5 × 1024 cm-2 s-1 at 3.85 GeV/n and 17.3 × 1024 cm-2 s-1 at 9.1 GeV/n. The RHIC phase of BES-2 is currently planned for the RHIC runs in 2019 and 2020. Effective cooling will depend on the accuracy of velocity matching between the two beams. Another process, the rate of ion-electron recombination, is also maximized when the velocities are matched but the exact matching requirement is less stringent. Therefore, as suggested by one of us, detecting and maximizing recombination signals should be helpful in finding the narrow velocity matching window conducive to cooling. When 197Au79+ RHIC ions pick up an electron from the LEREeC electron beam they are converted into 197Au78+ ions with nearly the same momentum while having about 1.3% higher magnetic rigidity than the original 197Au79+ particles. The detection of the recombined ions can be done by driving the 197Au78+ beam into the beam pipe wall, creating showers of secondary particles which then can be detected outside the cryostat by using appropriately positioned detectors. For the purpose of forcing losses of the expected off-momentum particles a dedicated lattice with large horizontal dispersion in one arc was proposed and designed.

  17. 15th International Conference on Global Research and Education Inter-Academia 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Szewczyk, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Developments in the connected fields of solid state physics, bioengineering, mechatronics and nanometrology have had a profound effect on the emergence of modern technologies and their influence on our lives. In all of these fields, understanding and improving the basic underlying materials is of crucial importance for the development of systems and applications. The International Conference Inter-Academia 2016 has successfully married these fields and become a regular feature in the conference calendar. It consisted of seven thematic areas in the field of material science, nanotechnology, biotechnology, plasma physics, metrology, robotics, sensors and devices. The book Recent Global Research and Education: Technological Challenges is intended for use in academic, government and industry R&D departments, as an indispensable reference tool for the years to come. Also, we hope that the volume can serve the world community as the definitive reference source in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. T...

  18. Transducer Workshop (15th), Held in Cocoa Beach, Florida on June 20-22, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    management tools Ike barcoded serial numbers, and Sensor Calibrator", Lally, M. J., Barney, P. S., archived sensitivity data bases Many of the advances...Code RS RD, Work Unit 00073, DNA MIPR 87-577, Program Element 62715. The Weapons Laboratory (4L) has developed the large explosively-driven flyer plate...devices, active or passive. Potential The final phase will concentrate on miniaturizing RSCI applications to lossil and nuclear power plants arc under

  19. Annual Technical Symposium (15th). Volume 4. Number 2. Program Issue,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    LedeJUnaL ’L AwaitdPko~~~~ 1ona.e Ac,k-Levemen-t Awa.kd ASE SLEveA Meda l Aj .~ia.’td GUEST SPEAKER ADDRESS Adm~Utal ThomaA H. Moo.’teit , USN (Re-t.jFon~neA...tending Pre siding at the ceremony was Rear this week f rom f a th e r to son , Eric , whoA dm ir a l James i . Lisanby , Commander , on 6 February in

  20. Brick & Click Libraries: An Academic Library Conference (15th, Maryville, Missouri, November 6, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudino, Frank, Ed.; Johnson, Carolyn, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen scholarly papers and seventeen abstracts comprise the content of the fifteenth annual Brick and Click Libraries Conference, held annually at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. The proceedings, authored by academic librarians and presented at the symposium, portray the contemporary and future face of librarianship.…

  1. Handy Key to Your "National Geographics": Subject and Picture Locator. 15th Edition, 1915-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Charles S., Comp.

    This classified subject index provides access to articles and illustrations appearing in the National Geographic Magazine over a period of 67 years. Detailed topics are grouped under broader alphabetical headings, and people are listed only as featured subjects of articles. See and see also references are included. The introduction explains the…

  2. 77 FR 45582 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Preliminary Results of the 15th (2010) Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Certificazione Etica e Ambientale are also excluded from the order. See Memorandum from Audrey Twyman to Susan Kuhbach, dated February 28, 2006, entitled ``Recognition of Instituto per la Certificazione Etica...

  3. Members of the German Federal Parliament Research Committee visiting ALICE experiment on Wednesday, 15th November.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    From left to right Mr Georg Jürgens, Counsellor at the German Mission in Geneva; MdB Klaus Hagemann, SPD; MdB Cornelia Pieper, FDP, Stellvertretende Ausschussvorsitzende, Delegationsleiterin; MdB Dr. Petra Sitte, DIE LINKE; MdB Ilse Aigner, CDU/CSU; MdB Carsten Müller, CDU/CSU; Mr Andreas Meyer, Leiter Ausschusssekretariat; MdB Jörg Tauss, SPD.

  4. Eight Sages over Five Centuries Share Oxygen's Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinghaus, John W.

    2016-01-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color.…

  5. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  6. Software Engineering Technology for the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the software engineering technologyfor the 21 st century. First we review development over the last half-century, overview application re quirement and environment, accept a challenge. Then we outline following software engineering techniques: 1) Process;2) Analysis;3) Design;4) UML;5) Component;6) Java +XML;7) Integrated;8) Quality(ISO9000&CMM).

  7. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude

    2016-01-01

    in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over...... the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest...... and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries....

  8. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  9. Phytotherapy in medieval Serbian medicine according to the pharmacological manuscripts of the Chilandar Medical Codex (15-16th centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Snežana; Mitrović, Miroslava; Djurdjević, Lola; Kostić, Olga; Gajić, Gordana; Pavlović, Dragana; Pavlović, Pavle

    2011-09-01

    The Chilandar Medical Codex is the most significant and best preserved medieval Serbian manuscript and collects together documents on European medical science from the 12th to 15th centuries. It represents the best-known and most complete example of a large collection of medical manuscripts from the Salerno-Montpellier school, written in the vernacular - something which does not exist among the majority of European nations. This paper presents the section of the Codex that deals with phytotherapy, which is contained within the pharmacological manuscripts. An analysis of their contents shows that out of a total of 167 recorded substances, 135 are of plant origin (81%), 13 animal origin (7.7%) and 19 inorganic (11.3%). The recorded plant species are categorised into 63 families, of which the most frequent are: Apiaceae (8.1%), Lamiaceae (8.1%), Asteraceae (5.9%), Rosaceae (5.9%) and Fabaceae (4.4%). All possible plant parts were used in treatments: the whole plant (6%), underground parts (13.7% - root, rhizome, bulb) and aerial parts (80.3% - stem, leaf, flower, buds, fruit, seeds). Of the plants quoted, the following are mentioned most frequently: Vitis sp. (120), Rosa canina (55), Olea europaea (45), Pistacia lentiscus (25), Saccharum officinarum (23), Artemisia absinthium (16) and Foeniculum vulgare (15). The contents of the pharmacological manuscripts of the Chilandar Medical Codex point to the sound contemporary knowledge of the diversity of plant species, their origins, habitat types, the levels of their healing powers, and when and how to gather them and prepare them, as well as the recommended dose for the treatment of specific illnesses. As these manuscripts contain not only common, lay terms for the plants, but also scientific, botanical ones, we can consider them the precursor to Serbian botany. Based on its contents and the way in which they are presented, it can be viewed not only as the first Serbian pharmacopeia, but first Slavic pharmacopeia, too

  10. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  11. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Kasyanov, V [Riga Stradins University, Riga (Latvia); Little, S [South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Swaja, R [South Carolina Bioengineering Alliance, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  12. Infectious diseases in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumate, J

    1997-01-01

    Infecto-contagious diseases in the twenty-first century with respect to precedent will see themselves deprived of smallpox, dracunculiasis and very probably of paralyzing poliomyelitis. Vaccination-preventable diseases, such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, some forms of meningitis, yellow fever and episodes of disseminated tuberculosis will greatly diminish in their rates of morbi-lethality; the elimination of some, and the eradication of measles, are expected. Other diseases such as diarrhea (including cholera), geo-helminthiasis, some severe respiratory tract infections and the majority of vector-transmitted infectious diseases will decrease due to improvements in potable water services, drainage, sanitary food control, living quarters, and individual and community anti-vector action. Leprosy, onchocerciasis and several parasitoses will be controlled by the available antimicrobial drugs. Infectious diseases will continue to be an important health problem due to: Reduction in the immunocompetence resulting from the aging of the population, chemotherapies necessary for neoplasms, and autoimmune pathology and the survival of persons with primary immunodeficiencies; lifestyles prone to infectious pathology, such as mega-city urbanization, children in day care centers, industrialized foods, intravenous drug addiction, sexual liberation, global commerce, and tourism; antibiotic-multiresistant microbial flora; environmental disturbances as a result of global warming, deforestation, the settling of virgin areas, dams, the large-scale use of pesticides, fertilizers and antimicrobials, and natural/social disasters generators of poverty, violence and deprivation will result in emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases already controlled in the past.

  13. Economic and Organisational Wisdom for Asian Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup BARMAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian Century is rich and already 14 years old. Today, Asia is in the middle of a historic transformation which has brought both challenges and opportunities. To meet these challenges, Asian leaders need to devise bold and innovative national policies for pursuing avenues for regional and global cooperation. In the similar way organisation and business in Asia will transform. This transformative whirlpool calls the Asian private sector and public sector organisations for absorption of new wisdom, values and principles in place of 20th century’s management. Overall, the capacity to respond to the changing global economic landscape through flexibility and adaptivness will carry a high premium. This paper delve the issues how Asian Organisations have already been used the wisdom during the global chaos. Deriving from the examples of Asia in the midst of global chaos in many points of time, this present paper attempts to re-focus on organisational wisdom of commitment and ability for Asian organisation, modernization, governance and helping to retool institutions, for enhancing transparency, and finally to develop accountability for organisational resilience and survival.

  14. Psycholinguistics: a half century of monologism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2003-01-01

    The contention of this article is that, since its inception in the mid-twentieth century, mainstream psycholinguistics has been monologistic, that is, has concentrated on monologue as its source of empirical material and has, largely implicitly, involved a monologistic epistemology. The article is not a comprehensive history of psycholinguistics but does attempt to establish a historical perspective. Monologism has been the historical bias of Cartesianism, positivism, behaviorism, and cognitivism. Monologism is concerned only with the person in whom cognition takes place and from whom communication proceeds. It is essentially asocial. By contrast, the merits of dialogism include an openness to the sociocultural, interactive nature of all cognition and communication and an empirical engagement of contextualized discourse situations. Dialogism is presented here not as a supplement to mainstream psycholinguistics but as a radical innovation that construes mainstream psycholinguistics as "strongly misleading if presented as a full theory of communication through spoken interaction" (Linell, 1998, p. 23). Some approaches to dialogism and research on dialogue are critically reviewed.

  15. The Future of Fossil Fuels: A Century of Abundance or a Century of Decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelder, C.

    2012-12-01

    Horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and other advanced technologies have spawned a host of new euphoric forecasts of hydrocarbon abundance. Yet although the world's remaining oil and gas resources are enormous, most of them are destined to stay in the ground due to real-world constraints on price, flow rates, investor appetite, supply chain security, resource quality, and global economic conditions. While laboring under the mistaken belief that it sits atop a 100-year supply of natural gas, the U.S. is contemplating exporting nearly all of its shale gas production even as that production is already flattening due to poor economics. Instead of bringing "energy independence" to the U.S. and making it the top oil exporter, unrestricted drilling for tight oil and in the federal outer continental shelf would cut the lifespan of U.S. oil production in half and make it the world's most desperate oil importer by mid-century. And current forecasts for Canadian tar sands production are as unrealistic as their failed predecessors. Over the past century, world energy production has moved progressively from high quality resources with high production rates and low costs to lower quality resources with lower production rates and higher costs, and that progression is accelerating. Soon we will discover the limits of practical extraction, as production costs exceed consumer price tolerance. Oil and gas from tight formations, shale, bitumen, kerogen, coalbeds, deepwater, and the Arctic are not the stuff of new abundance, but the oil junkie's last dirty fix. This session will highlight the gap between the story the industry tells about our energy future, and the story the data tells about resource size, production rates, costs, and consumer price tolerance. It will show why it's time to put aside unrealistic visions of continued dependence on fossil fuels, face up to a century of decline, and commit ourselves to energy and transportation transition.

  16. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  17. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  18. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  19. Pediatrics in 21(st) Century and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meharban

    2016-11-01

    Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21(st) century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution. There will be reduced burden of genetic diseases because of selective abortions of "defective" fetuses and replacement of "bad" genes with "good" ones by genetic engineering. Availability of totipotent stem cells and developments in transplant technology are likely to revolutionize the management of a variety of hematologic cancers and life-threatening genetic disorders. The possibility of producing flawless designer babies by advances in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is likely to be mired by several ethical and legal issues.The availability of newer vaccines by recombinant technology for emerging infective and for non-infective lifestyle diseases is likely to improve survival and quality of life. There is going to be a greater focus on the "patient" having the disease rather than "disease" per se by practicing holistic pediatrics by effective utilization of alternative or complementary strategies for health care. Due to advances in technology, pediatrics may get further dehumanized. A true healer cannot simply rely on technology; there must be a spiritual bond between the patient and the physician by exploiting the concept of psycho-neuro-immunology and body-mind interactions. In the years to come, physicians are likely to play "god" but medicine can't achieve immortality because anything born must die in accordance with nature's recycling

  20. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  1. Genome Evolution in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, James

    2006-03-01

    Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

  2. American veterinary history: before the nineteenth century. 1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, Bert W

    2014-11-01

    With the development of our present day domesticated animals in America (during the 16th and 17th centuries), it was not long before animal diseases became troublesome and destructive (especially during the latter half of the 18th century). Though veterinary medicine became rather firmly established in many European countries (including England) during the latter half of the 18th century, veterinary medicine was relatively nonexistent in America, with only self-styled animal doctors and farriers (with their empirical and often destructive remedies).

  3. Drought assessment and trends analysis from 20th century to 21st century over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. L.; Ren, L. L.; Tong, R.; Liu, Y.; Cheng, X. R.; Jiang, S. H.; Yuan, F.

    2015-06-01

    Droughts are becoming the most expensive natural disasters in China and have exerted serious impacts on local economic development and ecological environment. The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) provides a unique opportunity to assess scientific understanding of climate variability and change over a range of historical and future period. In this study, fine-resolution multimodel climate projections over China are developed based on 7 CMIP5 climate models under RCP8.5 emissions scenarios by means of Bilinear Interpolation and Bias Correction. The results of downscaled CMIP5 models are evaluated over China by comparing the model outputs with the England Reanalysis CRU3.1 from 1951 to 2000. Accordingly, the results from the output of downscaled models are used to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Time series of SPI has been used to identify drought from 20th century to 21st century over China. The results show that, most areas of China are projected to become wetter as a consequence of increasing precipitation under RCP8.5 scenarios. Detailed examination shows that the SPI show a slightly increasing trend in the future period for the most parts of China, but drought in Southwest region of China will become the norm in the future RCP8.5 scenarios.

  4. XVII CENTURY TURKISH DIVAN POETS WHOSE WORKS HAVE BEEN COMPOSED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri PARMAKSIZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical Turkish poetry and classical Turkish music have been inseparable art branches for centuries. The best examples of music and poems created in the same periods have been the most prominent proof of this. One of these periods without doubt have been 17th century. It has been observed that composers demand divan poetry of 17thand 18thcentury greatly. Mystical poems constitute most of the poems composed in these centuries. Almost all of the poems in the divans of some mystic divan poets have been composed. In this study, the poets in the mentioned century have been determined and then the poems in the new and previous repertoires of these poets have been tried to reveal with screening and comparasion methods .

  5. Redrawing the map: science in twentieth-century China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fa-ti

    2007-09-01

    This essay argues that science in twentieth-century China is a rich topic that can be productively integrated into research and teaching on the history of modern science. It identifies major issues of science in twentieth-century China and demonstrates that they can prove useful to any scholar who wishes to consider science in a comparative and trans/international context. The essay suggests two important steps for a fruitful investigation into the topic of science in twentieth-century China: first, revising the historiographic assumptions and categories that underlie much of the conventional historical narrative of modern science; and, second, breaking free from the tunnel history of national science. To illustrate these points, the essay examines a series of case studies of science in modern China and discusses the relevance of such subjects as scientific nationalism, Maoist mass science, and transnational scientific networks for the understanding of science in the twentieth-century world.

  6. Seaweed technology for India for the twentyfirst century

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.

    Some of the concepts regarding seaweed technology which require particular attention for its effective utilization during the twentyfirst century are discussed. Major thrust areas would be application of different techniques like remote sensing...

  7. Texting While Parenting: a 21st Century Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Texting While Parenting: A 21st Century Trap Smartphones can get in the way of family life, and stress is the result, study finds To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news ...

  8. Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

  9. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  10. Alan Turing: person of the XXth century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Ron, José M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available “Time” magazine chose Albert Einstein as “Person of the Century.” This was undoubtedly a reasonable choice, but as I will argue in this article, there are also good reasons for contending that Turing might have received this honor. One such reason I consider here is his purely scientific work, which stems from the greatest mathematical tradition, and how it affected the development of mathematics itself and was finally instrumental in shaping a new technological world. This is true both as regards the computation and treatment of information as well as the establishment of new forms of social relations. In relation to the foregoing, we have Turing’s contributions to the deciphering of secret codes during the Second World War, which in a somewhat metaphorical sense may be regarded as a new tool for undermining personal privacy, that civil right whose denial finally ruined his lifeEn diciembre de 1999, la revista Time eligió a Albert Einstein “The Person of the Century”. Fue, no cabe duda, una elección razonable, pero, como se argumenta en este artículo, existen también buenos argumentos para sostener que Turing podría haber recibido tal honor. En apoyo de semejante tesis están sus trabajos puramente científicos, que se esbozan aquí, trabajos que entroncan con la mejor tradición matemática, y cómo afectaron al desarrollo matemático, siendo finalmente instrumentales en la configuración de un nuevo mundo tecnológico, tanto en lo que al cálculo y manejo de información se refiere, como en lo relativo al establecimiento de nuevas formas de relaciones sociales. Relacionadas con lo anterior, se encuentran las aportaciones que hizo durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial al desciframiento de códigos secretos, que, en cierto sentido, metafórico, se pueden considerar como una nueva herramienta para socavar la privacidad, ese derecho civil cuya negación arruinó su propia vida.

  11. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  12. Radically Rethinking Agriculture for the 21st Century

    KAUST Repository

    Fedoroff, N. V.

    2010-02-11

    Population growth, arable land and fresh water limits, and climate change have profound implications for the ability of agriculture to meet this century\\'s demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel while reducing the environmental impact of their production. Success depends on the acceptance and use of contemporary molecular techniques, as well as the increasing development of farming systems that use saline water and integrate nutrient flows. © 2010 American Association for the Advancement for Science. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Power and Influence: Global Dynamics in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    publications/WorkingPapers/WP165.pdf>. Nuńez, Joseph R. A 21st Century Security Architecture for the Americas: Multilateral Cooperation, Liberal Peace...2005) Sheth, Jagdish N. and Rajendra S. Sisodia. Tectonic Shift: The Geoeconomic Realignment of Globalizing Markets. Thousand Oaks: Response, 2006...Joseph R. A 21st Century Security Architecture for the Americas: Multilateral Cooperation, Liberal Peace, and Soft Power. Carlisle Barracks: U.S

  14. Blending Worship for the 21st Century Military Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-13

    SUBTITLE Blending Worship for the 21st Century Military Force 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jim...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Blending Worship for the 21st Century Military Force 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...outsiders, inclusion of cultural diversity and intergenerational fellowship.43 Sam Harris saw the benefit of faith and worship and contends that we need

  15. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  16. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  17. From Sentiment to Sentimentality: A Nineteenth-Century Lexicographical Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Banfield

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The brief account of the lexicographical history of the word ‘sentiment' in the nineteenth century, and the table of definitions which follows it, grew from my increasing sense of the shifting and ambivalent nature of the term in the literature of the period, despite the resonance and the proverbial solidity of phrases such as ‘Victorian sentiment' and ‘Victorian sentimentality'. The table is self explanatory, representing the findings of a search, among a wide range of nineteenth-century dictionaries over the period, for the changing meanings accrued by the word ‘sentiment' over time, its extensions and its modifications. The nineteenth-century lexicographical history of the word ‘sentiment' has its chief roots in the Eighteenth-century enlightenment, with definitions from Samuel Johnson and quotations from John Locke, chiefly based on intellect and reason. The nineteenth century generated a number of derivatives of the word over a period of time to express altered modes of feeling, thought and moral concern. The history of the word ‘sentiment' offers a psychological as well as a linguistic narrative.

  18. Marl Prairie Vegetation Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Willard, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted geochronologic and pollen analyses from sediment cores collected in solution holes within marl prairies of Big Cypress National Preserve to reconstruct vegetation patterns of the last few centuries and evaluate the stability and longevity of marl prairies within the greater Everglades ecosystem. Based on radiocarbon dating and pollen biostratigraphy, these cores contain sediments deposited during the last ~300 years and provide evidence for plant community composition before and after 20th century water management practices altered flow patterns throughout the Everglades. Pollen evidence indicates that pre-20th century vegetation at the sites consisted of sawgrass marshes in a peat-accumulating environment; these assemblages indicate moderate hydroperiods and water depths, comparable to those in modern sawgrass marshes of Everglades National Park. During the 20th century, vegetation changed to grass-dominated marl prairies, and calcitic sediments were deposited, indicating shortening of hydroperiods and occurrence of extended dry periods at the site. These data suggest that the presence of marl prairies at these sites is a 20th century phenomenon, resulting from hydrologic changes associated with water management practices.

  19. A century of trends in adult human height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.

  20. Early 20th century conceptualization of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2016-05-06

    This historical analysis of the term 'health promotion' during the early 20th century in North American journal articles revealed concepts that strongly resonate with those of the 21st century. However, the lineage between these two time periods is not clear, and indeed, this paper supports contentions health promotion has a disrupted history. This paper traces the conceptualizations of health promotion during the 1920s, attempts to operationalize health promotion in the 1930s resulting in a narrowing of the concept to one of health education, and the disappearance of the term from the 1940s. In doing so, it argues a number of factors influenced the changing conceptualization and utilization of health promotion during the first half of the 20th century, many of which continue to present times, including issues around what health promotion is and what it means, ongoing tensions between individual and collective actions, tensions between specific and general causes of health and ill health, and between expert and societal contributions. The paper concludes the lack of clarity around these issues contributed to health promotion disappearing in the mid-20th century and thus resolution of these would be worthwhile for the continuation and development of health promotion as a discipline into the 21st century.

  1. The Long-term Pattern of Maritime Trade in Java from the Late Eighteenth Century to the Mid-Nineteenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMADA, Ryuto

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the trade pattern of Java from the late eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century from a long-term perspective. There is no comprehensive data on Javanese trade during the period in question, with information on local and regional trade being particularly scarce. To fill in the missing pieces and identify a broad trend, this paper attempts to examine data on both the late eighteenth century and the second quarter of the nineteenth century and put them together...

  2. University library and the new challenges of the XXI century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Liduvina Medina del Sol

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available University libraries face the new challenges and kind of work of this century and turn into centres for the research and learning. This bibliographic review is focused on the changes that have marked the transition to the new paradigm of scientific-informative activity, with the arrival of information and communication technologies and the transformation of higher education which have an impact on other kinds of teaching and learning process in the information and knowledge society of the XXI century. We discuss the necessity of developing skills and knowledge among the librarians as part of a process of informational alphabetization. Some styles of work in these institutions are described, which help strengthen the information and knowledge management and the learning process. The main objective is to inform about the work the university library and its transformation into a knowledge industry facing the challenges of this century.

  3. Eleventh Century Astronomical Events as Recorded in Contemporary European Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghignoli, A.; Polcaro, V. F.

    The eleventh century was exceptionally rich in very prominent astronomical events, such as the SN 1006 (probably the brightest Supernova in historical times|), the great comet of 1066, the SN 1054. These events were recorded in numerous chronicles throughout the world and in particular in Europe and need to be carefully analyzed with the appropriate instruments of the philological criticism. This work will present a certain number of sources from the European Middle Ages that are unknown or less studied. They describe events spanning from the end of the tenth century to the end of the eleventh century. These texts have been selected because they are homogeneous and, in some way, representative of u number of astronomical phenomena. They prove that medieval chronicles can be extremely accurate in their descriptions.

  4. THE DANCING SCULPTURES OF THE 19TH CENTURY EUROPEAN ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel ALMELEK ISMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dance has been an indispensable element of human life for centuries. Painters and sculptors have created the dynamism of dance steps either on the canvas or stone with the same excitement. Charits, Nymphs, Bacchantes and Satyrs, the Greek and Roman mythological figures who attract attention with their dances have been a source of inspiration for artists. In this research, the dancing sculptures of the 19th century which is an interesting period in European art because of its witnessing of long term styles like Neoclassicism and Romanticism and short term movements such as Realism and Impressionism are examined. Examples of sculptures which brings dance to life before and after the 19th century have also been mentioned. The likenesses as well as dissimilarities in the way the arts of painting and sculpture approach to the theme of dance has been briefly evaluated.

  5. A History of the Danubian Costume in the XIXth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Partenie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we attach a great importance to the clothes we wear from the moment we buy or make them, to the moment we decide if they are appropriate with our personal style, the place where we wear them or when we use them. If the XIXth century tries to preserve the tradition with great accuracy the way it was transmitted from generation to generation, in the tumultuous XXth century we attend to the birth of a real industry of fashion. Some reminiscences remain, however, which gives us the opportunity to draw up a study in this regard. The present paper intends to add information regarding the folk costumes in Galati County, especially in the XIXth century. It is a short presentation of some of the most traditional clothes such as: skirt, apron, hood, shirt male and shirt female, decorative designs, footwear; without claiming to have finished the subject we intend to go on with further research.

  6. Theories of Space and the Nineteenth-Century Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel Armstrong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the construction of a spatial and interspatial subject in the nineteenth-century novel, examining initially the epistemologies of space developed by Kant and Hegel, and concluding with discussion of two further theorists of space, Bachelard and Lefebvre. It deploys this rich array of theorization to illuminate strategies through which the nineteenth-century novelist creates situatedness in language, asking how 'does' the novel represent space, and arguing that if we take away this almost miraculous verbal construction of space there is not much left to the novel.

  7. Empiricism and Rationalism in Nineteenth-Century Histories of Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper traces the ancestry of a familiar historiographical narrative, according to which early modern philosophy was marked by the development of empiricism, rationalism, and their synthesis by Kant. It is often claimed that this narrative became standard in the nineteenth century because of the influence of Thomas Reid, Kant and his disciples, or German and British idealists. I argue that the narrative became standard at the turn of the twentieth century. Among the factors that allowed it to become standard are its aptness to be adopted by philosophers of the most diverse persuasions, its simplicity and suitability for teaching.

  8. Galvanic cultures: electricity and life in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morus, I R

    1998-01-01

    Electricity has long proved to be a powerful tool for investigating the properties of life. Towards the beginning of the nineteenth century new discoveries and inventions in electricity stimulated a new popular fascination with such questions. Electricity seemed a good way of understanding the machinery of life. It was the key to unlocking the secrets of vitality. Looking at these early nineteenth-century debates and discussions provides a good way of focusing on the cultural connections and ramifications of science. As electricity provided tools for understanding life, it provided tools for understanding culture also.

  9. The devaluation controversy in eighteenth-century Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Stapelbroek (Koen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractFollowing the Succession Wars of the early eighteenth-century, political economists across Italy discussed a range of possible reforms. Among the issues drawing most attention was the complicated problem whether devaluation policies were appropriate means for boosting economic growth. No

  10. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  11. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinheimer, F.D.

    2005-01-01

    The paper lists the whereabouts of surviving pre-nineteenth century bird collections containing altogether about 1500-3000 specimens. They are found in more than 50 institutions world-wide, with Berlin, Leiden, Paris, Stockholm, Tring and Vienna museums each holding more than 200 bird specimens from

  12. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2 (20CRV2)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the entire...

  13. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  14. Factors Strengthening School Geography's Curricular Position in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Zachary A.; Boehm, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of geography in the United States' K-12 education system throughout the Nineteenth Century to understand the causes of variations, shifts in focus, and relative importance placed on geography. A broad theoretical framework, based on the work of sociologists of education and education…

  15. [Half century of botany publishing in Revista de Biologia Tropical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Over its first half century the Revista de Biología Tropical published many papers and supplements dealing with the botany. However, the Revista is not a primary botanical journal. A wide variety of topics and geographic sources have been included, taking into consideration species from the Neotropics, but also from India and Nigeria. A complete index of botanical papers is presented.

  16. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild Ingvor A; Zimmermann, Esther

    2016-01-01

    in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over...

  17. The rise of homogamy in 19th century Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, F.W.A.; Vanassche, S.; Sanchez, M.; Jidkova, S.; Eeckhaut, M.; Oris, M.; Matthijs, K.

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of Western Europe the age at first marriage and the level of celibacy declined in the second half of the 19th century. This weakening of the European marriage pattern (EMP) can be interpreted as a ‘‘classic’’ response to the increase of the standard of living, but a more far-reaching i

  18. Understanding China's Curriculum Reform for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2014-01-01

    This article uses curriculum-making frameworks to analyse and reconstruct the Chinese curriculum-making model and unpack the dynamics, complexity and constraints of China's curriculum reform since the early 1990s. It argues that curriculum reform is China's main human capital development strategy for coping with the challenges of the 21st century,…

  19. Material Evaluation on Century Business English Comprehensive Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan-yuan

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports a survey on material evaluation on Century Business English comprehensive course of 80 students of Business English majors in Normal College. The survey covers students’and teachers’opinions and suggestions of the CBE. The result is helpful for Business English teachers to effectively improve the students’Business English learning.

  20. Pharmacists and medical doctors in nineteenth‐century Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, R.

    1988-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In this article the main areas of conflict between the medical and the pharmaceutical professions in Belgium in the 19th century are outlined. The medical profession was dominant in the division of labour and the pharmacists were not allowed to threaten its position. However, ph

  1. Reproducing an Early-20th-Century Wave Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Physics students often have problems understanding waves. Over the years numerous mechanical devices have been devised to show the propagation of both transverse and longitudinal waves (Ref. 1). In this article an updated version of an early-20th-century transverse wave machine is discussed. The original, Fig. 1, is at Creighton University in…

  2. Scientific Instruments for Education in Early Twentieth-Century Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castell, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    1898 marked a crucial point in the end of the nineteenth-century Spanish crisis. The military defeat ending the Spanish-American War was seen as proof that the country was in terminal decline. With the ideals of regeneration spreading throughout Spanish society, the State became more interested in supporting and sponsoring science and technology,…

  3. Projecting twenty-first century regional sea-level changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.; Carson, M.; Katsman, C.A.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Köhl, A.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.; Stammer, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present regional sea-level projections and associated uncertainty estimates for the end of the 21 (st) century. We show regional projections of sea-level change resulting from changing ocean circulation, increased heat uptake and atmospheric pressure in CMIP5 climate models. These are combined wi

  4. Projecting twenty-first century regional sea-level changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A. B A; Carson, M.; Katsman, C. A.; van de Wal, R. S W; Köhl, A.; Vermeersen, L. L A; Stammer, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present regional sea-level projections and associated uncertainty estimates for the end of the 21st century. We show regional projections of sea-level change resulting from changing ocean circulation, increased heat uptake and atmospheric pressure in CMIP5 climate models. These are combined with

  5. Education for the 21st Century: Lessons and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Roberto; Draxler, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of proposals contained in the 1996 report "Learning: the Treasure Within" by the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century (established by UNESCO), the authors examine the influence and pertinence of its construct of education on the four pillars learning to know, learning to do, learning to be, and learning…

  6. Membership, Belonging, and Identity in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motteram, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a case study approach to exploring membership, belonging, and identity amongst English language teachers in the twenty-first century. It explores findings from two membership surveys conducted for the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), and considers the impact of recommendations…

  7. Design or Decline: America Facing the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Nathan H.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the role of industrial design in the twenty-first century. Explains that technology has widened the gap between rich and poor societies. Argues that future designers must concern themselves with the quality of life. Includes a description of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Industrial Design Program. (KM)

  8. Attention, and Other 21st-Century Social Media Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Howard

    2010-01-01

    If educators want to discover how they can engage students as well as themselves in the 21st century, they must move beyond skills and technologies. They must explore the interconnected social media literacies of (1) attention; (2) participation; (3) cooperation; (4) network awareness; and (5) critical consumption. In this article, the author…

  9. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  10. The Work Place of the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Major issues affecting the workplace of the twenty-first century include productivity growth, globalization, resistance to change, worker alienation, and telecommunications. Opposing views of technology are that (1) it will improve the economy and create jobs or (2) the majority of new jobs will not require high skills. (SK)

  11. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  12. Awkward Appendages: Comic Umbrellas in Nineteenth-Century Print Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In nineteenth-century comic writing, the umbrella represents a troublesome material world: umbrellas were always threatening to break, flip inside out or to disappear and reappear in the most mysterious fashion. The umbrella was a trope for oddness, resistance and perversity of intent. With the h...

  13. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2c)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2c (20CRV2c)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the...

  14. Twentieth-Century Spanish Textbooks: A Generational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardinas-Barnes, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Examines the evolution of Spanish textbooks qualitatively using computerized pedagogical data. Results show distinct generational text style trends from 1860 to 1998 which chronicle a common engine of change and conflict in standardization movements and the production of generational text styles. Summarizes 20th-century textbook generations and…

  15. School Business Management in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    As society's fundamental characteristics change, schools and school leaders must be prepared to modify the educational enterprise to meet the new and unique needs of adults and youngsters in the 21st century. To anticipate and control change, the school business manager must be able to project future trends, issues, and challenges. In this volume,…

  16. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  17. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  18. Local/global: women artists in the nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherry, D.; Helland, J.

    2006-01-01

    Local/Global: Women Artists in the Nineteenth Century is the first book to investigate women artists working in disparate parts of the world. This major new book offers a dazzling array of compelling essays on art, architecture and design by leading writers: Joan Kerr on art in Australia by resident

  19. Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

    This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

  20. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2012-01-01

    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  1. Research on 18th Century Music in Poland. An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paczkowski Szymon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on 18th-century music has been one of the key areas of interest for musicologists ever since the beginnings of musicological studies in Poland. It initially developed along two distinct lines: general music history (with publications mostly in foreign languages and local history (mostly in Polish. In the last three decades the dominant tendency among Polish researchers has been, however, to relate problems of 18th-century Polish musical culture to the political history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and more generally – to the political history of Central Europe at large. The most important subjects taken up in research on 18th-century music include: the musical cultures of the royal court in 18th-century Warsaw (primarily in the works of Alina Żórawska-Witkowska as well as Polish aristocratic residences (e.g. studies by Szymon Paczkowski and Irena Bieńkowska, the ecclesiastical and monastic circles (publications by Alina Mądry, Paweł Podejko, Remigiusz Pośpiech and Tomasz Jeż; problems of musical style (texts by Szymon Paczkowski; research on sources containing music by European composers (e.g. by Johann Adolf Hasse; the musical culture of cities (of Gdańsk, first and foremost; studies concerning the transfer of music and music-related materials, the musical centres and peripheries, etc.

  2. Time, Domesticity and Print Culture in Nineteenth-Century Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Maria

    In this innovative study, Damkjær shows that nineteenth-century texts gave domesticity not just a spatial, but also a temporal dimension. Novels by Dickens and Gaskell, as well as periodicals, cookery books and albums, all showed domesticity as a process. Damkjær argues that texts’ material form...

  3. Preparing To Serve Students in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia S.

    1999-01-01

    In celebration of The American College Personnel Association's seventy-fifth anniversary, Senior Scholars developed a project to: determine the trends that will affect high education in the next century; identify the impact these trends will have on student experience; identify research needed to respond to trends; and identify Emerging Scholars…

  4. Monetary Romanticism, Currency and Central Banks in the Nineteenth Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    How do monetary institutions, such as currencies and central banks, interrelate to the construction of national communities? Using the national conflict between the Danish state and the Duchies of Schleswig-Holstein in the nineteenth century as an exemplary case, this article demonstrates how bot...

  5. Women's Rights Movements in the Nineteenth Century: Conflict and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Janet

    1978-01-01

    Historical review of the function of social conflict in the nineteenth century women's rights movements. Considers whether suffrage and a move toward equality could have been accomplished without major philosophical differences. Differences between the Stanton and Anthony suffrage group and the Stone and Blackwell suffrage group are discussed.…

  6. The Gothic Voice in Eighteenth-Century Oratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    Cites evidence of Gothic strains in eighteenth-century rhetorical practice. Uses a narrative account by Edmund Burke to illustrate representative Gothic themes, images, and strategies. Judges the Gothic voice to be significant as an instance of the ways in which general aesthetic sensibilities are deployed for rhetorical ends. (MS)

  7. The concept of pain in the 17th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procacci, P; Maresca, M

    1992-01-01

    The 17th century is very important in the history of sensation and pain. Philosophers, as Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, defined a new philosophy of science. Physicians of the iatro-chemical school introduced the first principles of biochemistry, tied to the sensations. Physicians of the iatro-mechanical school postulated a really modern concept: the importance of nerve juices in sensibility and pain.

  8. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  9. Quality of Family Life and Mortality in Seventeenth Century Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Inquiry into the quality of family life in seventeenth century Dublin is an attempt to understand conditions in the second largest city in the British Isles; further, the era was one of convulsions in the body politic, social, and religious. The Scottish James I and VI (1556 1625) determined that the Irish province closest to Scotland, Ulster,…

  10. Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alyson

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines twentieth century social constructions of child prostitutes and child prostitution, the origins of these representations and the extent to which they have been used as metaphors for other perceived social, economic and political problems. It is important to recognise that these children have been sexually abused and that…

  11. Poets and Book Design at the Turn of the Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depas, Rosalind

    1979-01-01

    Considers influences on the design and production of books at the turn of the century, including the influences of symbolists and other European poets (e.g., Blake, Wilde, Verhaeren, Maeterlinck, Baudelaire, Mallarme, Huysmans, George, von Hofmannsthal, and Rilke); book designers, typographers, and printers; and the Art Nouveau school. (DMM)

  12. Ann Eliza Young: A Nineteenth Century Champion of Women's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Jack B.

    Concentrating on the efforts of such nineteenth century women's rights advocates as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, communication researchers have largely overlooked the contributions made to the cause by Ann Eliza Young. The nineteenth wife of Mormon leader Brigham Young, Ann Eliza Young left her husband and took to the speaker's…

  13. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  14. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper.

  15. The social lives of paintings in Sixteenth-Century Venice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, Elisabeth Johanna Maria van

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies Venetian painting in its golden age, the sixteenth century, from an unconventional, anthropological point of view. Paintings of masters like Titian are demonstrated to have had social lives. Together with human beings they were embedded in social networks in which humans and pain

  16. Lifeblood : Chemistry of Blood in Eighteenth-Century Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Was early eighteenth-century chemistry merely a handmaid to medicine? This paper aims to reassess assumptions about the relation between chemistry and medicine in the early modern period and argues that chemistry played a central role in medicine. The fluid and flow of blood can serve as a starting

  17. The Presidential Platform on Twenty-First Century Education Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Socol, Allison Rose

    2016-01-01

    As social and economic problems change, so do the goals of education reformers. This content analysis of presidential debates transcripts, state of the union addresses, and education budgets from 2000 to 2015 reveals the ways in which presidents and presidential candidates have framed education goals thus far in the twenty-first century. Using…

  18. Close Approaches of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids during Two Centuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Asteroids are the most important small bodies in the solar system and the near-earth asteroids (NEAs) are of especial concern to the world. The reasonis that they will make close approaches to the earth in the near future. We usea reasonable dynamical model and an efficient computing method to calculate the orbits of over 160 Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) for two centuries.

  19. Seventeenth century concepts of "apoplexy" as reflected in Bonet's "Sepulchretum".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutta, Henry S; Howe, Herbert M

    2006-09-01

    The term "apoplexy," which has been in use since antiquity, referred to a catastrophic illness with an abrupt loss of consciousness and a frequently fatal outcome. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries scholastic approaches that relied on authorities were merging with an observational approach to medicine and Galen's speculation that apoplexy was due to an accumulation of phlegm or black bile in the cerebral ventricles began to be seriously challenged. The most extensive collection of case reports with autopsies published in the seventeenth century was Theophile Bonet's Sepulchretum sive Anatomia Practica. Section 2 of Book I of the Sepulchretum contains 70 case reports of patients that died with the diagnosis of apoplexy. The scholia in this section provide an idea for the modern reader of the notions physicians had of apoplexy in the seventeenth century. The Sepulchretum was an important book for physicians of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It played an important role in the development of modern medicine and it was an important foundation for Morgagni's De Sedibus et Causis Morborum. This essay reviews the pathological findings reported in victims of apoplexy and examines the views concerning the symptomatology, pathogenesis, etiology, and treatment of this condition that were prevalent at that time.

  20. Upholding humanity: challenges of peace in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation we shall, first of all, explore the background to the topic for today as formulated by the organisers: Peace in the 21st century: between the supranational and the grassroots. From there some remarks will follow on the meaning of commemoration and liberation by giving you a very

  1. Building 21st. Century literacies through digital animated storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    -based learning for learner’s engagement, motivation and multimodal learning in a mixed methods study based on surveys, interviews and observations. The key literacy skills needed for 21st. Century learners have shifted from a predominant focus on verbal text towards multimodal literacies, that combine the visual...

  2. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  3. A possible account of synaesthesia dating from the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, A J

    2006-09-01

    An account of a blind man able to detect colors by touch, dating from the mid-seventeenth century, is presented. The details come to us through the physician John Finch, the scientist Robert Boyle, and the author Jonathan Swift. The details in the account suggest the possibility that this may be an early report of colored-touch synaesthesia.

  4. Boko Haram: Religion and Violence in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O. Voll

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Boko Haram in Nigeria provides an important example of the combination of religion and violence in the conditions of the twenty-first century. It is both a movement in the pattern of religiously-justified violence and a significant representative of the emergence of new types of modern terrorism in recent years. This article examines both of these aspects of Boko Haram as an example of religious violence. In the general development of religiously justified violence, Boko Haram is the heir to a long jihad tradition in West Africa. Its emergence follows well-established patterns of older militant Muslim groups, but it also departs significantly from those patterns as it shapes itself as a movement in the patterns of contemporary, twenty-first century modes of religious violence. Boko Haram is also identified, in twenty-first century terms, as a religious terrorist organization. As a religious terrorist group, it fits the pattern of what David Rapoport calls the fourth wave—the religious wave—of modern terrorism. However, in the second decade of the twenty-first century, Boko Haram exhibits characteristics of a new style of religious terrorism that is more like the so-called Islamic State than the older type of terrorist organization of al-Qa’idah.

  5. Lion and dragon: four centuries of Dutch-Vietnamese relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; van der Zwan, B.; Moors, H.; van Zeeland, T.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch-Vietnamese relations go back as far as the beginning of the seventeenth century. For a long time, relations between the Dutch lion and the Vietnamese dragon have been fragile and even violent. Although the relations were not continuously bad, they remained distant rather than warm. Today Vietn

  6. Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This review of the book by Thomas Piketty, The capital in the XXI century, presents the central themes of the work and exposes its scope on the relationship between inequality and wealth. In particular a positive reflections on the progressive tax is added.

  7. Three 13th-century views of quantified modal logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uckelman, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    There are two reasons why medieval logic is of interest to modern logician: One is to see how similar it is to modern logic and the other is to see how different it is. We study three 13th-century works on modal logic and give two examples of how their views of modal logic differ from modern views o

  8. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  9. Moral Psychology for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg slayed the two dragons of twentieth-century psychology--behaviorism and psychoanalysis. His victory was a part of the larger cognitive revolution that shaped the world in which all of us study psychology and education today. But the cognitive revolution itself was modified by later waves of change, particularly an "affective…

  10. Resource scarcity in the 21st century: conflict or cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qasem, I.

    2010-01-01

    Oil and natural gas, water, food, and minerals are critical to ensuring our wellbeing and prosperity. The mismatch between future demand and supply is crystallizing into one of the most complex and urgent issues policymakers will face in the 21st Century. Unless the challenges arising from these sca

  11. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  12. The International "Trial of the 20th Century": Nuremberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemerinsky, Erwin

    1999-01-01

    Considers the Nuremberg trials to be the "Trial of the Century." Highlights the series of 13 trials in which Nazi leaders, officials, judges, and others were tried, and most convicted, for war crimes. Relates that these trials had far-reaching effects in that they showed that moral obligations transcend national boundaries. (CMK)

  13. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  14. Antikythera Calculator advances modern science of 19 centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    The Greek astronomic calculator, discovered in the depth of the sea in a naval wreckage of the 1st century B.C. in front of the island of Antikythera, is the most amazing among the archaeological discoveries of last century. The mechanism immediately appeared like a device out of its time. After years of study this devise is still provoking a discussion between scientists and archaeologists because of the complexity and the modernity of the scientific knowledge the work presupposes. Its epicyclical gearings show the high level of the scientific culture reached in that period of history. The knowledge of the planetary motion, necessary to the design of the epicyclic gearing of the Calculator of Antikythera, presumes that ancient Greek scientists knew the planetary motion of the celestial bodies and had already achieved the same results that have been attributed to scientists 19 centuries later. The scientific value of this gear mechanism is indisputable because the inventor of the Calculator of Antikythera had the knowledge that was "re-discovered" centuries later as the heliocentric theory proposed by Niccolò Copernicus in 1543 ( De revolutionibus orbium coelestium), the universal gravitation law formulated by Isaac Newton in 1687 ( Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica), and the kinematic study of the epicyclical gearings published by Robert Willis in 1841 ( Principles of mechanism).

  15. Teaching French Conversation: A Lesson from the Fourteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Therese; Wilburn, Josette

    1977-01-01

    A description of "La Maniere de langage," a fourteenth century manual which skillfully blended the teaching of functional language usage with an introduction to French culture and social customs. The treatise incorporated many insights we have from psychology, sociolinguistics and cultural anthropology. (AMH)

  16. A Quarter Century of TV Food Advertising Targeted at Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Margaret; Cotugna, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed current trends in television advertising targeting children, comparing results to the historical perspective of the last quarter century. Researchers evaluated 16 hours of Saturday morning children's programming on four network channels for commercial content based on Food Guide Pyramid and USDA Child Nutrition criteria. Overall,…

  17. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassing, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  18. Natural History in Hispanic Journalism in the Late Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo MORGADO GARCÍA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Hispanic world of the late Eighteenth Century there was a certain amount of divulgation of Natural History, aided by the utilitarian nature of the Spanish Enlightenment, and by the fact that Natural History did not contradict Catholic doctrine. This paper approaches the diffusion of news of Natural History through periodicals, focusing on zoological references.

  19. Educational Expansion and Social Mobility in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Sociologists consider inequality in educational attainment to be a major cause of inequality between people in their chances of occupying a more advantageous class position. However, there is dispute as to whether educational inequality according to social class background declined during the 20th century. What is not in doubt is the expansion of…

  20. ASBO at 100: A Century of School Business Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Business Affairs, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article talks about Association of School Business Officials International (ASBO) at a century of school business management. As ASBO International celebrates its centennial, one should reflect on the truth of this often-heard quote and how it applies to the field of school business management in general and the association in particular.…

  1. Attempts to Save Tragedy in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Przybyszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the issue of genre-transformation of tragedy in 19th-century Polish drama. The fundamental question is tragedy’s potential after liberation from the most important structural categories of the genre: the three unities, catharsis and anagnorisis. The discussion on the 19th-century patterns of tragedy, derived from contemporary theory, criticism, and theatrical production, are based on research by Marek Dybizbański, who presented an interesting analysis of the problem, which was an important indicator of contemporary literary thought, in his study called Tragedia polska drugiej połowy XIX wieku — wzorce i odstępstwa [The Polish Tragic Drama in Late 19th Century — Patterns and Divergence]. The issues discussed were: disproportion between expectations and effects, indicated by repertoires and contemporary debate on drama, lack of standard productions of tragedy, matched by great surplus of texts that tried to set the standard, and by programmatic declarations on how to do it. The author, following Dybizbański’s discussion, focuses on the question why the 19th century in Poland was, for tragedy, a lost time.

  2. The 8th Century Megadrought Across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, D. W.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Fye, F. K.; Cook, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Acuna-Soto, R.

    2002-12-01

    Tree-ring data suggest that the 8th and 16th century megadroughts may have been the most severe and sustained droughts to impact North America in the past 1500 years. The 16th century megadrought may have persisted for up to 40 years, and extended from the tropics to the boreal forest and from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts. Evidence for the 8th century drought is sparse, but tree-ring and lake sediment data indicate that this drought extended from the northern Great Plains, across the southwestern United States, and into central Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. Tree-ring data from Colorado and New Mexico document severe drought from A.D. 735-765, and may provide accurate and precise dating for the onset of the epic droughts reconstructed during the late first millennium A.D. with sedimentary data from Elk Lake, Minnesota; Moon Lake, South Dakota; La Piscina de Yuriria, Guanajuato; and Lake Chichancanab, Yucatan. If these chronological refinements are correct, then the sedimentary records suggest much greater persistence to the 8th century megadrought than indicated by the very high resolution tree-ring data, and a strong second pulse of prolonged drought late in the first millennium. Analyses of instrumental precipitation and drought indices during the 20th century, along with tree-ring reconstructions of climate in Mexico and the Southwest, indicate that annual and decadal droughts can both simultaneously impact the entire region from New Mexico and Texas down into central Mexico. The intensity and large-scale impact of drought across this region seem to be greatest when La Nina conditions and the low phase of the North Pacific oscillation prevail. The tree-ring dated 8th century megadrought occurred near the decline of the Classic Period civilizations at Teotihuacan in central Mexico and in the Mayan region of the Yucatan. The 8th century megadrought may have interacted with anthropogenic environmental degradation, epidemic disease, and social upheaval to

  3. The epidemic of the 20(th) century: coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, James E; Alpert, Joseph S; Goldberg, Robert J; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2014-09-01

    Heart disease was an uncommon cause of death in the US at the beginning of the 20th century. By mid-century it had become the commonest cause. After peaking in the mid-1960s, the number of heart disease deaths began a marked decline that has persisted to the present. The increase in heart disease deaths from the early 20th century until the 1960s was due to an increase in the prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis with resultant coronary heart disease, as documented by autopsy studies. This increase was associated with an increase in smoking and dietary changes leading to an increase in serum cholesterol levels. In addition, the ability to diagnose acute myocardial infarction with the aid of the electrocardiogram increased the recognition of coronary heart disease before death. The substantial decrease in coronary heart disease deaths after the mid-1960s is best explained by the decreased incidence, and case fatality rate, of acute myocardial infarction and a decrease in out-of-hospital sudden coronary heart disease deaths. These decreases are very likely explained by a decrease in coronary atherosclerosis due to primary prevention, and a decrease in the progression of nonobstructive coronary atherosclerosis to obstructive coronary heart disease due to efforts of primary and secondary prevention. In addition, more effective treatment of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction has led to a substantial decrease in deaths due to acute myocardial infarction. It is very likely that the 20th century was the only century in which heart disease was the most common cause of death in America.

  4. Zooming Albanian factor in the nineteenth century through Western lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The developments of the nineteenth century were determining for the history of Balkan region as it shaped the future of many generations to come, resulting in (mainly growing discontents that led to several wars during the last century. It was beginning of the decay of the Ottoman Empire that many longed for, and many nations used every opportunity to take a full advantage of it. The aim of this work is to explore exclusively (only Western sources in an attempt to provide, as much as possible, an objective and neutral picture. Therefore, the idea behind the decision to examine non-Balkan sources is impartiality, in order to bring the reader as close as possible to the reality of the nineteenth century. A number of nineteenth century books, magazines and newspapers of the time, by respective Western authors, are explored and analysed. Reading and examining a large volume of data and information of this period, offers a unique sense of feeling, similar to that of living the nineteenth century world. Albanians, who have historically populated the heart of Balkans, are focal point of this region (in many of the regional and international sources for this particular period, vis-à-vis the Ottoman governance as well as relations with other regional neighbours. Their contribution to the history of nations in the region was unquestionably critical, but their conduct in relations to their own cause has produced an unproductive image, portrayed often with confused and incomprehensible deeds. By using authentic sources of the time, the study intends to develop arguments on many points raised, like population and religion. This work also touches briefly the sensitive issue of education in the region and initial Albanian inputs in the history of Balkan education map. Finally the study concludes that Albanians’ altruism and largely visionless focus, produced a relatively expected detrimental outcome.

  5. Enlivening the Old with the New: 21st-Century Thinking Applied to 16th-Century Art Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lori

    2007-01-01

    When displayed in museums and classrooms, Renaissance-era (1420-1600) painting, architecture, and drawing masterworks are often decontextualized from the social reality of the Academy system under which they were produced. For centuries, the artworks of the Italian Renaissance have seduced viewers with technical mastery, exquisite pigments, and…

  6. Sexism in Advertising Industry Through the Study of Auto Magazine Advertisements in Late 20th Century Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冉

    2015-01-01

    Gender discrimination against female in advertising industry appears to be ubiquitous especially in late 20th century.I intend to demonstrate that auto ads are under the influence of common gender stereotype which discriminates women as an inferior role in the society.

  7. Giambattista Vico Philosopher and Educator: Lessons for the Late Twentieth Century from an Eighteenth-Century Eccentric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleford, Michael S.

    1983-01-01

    Modern disillusionment with rationalistic and mechanistic creeds increases the relevance of the thought of Giambattista Vico, an eighteenth century thinker. Vico's "New Science" dealt with the origins of human consciousness and society, and with the development of human nature, knowledge, and institutions in ways that anticipate modern…

  8. The Long-term Pattern of Maritime Trade in Java from the Late Eighteenth Century to the Mid-Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuto Shimada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the trade pattern of Java from the late eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century from a long-term perspective. There is no comprehensive data on Javanese trade during the period in question, with information on local and regional trade being particularly scarce. To fill in the missing pieces and identify a broad trend, this paper attempts to examine data on both the late eighteenth century and the second quarter of the nineteenth century and put them together with the scattered data available on the first half of the nineteenth century. This paper suggests, first, that while it is known that Java’s economic relations with the outside world were heavily oriented toward trade with the Netherlands, this trend began in the late eighteenth century rather than with the introduction of the Cultivation System in 1830. Second, Java’s coastal trade also began to develop in the late eighteenth century. This trade was conducted by European traders and Asian indigenous traders, including overseas Chinese traders settled in Java. Third, trade with the Outer Islands declined in the late eighteenth century but resumed its expansion in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Fourth, intra-Asian trade with the region outside insular Southeast Asia declined in the long run, along with the decline and bankruptcy of the VOC, which had successfully engaged in this branch of intra-Asian trade since the seventeenth century.

  9. 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Stoffel, Markus; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Beniston, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Alps are particularly sensitive to global warming and warmed twice as much as the global average in the recent past. In addition, the Alps and its surroundings are a densly populated areas where society is affected by climate change in many ways, which calls for reliable estimates of future climate change. However, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in future climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. It will be demonstrated that considerable and accelerating changes are not only to be expected with regard to temperature, but also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be effected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will most probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity. More intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential are particularly expected in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500 - 2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic variables and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. Acknowledgements: This study has been initiated and is partly funded by

  10. Landscape practices and representations in eighteenth-century Dongchuan, Southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    My doctorial thesis, entitled ‘Landscape Practices and Representations in Dongchuan, Southwest Eighteenth-Century China’, focuses on the interdisciplinary study of landscape, space and architecture in Southwest eighteenth-century China. Through intensive archival research and contemporary ethnograph

  11. Directions for advanced use of nuclear power in century XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, C E

    1999-05-01

    Nuclear power can provide a significant contribution to electricity generation and meet other needs of the world and the US during the next century provided that certain directions are taken to achieve its public acceptance. These directions include formulation of projections of population, energy consumption, and energy resources over a responsible period of time. These projections will allow assessment of cumulative effects on the environment and on fixed resources. Use of fossil energy resources in a century of growing demand for energy must be considered in the context of long-term environmental damage and resource depletion. Although some question the validity of these consequences, they can be mitigated by use of advanced fast reactor technology. It must be demonstrated that nuclear power technology is safe, resistant to material diversion for weapon use, and economical. An unbiased examination of all the issues related to energy use, especially of electricity, is an essential direction to take.

  12. Onwards! Reinforcing Democracy for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Serageldin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Universal suffrage has been the primary goal of democratic evolution. Despite elections and other measures taken to ensure democratic rights, some desired outcomes such as equality and transparency are not being met. The current mode of our democratic system is archaic in addressing the world’s multifaceted global crises. So, there’s a dire need to incorporate new elements of democratic governance to address the issue. Humanity now lives in a transition period, so the path may not be easy. But the scientific and technological revolution underway is rapidly changing the mindsets of people and helping them exercise their rights. The article thus focuses on how democracy serves as the best system to ensure human rights and provide for a better society and also, how current models of democratic governance which matured in the last century can be improved in the 21st century, which is instrumental for meeting the challenges humanity confronts today. – Editor

  13. The expression of emotions in 20th century books.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Acerbi

    Full Text Available We report here trends in the usage of "mood" words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more "emotional" than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language.

  14. The expression of emotions in 20th century books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, Alberto; Lampos, Vasileios; Garnett, Philip; Bentley, R Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We report here trends in the usage of "mood" words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more "emotional" than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language.

  15. [Hippocrates and the nineteenth-century French medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-sok

    2003-12-01

    Hippocrates, the father of medicine, has been represented in many ways throughout the history of medicine. His influence on later medicine took different forms from one epoch to another. Hippocrates' medical doctrine was quite influential until Renaissance period, and with the arrival of modern medicine, the method or the spirit of Hippocrates had been valued more highly than his medical doctrine. Nineteenth century French medicine shows us how the influence of Hippocrates is still vivid even in the nineteenth century. Hippocrates, as the author of the Air, Water, Places, became the founder of environmental medicine with the flourishing of meteorological medicine. And in the hands of medical ideologies he also became a proclaimer of the ideology that stressed the correspondence between men, society and nature. Laennec represented Hippocrates as the true pioneer in Clinical Medicine to which he himself made a great contribution. These various images of Hippocrates show us the universal nature of his medicine.

  16. Dimming of the Mid-20th Century Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Foukal, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Advances in understanding of the white light faculae measured at the Royal Greenwich Observatory from 1874 to 1976 suggest that they offer a more direct measure of solar brightening by small diameter photospheric magnetic flux tubes than do chromospheric proxies. Proxies such as the area of Ca K plages, the Mg index or the microwave flux include many dark photospheric structures as well as pores and sunspots. Our reconstruction of variation in total solar irradiance,TSI,based on the faculae indicates that the sun dimmed by almost 0.1 percent in the mid- twentieth century rather than brightening as represented in previous reconstructions. This dimmimg at the sun's highest activity level since the seventeenth century is consistent with the photometric behavior observed in somewhat younger sun like stars. The prolonged TSI decrease may have contributed more to the cooling of climate between about 1940 and 1970 than present models indicate.

  17. Technology Born Fictions for the Cities of 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Rıfat Akbulut

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies will undoubtely be leading determinants of urban landscape in the 21st century. Until the present day, it was assumed that urban landscapes were being shaped by conventional factors such as demography, social and economical structure, transportion, infrastructure, building technologies etc. In spite of many speculative approaches, recent developments in information and communication technologies can offer us some clues which may go beyond mere speculation. The“intelligent city” which is based on “autonomous” and “intelligent” objects and agents promising novel solutions to urban problems. Mobile communication is also another promising domain to offer creative solutions to some cronical urban problems. All these novelties provide sufficient reasons to think about new urban structures based upon information technologies.This paper is an attempt to discuss probable effects of information technologies, as new dynamics to shape the urban environment and urban life of the 21st century.

  18. YANJI CITY ORIENTATION AND INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Yanji is the biggest China Korean inhabited city. Based on a newly finished research project, this paper discusses strategic problems about Yanji towards 21st century. The general point of the authors is that at the beginning of new century,Yanji will play a more important role in Tumen River Delta development, regional economy cooperation in Korea Peninsula as well as Northeast Asia, and it will develop to be an important central city in this area. This paper puts forwards Yanji City′s developing goal, urban nature, and urban size, probes its regional orientation, and further probes how to establish The Yanji Urban Economy Cooperation Zone. The authors think that Yanji should depend on its intellect resources and other characteristic resources. Industry development need to pay much attention to modern agriculture, tertiary industry (especially commerce, trade and tourism) and dominant industries, and high-tech industry must give a special care, in order to establish a light industrial structure.

  19. SN 1987A: The Supernova of the Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborne, George

    2012-01-01

    Supernova 1987 A in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the most intensively studied objects in the universe and a Rosetta Stone for understanding the explosions of massive stars. Approaching its 25th anniversary, SN 1987 A is a very young supernova remnant, a phase previously unobserved in any other supernova. The supernova of the 20th Century is now the supernova remnant of the 21st Century. In this talk I will discuss recent observations from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared with HST, the VLT, Spitzer, and the Herschel Space Observatory. These data reveal new insights into the composition, geometry, and heating of the explosion debris, the shock interaction with circumstellar material, and dust in the SN 1987 A system.

  20. The College of Physicians in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, G C

    2001-01-01

    For much of the nineteenth century (during which there were 16 Presidents) events within the College were dominated by widespread demands for medical reform, culminating in the great Medical Reform Act of 1858. This led to major changes within the College, including an overhaul of the system(s) of elections; the old licentiates disappeared (to be replaced by the new licentiates), whilst introduction of the membership (by examination) was instituted. The style of Presidential elections was also changed. Internal College activities centred on the Library and on the London Pharmacopoeia. Early in the century, the College once again moved geographically, this time from the City to the West End of London. Regarding contemporary issues, including medical advances (notably introduction of the 'germ-theory' of disease causation) and important social changes (dominated by Poor Law reform), the College's input proved minimal.

  1. The Heidelberg Catechism: A 16th century quest for unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim A. Dreyer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution the view is presented that the Heidelberg Catechism should be regarded as an attempt to promote unity between 16th century reformers and churches in the Palatinate. This, to some extent, determined the content of the Catechism resulting in some controversial issues receiving less attention. This in turn not only made the Catechism acceptable to a wide spectrum of Reformed Christianity, but also resulted in a creative and unique contribution to Reformed theology, almost a ‘third option’. It was soon used in different Reformed territories as a confession and acclaimed for its clarity in formulating the basic Reformed faith. Today the Heidelberg Catechism is regarded as one of the most ‘ecumenical’ documents of the 16th century. As such, it still promotes unity amongst many Reformed churches, including those in South Africa.

  2. Mid-nineteenth century smoke concentrations near London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. G.; Aplin, K. L.

    Measurements of atmospheric electricity began at Kew Observatory, London (51°28'N, 0°19'W) in 1843, with recording apparatus installed by Lord Kelvin in 1861. The measured electric potential gradient (PG) at Kew has always been influenced by smoke pollution, causing a December PG maximum and July minimum. Theory links PG variations with aerosol concentrations, and the 20th century smoke measurements made at Kew permit smoke concentrations to be retrieved from 19th century PG data. Absolute calibration of the 1862-1864 PG is achieved by considering changes in the global electric circuit, for which the geomagnetic aa-index is used as a proxy. The mean annual PG in 1863 is estimated as 363±29 V m -1, and the mean smoke concentration found is 0.17±0.05 mg m -3. Diurnal variations in smoke pollution differ between the seasons, and change in their character after the advent of motor traffic.

  3. Recurrent cerebral fever in the seventeenth and twenty first centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A N; Sunderland, R

    2004-01-01

    The development of modern neuroscience away from the concepts of Hippocrates and Galen can be traced to the writings of some 17th century clinicians, especially Thomas Willis. His exceptional skills in observation and description allow a window into the experiences of our medical forebears. His approach to the management of infection-related coma in a child is amenable to modern interpretation and comparison with modern management because of the clarity of his clinical descriptions. Modern clinicians may benefit from this historical perspective into influences on the origins of neuroscience. The different outcome for a child presenting in the 17th and 21st century encourage grateful reflection on our current privileged position.

  4. 21st Century Kinematics : The 2012 NSF Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    21st Century Kinematics focuses on algebraic problems in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and robots, compliant mechanisms, cable-driven systems and protein kinematics. The specialist contributors provide the background for a series of presentations at the 2012 NSF Workshop. The text shows how the analysis and design of innovative mechanical systems yield increasingly complex systems of polynomials, characteristic of those systems. In doing so, takes advantage of increasingly sophisticated computational tools developed for numerical algebraic geometry and demonstrates the now routine derivation of polynomial systems dwarfing the landmark problems of even the recent past. The 21st Century Kinematics workshop echoes the NSF-supported 1963 Yale Mechanisms Teachers Conference that taught a generation of university educators the fundamental principles of kinematic theory. As such these proceedings will be provide admirable supporting theory for a graduate course in modern kinematics and should be of consid...

  5. CORRUPTION ONSET IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaukhar Kaliyeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discloses the public officers’ corruption at the end of 19th century. I have post-evaluated tsarist Russia legislative acts. We have emphasized legal-social essence of corruption. We have tried to reveal and proof that giving presents and gifts in return for various assistance in a Kazakh society is a regular thing. We have manifested the reasons for corruption among the governmental officials. Based on the research we have concluded that corruption was distinctive for the governmental officials of the peripheral region because of its specific features, legal traditions and incomplete legislative system of Russia, which by the end of the 19th century spread in Kazakhstan.

  6. Javanese Women and Islam: Identity Formation since the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawati Hastuti Dewi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the vast research over the last three decades devoted to the lives and social interaction of Javanese women, little has been written on the formation of these women’s identity by focusing on its development from the twentieth century up to the early twenty-first. This paper endeavors to show that the religio-cultural identity of Javanese women was forged through a number of sociocultural circumstances. While revealing different features of the relationship between Javanese women and Islam, I shed light on the role Islam played, particularly since the early twentieth century, in providing transformative power to the role and status of Javanese Muslim women, manifested by the adoption of such Islamic dress codes as veiling, as also an important means of identity politics. I argue that new Islamic discourses have always been born out of the desire to challenge the conservative understanding of the role and status of Javanese women in different historical periods.

  7. John Stewart Bell and twentieth century physics vision and integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.

  8. The Risorgimento in 20th century Italian political discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand both continuities and changes in the reference to the Risorgimento in 20th century political discourse. The narrative proceeds by analyzing historical “snapshots,” from the Liberal period to post-Cold War Italy, that allows us to spell out what has changed...... and what has remained constant in the memorization and actualization of the Risorgimento in the 20th century political discourse. We single out historical events, public rituals and public discourses unfolding in the context of symbolic years and anniversaries of the nation like 1911, 1932, and 1961 where...... the nexus between the Risorgimento past and the political present came to the fore with particular emphasis. In the contextual discussion of these memorization events, we discuss intellectual elaborations of Risorgimento memorization and indicate how such elaborations spread to wider layers of the populace...

  9. Practice and the science of medicine in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worboys, Michael

    2011-03-01

    A generation ago the nineteenth century was at the heart of medical historical scholarship, as the era when modem medicine was born. Over the last decade or so things have changed: other centuries vie for center stage, and former key "turning points," like hospital medicine and laboratory medicine, are now seen in terms of continuities on longer timescales. But though chronologically reframed, the modes of medicine still appear chiefly at the level of programmatic intentions, including rhetorical uses of science. This essay argues that work in this vein needs to be complemented with equal attention to the performative aspects of practice--in the clinic, in the laboratory, and in the field--and that historians of medicine still have much to learn from the "practice turn" in the history of science.

  10. Magic and the physical world in thirteenth-century scholasticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Steven P

    2009-01-01

    The turn to modern science in the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century is typically characterized as dependent on the novel adoption of a mechanical hypothesis for operations in nature. In fact, the Middle Ages saw a partial anticipation of this phenomenon in the scholastic physics of the thirteenth century. More precisely, it was just the two factors, denial of action at a distance and an emphasis on the primary materiality of causation, that constituted this early mechanism--or "protomechanism." The latter's emergence can be seen most clearly where scholastic thinkers-here, William of Auvergne, Thomas Aquinas and Giles of Rome--confronted the theoretical limits of natural cause and effect in their efforts to determine the reality of magic and locate its place in the natural world.

  11. Answering a century old riddle:brachydactyly type A1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo GAO; Lin HE

    2004-01-01

    In 1903, Farabee analyzed the heredity of the human digital malformation, brachydactyly, the first recorded disorder of the autosomal dominant Mendelian trait. In 1951, Bell classified this type of brachydactyly as type A1 (BDA1). Over 100 cases from different ethnic groups have so far been reported. However, the real breakthrough in identifying the cause of BDA1 has only taken place in the last few years with the progress of the mapping and identification of one of the genes responsible for this disorder, thus providing an answer for a century old riddle. In this article, we attempt to review the current state of knowledge on the genetic features of BDA1 with its century-old history and signalling pathway of IHH, and also discuss genotype-phenotype correlation not only of BDA l, but also of all types of brachydactyly.

  12. Gerbert of Aurillac: astronomy and geometry in tenth century Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2012-01-01

    Gerbert of Aurillac was the most prominent personality of the tenth century: astronomer, organ builder and music theoretician, mathematician, philosopher, and finally pope with the name of Silvester II (999-1003). Gerbert introduced firstly the arabic numbers in Europe, invented an abacus for speeding the calculations and found a rational approximation for the equilateral triangle area, in the letter to Adelbold here discussed. Gerbert described a semi-sphere to Constantine of Fleury with built-in sighting tubes, used for astronomical observations. The procedure to identify the star nearest to the North celestial pole is very accurate and still in use in the XII century, when Computarix was the name of Polaris. For didactical purposes the Polaris would have been precise enough and much less time consuming, but here Gerbert was clearly aligning a precise equatorial mount for a fixed instrument for accurate daytime observations. Through the sighting tubes it was possible to detect equinoxes and solstices by obs...

  13. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  14. On Heroines in English Women Literature in the Nineteenth Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jianli

    2016-01-01

    The nineteenth century is a golden age of English women literature. A group of women writers publish a large number of great works, create a group of impressive images of women, which make up epic of the women literature. This article analyzes this phenomenon from the aspect of women in literary works-heroines. They stand for the women writers at that times and try to speak for the female sex for the unfairness of the world.

  15. Defining Fifth-century Ceramics in North Hertfordshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith J. Fitzpatrick-Matthews

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During large scale excavations at Baldock in the 1980s, a series of fifth-century and later deposits was identified. Analysis of the pottery showed new forms and fabrics appeared at this time. Similar fabrics were also identified on sites outside the town. This paper explores the implications of the material for understanding the Late Roman/early medieval transition in Hertfordshire.

  16. [Hospitals in Europe and Yugoslavia through the centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalović, R

    1998-01-01

    The primary object of this paper is to give a retrospective of hospital development in Europe and Yugoslavia for the past twenty-five centuries. The earliest records of hospitals called the "iatreia" date back to the V century B.C., ancient Greece. The sick in those hospitals were treated with drugs as well operated on. The Romans, during the reign of the emperor Augustus, built valetudinaries within military camps. The name "hospital" was introduced in the IV century A.D. and has been used ever since. The first hospital was founded in Cesarea, i.e. in the East Roman Empire in Asia Minor. The chronology of the hospital development in the Middle Ages is given in table 1--"Chronology of Hospital Development in the Middle Ages." St. Sava (Nemanjić) founded the first Serbian hospital in the Monastery of Hilandar about 1199 and in 1208/1209 a hospital in the Monastery of Studenica. In the hospital of the Monastery of St. Arhangel in Prizren, according to the regulations prescribed by tzar Dusan, only curable patients were to be treated. The first hospital in Vojvodina in Bac near Novi Sad dates back to 1234. More data about hospitals in former Yugoslavia are given in table 2--"The Oldest Hospitals in former Yugoslavia" and about the Frontier Hospitals in Vojvodina in table 3--"Frontier Hospitals for the Wounded and Sick in Vojvodina". The first medical high school was established in Salerno in the IX century and the first European University in Bologna in 1088, where the School of Medicine was founded in 1156. The University in Paris was founded in 1107 and in Oxford in 1145.

  17. [Multidisciplinary treatment of lung cancer in 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Hirokazu; Sagawa, M; Usuda, K; Ueno, M; Tanaka, M; Machida, Y; Sakuma, T

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Japan. Recently, big progress in the treatment of lung cancer has been achieved, such as new anti-cancer drugs, molecular targeted therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, etc. Multidisciplinary approach has been required to the therapy for lung cancer patients. In this paper, we introduce The 21st Century Multidisciplinary Center in Kanazawa Medical University, and the Hokuriku Training Program for Making Specialists in Cancer Treatment.

  18. Aviation Security Force Assistance: A 21st Century Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    narrative to address the “irregular” challenges proliferating into the 21st century. Much of the focus was directly related to building the capacity of...a holistic narrative for AvSFA, has developed a different perspective on their roles and missions relative to aviation in SFA. The Joint Force as a...mission with the Honduran Air Force in January and February 2012, exercised the comprehensive components of nascent Air Force general purpose forces

  19. About capital in the twenty-first century

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I present three key facts about income and wealth inequality in the long run emerging from my book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, and seek to sharpen and refocus the discussion about those trends. In particular, I clarify the role played by r > g in my analysis of wealth inequality. I also discuss some of the implications for optimal taxation, and the relation between capital-income ratios and capital shares.

  20. Mammalian prion biology: one century of evolving concepts.

    OpenAIRE

    Aguzzi, A; Polymenidou, M

    2004-01-01

    Prions have been responsible for an entire century of tragic episodes. Fifty years ago, kuru decimated the population of Papua New Guinea. Then, iatrogenic transmission of prions caused more than 250 cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. More recently, transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to humans caused a widespread health scare. On the other hand, the biology of prions represents a fascinating and poorly understood phenomenon, which may account for more than just diseases and may...

  1. NATO’s Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    rules of engagement for force protection.19 NATO Foreign Ministers authorized the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) to begin the next stage of...the mission on 9 December 2004. The activation order for this next stage was given by SACEUR on 16 December 2004. It allowed the deployment of 300...Christopher Coker, Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-first Century: NATO and the Management of Risk (The International Institute for Strategic

  2. Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Carling C.; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating and accounting for twentieth-century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise is critical to characterizing current and future human-induced sea-level change. Several previous analyses of tide gauge records--employing different methods to accommodate the spatial sparsity and temporal incompleteness of the data and to constrain the geometry of long-term sea-level change--have concluded that GMSL rose over the twentieth century at a mean rate of 1.6 to 1.9 millimetres per year. Efforts to account for this rate by summing estimates of individual contributions from glacier and ice-sheet mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and changes in land water storage fall significantly short in the period before 1990. The failure to close the budget of GMSL during this period has led to suggestions that several contributions may have been systematically underestimated. However, the extent to which the limitations of tide gauge analyses have affected estimates of the GMSL rate of change is unclear. Here we revisit estimates of twentieth-century GMSL rise using probabilistic techniques and find a rate of GMSL rise from 1901 to 1990 of 1.2 +/- 0.2 millimetres per year (90% confidence interval). Based on individual contributions tabulated in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this estimate closes the twentieth-century sea-level budget. Our analysis, which combines tide gauge records with physics-based and model-derived geometries of the various contributing signals, also indicates that GMSL rose at a rate of 3.0 +/- 0.7 millimetres per year between 1993 and 2010, consistent with prior estimates from tide gauge records. The increase in rate relative to the 1901-90 trend is accordingly larger than previously thought; this revision may affect some projections of future sea-level rise.

  3. Reflections on Comparative Literature in the Twenty-First Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BASSNETT; Susan

    2010-01-01

    <正>I have been struggling with Comparative Literature all my academic life.I use the word‘struggle’ advisedly;engaging with the idea of comparative literature has not been easy nor,as we move forward in this new century,is it at all clear where the discipline will move to next.True,on the one hand there is a flourishing

  4. China's Energy Strategy in the Twenty-first Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan He; Donghai Qin

    2006-01-01

    China's energy demand and energy imports have increased substantially in recent 5 years andwill continue to grow in future. Increasing dependency on the world market and the tension between energy supply and demand clearly show that energy is becoming a major constraint for China's future economic development. We introduce the background of China's energy demand and supply in this paper and discuss China's energy strategy in the twentyfirst century, focusing on growth, energy security and environmental sustainability.

  5. Family and marital affairs in 19th century Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divac Zorica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnology, as a science, continues to dedicate very much attention to the traditional culture of Serbian 19th century villages. In the past, material culture with all of the disappearing, relic artifacts no longer in use was in the focus of the science. A large amount of data was gathered, on the population origins, migrations, beliefs, rituals, social institutions such as cooperative associations and so on. In spite of these data, ethnology today has no detailed knowledge on life of Serbian 19th century villages especially there is a gap in our knowledge on family life in the first half of the 19th century. Family researches, such as ethnologists, sociologists and particularly those that deal with transformations, in their analyses use as a variable the so-called patriarchal-traditional model of the family. The model assumes: extended or cooperative family, stable and directed toward maintaining family ties and property; divorce is rare since the marriage itself is founded on duties toward family group and deference for a husband or father; the family is tied down to its land and family ties with male lineage are encouraged, and so on. In the first half of the 19th century however, Serbia was the battle-field of political turmoil, rebellion fights and huge social changes and general attitude of instability, migrations arguments, Turkish aggression, and frequent governmental changes, which brought about disturbance in patriarchal system, customs and regulations. Archival sources from the period reveal that courts were very busy dealing with cases of family and marital issues. It is evident that the regulations were put forward to enhance family solidity through marriage and family stability. Several available examples show "a dark side" of the Serbian family life of the period; today, it is not possible to establish the degree to which the family transformed itself from a patriarchal to a more liberated one.

  6. Thirteenth Century Mongol Warfare: Classical Military Strategy of Operational Art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-05

    Morgan, David. The .1g•l. Cambridge: Blackwell Ltd., 1991. Nicolle, David. The Mongol Warlords: Genghis Khan . Kublai Khan . Hhuelchu Tamerlane. Firebird...operational art emerged before Napoleon. The thirteenth century campaigns of Genghis Khan and his Mongol successors do not conveniently fit into the...of mutually reinforcing military and nomadic traditions developed among the Mongols from the reign of Genghis Khan to that of Kublei Khan (1206-1294

  7. A Special Forum on "20th Century British Women Writers"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>This group of essays is written as part of a research project entitled "A Feminist Study of the 20th century British and American Women Writers"(GDUFS211- 1-005),supported by "211 Project" of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies. Feminist literary criticism gained irreversible momentum in 1960s with the rising of the second-wave feminist movement worldwide.The "gynocritics" advocated by Elaine Showalter draws researchers’ attention to the women’s experiences

  8. Megadrought and megadeath in 16th century Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Stahle, David W; Cleaveland, Malcolm K; Therrell, Matthew D

    2002-04-01

    The native population collapse in 16th century Mexico was a demographic catastrophe with one of the highest death rates in history. Recently developed tree-ring evidence has allowed the levels of precipitation to be reconstructed for north central Mexico, adding to the growing body of epidemiologic evidence and indicating that the 1545 and 1576 epidemics of cocoliztli (Nahuatl for "pest") were indigenous hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by rodent hosts and aggravated by extreme drought conditions.

  9. Strategic Leader Development for a 21st Century Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-30

    Fall of Strategic Planning. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1994. Northouse , Peter G. Leadership : Theory and Practice . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage...the 21st-Century Army,” Parameters, (Autumn 2001), 18. 40 Elliott Jaques and Stephen D. Clement, Executive Leadership : A Practical Guide to...Stephen D. Clement. Executive Leadership : A Practical Guide to Managing Complexity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 1994. Mintzberg, Henry. The Rise and

  10. Energy in ASEAN: An outlook into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismunandar, A.; Dupuis, P.

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed in Bangkok in 1967 by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. A sixth nation, recently independent Brunei Darussalam, joined the association in 1984. The story on enery in the ASEAN is presented. The topics covered include the following: energy resources; energy demand versus elasticity; how to cope with energy demand; and an outlook into the 21st century.

  11. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The Secretary of Agriculture has...

  12. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  13. John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael G.

    Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

  14. The finger of God : anatomical practice in 17th century Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Tijs

    2008-01-01

    A description of 17th century anatomical activity at the major Dutch university in a cultural context This study offers a history of the Leiden anatomical theatre in the first century of its existence; who were the scientists working there in the 17th century, the Dutch Golden Age. What was the mot

  15. Diabetes insipidus: celebrating a century of vasopressin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Sana; Galiveeti, Sneha; Bichet, Daniel G; Roth, Jesse

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus, widely known to the ancients for polyuria and glycosuria, budded off diabetes insipidus (DI) about 200 years ago, based on the glucose-free polyuria that characterized a subset of patients. In the late 19th century, clinicians identified the posterior pituitary as the site of pathology, and pharmacologists found multiple bioactivities there. Early in the 20th century, the amelioration of the polyuria with extracts of the posterior pituitary inaugurated a new era in therapy and advanced the hypothesis that DI was due to a hormone deficiency. Decades later, a subset of patients with polyuria unresponsive to therapy were recognized, leading to the distinction between central DI and nephrogenic DI, an early example of a hormone-resistant condition. Recognition that the posterior pituitary had 2 hormones was followed by du Vigneaud's Nobel Prize winning isolation, sequencing, and chemical synthesis of oxytocin and vasopressin. The pure hormones accelerated the development of bioassays and immunoassays that confirmed the hormone deficiency in vasopressin-sensitive DI and abundant levels of hormone in patients with the nephrogenic disorder. With both forms of the disease, acquired and inborn defects were recognized. Emerging concepts of receptors and of genetic analysis led to the recognition of patients with mutations in the genes for 1) arginine vasopressin (AVP), 2) the AVP receptor 2 (AVPR2), and 3) the aquaporin 2 water channel (AQP2). We recount here the multiple skeins of clinical and laboratory research that intersected frequently over the centuries since the first recognition of DI.

  16. The Long Twentieth Century and Barriers to China's Hegemonic Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gulick

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Arrighi's The Long Twentieth Century is an almost unfathomably ambitious andcomplex work. Its monumentality derives from Arrighi 's conviction that the best way to handicapthe possible futures of the world capitalist geo-economy is to analyze the structural evolution ofthis global system, an evolution spanning more than five centuries; the genius of the work rests inthe distinctive approach that Arrighi takes. At the core of his approach is the identification ofthose long-term trends and accreted characteristics - one might call them "systemiccontradictions" - that promise to send the world capitalist geo-economy in a radically differentdevelopmental direction as US hegemony wanes. Arrighi 's assessment of these contradictionscompel him to make a provocative suggestion: in all likelihood, no singular concentration of stateand economic power possesses the territorial scale or the organizational capacities required tolead the global system through another round of restructuring and expansion. Properly framed,this illuminating insight could serve as the starting point for a theoretical exploration of thesocio-ecological constraints to global capitalist reproduction, but such is a journey (mostly nottaken by Arrighi in The Long Twentieth Century. In fact, to the degree that he subsequentlycontemplates the prospect of a China-centered reconstitution of the world geo-economy, Arrighimarginalizes the question of global systemic contradictions altogether.

  17. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  18. [Disease control on the Russian fleet in XVIII century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, A V

    2014-03-01

    Disease control in domestic fleet in XVIII century was a part of government measures concerning protection of the territory of the Russian Empire from the penetration of dangerous infectious diseases. Understanding the role fleet could play in the spread of infection, the government sought to prevent its entry from the sea. Following this task, in the early 20-s of XVIII century on islands of the Gulf Seskar and Wolf organized sanitary quarantine stations where ships from unfavorable in relation to the epidemic areas stayed before they pester the Russian shore. Eventually when the Black Sea Fleet was created, similar items appeared in Ochakov, Sevastopol, Feodosia, Yalta and Kerch. In XVIII century health legislation was supplemented by a number of regulations relating to the activities of the fleet. In particular, during the reign of Peter I epidemic rules were composed, which, as it became known, lasted for about sixty years. In 1786, the band released a set of quarantine rules designed to streamline the work of sanitary and quarantine stations. Important for protection against the penetration of Russian borders infectious diseases had timely warning of epidemics broke out abroad. Cooperating with European countries in the prevention and control of communicable diseases, Russia has successfully developed methods antiepidemic protection.

  19. [Origin of animal experimentation legislation in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocard, M

    1999-01-01

    The first legislation in the world, designed to protect animals used in research, was passed in England in 1876, and is still in force today. It is one of the strictest in Europe. At the same period, France had no such law, and was the country conducting the greatest amount of animal experimentation. Comparing, these two countries, in the middle of the 19th century, can account for this difference. The most important difference seems to be related to the theological question: are animals endowed with a soul? Saint Augustine, claimed, in the 4th century, perhaps because of an experiment with the centipede, that animals do not have a soul. In the 17th century, René Descartes, using a different philosophical system, reached a similar conclusion, in France. On the other hand, under the influence of Charles Darwin, England rejected the Roman Catholic conclusion, about the soul of animals. The industrial revolution, occurring earlier in England than in France, also changed the society, developing urban areas, where people were cut off from rural life and changing human relationships with animals. The industrial revolution enabled the development of the press, giving impetus to public opinion. These facts, combined with a caution of science, which was more developed in England than in France, brought about the first important "anti-doctor" campaign.

  20. Peroxide Propulsion at the Turn of the Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William E.; Butler, Kathy; Crocket, Dave; Lewis, Tim; McNeal, Curtis

    2000-01-01

    A resurgence of interest in peroxide propulsion has occurred in the last years of the 21st Century. This interest is driven by the need for lower cost propulsion systems and the need for storable reusable propulsion systems to meet future space transportation system architectures. NASA and the Air Force are jointly developing two propulsion systems for flight demonstration early in the 21st Century. One system will be a development of Boeing's AR2-3 engine, which was successfully fielded in the 1960s. The other is a new pressure-fed design by Orbital Sciences Corporation for expendable mission requirements. Concurrently NASA and industry are pursuing the key peroxide technologies needed to design, fabricate, and test advanced peroxide engines to meet the mission needs beyond 2005. This paper will present a description of the AR2-3, report the status of its current test program, and describe its intended flight demonstration. This paper will then describe the Orbital 10K engine, the status of its test program, and describe its planned flight demonstration. Finally the paper will present a plan, or technology roadmap, for the development of an advanced peroxide engine for the 21st Century.

  1. Mustaches and masculine codes in early twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone-Moore, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to deepen our understanding of twentieth-century masculinity by considering the social function of facial hair. The management of facial hair has always been a medium of gendered body language, and as such has elicited a nearly continuous private and public conversation about manliness. Careful attention to this conversation, and to trends in facial hairstyles, illuminates a distinct and consistent pattern of thought about masculinity in early twentieth-century America. The preeminent form of facial hair - mustaches - was used to distinguish between two elemental masculine types: sociable and autonomous. A man was neither wholly one nor the other, but the presence and size of a mustache - or its absence - served to move a man one way or another along the continuum that stretched from one extreme to the other. According to the twentieth-century gender code, a clean-shaven man's virtue was his commitment to his male peers and to local, national or corporate institutions. The mustached man, by contrast, was much more his own man: a patriarch, authority figure or free agent who was able to play by his own rules. Men and women alike read these signals in their evaluation of men.

  2. Cerebral localization in the eighteenth century--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenberg, Axel

    2009-07-01

    At the beginning of the eighteenth century, attempts to localize cerebral functions generated a wide range of different ideas. Ancient theories and their revisions stood next to new doctrines; anatomical, pathological, and surgical observations stood beside philosophical conjectures or conclusions from physiological experiments. Echoing Descartes and Willis, many scholars placed the sensorium commune in structures such as corpus callosum, cerebellum, or meninges. Since the explanatory power of these ideas was limited, a strictly holistic approach gained momentum around 1750. The key neurophysiological concept of the second half of the eighteenth century was Haller's doctrine of the equipotentiality of all cerebral structures including the cortex. However, shortly before 1800, one final effort to reconcile philosophy and science was made. The anatomist Samuel Thomas Soemmerring contended that ventricular fluid was the immediate organ of the soul. The refutation of this hypothesis and the rise of Gall's doctrine mark the end of the premodern era of cerebral localization. This paper reconstructs the era's principle arguments and contemporary experiments. It demonstrates that some current controversies regarding the mind-body problem are repetitions of eighteenth-century neuro-philosophical debates.

  3. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  4. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  5. Epidemiologic trends of leprosy for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Pieter A M; Noto, Salvatore; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Major gaps still exist in the knowledge about leprosy, particularly with regard to how it spreads. Leprosy epidemiology remains complicated due to the specific characteristics of Mycobacterium leprae. To describe epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, the first part of this paper gives an overview of the epidemiology of leprosy, followed by past trends and the present situation of new-case detection as a proxy of the incidence. The third part, regarding predicted epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, elaborates on the main topic of this paper. With limited diagnostic tools to detect infection with M leprae, other methods are necessary to estimate trends in incidence and transmission. A computer program has been developed for modeling the transmission and control of leprosy (SIMLEP). The effect of failure to sustain early case detection beyond 2005 on leprosy incidence and case detection is shown. Important unanswered questions are whether the incubation period is contagious and how rapid close contacts of leprosy patients are infected. As long as such key questions remain unanswered, it will be difficult to estimate the impact of control strategies on the transmission of M leprae on resulting disease incidence. In the meantime we can expect that the global new-case detection trends will stay more or less stable or only decrease slightly for many years to come. There is a need of new preventive interventions to change this situation and reduce the incidence of leprosy in the 21st century.

  6. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder.

  7. Three centuries of geomagnetic field intensity changes in Spain (from the 9th to the 12th centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Paccard, M.; Osete, M. L.; Chauvin, A.; Jimenez-Castillo, P.; Perez-Asensio, M.

    2013-12-01

    Available European data indicate that during the past 2500 years there have been periods of rapid intensity geomagnetic fluctuations (at least of ~20 μT/century) interspersed with periods of little change. The challenge now is to precisely describe these rapid changes by the acquisition of well-dated high-quality archeomagnetic data. In this study we report the archeomagnetic study of Spanish ceramic fragments. The collected fragments belong to 14 superposed stratigraphic levels corresponding to a surface no bigger than 3 m by 7 m. The pottery fragments dates back to the 9th and 11th centuries. The dating was established by 4 radiocarbon dates and by archeological/historical constraints including typological comparisons and well-controlled stratigraphic constrains between the different stratigraphic units. From classical Thellier experiments including TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections upon archeointensity estimates and conducted on 79 fragments, twelve new high-quality mean intensities have been obtained. Together with previously published high-quality data from Western Europe, the new data provide an improved description of the intensity changes that took place in Spain between the 9th and the 12th centuries. The results confirm that rapid intensity changes took place in Western Europe during the recent history of the Earth.

  8. EDITORIAL: 15th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: 3D Magnetic Field Effects in MHD Control 15th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: 3D Magnetic Field Effects in MHD Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, Richard

    2011-08-01

    This annual workshop on MHD Stability Control has been held since 1996 with a focus on understanding and developing control of MHD instabilities for future fusion reactors. The workshop generally covers a wide range of stability topics: from disruptions, to tearing modes, error fields, ELMs, resistive wall modes (RWMs) and ideal MHD. It spans many device types, particularly tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches, to pull out commonalities in the physics and improve understanding. In 2010 the workshop was held on 15-17 November at the University of Wisconsin in Madison and was combined with the annual US-Japan MHD Workshop. The theme was `3D Magnetic Field Effects in MHD Control', with a focus on multidisciplinary sessions exploring issues of plasma response to 3D fields, the manifestation of such fields in the plasma, and how they influence stability. This has been a topic of renewed interest, with utilisation of 3D fields for ELM control now planned in ITER, and a focus on the application of such fields for error field correction, disruption avoidance, and RWM control. Key issues included the physics of the interaction, types of coils and harmonic spectra needed to control instabilities, and subsidiary effects such as braking (or rotating) the plasma. More generally, a wider range of issues were discussed including RWM physics, tearing mode physics, disruption mitigation, ballooning stability, the snowflake divertor concept, and the line tied pinch! A novel innovation to the meeting was a panel discussion session, this year on Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity, which ran well; more will be tried next year. In this special section of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion we present several of the invited and contributed papers from the 2010 workshop, which have been subject to the normal refereeing procedures of the journal. These papers give a sense of the exceptional quality of the presentations at this workshop, all of which may be found at http://fusion.gat.com/conferences/mhd10/. The Program Committee deeply appreciates the participation and support our community continues to show in this workshop. This year's meeting attracted a record number of talks, and we feel the workshop provides an unparalleled opportunity for in-depth discussion amongst the stability community. We would also like to thank our hosts this year—the University of Wisconsin, and in particular Professor Francesco Volpe—for the outstanding support and facilities. Finally, the opportunity was taken to rotate the membership of the Program Committee; we would like to thank outgoing members Professors Gerald Navratil, John Sarff and François Waelbroeck for their many years of excellent advice and service. Their contributions have helped make the workshop a stimulating and friendly environment, which will no doubt continue to press forward on the critical questions of plasma stability for fusion energy.

  9. Twenty-First Century Creativity: An Investigation of How the Partnership for 21st Century Instructional Framework Reflects the Principles of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiajun; Woulfin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to consider how the 21st-century learning framework reflects principles of creativity. This article provides a qualitative analysis of the Partnership for 21st Century's (P21) policy documents, with a specific focus on how the principles of creativity, one of the 4Cs (creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, and…

  10. Diabetes type 2 pandemic in 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century it became obvious that a relentless increase in diabetes type 2 (DM) affecting the economically affluent countries, is gradually afflicting also the developing world. This review juxtaposes the threat that the DM epidemic represents to mankind, with the astonishing recent discoveries on the role of obesity and of the body fat in this metabolic disorder. Presently, the highest prevalence of DM is in Saudi Arabia, a country deep in riches generated by its oil wells. DM is very high, in over 10% of adults in the USA, Switzerland and Austria. Prevalence is low in Norway, China and in Iceland. Predictions of epidemiologists for the first third of the 21st century claim up to 2.5 times increase in DM in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, rest of Asia and in the Latin America. In China the number of patients with DM will double but in the economically advanced countries that experienced rise in DM in the 20th century, the increase will be only about 50%. Remarkably, a lowest increase in DM is expected in the countries that formerly belonged to the Soviet political space. Increasing urbanization, aging populations, obesity, and falling levels of physical activity are all contributing to the rise of DM worldwide. The main cause of DM pandemic is growing prevalence of obesity, in Europe and in the Latin America. In the North America obesity is considered to be responsible for 90% of DM in females. Male obesity is associated with DM slightly less, at 70-80% in the European Union and in the US. The precise mechanism by which obesity leads to insulin resistance and to DM is not completely described but it may be related to several biochemical factors, such as abnormalities in free fatty acids, adipokines, leptin and other substances (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 24).

  11. The therapeutic properties of music throughout the centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpida Georgiadi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to present the therapeutic properties of music and its effect on both mental and physical illness, throughout the centuries as it is presented in published studies. Six articles from the international bibliography and fourteen articles from the Greek bibliography are reviewed in order to present the utility of music as a therapeutic method through the centuries and as an alternative healing method of nowadays. Ancient Greeks used refrains for the healing of men and animals and to prevent difficult and disastrous weather phenomena. Egyptians used to believe that musical notes hold magical powers. In African culture; music has an important role in healing ceremonies. According to the ideology of Greek philosophers the aim of healing is to restore the disturbed balance between body and soul. In classical ages, as Harmidis says, the treatment of headache is consists of the using of leaves from a certain plant in combination with specific refrains. Without chanting those refrains the medicine is useless. We are informed by the writing of Seneca that Maecena used music to eliminate fear so as to fall asleep. In Renaissance, the era of conquers and philosophy, art and science, medicine was renewed and sow as music which gained human experienced basis and ability to express. In Islam, the dominant belief is that body is the house of soul and therefore the body will keep on complaining until the soul is healed. By the 20th century scientists have neither observed nor studied the effect of music in physiological parameters in the human body. In 1950, the American Society of Music Therapy was founded and so it formed the first center of clinical implementation and research of music therapy.

  12. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L., was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet.

  13. Twentieth century Walker Circulation change: data analysis and model experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qingjia [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, River and Coastal Environment Research Center, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Qingdao (China); Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Martin, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Semenov, Vladimir A. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    Recent studies indicate a weakening of the Walker Circulation during the twentieth century. Here, we present evidence from an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced by the history of observed sea surface temperature (SST) that the Walker Circulation may have intensified rather than weakened. Observed Equatorial Indo-Pacific Sector SST since 1870 exhibited a zonally asymmetric evolution: While the eastern part of the Equatorial Pacific showed only a weak warming, or even cooling in one SST dataset, the western part and the Equatorial Indian Ocean exhibited a rather strong warming. This has resulted in an increase of the SST gradient between the Maritime Continent and the eastern part of the Equatorial Pacific, one driving force of the Walker Circulation. The ensemble experiments with the AGCM, with and without time-varying external forcing, suggest that the enhancement of the SST gradient drove an anomalous atmospheric circulation, with an enhancement of both Walker and Hadley Circulation. Anomalously strong precipitation is simulated over the Indian Ocean and anomalously weak precipitation over the western Pacific, with corresponding changes in the surface wind pattern. Some sensitivity to the forcing SST, however, is noticed. The analysis of twentieth century integrations with global climate models driven with observed radiative forcing obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) database support the link between the SST gradient and Walker Circulation strength. Furthermore, control integrations with the CMIP models indicate the existence of strong internal variability on centennial timescales. The results suggest that a radiatively forced signal in the Walker Circulation during the twentieth century may have been too weak to be detectable. (orig.)

  14. Global SST influence on twentieth century NAO variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeth, H.; Hense, A. [Meteorologisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Latif, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested that sea surface temperature (SST) is an important source of variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we deal with four basic aspects contributing to this issue: (1) we investigate the characteristic time scales of this oceanic influence; (2) quantify the scale-dependent hindcast potential of the NAO during the twentieth century as derived from SST-driven atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) ensembles; (3) the relevant oceanic regions are identified, corresponding SST indices are defined and their relationship to the NAO are evaluated by means of cross spectral analysis and (4) our results are compared with long-term coupled control experiments with different ocean models in order to ensure whether the spectral relationship between the SST regions and the NAO is an intrinsic mode of the coupled climate system, involving the deep ocean circulation, rather than an artefact of the unilateral SST forcing. The observed year-to-year NAO fluctuations are barely influenced by the SST. On the decadal time scales the major swings of the observed NAO are well reproduced by various ensembles from the middle of the twentieth century onward, including the negative state in the 1960s and part of the positive trend afterwards. A six-member ECHAM4-T42 ensemble reveals that the SST boundary condition affects 25% of total decadal-mean and interdecadal-trend NAO variability throughout the twentieth century. The most coherent NAO-related SST feature is the well-known North Atlantic tripole. Additional contributions may arise from the southern Pacific and the low-latitude Indian Ocean. The coupled climate model control runs suggest only the North Atlantic SST-NAO relationship as being a true characteristic of the coupled climate system. The coherence and phase spectra of observations and coupled simulations are in excellent agreement, confirming the robustness of this decadal-scale North Atlantic air-sea coupled mode. (orig.)

  15. US Environmental Legislation and Biodiversity over the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act is held up both as an example of strict legislation working to guard biodiversity preservation (Yaffee, 1982) and an uneconomical law that creates perverse incentives that may actually reduce such preservation (Brown and Shogren, 1998; Lueck & Michael, 2003; List et...... back throughout the development of the United States over the 20th century and continues into the present. We trace this evolution of federal political action to ask how the evolution of U.S. wildlife legislation reflects the tradeoffs between environment and development in spatial and temporal...

  16. Three 13th-century views of quantified modal logic

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    There are two reasons why medieval logic is of interest to modern logician: One is to see how similar it is to modern logic and the other is to see how different it is. We study three 13th-century works on modal logic and give two examples of how their views of modal logic differ from modern views of the same: the nature of modality and the truth conditions for modal sentences. Because of the different goals of the medieval logicians, modern logicians must take care in arguing for or against ...

  17. After the book information services for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Stachokas, George

    2014-01-01

    Libraries and librarians have been defined by the book throughout modern history. What happens when society increasingly lets print go in favour of storing, retrieving and manipulating electronic information? What happens after the book? After the Book explores how the academic library of the 21st Century is first and foremost a provider of electronic information services. Contemporary users expect today's library to provide information as quickly and efficiently as other online information resources. The book argues that librarians need to change what they know, how they work, and how they ar

  18. Nominalism and constructivism in seventeenth-century mathematical philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Sepkoski, David

    2013-01-01

    What was the basis for the adoption of mathematics as the primary mode of discourse for describing natural events by a large segment of the philosophical community in the seventeenth century? In answering this question, this book demonstrates that a significant group of philosophers shared the belief that there is no necessary correspondence between external reality and objects of human understanding, which they held to include the objects of mathematical and linguistic discourse. The result is a scholarly reliable, but accessible, account of the role of mathematics in the works of (

  19. A century of influence: Part 1. Orthodontic pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Chris

    2015-05-01

    The story of orthodontics during the first 100 years of Journal publication can be told through the people who lived it. As part of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics' Centennial Celebration, we present 100 people who most influenced the specialty during the last 100 years. Part 1 describes the orthodontic pioneers who were born in the 1800 s. They were broadly educated in the sciences, and most studied orthodontics with Angle, Dewey, or Lischer. They were innovators and inventors, and they laid the foundation of the specialty during the early years of the 20th century.

  20. [Media for 21st century--towards human communication media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harashima, H

    2000-05-01

    Today, with the approach of the 21st century, attention is focused on multi-media communications combining computer, visual and audio technologies. This article discusses the communication media target and the technological problems constituting the nucleus of multi-media. The communication media is becoming an environment from which no one can escape. Since the media has such a great power, what is needed now is not to predict the future technologies, but to estimate the future world and take to responsibility for future environments.

  1. Gout in Valchiavenna in the XVII century: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Broggini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Gout was a well known disease in antiquity, even if often confused with other arthritic conditions. In this paper the XVII century physicians’ knowledge about gout is discussed. In particular the chapter about gout by Ludovico Settala in his book Animadversionum, & cautionum Medicarum (1652 is reported. A story is also reported, described in many reports of the time, about a man who died under the landslide which destroyed the town of Piuro in 1618: he was awfully disfigured by the landslide, but was easily recognized by the severe gout he suffered in his hands.

  2. Christians and Jews in the Twelfth-Century Werewolf Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyovitz, David I

    2014-10-01

    In the late twelfth century, northern European Jewish mystics engaged in a sustained, unprecedented effort to explore the theological meaning of werewolves. This article seeks to anchor this surprising preoccupation in contemporary European religious culture, arguing that medieval Jews and Christians found werewolves "good to think with" in exploring the spiritual status of the (mutable, unstable) human body. Discourses of monstrosity were used as polemical ammunition in Jewish-Christian debates, but monstrous creatures were simultaneously held to be theologically resonant by both communities-a fact that sheds light upon the broader intellectual and cultural setting in which they were joint participants.

  3. South African Agricultural Research and Development: A Century of Change

    OpenAIRE

    Liebenberg, Frikkie; Pardey, Philip G.; Kahn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The 20th Century saw substantive shifts in the structure of agriculture and agricultural production in South Africa. Farm size grew, farm numbers eventually declined, and production increasingly emphasized higher-valued commodities, notably a range of horticultural crops. The real gross value of agricultural output grew steadily (by 3.32 percent per year) from 1910-1981, but declined thereafter (by 0.21 percent per year from 1982-2008). These long-run sectoral changes provide a context to pre...

  4. Siting epidemic disease: 3 centuries of American history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Charles E

    2008-02-15

    Epidemics of infectious disease have always played a role in American history, and such epidemics are sited in time and place and configured in terms of ecology and demography, available medical knowledge, and cultural values and collective experience. The mix of these variables has changed dramatically since the theocratic world of 17th-century New England, but the relevance of each remains. Avian influenza already exists virtually in Western society in terms of planning, global networks, laboratory research, social expectations, media representations, and a specific shared history based on the memory of the 1918 influenza pandemic.

  5. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). Sources of flexibility exist--and can be enhanced--across all of the physical and institutional elements of the power system, including system operations and markets, demand side resources and storage; generation; and transmission networks. Accessing flexibility requires significant planning to optimize investments and ensure that both short- and long-time power system requirements are met.

  6. Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear Bombers in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    REPORT DATE 02-04-10 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED 31-07-09 to 16-06-10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear...WARFIGHTING SCHOOL DINOSAUR OR PHOENIX: NUCLEAR BOMBERS IN THE 21ST CENTURY by John W. Morehead Colonel, United States Air Force A paper...can argue Secretary Gates’ decision to halt development of a follow-on bomber indicates the DOD views nuclear bombers as dinosaurs no longer needed as

  7. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  8. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FACING CHALLENGES IN 21ST CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 21st Century is the time for human seeking harmonizing with environment and carrying out sustainable development strategy. But sustainable development is facing many challenges. They may mainly include the follows: challenge comes from the contradiction between human and the earth, challenge of local benefit conflict to human common goal, challenge of competition to fairness, challenge of unbalanced development in regions and countries, challenge of diversity and challenge of calamity. Challenges are not only pressure, but also the motive force. Challenge exists, the motive force would never stop. Sustainable development was born in challenges, is developing in contradiction and will sustain in conflict.

  9. Governance and Tradition in Nineteenth-Century Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, Søren

    2014-01-01

    century reflect a fundamental shift in the rationality behind the colonial project in Greenland. This analytical point is reached through the deployment of the theoretical concept colonial governmentality. Following the work of scholars such as Nicholas Thomas, David Scott and Gyan Prakash, it is argued...... that a significant shift toward social engineering techniques (of governance) happened in the period. The new techniques were employed in order to structure of the life world of the Greenlanders, and ultimately shape their individuality. Finally the article draws attention to the short and long term consequences...

  10. Observing by hand sketching the nebulae in the nineteenth century

    CERN Document Server

    Nasim, Omar W

    2014-01-01

    Today we are all familiar with the iconic pictures of the nebulae produced by the Hubble Space Telescope's digital cameras. But there was a time, before the successful application of photography to the heavens, in which scientists had to rely on handmade drawings of these mysterious phenomena.           Observing by Hand sheds entirely new light on the ways in which the production and reception of handdrawn images of the nebulae in the nineteenth century contributed to astronomical observation. Omar W. Nasim investigates hundreds of unpublished observing books and paper records from six ninete

  11. Challenges to Ship Hydrodynamics in the XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kobylinski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of twenty-first century is characterized with important changes in world shipping and exploitation of ocean resources. Three important trends are clearly visible: environment protection, safety and economy. They materialize in important changes in the structure of world fleet where some existing ship types are going to disappear and new ship types emerge. Increasing the size of some ship types is another visible tendency. Stress on environment protection has serious impact on the hydrodynamic characteristics of ships whether with regard to safety zero accident rate is the goal. Important challenges to ship hydrodynamics caused by those tendencies are discussed in the paper.

  12. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important ...

  13. One century of cosmic rays – A particle physicist's view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Christine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on cosmic rays and the elementary particles share a common history that dates back to the 19th century. Following the discovery of radioactivity in the 1890s, the paths of the two fields intertwined, especially during the decades after the discovery of cosmic rays. Experiments demonstrated that the primary cosmic rays are positively charged particles, while other studies of cosmic rays revealed various new sub-atomic particles, including the first antiparticle. Techniques developed in common led to the birth of neutrino astronomy in 1987 and the first observation of a cosmic γ-ray source by a ground-based cosmic-ray telescope in 1989.

  14. Eighteenth-Century Garden Manuals: Old Practice, New Professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butoescu Elena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sketches the cultural significance that garden manuals had in England, from exemplifying a pleasurable and an aesthetic activity to encouraging the setting up of a profitable business. By investigating gardening manuals and treatises from the period, this study argues that eighteenth-century gardening manuals played an important role in shaping the cultural meanings of English gardens, in conveying “a practical knowledge of gardening, to gentlemen and young professors, who delight in that useful and agreeable study” (Abercrombie, The Preface, 1767 and in producing an original type of discourse which was employed to describe and represent the newly created professions.

  15. Fluorescein angiography: insight and serendipity a half century ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Michael F; Ravin, James G

    2011-07-01

    It has been 50 years since fluorescein angiography was developed as a clinical procedure by 2 medical students at Indiana University. The story of its discovery and the recognition of its value to ophthalmology involve a combination of insight and serendipity. Fluorescein had been in use clinically for more than half a century, but it took a pulmonary medicine laboratory to provide the stimulus for the development of flash and barrier filters that would make vascular photography practical. The first article was rejected by the ophthalmology literature, but several clinics heard about it and soon documented the enormous diagnostic value of the procedure.

  16. Romanian Economy in the Second Half of XIXth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gheorghe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Romanian society was facing aunprecedented challenge in its history. The main problem was the effort for modernization, due to thelarge costs which were threatening to radically transform the political, social and workforce betweenland owners and those who worked the land. The Agrarian reform of 1864 only partially fulfilled theexpectations of all the involved parties, therefore the solving of this problem was major given that theagriculture area preserved itself as the main economic branch.

  17. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  18. Discomforting Narratives: Teaching Eighteenth-Century Women’s Travelogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zold

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I describe an undergraduate course I designed and taught on eighteenth-century women’s travelogues and advocate for more courses that explicitly focus on noncanonical genres and authors. Using student papers, I explore how students worked through their discomfort with new genre conventions and improved their overall reading and analytical skills. I hope that my outline of the course will be useful to those who teach or will be teaching women's travel literature or who wish to focus courses on noncanonical authors and genres.

  19. Children, foundlings and orphans in 19th Century Montevideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Osta Vázquez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to shed light on orphan children in 19th century Montevideo from the vantage points of the history of childhood, the history of concepts, and other methodological perspectives. The first orphanage, called ‘La Inclusa’, was founded in 1818. Its activities revolved around a turnstile system wherein babies were left mostly anonymously, by their parents, relatives, neighbors or midwives. Our goal is to deconstruct concepts commonly used today and to historically contextualize them in relation to such practices. We seek to quantitatively visualize these children, parents and wet nurses through charts based on adoption and vital records. 

  20. [Theodor Billroth: more than a century of artistic greatness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Valdés, Julio César

    2014-01-01

    Christian Albert Theodor Billroth, a German surgeon of great artistry and immense culture and promoter of abdominal surgery, who drove the length of the physiology of the surgical field through the use of experimental surgery, is considered the leading German medical figure of the second half of the 19th century in Europe. His works and techniques transcended through time and continue to be implemented (albeit with modifications). He founded a new school of surgery based in criticism, the influence of which affected the development of numerous European and American surgeons. He was also a born artist who excelled in the music field, with many interests in music criticism and public events.