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Sample records for 15o radioactive ion

  1. Trojan Horse method and radioactive ion beams: study of $^{18}$F(p,$\\alpha$)$^{15}$O reaction at astrophysical energies

    CERN Document Server

    Gulino, M; Rapisarda, G G; Kubono, S; Lamia, L; La Cognata, M; Yamaguchi, H; Hayakawa, S; Wakabayashi, Y; Iwasa, N; Kato, S; Komatsubara, H; Teranishi, T; Coc, A; De Séréville, N; Hammache, F; Spitaleri, C

    2012-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method was applied for the first time to a Radioactive Ion Beam induced reaction to study the reaction $^{18}$F(p,$\\alpha$)$^{15}$O via the three body reaction $^{18}$F(d,$\\alpha$ $^{15}$O)n at the low energies relevant for astrophysics. The abundance of $^{18}$F in Nova explosions is an important issue for the understanding of this astrophysical phenomenon. For this reason it is necessary to study the nuclear reactions that produce or destroy $^{18}$F in Novae. $^{18}$F(p,$\\alpha$)$^{15}$O is one of the main $^{18}$F destruction channels. Preliminary results are presented in this paper.

  2. Study of Nuclear Reactions with 11C and 15O Radioactive Ion Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongwon [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-05-14

    Nuclear reaction study with radioactive ion beams is one of the most exciting research topics in modern nuclear physics. The development of radioactive ion beams has allowed nuclear scientists and engineers to explore many unknown exotic nuclei far from the valley of nuclear stability, and to further our understanding of the evolution of the universe. The recently developed radioactive ion beam facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-inch cyclotron is denoted as BEARS and provides 11C, 14O and 15O radioactive ion beams of high quality. These moderate to high intensity, proton-rich radioactive ion beams have been used to explore the properties of unstable nuclei such as 12N and 15F. In this work, the proton capture reaction on 11C has been evaluated via the indirect d(11C, 12N)n transfer reaction using the inverse kinematics method coupled with the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficient (ANC) theoretical approach. The total effective 12N → 11C+p ANC is found to be (C eff12N = 1.83 ± 0.27 fm-1. With the high 11C beam intensity available, our experiment showed excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and previous experimental studies. This study also indirectly confirmed that the 11C(p,γ) reaction is a key step in producing CNO nuclei in supermassive low-metallicity stars, bypassing the slow triple alpha process. The newly developed 15O radioactive ion beam at BEARS was used to study the poorly known level widths of 16F via the p(15O,15O)p reaction. Among the nuclei in the A=16, T=1 isobaric triad, many states in 16N and 16O have been well established, but less has been reported on 16F. Four states of 16F below 1 MeV have been identified experimentally: 0-, 1

  3. First application of the Trojan Horse Method with a Radioactive Ion Beam: study of the $^{18}$F($p,{\\alpha}$)$^{15}$O}} reaction at astrophysical energies

    CERN Document Server

    Cherubini, S; Spitaleri, C; Rapisarda, G G; La Cognata, M; Lamia, L; Pizzone, R G; Romano, S; Kubono, S; Yamaguchi, H; Hayakawa, S; Wakabayashi, Y; Iwasa, N; Kato, S; Komatsubara, T; Teranishi, T; Coc, A; de Séréville, N; Hammache, F; Kiss, G; Bishop, S; Binh, D N

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of nuclear cross sections at astrophysical energies involving unstable species is one of the most challenging tasks in experimental nuclear physics. The use of indirect methods is often unavoidable in this scenario. In this paper the Trojan Horse Method is applied for the first time to a radioactive ion beam induced reaction studying the $^{18}$F($p,{\\alpha}$)$^{15}$O process at low energies relevant to astrophysics via the three body reaction $^{2}$H($^{18}$F,${\\alpha}^{15}$O)n. The knowledge of the $^{18}$F($p, {\\alpha}$)$^{15}$O reaction rate is crucial to understand the nova explosion phenomena. The cross section of this reaction is characterized by the presence of several resonances in $^{19}$Ne and possibly interference effects among them. The results reported in Literature are not satisfactory and new investigations of the $^{18}$F($p,{\\alpha}$)$^{15}$O reaction cross section will be useful. In the present work the spin-parity assignments of relevant levels have been discussed and the astro...

  4. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  5. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  6. Radioactive Ion Beam Development at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Stracener, Dan; Beene, James R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Blackmon, Jeff C; Carter, Ken; Dowling, Darryl; Juras, Raymond; Kawai, Yoko; Kronenberg, Andreas; Liu, Yuan; Meigs, Martha; Müller, Paul; Spejewski, Eugene H; Tatum, A

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive beams are produced at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) technique. Radioactive nuclei are produced in a thick target via irradiation with energetic light ions (protons, deuterons, helium isotopes) and then post-accelerated to a few MeV/nucleon for use in nuclear physics experiments. An overview of radioactive beam development at the HRIBF will be presented, including ion source development, improvements in the ISOL production targets, and a description of techniques to improve the quality (intensity and purity) of the beams. Facilities for radioactive ion beam development include two ion source test facilities, a target/ion source preparation and quality assurance facility, and an in-beam test facility where low intensity production beams are used. A new test facility, the High Power Target Laboratory, will be available later this year. At this facility, high intensity production beams will be available t...

  7. Radioactive ion beam development in Berkeley

    CERN Document Server

    Wutte, D C; Leitner, M A; Xie, Z Q

    1999-01-01

    Two radioactive ion beam projects are under development at the 88" Cyclotron, BEARS (Berkeley Experiment with accelerated radioactive species) and the 14O experiment. The projects are initially focused on the production of 11C and 14O, but it is planned to expand the program to 17F, 18F, 13N and 76Kr. For the BEARS project, the radioactivity is produced in form of either CO2 or N2O in a small medical 10 MeV proton cyclotron. The activity is then transported through a 300 m long He-jet line to the 88" cyclotron building, injected into the AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the 88" cyclotron to energies between 1 to 30 MeV/ nucleon. The 14O experiment is a new experiment at the 88" cyclotron to measure the energy-shape of the beta decay spectrum. For this purpose, a target transfer line and a radioactive ion beam test stand has been constructed. The radioactivity is produced in form of CO in a hot carbon target with a 20 MeV 3He from the 88" Cyclotron. The activity diffuses through an 8m long stainless s...

  8. Radioactive ion beams in nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialanella, L.

    2016-09-01

    Unstable nuclei play a crucial role in the Universe. In this lecture, after a short introduction to the field of Nuclear Astrophysics, few selected cases in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis are discussed to illustrate the importance and peculiarities of processes involving unstable species. Finally, some experimental techniques useful for measurements using radioactive ion beams and the perspectives in this field are presented.

  9. Production of an 15O beam using a stable oxygen ion beam for in-beam PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Akram; Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inaniwa, Taku; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-03-01

    In advanced ion therapy, the 15O ion beam is a promising candidate to treat hypoxic tumors and simultaneously monitor the delivered dose to a patient using PET imaging. This study aimed at production of an 15O beam by projectile fragmentation of a stable 16O beam in an optimal material, followed by in-beam PET imaging using a prototype OpenPET system, which was developed in the authors' group. The study was carried out in three steps: selection of the optimal target based on the highest production rate of 15O fragments; experimental production of the beam using the optimal target in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Chiba (HIMAC) secondary beam course; and realization of in-beam PET imaging for the produced beam. The optimal target evaluations were done using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS. The fluence and mean energy of the secondary particles were simulated and the optimal target was selected based on the production rate of 15O fragments. The highest production rate of 15O was observed for a liquid hydrogen target, 3.27% for a 53 cm thick target from the 16O beam of 430 MeV/u. Since liquid hydrogen is not practically applicable in the HIMAC secondary beam course a hydrogen-rich polyethylene material, which was the second optimal target from the simulation results, was selected as the experimental target. Three polyethylene targets with thicknesses of 5, 11 or 14 cm were used to produce the 15O beam without any degrader in the beam course. The highest production rate was measured as around 0.87% for the 11 cm thick polyethylene target from the 16O beam of 430 MeV/u when the angular acceptance and momentum acceptance were set at ±13 mrad and ±2.5%, respectively. The purity of the produced beam for the three targets were around 75%, insufficient for clinical application, but it was increased to 97% by inserting a wedge shape aluminum degrader with a thickness of 1.76 cm into the beam course and that is sufficiently high. In-beam PET imaging was also

  10. Radioactive ion beams for solid state research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes are widely used in many research fields. In some applications they are used as tracers after diffusion or after activation in the material itself through nuclear reactions. For research in solid state physics, the ion implantation technique is the most flexible and convenient method to introduce the radioactive isotopes in the materials to be studied, since it allows the control of the ion dose, the implantation depth and the isotopic purity. The on-line coupling of isotope separators to particle accelerators, as is the case of the ISOLDE facility at CERN, allows the obtention of a wide range of high purity short lived isotopes. Currently, the most stringent limitation for some applications is the low acceleration energy of 60 keV of the ISOLDE beam. In this communication a short review of the current applications of the radioactive beams for research in solid state physics at ISOLDE is done. The development of a post-accelerator facility for MeV radioactive ions is introduced and the adv...

  11. Radioactive Ions for Surface Characterization

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The collaboration has completed a set of pilot experiments with the aim to develop techniques for using radioactive nuclei in surface physics. The first result was a method for thermal deposition of isolated atoms (Cd, In, Rb) on clean metallic surfaces. \\\\ \\\\ Then the diffusion history of deposited Cd and In atoms on two model surfaces, Mo(110) and Pd(111), was followed through the electric field gradients (efg) acting at the probe nuclei as measured with the Perturbed Angular Correlation technique. For Mo(110) a rather simple history of the adatoms was inferred from the experiments: Atoms initially landing at terrace sites diffuse from there to ledges and then to kinks, defects always present at real surfaces. The next stage is desorption from the surface. For Pd a scenario that goes still further was found. Following the kink stage the adatoms get incorporated into ledges and finally into the top surface layer. For all these five sites the efg's could be measured.\\\\ \\\\ In preparation for a further series o...

  12. BEARS: Radioactive ion beams at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.; Guo, F.Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Haustein, P.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.] [and others

    1998-07-01

    BEARS (Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species) is an initiative to develop a radioactive ion-beam capability at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim is to produce isotopes at an existing medical cyclotron and to accelerate them at the 88 inch Cyclotron. To overcome the 300-meter physical separation of these two accelerators, a carrier-gas transport system will be used. At the terminus of the capillary, the carrier gas will be separated and the isotopes will be injected into the 88 inch Cyclotron`s Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source. The first radioactive beams to be developed will include 20-min {sup 11}C and 70-sec {sup 14}O, produced by (p,n) and (p,{alpha}) reactions on low-Z targets. A test program is currently being conducted at the 88 inch Cyclotron to develop the parts of the BEARS system. Preliminary results of these tests lead to projections of initial {sup 11}C beams of up to 2.5 {times} 10{sup 7} ions/sec and {sup 14}O beams of 3 {times} 10{sup 5} ions/sec.

  13. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive ions at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Reifarth, R; Göbel, K; Heftrich, T; Heil, M; Koloczek, A; Langer, C; Plag, R; Pohl, M; Sonnabend, K; Weigand, M; Adachi, T; Aksouh, F; Al-Khalili, J; AlGarawi, M; AlGhamdi, S; Alkhazov, G; Alkhomashi, N; Alvarez-Pol, H; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R; Andreev, V; Andrei, B; Atar, L; Aumann, T; Avdeichikov, V; Bacri, C; Bagchi, S; Barbieri, C; Beceiro, S; Beck, C; Beinrucker, C; Belier, G; Bemmerer, D; Bendel, M; Benlliure, J; Benzoni, G; Berjillos, R; Bertini, D; Bertulani, C; Bishop, S; Blasi, N; Bloch, T; Blumenfeld, Y; Bonaccorso, A; Boretzky, K; Botvina, A; Boudard, A; Boutachkov, P; Boztosun, I; Bracco, A; Brambilla, S; Monago, J Briz; Caamano, M; Caesar, C; Camera, F; Casarejos, E; Catford, W; Cederkall, J; Cederwall, B; Chartier, M; Chatillon, A; Cherciu, M; Chulkov, L; Coleman-Smith, P; Cortina-Gil, D; Crespi, F; Crespo, R; Cresswell, J; Csatlós, M; Déchery, F; Davids, B; Davinson, T; Derya, V; Detistov, P; Fernandez, P Diaz; DiJulio, D; Dmitry, S; Doré, D; nas, J Due\\; Dupont, E; Egelhof, P; Egorova, I; Elekes, Z; Enders, J; Endres, J; Ershov, S; Ershova, O; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Fetisov, A; Fiori, E; Fomichev, A; Fonseca, M; Fraile, L; Freer, M; Friese, J; Borge, M G; Redondo, D Galaviz; Gannon, S; Garg, U; Gasparic, I; Gasques, L; Gastineau, B; Geissel, H; Gernhäuser, R; Ghosh, T; Gilbert, M; Glorius, J; Golubev, P; Gorshkov, A; Gourishetty, A; Grigorenko, L; Gulyas, J; Haiduc, M; Hammache, F; Harakeh, M; Hass, M; Heine, M; Hennig, A; Henriques, A; Herzberg, R; Holl, M; Ignatov, A; Ignatyuk, A; Ilieva, S; Ivanov, M; Iwasa, N; Jakobsson, B; Johansson, H; Jonson, B; Joshi, P; Junghans, A; Jurado, B; Körner, G; Kalantar, N; Kanungo, R; Kelic-Heil, A; Kezzar, K; Khan, E; Khanzadeev, A; Kiselev, O; Kogimtzis, M; Körper, D; Kräckmann, S; Kröll, T; Krücken, R; Krasznahorkay, A; Kratz, J; Kresan, D; Krings, T; Krumbholz, A; Krupko, S; Kulessa, R; Kumar, S; Kurz, N; Kuzmin, E; Labiche, M; Langanke, K; Lazarus, I; Bleis, T Le; Lederer, C; Lemasson, A; Lemmon, R; Liberati, V; Litvinov, Y; Löher, B; Herraiz, J Lopez; Münzenberg, G; Machado, J; Maev, E; Mahata, K; Mancusi, D; Marganiec, J; Perez, M Martinez; Marusov, V; Mengoni, D; Million, B; Morcelle, V; Moreno, O; Movsesyan, A; Nacher, E; Najafi, M; Nakamura, T; Naqvi, F; Nikolski, E; Nilsson, T; Nociforo, C; Nolan, P; Novatsky, B; Nyman, G; Ornelas, A; Palit, R; Pandit, S; Panin, V; Paradela, C; Parkar, V; Paschalis, S; Paw\\lowski, P; Perea, A; Pereira, J; Petrache, C; Petri, M; Pickstone, S; Pietralla, N; Pietri, S; Pivovarov, Y; Potlog, P; Prokofiev, A; Rastrepina, G; Rauscher, T; Ribeiro, G; Ricciardi, M; Richter, A; Rigollet, C; Riisager, K; Rios, A; Ritter, C; Frutos, T Rodríguez; Vignote, J Rodriguez; Röder, M; Romig, C; Rossi, D; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Rout, P; Roy, S; Söderström, P; Sarkar, M Saha; Sakuta, S; Salsac, M; Sampson, J; Saez, J Sanchez del Rio; Rosado, J Sanchez; Sanjari, S; Sarriguren, P; Sauerwein, A; Savran, D; Scheidenberger, C; Scheit, H; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, C; Schnorrenberger, L; Schrock, P; Schwengner, R; Seddon, D; Sherrill, B; Shrivastava, A; Sidorchuk, S; Silva, J; Simon, H; Simpson, E; Singh, P; Slobodan, D; Sohler, D; Spieker, M; Stach, D; Stan, E; Stanoiu, M; Stepantsov, S; Stevenson, P; Strieder, F; Stuhl, L; Suda, T; Sümmerer, K; Streicher, B; Taieb, J; Takechi, M; Tanihata, I; Taylor, J; Tengblad, O; Ter-Akopian, G; Terashima, S; Teubig, P; Thies, R; Thoennessen, M; Thomas, T; Thornhill, J; Thungstrom, G; Timar, J; Togano, Y; Tomohiro, U; Tornyi, T; Tostevin, J; Townsley, C; Trautmann, W; Trivedi, T; Typel, S; Uberseder, E; Udias, J; Uesaka, T; Uvarov, L; Vajta, Z; Velho, P; Vikhrov, V; Volknandt, M; Volkov, V; von Neumann-Cosel, P; von Schmid, M; Wagner, A; Wamers, F; Weick, H; Wells, D; Westerberg, L; Wieland, O; Wiescher, M; Wimmer, C; Wimmer, K; Winfield, J S; Winkel, M; Woods, P; Wyss, R; Yakorev, D; Yavor, M; Cardona, J Zamora; Zartova, I; Zerguerras, T; Zgura, I; Zhdanov, A; Zhukov, M; Zieblinski, M; Zilges, A; Zuber, K

    2016-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis of elements beyond iron is dominated by neutron captures in the s and r processes. However, 32 stable, proton-rich isotopes cannot be formed during those processes, because they are shielded from the s-process flow and r-process beta-decay chains. These nuclei are attributed to the p and rp process. For all those processes, current research in nuclear astrophysics addresses the need for more precise reaction data involving radioactive isotopes. Depending on the particular reaction, direct or inverse kinematics, forward or time-reversed direction are investigated to determine or at least to constrain the desired reaction cross sections. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will offer unique, unprecedented opportunities to investigate many of the important reactions. The high yield of radioactive isotopes, even far away from the valley of stability, allows the investigation of isotopes involved in processes as exotic as the r or rp processes.

  14. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive ions at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifarth, R.; Altstadt, S.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Koloczek, A.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Pohl, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Weigand, M.; Adachi, T.; Aksouh, F.; Al-Khalili, J.; AlGarawi, M.; AlGhamdi, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alkhomashi, N.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Andreev, V.; Andrei, B.; Atar, L.; Aumann, T.; Avdeichikov, V.; Bacri, C.; Bagchi, S.; Barbieri, C.; Beceiro, S.; Beck, C.; Beinrucker, C.; Belier, G.; Bemmerer, D.; Bendel, M.; Benlliure, J.; Benzoni, G.; Berjillos, R.; Bertini, D.; Bertulani, C.; Bishop, S.; Blasi, N.; Bloch, T.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Bonaccorso, A.; Boretzky, K.; Botvina, A.; Boudard, A.; Boutachkov, P.; Boztosun, I.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Briz Monago, J.; Caamano, M.; Caesar, C.; Camera, F.; Casarejos, E.; Catford, W.; Cederkall, J.; Cederwall, B.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Cherciu, M.; Chulkov, L.; Coleman-Smith, P.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Crespi, F.; Crespo, R.; Cresswell, J.; Csatlós, M.; Déchery, F.; Davids, B.; Davinson, T.; Derya, V.; Detistov, P.; Diaz Fernandez, P.; DiJulio, D.; Dmitry, S.; Doré, D.; Dueñas, J.; Dupont, E.; Egelhof, P.; Egorova, I.; Elekes, Z.; Enders, J.; Endres, J.; Ershov, S.; Ershova, O.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Fetisov, A.; Fiori, E.; Fomichev, A.; Fonseca, M.; Fraile, L.; Freer, M.; Friese, J.; Borge, M. G.; Galaviz Redondo, D.; Gannon, S.; Garg, U.; Gasparic, I.; Gasques, L.; Gastineau, B.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Ghosh, T.; Gilbert, M.; Glorius, J.; Golubev, P.; Gorshkov, A.; Gourishetty, A.; Grigorenko, L.; Gulyas, J.; Haiduc, M.; Hammache, F.; Harakeh, M.; Hass, M.; Heine, M.; Hennig, A.; Henriques, A.; Herzberg, R.; Holl, M.; Ignatov, A.; Ignatyuk, A.; Ilieva, S.; Ivanov, M.; Iwasa, N.; Jakobsson, B.; Johansson, H.; Jonson, B.; Joshi, P.; Junghans, A.; Jurado, B.; Körner, G.; Kalantar, N.; Kanungo, R.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kezzar, K.; Khan, E.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kiselev, O.; Kogimtzis, M.; Körper, D.; Kräckmann, S.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kratz, J.; Kresan, D.; Krings, T.; Krumbholz, A.; Krupko, S.; Kulessa, R.; Kumar, S.; Kurz, N.; Kuzmin, E.; Labiche, M.; Langanke, K.; Lazarus, I.; Le Bleis, T.; Lederer, C.; Lemasson, A.; Lemmon, R.; Liberati, V.; Litvinov, Y.; Löher, B.; Lopez Herraiz, J.; Münzenberg, G.; Machado, J.; Maev, E.; Mahata, K.; Mancusi, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martinez Perez, M.; Marusov, V.; Mengoni, D.; Million, B.; Morcelle, V.; Moreno, O.; Movsesyan, A.; Nacher, E.; Najafi, M.; Nakamura, T.; Naqvi, F.; Nikolski, E.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nolan, P.; Novatsky, B.; Nyman, G.; Ornelas, A.; Palit, R.; Pandit, S.; Panin, V.; Paradela, C.; Parkar, V.; Paschalis, S.; Pawłowski, P.; Perea, A.; Pereira, J.; Petrache, C.; Petri, M.; Pickstone, S.; Pietralla, N.; Pietri, S.; Pivovarov, Y.; Potlog, P.; Prokofiev, A.; Rastrepina, G.; Rauscher, T.; Ribeiro, G.; Ricciardi, M.; Richter, A.; Rigollet, C.; Riisager, K.; Rios, A.; Ritter, C.; Rodriguez Frutos, T.; Rodriguez Vignote, J.; Röder, M.; Romig, C.; Rossi, D.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Rout, P.; Roy, S.; Söderström, P.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sakuta, S.; Salsac, M.; Sampson, J.; Sanchez, J.; Rio Saez, del; Sanchez Rosado, J.; Sanjari, S.; Sarriguren, P.; Sauerwein, A.; Savran, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Scheit, H.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, C.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Schrock, P.; Schwengner, R.; Seddon, D.; Sherrill, B.; Shrivastava, A.; Sidorchuk, S.; Silva, J.; Simon, H.; Simpson, E.; Singh, P.; Slobodan, D.; Sohler, D.; Spieker, M.; Stach, D.; Stan, E.; Stanoiu, M.; Stepantsov, S.; Stevenson, P.; Strieder, F.; Stuhl, L.; Suda, T.; Sümmerer, K.; Streicher, B.; Taieb, J.; Takechi, M.; Tanihata, I.; Taylor, J.; Tengblad, O.; Ter-Akopian, G.; Terashima, S.; Teubig, P.; Thies, R.; Thoennessen, M.; Thomas, T.; Thornhill, J.; Thungstrom, G.; Timar, J.; Togano, Y.; Tomohiro, U.; Tornyi, T.; Tostevin, J.; Townsley, C.; Trautmann, W.; Trivedi, T.; Typel, S.; Uberseder, E.; Udias, J.; Uesaka, T.; Uvarov, L.; Vajta, Z.; Velho, P.; Vikhrov, V.; Volknandt, M.; Volkov, V.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; von Schmid, M.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Wells, D.; Westerberg, L.; Wieland, O.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.; Wimmer, K.; Winfield, J. S.; Winkel, M.; Woods, P.; Wyss, R.; Yakorev, D.; Yavor, M.; Zamora Cardona, J.; Zartova, I.; Zerguerras, T.; Zgura, M.; Zhdanov, A.; Zhukov, M.; Zieblinski, M.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.

    2016-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis of elements beyond iron is dominated by neutron captures in the s and r processes. However, 32 stable, proton-rich isotopes cannot be formed during those processes, because they are shielded from the s-process flow and r-process, β-decay chains. These nuclei are attributed to the p and rp process. For all those processes, current research in nuclear astrophysics addresses the need for more precise reaction data involving radioactive isotopes. Depending on the particular reaction, direct or inverse kinematics, forward or time-reversed direction are investigated to determine or at least to constrain the desired reaction cross sections. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will offer unique, unprecedented opportunities to investigate many of the important reactions. The high yield of radioactive isotopes, even far away from the valley of stability, allows the investigation of isotopes involved in processes as exotic as the r or rp processes.

  15. Radioactive ion beam line in Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹文龙; 郭忠言; 刘冠华; 党建荣; 何锐荣; 周嗣信; 尹全民; 罗亦孝; 王义芳; 魏宝文; 孙志宇; 肖国青; 王金川; 江山红; 李加兴; 孟祥伟; 张万生; 秦礼军; 王全进

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive ion beam line in Lanzhou (RIBLL) has been constructed for the production of short-lived radioactive nuclei and studies of exotic nuclei far from the β-stability line. It has been put into operation recently at the National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator Lanzhou. RIBLL consists of two doubly achromatic parts with a solid acceptance ΔΩ≥6.5 msr, momentum acceptance Δp/p=±5% and maximum magnetic rigidity Bρmax=4.2 Tm. The second part of RIBLL serving as a spectrometer gives an element resolution Z/ΔZ>150 and mass resolution A/ΔA>300. The polarized secondary beams can be obtained by using a swinger dipole magnet to change the incident direction of primary projectile from 0°to 5°. The shortest lift time for secondary beams on RIBLL is less than 1μs. First experiments were performed with neutron rich nuclei for understanding the properties of halo nuclei and exotic nuclear reactions.

  16. Wien filter for cooled low-energy radioactive ion beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nummela, S; Dendooven, P; Heikkinen, P; Huikari, J; Nieminen, A; Jokinen, A; Rinta-Antila, S; Rubchenya, V.; Aysto, J

    2002-01-01

    A Wien filter for cooled radioactive ion beams has been designed at Ion Guide Isotope Separator On Line technique (IGISOL). The purpose of such device is to eliminate doubly charged ions from the mass separated singly charged ions, based on q = +2-->q = +1 charge exchange process in an ion cooler, T

  17. Target development for a radioactive ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M.; Vanhorenbeeck, J. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Inst. d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique); Baeten, F.; Dom, C. (Institut National des Radioelements, Fleurus (Belgium)); Darquennes, D.; Delbar, T.; Jongen, Y.; Lacroix, M.; Lipnik, P.; Loiselet, M.; Ryckewaert, G.; Wa Kitwanga, S.; Vervier, J.; Zaremba, S. (Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Centre de Physique Nucleaire; Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Lab. de Cyclotron); Huyse, M.; Reusen, G.; Duppen, P. van (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Inst. voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika)

    1989-10-01

    A proton bombarded target coupled to an ion source is a key-equipment to produce a cyclotron accelerated Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB). This note concerns the target development for a {sup 13}N ion beam which will be the first one out of a more general project at Louvain-la-Neuve (Report RIB-1988-01). A 30-MeV proton beam of up to 300-{mu}A intensity from the CYCLONE 30 bombards a graphite target to produce the {sup 13}N isotope via the {sup 13}C(p, n){sup 13}N reaction. Two major problems have to be solved: The extraction and transport of {sup 13}N and the beam-heat dissipation. These aspects are somewhat correlated to the temperature dependence of the {sup 13}N release and to the heat conductivity of graphite. A disk shaped target can be cooled through its side-face or through its back-face, and in fact both designs are explored. The extraction yield of the first one varies with the beam intensity up to a maximum value of 46% at 170 {mu}A. For the second one, which is presently under development, the target temperature can be adjusted by a cooled finger of variable length. (orig.).

  18. The First On-line Radioactive Ion Beam from BRIF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI; Bao-qun; MA; Ying-jun; MA; Rui-gang; TANG; Bing; HUANG; Qing-hua; CHEN; Li-hua; MA; Xie

    2015-01-01

    Many of the reactions fundamentally important in nuclear physics and astrophysics can only be studied with high energy radioactive ion beams (RIBs).Radioactive ion beams offer unique opportunities to further our knowledge about the structure of the nucleus,the stellar processes.

  19. Transport and extraction of radioactive ions stopped in superfluid helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, WX; Dendooven, P; Gloos, K; Takahashi, N; Arutyunov, K; Pekola, JP; Aysto, J

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to convert a high energy beam to a low energy one, which is essential for the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities, has been proposed and tested at Jyvaskyla, Finland. An open Ra-223 alpha-decay-recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium. T

  20. Ion trap system for radioactive ions at JYFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhinen, V.S.; Jokinen, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Szerypo, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Aeystoe, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    The goal of the ion trap project in Jyvaeskylae is to improve the quality of radioactive beams at IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line), in terms of transverse emittance, energy spread and purity. This improvement is achieved with an aid of an RFQ cooler/buncher and a mass-selective cylindrical Penning trap (mass resolving power up to 10{sup 5}). Their final purpose is to produce cooled isobarically pure beams of exotic radioactivities mainly of exotic neutron-rich isotopes from fission (including refractory elements). In the Penning trap ions are confined in three dimensions in a superposition of static quadrupole electric and homogeneous magnetic fields. The magnetic field confines the ions in two dimensions in a plane perpendicular to the field direction. A confinement in the third, magnetic field direction (parallel to the trap axis) is done by a quadrupole electric field. The Penning trap system in Jyvaeskylae (JYFLTRAP) will contain two cylindrical Penning traps placed inside the same superconducting magnet (B=7 T). The first, purification trap, will accept cooled (continuous or bunched) beams from the RFQ cooler/buncher and perform the isobaric purification. The latter is - done using a combination of a buffer gas cooling and an azimuthal quadrupole RF-field providing mass- dependent centering of ions. This, in turn, allows mass-selective ejection of ions in short pulses. Clean monoisotopic bunched beams will be delivered for the nuclear spectroscopy studies, collinear laser spectroscopy experiments and precise nuclear mass measurements (10{sup -7} precision). The latter will be performed in the second, precision Penning trap (author)

  1. A radioactive ion beam facility using photofission

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, W T

    1999-01-01

    Use of a high-power electron linac as the driver accelerator for a Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility is proposed. An electron beam of 30 MeV and 100 kW can produce nearly 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 fissions/s from an optimized sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U target and about 60% of this from a natural uranium target. An electron beam can be readily transmitted through a thin window at the exit of the accelerator vacuum system and transported a short distance through air to a water-cooled Bremsstrahlung-production target. The Bremsstrahlung radiation can, in turn, be transported through air to the isotope-production target. This separates the accelerator vacuum system, the Bremsstrahlung target and the isotope-production target, reducing remote handling problems. The electron beam can be scanned over a large target area to reduce the power density on both the Bremsstrahlung and isotope-production targets. These features address one of the most pressing technological challenges of a high-power RIB facility, namely the production o...

  2. The production of accelerated radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1993-11-01

    During the last few years, substantial work has been done and interest developed in the scientific opportunities available with accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for nuclear physics, astrophysics, and applied research. This interest has led to the construction, development, and proposed development of both first- and second-generation RIB facilities in Asia, North America, and Europe; international conferences on RIBs at Berkeley and Louvain-la-Neuve; and many workshops on specific aspects of RIB production and science. This paper provides a discussion of both the projectile fragmentation, PF, and isotope separator on-line, ISOL, approach to RIB production with particular emphasis on the latter approach, which employs a postaccelerator and is most suitable for nuclear structure physics. The existing, under construction, and proposed facilities worldwide are discussed. The paper draws heavily from the CERN ISOLDE work, the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) study, and the operating first-generation RIB facility at Louvain-la-Neuve, and the first-generation RIB project currently being constructed at ORNL.

  3. Improvements and developments on radioactive ion beam line in Lanzhou

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Zhong Yan; Xiao Guo Qing; Xu Hu Shan; Sun Zhi Yu; Li Jia Xing; Wang Meng; Chen Zhi Qiang; Mao Rui Shi; Wang Wu Sheng; Bai Jie; Hu Zheng Guo; Chen Li Xin; Li Chen

    2003-01-01

    The improvements and the developments on radioactive ion beam line in Lanzhou (RIBLL) were carried out. So the performances of RIBLL are toned up evidently. It makes operating and setting RIBLL convenient and reliable

  4. Wien filter for cooled low-energy radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nummela, S. E-mail: saara.nummela@phys.jyu.fi; Dendooven, P.; Heikkinen, P.; Huikari, J.; Nieminen, A.; Jokinen, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rubchenya, V.; Aeystoe, J

    2002-04-01

    A Wien filter for cooled radioactive ion beams has been designed at Ion Guide Isotope Separator On Line technique (IGISOL). The purpose of such device is to eliminate doubly charged ions from the mass separated singly charged ions, based on q=+2{yields}q=+1 charge exchange process in an ion cooler. The performance of the Wien filter has been tested off-line with a discharge ion source as well as on-line with a radioactive beam. The electron capture process of cooled q=+2 ions has been investigated in a radiofrequency quadrupole ion cooler with varying partial pressures of nitrogen. Also, the superasymmetric fission production yields of 68

  5. GISELE: A resonant ionization laser ion source for the production of radioactive ions at GANIL

    CERN Document Server

    Lecesne, N; Wendt, K; Mattolat, C; Rothe, S; Pichard, A; Pacquet, J Y; Dubois, M; Coterreau, E; Franberg, H; Leroy, R; Gottwald, T; Alves-Conde, R; Flambard, J L; De Oliveira, F; Le Blanc, F; Jardin, P; Olivier, A; Lassen, J

    2010-01-01

    SPIRAL2 is the new project under construction at GANIL to produce radioactive ion beams and in particular neutron rich ion beams. For the past 10 yr SPIRAL1 at GANIL has been delivering accelerated radioactive ion beams of gases. Both facilities now need to extend the range of radioactive ion beams produced to condensable elements. For that purpose, a resonant ionization laser ion source, funded by the French Research National Agency, is under development at GANIL, in collaboration with IPN Orsay, University of Mainz (Germany) and TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada). A description of this project called GISELE (GANIL Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation) is presented.

  6. GISELE: A resonant ionization laser ion source for the production of radioactive ions at GANIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecesne, N.; Alves-Conde, R.; De Oliveira, F.; Dubois, M.; Flambard, J. L.; Franberg, H.; Jardin, P.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Pichard, A.; Saint-Laurent, M. G. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Coterreau, E.; Le Blanc, F.; Olivier, A. [IPN Orsay, BP 1-91406 Orsay (France); Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Lassen, J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Rothe, S. [Department of Engineering, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    SPIRAL2 is the new project under construction at GANIL to produce radioactive ion beams and in particular neutron rich ion beams. For the past 10 yr SPIRAL1 at GANIL has been delivering accelerated radioactive ion beams of gases. Both facilities now need to extend the range of radioactive ion beams produced to condensable elements. For that purpose, a resonant ionization laser ion source, funded by the French Research National Agency, is under development at GANIL, in collaboration with IPN Orsay, University of Mainz (Germany) and TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada). A description of this project called GISELE (GANIL Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation) is presented.

  7. Transport and extraction of radioactive ions stopped in superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Wan Xia; Gloos, K; Takahashi, N; Arutyunov, K; Pekola, J P; Äystö, J

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to convert a high energy beam to a low energy one, which is essential for the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities, has been proposed and tested at Jyvaeskylae, Finland. An open sup 2 sup 2 sup 3 Ra alpha-decay-recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium. The alpha spectra demonstrate that the recoiling sup 2 sup 1 sup 9 Rn ions have been extracted out of liquid helium. This first observation of the extraction of heavy positive ions across the superfluid helium surface was possible thanks to the high sensitivity of radioactivity detection. An efficiency of 36% was obtained for the ion extraction out of liquid helium.

  8. In-Trap Spectroscopy of Charge-Bred Radioactive Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennarz, A.; Grossheim, A.; Leach, K. G.; Alanssari, M.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Gallant, A. T.; Holl, M.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lassen, J.; Macdonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Seeraji, S.; Simon, M. C.; Andreoiu, C.; Dilling, J.; Frekers, D.

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we introduce the concept of in-trap nuclear decay spectroscopy of highly charged radioactive ions and describe its successful application as a novel spectroscopic tool. This is demonstrated by a measurement of the decay properties of radioactive mass A=124 ions (here, In124 and Cs124) in the electron-beam ion trap of the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. By subjecting the trapped ions to an intense electron beam, the ions are charge bred to high charge states (i.e., equivalent to the removal of N-shell electrons), and an increase of storage times to the level of minutes without significant ion losses is achieved. The present technique opens the venue for precision spectroscopy of low branching ratios and is being developed in the context of measuring electron-capture branching ratios needed for determining the nuclear ground-state properties of the intermediate odd-odd nuclei in double-beta (ββ) decay.

  9. Quercetin as electrolyte additive for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode for lithium-ion secondary battery at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungkyung; Kim, Myeongho; Choi, Insoo; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2016-12-01

    In an attempt to ameliorate the poor cyclability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at elevated temperature, quercetin is applied as an additive. The irreversible oxidative behavior of quercetin is thoroughly investigated by electrochemical method. The improved cyclability of the quercetin-containing cell at high temperature implies that by forming robust and less-resistive SEI, quercetin is preferentially oxidized and passivates the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode. EIS result coherently suggests that the quercetin-added electrolyte forms a more compact and Li-ion conducting interface. The surface sensitive XPS analysis confirms that the presence of quercetin restrains the formation of LiF, suppresses the reaction of PF5, and alleviates Mn dissolution. Meanwhile, ICP-MS analysis affirms the effectiveness of quercetin against Mn dissolution. The self-discharge experiment which exhibits the retained charged state of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at high temperature, gives convincing evidence of the effect of quercetin. Intensive analyses confirm that quercetin can effectively prolong the cycle-life of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at elevated temperature. We envision its potential and practical usage as an electrolyte additive for high-voltage cathode.

  10. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive ions at FAIR

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis of elements beyond iron is dominated by neutron captures in the s and r processes. However, 32 stable, proton-rich isotopes cannot be formed during those processes, because they are shielded from the s-process flow and r-process beta-decay chains. These nuclei are attributed to the p and rp process. For all those processes, current research in nuclear astrophysics addresses the need for more precise reaction data involving radioactive isotopes. Depending on the particular ...

  11. Simulation of induced radioactivity for Heavy Ion Medical Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Jun-Kui, Xu; Wu-Yuan, Li; Wang, Mao; Jia-Wen, Xia; Xi-Meng, Chen; Wei-Wei, Yan; Chong, Xu

    2013-01-01

    For radiation protection and environmental impact assessment purpose, the radioactivity induced by carbon ion of Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) was studied. Radionuclides in accelerator component, cooling water and air at target area which are induced from primary beam and secondary particles are simulated by FLUKA Monte Carlo code. It is found that radioactivity in cooling water and air is not very important at the required beam intensity and energy which is needed for treatment, radionuclides in accelerator component may cause some problem for maintenance work, suitable cooling time is needed after the machine are shut down.

  12. Study of resonant reactions with radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Galindo-Uribarri, A; Chavez, E; Gomez-Del Campo, J; Gross, C J; Huerta, A; Liang, J F; Ortiz, M E; Padilla, E; Pascual, S; Paul, S D; Shapira, D; Stracener, D W; Varner, R L

    2000-01-01

    A fast and efficient method to study (p,p) and (p,alpha) resonances with radioactive beams in inverse kinematics is described. It is based on the use of thick targets and large area double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) to detect the recoiling light-charged particles and to determine precisely their scattering angle. The first nuclear physics experiments with the technique have been performed recently at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge with stable beams of sup 1 sup 7 O and radioactive beams of sup 1 sup 7 F. The high-quality resonance measurements obtained demonstrate the capabilities of the technique. Pure sup 1 sup 7 F beams from HRIBF were produced by fully stripping the ions and separating the interfering and more abundant sup 1 sup 7 O ions by the beam transport system. The removal of interfering isobars is one of the various common challenges to both accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and radioactive ion beam (RIB) production. Experiments done with RIBs will ben...

  13. Facilities and methods for radioactive ion beam production

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenfeld, Y; Van Duppen, P

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive ion beam facilities are transforming nuclear science by making beams of exotic nuclei with various properties available for experiments. New infrastructures and development of existing installations enlarges the scientific scope continuously. An overview of the main production, separation and beam handling methods with focus on recent developments is done, as well as a survey of existing and forthcoming facilities world-wide.

  14. Neutron transfer reactions with neutron-rich radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cizewski, J.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States)]. E-mail: cizewski@physics.rutgers.edu; Jones, K.L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Pain, S.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Thomas, J.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Baktash, C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bardayan, D.W. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Blackmon, J.C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Gross, C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Liang, J.F. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Shapira, D. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Smith, M.S. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Kozub, R.L.; Moazen, B.H.; Nesaraja, C.D. [Department of Physics, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States); Carter, H.K. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Johnson, M.S. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Fitzgerald, R.P.; Visser, D.W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Greife, U.; Livesay, R.J. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Catford, W. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU27XH, UK (United Kingdom); Ma, Z. [Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Initial measurements are presented of the (d,p) reactions on neutron-rich N = 50 isotones along the r-process path of nucleosynthesis with radioactive ion beams of {sup 82}Ge and {sup 84}Se. Prospects for measurements with unstable {sup 130,132}Sn beams are discussed.

  15. Radioactive decays of highly-charged ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to stored and cooled highly-charged radionuclides offers unprecedented opportunities to perform high-precision investigations of their decays. Since the few-electron ions, e.g. hydrogen- or helium-like ions, are quantum mechanical systems with clear electronic ground state configurations, the decay studies of such ions are performed under well-defined conditions and allow for addressing fundamental aspects of the decay process. Presented here is a compact review of the relevant experiments conducted at the Experimental Storage Ring ESR of GSI. A particular emphasis is given to the investigations of the two-body beta decay, namely the bound-state β-decay and its time-mirrored counterpart, orbital electron-capture.

  16. The prototype of radioactive ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, A V; Kot, N K; Andrighetto, A; Stroe, L

    2001-01-01

    The design and experimental results of the RIB source prototype are presented.A source will have the container of sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U compounds heated up to 2200-2500 degree C. Vapors of uranium fission obtained when the ion source is irradiated by the high-energy neutron flux, are then ionized and extracted from the source. In the experiments with the prototype loaded by sup 1 sup 2 C the source working temperature 2700 degree C was reached, the carbon ion current 10 nA was obtained. The total operation time of more than 100 hours with no performance degradation was demonstrated.

  17. First results of Trojan horse method using radioactive ion beams: {sup 18}F(p,α) at astrophysical energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Puglia, S.; Rapisarda, G.; Romano, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Gulino, M. [Università KORE, Enna, Italy and INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Kubono, S.; Wakabayashi, Y. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and present address RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Binh, D. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and present address Institute of Physics and Electronics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bishop, S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama, Japan and present address Physik Department E12, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Coc, A. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de masse, IN2P3, Orsay (France); De Séréville, N.; Hammache, F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2014-05-02

    The abundance of {sup 18}F in Nova explosions is considered to be an important piece of information for the understanding of this astrophysical phenomenon. It is then necessary to study the nuclear processess that both produce and destroy this isotope in Novae. Among these latter reactions, the {sup 18}F(p,α){sup 15}O is one of the most important {sup 18}F destruction channels. Here we report on an experiment performed using the CRIB apparatus of the Center for Nuclear Study of the University of Tokyo. This was the first experiment that used the Trojan Horse method applied to a Radioactive Ion Beam induced reaction.

  18. Surface and Interface Studies with Radioactive Ions

    CERN Multimedia

    Weber, A

    2002-01-01

    Investigations on the atomic scale of magnetic surfaces and magnetic multilayers were performed by Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. The unique combination of the Booster ISOLDE facility equipped with a UHV beamline and the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) is ideally suited for such microscopic studies. Main advantages are the choice of problem-oriented radioactive probes and the purity of mass-separated beams. The following results were obtained: $\\,$i) Magnetic hyperfine fields (B$_{hf}$) of Se on Fe, Co, Ni surfaces were determined. The results prompted a theoretical study on the B$_{hf}$ values of the 4sp-elements in adatom position on Ni and Fe, confirming our results and predicting unexpected behaviour for the other elements. $\\,$ii) Exemplarily we have determined B$_{hf}$ values of $^{111}$Cd at many different adsorption sites on Ni surfaces. We found a strong dependence on the coordination number of the probes. With decreasing coordination nu...

  19. First online production of radioactive ion beams at VECC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, Vaishali, E-mail: vaishali@vecc.gov.in [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Sector-1 Block-AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chakrabarti, Alok; Bhattacharjee, Mahuwa; Karmakar, Prasanta [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Sector-1 Block-AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharjee, Sampa [UGC-DAE CSR, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Arup; Dechoudhury, Siddhartha; Kumar, Dodi Lavanya; Mondal, Manas; Pandey, H.K.; Mandi, T.K.; Dutta, D.P.; Roy, Tapatee Kundu; Bhowmik, Debasis; Sanyal, Dirtha; Ray, Ayan; Sabir Ali, Md.; Srivastava, S.C.L.; Nabhiraj, P.Y. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Sector-1 Block-AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We have presented details of a gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams (RIB). • Radioactive ion beams of {sup 14}O (71 s), {sup 42}K(12.4 h), {sup 43}K (22.2 h) and {sup 41}Ar (1.8 h) have been produced using the technique. • A combined efficiency of 15–21% has been measured for diffusion through the catcher, ionization and extraction of RIB through the ECR ion-source. • Preliminary data from alpha-particle induced fission of {sup 232}Th indicates the possibility of many fission products getting transported through the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source. -- Abstract: Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been recently accelerated for the first time at the VECC-RIB facility. Beams of {sup 14}O (71 s), {sup 42}K (12.4 h), {sup 43}K (22 h) and {sup 41}Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding 1 atm nitrogen and argon gas targets with 1 micro-ampere proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron. Radioactive atoms were transported 15 m away to the ECR ion-source using a gas-jet transport system. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is few times 10{sup 3} pps. About 3300 pps of 1.4 MeV {sup 14}O was measured after acceleration through a 3.4 m long RFQ linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR and RIB production experiments are presented.

  20. Improving the rate capability of high voltage lithium-ion battery cathode material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 by ruthenium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltas-Yavuz, Nilüfer; Bhaskar, Aiswarya; Dixon, Ditty; Yavuz, Murat; Nikolowski, Kristian; Lu, Li; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2014-12-01

    The citric acid-assisted sol-gel method was used to produce the high-voltage cathodes LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and LiNi0.4Ru0.05Mn1.5O4 at 800 °C and 1000 °C final calcination temperatures. High resolution powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation, inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses were carried out to characterize the structure, chemical composition and morphology. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies were conducted to confirm Ru doping inside the spinel as well as to compare the oxidation states of transition metals. The formation of an impurity LixNi1-xO in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders annealed at high temperatures (T ≥ 800 °C) can be suppressed by partial substitution of Ni2+ by Ru4+ ion. The LiNi0.4Ru0.05Mn1.5O4 powder synthesized at 1000 °C shows the highest performance regarding the rate capability and cycling stability. It has an initial capacity of ∼139 mAh g-1 and capacity retention of 84% after 300 cycles at C/2 charging-discharging rate between 3.5 and 5.0 V. The achievable discharge capacity at 20 C for a charging rate of C/2 is ∼136 mAh g-1 (∼98% of the capacity delivered at C/2). Since the electrode preparation plays a crucial role on parameters like the rate capability, the influence of the mass loading of active materials in the cathode mixture is discussed.

  1. Charge breeding of radioactive ions with EBIS and EBIT

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    A charge state breeder, which transforms externally injected singly charged ions to a higher charge state q+, is an important tool which has applications within atomic, nuclear and even particle physics. The charge breeding concept of radioactive ions has already been demonstrated at REX-ISOLDE/CERN with the use of an Electron beam Ion Source (EBIS) and at several facilities employing Electron Resonance Cyclotron Ion Sources (ECRIS). As will be demonstrated in this paper, EBIS and Electron Beam Ion Traps (EBIT), are well suited for the task as they are capable of delivering clean, highly charged beams within a short transformation time. The increasing demand for highly charged ions of all kind of elements and isotopes, stable and radioactive, to be used for low-energy experiments such as TITAN at TRIUMF and MATS at FAIR, but also for post-acceleration to higher energies, is now pushing the development of the breeders. The next challenge will be to satisfy the needs, for example space-charge capacity, of the s...

  2. Some Key Problems Related to Radioactive Ion Beam Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶沿林; 吕林辉

    2012-01-01

    The latest progress made in the field of radioactive ion beam physics is outlined and the key problems still under investigation are indicated. The focal points are the limit of nuclear existence, shell evolution and new magic numbers, halo and cluster structures, new excitation modes, and strong coupling between reaction channels. This field is still at a starting phase and much more new outcomes are foreseen.

  3. Progress of Target/Ion Source for Radioactive Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An ISOL test bench which uses proton beam from HL-13 Tandem to generate radioactive ion beamhas been set up and primary off line test has been carried out. The effects of magnetic field, anode voltage,cathode current and flax of feed-in gas on ionization efficiency have been investigated. The results showthe overal ionization efficiency of the source is greater than 0.7%. The effort to improve the overallefficiency is still in progress.

  4. Techniques to produce and accelerate radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Penescu, Liviu Constantin; Lettry, Jacques; Cata-Danil, Gheorghe

    The production and acceleration of the Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) continues the long line of nuclear investigations started in the XIXth century by Pierre and Marie Curie, Henri Becquerel and Ernest Rutherford. The contemporary applications of the RIBs span a wide range of physics fields: nuclear and atomic physics, solid-state physics, life sciences and material science. ISOLDE is a world-leading Isotope mass-Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility hosted at CERN in Geneva for more than 40 years, offering the largest variety of radioactive ion beams with, until now, more than 1000 isotopes of more than 72 elements (with Z ranging from 2 to 88), with half-lives down to milliseconds and intensities up to 1011 ions/s. The post acceleration of the full variety of beams allows reaching final energies between 0.8 and 3.0 MeV/u. This thesis describes the development of a new series of FEBIAD (“Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge”) ion sources at CERN-ISOLDE. The VADIS (“Versatile Arc Discharge Ion Source�...

  5. Bunching and cooling of radioactive ions with REXTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, P. E-mail: k.schmidt@gsi.de; Ames, F.; Bollen, G.; Forstner, O.; Huber, G.; Oinonen, M.; Zimmer, J

    2002-04-22

    The post-accelerator REX-ISOLDE at ISOLDE/CERN will deliver radioactive ion beams with energies up to 2.2 MeV/u. For this purpose, a Penning trap and an electron-beam ion source are combined with a linear accelerator. REXTRAP - a large gas-filled Penning trap - has started its commissioning phase. First tests have shown that REXTRAP is able to accumulate, cool and bunch stable ISOLDE ion beams covering a large mass range. Fulfilling the REX-ISOLDE demands, it can handle beam intensities from a few hundred up to 1x10{sup 6} ions per pulse at repetition rates up to 50 Hz.0.

  6. ISOL science at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beene, J. R.; Bardayan, D. W.; Galindo Uribarri, A.; Gross, C. J.; Jones, K. L.; Liang, J. F.; Nazarewicz, W.; Stracener, D. W.; Tatum, B. A.; Varner, R. L.

    2011-02-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) provides high-quality Isotope Separator Online beams of short-lived, radioactive nuclei for nuclear structure and reaction studies, astrophysics research, and interdisciplinary applications. The primary driver, the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, produces rare isotopes by bombarding highly refractory targets with light ions. The radioactive isotopes are ionized, formed into a beam, mass selected, injected into the 25 MV tandem, accelerated, and used in experiments. This paper reviews the HRIBF and its users' science. Note that this manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of the manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  7. Determination of transition metal ion distribution in cubic spinel Co1.5Fe1.5O4 using anomalous x-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report anomalous x-ray diffraction studies on Co ferrite with composition Co1.5Fe1.5O4 to obtain the distribution of transition metal ions in tetrahedral and octahedral sites. We synthesize spinel oxide (Co1.5Fe1.5O4 through co-precipitation and subsequent annealing route. The imaginary part (absorption of the energy dependent anomalous form factor is measured and the real part is calculated theoretically through Kramers–Krönig transformation to analyze anomalous x-ray diffraction peak intensities. Fe and Co K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES spectra are used to estimate charge states of transition metals. Our analysis, within experimental errors, suggests 44% of the tetrahedral sites contain Co in +2 oxidation state and the rest 56% sites contain Fe in +2 and +3 oxidation states. Similarly, 47% of the octahedral sites contain Fe in +3 oxidation states, whereas, the rest of the sites contain Co in +2 and +3 oxidation states. While a distinct pre-edge feature in the Fe K-edge XANES is observed, Co pre-edge remains featureless. Implications of these results to magnetism are briefly discussed.

  8. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  9. A singly charged ion source for radioactive {sup 11}C ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive {sup 11}C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  10. Direct reaction measurements with a 132Sn radioactive ion beam

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, K L; Adekola, A. S.; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Chae, K. Y.; K.A. Chipps; Cizewski, J. A.; Erikson, L.; Harlin, C.; Hatarik, R.; Kapler, R.; Kozub, R.L.; Liang, J. F.; Livesay, R.; Ma, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The (d,p) neutron transfer and (d,d) elastic scattering reactions were measured in inverse kinematics using a radioactive ion beam of 132Sn at 630 MeV. The elastic scattering data were taken in a region where Rutherford scattering dominated the reaction, and nuclear effects account for less than 8% of the cross section. The magnitude of the nuclear effects was found to be independent of the optical potential used, allowing the transfer data to be normalized in a reliable manner. The neutron-t...

  11. Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Beams of Radioactive Tin Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ahn, S.H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Allmond, James M [ORNL; Ayres, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Baugher, T. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bazin, D. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Beene, James R [ORNL; Berryman, J. S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bey, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cartegni, L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)/Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Gade, A. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Garcia-Ruiz, R.F. [Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001, Leuven, Belgium; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University (TTU); Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Matos, M. [Louisiana State University; McDaniel, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Padgett, S [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Radford, David C [ORNL; Ratkiewicz, Andrew J [ORNL; Schmitt, Kyle [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Stroberg, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tostevin, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weisshaar, D. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wimmer, K. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL)/Central Michigan University; Winkler, R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2015-01-01

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at Sn-100, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at Sn-132 out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich Sn-130. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of gamma rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications.

  12. Direct reaction experimental studies with beams of radioactive tin ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K. L., E-mail: kgrzywac@utk.edu; Ayres, A.; Bey, A.; Burcher, S.; Cartegni, L.; Cerizza, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Ahn, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Allmond, J. M.; Beene, J. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Liang, J. F.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Pain, S. D.; Radford, D. C.; Schmitt, K. T.; Smith, M. S.; Stracener, D. W.; Varner, R. L. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bardayan, D. W. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Baugher, T. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); and others

    2015-10-15

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at {sup 100}Sn, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at {sup 132}Sn out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich {sup 130}Sn. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of γ rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications.

  13. Radioactive Ions Production Ring for Beta-Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Wehner, J

    2010-01-01

    Within the FP7 EUROnu program, Work Package 4 addresses the issues of production and acceleration of 8Li and 8B isotopes through the Beta-Beam complex, for the production of electron-neutrino. One of the major critical issues is the production of a high enougth ion ßux, to fulÞll the requirements for physics. In alternative to the direct ISOL production method, a new ap- proach is proposed in [1]. The idea is to use a compact ring for Litium ions at 25 MeV and an internal He or D target, in which the radioactive-isotopes production takes place. The beam is expected to survive for several thousands of turns, therefore cooling in 6D is required and, according this scheme, the ionization cooling provided by the target itself and a suitable RF system would be sufÞcient. We present some preliminary work on the Production ring lat- tice design and cooling issues, for the 7Li ions, and propose plans for future studies, within the EUROnu program.

  14. Conversion electron spectroscopy of isobarically purified trapped radioactive ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissanen, J.; Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O.B. 35 (Finland)

    2007-11-15

    The feasibility of the JYFLTRAP for in-trap spectroscopy has been studied. Several internally converted transitions have been measured for isomers of fission products with good accuracy. High-resolution spectroscopic data free of source effects have been obtained proving that trapped radioactive ions can provide excellent conversion electron sources. The shortest-lived isomer studied in this work was {sup 117m} Pd with a half-life of 19.1 ms, for which a superior peak-to-total ratio and an excellent line shape at the 9.9 keV conversion electron line have been observed. Detection efficiencies and related phenomena of the present setup are analyzed. (orig.)

  15. Crystallographic origin of cycle decay of the high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel lithium-ion battery electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Kong; Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Liu, Chia-Erh; Peterson, Vanessa K; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-06-29

    High-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is considered a potential high-power-density positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries, however, it suffers from capacity decay after extended charge-discharge cycling, severely hindering commercial application. Capacity fade is thought to occur through the significant volume change of the LNMO electrode occurring on cycling, and in this work we use operando neutron powder diffraction to compare the structural evolution of the LNMO electrode in an as-assembled 18650-type battery containing a Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with that in an identical battery following 1000 cycles at high-current. We reveal that the capacity reduction in the battery post cycling is directly proportional to the reduction in the maximum change of the LNMO lattice parameter during its evolution. This is correlated to a corresponding reduction in the MnO6 octahedral distortion in the spinel structure in the cycled battery. Further, we find that the rate of lattice evolution, which reflects the rate of lithium insertion and removal, is ∼9 and ∼10% slower in the cycled than in the as-assembled battery during the Ni(2+)/Ni(3+) and Ni(3+)/Ni(4+) transitions, respectively.

  16. A gas jet target for radioactive ion beam experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipps, K. A.; Greife, U.; Hager, U.; Sarazin, F. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Bardayan, D. W.; Pain, S. D.; Schmitt, K. T.; Smith, M. S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blackmon, J. C.; Linhardt, L. E. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Browne, J.; Kontos, A.; Meisel, Z.; Montes, F.; Schatz, H. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory/Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Couder, M.; Robertson, D.; Wiescher, M. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Erikson, L. E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Lemut, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); and others

    2013-04-19

    New radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities, like FRIB in the US or FAIR in Europe, will push further away from stability and enable the next generation of nuclear physics experiments. Thus, the need for improved RIB targets is more crucial than ever: developments in exotic beams should coincide with developments in targets for use with those beams, in order for nuclear physics to remain on the cutting edge. Of great importance to the future of RIB physics are scattering, transfer and capture reaction measurements of rare, exotic, and unstable nuclei on light targets such as hydrogen and helium. These measurements require targets that are dense, highly localized, and pure, and conventional targets often suffer too many drawbacks to allow for such experimental designs. Targets must also accommodate the use of large area, highly-segmented silicon detector arrays, high-efficiency gamma arrays, and novel heavy ion detectors to efficiently measure the reaction products. To address this issue, the Jet Experiments in Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics (JENSA) Collaboration led by the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) is in the process of designing, building and testing a supersonic gas jet target for use at existing and future RIB facilities. The gas jet target provides a high density and high purity of target nuclei within a tightly confined region, without the use of windows or backing materials. The design also enables the use of multiple state-of-the-art detection systems.

  17. Extraction of radioactive positive ions across the surface of superfluid helium : A new method to produce cold radioactive nuclear beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, WX; Dendooven, P; Gloos, K; Takahashi, N; Pekola, JP; Aysto, J

    2003-01-01

    Alpha-decay recoils Rn-219 were stopped in superfluid helium and positive ions were extracted by electric field into the vapour phase. This first quantitative observation of extraction was successfully conducted using highly sensitive radioactivity detection. The efficiency for extraction across the

  18. Titanate nanotubes as a promising absorbent for high effective radioactive uranium ions uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingze; Weil, Guodong; Li, Shuang; Niu, Xiaowei; Chen, Haifeng; Zhang, He; Chubik, M; Gromov, A; Han, Wei

    2012-08-01

    In this study, titanate nanotubes with a layered structure were investigated for the uptake of radioactive uranium ions for the first time. The nanotubes have been successfully prepared with a reaction of Ti metal nanopowders and NaOH mixed solution by a novel and effective ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method. As the absorbent of radioactive ions, they have the ability to selectively adsorb radioactive U ions from water via ion exchange process and subsequently immobilize these ions in the nanotube sorbents without the need of further treatment after absorption. Sorption induces considerable deformation of the layer structures, resulting in the structures changing from the nanotubes to sheets and having the ability of permanent entrapment of the radioactive cations in these as-grown sheets. Our results have proved that titanate nanotubes can be used as a promising absorbent for the removal of nuclear leaking water at the first time.

  19. Direct reaction measurements with a 132Sn radioactive ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, K L; Bardayan, D W; Blackmon, J C; Chae, K Y; Chipps, K A; Cizewski, J A; Erikson, L; Harlin, C; Hatarik, R; Kapler, R; Kozub, R L; Liang, J F; Livesay, R; Ma, Z; Moazen, B H; Nesaraja, C D; Nunes, F M; Pain, S D; Patterson, N P; Shapira, D; Shriner, J F; Smith, M S; Swan, T P; Thomas, J S

    2011-01-01

    The (d,p) neutron transfer and (d,d) elastic scattering reactions were measured in inverse kinematics using a radioactive ion beam of 132Sn at 630 MeV. The elastic scattering data were taken in a region where Rutherford scattering dominated the reaction, and nuclear effects account for less than 8% of the cross section. The magnitude of the nuclear effects was found to be independent of the optical potential used, allowing the transfer data to be normalized in a reliable manner. The neutron-transfer reaction populated a previously unmeasured state at 1363 keV, which is most likely the single-particle 3p1/2 state expected above the N=82 shell closure. The data were analyzed using finite range adiabatic wave calculations and the results compared with the previous analysis using the distorted wave Born approximation. Angular distributions for the ground and first excited states are consistent with the previous tentative spin and parity assignments. Spectroscopic factors extracted from the differential cross sect...

  20. Direct reaction measurements with a 132Sn radioactive ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Katherine L.; Nunes, Filomena M.; Adekola, Aderemi S.; Bardayan, Dan W.; Blackmon, Jeff; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, Kelly A.; Cizewski, Jolie A.; Erikson, Luke E.; Harlin, C.; Hatarik, R.; Kapler, R.; Kozub, Raymond L.; Liang, J. F.; Livesay, Ronald J.; Ma, Zhongguo J.; Moazen, B. H.; Nesaraja, Caroline D.; Pain, Steven D.; Patterson, N. P.; Shapira, Dan; Shriner, Jr., John F.; Smith, Michael S.; Swan, Thomas P.; Thomas, Jeff S.

    2011-09-01

    The (d,p) neutron transfer and (d,d) elastic scattering reactions were measured in inverse kinematics using a radioactive ion beam of 132Sn at 630 MeV. The elastic scattering data were taken in a region where Rutherford scattering dominated the reaction, and nuclear effects account for less than 8% of the elastic scattering cross section. The magnitude of the nuclear effects, in the angular range studied, was found to be independent of the optical potential used, allowing the transfer data to be normalized in a reliable manner. The neutron-transfer reaction populated a previously unmeasured state at 1363 keV, which is most likely the single-particle 3p1/2 state expected above the N = 82 shell closure. The data were analyzed using finite-range adiabatic-wave calculations and the results compared with the previous analysis using the distorted-wave Born approximation. Angular distributions for the ground and first-excited states are consistent with the previous tentative spin and parity assignments. Spectroscopic factors extracted from the differential cross sections are similar to those found for the one-neutron states beyond the benchmark doubly magic nucleus 208Pb.

  1. Single stage ECR source for the radioactive ion beam project in Louvain- la-Neuve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M.; Vanhorenbeeck, J.; Baeten, F.; Dom, C.; Darquennes, D.; Delbar, T.; Jongen, Y.; Huyse, M.; Reusen, G.; Van Duppen, P. and others

    1989-01-01

    In 1987 the project RIB (Radioactive Ion Beam) was started at Louvain-La - Neuve, to produce and accelerate radioactive nuclei of C, N, O, F and Ne. Within the framework of this project, a single stage E.C.R. source will be built. The general scheme of the project and the design of the source are discussed.

  2. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS) at ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindroos, M

    2002-01-01

    The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...

  3. Surface stability of spinel MgNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} and MgMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as cathode materials for magnesium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Wei; Yin, Guangqiang [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China); Wang, Zhiguo, E-mail: zgwang@uestc.edu.cn [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China); Fu, Y.Q., E-mail: richard.fu@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Surface of spinel MgMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} cathodes were investigated. • The surface energies show less dependence on the Ni-doping. • Atomic reconstruction occurred due to atomic relaxation at the surface. - Abstract: Rechargeable ion batteries based on the intercalation of multivalent ions are attractive due to their high energy density and structural stability. Surface of cathode materials plays an important role for the electrochemical performance of the rechargeable ion batteries. In this work we calculated surface energies of (001), (110) and (111) facets with different terminations in spinel MgMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} cathodes. Results showed clearly that atomic reconstruction occurred due to surface relaxation. The surface energies for the (001), (110) and (111) surfaces of the MgNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} were 0.08, 0.13 and 0.11 J/m{sup 2}, respectively, whereas those of the Ni-doped MgMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed less dependence on the surface structures.

  4. Enhanced rate performance of molybdenum-doped spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode materials for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Chen, Bin; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Li, Xiao-Ya; Zhu, Rong-Sun

    2014-02-01

    The Mo-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes are successfully synthesized by citric acid-assisted sol-gel method. The result demonstrates that the Mo-doped LiMn1.4Ni0.55Mo0.05O4 cathodes present the improved electrochemical performance over pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. At the 2 C rate after 80 cycles, the discharge capacities are 68.5 mAh g-1 for the pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material (53.9% of the capacity at 0.1 C), 107.4 mAh g-1 for the LiMn1.425Ni0.5Mo0.05O4 material (82.1% at 0.1 C), and 122.7 mAh g-1 for the LiMn1.4Ni0.55Mo0.05O4 material (90.5% at 0.1 C). Mo-doping is favorable for reducing the electrode polarization, suggesting that Mo-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrodes have faster lithium insertion/extraction kinetics during cycling. Mo-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrodes show lower charge-transfer resistance and higher lithium diffusion coefficients. In addition, LiMn1.4Ni0.55Mo0.05O4 cathode exhibits the smallest particle size, the lowest charge-transfer resistance and the highest lithium diffusion coefficient among all samples, indicating that it has a high reversibility and good rate capability.

  5. Effect of temperature on the electronic/ionic transport properties of porous LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} with high voltage for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yongli, E-mail: lilyshuoxu@163.com; Wang, Mingzhen; Wang, Jiali; Zhuang, Quanchao, E-mail: zhuangquanchao@126.com

    2016-09-01

    Porous spinel LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} microspheres were successfully synthesized by a facile method with microspheres MnCO{sub 3} template, and characterized by XRD and SEM. The as-synthesized porous LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} microspheres exhibit high rate capability and good cycle performance, with the specific discharge capacity of 125.5, 125.4, 121 and 97.6 mA h/g at 1, 2, 3 and 5 C, respectively, and the capacity retention of 85.6% at 5 C after 100 cycles, which are attributed to the porous structure. It is found that the EIS features of spinel LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} cathode are related to the temperature, and the middle to high frequency arc is observed in the Nyquist diagram at temperatures below zero, which is attributed to the electronic properties of the electrode material. In 1 mol/L LiPF{sub 6}-EC:DEC:DMC electrolyte solutions, the energy barriers for the ion jump related to migration of lithium ions through the SEI film of the spinel LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} cathode are determined to be 16.89 kJ/mol, the thermal activation energy of the electronic conductivity to be 0.348 eV, and the intercalation-deintercalation reaction activation energies to be 0.619 eV, respectively. - Highlights: • Porous spinel LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} microspheres cathode were synthesized. • Porous LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} microspheres show high rate and excellent cycle characteristic. • The EIS features of spinel LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} have related to temperature. • Three different energies of kinetic characterization at 4.7 V are calculated.

  6. Electroweak Decay Studies of Highly Charged Radioactive Ions with TITAN at TRIUMF

    CERN Document Server

    Leach, K G; Klawitter, R; Leistenschneider, E; Lennarz, A; Brunner, T; Frekers, D; Andreiou, C; Kwiatkowski, A A; Dilling, J

    2016-01-01

    Several modes of electroweak radioactive decay require an interaction between the nucleus and bound electrons within the constituent atom. Thus, the probabilities of the respective decays are not only influenced by the structure of the initial and final states in the nucleus, but can also depend strongly on the atomic charge. Conditions suitable for the partial or complete ionization of these rare isotopes occur naturally in hot, dense astrophysical environments, but can also be artificially generated in the laboratory to selectively block certain radioactive decay modes. Direct experimental studies on such scenarios are extremely difficult due to the laboratory conditions required to generate and store radioactive ions at high charge states. A new electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) decay setup with the TITAN experiment at TRIUMF has successfully demonstrated such techniques for performing spectroscopy on the radioactive decay of highly charged ions.

  7. First-principles Study on Metal-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a Cathode Material for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries%锂离子电池正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4金属掺杂的第一性原理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨思七; 张天然; 陶占良; 陈军

    2013-01-01

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is recently considered as a promising cathode material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries,yet its large-scale application is limited due to relatively poor cycling and rate performance.Metal doping is expected to be an effective approach to improve the electrochemical performance of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.However,deeper understanding into doping effects on structural and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode materials is still ambiguous.In this work,systematic first-principles studies based on the density functional theory (DFT) have been carried out to investigate electronic and structural properties of LiM0.125Ni0.375Mn1.5O4 (where M=Cr,Fe,and Co) cathode.All computations were carried out on the basis of projector augmented wave (PAW) approach as implemented in VASP.The exchange and correlation potential was treated with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of Perdew and Wang (PW91).In order to take into account the strong on-site Coulomb interaction (U) presented in the localized d electrons of transition metals,the GGA+U framework was used for evaluating the exchange-correlation energy.Within this framework,the effective single parameters Ueff of 3.5,4,5,5.62 and 5.96 eV were used for Cr,Fe,Mn,Co and Ni,respectively.The electron wave functions were expanded by a high cutoff of 500 eV and the total energy was converged to 10-5 eV.The following electronic states are treated as valence electrons:Li,2s12p0; O,2s22p4; Cr,3d54s1; Mn,3d64s1; Fe,3d74s1; Co,3d84s1; Ni,3d94s1; Regarding the accurate calculations of total energy and electronic structure,the tetrahedron method with Bl(o)ch correction was adopted for structural relaxation and density of state (DOS) analysis.The cell parameters,volume cells,and positions of all the atoms in the primitive cell were fully relaxed until the residual Hellmann-Feynman force on each atom was less than 10-2 eV/(A).It is found that doping a small quantity of metal M atoms into the Ni site

  8. A cheap and compact mass spectrometer for radioactive ions based on a Wien filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, C.; Maunoury, L.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Saint-Laurent, M.-G.; Tuske, O.

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents simulations of a mass spectrometer composed of one or two Wien filters. The ion source used is MONO1000 ECRIS. This ion source can produce singly charged ions with high efficiency, especially for gaseous materials. After extraction, the ions are mass selected and can be injected either into a beam line towards an experiment area or in an N+ charge booster. Due to its compactness and simplicity the proposed spectrometer is well adapted for preparing and analyzing radioactive beams. The simulations are based on the SIMION 3D [www.simion.com/] software.

  9. A cheap and compact mass spectrometer for radioactive ions based on a Wien filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, C. [CIRIL, CEA/DSM CNRS/IN2P3, Avenue Henri Becquerel, B.P. 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: Pierret@ganil.fr; Maunoury, L. [CIRIL, CEA/DSM CNRS/IN2P3, Avenue Henri Becquerel, B.P. 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 05 (France); Pacquet, J.Y.; Saint-Laurent, M.-G. [GANIL, CEA/DSM CNRS/IN2P3, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, B.P. 55027, F-14076 Caen cedex 05 (France); Tuske, O. [CEA/Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presents simulations of a mass spectrometer composed of one or two Wien filters. The ion source used is MONO1000 ECRIS. This ion source can produce singly charged ions with high efficiency, especially for gaseous materials. After extraction, the ions are mass selected and can be injected either into a beam line towards an experiment area or in an N{sup +} charge booster. Due to its compactness and simplicity the proposed spectrometer is well adapted for preparing and analyzing radioactive beams. The simulations are based on the SIMION 3D [ (http://www.simion.com/)] software.

  10. MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

    2008-08-26

    The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

  11. Laser photodetachment of radioactive ions: towards the determination of the electronegativity of astatine

    CERN Multimedia

    Rothe, Sebastian; Welander, Jakob Emanuel; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Fedosseev, Valentine; Fiotakis, Spyridon; Forstner, Oliver; Heinke, Reinhard Matthias; Johnston, Karl; Kron, Tobias; Koester, Ulli; Liu, Yuan; Marsh, Bruce; Ringvall Moberg, Annie; Rossel, Ralf Erik; Seiffert, Christoph; Studer, Dominik; Wendt, Klaus; Hanstorp, Dag

    2017-01-01

    Negatively charged ions are mainly stabilized through the electron correlation effect. A measure of the stability of a negative ion is the electron affinity, which the energy gain by attaching an electron to a neutral atom. This fundamental quantity is, due to the almost general lack of bound excited states, the only atomic property that can be determined with high accuracy for negative ions. We will present the results of the first laser photodetachment studies of radioactive negative ions at CERN-ISOLDE. The photodetachment threshold for the radiogenic iodine isotope 128I was measured successfully, demonstrating the performance of the upgraded GANDALPH experimental beam line. The first detection of photo-detached astatine atoms marks a milestone towards the determination of the EA of this radioactive element.

  12. Two alpha, three alpha and multiple heavy-ion radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M. (Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania))

    1985-07-01

    New decay modes by spontaneous emission of two and three ..cap alpha.. particles and two identical or different heavy ions, are predicted. The analytical variant of the superasymmetric fission model is used to estimate the half lives.

  13. Two alpha, three alpha and multiple heavy-ion radioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M.

    1985-01-01

    New decay modes by spontaneous emission of two and three α particles and two identical or different heavy ions, are predicted. The analytical variant of the superasymmetric fission model is used to estimate the half lives.

  14. Fusion at the barrier with light radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Signorini, C

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results recently obtained for fusion reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier with light radioactive (loosely bound) beams are reviewed and critically discussed. There have been two conflicting views on the effect of the loose binding of the projectile on the fusion cross section. On the one hand one expects an enhancement of the fusion cross section due to the loose binding while, on the other hand, the easy breakup of the projectile is expected to inhibit the fusion cross section. We critically discuss these two aspects of loose binding by comparing the experimental results for a number of radioactive beams. The data for sup 1 sup 7 F (where the last neutron binding energy S sub n =0.601 MeV), neither show breakup effects nor enhancement when compared with the fusion of the nucleus sup 1 sup 9 F. The data for a sup 6 He beam (S sub 2 sub n =0.975 MeV) show enhancement, very strong in one case, and the strong breakup (BU)+transfer cross section may be related to this. The fusion da...

  15. Research Progress in Improving the Cycling Stability of High-Voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode in Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, XiaoLong; Deng, SiXu; Wang, Hao; Liu, JingBing; Yan, Hui

    2017-04-01

    High-voltage lithium-ion batteries (HVLIBs) are considered as promising devices of energy storage for electric vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle, and other high-power equipment. HVLIBs require their own platform voltages to be higher than 4.5 V on charge. Lithium nickel manganese spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathode is the most promising candidate among the 5 V cathode materials for HVLIBs due to its flat plateau at 4.7 V. However, the degradation of cyclic performance is very serious when LNMO cathode operates over 4.2 V. In this review, we summarize some methods for enhancing the cycling stability of LNMO cathodes in lithium-ion batteries, including doping, cathode surface coating, electrolyte modifying, and other methods. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different methods.

  16. Progress Report of Beijing Radioactive Ion-Beam Facility (BRIF) in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The year 2011 is featured with several important events for the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility (BRIF) project. At the beginning of the year, the two divisions of the BRIF project, i.e. Engineering Division and Technology Division, have been merged into one as the BRIF Division.

  17. Progress Report of Beijing Radioactive Ion-Beam Facility (BRIF) in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI; Hui; SUN; Yang

    2012-01-01

    <正>The year 2012 is featured with several important events for the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility (BRIF) project. With joint efforts from all sides, the team has made significant progress in the construction, the main equipment manufacturing, installation and assembly throughout the year.

  18. Progress Report of Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility(BRIF)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI; Hui; SUN; Yang

    2015-01-01

    In 2015,the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility(BRIF)project made progress under efforts of all employees.The significant progress was made in the construction,the main process equipment installation,shakedown test and successful completion of the task for the whole year.

  19. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The status of the new Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is slated to start its scientific program late this year is discussed, as is the new experimental equipment which is being constructed at this facility. Information on the early scientific program also is given.

  20. Synthesis and Characteristics of LiNi0.85Co0.15O2 Cathode Materials by Particulate Sol-Gel Method for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xian-Jun; CHEN Hong-Hao; ZHAN Hui; LIU Han-Xing; YANG Dai-Ling; ZHOU Yun-Hong

    2005-01-01

    A particulate sol-gel (PSG) method has been successfully used to prepare LiNi0.85Co0.15O2 cathode materials,utilizing the reaction of LiOH·H2O with Ni(CH3COO)2·4H2O and Co(CH3COO)2·4H2O in water-ethanol system.The thermal history of the as-prepared xerogel was established by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Powder X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of layered α-NaFeO2 structure at temperature of 700℃ under flowing oxygen. Scanning electron microscope exhibited that the crystalline powder prepared by PSG method had relatively smaller particle size with narrow distribution than the one prepared by solid state reaction.The first discharge capacity of the material by PSG method was 196.4 mAh/g, and the 10th discharge capacity was 189.1 mAh/g at the current density of 18 mA/g between 3.0 and 4.3 V. Its cycling reversibility was observed to be much better than that by solid state reaction, which had 187.3 mAh/g of the first discharge capacity and 167.1mAh/g of the 10th discharge capacity.

  1. Measuring Neutrino Mass with Radioactive Ions in a Storage Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, Mats; McElrath, Bob; Orme, Christopher; Schwetz, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    A method to measure the neutrino mass kinematically using beams of ions which undergo beta decay is proposed. The idea is to tune the ion beam momentum so that in most decays, the electron is forward moving with respect to the beam, and only in decays near the endpoint is the electron moving backwards. By counting the backward moving electrons one can observe the effect of neutrino mass on the beta spectrum close to the endpoint. In order to reach sensitivities for mν<0.2 eV, it is necessary to control the ion momentum with a precision better than δp/p<10-5, identify suitable nuclei with low Q-values (in the few to ten keV range), and one must be able to observe at least O(1018) decays.

  2. Measuring neutrino mass with radioactive ions in a storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Lindroos, Mats; Orme, Christopher; Schwetz, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method to measure the neutrino mass kinematically using beams of ions which undergo beta decay. The idea is to tune the ion beam momentum so that in most decays, the electron is forward moving with respect to the beam, and only in decays near the endpoint is the electron moving backwards. Then, by counting the backward moving electrons one can observe the effect of neutrino mass on the beta spectrum close to the endpoint. In order to reach sensitivities for $m_\

  3. Radioactive core ions of microclusters, ``snowballs`` in superfluid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Shimoda, T. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Fujita, Y. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Miyatake, H. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Mizoi, Y. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kobayashi, H. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Sasaki, M. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Shirakura, T. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Itahashi, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Mitsuoka, S. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Matsukawa, T. [Naruto Univ. of Education, Tokushima (Japan); Ikeda, N. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Morinobu, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Hinde, D.J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences; Asahi, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ueno, H. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Izumi, H. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-01

    Short-lived beta-ray emitters, {sup 12}B, sustaining nuclear spin polarization were introduced into superfluid helium. The nuclear polarization of {sup 12}B was observed via measurement of beta-ray asymmetry. It was found that the nuclear polarization was preserved throughout the lifetime of {sup 12}B (20.3 ms). This suggests that the ``snowball``, an aggregation of helium atoms produced around an alien ion, constitutes a suitable milieu for freezing-out the nuclear spin of the core ion and that most likely the solidification takes place at the interior of the aggregation. (orig.).

  4. Precision mass measurements at TITAN with radioactive ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatkowski, A.A., E-mail: aniak@triumf.ca [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Macdonald, T.D. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Andreoiu, C. [Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada); Bale, J.C. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada); Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Chowdhury, U. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A.T. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Grossheim, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Lennarz, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Institut für Kernphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Mané, E.; Pearson, M.R.; Schultz, B.E.; Simon, M.C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Simon, V.V. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, 61920 Heidelberg (Germany); Dilling, J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The TITAN facility is the sole online Penning trap mass spectrometer with charge breeding capabilities. • Use of highly charged exotic ions reduces the beam time requirements. • Threshold charge breeding was developed as a novel technique to separate isobaric species. • Recent mass measurements have been performed to investigate nuclear structure, tests of electroweak theory, and neutrino physics. -- Abstract: Measurements of the atomic mass further our understanding in many disciplines from metrology to physics beyond the standard model. The accuracy and precision of Penning trap mass spectrometry have been well demonstrated at TITAN, including measurements of neutron-rich calcium and potassium isotopes to investigate three-body forces in nuclear structure and within the island of inversion to study the mechanism of shell quenching and deformation. By charge breeding ions, TITAN has enhanced the precision of the measurement technique. The precision achieved in the measurement of the superallowed β-emitter {sup 74}Rb in the 8+ charge state rivaled earlier measurements with singly charged ions in a fraction of the time. By breeding {sup 78}Rb to the same charge state, the ground state could be easily distinguished from the isomer. Further developments led to threshold charge breeding, which permitted capturing and measuring isobarically and elementally pure ion samples in the Penning trap. This was demonstrated via the Q-value determination of {sup 71}Ge. An overview of the TITAN facility and recent results are presented herein.

  5. Determination of transition metal ion distribution in cubic spinel Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} using anomalous x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M. N. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore – 452013 (India); Sinha, A. K., E-mail: anil@rrcat.gov.in; Ghosh, Haranath [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore – 452013 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, BARC, Mumbai-400094 (India)

    2015-08-15

    We report anomalous x-ray diffraction studies on Co ferrite with composition Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} to obtain the distribution of transition metal ions in tetrahedral and octahedral sites. We synthesize spinel oxide (Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}) through co-precipitation and subsequent annealing route. The imaginary part (absorption) of the energy dependent anomalous form factor is measured and the real part is calculated theoretically through Kramers–Krönig transformation to analyze anomalous x-ray diffraction peak intensities. Fe and Co K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra are used to estimate charge states of transition metals. Our analysis, within experimental errors, suggests 44% of the tetrahedral sites contain Co in +2 oxidation state and the rest 56% sites contain Fe in +2 and +3 oxidation states. Similarly, 47% of the octahedral sites contain Fe in +3 oxidation states, whereas, the rest of the sites contain Co in +2 and +3 oxidation states. While a distinct pre-edge feature in the Fe K-edge XANES is observed, Co pre-edge remains featureless. Implications of these results to magnetism are briefly discussed.

  6. Structural evolution of bias sputtered LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} thin film cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Shih-Hsuan, E-mail: minimono42@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Kuo-Feng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Leu, Hoang-Jyh [Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} (LNMO) thin films have been deposited on stainless steel substrates using radio frequency (f = 13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering, followed by thermal annealing in ambient atmosphere. Various negative biases were applied on the substrates during deposition. The structural evolution of LNMO thin films under different negative biases has been investigated and characterized by X-ray diffraction. All of the deposited films exhibit a crystalline spinel structure with a space group of Fd-3m, which is a so-called disordered phase. The results also indicate that particle size decreases with increasing negative bias. The electrochemical properties of the LNMO thin films as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries were investigated. Two distinctive voltage plateaus at ∼ 4.7 V and at ∼ 4.0 V (vs. Li{sup +}/Li) can be observed in the discharge curves, corresponding to the reactions of the disordered phase. The capacity of LNMO thin film electrodes under suitable negative bias can be optimized. - Highlights: • LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} thin films have been deposited on stainless steel substrates. • Various negative biases were applied on the substrates during deposition. • The particle sizes of LNMO thin films decrease with increasing negative bias.

  7. Structural, electrical and electrochemical studies of LiNi$_{0.4}M_{0.1}$Mn$_{1.5}$O$_4$ ($M$ = Co, Mg) solid solutions for lithium ion battery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P NAYAKA; K V PAI; J MANJANNA; K C ANJANEYA; P PERIASAMY; V S TRIPATHI

    2016-09-01

    The LiNi$_{0.4}M_{0.1}$Mn$_{1.5}$O$_4$ ($M$ = Co, Mg) solid solutions are synthesized by citric acid assisted sol–gel method and characterized by using TG/DTA, XRD, FTIR, EPR and SEM. The electrochemical characterization is carried out using CR-2032 coin type cell configuration. The cyclic voltammogram shows two pairs of redox current peaks, 4.35/3.80 V and 4.90/4.37 V vs. Li in a typical case of Co-doped sample, ascribed to two-step reversible intercalation of Li. A.c.-impedance (Nyquist plot) shows high frequency semicircle and a sloping line in the low frequency region. The semicircle is ascribed to Li-ion migration through interface from the surface layer of the particlesto electrolyte. The LiNi$_{0.4}Co_{0.1}$Mn$_{1.5}$O$_4$ shows reasonably good capacity retention in 20 cycles of galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling.

  8. Poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-ethyl acrylate) terpolymer based gel electrolyte for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Liao, Youhao; Xie, Huili; Chen, Tingting; Rao, Mumin; Li, Weishan

    2014-12-01

    A novel gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), based on poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-ethyl acrylate) (P(MMA-AN-EA)) terpolymer, is designed to match LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of 5 V lithium ion battery. The performances of the synthesized P(MMA-AN-EA) terpolymer and the corresponding membrane and GPE are investigated by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analyzer, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, and charge/discharge test. It is found that the pore structure of P(MMA-AN-EA) membrane is affected by the dose of pore forming agent, polyethylene glycol (PEG400). The membrane with 3 wt% PEG400 presents the best pore structure, in which pores are dispersed uniformly and interconnected, and exhibits the largest electrolyte uptake, resulting in the highest ionic conductivity of 3.82 × 10-3 S cm-1 for the corresponding GPE at room temperature. The GPE has improved compatibility with lithium anode and is electrochemically stable up to 5.2 V (vs. Li/Li+). The high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode using the resulting GPE exhibits excellent cyclic stability, maintaining 97.9% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles compared to that of 79.7% for the liquid electrolyte at 0.5 C.

  9. On the retention of uranyl and thorium ions from radioactive solution on peat moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humelnicu, Doina; Bulgariu, Laura; Macoveanu, Matei

    2010-02-15

    The efficiency of the radioactive uranyl and thorium ions on the peat moss from aqueous solutions has been investigated under different experimental conditions. The sorption and desorption of uranyl and thorium ions on three types (unmodified peat moss, peat moss treated with HNO(3) and peat moss treated with NaOH) of peat moss were studied by the static method. Peat moss was selected as it is available in nature, in any amount, as a cheap and accessible sorbent. Study on desorption of such ions led to the conclusion that the most favourable desorptive reagent for the uranyl ions is Na(2)CO(3) 1M while, for the thorium ions is HCl 1M. The results obtained show that the parameters here under investigation exercise a significant effect on the sorption process of the two ions. Also, the investigations performed recommend the peat moss treated with a base as a potential sorbent for the uranyl and thorium ions from a radioactive aqueous solution.

  10. Development of target ion source systems for radioactive beams at GANIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajeat, O., E-mail: bajeat@ganil.fr [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Delahaye, P. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Couratin, C. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); LPC Caen, 6 bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex (France); Dubois, M.; Franberg-Delahaye, H.; Henares, J.L.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Lecomte, P.; Leroy, R.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B.; Sjodin, M. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • For Spiral 1, a febiad ion source has been connected to a graphite target. • For Spiral 2, an oven made with a carbon resistor is under development. • We made some measurement of effusion in the Spiral 2 target. • A laser ion source is under construction. -- Abstract: The GANIL facility (Caen, France) is dedicated to the acceleration of heavy ion beams including radioactive beams produced by the Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) method at the SPIRAL1 facility. To extend the range of radioactive ion beams available at GANIL, using the ISOL method two projects are underway: SPIRAL1 upgrade and the construction of SPIRAL2. For SPIRAL1, a new target ion source system (TISS) using the VADIS FEBIAD ion source coupled to the SPIRAL1 carbon target will be tested on-line by the end of 2013 and installed in the cave of SPIRAL1 for operation in 2015. The SPIRAL2 project is under construction and is being design for using different production methods as fission, fusion or spallation reactions to cover a large area of the chart of nuclei. It will produce among others neutron rich beams obtained by the fission of uranium induced by fast neutrons. The production target made from uranium carbide and heated at 2000 °C will be associated with several types of ion sources. Developments currently in progress at GANIL for each of these projects are presented.

  11. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akira Ozawa

    2001-08-01

    Recent experimental programs at RIKEN concerning RI beams are reviewed. RIKEN has the ring cyclotron (RRC) with high intense heavy-ion beams and large acceptance fragment separator, RIPS. The complex can provide high intense RI-beams. By using the high intense RI-beams, a variety of experiments have been done. Recently, nuclear structure for unstable nuclei has been paid much attention. In special, disappearance and appearance of magic numbers are discussed experimentally and theoretically. Thus, in this review, related experiments concerning disappearance and appearance of magic numbers are described. Finally, future project in RIKEN, RI-beam factory, is introduced briefly.

  12. Physics and Technology for the Next Generation of Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities: EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Catherall, R; Giles, T; Stora, T; Wenander, F K

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of artificial radioactivity in 1935, nuclear scientists have developed tools to study nuclei far from stability. A major breakthrough came in the eighties when the first high energy radioactive beams were produced at Berkeley, leading to the discovery of neutron halos. The field of nuclear structure received a new impetus, and the major accelerator facilities worldwide rivalled in ingenuity to produce more intense, purer and higher resolution rare isotope beams, leading to our much improved knowledge and understanding of the general evolution of nuclear properties throughout the nuclear chart. However, today, further progress is hampered by the weak beam intensities of current installations which correlate with the difficulty to reach the confines of nuclear binding where new phenomena are predicted, and where the r-process path for nuclear synthesis is expected to be located. The advancement of Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) science calls for the development of so-called next-generation facil...

  13. IRACM : A code system to calculate induced radioactivity produced by ions and neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Susumu; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Nishimura, Koichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Yamano, Naoki

    1997-05-01

    It is essential to estimate of radioactivity induced in accelerator components and samples bombarded by energetic ion beams and the secondary neutrons of high-energy accelerator facilities in order to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes and to minimize radiation exposure to personnel. A computer code system IRACM has been developed to estimate product nuclides and induced radioactivity in various radiation environments of accelerator facilities. Nuclide transmutation with incident particles of neutron, proton, deuteron, alpha, {sup 12}C, {sup 14}N, {sup 16}O, {sup 20}Ne and {sup 40}Ar can be computed for arbitrary multi-layer target system in a one-dimensional geometry. The code system consists of calculation modules and libraries including activation cross sections, decay data and photon emission data. The system can be executed in both FACOM-M780 mainframe and DEC workstations. (author)

  14. Radioactive ion beams for biomedical research and nuclear medical application

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN is the world leading on On-Line Isotope Separator installation. The main aspects which makes ISOLDE produced radio-isotopes such valuable for use in biomedical research are: the availability of exotic or uncommon radioisotopes, the high purity and the ion beam quality. A short overview on research strategies, on experimental work and application of ISOLDE produced radionuclides used in the field of biomedicine over a period of more than 2 decades will be given. Special attention will be directed to the radio- lanthanides, because they can be seen as one single element providing the unique possibility to study systematically relationships between molecule parameters and a biological response without changes in the basic tracer molecule. Among those radionuclides we find any radiation properties we wish (single photon emission) suitable for SPECT, positron emission suitable for positron emission tomography (PET), alpha -, beta /sup -/- and Auger electron emission. (21 refs).

  15. Resonant elastic scattering of {sup 15}O and a new reaction path in the CNO cycle; Spectroscopie par diffusion elastique resonante d' {sup 15}O et nouveau chemin de reaction dans le cycle CNO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, Gheorghe Iulian [Ecole doctorale SIMEM, U.F.R. Sciences, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 14032 Caen Cedex (France)

    2006-12-15

    This work presents a very accurate experimental method based on radioactive beams for the study of the spectroscopical properties of unbound states. It makes use of inverse kinematical elastic scattering of the ions of an radioactive beam from a target of stable nuclei. An application of the method for the study of radioactive nuclei of astrophysical interests is given, namely of {sup 19}Ne and {sup 16}F nuclei. It is shown that on the basis of the properties of proton-emitting unbound levels of {sup 19}Ne one can develop a method of experimental study of nova explosions. It is based on observation of gamma emissions following the gamma decays of the radionuclides generated in the explosion. The most interesting radioactive nucleus involved in this process is {sup 18}F the yield of which depends strongly on the rate of {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O reaction. This yield depends in turn of the properties of the states of the ({sup 18}F + p) compound nucleus, i.e. the {sup 19}Ne nucleus. In addition it was studied the unbound {sup 16}F nucleus also of astrophysical significance in {sup 15}O rich environment. Since {sup 16}F is an unbound nucleus the reaction of {sup 15}O with protons, although abundant in most astrophysical media, appears to be negligible. Thus the question that was posed was whether the exotic {sup 15}O(p,{beta}{sup +}){sup 16}O resonant reaction acquires some importance in various astrophysical media. In this work one describes a novel approach to study the reaction mechanisms which could change drastically the role of non-bound nuclei in stellar processes. One implies this mechanism to the processes (p,{gamma})({beta}){sup +} and (p,{gamma}) (p,{gamma}) within {sup 15}O rich media. The experimental studies of the {sup 19}Ne and {sup 16}F were carried out with a radioactive beam of {sup 15}O ions of very low energy produced by SPIRAL at GANIL. To improve the energy resolution thin targets were used with a 0 angle of observation relative to the beam

  16. Development of treatment process by pyrolysis of low level radioactive spent ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahara, Satoshi; Kidoguchi, Akira; Ushikoshi, Juntaro; Kanda, Nobuyasu [Mitsui Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. has been successfully developing a continuous treatment process by pyrolysis under reduction condition for low level radioactive ion-exchange resin used in nuclear power plants, for the purpose of reducing its volume with excellent decontamination performance. Pyrolysis experiments with labo-scale and bench-scale test equipments were carried out, followed by the continuous pyrolysis treatment test in the full-scale test equipment with feed rate at 7 liter/hour which was composed of a rotary kiln pyrolysis drum and an after-burner. Results showed an excellent performance of pyrolysis for the treatment of the spent resin. The properties of cement immobilization of residue sufficiently meet the governmental regulations, and we are confident that the continuous treatment process of the disposal for the low level radioactive ion-exchange resin used in nuclear power plants is established. (author)

  17. Beam dynamics design studies of a superconducting radioactive ion beam postaccelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, M A; Jones, R M

    2011-01-01

    The HIE-ISOLDE project at CERN proposes a superconducting upgrade to increase the energy range and quality of the radioactive ion beams produced at ISOLDE, which are currently postaccelerated by the normal conducting radioactive ion beam experiment linac. The specification and design choices for the HIE-ISOLDE linac are outlined along with a comprehensive beam dynamics study undertaken to understand and mitigate the sources of beam emittance dilution. The dominant cause of transverse emittance growth was attributed to the coupling between the transverse and longitudinal motions through the phase dependence of the rf defocusing force in the accelerating cavities. A parametric resonance induced by the coupling was observed and its excitation surveyed as a function of transverse phase advance using numerical simulations and analytic models to understand and avoid the regions of transverse beam instability. Other sources of emittance growth were studied and where necessary ameliorated, including the beam steering...

  18. The radioactive ion beam project at VECC, Kolkata – A status report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alok Chakrabarti

    2002-12-01

    A project to build an ISOL-post accelerator type of radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility has been undertaken at VECC, Kolkata. The funding for the first phase of the project was approved in August 1997. This phase will be the R&D phase and will be completed by December 2003. The present status of development of the various sub-systems of the RIB facility will be discussed.

  19. Progress Report of Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility(BRIF) in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI; Hui; SUN; Yang

    2013-01-01

    The year of 2013 is featured with several important events for the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility(BRIF)project.In this year,the BRIF has made a significant progress in the construction,the main equipment installation,shakedown test and successful completion of the task of the whole year.1 Four units acceptance of building engineering,public engineering equipment installation completed and put into use

  20. Effects of phosphorus doping by plasma immersion ion implantation on the structural and optical characteristics of Zn0.85Mg0.15O thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Nagar, S.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2014-08-01

    ZnMgO thin films deposited on Si substrates by RF sputtering were annealed at 800, 900, and 1000 °C after phosphorus plasma immersion ion implantation. X-ray diffraction spectra confirmed the presence of and peaks for all the samples. However, in case of the annealed samples, the peak was also observed. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed the variation in surface morphology caused by phosphorus implantation. Implanted and non-implanted samples were compared to examine the effects of phosphorus implantation on the optical properties of ZnMgO. Optical characteristics were investigated by low-temperature (15 K) photoluminescence experiments. Inelastic exciton-exciton scattering and localized, and delocalized excitonic peaks appeared at 3.377, 3.42, and 3.45 eV, respectively, revealing the excitonic effect resulting from phosphorus implantation. This result is important because inelastic exciton-exciton scattering leads to nonlinear emission, which can improve the performance of many optoelectronic devices.

  1. Simultaneous fluorination of active material and conductive agent for improving the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Sang; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Eunjun; Choi, Jae Man; Kim, Hansu

    2016-09-01

    High-voltage cathode materials have gained much attention as one of the promising electrode materials to increase power density of lithium ion batteries by raising the working voltage. However, the use of such high-voltage cathode materials is still challenging, because their working voltage is close to the electrochemical oxidation potential of organic electrolyte used in lithium ion batteries. In this work, we demonstrated that simultaneous fluorination of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) particles as well as conductive agent in the electrode could significantly improve the electrochemical stability of LNMO cathode. The resulting electrode showed better cycle performance both at room temperature and elevated temperature compared to both bare LNMO electrode and the electrode with only LNMO fluorinated. These results showed that direct fluorination of high voltage cathode can reduce the side reaction of high voltage cathode electrode with the electrolyte, thereby stabilizing the surface of carbon black as well as that of high voltage cathode material.

  2. Structural, electrical and electrochemical behaviours of LiNi0.4M0.1Mn1.5O4 ( = Al, Bi) as cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P Nayaka; J Manjanna; K C Anjaneya; P Manikandan; P Periasamy; V S Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the cycling performance of LiMn2O4 based cathode materials, we have synthesized a new composition, LiNi0.4M0.1Mn1.5O4 ( = Al, Bi), by the sol–gel method. The formation of solid solutions is confirmed by structural characterization using TG/DTA, XRD, FT–IR, EPR, SEM and EPR. A.c.-impedance (Nyquist plot) showed a high frequency semicircle and a sloping line in the low-frequency region. The semicircle is ascribed to the Li-ion migration through the interface from the surface layer of the particles to the electrolyte. Cyclic voltammogram (between 3.5 and 4.9 V) for these materials using CR2032 coin-type cell shows two pairs of redox peaks corresponding to two-step reversible intercalation process, wherein Li-ions occupy two different tetragonal 8a sites in spinel LiMn2O4 ( < 1) lattice. The galvanostatic charge/discharge curves for = Al (77 mAh g-1) showed reasonably good capacity retention than that of = Bi (11 mAh g-1) at the end of 17th cycle.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposites based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)-graft-carbon nanotubes with LiNi$_{0.5}$Mn$_{1.5}O$_4$ and its application as potential cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THANG VAN LE; THU ANH NGUYEN; NGUYET MINH THI NGUYEN; ANH TUAN LUU; LE-THU T NGUYEN; HA TRAN NGUYEN

    2016-09-01

    The P3HT grafted on CNTs to form the P3HT-$g$-CNTs nanocomposites was synthesized and their morphologies, structure have been characterized via the sedimentation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-raydiffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the P3HT-$g$-CNTs has a better thermal stability than that of the P3HT/CNTs blend. The nanocomposite based on P3HT-g-CNTs and doped spinel LiNi$_{0.5}$Mn$_{1.5}$O$_4$ (LNMO) have been fabricated via mixing process. The structure and morphologies of LNMO/P3HT-$g$-CNTs nanocomposites have also been performed by SEM, XRD and TEM. The electrochemical performance of LNMO/P3HT-$g$-CNTs nanocomposites as cathode materials of lithium-ion batteries were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and exhibited the high diffusion of lithium ions in the charge–discharge process.

  4. Recoil separators for radiative capture using radioactive ion beams. Recent advances and detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Chris [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Greife, Uwe; Hager, Ulrike [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Radiative capture reactions involving the fusion of hydrogen or helium are ubiquitous in the stellar history of the universe, and are some of the most important reactions in the processes that govern nucleosynthesis and energy generation in both static and explosive scenarios. However, radiative capture reactions pose some of the most difficult experimental challenges due to extremely small cross sections. With the advent of recoil separators and techniques in inverse kinematics, it is now possible to measure radiative capture reactions on very short-lived radioactive nuclei, and in the presence of high experimental backgrounds. In this paper we review the experimental needs for making measurements of astrophysical importance on radiative capture reactions. We also review some of the important historical advances in the field of recoil separators as well as describe current techniques and performance milestones, including descriptions of some of the separators most recently working at radioactive ion beam facilities, such as DRAGON at TRIUMF and the DRS at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. We will also summarize some of the scientific highlight measurements at the RIB facilities. (orig.)

  5. Development and properties of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchangers for radioactive waste applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.E.; Brown, N.E.

    1997-04-01

    Crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) are a new class of ion exchangers that were jointly invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University. One particular CST, known as TAM-5, is remarkable for its ability to separate parts-per-million concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions (pH> 14) containing high sodium concentrations (>5M). It is also highly effective for removing cesium from neutral and acidic solutions, and for removing strontium from basic and neutral solutions. Cesium isotopes are fission products that account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams generated during weapons material production. Tests performed at numerous locations with early lab-scale TAM-5 samples established the material as a leading candidate for treating radioactive waste volumes such as those found at the Hanford site in Washington. Thus Sandia developed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partnership with UOP, a world leader in developing, commercializing, and supplying adsorbents and associated process technology to commercialize and further develop the material. CSTs are now commercially available from UOP in a powder (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-910 ion exchanger) and granular form suitable for column ion exchange operations (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911 ion exchanger). These materials exhibit a high capacity for cesium in a wide variety of solutions of interest to the Department of Energy, and they are chemically, thermally, and radiation stable. They have performed well in tests at numerous sites with actual radioactive waste solutions, and are being demonstrated in the 100,000 liter Cesium Removal Demonstration taking place at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with Melton Valley Storage Tank waste. It has been estimated that applying CSTs to the Hanford cleanup alone will result in a savings of more than $300 million over baseline technologies.

  6. Development of a low-energy radioactive ion beam facility for the MARA separator

    CERN Document Server

    Papadakis, Philippos; Pohjalainen, Ilkka; Sarén, Jan; Uusitalo, Juha

    2016-01-01

    A low-energy radioactive ion beam facility for the production and study of nuclei produced close to the proton drip line is under development at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyv\\"askyl\\"a, Finland. The facility will take advantage of the mass selectivity of the recently commissioned MARA vacuum-mode mass separator. The ions selected by MARA will be stopped and thermalised in a small-volume gas cell prior to extraction and further mass separation. The gas cell design allows for resonance laser ionisation/spectroscopy both in-gas-cell and in-gas-jet. The facility will include experimental setups allowing ion counting, mass measurement and decay spectroscopy.

  7. Development of a low-energy radioactive ion beam facility for the MARA separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Philippos; Moore, Iain; Pohjalainen, Ilkka; Sarén, Jan; Uusitalo, Juha

    2016-12-01

    A low-energy radioactive ion beam facility for the production and study of nuclei produced close to the proton drip line is under development at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. The facility will take advantage of the mass selectivity of the recently commissioned MARA vacuum-mode mass separator. The ions selected by MARA will be stopped and thermalised in a small-volume gas cell prior to extraction and further mass separation. The gas cell design allows for resonance laser ionisation/spectroscopy both in-gas-cell and in-gas-jet. The facility will include experimental setups allowing ion counting, mass measurement and decay spectroscopy.

  8. Radioactive ion beam transportation for the fundamental symmetry study with laser-trapped atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arikawa, Hiroshi, E-mail: arikawa@cyric.tohoku.ac.jp; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kawamura, H.; Kato, K.; Kato, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Sakemi, Y. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Aoki, T. [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Hatakeyama, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Hatanaka, K.; Yoshida, H. P. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 606-8502 (Japan); Imai, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan); and others

    2014-02-15

    The search for the violation of the fundamental symmetry in a radioactive atom is the promising candidate for precision tests of the standard model and its possible extensions. The subtle signal arising from the symmetry violation is enhanced in heavy atoms, such as a francium (Fr). To realize high precision measurements, a large amount of radioactive isotopes is required. The Fr is produced via a nuclear fusion reaction using a melted gold target with a {sup 18}O primary beam at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The maximum extraction efficiency of the Fr ion was achieved at approximately 35%. The beam line consists of an electrostatic deflector, three electrostatic quadrupole triplets to the measurement area at 10 m away from the reaction point, and several beam diagnosis systems. We optimized parameters of the beam line.

  9. Research and development for the production of radioactive ions for SPIRAL; Recherche et developpement concernant la production d'ions radioactifs dans le cadre de SPIRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleon, C

    2007-12-15

    This thesis is related to the research and development program for the production of radioactive ion beams by the ISOL method for SPIRAL at GANIL. Two studies concerning improvements to the performance of SPIRAL target-source system have been made, using a statistical approach to the atoms-to-ions transformation. The first study concerns the transformation time between the production of the radioactive atoms of Ar{sup 35} inside a target and the extraction of the radioactive ions from the source with the TARGISOL set-up (target + ECR source). The goal was to determine the diffusion coefficients of the Ar for the carbon target. The results that are presented illustrate the difficulty of this work. The second study is the application of the statistical approach to the surface ionization source. It allowed one to define and to build a new MonoNaKe set-up for the production of 1{sup +} radioactive alkaline ions. Radioactive ions of K{sup 37,47}, Na{sup 25,26,27,28,30}, Li{sup 8,9} and Al{sup 28,29,30,31} were produced. For the production of the multicharged radioactive alkali ions, the MonoNaKe target/ion-source system was coupled to the ECR source of SPIRAL-1 without a mass separator (1{sup +}/N{sup +} direct method). A first radioactive ion beam of {sup 47}K{sup 5+} was extracted at the SIRa test bench. A surface ionization test source based on the same technical characteristics of MonoNaKe has been built. The goal of this system will be to define a prototype of source adapted to the constraints of SPIRAL-2 (ionization efficiency and lifetime). (author)

  10. Search for new physics with neutrinos at Radioactive Ion Beam facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Espinoza, Catalina; Volpe, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    We propose applications of Radioactive Ion Beam facilities to investigate physics beyond the Standard Model. In particular, we focus on the possible measurement of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and on a search for sterile neutrinos, by means of a low energy beta-beam with a Lorentz boost factor $\\gamma \\approx 1$. In the considered setup the collected radioactive ions are sent inside a 4$\\pi$ detector. For the first application we provide the number of events associated with neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering, when the detector is filled in with a noble liquid. For the sterile search we consider that the spherical detector is filled in with a liquid scintillator, and that the neutrino detection channel is inverse-beta decay. We provide the exclusion curves for the sterile neutrino mixing parameters, based upon the 3+1 formalism, depending upon the achievable ion intensity. Our results are obtained both for unbinned and binned events, with binning in energy and in distance. The proposed experiment rep...

  11. Combined in-beam gamma-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy with radioactive ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konki J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In-beam gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy have been widely used as tools to study the broad variety of phenomena in nuclear structure. The SPEDE spectrometer is a new device to be used in conjunction with the MINIBALL germanium detector array to enable the detection of internal conversion electrons in coincidence with gamma rays from de-exciting nuclei in radioactive ion beam experiments at the upcoming HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN, Switzerland. Geant4 simulations were carried out in order to optimise the design and segmentation of the silicon detector to achieve good energy resolution and performance.

  12. Capture of toxic radioactive and heavy metal ions from water by using titanate nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiasheng, E-mail: jiashengxu@bhu.edu.cn [Liaoning Province Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Application of Functional Compounds, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Center of Science and Technology Experiment, Bohai University, 19 Sci-tech Road, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Zhang, He; Zhang, Jie [Liaoning Province Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Application of Functional Compounds, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Center of Science and Technology Experiment, Bohai University, 19 Sci-tech Road, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Kim, Eui Jung [School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • Three types of titanate nanofibers were prepared via a hydrothermal porcess. • These nanofibers show availability for removal of the toxic ions from water. • The equilibrium data were fitted well with the Langmuir model. - Abstract: Three types of titanate nanofibers (sodium titanate nanofibers (TNF-A), potassium/sodium titanate nanofibers (TNF-B), potassium titanate nanofibers (TNF-C)) were prepared via a hydrothermal treatment of anatase powders in different alkali solutions at 170 °C for 96 h, respectively. The as-prepared nanofibers have large specific surface area and show availability for the removal of radioactive and heavy metal ions from water system, such as Ba{sup 2+} (as substitute of {sup 226}Ra{sup 2+}) and Pb{sup 2+} ions. The TNF-A shows a better capacity in the removal of Ba{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} than TNF-B and TNF-C. Structural characterization of the materials was performed with powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). It is found that the equilibrium data fit well with the Langmuir model. This study highlights that nanoparticles of inorganic ion exchangers with layered structure are potential materials for efficient removal of the toxic ions from contaminated water.

  13. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U

    2011-01-01

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from ~65 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently ~15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of ~80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions i...

  14. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, U., E-mail: uwahl@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-12-15

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from {approx}70 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently {approx}15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of {approx}80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions in biological systems. The characterisation methods used are typical radioactive probe techniques such as Moessbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, emission channeling, and tracer diffusion studies. In addition to these 'classic' methods of nuclear solid state physics, also standard semiconductor analysis techniques such as photoluminescence or deep level transient spectroscopy profit from the application of radioactive isotopes, which helps them to overcome their chemical 'blindness' since the nuclear half life of radioisotopes provides a signal that changes in time with characteristic exponential decay or saturation curves. In this presentation an overview will be given on the recent research activities in materials science and biophysics at ISOLDE, presenting some of the highlights during the last five years, together with a short outlook on the new developments under way.

  15. Radioactive Ion Beam Production by Fast-Neutron-Induced Fission in Actinide Targets at EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, Adonai

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the 'next-generation' European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010. In EURISOL, the production of high-intensity RIBs of specific neutron-rich isotopes is obtained by inducing fission in large-mass actinide targets. In our contribution, the use of uranium targets is shown to be advantageous to other materials, such as thorium. Therefore, in order to produce fissions in U-238 and reduce the plutonium inventory, a fast neutron energy spectrum is necessary. The large beam power required to achieve these RIB levels requires the use of a liquid proton-to-neutron converter. This article details the design parameters of the converter, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the liquid converter and fission target. Calculations performed with the ...

  16. Proceedings of the workshop on the science of intense radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, J.B.; Vieira, D.J. (comps.)

    1990-10-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a 2-1/2 day workshop on the Science of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams which was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on April 10--12, 1990. The workshop was attended by 105 people, representing 30 institutions from 10 countries. The thrust of the workshop was to develop the scientific opportunities which become possible with a new generation intense Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, currently being discussed within North America. The workshop was organized around five primary topics: (1) reaction physics; (2) nuclei far from stability/nuclear structure; (3) nuclear astrophysics; (4) atomic physics, material science, and applied research; and (5) facilities. Overview talks were presented on each of these topics, followed by 1-1/2 days of intense parallel working group sessions. The final half day of the workshop was devoted to the presentation and discussion of the working group summary reports, closing remarks and a discussion of future plans for this effort.

  17. A linear radiofrequency quadrupole ion trap for the cooling and bunching of radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerbauer, A G; Dilling, J; Henry, S; Herfurth, F; Kluge, H J; Lamour, E; Moore, R B; Scheidenberger, C; Schwarz, S; Sikler, G; Szerypo, J

    2002-01-01

    A linear radiofrequency quadrupole ion guide and beam buncher has been installed at the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometry experiment at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The apparatus is being used as a beam cooling, accumulation, and bunching system. It operates with a buffer gas that cools the injected ions and converts the quasicontinuous 60- keV beam from the ISOLDE facility to 2.5-keV beam pulses with improved normalized transverse emittance. Recent measurements suggest a capture efficiency of the ion guide of up to 40% and a cooling and bunching efficiency of at least 12% which is expected to still be increased. The improved ISOLTRAP setup has so far been used very successfully in three on-line experiments. (12 refs).

  18. Development of a surface ionization source for the production of radioactive alkali ion beams in SPIRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleon, C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM CNRS/IN2P3, Bd H. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: sceleon@triumf.ca; Jardin, P.; Gaubert, G.; Saint-Laurent, M.-G.; Alcantara-Nunez, J.; Alves Conde, R.; Barue, C.; Boilley, D.; Cornell, J. [GANIL, CEA/DSM CNRS/IN2P3, Bd H. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN cedex 5 (France); Delahaye, P. [3 CERN ISOLDE, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dubois, M.; Jacquot, B.; Leherissier, P.; Leroy, R.; Lhersonneau, G. [GANIL, CEA/DSM CNRS/IN2P3, Bd H. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN cedex 5 (France); Marie-Jeanne, M. [3 CERN ISOLDE, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Maunoury, L. [CIRIL, Bd H. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN cedex 5 (France); Pacquet, J.Y.; Pellemoine, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM CNRS/IN2P3, Bd H. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN cedex 5 (France); Pierret, C. [CIRIL, Bd H. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN cedex 5 (France)] (and others)

    2008-10-15

    In the framework of the production of radioactive alkali ion beams by the isotope separation on-line (ISOL) method in SPIRAL I, a surface ionization source has been developed at GANIL to produce singly-charged ions of Li, Na and K. This new source has been designed to work in the hostile environment whilst having a long lifetime. This new system of production has two ohmic heating components: the first for the target oven and the second for the ionizer. The latter, being in carbon, offers high reliability and competitive ionization efficiency. This surface ionization source has been tested on-line using a {sup 48}Ca primary beam at 60.3 A MeV with an intensity of 0.14 pA. The ionization efficiencies obtained for Li, Na and K are significantly better than the theoretical values of the ionization probability per contact. The enhanced efficiency, due to the polarization of the ionizer, is shown to be very important also for short-lived isotopes. In the future, this source will be associated with the multicharged electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) ion source NANOGAN III for production of multicharged alkali ions in SPIRAL. The preliminary tests of the set up are also presented in this contribution.

  19. Criteria for selection of target materials and design of high-efficiency-release targets for radioactive ion beam generation

    CERN Document Server

    Alton, G D; Liu, Y

    1999-01-01

    In this report, we define criteria for choosing target materials and for designing, mechanically stable, short-diffusion-length, highly permeable targets for generation of high-intensity radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for use at nuclear physics and astrophysics research facilities based on the ISOL principle. In addition, lists of refractory target materials are provided and examples are given of a number of successful targets, based on these criteria, that have been fabricated and tested for use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF).

  20. Radioactive ion exchange resin pretreatment and treatment system and corresponding process. Systemes de pre-traitement et de traitement de resines echangeuses d'ions radioactives et procede de traitement correspondant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, G.; Ranc, R.

    1989-05-12

    Spent organic ion exchange resins contain Li (cationic resins) and B (amionic resins) which interfere with cement after encapsulation. Radioactive anionic and cationic resins or their mixture are treated by a soluble aluminum salt for precipitation of insoluble lithium aluminate, then neutralized and mixed with the cement containing calcium oxide for precipitation of boron.

  1. Beam Dynamics Design Studies of a Superconducting Radioactive Ion Beam Post-accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, MA; Pasini, M

    2011-01-01

    The HIE-ISOLDE project at CERN proposes a superconducting upgrade to increase the energy range and quality of the radioactive ion beams produced at ISOLDE, which are currently post- accelerated by the normal conducting REX linac. The specification and design choices for the HIE-ISOLDE linac are outlined along with a comprehensive beam dynamics study undertaken to understand and mitigate the sources of beam emittance dilution. The dominant cause of transverse emittance growth was attributed to the coupling between the transverse and longitudinal motions through the phase dependence of the rf defocusing force in the accelerating cavities. A parametric resonance induced by the coupling was observed and its excitation surveyed as a function of trans- verse phase advance using numerical simulations and analytic models to understand and avoid the regions of transverse beam instability. Other sources of emittance growth were studied and where necessary ameliorated, including the beam steering force in the quarter-wa...

  2. Analysis methods of safe Coulomb-excitation experiments with radioactive ion beams using the GOSIA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielinska, M. [CEA Saclay, IRFU/SPhN, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gaffney, L.P. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); University of the West of Scotland, School of Engineering, Paisley (United Kingdom); Wrzosek-Lipska, K. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Clement, E. [GANIL, Caen Cedex (France); Grahn, T.; Pakarinen, J. [University of Jyvaskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaskylae (Finland); University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Kesteloot, N. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium); Napiorkowski, P. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Duppen, P. van [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Warr, N. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    With the recent advances in radioactive ion beam technology, Coulomb excitation at safe energies becomes an important experimental tool in nuclear-structure physics. The usefulness of the technique to extract key information on the electromagnetic properties of nuclei has been demonstrated since the 1960s with stable beam and target combinations. New challenges present themselves when studying exotic nuclei with this technique, including dealing with low statistics or number of data points, absolute and relative normalisation of the measured cross-sections and a lack of complementary experimental data, such as excited-state lifetimes and branching ratios. This paper addresses some of these common issues and presents analysis techniques to extract transition strengths and quadrupole moments utilising the least-squares fit code, GOSIA. (orig.)

  3. A Monte Carlo code to optimize the production of Radioactive Ion Beams by the ISOL technique

    CERN Document Server

    Santana-Leitner, M

    2005-01-01

    Currently the nuclear chart includes around 3000 nuclides, distributed as ${\\beta}^+$, ${\\beta}^-$ and $\\alpha$-emitters, stable and spontaneously fissioning isotopes. A similar amount of unknown nuclei belongs to the so-called \\textit{terra incognita}, the uncertain region contained also within the proton, neutron and (fast) fission driplines and thereby stable against nucleon emission. The exploration of this zone is to be assisted by the use of radioactive ion beams (RIB) and could provide a new understanding of several nuclear properties. Moreover, besides pointing at crucial questions such as the validity of the shell model, the dilute matter and the halo structure, challenging experiments outside nuclear physics are also attended, e.g., explanations of the nucleosythesis processes that may justify why the matter in the universe has evolved to present proportions of elements, and which represents a major challenge to nuclear physics. These, together with other fascinating research lines in particle physi...

  4. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross sections with low-energy light radioactive ion beams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Valdir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Elastic scattering experiments have being performed with low-energy radioactive ion beams produced by the RIBRAS facility in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Here I present the results for elastic scattering of 6He on several targets and light beams on 12C target. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of experiments were angular distributions for the elastic scattering of beryllium isotopes projectiles, 7Be, 9Be and 10Be, on a light target 12C were obtained. These elastic scattering angular distributions have been analysed in terms of optical model using the double-folding Sao Paulo potential. From this analysis, the total reaction cross section were also deduced and compared to the total reaction cross sections for many other light projectiles on 12C target. The comparison was made in terms of Universal Function reduction method.

  5. Nuclear reactions with 11C and 14O radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Fanqing

    2004-12-09

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been shown to be a useful tool for studying proton-rich nuclides near and beyond the proton dripline and for evaluating nuclear models. To take full advantage of RIBs, Elastic Resonance Scattering in Inverse Kinematics with Thick Targets (ERSIKTT), has proven to be a reliable experimental tool for investigations of proton unbound nuclei. Following several years of effort, Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species (BEARS), a RIBs capability, has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The current BEARS provides two RIBs: a 11C beam of up to 2x108 pps intensity on target and an 14O beam of up to 3x104 pps intensity. While the development of the 11C beam has been relatively easy, a number of challenges had to be overcome to obtain the 14O beam. The excellent 11C beam has been used to investigate several reactions. The first was the 197Au(11C,xn)208-xnAt reaction, which was used to measure excitation functions for the 4n to 8n exit channels. The measured cross sections were generally predicted quite well using the fusion-evaporation code HIVAP. Possible errors in the branching ratios of ?? decays from At isotopes as well as the presence of incomplete fusion reactions probably contribute to specific overpredictions. 15F has been investigated by the p(14O,p)14O reaction with the ERSIKTT technology. Several 14O+p runs have been performed. Excellent energy calibration was obtained using resonances from the p(14N,p)14N reaction in inverse kinematics, and comparing the results to those obtained earlier with normal kinematics. The differences between 14N+p and 14O+p in the stopping power function have been evaluated for better energy calibration. After careful calibration, the energy levels of 15F were fitted with an R-matrix calculation. Spins and parities were assigned to the two observed resonances. This new measurement of the 15F ground state supports the disappearance of the Z

  6. SHyPIE: a new source for on-line production of multicharged radioactive condensable ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecesne, N.; Foury, P.; Gaubert, G.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Leroy, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Marry, C.; Maunoury, L.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Robert, E.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Seron, D.; Sortais, P.; Villari, A.C.C. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Angelique, J.C.; Orr, N.A. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (CNRS/IN2P3), ISMRA, 14 - Caen (France); Blank, B. [CENBG, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, 33 (France); Clapier, F.; Ducourtieux, M.; Kandri-Rody, S.; Obert, J.; Pauwels, N.; Proust, J.; Putaux, J.C. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, (IN2P3/CNRS) 91 - Orsay (France); Lepine, A. [IFUSP, C.P., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    In order to define the future intensity and reliability of the on line radioactive beams for the SPIRAL project, an intense activity of research and development is being done around the target and the ion source problems. The main instrument for this purpose is the isotopic separator SIRa (Separateur d'Ions Radioactifs) installed in the D2 experimental cave at GANIL. One of the research axis is the production of multicharged radioactive condensable ions. In this aim, we have built a new compact ECR ion source, SHyPIE (Source Hybride pour la Production d'Ions Exotiques), whose original magnetic configuration is under patent since 1997. This new magnetic structure allows to place an internal production target very close to the plasma, while avoiding radiation damages of the sensitive permanent magnets. A series of on line experiments have been done, using SHyPIE with several internal target systems, and around thirty species of condensable and noble gases radioactive multicharged ion beams have been produced. The behaviour of the plasma in a close geometry with the production target has been studied. (authors)

  7. Study of chemically synthesized ZnO nano particles under a bio template using radioactive ion beam

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a project proposal to study nano sized semiconductor ZnO system, useful in biology and medicinal purposes, using radioactive ion beam from ISOLDE. Doping of the nano particles with Cu, Cd and Ga ions (in their variable valancy states) are expected to impart changes in the electrical structure and properties in the said system under study. The morphological changes, chemical environment, micro structure, electrical and optical properties of the nano size particles of ZnO system (developed under a bio template of folic acid) after the interaction with radioactive ion beam will be studied. The provision of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) study with respect to the changes in chemical environment, where ever possible will be attempted.

  8. Nuclear Structure Studies of Exotic Nuclei with Radioactive Ion Beams A Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winger, Jeff Allen [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2016-04-21

    Beta-decay spectroscopy provides important information on nuclear structure and properties needed to understand topics as widely varied as fundamental nuclear astrophysics to applied nuclear reactor design. However, there are significant limitations of our knowledge due to an inability to experimentally measure everything. Therefore, it is often necessary to rely on theoretical calculations which need to be vetted with experimental results. The focus of this report will be results from experimental research performed by the Principal Investigator (PI) and his research group at Mississippi State University in which the group played the lead role in proposing, implementing, performing and analyzing the experiment. This research was carried out at both the National Superconduction Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University and the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The primary emphasis of the research was the use of \\bdec spectroscopy as a tool to understand the evolution of nuclear structure in neutron-rich nuclei which could then be applied to improve theory and to increase the overall knowledge of nuclear structure.

  9. Advanced target concepts for production of radioactive ions and neutrino beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ravn, H L

    2003-01-01

    The 1-20 MW of proton beam power which modern accelerator technology put at our disposal for production of intense secondary beams presents a major technically challenge to the production targets. A conceptual design is presented for a high-power pion production target and collection system, which was originally suggested to be used as the source for the proposed CERN muon-neutrino factory. It will be shown that the major parts of this target could also serve as an efficient spallation neutron source for production of 6He and fission products in the two-step converter-target concept. The heart of the system consists of a free surface Mercury jet with a high axial velocity, which allows the heat to be carried away efficiently from the production region. For the neutrino factory the secondary pions are collected and injected into the pion decay-channel by means of a magnetic horn. For the radioactive ion-beam facility the Hg-jet is surrounded by the high-temperature ISOL production-target. The suggested mechani...

  10. High Power Molten Targets for Radioactive Ion Beam Production: from Particle Physics to Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    De Melo Mendonca, T M

    2014-01-01

    Megawatt-class molten targets, combining high material densities and good heat transfer properties are being considered for neutron spallation sources, neutrino physics facilities and radioactive ion beam production. For this last category of facilities, in order to cope with the limitation of long diffusion times affecting the extraction of short-lived isotopes, a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target loop equipped with a diffusion chamber has been proposed and tested offline during the EURISOL design study. To validate the concept, a molten LBE loop is now in the design phase and will be prototyped and tested on-line at CERN-ISOLDE. This concept was further extended to an alternative route to produce 1013 18Ne/s for the Beta Beams, where a molten salt loop would be irradiated with 7 mA, 160 MeV proton beam. Some elements of the concept have been tested by using a molten fluoride salt static unit at CERNISOLDE. The investigation of the release and production of neon isotopes allowed the measurement of the diffu...

  11. Determination of the isomeric fraction in a postaccelerated radioactive ion beam using the coupled decay-chain equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ekstrom, A; Dijulio, D D; Cederkall, J; Van de Walle, J

    2010-01-01

    A method based on the coupled decay-chain equations for extracting the isotopic and the isomeric composition of a postaccelerated radioactive ion beam is presented and demonstrated on a data set from a Coulomb excitation experiment. This is the first attempt of analyzing the content of a postaccelerated radioactive ion beam using this technique. The beam composition is required for an absolute normalization of the measurement. The strength of the method, as compared to present online-based methods, lies in the determination of the isomeric fraction of a partially isomeric beam using all data accumulated during the experiment. We discuss the limitations and sensitivity of the method with respect to the gamma-ray detection efficiency and the accumulated flux. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Collinear laser spectroscopy on radioactive praseodymium ions and cadmium ions; Kollineare Laserspektroskopie an radioaktiven Praseodymionen und Cadmiumatomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froemmgen, Nadja

    2013-11-21

    Collinear laser spectroscopy is a tool for the model independent determination of spins, charge radii and electromagnetic moments of nuclei in ground and long-lived isomeric states. In the context of this thesis a new offline ion source for high evaporating temperatures and an ion beam analysis system were implemented at the TRIGA-LASER Experiment at the Institute for Nuclear Chemistry at the University of Mainz. The main part of the thesis deals with the determination of the properties of radioactive praseodymium and cadmium isotopes by collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE/CERN. The necessary test measurements for the spectroscopy of praseodymium ions have been conducted with the aforementioned offline ion source at the TRIGA-LASER experiment. The spectroscopy of the praseodymium ions was motivated by the observation of a modulation of the electron capture decay rates of hydrogen-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+}. The nuclear magnetic moment of the nucleus is, among others, required for the explanation of the so-called GSI Oscillations and has not been studied experimentally before. Additionally, the determined electron capture decay constant of hydrogen-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} is lower than the one of helium-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 57+}. The explanation of this phenomenon requires a positive magnetic moment. During the experiment at the COLLAPS apparatus the magnetic moments of the neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 135}Pr, {sup 136}Pr and {sup 137}Pr could be determined for the first time. Unfortunately, due to a too low production yield the desired isotope {sup 140}Pr could not be studied.The systematic study of cadmium isotopes was motivated by nuclear physics in the tin region. With Z=48 two protons are missing for the shell closure and the isotopes extend from the magic neutron number N=50 to the magic neutron number N=82. The extracted nuclear properties allow tests of different nuclear models in this region. In this thesis the obtained results of the spectroscopy of

  13. Electrical-thermal-structural finite element simulation and experimental study of a plasma ion source for the production of radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolaro, M.; Meneghetti, G.; Andrighetto, A.; Vivian, G.

    2016-03-01

    The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the 238U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed.

  14. Design of a two-ion-source (2-IS) beam transport line for the production of multi charged radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, V; Bandyopadhyay, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Polley, A; Nakagawa, T; Kamigaito, O; Goto, A; Yano, Y

    2000-01-01

    A 'two-ion-source' beam transport line between a surface ionization source and a 6.4 GHz on-line Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) for the production of multi-charged radioactive ions has been designed. The 1 sup + ions from the surface ionization source are decelerated and focused onto the ECRIS plasma so that they can be efficiently trapped there and further ionized to charge state q>1 sup +. A scheme for stepwise and gradual deceleration of the 1 sup + ion beam consisting of a multi-electrode decelerator and a tuning electrode placed before the ECRIS has been optimized. The beam dynamics calculations show that the 1 sup + beam decelerated to energies of 20-50 eV could be focused to a spot size smaller than the radial dimensions of the ECR plasma zone.

  15. Electrical-thermal-structural finite element simulation and experimental study of a plasma ion source for the production of radioactive ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolaro, M; Meneghetti, G; Andrighetto, A; Vivian, G

    2016-03-01

    The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10(13) fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the (238)U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed.

  16. Setting up the photoluminescence laboratory at ISOLDE & Perturbed Angular Correlation spectroscopy for BIO physics experiments using radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Savva, Giannis

    2016-01-01

    The proposed project I was assigned was to set up the photoluminescence (PL) laboratory at ISOLDE, under the supervision of Karl Johnston. My first week at CERN coincided with the run of a BIO physics experiment using radioactive Hg(II) ions in which I also participated under the supervision of Stavroula Pallada. This gave me the opportunity to work in two projects during my stay at CERN and in the present report I describe briefly my contribution to them.

  17. Morphology controlled Si-modified LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres as high performance high voltage cathode materials in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswaran, Shubha; Keppeler, Miriam; Kim, Sung-Jin; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2017-04-01

    Well-crystallized, microspherical LiNi0.5Mn1.5-nSinO4 (0.05 microspheres is achieved, which is superior compared to 93.1% capacity retention of the pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres. Since the Sisbnd O bond exhibits higher dissociation energy compared to the dissociation energies of the Mnsbnd O or Nisbnd O bonds, the excellent electrochemical performance might be associated with an increased structural and chemical stability caused by incorporation of silicon into the oxygen rich crystal lattice.

  18. Development of materials for the removal of metal ions from radioactive and non-radioactive waste streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Shameem

    Nuclear wastes that were generated during cold-war era from various nuclear weapon programs are presently stored in hundreds of tanks across the United States. The composition of these wastes is rather complex containing both radionuclides and heavy metals, such as 137Cs, 90Sr, Al, Pb, Cr, and Cd. In this study, chitosan based biosorbents were prepared to adsorb some of these metal ions. Chitosan is a partially acetylated glucosamine biopolymer encountered in the cell walls of fungi. In its natural form this material is soft and has a tendency to agglomerate or form gels. Various methods were used to modify chitosan to avoid these problems. Chitosan is generally available commercially in the form of flakes. For use in an adsorption system, chitosan was made in the form of beads to reduce the pressure drop in an adsorption column. In this research, spherical beads were prepared by mixing chitosan with perlite and then by dropwise addition of the slurry mixture into a NaOH precipitation bath. Beads were characterized using Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The SEM, EDS, and TEM data indicated that the beads were porous in nature. The TGA data showed that bead contained about 32% chitosan. The surface area, pore volume, and porosity of the beads were determined from the BET surface area that was measured using N2 as adsorbate at 77K. Adsorption and desorption of Cr(VI), Cr(III), Cd(II), U(VI), Cu(II), from aqueous solutions of these metal ions were studied to evaluate the adsorption capacities of the beads for these metals ions. Equilibrium adsorption data of these metals on the beads were found to correlate well with the Langmuir isotherm equation. Chitosan coated perlite beads had negligible adsorption capacity for Sr(II) and Cs(I). It was found that Fullers earth

  19. Thermal-electric coupled-field finite element modeling and experimental testing of high-temperature ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolaro, M.; Meneghetti, G.; Andrighetto, A.; Vivian, G.; D'Agostini, F.

    2016-02-01

    In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed.

  20. Thermal-electric coupled-field finite element modeling and experimental testing of high-temperature ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzolaro, M., E-mail: mattia.manzolaro@lnl.infn.it; Andrighetto, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universita’ 2, Legnaro, 35020 Padova (Italy); Meneghetti, G. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Vivian, G.; D’Agostini, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universita’ 2, Legnaro, 35020 Padova (Italy); Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed.

  1. 用于产生放射性离子束ECR离子源%ECR Ion Sources for Radioactive Ion Beam Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Jardin; F.Lemagnen; R.Leroy; J.Y.Pacquet; M.G.Saint Laurent; A.C.C.Villari; C.Canet; J.C.Cornell; M.Dupuis; C.Eleon; J.L.Flambard; G.Gaubert; N.Lecesne; P.Leherissier

    2007-01-01

    ECRIS's dedicated to radioactive ion production must be as efficient as those used for production of stable elements,but in addition they are subject to more specific constraints such as radiation hardness,short atom-to-ion transformation time,beam purity and low cost.Up to now,different target/ion-source systems(TISSs)have been designed,using singly-charged ECRISs,multi.charged ion sources or an association of singly-to-multi-charged ECRISs.The main goals,constraints and advantages of different existing ECR setups will be compared before a more detailed description is given of the one designed for the SPIRAL Ⅱ project and its future improvements.

  2. Thermal-electric coupled-field finite element modeling and experimental testing of high-temperature ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolaro, M; Meneghetti, G; Andrighetto, A; Vivian, G; D'Agostini, F

    2016-02-01

    In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10(13) fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed.

  3. Submicro and Nano Structured Porous Materials for the Production of High-Intensity Exotic Radioactive Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, Sandrina; Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    ISOLDE, the CERN Isotope Separator On-line DEvice is a unique source of low energy beams of radioactive isotopes - atomic nuclei that have too many or too few neutrons to be stable. The facility is like a small ‘chemical factory’, giving the possibility of changing one element to another, by selecting the atomic mass of the required isotope beam in the mass separator, rather as the ‘alchemists’ once imagined. It produces a total of more than 1000 different isotopes from helium to radium, with half-lives down to milliseconds, by impinging a 1.4 GeV proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) onto special targets, yielding a wide variety of atomic fragments. Different components then extract the nuclei and separate them according to mass. The post-accelerator REX (Radioactive beam EXperiment) at ISOLDE accelerates the radioactive beams up to 3 MeV/u for many experiments. A wide international user radioactive ion beam (RIB) community investigates fundamental aspects of nuclear physics, particle...

  4. Facile synthesis of hierarchical micro/nanostructured MnO material and its excellent lithium storage property and high performance as anode in a MnO/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Xu, Yue-Feng; Fang, Jun-Chuan; Fu, Fang; Sun, Hui; Huang, Ling; Yang, Shihe; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2013-07-10

    Hierarchical micro/nanostructured MnO material is synthesized from a precursor of MnCO3 with olive shape that is obtained through a facile one-pot hydrothermal procedure. The hierarchical micro/nanostructured MnO is served as anode of lithium ion battery together with a cathode of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) material, which is synthesized also from the precursor of MnCO3 with olive shape through a different calcination process. The structures and compositions of the as-prepared materials are characterized by TGA, XRD, BET, SEM, and TEM. Electrochemical tests of the MnO materials demonstrate that it exhibit excellent lithium storage property. The MnO material in a MnO/Li half cell can deliver a reversible capacity of 782.8 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at a rate of 0.13 C, and a stable discharge capacity of 350 mAh g(-1) at a high rate of 2.08 C. Based on the outstanding electrochemical property of the MnO material and the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) as well, the MnO/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) full cell has demonstrated a high discharge specific energy ca. 350 Wh kg(-1) after 30 cycles at 0.1 C with an average high working voltage at 3.5 V and a long cycle stability. It can release a discharge specific energy of 227 Wh kg(-1) after 300 cycles at a higher rate of 0.5 C. Even at a much higher rate of 20 C, the MnO/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) full cell can still deliver a discharge specific energy of 145.5 Wh kg(-1). The excellent lithium storage property of the MnO material and its high performance as anode in the MnO/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) lithium ion battery is mainly attributed to its hierarchical micro/nanostructure, which could buffer the volume change and shorten the diffusion length of Li(+) during the charge/discharge processes.

  5. The identification of autoionizing states of atomic chromium for the resonance ionization laser ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day Goodacre, T.; Chrysalidis, K.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into autoionizing states of atomic chromium, in the service of the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS): the principal ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility based at CERN. The multi-step resonance photo-ionization process enables element selective ionization which, in combination with mass separation, allows isotope specific selectivity in the production of radioactive ion beams at ISOLDE. The element selective nature of the process requires a multi-step "ionization scheme" to be developed for each element. Using the method of in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy, an optimal three-step, three-resonance photo-ionization scheme originating from the 3d5(6S)4s a7S3 atomic ground state has been developed for chromium. The scheme uses an ionizing transition to one of the 15 newly observed autoionizing states reported here. Details of the spectroscopic studies are described and the new ionization scheme is summarized.

  6. Titanium carbide-carbon porous nanocomposite materials for radioactive ion beam production: processing, sintering and isotope release properties

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081922; Stora, Thierry

    2017-01-26

    The Isotope Separator OnLine (ISOL) technique is used at the ISOLDE - Isotope Separator OnLine DEvice facility at CERN, to produce radioactive ion beams for physics research. At CERN protons are accelerated to 1.4 GeV and made to collide with one of two targets located at ISOLDE facility. When the protons collide with the target material, nuclear reactions produce isotopes which are thermalized in the bulk of the target material grains. During irradiation the target is kept at high temperatures (up to 2300 °C) to promote diffusion and effusion of the produced isotopes into an ion source, to produce a radioactive ion beam. Ti-foils targets are currently used at ISOLDE to deliver beams of K, Ca and Sc, however they are operated at temperatures close to their melting point which brings target degradation, through sintering and/or melting which reduces the beam intensities over time. For the past 10 years, nanostructured target materials have been developed and have shown improved release rates of the produced i...

  7. Reaction dynamics induced by the radioactive ion beam 7Be on medium-mass and heavy targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, M.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Stefanini, C.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Acosta, L.; Di Meo, P.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Glodariu, T.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; Keeley, N.; Lay, J. A.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I.; Mazzocchi, C.; Molini, P.; Nicoletto, M.; Pakou, A.; Parkar, V. V.; Rusek, K.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Sandoli, M.; Sava, T.; Sgouros, O.; Signorini, C.; Silvestri, R.; Soramel, F.; Soukeras, V.; Stiliaris, E.; Stroe, L.; Toniolo, N.; Zerva, K.

    2015-10-01

    We studied the reaction dynamics induced at Coulomb barrier energies by the weakly-bound Radioactive Ion Beam 7Be (Sα = 1.586 MeV) on medium-mass (58Ni) and heavy (208Pb) targets. The experiments were performed at INFN-LNL (Italy), where a 2-3×105 pps 7Be secondary beam was produced with the RIB in-flight facility EXOTIC. Charged reaction products were detected by means of high-granularity silicon detectors in rather wide angular ranges. The contribution presents an up-to-date status of the data analysis and theoretical interpretation for both systems.

  8. Key strategies for enhancing the cycling stability and rate capacity of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high-voltage cathode materials for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Mei, Jie; Zhu, Yan-Rong

    2016-06-01

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is one of the most promising high voltage cathode materials for future application due to its advantages of large reversible capacity, high thermal stability, low cost, environmental friendliness, and high energy density. LNMO can provide 20% and 30% higher energy density than traditional cathode materials LiCoO2 and LiFePO4, respectively. Unfortunately, LNMO-based batteries with LiPF6-based carbonate electrolytes always suffer from severe capacity deterioration and poor thermostability because of the oxidization of organic carbonate solvents and decomposition of LiPF6, especially at elevated temperatures and water-containing environment. Hence, it is necessary to systematically and comprehensively summarize the progress in understanding and modifying LNMO cathode from various aspects. In this review, the structure, transport properties and different reported possible fading mechanisms of LNMO cathode are first discussed detailedly. And then, the major goal of this review is to highlight new progress in using proposed strategies to improve the cycling stability and rate capacity of LNMO-based batteries, including synthesis, control of special morphologies, element doping and surface coating etc., especially at elevated temperatures. Finally, an insight into the future research and further development of LNMO cathode is discussed.

  9. Calculation of Generation Rate of Electron Ion Pairs Ionized by Radioactive Nuclide in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Xiu-feng; ZHANG; Li-feng; LUO; Zhi-fu

    2015-01-01

    Alpha and beta nuclides are widely employed in industrial production and life for the ability of ionization.Static eliminator,ionization smoke detector,electron capture detector and radioactive lightning rod are some typical examples.Alpha/beta rays produce electrons by ionizing the air,and then the charge is transferred during

  10. Adsorption characteristics of UO(2)(2+) and Th(4+) ions from simulated radioactive solutions onto chitosan/clinoptilolite sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humelnicu, Doina; Dinu, Maria Valentina; Drăgan, Ecaterina Stela

    2011-01-15

    Adsorption features of UO(2)(2+) and Th(4+) ions from simulated radioactive solutions onto a novel chitosan/clinoptilolite (CS/CPL) composite as beads have been investigated compared with chitosan cross-linked with epichlorohydrin. The effects of contact time, the initial metal ion concentration, sorbent mass and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the CS-based sorbents were investigated. The adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second order equation, and the adsorption isotherms were better fitted by the Sips model. The maximum experimental adsorption capacities were 328.32 mg Th(4+)/g composite, and 408.62 mg UO(2)(2+)/g composite. The overall adsorption tendency of CS/CPL composite toward UO(2)(2+) and Th(4+) radiocations in the presence of Cu(2+), Fe(2+) and Al(3+), under competitive conditions, followed the order: Cu(2+)>UO(2)(2+)>Fe(2+)>Al(3+), and Cu(2+)>Th(4+)>Fe(2+)>Al(3+), respectively. The negative values of Gibbs free energy of adsorption indicated the spontaneity of the adsorption of radioactive ions on both the CS/CPL composite and the cross-linked CS. The desorption level of UO(2)(2+) from the composite CS/CPL, by using 0.1M Na(2)CO(3), was around 92%, and that of Th(4+) ions, performed by 0.1M HCl, was around 85%, both values being higher than the desorption level of radiocations from the cross-linked CS, which were 89% and 83%, respectively.

  11. Production of chemically reactive radioactive ion beams through on-line separation; Production de faisceaux d'ions radioactifs chimiquement reactifs par separation en ligne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joinet, A

    2003-10-01

    The ISOL (isotope separation on line) allows the production of secondary radioactive ion beams through spallation or fragmentation or fission reactions that take place in a thick target bombarded by a high intensity primary beam. The challenge is to increase the intensity and purity of the radioactive beam. The optimization of the system target/source requires the right choice of material for the target by taking into account the stability of the material, its reactivity and the ionization method used. The target is an essential part of the system because radioactive elements are generated in it and are released more or less quickly. Tests have been made in order to select the best fitted material for the release of S, Se, Te, Ge and Sn. Materials tested as target filling are: ZrO{sub 2}, Nb, Ti, V,TiO{sub 2}, CeO{sub x}, ThO{sub 2}, C, ZrC{sub 4} and VC). Other molecules such as: COSe, COS, SeS, COTe, GeS, SiS, SnS have been studied to ease the extraction of recoil nuclei (Se, S, Te, Ge and Sn) produced inside the target.

  12. Biodegradable radioactive implants for glaucoma filtering surgery produced by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: walter.assmann@lmu.de; Schubert, M. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Held, A. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Pichler, A. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Chill, A. [Zentralinstitut fuer Medizintechnik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kiermaier, S. [Zentralinstitut fuer Medizintechnik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schloesser, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Busch, H. [NTTF GmbH, 53619 Rheinbreitbach (Germany); Schenk, K. [NTTF GmbH, 53619 Rheinbreitbach (Germany); Streufert, D. [Acri.Tec GmbH, 16761 Hennigsdorf (Germany); Lanzl, I. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    A biodegradable, {beta}-emitting implant has been developed and successfully tested which prevents fresh intraocular pressure increase after glaucoma filtering surgery. Ion implantation has been used to load the polymeric implants with the {beta}-emitter {sup 32}P. The influence of ion implantation and gamma sterilisation on degradation and {sup 32}P-fixation behavior has been studied by ion beam and chemical analysis. Irradiation effects due to the applied ion fluence (10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}) and gamma dose (25 kGy) are found to be tolerable.

  13. Progress in LiNi0.5Mn1.504 as 5 V cathode materials for Li-ion battery%5V锂离子电池正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张真; 刘兴泉; 张峥; 向小春

    2011-01-01

    Research progress in the synthesizing methods (such as solid-state reaction, co-precipitation method, sol-gel, spray methed,molten salt synthesis) of Li-ion battery used 5 V cathode material LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 and its modification methods (such as body doping and surface coating) in recent years was reviewed, the development prospects were forecasted. The key challenges of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 were how to carry out large-scaled industrial production at a low coat.%综述了近年来5 V锂离子电池正极材料LiNiMnO的合成方法(如固相反应法、共沉淀法、溶胶-凝胶法、喷雾法和熔盐法等)及修饰改性(如体相掺杂和表面包覆)的研究进展,并对发展前景进行了展望.LiNiMnO目前主要的问题是如何进行低成本和大规模的工业化生产.

  14. Enhanced high-temperature cycling of Li{sub 2}O–2B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated spinel-structured LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} cathode material for application to lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Ji Su [Energy and Environmental Division, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, 233-5 Gasan-dong, Geumcheon-gu, Seoul 153-801 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung-Beom [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Won-Sub [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yong-Mook [Department of Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun-Min [Energy and Environmental Division, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, 233-5 Gasan-dong, Geumcheon-gu, Seoul 153-801 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Won, E-mail: jwlee7@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Energy Engineering, Dankook University, San 29 Anseo-dong, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Kwang Chul, E-mail: rkc@kicet.re.kr [Energy and Environmental Division, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, 233-5 Gasan-dong, Geumcheon-gu, Seoul 153-801 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} (LNMO) coated with layer of Li{sub 2}O–2B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (LBO)–glass was synthesized. • The LBO coating layer effectively suppressed the growth of an organic CEI layer. • The LBO coated LNMO had stabilized the cell impedance during cycling. • These changes greatly enhance cyclic retention of LNMO at high temperature. - Abstract: A Li{sub 2}O–2B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–glass-coated LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} (LNMO) cathode active material (GC-LNMO) was synthesized to enhance the thermal stability of LNMO-based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The morphologies of the surface-coating layers were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. The glass coating prevented the surface of the LNMO-based electrode from being directly exposed to the liquid electrolyte solution, preventing Mn at the electrode surface from dissolving into the electrolyte and thus preventing the cell impedance from increasing through the undesirable formation of a cathode–electrolyte-interphase layer and the development of facile charge transfer kinetics during cycling. The electrochemical performance measurements demonstrated that the GC-LNMO-based electrode exhibited remarkably enhanced electrochemical reversibly and stability at elevated temperature (60 °C)

  15. Problems raised by radioactive ion acceleration in the SPIRAL project. Accelerator tuning and stabilisation; Problemes poses par l`acceleration d`ions radioactifs dans le project SPIRAL. Reglage et stabilisation de l`accelerateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boy, L. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)

    1997-12-31

    This study is related to the SPIRAL project. This facility uses a cyclotron to accelerate radioactive ion beams produced in a thick target by the Grant Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds primary beam. The low intensity of radioactive beams and the mixing of several species imply special tuning methods and associated diagnostics. Also, a cyclotron and the beam line will be used to switch from this tuning beam to the radioactive one. We present a theoretical study and a numerical simulation of the tuning of five radioactive beams using three different methods. the beam dynamic is performed through the injection beam line and the cyclotron up to the electrostatic deflector. Within the frame of these methods we have described all the SPIRAL beam diagnostics. Construction and test of a new low intensity diagnosis based on a plastic scintillator for phase measurement inside the cyclotron is described in details. (author). 63 refs.

  16. The development of the sup 1 sup 7 F beam at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Welton, R F

    2002-01-01

    This report details some of the key technological developments employed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) to produce beams of sup 1 sup 7 F using the sup 1 sup 6 O(d, n) sup 1 sup 7 F reaction. The oxide fiber target material used at the HRIBF is described and a comparison is made between the sup 1 sup 7 F yield achieved using light (Al) and heavy (Hf) metal oxide fibers. The development of the Kinetic Ejection Negative Ion Source (KENIS) employed in this work is also discussed along with the operational principles of the source. Finally, a detailed description of the HfO sub 2 target configuration used to produce 10 sup 7 -10 sup 8 sup 1 sup 7 F ions/s for over 850 hours of operation is provided. To date, seven nuclear physics experiments using accelerated beams of sup 1 sup 7 F and sup 1 sup 8 F produced using this apparatus have been performed over an energy range of 10-170 MeV.

  17. Fusion studies with low-intensity radioactive ion beams using an active-target time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolata, J.J., E-mail: jkolata@nd.edu [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Howard, A.M. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Mittig, W. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ahn, T. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bazin, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Becchetti, F.D. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Beceiro-Novo, S.; Chajecki, Z. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Febbrarro, M. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Fritsch, A.; Lynch, W.G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Roberts, A. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Shore, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Torres-Isea, R.O. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-09-11

    The total fusion excitation function for {sup 10}Be+{sup 40}Ar has been measured over the center-of-momentum (c.m.) energy range from 12 to 24 MeV using a time-projection chamber (TPC). The main purpose of this experiment, which was carried out in a single run of duration 90 h using a ≈100 particle per second (pps) {sup 10}Be beam, was to demonstrate the capability of an active-target TPC to determine fusion excitation functions for extremely weak radioactive ion beams. Cross sections as low as 12 mb were measured with acceptable (50%) statistical accuracy. It also proved to be possible to separate events in which charged particles were emitted from the fusion residue from those in which only neutrons were evaporated. The method permits simultaneous measurement of incomplete fusion, break-up, scattering, and transfer reactions, and therefore fully exploits the opportunities presented by the very exotic beams that will be available from the new generation of radioactive beam facilities.

  18. Reaction dynamics induced by the radioactive ion beam {sup 7}Be on medium-mass and heavy targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzocco, M., E-mail: marco.mazzocco@pd.infn.it; Stefanini, C.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Lay, J. A.; Molini, P.; Soramel, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Boiano, A.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Di Meo, P. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Boiano, C. [INFN-Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133, Napoli (Italy); La Commara, M.; Sandoli, M.; Silvestri, R. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, via Cintia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Manea, C.; Nicoletto, M. [INFN-Sezione di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Acosta, L. [Departamento de Fìsica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); INFN-Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Fernandez-Garcia, J. P. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Glodariu, T. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), 30 Reactorului St., 077125 Magurele (Romania); and others

    2015-10-15

    We studied the reaction dynamics induced at Coulomb barrier energies by the weakly-bound Radioactive Ion Beam {sup 7}Be (S{sub α} = 1.586 MeV) on medium-mass ({sup 58}Ni) and heavy ({sup 208}Pb) targets. The experiments were performed at INFN-LNL (Italy), where a 2-3×10{sup 5} pps {sup 7}Be secondary beam was produced with the RIB in-flight facility EXOTIC. Charged reaction products were detected by means of high-granularity silicon detectors in rather wide angular ranges. The contribution presents an up-to-date status of the data analysis and theoretical interpretation for both systems.

  19. Effects of phosphorus doping by plasma immersion ion implantation on the structural and optical characteristics of Zn{sub 0.85}Mg{sub 0.15}O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, S.; Nagar, S.; Chakrabarti, S., E-mail: subho@ee.iitb.ac.in [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2014-08-11

    ZnMgO thin films deposited on 〈100〉 Si substrates by RF sputtering were annealed at 800, 900, and 1000 °C after phosphorus plasma immersion ion implantation. X-ray diffraction spectra confirmed the presence of 〈101{sup ¯}0〉 and 〈101{sup ¯}3〉 peaks for all the samples. However, in case of the annealed samples, the 〈0002〉 peak was also observed. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed the variation in surface morphology caused by phosphorus implantation. Implanted and non-implanted samples were compared to examine the effects of phosphorus implantation on the optical properties of ZnMgO. Optical characteristics were investigated by low-temperature (15 K) photoluminescence experiments. Inelastic exciton–exciton scattering and localized, and delocalized excitonic peaks appeared at 3.377, 3.42, and 3.45 eV, respectively, revealing the excitonic effect resulting from phosphorus implantation. This result is important because inelastic exciton–exciton scattering leads to nonlinear emission, which can improve the performance of many optoelectronic devices.

  20. Separation of Radioactive Elements Using Nitrogen Oxygen Donor Macrocyclic Ion Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Si Joong; Shim, Min Sook [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong; Lee, Myung No [Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The study for the selective separation and recovery of Pd{sup 2+} ion lead to following results. The four kinds of stationary phase, SGB-NTOE, SGB-NTOT, SGB-NEOD, and SGB-NTOD, were synthesized to react NOTE, NTOT, NEOD, and NTOD with 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxy silane and silica gel. Using these macrocycles, selective separation of Hg(II), Pt(II), and Pd(II) from alkali earth and transition metal ions were possible by column chromatography. Maximum separation capability was appeared in SGB-NTOT and it took 12 hours for complete separation of Pd{sup 2+} ion with the column which inner diameter was 24 cm. The results of the study for the selective separation of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} are as follows: Sr{sup 2+} ion was effectively separated through liquid membrane with CR22BB and the relative transport ration of Sr{sup 2+}/Na{sup +} was 15. Cs{sup +} ion was effectively separated through liquid membrane with CR22BB(OH)Ph and the relative transport ration of Cs{sup +}/Na{sup +} was 3.4. 9 refs., 7 tabs., 15 figs. (author)

  1. Dynamical Dipole mode in heavy-ion fusion reactions by using stable and radioactive beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molini P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the dynamical dipole mode in the 192Pb composite system was investigated through the study of its prompt γ decay employing the 40Ca + 152Sm and 48Ca + 144Sm reactions at Elab =11 and 10.1 MeV/u, respectively. The γ-rays and light charged particles were detected in coincidence with evaporation residues and fission fragments. First results of this experiment show that the dynamical dipole mode survives in collisions involving heavier mass reaction partners than those studied previously. As a fast cooling mechanism on the fusion path, the prompt dipole γ radiation could be of interest for the synthesis of super-heavy elements through ”hot” fusion reactions. Furthermore, by using radioactive beams and the prompt γ radiation as a probe we could get information on the symmetry energy at sub-saturation densities.

  2. Developments of the ISOLDE RILIS for radioactive ion beam production and the results of their application in the study of exotic mercury isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Day Goodacre, Thomas; Marsh, Bruce

    This work centres around development and applications of the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) of the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility based at CERN. The RILIS applies step-wise resonance photo-ionization, to achieve an unparalleled degree of element selectivity, without compromising on ion source efficiency. Because of this, it has become the most commonly used ion source at ISOLDE, operating for up to 75% of ISOLDE experiments. In addition to its normal application as an ion source, the RILIS can be exploited as a spectroscopic tool for the study of nuclear ground state and isomer properties, by resolving the influence of nuclear parameters on the atomic energy levels of the ionization scheme. There are two avenues of development by which to widen the applicability of the RILIS: laser ionization scheme development, enabling new or more efficient laser ionized ion beams and the development of new laser-atom interaction regions. New ionization schemes for chromium, tellurium, germanium, mercu...

  3. Radioactive ion beam development for the SPIRAL 2 project; Developpement de faisceaux d'ions radioactifs pour le projet SPIRAL 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichard, A.

    2010-11-26

    This thesis focuses on the study of radioactive ion beam production by the ISOL method for the SPIRAL 2 project. The production of light ion beams is studied and the potential in-target yields of two beams are appraised. The neutron-rich {sup 15}C yield in an oxide target is estimated with simulations (MCNPx, EAF-07) and experimental data bases; the neutron-deficient {sup 14}O yield is estimated thanks to a new measurement of the {sup 12}C({sup 3}He, n){sup 14}O reaction excitation function. Based on thermal simulations, a first design of the production target is presented. This thermal study gives the necessary answers for the detailed design of the system able to reach a production yield 140 times higher than with SPIRAL 1. The production of radioactive ion beams coming from fissions in the UCx target is also studied and more particularly effusion and ionisation processes. A global study and an off-line tests campaign allow essential knowledge to the design of the surface ionisation source for SPIRAL 2 to be acquired. A first prototype of this ion source dedicated to alkali and alkaline-earth element production has been built and a thermal calibration performed. Ionisation efficiency and time response of the target-ion source system have been measured at different target temperatures and for different noble gases. These measurements allow evaluation of the impact of effusion and ionisation processes on the production efficiency of different alkali and noble gases isotopes as a function of their half-life. (author) [French] Cette these concerne l'etude de la production de faisceaux d'ions radioactifs par la methode ISOL pour le projet SPIRAL 2. La production de faisceaux legers est tout d'abord consideree. Les taux de production potentiels de deux faisceaux sont evalues: la production de {sup 15}C (riche en neutrons) dans une cible d'oxyde est estimee a l'aide de simulations (MCNPx, EAF-07) et de donnees experimentales; le taux de

  4. Induced radioactivity problem for high-power heavy-ion accelerators - Experimental investigation and longtime predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Fertman, A; Batyaev, V; Borisenko, N G; Cherkasov, A; Golubev, A A; Kantserov, V A; Karpikhin, E I; Koldobsky, A B; Lipatov, K A; Mulambetov, R D; Mulambetova, S V; Nekrasov, Y V; Prokourounov, M; Roudskoy, I; Sharkov, B Yu; Smirnov, G; Titarenko, Y E; Turtikov, V I; Zhivun, V M; Fehrenbacher, G; Hasse, R W; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Hofmann, I; Mustafin, E R; Weyrich, K; Wieser, J; Mashnik, S; Barashenkov, V S; Gudima, K K; Nekrasov, Yu.; Titarenko, Yu.

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary results on activation and dose rates of thick copper targets irradiated with carbon ions at 0.1 GeV/A measured at the SIS-18 facility of GSI, Darmstadt and on residual nuclide production cross sections from thin copper and cobalt targets irradiated with carbon ions at 0.2 GeV/A measured at the TWAC facility of ITEP, Moscow are presented and compared with calculations by the Dubna version of the cascade model for nucleus-nucleus interactions realized in the code CASCADE and by the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model code LAQGSM merged with the Generalized Evaporation Model code GEM2 by Furihata, LAQGSM+GEM2.

  5. Transportation of a radioactive ion beam for precise laser-trapping experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hirokazu; Inoue, T. [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences (FRIS), Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Köhler, L.; Sakamoto, K.; Uchiyama, A.; Sakemi, Y. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Francium is the heaviest species among the alkali elements. Due to its properties, francium is said to be of advantage in measurements of tiny observations, such as atomic parity violation and electric dipole moment. Before executing experiments with francium, it must be produced artificially because it is one of the most unstable elements. We produced francium with the nuclear fusion reaction of an oxygen beam and gold target, ionized the produced francium through a thermal ionization process, and extracted the ion with electrostatic fields. However, the thermal ionization process is known to ionize not only an objective atom but also other atomic species. Therefore, a Wien filter was installed to analyze the composition of the ion beam and purify the beam. This allowed us to improve the beam purity from ∼10{sup −6} to ∼10{sup −3}.

  6. 26Si excited states via one-neutron removal from a 27Si radioactive ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Chen, A. A.; Amthor, A. M.; Bazin, D.; Becerril, A. D.; Gade, A.; Galaviz, D.; Glasmacher, T.; Kahl, D.; Lorusso, G.; Matos, M.; Ouellet, C. V.; Pereira, J.; Schatz, H.; Smith, K.; Wales, B.; Weisshaar, D.; Zegers, R. G. T.

    2012-04-01

    A study of 26Si states by neutron removal from a fast radioactive beam of 27Si has been performed. A beam of 27Si of energy 84.3 MeV/nucleon impinged on a polypropylene foil (C3H6) of 180 mg/cm2 thickness. Deexcitation γ rays were detected with a highly segmented germanium detector array, in coincidence with the 26Si recoils, and the corresponding 26Si level energies were determined. In comparing our results to two previous γ-ray spectroscopic studies of 26Si level structures, we find good agreement with a recent measurement of the 12C(16O,2nγ)26Si reaction. Our results support the use of excitation energies from that study in helping determine the important resonance energies for the thermonuclear 25Al(p,γ)26Si reaction rate. We do not observe a bound state at 4093 keV reported in an earlier study of the 24Mg(3He,nγ)26Si reaction.

  7. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by Multi-Functional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, H.; Akiba, K.; Onodera, Y.

    2002-02-26

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl to form spherical gel particles. The uptake properties of various nuclides, 137Cs, 85Sr, 60Co, 88Y, 152Eu and 241Am, for thirty-four specimens of microcapsules in the presence of 10-1-10-4 M HNO3 were evaluated by the batch method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Cs+ above 103 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules enclosing CuFC or AMP. The Kd of Sr2+ around 102 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules containing clinoptilolite, antimonic acid, zeolite A, zeolite X or titanic acid. The microcapsules enclosing DEHPA exhibited relatively large Kd values of trivalent metal ions above 103 cm3/g; for example, the Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were 1.1x104, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x104, 1.4x104, 3.4x103 cm3/g, respectively. The uptake rates of Cs+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for this microcapsule were rather fast; the uptake percentage above 90% was obtained after 19 h-shaking and the uptake equilibrium was attained within 1 d. The AMP/CaALG exhibited high uptake ability for Cs+ even after irradiation of 188 kGy, and DEHPA/CaALG microcapsule had similar Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ ions before and after irradiation. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into gelling salt solution. The microcapsules enclosing inorganic ion-exchangers and extractants have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions.

  8. The Role of Diffusion in ISOL Targets for the Production of radioactive Ions Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen; Novgorodov, A F; Ravn, H L

    2003-01-01

    On line isotope separation techniques (ISOL) for production of ion beams of short-lived radionuclides require fast separation of nuclear reaction products from irradiated target materials followed by a transfer into an ion source. As a first step in this transport chain the release of nuclear reaction products from refractory metals has been studied systematically and will be reviewed. High-energy protons (500-1000MeV) produce a large number of radionuclides in irradiated materials via the nuclear reactions spallation, fission and fragmentation. Foils and powder of Re, W, Ta, Hf, Mo, Nb, Zr, Y, Ti and C were irradiated with protons (600-1000MeV) at the Dubna synchrocyclotron and at the CERN PS-booster to produce different nuclear reaction products. The main topic of the paper is the determination of diffusion coefficients of the nuclear reaction products in the target matrix, data evaluation and a systematic interpretation of the data. The influence of the ionic radius of the diffusing species and the lattice...

  9. Application of a radioactivity detector to the analysis of /sup 14/C-Carmoisine metabolites by ion-pair high-pressure liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tragni, E.; Costa, L.G.; Marinovich, M.; Galli, C.L.

    1984-04-01

    /sup 14/C-Carmoisine was incubated under anaerobic conditions with a suspension of human feces. Analyses of the incubation medium by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) attached to a radioactivity monitor (RAM) showed the same radioactivity profile as the urine and feces of rats dosed with the same azodye (200 mg kg-1; 25 microCi). The analyses were carried out with a 5 micron RP-C18 chromatographic column, using a linear gradient profile of different concentrations of water, methanol and an ion-pair reagent. Five radioactive peaks were present in the radiochromatogram , in addition to unmodified Carmoisine. The major peak retained half of the specific activity of Carmoisine, and exhibited the retention time and the u.v. spectrum of authentic naphthionic acid. The results demonstrate the value and the advantage of using the in vitro preparation as a model to detect and to identify the metabolites of similar synthetic azodyes used as food additives.

  10. Nuclear reactions with 11C and 14O radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Fanqing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been shown to be a useful tool for studying proton-rich nuclides near and beyond the proton dripline and for evaluating nuclear models. To take full advantage of RIBs, Elastic Resonance Scattering in Inverse Kinematics with Thick Targets (ERSIKTT), has proven to be a reliable experimental tool for investigations of proton unbound nuclei. Following several years of effort, Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species (BEARS), a RIBs capability, has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The current BEARS provides two RIBs: a 11C beam of up to 2x108 pps intensity on target and an 14O beam of up to 3x104 pps intensity. While the development of the 11C beam has been relatively easy, a number of challenges had to be overcome to obtain the 14O beam. The excellent 11C beam has been used to investigate several reactions. The first was the 197Au(11C,xn)208-xnAt reaction, which was used to measure excitation functions for the 4n to 8n exit channels. The measured cross sections were generally predicted quite well using the fusion-evaporation code HIVAP. Possible errors in the branching ratios of ?? decays from At isotopes as well as the presence of incomplete fusion reactions probably contribute to specific overpredictions. 15F has been investigated by the p(14O,p)14O reaction with the ERSIKTT technology. Several 14O+p runs have been performed. Excellent energy calibration was obtained using resonances from the p(14N,p)14N reaction in inverse kinematics, and comparing the results to those obtained earlier with normal kinematics. The differences between 14N+p and 14O+p in the stopping power function have been evaluated for better energy calibration. After careful calibration, the energy levels of 15F

  11. The Eurisol report. A feasibility study for a European isotope-separation-on-line radioactive ion beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    The Eurisol project aims at a preliminary design study of the next-generation European isotope separation on-line (ISOL) radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility. In this document, the scientific case of high-intensity RIBs using the ISOL method is first summarised, more details being given in appendix A. It includes: 1) the study of atomic nuclei under extreme and so-far unexplored conditions of composition (i.e. as a function of the numbers of protons and neutrons, or the so-called isospin), rotational angular velocity (or spin), density and temperature, 2) the investigation of the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the Universe, an important part of nuclear astrophysics, 3) a study of the properties of the fundamental interactions which govern the properties of the universe, and in particular of the violation of some of their symmetries, 4) potential applications of RIBs in solid-state physics and in nuclear medicine, for example, where completely new fields could be opened up by the availability of high-intensity RIBs produced by the ISOL method. The proposed Eurisol facility is then presented, with particular emphasis on its main components: the driver accelerator, the target/ion-source assembly, the mass-selection system and post-accelerator, and the required scientific instrumentation. Special details of these components are given in appendices B to E, respectively. The estimates of the costs of the Eurisol, construction and running costs, have been performed in as much details as is presently possible. The total capital cost (installation manpower cost included) of the project is estimated to be of the order of 630 million Euros within 20%. In general, experience has shown that operational costs per annum for large accelerator facilities are about 10% of the capital cost. (A.C.)

  12. Copper Ferrocyanide Functionalized Core-Shell Magnetic Silica Composites for the Selective Removal of Cesium Ions from Radioactive Liquid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Kyu; Yang, Da Som; Oh, Wonzin; Choi, Sang-June

    2016-06-01

    The copper ferrocyanide functionalized core-shell magnetic silica composite (mag@silica-CuFC) was prepared and was found to be easily separated from aqueous solutions by using magnetic field. The synthesized mag@silica-CuFC composite has a high sorption ability of Cs owing to its strong affinity for Cs as well as the high surface area of the supports. Cs sorption on the mag@silica-CuFC composite quickly reached the sorption equilibrium after 2 h of contact time. The effect of the presence of salts with a high concentration of up to 3.5 wt% on the efficiency of Cs sorption onto the composites was also studied. The maximum sorption ability was found to be maintained in the presence of up to 3.5 wt% of NaCl in the solution. Considering these results, the mag@silica-CuFC composite has great potential for use as an effective sorbent for the selective removal of radioactive Cs ions.

  13. Use of Radioactive Ion Beams for Biomedical Research 1. in vivo labelling of monoclonal antibodies with radio-lanthanides and $^{225}$Ac

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % IS330 \\\\ \\\\\\begin{enumerate} \\item The aim of this study was to contribute to developments of new radiopharmaceuticals for tumour diagnosis and therapy. CERN-ISOLDE is the leading facility in the world to provide radioactive ion beams with high selectivity, purity and intensity. Radioisotope production by spallation makes available a complete range of rare earth isotopes having as complete a diversity of types and energy of radiation, of half-life, and of ionic properties as one would wish. The availability of exotic nuclei, e.g. radionuclides of rare earth elements and $^{225}$Ac, opens new possibilities for the development of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy.\\\\ \\\\ \\item Two approaches were followed within the experimental program. The radioactive metal ions are bound either to bio-specific ligands (monoclonal antibodies or peptides) or to unspecific low molecular weight form. The aim of the experimental program is to evaluate relationships between physico-chemical parameters of the tracer m...

  14. Application of mixture design to optimize cementation of simulated spent radioactive ion exchange resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Xue-Ying; BAO Liang-Jin; LIN Mei-Qiong; James D.NAVRATIL

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of a mixture design for spent resin immobilization in cement as well as to examine the cement-slag-ash system for spent resin solidification. Eighteen distinct combinations, consisting of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, fly ash, organic ion exchange resins and water, were selected by a mixture design computer procedure to compose representative experiment points. The measured properties of solidified forms resulting from the combinations included 28-day compressive strength, 42-day immersion strength,42-day immersion weight and slump. These data were fit to a mathematic model with the aid of Scheffe quadratic polynomial, and the effects of each ingredient on the measured properties were identified through an analysis of the response trace plots and contour plots. Utilization of an optimality function singled out an optimal combination comprising water=0.16(wt/wt), slag=0.21, ash=0.10, cement=0.27 and resin=0.26 from which the resulting response was 1 1MPa for the 28-day strength, 110mm for the slump and 5.4% for the 42-day increase in strength.

  15. Control of stopping position of radioactive ion beam in superfluid helium for laser spectroscopy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.F., E-mail: yangxf@ribf.riken.jp [School of Physics, Peking University, Chengfu Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Dept. of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Wakui, T. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Imamura, K. [Dept. of Physics, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-Mita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Tetsuka, H. [Dept. of Physics, Tokyo Gakugei University, 4-1-1 Nukuikitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Fujita, T. [Dept. of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Y. [Dept. of Physics, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-Mita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Tsutsui, Y. [Dept. of Physics, Tokyo Gakugei University, 4-1-1 Nukuikitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Mitsuya, Y. [Dept. of Physics, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-Mita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Ichikawa, Y. [Dept. of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-Okayama, Meguro, Tokyo152-8551 (Japan); Ishibashi, Y. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Dept. of Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Yoshida, N.; Shirai, H. [Dept. of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-Okayama, Meguro, Tokyo152-8551 (Japan); Ebara, Y.; Hayasaka, M. [Dept. of Physics, Tokyo Gakugei University, 4-1-1 Nukuikitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Arai, S.; Muramoto, S. [Dept. of Physics, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-Mita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Hatakeyama, A. [Dept. of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Wada, M.; Sonoda, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2013-12-15

    In order to investigate the structure of exotic nuclei with extremely low yields by measuring nuclear spins and moments, a new laser spectroscopy technique – “OROCHI” (Optical Radioisotopes Observation in Condensed Helium as Ion-catcher) has been proposed in recent years. The feasibility of this technique has been demonstrated by means of a considerable amount of offline and online studies of various atoms in superfluid helium. For in-situ laser spectroscopy of atoms in He II, trapping atoms in the observation region of laser is a key step. Therefore, a method which enables us to trap accelerated atoms at a precise position in He II is highly needed for performing experiment. In this work, a technique making use of a degrader, two plastic scintillators and a photon detection system is established for checking the stopping position of beam based on the LISE++ calculation. The method has been tested and verified by on-line experiments with the {sup 84,85,87}Rb beam. Details of the experimental setup, working procedure and testing results of this method are presented.

  16. Effect of temperature on the durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated radioactive liquid waste: Synergy of chloride and sulphate ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A., E-mail: aguerrero@ietcc.csic.es [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache, 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Goni, S., E-mail: sgoni@ietcc.csic.es [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache, 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Allegro, V.R., E-mail: allegro@ietcc.csic.es [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache, 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The durability of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) rich in a mixed sodium chloride and sulphate solution is presented here. The effect of the temperature and potential synergic effect of chloride and sulfate ions are discussed. This study has been carried out according to the Koch-Steinegger test, at the temperature of 20 deg. C and 40 deg. C during a period of 180 days. The durability has been evaluated by the changes of the flexural strength of mortar, fabricated with this cement, immersed in a simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulfate (0.5 M), chloride (0.5 M) and sodium (1.5 M) ions - catalogued like severely aggressive for the traditional Portland cement - and demineralised water, which was used as reference. The reaction mechanism of sulphate, chloride and sodium ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the chloride binding and formation of Friedel's salt was inhibited by the presence of sulphate. Sulphate ion reacts preferentially with the calcium aluminate hydrates forming non-expansive ettringite which precipitated inside the pores; the microstructure was refined and the mechanical properties enhanced. This process was faster and more marked at 40 deg. C.

  17. Effect of temperature on the durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated radioactive liquid waste: synergy of chloride and sulphate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, A; Goñi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-06-15

    The durability of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) rich in a mixed sodium chloride and sulphate solution is presented here. The effect of the temperature and potential synergic effect of chloride and sulfate ions are discussed. This study has been carried out according to the Koch-Steinegger test, at the temperature of 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C during a period of 180 days. The durability has been evaluated by the changes of the flexural strength of mortar, fabricated with this cement, immersed in a simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulfate (0.5M), chloride (0.5M) and sodium (1.5M) ions--catalogued like severely aggressive for the traditional Portland cement--and demineralised water, which was used as reference. The reaction mechanism of sulphate, chloride and sodium ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the chloride binding and formation of Friedel's salt was inhibited by the presence of sulphate. Sulphate ion reacts preferentially with the calcium aluminate hydrates forming non-expansive ettringite which precipitated inside the pores; the microstructure was refined and the mechanical properties enhanced. This process was faster and more marked at 40 degrees C.

  18. New Constraints on the 18F(p,alpha) 15O Rate in Novae from (d,p) Reaction Sum Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Kozub, R L; Batchelder, J C; Blackmon, J C; Brune, C R; Champagne, A E; Cizewski, J A; Davinson, T; Greife, U; Gross, C J; Jewett, C C; Livesay, R J; Ma, Z; Moazen, B H; Nesaraja, C D; Sahin, L; Scott, J P; Shapira, D; Smith, M S; Thomas, J S; Woods, P J

    2004-01-01

    The degree to which the (p,gamma) and (p,alpha) reactions destroy 18F at temperatures 1-4x10^8 K is important for understanding the synthesis of nuclei in nova explosions and for using the long-lived radionuclide 18F, a target of gamma-ray astronomy, as a diagnostic of nova mechanisms. The reactions are dominated by low-lying proton resonances near the 18F+p threshold (E_x=6.411 MeV in 19Ne). To gain further information about these resonances, we have used a radioactive 18F beam from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility to selectively populate corresponding mirror states in 19F via the inverse d(18F,p)19F neutron transfer reaction. Neutron spectroscopic factors were measured for states in 19F in the excitation energy range 0-9 MeV and appropriately scaled to conform to sum rule limits. The results would suggest significantly lower 18F(p,gamma)19Ne and 18F(p,alpha)15O reaction rates than reported previously, thereby increasing the prospect of observing the 511-keV annihilation radiation associated with ...

  19. Validity of using a 3-dimensional PET scanner during inhalation of 15O-labeled oxygen for quantitative assessment of regional metabolic rate of oxygen in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yuki; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Koshino, Kazuhiro; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Iguchi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Akihide; Enmi, Junichiro; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Morita, Naomi; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Casey, Michael E; Iida, Hidehiro

    2014-09-21

    Use of 15O labeled oxygen (15O2) and positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative assessment of the regional metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in vivo, which is essential to understanding the pathological status of patients with cerebral vascular and neurological disorders. The method has, however, been challenging, when a 3D PET scanner is employed, largely attributed to the presence of gaseous radioactivity in the trachea and the inhalation system, which results in a large amount of scatter and random events in the PET assessment. The present study was intended to evaluate the adequacy of using a recently available commercial 3D PET scanner in the assessment of regional cerebral radioactivity distribution during an inhalation of 15O2. Systematic experiments were carried out on a brain phantom. Experiments were also performed on a healthy volunteer following a recently developed protocol for simultaneous assessment of CMRO2 and cerebral blood flow, which involves sequential administration of 15O2 and C15O2. A particular intention was to evaluate the adequacy of the scatter-correction procedures. The phantom experiment demonstrated that errors were within 3% at the practically maximum radioactivity in the face mask, with the greatest radioactivity in the lung. The volunteer experiment demonstrated that the counting rate was at peak during the 15O gas inhalation period, within a verified range. Tomographic images represented good quality over the entire FOV, including the lower part of the cerebral structures and the carotid artery regions. The scatter-correction procedures appeared to be important, particularly in the process to compensate for the scatter originating outside the FOV. Reconstructed images dramatically changed if the correction was carried out using inappropriate procedures. This study demonstrated that accurate reconstruction could be obtained when the scatter compensation was appropriately carried out. This study also suggested the

  20. Immobilization of ion exchange radioactive resins of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor; Inmovilizacion de resinas de intercambio ionico radiactivas del reactor nuclear Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia M, H.; Emeterio H, M.; Canizal S, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, C.P. 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work has the objective to develop the process and to define the agglutinating material which allows the immobilization of the ion exchange radioactive resins coming from the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor contaminated with Ba-133, Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Mn-54 through the behavior analysis of different immobilization agents such as: bitumens, cement and polyester resin. According to the International Standardization the archetype samples were observed with the following tests: determination of free liquid, leaching, charge resistance, biodegradation, irradiation, thermal cycle, burned resistance. Generally all the tests were satisfactorily achieved, for each agent. Therefore, the polyester resin could be considered as the main immobilizing. (Author)

  1. Mapping {sup 15}O Production Rate for Proton Therapy Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogg, Kira; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Zhu, Xuping [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Min, Chul Hee [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of); Testa, Mauro; Winey, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Normandin, Marc D. [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A.; Paganetti, Harald; Bortfeld, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); El Fakhri, Georges, E-mail: elfakhri@pet.mgh.harvard.edu [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: This work was a proof-of-principle study for the evaluation of oxygen-15 ({sup 15}O) production as an imaging target through the use of positron emission tomography (PET), to improve verification of proton treatment plans and to study the effects of perfusion. Methods and Materials: Dynamic PET measurements of irradiation-produced isotopes were made for a phantom and rabbit thigh muscles. The rabbit muscle was irradiated and imaged under both live and dead conditions. A differential equation was fitted to phantom and in vivo data, yielding estimates of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates, which were compared to live versus dead rates for the rabbit and to Monte Carlo predictions. Results: PET clearance rates agreed with decay constants of the dominant radionuclide species in 3 different phantom materials. In 2 oxygen-rich materials, the ratio of {sup 15}O production rates agreed with the expected ratio. In the dead rabbit thighs, the dynamic PET concentration histories were accurately described using {sup 15}O decay constant, whereas the live thigh activity decayed faster. Most importantly, the {sup 15}O production rates agreed within 2% (P>.5) between conditions. Conclusions: We developed a new method for quantitative measurement of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates in the period immediately following proton therapy. Measurements in the phantom and rabbits were well described in terms of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates, plus a correction for other isotopes. These proof-of-principle results support the feasibility of detailed verification of proton therapy treatment delivery. In addition, {sup 15}O clearance rates may be useful in monitoring permeability changes due to therapy.

  2. Adsorption characteristics of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+} ions from simulated radioactive solutions onto chitosan/clinoptilolite sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humelnicu, Doina, E-mail: doinah@uaic.ro [' Al. I. Cuza' University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemistry, Bd. 11 Carol I, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Dinu, Maria Valentina, E-mail: vdinu@icmpp.ro [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda 41A, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Dragan, Ecaterina Stela, E-mail: sdragan@icmpp.ro [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda 41A, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

    2011-01-15

    Adsorption features of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+} ions from simulated radioactive solutions onto a novel chitosan/clinoptilolite (CS/CPL) composite as beads have been investigated compared with chitosan cross-linked with epichlorohydrin. The effects of contact time, the initial metal ion concentration, sorbent mass and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the CS-based sorbents were investigated. The adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second order equation, and the adsorption isotherms were better fitted by the Sips model. The maximum experimental adsorption capacities were 328.32 mg Th{sup 4+}/g composite, and 408.62 mg UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}/g composite. The overall adsorption tendency of CS/CPL composite toward UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+} radiocations in the presence of Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+}, under competitive conditions, followed the order: Cu{sup 2+} > UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} > Fe{sup 2+} > Al{sup 3+}, and Cu{sup 2+} > Th{sup 4+} > Fe{sup 2+} > Al{sup 3+}, respectively. The negative values of Gibbs free energy of adsorption indicated the spontaneity of the adsorption of radioactive ions on both the CS/CPL composite and the cross-linked CS. The desorption level of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} from the composite CS/CPL, by using 0.1 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, was around 92%, and that of Th{sup 4+} ions, performed by 0.1 M HCl, was around 85%, both values being higher than the desorption level of radiocations from the cross-linked CS, which were 89% and 83%, respectively.

  3. A perturbation of DC electric field caused by light ion adhesion to aerosols during the growth in seismic-related atmospheric radioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sorokin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of variations in conductivity and external electric current variations in the lower atmosphere on DC electric field over a seismic region is investigated. The external current is formed with the occurrence of convective upward transport of charged aerosols and their gravitational sedimentation in the atmosphere. This effect is related with the occurrence of ionization source due to seismic-related emanation of radon and other radioactive elements into the lower atmosphere. An increase in atmosphere radioactivity level results in the appearance of additional sources of ionization, and altitude dependence of the ion formation rate is calculated. Ionization source varies the atmospheric conductivity and the external current through appearance of ions with equilibrium number density and their adhesion to aerosols. We have calculated the perturbation of conductivity and external electric current as a function of altitude. Variation of conductivity and external current in the lower atmosphere leads to a perturbation of electric current which flows in the global atmosphere-ionosphere circuit. Finally, perturbations of DC electric field both on the Earth's surface and in the ionosphere are estimated.

  4. Development of long-lived radionuclide partitioning technology - Preparation of ion exchanges for selective separation of radioactive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Si Joong; Jeong, Hae In; Shim, Min Sook [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong [Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Ion exchanger contained nitrogen-oxygen donor macrocyclic units was synthesized, and immobilization process was carried out by adsorption of the exchanger to silica gel. The binding constants were measured with acid concentration. From the binding constants, selectivity for Pt(II) ion and acid concentration of eluents were determined. The most optimum conditions for the separation were also determined from investigating the effects of amount of immobile phase and column length. And liarit aza-crown ethers were synthesized and selectively separated Cs/Sr ion from mixed metal solution. 37= refs., 24 tabs., 40 figs. (author)

  5. Management of radioactive waste: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Paulo Sant'ana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from country to country. Furthermore, microbiological procedures, plasma vitrification process, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, evaporation and reverse osmosis are strategies used for the treatment of radioactive wastes. The major challenge is to manage these radioactive substances after being used and discharged. This report brings data from the literature published worldwide from 2009 to 2014 on radioactive waste management studies and it covers production, classification and management of radioactive solid, liquid and gas waste.

  6. A conditioning process for ion exchanger resins contaminated with radioactive elements. Procede de conditionnement de resines echangeuses d'ions contaminees par des elements radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legros, R.; Wiegert, B.; Zeh, J.L.

    1993-08-20

    Ion exchanger resins are embedded in a pre-polymer syrup prepared from acrylic monomers having high boiling point. A curing catalyst (a peroxide) and an activation agent (a tertiary amine) are added. 12 examples are given. 9 p.

  7. Breakout from the hot CNO cycle: the {sup 15}O({alpha},{gamma}) and {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p) reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradfield-Smith, W.; Laird, A.M.; Davinson, T.; Pietro, A. di; Ostrowski, A.N.; Shotter, A.C.; Woods, P.J. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Cherubini, S.; Galster, W.; Graulich, J.S.; Leleux, P.; Michel, L.; Ninane, A.; Vervier, J. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, UCL, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Aliotta, M.; Cali, D.; Cappussello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Spitaleri, C. [INFN, Catania (Italy); Gorres, J.; Wiescher, M. [Notre Dame Univ. (United States); Rahighi, J. [Van de Graaf Lab., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hinnefeld, J. [Indiana Univ., South Bend (United States)

    1998-06-01

    One of the most important reactions which determines the rate of breakout from the hot CNO cycle is the {sup 15}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 19}Ne. The reaction {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na may also provide an alternative breakout route. Experiments are being undertaken at Louvain-La-Neuve using the radioactive {sup 18}Ne beam to study these reactions by measurement of {alpha}({sup 18}Ne,p){sup 21}Na and d({sup 18}Ne,p){sup 19}Ne{sup *} {yields} {sup 15}O + {alpha} (orig.)

  8. Post-acceleration of sup 7 Be at the Louvain-la-Neuve radioactive ion beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Gaelens, M; Loiselet, M; Ryckewaert, G

    2003-01-01

    The development of an intense and pure post-accelerated sup 7 Be beam at Louvain-la-Neuve will be discussed. Given its properties (metallic nature, long half-life (53 days)) and the special beam parameters required (multi-charge ions, high purity), a range of special techniques had to be investigated. At Louvain-la-Neuve, sup 7 Be is produced by irradiating a lithium target with 30 mu A of 27 MeV protons and is extracted using offline chemical separation techniques. Because of the large amounts of activity required, the chemistry has to be adapted for use in hotcells. The ionization is performed with an Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with the sup 7 Be injected in the source by means of sputtering. Special techniques have to be used to prevent the beryllium atoms from being lost on the plasma chamber walls. A dedicated heated plasma chamber for the ion source was developed. The ionization efficiency was increased by studying the chemistry involved in the ion source. The atoms are ionized to the 1+ or ...

  9. Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Group of the Safety Commission is responsible for shipping of radioactive material from CERN to any external institute or organisation. The RP group is equally responsible for the reception of radioactive material shipped to any of the CERN sites. Anyone who needs to ship from or import into CERN radioactive material must contact the Radioactive Shipping Service of the RP group in advance. Instructions are available at: http://cern.ch/rp-shipping or in the Radiation Protection Procedure PRP13: https://edms.cern.ch/document/346823 Radiation Protection Group

  10. Adsorption characteristics of uranyl ions onto micelle surface for treatment of radioactive liquid wastes by micelle enhanced ultrafiltration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. W.; Choi, W. K.; Jeong, K. H.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, K. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to establish the rejection behavior of uranium bearing waste water by micelle enhanced ultrafiltration technique. An extensive experimental investigation was conducted with uranium only and uranium in the presence of electrolyte, utilizing ultrasfiltration stirred cell. The effects of experimental parameters such as solution pH and concentration of uranium on rejection were examined from the change of micelle concentration. The rejection dependence of the uranium was found to be a function of pH and uranium to surfactant concentration ratio. Over 95% removal was observed at pH 3 {approx} 5 and SDS concentration of 40 mM. In the presence of electrolytes, the rejection of uranium was observed to decrease significantly, the addition of cobalt ion showed more reduction than that obtained by presence of sodium and cesium ions on rejection of uranium. The rejection behavior was explained in terms of apparent distribution constants. The rejection efficiencies of uranyl ions was significantly affected by the chemical species of the given system. For all cases, the rejection was highly dependent on uranium complex species.

  11. ESTIMATION OF RADIOLYTIC GAS GENERATION RATE FOR CYLINDRICAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGES - APPLICATION TO SPENT ION EXCHANGE RESIN CONTAINERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, A.; Lewis, Brent J.

    2003-02-27

    Radioactive waste packages containing water and/or organic substances have the potential to radiolytically generate hydrogen and other combustible gases. Typically, the radiolytic gas generation rate is estimated from the energy deposition rate and the radiolytic gas yield. Estimation of the energy deposition rate must take into account the contributions from all radionuclides. While the contributions from non-gamma emitting radionuclides are relatively easy to estimate, an average geometry factor must be computed to determine the contribution from gamma emitters. Hitherto, no satisfactory method existed for estimating the geometry factors for a cylindrical package. In the present study, a formulation was developed taking into account the effect of photon buildup. A prototype code, called PC-CAGE, was developed to numerically solve the integrals involved. Based on the selected dimensions for a cylinder, the specified waste material, the photon energy of interest and a value for either the absorption or attenuation coefficient, the code outputs values for point and average geometry factors. These can then be used to estimate the internal dose rate to the material in the cylinder and hence to calculate the radiolytic gas generation rate. Besides the ability to estimate the rates of radiolytic gas generation, PC-CAGE can also estimate the dose received by the container material. This is based on values for the point geometry factors at the surface of the cylinder. PC-CAGE was used to calculate geometry factors for a number of cylindrical geometries. Estimates for the absorbed dose rate in container material were also obtained. The results for Ontario Power Generation's 3 m3 resin containers indicate that about 80% of the source gamma energy is deposited internally. In general, the fraction of gamma energy deposited internally depends on the dimensions of the cylinder, the material within it and the photon energy; the fraction deposited increases with increasing

  12. Removal efficiency of radioactive cesium and iodine ions by a flow-type apparatus designed for electrochemically reduced water production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeki Hamasaki

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 attracted people's attention, with anxiety over possible radiation hazards. Immediate and long-term concerns are around protection from external and internal exposure by the liberated radionuclides. In particular, residents living in the affected regions are most concerned about ingesting contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water. Efficient removal of radionuclides from rainwater and drinking water has been reported using several pot-type filtration devices. A currently used flow-type test apparatus is expected to simultaneously provide radionuclide elimination prior to ingestion and protection from internal exposure by accidental ingestion of radionuclides through the use of a micro-carbon carboxymethyl cartridge unit and an electrochemically reduced water production unit, respectively. However, the removability of radionuclides from contaminated tap water has not been tested to date. Thus, the current research was undertaken to assess the capability of the apparatus to remove radionuclides from artificially contaminated tap water. The results presented here demonstrate that the apparatus can reduce radioactivity levels to below the detection limit in applied tap water containing either 300 Bq/kg of 137Cs or 150 Bq/kg of 125I. The apparatus had a removal efficiency of over 90% for all concentration ranges of radio-cesium and -iodine tested. The results showing efficient radionuclide removability, together with previous studies on molecular hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles as reactive oxygen species scavengers, strongly suggest that the test apparatus has the potential to offer maximum safety against radionuclide-contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water.

  13. Ion-implantation and characterization of 32P-radioactive platinum coils for endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Philippe; Raymond, Jean; Roorda, Sjoerd

    2006-01-01

    We produced and measured over 800 32P-ion-implanted coils for pre-clinical and clinical studies. Platinum coils are intravascular implants most frequently used in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. This less invasive endovascular approach is safer than conventional surgery, but a frequent drawback is the recurrence of the aneurysm, associated with recanalization, a phenomenon that can be inhibited by the local application of beta radiation. Total coil activities, uniformity, reproducibility and 32P binding to platinum were determined and found to be adequate for this application.

  14. Efficient removal of radioactive iodide ions from water by three-dimensional Ag{sub 2}O–Ag/TiO{sub 2} composites under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shuaishuai; Wang, Na; Zhang, Yuchang; Li, Yaru [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Han, Zhuo [CECEP Environmental Protection Investment Development Co., Ltd., Jiangxi 3300969 (China); Na, Ping, E-mail: naping@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Co-Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • 3D Ag{sub 2}O–Ag/TiO{sub 2} composites have been synthesized through a facile method. • 3D Ag{sub 2}O–Ag/TiO{sub 2} composites exhibit large photocatalytic adsorption capacity, high selectivity, and excellent trace removal performance of I{sup −} under visible light. • 3D Ag{sub 2}O–Ag/TiO{sub 2} composites could be easily separated and regenerated. • The adsorption capacity of Ag{sub 2}O for I{sup −} is enlarged 4.4 times by the photooxidation of Ag/TiO{sub 2}. • The cooperative effects mechanism between Ag{sub 2}O and Ag/TiO{sub 2} is proposed and verified. - Abstract: Three-dimensional Ag{sub 2}O and Ag co-loaded TiO{sub 2} (3D Ag{sub 2}O–Ag/TiO{sub 2}) composites have been synthesized through a facile method, characterized using SEM, EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, UV–vis DRS, BET techniques, and applied to remove radioactive iodide ions (I{sup −}). The photocatalytic adsorption capacity (207.6 mg/g) of the 3D Ag{sub 2}O–Ag/TiO{sub 2} spheres under visible light is four times higher than that in the dark, which is barely affected by other ions, even in simulated salt lake water where the concentration of Cl{sup −} is up to 590 times that of I{sup −}. The capability of the composites to remove even trace amounts of I{sup −} from different types of water, e.g., deionized or salt lake water, is demonstrated. The composites also feature good reusability, as they were separated after photocatalytic adsorption and still performed well after a simple regeneration. Furthermore, a mechanism explaining the highly efficient removal of radioactive I{sup −} has been proposed according to characterization analyses of the composites after adsorption and subsequently been verified by adsorption and desorption experiments. The proposed cooperative effects mechanism considers the interplay of three different phenomena, namely, the adsorption performance of Ag{sub 2}O for I{sup −}, the photocatalytic ability of Ag/TiO{sub 2} for oxidation

  15. Simulated Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  16. Radioactivity Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  17. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  18. Design of an equipment for the testing of target dedicated to the production of radioactive ions through the ISOL method; Realisation d'un dispositif de test de cibles pour la production d'ions radioactifs par la methode ISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durantel, F

    2005-01-15

    In the ISOL (isotope separation on line) technique, a primary ion beam impinges on a thick target, the incident ions are stopped through fragmentation reactions that generate radioactive nuclei. As soon as they have collected enough electrons, the radioactive nuclei begin diffusing outside the target as radioactive atoms. In order to improve this diffusion the target is strongly heated. The radioactive atoms diffuse till a ion source that ionize them, they are then accelerated to form a secondary beam that is delivered to the experimental area. This work deals with the design of an equipment able to measure the diffusion capacities of various targets, it is made up of -) a high temperature (> 2300 K) oven that will contain the target, -) a ionization source for ionizing radioactive atoms and -) a target dispatcher able to introduce in the oven or remove from the oven any target of a set of 12 targets. This equipment has proved to be able to test during a single experiment several primary beams and target materials. Measurements will be performed in a sequential way for the different projectile-target couples which will assure very closed experimental conditions for each measuring campaign. (A.C.)

  19. Resonant ionization by laser beams: application to ions sources and to study the nuclear structure of radioactive tellurium isotopes; Ionisation resonante par faisceaux laser: application aux sources d'ions et a l'etude de la structure des noyaux radioactifs de tellure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifi, R

    2007-07-15

    The radioactive ion beams that are produced through current isotope separators are well separated according to the A mass but not according to the Z parameter. The resonant ionization through laser beams applied to ion sources allows the production of radioactive ion beam in a very selective and efficient way by eliminating the isobaric contamination. The first chapter is dedicated to the resonant ionization by laser beams, we describe the principle, the experimental setting, the lasers used, the ionization schemes and the domain of application. The second chapter deals with the application of resonant ionization to laser ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams. We present experimental tests performed for getting copper ion beams. Resonant ionization through laser is also used in the spectroscopy experiments performed at the Isolde (isotope separation on-line device) installation in CERN where more than 20 elements are ionized very efficiently. The technique is based on a frequency scanning around the excitation transition of the atoms in order to probe the hyperfine structure. Laser spectroscopy allows the determination of the hyperfine structure as well as the isotopic shift of atoms. In the third chapter the method is applied to the spectroscopy of tellurium atoms. First, we define the 2 parameters on which the extraction is based: charge radius and nuclear moments, then we present several theoretical models that we have used to assess our experimental results. (A.C.)

  20. Fusion using radioactive ion beams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Vinodkumar

    2010-07-01

    The capture-fission cross-section is measured for the collision of the massive nucleus 132Sn with 96Zr at near-barrier energies and compared with the collision of 124Sn with 96Zr. This study gives insight into fusion enhancement and hindrance in systems involving neutron-rich nuclei. The dinuclear system model (DNS) calculations describe the excitation function reasonably well and if we use the barrier heights predicted by this model we can conclude that fusion hindrance (represented by extra push energy) is greater for the more neutron-rich systems. The fusion excitation function for 9Li+70Zn and 9Li+208Pb systems are measured for near-barrier energies using ISAC1 and ISAC2 Facilities at TRIUMF. The -emitting evaporation residues (211−214At) are stopped in the 208Pb target and their decay is measured. The measured excitation function shows evidence for large enhancements in the sub-barrier energies, which is not accounted by current theoretical models. Suppression of the above-barrier cross-section with respect to these theoretical models are also seen.

  1. Parametric renal blood flow imaging using [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Liukko, Kaisa E.; Oikonen, Vesa J.; Tolvanen, Tuula [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); Koivuviita, Niina; Tertti, Risto; Metsaerinne, Kaj [University of Turku, Department of Medicine, Turku (Finland); Iida, Hidehiro [National Cardiovascular Center-Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Advanced Medical-Engineering Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Iozzo, Patricia [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Nuutila, Pirjo [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Medicine, Turku (Finland)

    2009-04-15

    The quantitative assessment of renal blood flow (RBF) may help to understand the physiological basis of kidney function and allow an evaluation of pathophysiological events leading to vascular damage, such as renal arterial stenosis and chronic allograft nephropathy. The RBF may be quantified using PET with H{sub 2} {sup 15}O, although RBF studies that have been performed without theoretical evaluation have assumed the partition coefficient of water (p, ml/g) to be uniform over the whole region of renal tissue, and/or radioactivity from the vascular space (V{sub A}. ml/ml) to be negligible. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating parametric images of RBF (K{sub 1}, k{sub 2}) as well as V{sub A} without fixing the partition coefficient by the basis function method (BFM). The feasibility was tested in healthy subjects. A simulation study was performed to evaluate error sensitivities for possible error sources. The experimental study showed that the quantitative accuracy of the present method was consistent with nonlinear least-squares fitting, i.e. K{sub 1,BFM}=0.93K{sub 1,NLF}-0.11 ml/min/g (r=0.80, p<0.001), k{sub 2,BFM}=0.96k{sub 2,NLF}-0.13 ml/min/g (r=0.77, p<0.001), and V{sub A,BFM}=0.92V{sub A,NLF}-0.00 ml/ml (r=0.97, p<0.001). Values of the Akaike information criterion from this fitting were the smallest for all subjects except two. The quality of parametric images obtained was acceptable. The simulation study suggested that delay and dispersion time constants should be estimated within an accuracy of 2 s. V{sub A} and p cannot be neglected or fixed, and reliable measurement of even relative RBF values requires that V{sub A} is fitted. This study showed the feasibility of measurement of RBF using PET with H{sub 2} {sup 15}O. (orig.)

  2. Trojan Horse measurement of the {sup 18}F(p, α){sup 15}O astrophysical S(E)-factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R.G. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Roeder, B.T.; McCleskey, M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States); Trache, L. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States); IFIN-HH, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Tribble, R.E. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Spitaleri, C.; Indelicato, I.; Rapisarda, G.G.; Sparta, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Bertulani, C.A. [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Commerce (United States); Cherubini, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Gulino, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); KORE University, Enna (Italy); La Cognata, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Crucial information on novae nucleosynthesis is linked to the abundance of {sup 18}F, which, due to great improvements in gamma-ray astronomy, can be detected in explosive environments. Therefore, the reaction network producing and destroying this radioactive isotope has been extensively studied in the last years. Among those reactions, the {sup 18}F(p, α){sup 15}O cross section has been measured by means of several dedicated experiments, both using direct and indirect methods. The presence of resonances in the energy region of astrophysical interest has been reported by many authors. In the present work a report on a recent experiment performed via the Trojan Horse Method (THM) is presented and the results are given and compared with the ones known in the literature, both direct and indirect. Data arising from THM measurements are then averaged and the reaction rate calculated in the novae energy range. (orig.)

  3. New Astrophysical Reaction Rates for 18F(p, α)15O and 18F(p, γ)19Ne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Neng-Chuan(舒能川); D. W. Bardayan; J. C. Blackmon; CHEN Yong-Shou(陈永寿); R. L. Kozub; P. D. Parker; M. S. Smith

    2003-01-01

    The rates of the thermonuclear 18F(p, α)15O and 18F(p,γ)19Ne reactions in hot astrophysical environments are needed to understand gamma-ray emission from nova explosions. The rates for these reactions have been uncertain due to discrepancies in recent measurements, as well as to a lack of a comprehensive examination of the available structure information in the compound nucleus 19Ne. We have examined the latest experimental measurements with radioactive and stable beams, and made estimates of the unmeasured 19Ne nuclear level parameters, to generate new rates with uncertainties for these reactions. The rates are expressed as numerical values over the temperature range relevant for stellar explosions, as well as analytical expressions as functions of temperature in a format suitable for use in astrophysical simulations. Comparisons with the previous rate calculations are carried out, and the astrophysical implications are briefly discussed.

  4. Trojan Horse measurement of the 18F(p,α)15O astrophysical S(E)-factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Roeder, B. T.; McCleskey, M.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Spitaleri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Indelicato, I.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Spartá, R.

    2016-02-01

    Crucial information on novae nucleosynthesis is linked to the abundance of 18F , which, due to great improvements in gamma-ray astronomy, can be detected in explosive environments. Therefore, the reaction network producing and destroying this radioactive isotope has been extensively studied in the last years. Among those reactions, the 18F(p,α)15O cross section has been measured by means of several dedicated experiments, both using direct and indirect methods. The presence of resonances in the energy region of astrophysical interest has been reported by many authors. In the present work a report on a recent experiment performed via the Trojan Horse Method (THM) is presented and the results are given and compared with the ones known in the literature, both direct and indirect. Data arising from THM measurements are then averaged and the reaction rate calculated in the novae energy range.

  5. Immobilization of Ion Exchange radioactive resins of the TRIGA Mark III Nuclear Reactor; Inmovilizacion de resinas de intercambio ionico radiactivas del reactor nuclear TRIGA Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Martinez, H

    1999-07-01

    In the last decades many countries in the world have taken interest in the use, availability, and final disposal of dangerous wastes in the environment, within these, those dangerous wastes that contain radioactive material. That is why studies have been made on materials used as immobilization agent of radioactive waste that may guarantee its storage for long periods of time under drastic conditions of humidity, temperature change and biodegradation. In mexico, the development of different applications of radioactive material in the industry, medicine and investigation, have generated radioactive waste, sealed and open sources, whose require a special technological development for its management and final disposal. The present work has as a finality to develop the process and define the agglutinating material, bitumen, cement and polyester resin that permits immobilization of resins of Ionic Exchange contaminated by Barium 153, Cesium 137, Europium 152, Cobalt 60 and Manganese 54 generated from the nuclear reactor TRIGA Mark III. Ionic interchange contaminated resin must be immobilized and is analysed under different established tests by the Mexican Official Standard NOM-019-NUCL-1995 {sup L}ow level radioactive wastes package requirements for its near-surface final disposal. Immobilization of ionic interchange contaminated resins must count with the International Standards applicable in this process; in these standards, the following test must be taken in prototype examples: Free-standing water, leachability, compressive strength, biodegradation, radiation stability, thermal stability and burning rate. (Author)

  6. Nuclear radioactive techniques applied to materials research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, João Guilherme; Wahl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review materials characterization techniques using radioactive isotopes at the ISOLDE/CERN facility. At ISOLDE intense beams of chemically clean radioactive isotopes are provided by selective ion-sources and high-resolution isotope separators, which are coupled on-line with particle accelerators. There, new experiments are performed by an increasing number of materials researchers, which use nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Mössbauer, Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC), beta-NMR and Emission Channeling with short-lived isotopes not available elsewhere. Additionally, diffusion studies and traditionally non-radioactive techniques as Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy, Hall effect and Photoluminescence measurements are performed on radioactive doped samples, providing in this way the element signature upon correlation of the time dependence of the signal with the isotope transmutation half-life. Current developments, applications and perspectives of using radioactive ion beams and tech...

  7. Induced radioactivity of a GSO scintillator by secondary fragments in carbon ion therapy and its effects on in-beam OpenPET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Munetaka; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-07-01

    The accumulation of induced radioactivity within in-beam PET scanner scintillators is of concern for its long-term clinical usage in particle therapy. To estimate the effects on OpenPET which we are developing for in-beam PET based on GSOZ (Zi doped Gd2SiO5), we measured the induced radioactivity of GSO activated by secondary fragments in a water phantom irradiation by a (12)C beam with an energy of 290 MeV u(-1). Radioisotopes of Na, Ce, Eu, Gd, Nd, Pm and Tb including positron emitters were observed in the gamma ray spectra of the activated GSO with a high purity Ge detector and their absolute radioactivities were calculated. We used the Monte Carlo simulation platform, Geant4 in which the observed radioactivity was assigned to the scintillators of a precisely reproduced OpenPET and the single and coincidence rates immediately after one treatment and after one-year usage were estimated for the most severe conditions. Comparing the highest coincidence rate originating from the activated scintillators (background) and the expected coincidence rate from an imaging object (signal), we determined the expected signal-to-noise ratio to be more than 7 within 3 min and more than 10 within 1 min from the scan start time. We concluded the effects of scintillator activation and their accumulation on the OpenPET imaging were small and clinical long-term usage of the OpenPET was feasible.

  8. Induced radioactivity of a GSO scintillator by secondary fragments in carbon ion therapy and its effects on in-beam OpenPET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Munetaka; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-07-01

    The accumulation of induced radioactivity within in-beam PET scanner scintillators is of concern for its long-term clinical usage in particle therapy. To estimate the effects on OpenPET which we are developing for in-beam PET based on GSOZ (Zi doped Gd2SiO5), we measured the induced radioactivity of GSO activated by secondary fragments in a water phantom irradiation by a 12C beam with an energy of 290 MeV u-1. Radioisotopes of Na, Ce, Eu, Gd, Nd, Pm and Tb including positron emitters were observed in the gamma ray spectra of the activated GSO with a high purity Ge detector and their absolute radioactivities were calculated. We used the Monte Carlo simulation platform, Geant4 in which the observed radioactivity was assigned to the scintillators of a precisely reproduced OpenPET and the single and coincidence rates immediately after one treatment and after one-year usage were estimated for the most severe conditions. Comparing the highest coincidence rate originating from the activated scintillators (background) and the expected coincidence rate from an imaging object (signal), we determined the expected signal-to-noise ratio to be more than 7 within 3 min and more than 10 within 1 min from the scan start time. We concluded the effects of scintillator activation and their accumulation on the OpenPET imaging were small and clinical long-term usage of the OpenPET was feasible.

  9. An Artificial SEI Enables the Use of A LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 5 V Cathode with Conventional Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juchuan [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Martha, Surendra K [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel is considered one of the most promising cathodes for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, the operation potential of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, ~4.75 V, is beyond the high voltage limit of the state-of-art electrolyte, ~4.3 V. Here, using thin films of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a model material, we show evidence that an artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) enables the use of this 5 V cathode with conventional carbonate electrolytes. A thin coating of Lipon (lithium phosphorus oxynitride) as an artificial SEI on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 could remedy the decomposition of the electrolyte. The thickness of the Lipon artificial SEI is optimized by balancing the protection and additional resistance. The strategy of artificial SEI on cathodes is expected to enable the wide application of other high voltage cathodes for lithium ion batteries.

  10. Study of proton radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  11. In Situ Carbon Coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Material Prepared by Prepolymer of Melamine Formaldehyde Resin Assisted Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon coated spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 were prepared by spray-drying using prepolymer of melamine formaldehyde resin (PMF as carbon source of carbon coating layer. The PMF carbon coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was characterized by XRD, SEM, and other electrochemical measurements. The as-prepared lithium nickel manganese oxide has the cubic face-centered spinel structure with a space group of Fd3m. It showed good electrochemical performance as a cathode material for lithium ion battery. After 100 discharge and charge cycles at 0.5 C rate, the specific discharge capacity of carbon coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was 130 mAh·g−1, and the corresponding capacity retention was 98.8%. The 100th cycle specific discharge capacity at 10 C rate of carbon coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was 105.4 mAh·g−1, and even the corresponding capacity retention was 95.2%.

  12. Part I: Electronic and ionic transport properties of the ordered and disordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Belharouk, Ilias

    2017-04-01

    Here, we report on the electronic and ionic conductivity and diffusivity of the ordered (P4332) and disordered (Fd 3 bar m) LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel material, which have been determined by using ion and electron blocking cell configurations as a function of lithium concentration and temperature. The disordered phase exhibits about fifteen-time higher electronic conductivity than the ordered phase at room temperature in the lithiated state. Upon delithiation, the electronic conductivity of the ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 phase increases and reaches the same levels observed for the disordered phase. The ionic conductivity and diffusivity of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, in the ordered and disordered forms, are in the range of ∼1 × 10-9 S/cm and ∼5 × 10-9 cm2/s, respectively. Both phases exhibit similar activation energies for the ionic conductivity and diffusivity, i.e. 0.70 ± 0.2eV and 0.74 ± 0.2eV, respectively. It can be concluded from the obtained results that the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, whether ordered or disordered, is limited by lithium transport, but is fast enough to allow charge/discharge of micron-scale particles at practical C-rates.

  13. Process for ion exchange resins from radioactive materials reprocessing plants. Procede d'immobilisation de resines echangeuses d'ions provenant des centres de retraitement des produits radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnin, G.; Magnin, M.F.; Aubert, V.; Jaouen, C.

    1989-06-23

    Prior to encapsulation in cement spent ion exchange resins are treated with an aqueous solution containing NO{sub 3}{sup -} and Na{sup +} ions. Nitrate ion amount is determined for saturation of all resin sites as if all the resins were anionic and sodium ion amount for on the one hand a basic pH of the medium and on the other hand the saturation of all cationic resin sites.

  14. Multifunctional flexible free-standing titanate nanobelt membranes as efficient sorbents for the removal of radioactive 90Sr2+ and 137Cs+ ions and oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tao; Zhao, Zhiwei; Shen, Congcong; Li, Jiaxing; Tan, Xiaoli; Zeb, Akif; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, An-Wu

    2016-02-01

    For the increasing attention focused on saving endangered environments, there is a growing need for developing membrane materials able to perform complex functions such as removing radioactive pollutants and oil spills from water. A major challenge is the scalable fabrication of membranes with good mechanical and thermal stability, superior resistance to radiation, and excellent recyclability. In this study, we constructed a multifunctional flexible free-standing sodium titanate nanobelt (Na-TNB) membrane that was assembled as advanced radiation-tainted water treatment and oil uptake. We compared the adsorption behavior of 137Cs+ and 90Sr2+ on Na-TNB membranes under various environmental conditions. The maximum adsorption coefficient value (Kd) for Sr2+ reaches 107 mL g-1. The structural collapse of the exchange materials were confirmed by XRD, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy as well as Raman analysis. The adsorption mechanism of Na-TNB membrane is clarified by forming a stable solid with the radioactive cations permanently trapped inside. Besides, the engineered multilayer membrane is exceptionally capable in selectively and rapidly adsorbing oils up to 23 times the adsorbent weight when coated with a thin layer of hydrophobic molecules. This multifunctional membrane has exceptional potential as a suitable material for next generation water treatment and separation technologies.

  15. Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of Ag(+) and Sn(2+) Doped KTi0.5 Te1.5 O6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guje, Ravinder; Gundeboina, Ravi; Reddy, Jitta Raju; Veldurthi, Naveen Kumar; Kurra, Sreenu; Vithal, Muga

    2015-12-28

    In this study, the photocatalytic dye degradation efficiency of KTi0.5 Te1.5 O6 synthesized through solid state method was enhanced by cation (Ag(+) /Sn(+2) ) doping at potassium site via ion exchange method. As prepared materials were characterized by XRD, SEM-EDS, IR, TGA, and UV-Vis Diffuse reflectance spectroscopic (DRS) techniques. All the compounds were crystallized in cubic lattice with space group. The bandgap energies of parent, Ag(+) and Sn(+2) doped KTi0.5 Te1.5 O6 materials obtained from DRS profiles were found to be 2.96, 2.55 and 2.40 eV respectively. Photocatalytic efficiency of parent, Ag(+) and Sn(+2) doped materials was evaluated against the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) dyes under visible light irradiation. The Sn(+2) doped KTi0.5 Te1.5 O6 showed higher activity towards the degradation of both MB and MV dyes and its higher activity is ascribed to the lower bandgap energy compared to the parent and Ag(+) doped KTi0.5 Te1.5 O6 . The mechanistic degradation pathway of methylene blue (MB) was studied in the presence of Sn(2+) doped KTi0.5 Te1.5 O6 . Quenching experiments were performed to know the participation of holes, super oxide and hydroxyl radicals in the dye degradation process. The stability and reusability of the catalysts were studied. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based composite electrodes with improved properties prepared by a slurry spray deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ran; Sun, Yi; Zou, Bang-Kun; Deng, Miao-Miao; Xie, Jing-Ying; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2017-02-01

    A slurry spray deposition (SSD) process is utilized to prepare a LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based composite electrode supported on an aluminum foil. The spray deposition process is performed at room temperature through the atomization and deposition of the composite electrode slurry. A comparative LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based composite electrode is also prepared by the traditional blade coating method. The surface morphology and elements mapping of the electrodes are measured by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The adhesion between the composite electrode layers and the aluminum foil is also tested. A parallel evaluation on the mechanical and electrochemical performances of the two kinds of electrodes is conducted. The SSD electrode exhibits improved adhesion, cycling stability and rate capability. Therefore, the SSD process is an effective way to fabricate advanced electrodes for high performance lithium ion cells.

  17. Enhanced electrochemical performances of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 by surface modification with Cu nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 5V spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is prepared by traditional solid-state method and nano-Cu particles were derived from a chemical reduction process. The effect of Cu-coating on the electrochemical performances of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cells, in a wide operation temperature range (-10°C, 25°C, 60°C, is investigated systematically by the charge/discharge testing, cyclic voltammograms and impedance spectroscopy, respectively. The results demonstrate that the modified material exhibits remarkably enhanced electrochemical reversibility and stability. Cu-coated material has much lower surface and charge transfer resistances and shows a higher lithium diffusion rate. The Cu coating layer as a highly efficient lithium ion conductor, acted as a highly efficient protector to restrain the contact loss.

  18. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  19. Testing the ISAC radioactive ion accelerator beam specifications using the H( sup 1 sup 5 N,alpha gamma) sup 1 sup 2 C reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, S; Chen, A; D'Auria, J M; Hutcheon, D A; Galovich, C S; Gigliotti, D; Greife, U; Hunter, D; Hussein, A; Jewett, C C; Liu, W; Olin, A; Ottewell, D; Rogers, J

    2003-01-01

    Important ion beam parameters like energy spread and stability of the new isotope separator and accelerator accelerator at TRIUMF were determined during the first beamtime with the detector of recoils and gammas of nuclear gas target and BGO array. For this purpose a variation of the nuclear resonance method, using a geometrical scan over the resonance as placed in an extended gas target cell, as well as time-of-flight correlations were employed.

  20. RADIOACTIVITY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF POTASSIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, R F

    1920-11-20

    1. The non-radioactive cesium ion can replace the potassium ion almost quantitatively in solutions required for the development of the egg of the sea urchin into swimming blastulae. 2. Thorium chloride and uranium acetate cannot replace the potassium chloride in the solutions required for the development of the egg. 3. Thorium chloride and uranium acetate do not antagonize the action of the potassium contained in sea water upon the development of eggs.

  1. Design of medium energy beam transport line between the RFQ and the Linac in the radioactive ion beam facility at VECC, Kolkata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Dechoudhury; Vaishali Naik; Manas Mondal; Hemendra Kumar Pandey; Avik Chatterjee; Dirtha Sanyal; Debasis Bhowmick; Alok Chakrabarti

    2010-09-01

    The design of a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line comprising of a re-buncher and four quadrupoles, two upstream and the other two downstream of the re-buncher, has been presented. The design was done to ensure almost 100% transport of heavy-ion beams of about 99 keV/u energy from RFQ having a / not less than 1/14 through the re-buncher and then through IH Linac of about 0.6 m length in which beam would be accelerated to about 185 keV/u. The re-buncher has been designed to operate at 37.8 MHz, the resonating frequency of both the RFQ and the IH Linac. The entire beam line has been installed and recently O5+ beam from RFQ has been transported through the re-buncher and subsequently accelerated in the IH Linac successfully.

  2. Use of Radioactive Ion Beams for Biomedical Research 2. in-vivo dosimetry using positron emitting rare earth isotopes with the rotating prototype PET scanner at the Geneva Cantonal Hospital

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % IS331 \\\\ \\\\ The use of radioactive metal ions (such as $^{90}$Y, $^{153}$Sm or $^{186}$Re) in cancer therapy has made some progress, but has been hampered by factors that could be addressed at CERN with a greater likelihood of success than at any other installation in the world. The present proposal seeks to use the unique advantage of CERN ISOLDE to get round these problems together with the PET scanners at the Cantonal Hospital Geneva (PET~=~positron emission tomography). Radioisotope production by spallation at ISOLDE makes available a complete range of isotopes having as complete a diversity of types and energy of radiation, of half-life, and of ionic properties as one would wish. Among these isotopes several positron-emitters having clinical relevance are available.\\\\ \\\\Some free rare earth chelatas are used presently in palliation of painful bone metastases. Curative effects are not able for the moment with this kind of radiopharmaceuticals. More and better data on the biokinetics and bio-distribution...

  3. Spectroscopy of $^{19}$Ne for the thermonuclear $^{15}$O($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{19}$Ne and $^{18}$F($p,\\alpha$)$^{15}$O reaction rates

    CERN Document Server

    Parikh, A; de Séréville, N; Wimmer, K; Faestermann, T; Hertenberger, R; Seiler, D; Wirth, H -F; Adsley, P; Fulton, B R; Hammache, F; Kiener, J; Stefan, I

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties in the thermonuclear rates of the $^{15}$O($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{19}$Ne and $^{18}$F($p,\\alpha$)$^{15}$O reactions affect model predictions of light curves from type I X-ray bursts and the amount of the observable radioisotope $^{18}$F produced in classical novae, respectively. To address these uncertainties, we have studied the nuclear structure of $^{19}$Ne over $E_{x} = 4.0 - 5.1$ MeV and $6.1 - 7.3$ MeV using the $^{19}$F($^{3}$He,t)$^{19}$Ne reaction. We find the $J^{\\pi}$ values of the 4.14 and 4.20 MeV levels to be consistent with $9/2^{-}$ and $7/2^{-}$ respectively, in contrast to previous assumptions. We confirm the recently observed triplet of states around 6.4 MeV, and find evidence that the state at 6.29 MeV, just below the proton threshold, is either broad or a doublet. Our data also suggest that predicted but yet unobserved levels may exist near the 6.86 MeV state. Higher resolution experiments are urgently needed to further clarify the structure of $^{19}$Ne around the proton thresh...

  4. Comparisons between radioactive and non-radioactive gas lantern mantles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, E; Yoshizawa, Y; Aburai, T

    2000-12-01

    Gas lantern mantles containing radioactive thorium have been used for more than 100 years. Although thorium was once believed to be indispensable for giving a bright light, non-radioactive mantles are now available. From the radioactivities of the daughter nuclides, we estimated the levels of radioactivity of 232Th and 228Th in 11 mantles. The mantles contained various levels of radioactivity from background levels to 1410 +/- 140 Bq. Our finding that radioactive and non-radioactive mantles are equally bright suggests that there is no advantage in using radioactive mantles. A remaining problem is that gas lantern mantles are sold without any information about radioactivity.

  5. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  6. Accelerated radioactive beams from REX-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kester, O. E-mail: oliver.kester@physik.uni-muenchen.de; Sieber, T.; Emhofer, S.; Ames, F.; Reisinger, K.; Reiter, P.; Thirolf, P.G.; Lutter, R.; Habs, D.; Wolf, B.H.; Huber, G.; Schmidt, P.; Ostrowski, A.N.; Hahn, R. von; Repnow, R.; Fitting, J.; Lauer, M.; Scheit, H.; Schwalm, D.; Podlech, H.; Schempp, A.; Ratzinger, U.; Forstner, O.; Wenander, F.; Cederkaell, J.; Nilsson, T.; Lindroos, M.; Fynbo, H.; Franchoo, S.; Bergmann, U.; Oinonen, M.; Aeystoe, J.; Den Bergh, P. Van; Duppen, P. Van; Huyse, M.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D.; Eberth, J.; Jonson, B.; Nyman, G.; Pantea, M.; Simon, H.; Shrieder, G.; Richter, A.; Tengblad, O.; Davinson, T.; Woods, P.J.; Bollen, G.; Weissmann, L.; Liljeby, L.; Rensfelt, K.G

    2003-05-01

    In 2001 the linear accelerator of the Radioactive beam EXperiment (REX-ISOLDE) delivered for the first time accelerated radioactive ion beams, at a beam energy of 2 MeV/u. REX-ISOLDE uses the method of charge-state breeding, in order to enhance the charge state of the ions before injection into the LINAC. Radioactive singly-charged ions from the on-line mass separator ISOLDE are first accumulated in a Penning trap, then charge bred to an A/q<4.5 in an electron beam ion source (EBIS) and finally accelerated in a LINAC from 5 keV/u to energies between 0.8 and 2.2 MeV/u. Dedicated measurements with REXTRAP, the transfer line and the EBIS have been carried out in conjunction with the first commissioning of the accelerator. Thus the properties of the different elements could be determined for further optimization of the system. In two test beam times in 2001 stable and radioactive Na isotopes ({sup 23}Na-{sup 26}Na) have been accelerated and transmitted to a preliminary target station. There {sup 58}Ni- and {sup 9}Be- and {sup 2}H-targets have been used to study exited states via Coulomb excitation and neutron transfer reactions. One MINIBALL triple cluster detector was used together with a double sided silicon strip detector to detect scattered particles in coincidence with {gamma}-rays. The aim was to study the operation of the detector under realistic conditions with {gamma}-background from the {beta}-decay of the radioactive ions and from the cavities. Recently for efficient detection eight tripple Ge-detectors of MINIBALL and a double sided silicon strip detector have been installed. We will present the first results obtained in the commissioning experiments and will give an overview of realistic beam parameters for future experiments to be started in the spring 2002.

  7. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  8. Lifetimes of states in 19Ne above the 15 O + alpha breakup threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Mythili, S; Alexander, T K; Ball, G C; Chicoine, M; Chakrawarthy, R S; Churchman, R; Forster, J S; Gujrathi, S; Hackman, G; Howell, D; Kanungo, R; Leslie, J R; Padilla, E; Pearson, C J; Ruiz, C; Ruprecht, G; Schumaker, M A; Tanihata, I; Vockenhuber, C; Walden, P; Yen, S

    2007-01-01

    The 15O(alpha,gamma)19Ne reaction plays a role in the ignition of Type I x-ray bursts on accreting neutron stars. The lifetimes of states in 19Ne above the 15O + alpha threshold of 3.53 MeV are important inputs to calculations of the astrophysical reaction rate. These levels in 19Ne were populated in the 3He(20Ne,alpha)19Ne reaction at a 20Ne beam energy of 34 MeV. The lifetimes of six states above the threshold were measured with the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). The present measurements agree with previous determinations of the lifetimes of these states and in some cases are considerably more precise.

  9. Hybrid CT angiography and quantitative (15)O-water PET for assessment of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Anders; Petersen, Henrik; Diederichsen, Axel C P;

    2013-01-01

    CT angiography (CTA) can rule out significant stenoses with a very high reliability, whereas its ability to confirm significant stenoses is suboptimal. In contrast, measurements of myocardial blood flow (MBF) provide information on the haemodynamic consequences of stenoses. Therefore, a combinati...... of the two might improve diagnostic accuracy. We conducted a head-to-head comparison of CTA, measurement of MBF by (15)O-water PET, and hybrid PET/CTA for the detection of significant coronary artery stenoses....

  10. Short lived radioactive isotopes at TRI{mu}P facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidling, P.D.; Giri, G.S.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.L.; Sohani, M.; Hoek, D.J. van der; Versolato, O.O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    At TRI{mu}P facility radioactive ion beam are produced and trapped for the study of fundamental symmetries and interaction in physics. The TRI{mu}P magnetic separator is used for in-flight production and separation of different radioactive isotopes. Different radioactive ion beam have been produced, via charge exchange, stripping, projectile fragmentation and fusion evaporation reactions in inverse kinematics. The radioactive beam can be used directly or can be converted to a low energy beam using a thermal ionizer. In this talk we focus on {sup 21}Na, {sup 213}Ra which are trapped as atoms or ions. With the trapping of {sup 21}Na we have completed the TRI{mu}P facility. Details on some selected aspect are discussed.

  11. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  12. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  13. Enhanced rate performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 fibers synthesized by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Rui; Zhang, Xiaofeng; chamoun, rita; Shui, Jianglan; Li, James; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Belharouak, IB

    2015-05-29

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) provides a high working potential as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Yet there is a phase transition from cubic to tetragonal structure in LNMO during the ~3 V charge/discharge region. To suppress the large volume change and capacity fade inherent with bulk-sized LNMO particles when discharged to below 3.0 V, one-dimensional nano-structured LNMO was prepared by an electrospinning method and a subsequent heat treatment. The well-separated nanofiber precursors combat the growth and aggregation of LNMO particles during the heating procedure and lead to improved capacity, better cycling stability, and improved rate capability of the final LMNO nanofibers. The as-prepared LMNO nanofibers have a diameter as thin as 50–100 nm, which is the thinnest of this kind of complex compounds that contain multi-transition metal elements produced through the electrospinning method. In coin cell tests of this material at a current density of 27 mA g-1, the initial discharge capacity was 130 mAh g-1 over a voltage range of 3.5–4.8 V and 300 mAh g-1 over a voltage range of 2.0–4.8 V.

  14. Through the looking glass: probing the nucleus using accelerated radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, P A

    2005-01-01

    Through the advent of post-accelerated beams of radioactive nuclei, probing nuclear properties of exotic nuclear species is now possible. Recent results from the new European radioactive ion beam facilities will be presented together with the prospects offered by the planned facilities such as SPIRAL2 and HIE-ISOLDE. The current ideas for the "third generation" radioactive ion beam facility EURISOL will also be briefly presented.

  15. Through the looking glass: probing the nucleus using accelerated radioactive beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, P. A.

    2005-04-01

    Through the advent of post-accelerated beams of radioactive nuclei, probing nuclear properties of exotic nuclear species is now possible. Recent results from the new European radioactive ion beam facilities will be presented together with the prospects offered by the planned facilities such as SPIRAL2 and HIE-ISOLDE. The current ideas for the "third generation" radioactive ion beam facility EURISOL will also be briefly presented.

  16. TRI mu P - a radioactive isotope trapping facility under construction at KVI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, GP; Dendooven, P; Dermois, O; Harakeh, MN; Hoekstra, R; Jungmann, K; Kopecky, S; Morgenstern, R; Rogachevskiy, A; Timmermans, R; Willmann, L; Wischut, HW

    2003-01-01

    At the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut a new facility (TRImuP) is under development which aims, to investigate fundamental interactions using radioactive ions. A spectrum of radioactive isotopes will be produced in inverse-kinematics and fragmentation reactions using heavy-ion beams from the superc

  17. Radioactive isotopes in solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, M

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as M\\"ossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, $\\beta$-NMR, and emission channelling have used nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted particles) to gain microscopical information on the structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as a clean ion beam at ISOL facilities such as ISOLDE at CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive for the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. Extremely sensitive spectroscopic techniques like deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL), and Hall effect have gained a new quality by using radioactive isotopes. Because of their decay the chemical origin of an observed electronic and optical b...

  18. Radioactivity; La radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  19. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic studies of N, Sn-doped defect pyrochlore oxide KTi{sub 0.5}W{sub 1.5}O{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitta, Raju Reddy; Guje, Ravinder; Veldurthi, Naveen Kumar; Prathapuram, Shrujana; Velchuri, Radha; Muga, Vithal, E-mail: mugavithal@gmail.com

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • N and Sn doped KT{sub 0.5}W{sub 1.5}O{sub 6} were successfully prepared by low temperature methods. • MB and RhB were degraded in presence of visible light active Sn doped KT{sub 0.5}W{sub 1.5}O{sub 6}. • The mechanism involved in photodegradation process was studied. - Abstract: Quaternary oxides containing transition metal and tungsten with the general formula AMWO{sub 6} (A = K, Rb, Cs; M = Sb, Nb, Ti) have been studied as photocatalysts for decomposition of organic dyes. In this paper, defect pyrochlore of composition KTi{sub 0.5}W{sub 1.5}O{sub 6} was prepared via facile sol–gel method. Its nitrogen and tin doped analogues were prepared by solid state and ion exchange methods respectively. All compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetric analysis, FT-IR, Raman, Scanning electron microscopy and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were also used to characterize the incorporation of doped ions into the defect pyrochlore lattice. The photocatalytic activity of all compounds was studied by degradation of methylene blue and Rhodamine B. The tin doped KTi{sub 0.5}W{sub 1.5}O{sub 6} shows higher photocatalytic activity against both the dyes. The experimental results show that the higher photocatalytic activity of tin doped KTi{sub 0.5}W{sub 1.5}O{sub 6} is due to more absorption of light energy in the visible region attributable to the lowering of bandgap energy. Further, the role of reactive intermediate species in the photocatalytic degradation of dyes was studied using their appropriate scavengers and the obtained results show that {sup ·}OH radicals produced in the photocatalytic reaction play dominant role.

  20. Nuclear physics with radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozub, Raymond L. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    2015-07-23

    This is a final report on DOE Grant No. DE FG02 96ER40955, which was active at Tennessee Technological University (TTU) from 1 March 1996 to 29 May 2015. Generally, this report will provide an overall summary of the more detailed activities presented in the progress reports, numbered DOE/ER/40955-1 through DOE/ER/40955-18, which were submitted annually to the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics.

  1. Electron Accelerators for Radioactive Ion Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lia Merminga

    2007-10-10

    The summary of this paper is that to optimize the design of an electron drive, one must: (a) specify carefully the user requirements--beam energy, beam power, duty factor, and longitudinal and transverse emittance; (b) evaluate different machine options including capital cost, 10-year operating cost and delivery time. The author is convinced elegant solutions are available with existing technology. There are several design options and technology choices. Decisions will depend on system optimization, in-house infrastructure and expertise (e.g. cryogenics, SRF, lasers), synergy with other programs.

  2. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  3. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  4. Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, B

    2013-01-01

    The application of the technique of laser resonance ionization to the production of singly charged ions at radioactive ion beam facilities is discussed. The ability to combine high efficiency and element selectivity makes a resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) an important component of many radioactive ion beam facilities. At CERN, for example, the RILIS is the most commonly used ion source of the ISOLDE facility, with a yearly operating time of up to 3000 hours. For some isotopes the RILIS can also be used as a fast and sensitive laser spectroscopy tool, provided that the spectral resolution is sufficiently high to reveal the influence of nuclear structure on the atomic spectra. This enables the study of nuclear properties of isotopes with production rates even lower than one ion per second and, in some cases, enables isomer selective ionization. The solutions available for the implementation of resonance laser ionization at radioactive ion beam facilities are summarized. Aspects such as the laser r...

  5. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  6. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Syed, U-F; Roselan, A; Haines, D K; Roth, G; West, L; Arndt, M

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with (241)Am (alpha radioactivity), (90)Sr/(90)Y (beta radioactivity), and (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity.

  7. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, A., E-mail: axb16@health.state.ny.u [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Khan, A.J.; Semkow, T.M.; Syed, U.-F.; Roselan, A.; Haines, D.K. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Roth, G. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, One University Place, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States); West, L.; Arndt, M. [Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 2601 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53718 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with {sup 241}Am (alpha radioactivity), {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (beta radioactivity), and {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity.

  8. Structure study of BaCe0.85Y0.15O3-Δ as solid state fuel cell material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhov, K.; Vladikova, D.; Raikova, G.; Genov, I.; Malakova, T.; Dimitrov, D.; Svab, E.; Fabian, M.

    2016-03-01

    The structural details of powder, dense and porous samples of BaCe0.85Y0.15O3-δ (BCY15) used recently in an innovative monolithic design of SOFC were studied from multiple Rietveld analysis of neutron and x-ray diffraction patterns. The 3-layered monolithic assembly built from BCY15 material works as oxide ion conductor in the oxygen space, as proton conductor in the hydrogen area and as mixed conductor in the central membrane. We find that in all the samples of studied BCY15 based materials there are no indications of difference in crystallographic symmetry and the structure refinements did produce best agreement factors in orthorhombic Pnma space group.

  9. Influence of thermal history on the electrochemical properties of Li[Ni0.5Mn1.5]O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Park, Kyu-Sung; Song, Jie; Goodenough, John B.

    2013-12-01

    The oxygen-stoichiometric spinel Li[Ni0.5Mn1.5]O4 is an insulator with ordered Ni(II) and Mn(IV). Although it delivers 4.7 V versus Li, the ordered phase gives poor performance as the cathode of a Li-ion battery. Here we demonstrate control of the degree of cation order by adjusting the oxygen stoichiometry with thermal history of the synthesis rather than by doping 2M(III) for Ni(II) + Mn(IV) (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Al, Ga). We report retention of capacity near 100 mAh g-1 at room temperature at 10C/10C charge/discharge rate with little capacity fade; at 55 °C, a capacity fade occurs as a result of reaction with the electrolyte, but it is reduced to a level comparable to that obtained by doping.

  10. Self-discharge suppression of 4.9 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode by using tris(trimethylsilyl)borate as an electrolyte additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaolin; Huang, Qiming; Mai, Shaowei; Wang, Xianshu; Xu, Mengqing; Xing, Lidan; Liao, Youhao; Li, Weishan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, tris(trimethylsilyl)borate (TMSB) is evaluated as an electrolyte additive for the self-discharge suppression of 4.9 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode for lithium ion battery. The effect of TMSB on the surface properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is investigated via linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), charge-discharge test, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is found that the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode charged to 4.9 V (vs. Li/Li+) suffers a serious self-discharge in 1 mol L-1 LiPF6-EC/DMC (1:2, in weight), which can be suppressed effectively by adding 1 wt.% TMSB into the electrolyte. After storage for 20 days, the voltage of the charged cathode decreases from 4.7 to 0.5 V (vs. Li/Li+) in the additive-free electrolyte, while that remains almost unchanged in the TMSB-containing electrolyte. The self-discharge suppression of the charged LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode results from the preferential oxidation of TMSB and the subsequent formation of a protective solid electrolyte interphase film, which prevents electrolyte decomposition and protects LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 from destruction.

  11. Radioactivity doubles up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Bertram

    2008-05-01

    More than a century after Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity, there is still much that physicists do not understand about this spontaneous natural phenomenon. Through Becquerel's use of simple photographic plates to the sophisticated nuclear experiments carried out in today's laboratories, researchers have unearthed a total of nine different ways in which an atomic nucleus can decay. The most well known of these decay modes - alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) radioactivity - are widely used in applications ranging from medicine to archaeology; the others are much rarer.

  12. Decontamination method for radioactively contaminated material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hitoshi; Komatsubara, Masaru

    1998-09-02

    Radioactively contaminated materials having surfaces contaminated by radioactive materials are dissolved in molten salts by the effect of chlorine gas. The molten salts are brought into contact with a low melting point metal to reduce only radioactive materials by substitution reaction and recover them into the low melting point metal. Then, a low melting point metal phase and a molten salt phase are separated. The low melting point metal phase is evaporated to separate the radioactive materials from molten metals. On the other hand, other metal ions dissolved in the molten salts are reduced into metals by electrolysis at an anode and separated from the molten salts and served for regeneration. The low melting point metals are reutilized together with contaminated lead, after subjected to decontamination, generated from facilities such as nuclear power plant or lead for disposal. Since almost all materials including the molten salts and the molten metals can be enclosed, the amount of wastes can be reduced. In addition, radiation exposure of operators who handle them can be reduced. (T.M.)

  13. Radioactive decay by the emission of heavy nuclear fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Roberto, L.A.M.; Medeiros, E.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: oaptavares@cbpf.br; emil@cbpf.br

    2007-07-01

    Radioactive decay of nuclei by the emission of heavy ions of C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, and P isotopes (known as exotic decay or cluster radioactivity) is reinvestigated within the framework of a semiempirical, one-parameter model based on a quantum mechanical, tunnelling mechanism through a potential barrier, where both centrifugal and overlapping effects are considered to half-life evaluations. This treatment appeared to be very adequate at fitting all measured half-life values for the cluster emission cases observed to date. Predictions for new heavy-ion decay cases susceptible of being detected are also reported. (author)

  14. Coulomb excitation of radioactive {sup 79}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.; Davids, C.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The technical challenges expected in experiments with radioactive beams can already be explored by using ions produced in primary reactions. In addition, the re-excitation of these ions by Coulomb excitation allows a sensitive search for collective states that are well above the yrast line. We are building an experiment to study Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions which are separated from beam particles by the Fragment Mass Analyzer. An array of gamma detectors will be mounted at the focal plane to measure the gamma radiation following re-excitation. Five Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and five planar LEPS detectors will be used. The optimum experiment of this type appears to be the study of {sup 79}Rb following the {sup 24}Mg ({sup 58}Ni,3p) reaction. We calculate that about 5 x 10{sup 5} {sup 79}Rb nuclei/second will reach the excitation foil. This rubidium isotope was selected for study as it is strongly produced and is highly deformed, so easily re-excited. The use of a {sup 58}Ni re-excitation foil offers the best yields. After re-excitation the ions will be subsequently transported into a shielded beamdump to prevent the accumulation of activity.

  15. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  16. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  17. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  18. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  19. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  20. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site. http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  1. Single Particle Strengths and Mirror States in $^{15}$N$-^{15}$O below 12.0 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Mertin, C E; Crisp, A M; Keeley, N; Kemper, K W; Momtyuk, O; Roeder, B T; Volya, A

    2014-01-01

    New $^{14}$N(d,p) angular distribution data were taken at a deuteron bombarding energy of 16 MeV to locate all narrow single particle neutron states up to 15 MeV in excitation. A new shell model calculation is able to reproduce all levels in $^{15}$N up to 11.5 MeV and is used to characterize a narrow single particle level at 11.236 MeV and to provide a map of the single particle strengths. The known levels in $^{15}$N are then used to determine their mirrors in the lesser known nucleus $^{15}$O. The 2s$_{1/2}$ and 1d$_{5/2}$ single particle centroid energies are determined for the $^{15}$N$-^{15}$O mirror pair as: $^{15}$N $(\\text{2s}_{1/2}) = 8.08$ MeV, $^{15}$O $(\\text{2s}_{1/2}) = 7.43$ MeV, $^{15}$N $(\\text{1d}_{5/2}) = 7.97$ MeV, and $^{15}$O $(\\text{1d}_{5/2}) = 7.47$ MeV. These results confirm the degeneracy of these orbits and that the $^{15}$N$-^{15}$O nuclei are where the transition between the $\\text{2s}_{1/2}$ lying below the $\\text{1d}_{5/2}$ to lying above it, takes place. The $\\text{1d}_{3/2}$...

  2. Development of a thermal ionizer as ion catcher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traykov, E.; Dammalapati, U.; De, S.; Dermois, O. C.; Huisman, L.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.; Mol, A. J.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Rogachevskiy, A.; da Silva e Silva, M.; Sohani, M.; Versolato, O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2008-01-01

    An effective ion catcher is all important part of a radioactive beam Facility that is based on in-flight production. The catcher stops fast radioactive products and emits them as singly charged slow ions. Current ion catchers are based on stopping in He and H-2 gas. However, with increasing intensit

  3. Radioactive waste management; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.

  4. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  5. Application of a network analysis in H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Jung; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine effective connectivity among brain areas involved in a memory function using a statistical method, i.e., structural equation modeling (SEM). Eight brain areas were chosen in left hemisphere including visual, frontal, and parahippocampal areas activated (analyzed with SPM99) during an associative memory task based on a H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET study. A connectivity model consisting of these brain regions, its anatomical pathways, and the functional influences of these paths was hypothesized and task effect (picture memory task vs. perceptual control task) was compared with a statistical package program for SEM (AMOS 4.0). The strongest functional linkage from fusiform to parahippocampus was found in both tasks. Linkages both from cuneus and inferior prefrontal areas to middle frontal were significantly strong in the perceptual task (p<.005), whereas linkages from cuneus to fusiform as well as from parahippocampus to middle frontal were significantly strong in the memory task (p<.005). Our results confirmed that SEM can be a useful analysis method on hypothesized neural pathways among brain areas identified in functional images.

  6. Handbook of radioactivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The updated and much expanded Third Edition of the "Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis" is an authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity from the very low levels encountered in the environment to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, fuel cycle facilities and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. The Third Edition contains seven new chapters providing a reference text much broader in scope than the previous Second Edition, and all of the other chapters have been updated and expanded many with new authors. The book describes the basic principles of radiation detection and measurement, the preparation of samples from a wide variety of matrices, assists the investigator or technician in the selection and use of appropriate radiation detectors, and presents state-of-the-ar...

  7. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  8. White sea radioactivity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, R.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics]|[Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.]|[Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology; Kalmykov, S.N.; Lisitzin, A.P. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to estimate potential sources and chronology of pollution of the White Sea (Russia) by artificial radionuclides. White Sea is semi-closed water body connected with Barents Sea by a narrow strait. Thus, pollution of White Sea may be caused by highly polluted Barents waters and river (mainly Northern Dvina) run-off. This is the first detailed investigation of radioactivity of White Sea sediment records. (orig.)

  9. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  10. Exceptional performance of a high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in all one dimensional architectures with an anatase TiO2 anode by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Nagasubramanian; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Shubha, Nageswaran; Ling, Wong Chui; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2014-07-01

    We report for the first time the synthesis and extraordinary performance of a high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 fiber cathode in all one dimensional (1D) architecture. Structural and morphological features are analyzed by various characterization techniques. Li-insertion/extraction properties are evaluated in a half-cell assembly (Li/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) and subsequently in full-cell configuration with an anatase TiO2 fiber anode. In both half- and full-cell assemblies, gelled polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) is used as the separator-cum-electrolyte. All the one dimensional components used for fabricating Li-ion cells are prepared by a simple and scalable electrospinning technique. The full-cell, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/gelled PVdF-HFP/TiO2 delivered the reversible capacity of ~102 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C rate with an operating potential of ~2.8 V. Excellent rate capability and stable cycling profiles are noted for such a full-cell assembly with a capacity retention of ~86% after 400 cycles.

  11. Astrophysics experiments with radioactive beams at ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Back

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactions involving short-lived nuclei play an important role in nuclear astrophysics, especially in explosive scenarios which occur in novae, supernovae or X-ray bursts. This article describes the nuclear astrophysics program with radioactive ion beams at the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. The CARIBU facility as well as recent improvements for the in-flight technique are discussed. New detectors which are important for studies of the rapid proton or the rapid neutron-capture processes are described. At the end we briefly mention plans for future upgrades to enhance the intensity, purity and the range of in-flight and CARIBU beams.

  12. Enhancing the Multivariate Signal of 15O water PET Studies With a New Non-Linear Neuroanatomical Registration Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Ulrik; Storther, Stephen C.; Anderson, Jon

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of neuro-anatomical registration across individuals for functional [15O]water PET activation studies. A new algorithm for 3D non-linear structural registration (warping) of MR scans is presented. The method performs a hierarchically scaled search for a displacement...

  13. Assessment of endothelial function and myocardial flow reserve using {sup 15}O-water PET without attenuation correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffier, Stephane; Joubert, Michael; Bailliez, Alban [EA 4650, Normandie Universite, Caen (France); Legallois, Damien [EA 4650, Normandie Universite, Caen (France); Caen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Caen (France); Belin, Annette [Caen University Hospital, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Caen (France); Redonnet, Michel [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Rouen (France); Agostini, Denis [EA 4650, Normandie Universite, Caen (France); Caen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Manrique, Alain [EA 4650, Normandie Universite, Caen (France); Caen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Cyceron PET Centre, Caen (France)

    2016-02-15

    Myocardial blood flow (MBF) measurement using positron emission tomography (PET) from the washout rate of {sup 15}O-water is theoretically independent of tissue attenuation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of not using attenuation correction in the assessment of coronary endothelial function and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) using {sup 15}O-water PET. We retrospectively processed 70 consecutive {sup 15}O-water PET examinations obtained at rest and during cold pressor testing (CPT) in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 58), or at rest and during adenosine infusion in heart transplant recipients (n = 12). Data were reconstructed with attenuation correction (AC) and without attenuation correction (NAC) using filtered backprojection, and MBF was quantified using a single compartmental model. The agreement between AC and NAC data was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient followed by Bland-Altman plot analysis. Regarding endothelial function, NAC PET showed poor reproducibility and poor agreement with AC PET data. Conversely, NAC PET demonstrated high reproducibility and a strong agreement with AC PET for the assessment of MFR. Non-attenuation-corrected {sup 15}O-water PET provided an accurate measurement of MFR compared to attenuation-corrected PET. However, non-attenuation-corrected PET data were less effective for the assessment of endothelial function using CPT in this population. (orig.)

  14. Structural and functional characterization of TRI3 trichothecene 15-O-acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, Graeme S.; McCormick, Susan P.; Alexander, Nancy J.; Rayment, Ivan; (US-Agriculture); (UW)

    2009-08-14

    Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease of cereal crops whose worldwide incidence is increasing and at present there is no satisfactory way of combating this pathogen or its associated toxins. There is a wide variety of trichothecene mycotoxins and they all contain a 12,13-epoxytrichothecene skeleton but differ in their substitutions. Indeed, there is considerable variation in the toxin profile across the numerous Fusarium species that has been ascribed to differences in the presence or absence of biosynthetic enzymes and their relative activity. This article addresses the source of differences in acetylation at the C15 position of the trichothecene molecule. Here, we present the in vitro structural and biochemical characterization of TRI3, a 15-O-trichothecene acetyltransferase isolated from F. sporotrichioides and the 'in vivo' characterization of Deltatri3 mutants of deoxynivalenol (DON) producing F. graminearum strains. A kinetic analysis shows that TRI3 is an efficient enzyme with the native substrate, 15-decalonectrin, but is inactive with either DON or nivalenol. The structure of TRI3 complexed with 15-decalonectrin provides an explanation for this specificity and shows that Tri3 and Tri101 (3-O-trichothecene acetyltransferase) are evolutionarily related. The active site residues are conserved across all sequences for TRI3 orthologs, suggesting that differences in acetylation at C15 are not due to differences in Tri3. The tri3 deletion mutant shows that acetylation at C15 is required for DON biosynthesis even though DON lacks a C15 acetyl group. The enzyme(s) responsible for deacetylation at the 15 position of the trichothecene mycotoxins have not been identified.

  15. Bench-scale treatability testing of biological, UV oxidation, distillation, and ion-exchange treatment of trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundquist, J.A.; Gillings, J.C. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T.L. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (United States); Denault, R.P. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), under subcontract to Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS), conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) treatability tests to support the selection and design of a treatment system for leachate from Trench 14 of the West Valley State-Licensed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA). In this paper E and E presents and discusses the treatability test results and provides recommendations for the design of the full-scale treatment system.

  16. Ion Source DECRIS-3

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, A; Lebedev, A N; Loginov, V N; Yazvitsky, N Yu

    1999-01-01

    The ECR ion source DECRIS-3 is the copy of the mVINIS ion source which was designed and built in Dubna for the TESLA Accelerator Installation (Belgrade, Yugoslavia) in 1997. The assembly of the source was completely finished in the end of 1998 and then it was installed at the FLNR ECR test bench. The source was successfully tested with some gases and metals by using the MIVOC technique. In nearest future the source will be capable of ECR plasma heating using two different frequencies simultaneously. We are also going to use the DECRIS-3 ion source to design 1+ -> n+ technique for the DRIBs (Dubna Radioactive Ion Beams) project.

  17. Literature in focus: The history of radioactivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    René Bimbot, an expert in nuclear physics, will be coming to present his book - The History of Radioactivity. The work provides a summary of our accumulated knowledge of radioactivity and its applications, from its discovery to the present day. Presented in layman's terms, and backed by plenty of illustrations, the work creates the link between the rudimentary knowledge available in the times of Becquerel and the Curies and contemporary physics. It takes us on a great physics adventure, from the nucleus to the quark, from artificial radioactivity to radiotherapy, from the discovery of fission to nuclear reactors, not forgetting dating methods. Finally, the work provides a wealth of practical information on radiation and on matters relating to nuclear waste. A former Research Director at the CNRS, a heavy-ion physicist at the Orsay Nuclear Physics Institute, René Bimbot is no stranger to CERN. At the beginning of the 1980s, he worked on the CERN Synchrocyclotron, before joining the GANIL experiment in 1985...

  18. Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laing, W.R.; Corbin, L.T.

    1979-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory was completed 15 years ago and has been used since as an analytical chemistry support lab for reactor, fuel development, and reprocessing programs. Additions have been made to the building on two occasions, and a third addition is planned for the future. Major maintenance items include replacement of ZnBr/sub 2/ windows, cleanup of lead glass windows, and servicing of the intercell conveyor. An upgrading program, now in progress, includes construction of new hot-cell instrumentation and the installation of new equipment such as an x-ray fluorescence analyzer and a spark source mass spectrometer.

  19. 5He radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivaşcu, M.

    1984-01-01

    The disintegration of a metastable nuclear state by emission of a light particle can be considered to be a very asymmetric fission process. An approximation of the potential barrier in the overlapping region of the two fragments leads to an analytic relationship for the life-time, allowing us to handle a large number of cases to search for new kinds of radioactivities. In this way, it is predicted that some nuclei with Z = 83-92, N = 127-137 and 97-105,145-157 are able to decay spontaneously ...

  20. Radioactivity measurements principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Spernol, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors have addressed the basic need for internationally consistent standards and methods demanded by the new and increasing use of radioactive materials, radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds. Particular emphasis is given to the basic and practical problems that may be encountered in measuring radioactivity. The text provides information and recommendations in the areas of radiation protection, focusing on quality control and the precautions necessary for the preparation and handling of radioactive substances. New information is also presented on the applications of both traditiona

  1. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  2. RP process studies with radioactive beams at ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E. [Argonne National Lab., Physics Div., Argonne, IL (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Reactions of interest to nuclear astrophysics have been studied with radioactive beams at the ATLAS accelerator. Using a modified ISOL technique, beams of {sup 18}F(T{sub 1/2}=110 min) and {sup 56}Ni(T{sub 1/2}=6.1 d) have been produced. The reactions {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O, {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}){sup 19}Ne, and {sup 56}Ni(d,p){sup 57}Ni have been investigated. The results indicate that the {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}) route is a small contributor to the breakout from the hot CNO cycle into the rp process, while the {sup 56}Ni(p,{gamma}){sup 57}Cu rate is about ten times larger than previously assumed. (orig.)

  3. Effect of Surface Modification on Nano-Structured LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 Spinel Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyung-Man; Chen, Michael Vincent; MacRae, Alex C; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2015-08-05

    Fine-tuning of particle size and morphology has been shown to result in differential material performance in the area of secondary lithium-ion batteries. For instance, reduction of particle size to the nanoregime typically leads to better transport of electrochemically active species by increasing the amount of reaction sites as a result of higher electrode surface area. The spinel-phase oxide LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO), was prepared using a sol-gel based template synthesis to yield nanowire morphology without any additional binders or electronic conducting agents. Therefore, proper experimentation of the nanosize effect can be achieved in this study. The spinel phase LMNO is a high energy electrode material currently being explored for use in lithium-ion batteries, with a specific capacity of 146 mAh/g and high-voltage plateau at ∼4.7 V (vs Li/Li(+)). However, research has shown that extensive electrolyte decomposition and the formation of a surface passivation layer results when LMNO is implemented as a cathode in electrochemical cells. As a result of the high surface area associated with nanosized particles, manganese ion dissolution results in capacity fading over prolonged cycling. In order to prevent these detrimental effects without compromising electrochemical performance, various coating methods have been explored. In this work, TiO2 and Al2O3 thin films were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the surface of LNMO particles. This resulted in effective surface protection by prevention of electrolyte side reactions and a sharp reduction in resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interface region.

  4. Soil contamination. part 1. changes in the humidity of non saturated soils after reject in a limited space. part 2. movements of radioactive ions in non saturated soils after reject in a limited space; Contamination des sols (1. partie). Evolution de l'humidite dans les sols non satures apres rejets sur une surface limitee. (2. partie). Comportement des ions radioactifs dans les sols non satures apres rejets d'eau sur une surface limitee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancon, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1972-07-01

    An important feature in radiological safety studies of sites is the knowledge of water movements in the unsaturated layer surmounting aquifer; this zone of aerated soil can be effective as a protection against aquifer contamination. Utilizing a neutron-moisture meter, a method was developed permitting to build graphically the hydric states of soil and the moistened volume evolution with time in the particular case of a limited feeding surface. It is also possible to measure moisture gradients, drying kinetics, the retention capacity of soil and the gravific water content achieved by a given water head. The initial hydric state has an effect only upon the infiltration rate and neither upon the moistened front position nor upon the volume of moistened soil; consequently, the storable water amount in soil can be calculated. When water feeding has been stopped, the volume of moistened soil increases to an equilibrium state restricted by the moistened front and all the other water movements occur exclusively inside this volume. Consequently in case of radioactive waste disposal, the ionic pollution will be confined inside a measurable volume, the moistened front being the maximum limits of this volume. Part 2. Following up the report on water movements in non-saturated s o i l s after reject on a limited space - CEA R 3635 (1) - the radioactive ions movements in these soils are studied in using an anion and a cation of reference: iodine 131 and strontium 85. The experimental method is founded on the simultaneous measurements of moisture and radioactivity fronts by means of a neutrons moisture meter and an specially conceived radioactivity probe. It has so been possible to measure: the relative velocities of moisture and radioactivity fronts; the contaminated soil volume inside the moistened oil volume; the concentration gradients; the contamination changes upon watering; the effect of chemical composition of water upon this ions movements and the effect of soil moisture

  5. Simulated Tests of Treatment for Radioactive Wastewater Containing Co2+ Ion in Nuclear Power Plant by Means of Ferrite Process%铁氧体法处理核电厂含Co2+离子放射性废水的模拟试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈希飞; 邢辉; 郭世鑫; 何小红; 黄光团

    2013-01-01

    该试验以59Co作为模拟非放射性同位素,在硼酸存在的条件下研究了铁氧体法去除模拟核电厂放射性废水中Co2+离子的各种工艺条件,结果表明铁氧体法可以有效去除模拟核电厂废水中的Co2+离子.当废水中Co2+离-浓度为5 mg/L、硼酸浓度(以硼计)为1 000 mg/L时,最佳工艺条件:反应时间为60 min、Fe2+/Co“物质的量比为20:1、Fe3+/Fe2+物质的量比3:1、反应温度为40℃、pH为11.在此条件下出水Co2+离子浓度约0.5.μg/L,净化因子达到10 000.%59Co was used as the simulated material of non-radioactive isotope in this experiment. The process parameters of ferrite method were investigated to remove Co2+ ion from simulated radioactive wastewater containing boric acid in nuclear power plant. The results show that ferrite process can efficiently remove Co2+ ion from the simulated wastewater. When the wastewater contains 5 mg/L Co2+ ion and 1 000 mg/L boric acid (as B), the optimum process parameters are as follows: reaction time is 60 min, Fe2VCo2+ molar ratio is 20:1, FeVFe2+ molar ratio is 3:1, reaction temperature is 40 ℃ and pH is 11. Under these conditions concentration of Co2+ ion in effluent is around 0.5 μg/L and decontamination factor reaches 10 000.

  6. Kinetics analysis and quantitative calculations for the successive radioactive decay process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhiping, E-mail: zhouzp@ujs.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yan, Deyue [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-01-15

    The general radioactive decay kinetics equations with branching were developed and the analytical solutions were derived by Laplace transform method. The time dependence of all the nuclide concentrations can be easily obtained by applying the equations to any known radioactive decay series. Taking the example of thorium radioactive decay series, the concentration evolution over time of various nuclide members in the family has been given by the quantitative numerical calculations with a computer. The method can be applied to the quantitative prediction and analysis for the daughter nuclides in the successive decay with branching of the complicated radioactive processes, such as the natural radioactive decay series, nuclear reactor, nuclear waste disposal, nuclear spallation, synthesis and identification of superheavy nuclides, radioactive ion beam physics and chemistry, etc.

  7. Kinetics analysis and quantitative calculations for the successive radioactive decay process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiping; Yan, Deyue; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2015-01-01

    The general radioactive decay kinetics equations with branching were developed and the analytical solutions were derived by Laplace transform method. The time dependence of all the nuclide concentrations can be easily obtained by applying the equations to any known radioactive decay series. Taking the example of thorium radioactive decay series, the concentration evolution over time of various nuclide members in the family has been given by the quantitative numerical calculations with a computer. The method can be applied to the quantitative prediction and analysis for the daughter nuclides in the successive decay with branching of the complicated radioactive processes, such as the natural radioactive decay series, nuclear reactor, nuclear waste disposal, nuclear spallation, synthesis and identification of superheavy nuclides, radioactive ion beam physics and chemistry, etc.

  8. Measurement and analysis of radioactive substances; Mesure et analyse de substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Here are gathered the abstracts presented to the 3. summer university of the year 2001 whose main themes were the destructive (5 conferences) and nondestructive (8 conferences) analyses applied to nuclear industry. The points of view of different organisms (as DSIN: Directorate for the Safety of Nuclear Installations, IPSN: Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety, OPRI: Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations, TUI: Institute for Transuranium Elements, COGEMA, EDF: Electric Utilities, ANDRA: French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, CRLC Val d'Aurelle, France) concerning the needs involved in nuclear facilities control, the methods of radionuclide speciation in use internationally, the measurements and analyses of radioactive substances are given too as well as some general concepts concerning 1)the laser-matter interaction 2)the ions production 3)the quality applied to the measurements and analyses 4)the standard in activity metrology. (O.M.)

  9. Microwave property improvement of Ca[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ perovskite by A-site substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingzhe; Xiong, Gang; Ding, Zhao

    2016-04-01

    The crystal structure and microwave dielectric properties of Ca[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ ceramic (CLNZ) are tuned by A-site substitution of Sr2+ and Ba2+ ions in the present paper. The tuning effect on the crystal structure is investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and it illustrates that single phase of orthorhombic perovskite structure is formed, however, minor amount of BaNb2O6-type second phase is also detected in (Ca1-xBax)[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ ceramics (CBLNZ) in the range of x ≥ 0.025, while pure perovskite phase is obtained in (Ca1-xSrx)[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ ceramics (CSLNZ) in the whole investigation range of 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2. With the increase of x value, the unit cell volumes of both CBLNZ and CSLNZ perovskites gradually expand, which results in the degradation of the vibration bond strength between the B-site ions and oxygen in the perovskites. The microscopic structure related thermal parameters in CSLNZ and CBLNZ perovskites are analyzed in terms of Clausius-Mossotti equation to reveal the original contributors in the temperature coefficients. The results show that both Sr2+ and Ba2+ substitution can effectively improve the permittivity and Qf value, especially, improve the temperature coefficient of CLNZ ceramic in a certain range.

  10. 15-O-Acetyl-3-O-benzoylcharaciol and helioscopinolide A, two diterpenes isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia suppress microglia activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Jingling; Xu, Jing; Cui, Chun-Ai; Guo, Yuanqiang; Jin, Da-Qing

    2016-01-26

    Microglia activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases by producing neurotoxic factors. In the present study, we found that two diterpenes isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia, 15-O-Acetyl-3-O-benzoylcharaciol and helioscopinolide A suppressed NO and PGE2 production by inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. The diterpenes also inhibited the production of ROS and proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the mechanism involved the NF-κB but not Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Moreover, the two diterpenes also attenuate microglia activation-mediated neuronal death. These results suggest that 15-O-Acetyl-3-O-benzoylcharaciol and helioscopinolide A may provide potential therapeutic strategy for various neuroinflammatory diseases.

  11. A 15O-H2O PET study of meditation and the resting state of normal consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Kjaer, T W; Friberg, L;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the neural structures subserving meditation can be reproducibly measured, and, if so, whether they are different from those supporting the resting state of normal consciousness. Cerebral blood flow distribution was investigated with the 15O-H20 ...... patterns of neural activity support each state. These findings enhance our understanding of the neural basis of different aspects of consciousness.......The aim of the present study was to examine whether the neural structures subserving meditation can be reproducibly measured, and, if so, whether they are different from those supporting the resting state of normal consciousness. Cerebral blood flow distribution was investigated with the 15O-H20...... PET technique in nine young adults, who were highly experienced yoga teachers, during the relaxation meditation (Yoga Nidra), and during the resting state of normal consciousness. In addition, global CBF was measured in two of the subjects. Spectral EEG analysis was performed throughout...

  12. Brain perfusion CT compared with {sup 15}O-H{sub 2}O PET in patients with primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruener, Julie Marie; Paamand, Rune; Hoejgaard, Liselotte; Law, Ian [University of Copenhagen, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kosteljanetz, Michael [University of Copenhagen, Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Broholm, Helle [University of Copenhagen, Department of Neuropathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Perfusion CT (PCT) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) have been proposed as a fast and easy method for identifying angiogenically active tumours. In this study, quantitative PCT rCBF measurements in patients with brain tumours were compared to the gold standard PET rCBF with {sup 15}O-labelled water ({sup 15}O-H{sub 2}O). On the same day within a few hours, rCBF was measured in ten adult patients with treatment-naive primary brain tumours, twice using {sup 15}O-H{sub 2}O PET and once with PCT performed over the central part of the tumour. Matching rCBF values in tumour and contralateral healthy regions of interest were compared. PCT overestimated intratumoural blood flow in all patients with volume-weighted mean rCBF values of 28.2 {+-} 18.8 ml min{sup -1} 100 ml{sup -1} for PET and 78.9 {+-} 41.8 ml min{sup -1} 100 ml{sup -1} for PCT. There was a significant method by tumour grade interaction with a significant tumour grade rCBF difference for PCT of 32.9 {+-} 15.8 ml min{sup -1} 100 ml{sup -1} for low-grade (WHO I + II) and 81.5 {+-} 15.4 ml min{sup -1} 100 ml{sup -1} for high-grade (WHO III + IV) tumours, but not for PET. The rCBF PCT and PET correlation was only significant within tumours in two patients. Although intratumoural blood flow measured by PCT may add valuable information on tumour grade, the method cannot substitute quantitative measurements of blood flow by PET and {sup 15}O-H{sub 2}O PET in brain tumours. (orig.)

  13. Introduction to Astronomy with Radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Diehl, Roland

    2010-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, Antoine Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity and thus the physics of weak interactions, well before atomic and quantum physics was known. The different types of radioactive decay, alpha, beta, and gamma decay, all are different types of interactions causing the same, spontaneous, and time-independent decay of an unstable nucleus into another and more stable nucleus. Nuclear reactions in cosmic sites re-arrange the basic constituents of atomic nuclei (neutrons and protons) among the different configurations which are allowed by Nature, thus producing radioactive isotopes as a by-product. Throughout cosmic history, such reactions occur in different sites, and lead to rearrangements of the relative abundances of cosmic nuclei, a process called cosmic chemical evolution, which can be studied through the observations of radioactivity. The special role of radioactivity in such studies is contributed by the intrinsic decay of such material after it has been produced in cosmic site...

  14. Radioactive waste: show time?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.V. [COVRA N.V., Spanjeweg 1, 4455 TW Nieuwdorp (Netherlands); McCombie, Charles; Chapman, Neil [Arius Association, Taefernstrasse 1, CH-4050 Baden (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    The basic concept within both EC funded SAPIERR I and SAPIERR II projects (FP6) is that of one or more geological repositories developed in collaboration by two or more European countries to accept spent nuclear fuel, vitrified high-level waste and other long-lived radioactive waste from those partner countries. The SAPIERR II project (Strategic Action Plan for Implementation of Regional European Repositories) examines in detail issues that directly influence the practicability and acceptability of such facilities. This paper describes the work in the SAPIERR II project (2006-2008) on the development of a possible practical implementation strategy for shared, regional repositories in Europe and lays out the first steps in implementing that strategy. (authors)

  15. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  16. Progress on Radioactive Waste Treatment Facilities Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, five projects were undertaken by radioactive waste projects management department, which are "Cold Commissioning of the Pilot Project on Radioactive Waste Retrieval and Conditioning (abbreviation 'Pilot Project')", "Radioactive Ventilation Project Construction (abbreviation 'Ventilation

  17. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, Katharina

    2009-09-01

    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  18. Lifetime measurement of the 6.79 MeV state in {sup 15}O with the AGATA demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelagnoli, C.; Depalo, R.; Ur, C. A.; Menegazzo, R.; Broggini, C.; Bazzacco, D.; Caciolli, A.; Farnea, E.; Lunardi, S.; Bemmerer, D.; Keeley, N.; Erhard, M.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gottardo, A.; Marta, M.; Mengoni, D.; Mijatovic, T.; Recchia, F.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Szuecs, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Universita di Padova (Italy) and INFN Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Universita di Padova (Italy); and others

    2012-11-12

    The preliminary results of a new direct measurement of the lifetime of the first excited 3/2{sup +} state in {sup 15}O are discussed. An accurate evaluation of this lifetime is of paramount importance for the determination of the cross section of the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction, the slowest one in the CNO cycle, at the energies of the solar Gamow peak. The {sup 2}H({sup 14}N,{sup 15}O)n reaction in inverse kinematics at 32MeV beam energy (XTU Tandem, LNL) was used to populate the level of interest, which decays via a 6.79 MeV E1 gamma-ray transition to the ground state. Gamma rays were detected with 4 triple clusters of HPGe detectors of the AGATA Demonstrator array. The energy resolution and position sensitivity of this state-of-the-art gamma-ray spectrometer have been exploited to investigate the Doppler Shift Attenuation effect on the lineshape of the gamma-ray peak in the energy spectrum. The deconvolution of the lifetime effects from those due to the kinematics of the emitting nuclei has been performed using detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the gamma emission and detection. CDCC-CRC calculations for the nucleon transfer process have been used for this purpose and preliminary results are shown.

  19. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilbeck, G. [Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  20. Characterization of defects in semiconductors using radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as Mossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, and emission channeling have used nuclear properties to gain microscopical information on the structural and dynamical properties of solids. The availability of many different radioactive isotopes as a clean ion beam at facilities like ISOLDE/CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive for the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. Spectroscopic techniques like photoluminescence (PL), deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and Hall effect gain a new quality by using radioactive isotopes. Due to their decay the chemical origin of an observed electronic and optical behavior of a specific defect or dopant can be unambiguously identified. This contribution will highlight a few examples to illustrat...

  1. Quantification of myocardial blood flow with {sup 82}Rb positron emission tomography: clinical validation with {sup 15}O-water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, John O.; Allenbach, Gilles; Bischof Delaloye, Angelika [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Nuclear Medicine Department, Lausanne (Switzerland); Valenta, Ines; Burger, Cyrill [Cardiac Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kosinski, Marek [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Nuclear Medicine Department, Lausanne (Switzerland); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, University Institute for Radiation Physics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Verdun, Francis R. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, University Institute for Radiation Physics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [Cardiac Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich Centre for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-06-15

    Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) with generator-produced {sup 82}Rb is an attractive alternative for centres without an on-site cyclotron. Our aim was to validate {sup 82}Rb-measured MBF in relation to that measured using {sup 15}O-water, as a tracer 100% of which can be extracted from the circulation even at high flow rates, in healthy control subject and patients with mild coronary artery disease (CAD). MBF was measured at rest and during adenosine-induced hyperaemia with {sup 82}Rb and {sup 15}O-water PET in 33 participants (22 control subjects, aged 30 {+-} 13 years; 11 CAD patients without transmural infarction, aged 60 {+-} 13 years). A one-tissue compartment {sup 82}Rb model with ventricular spillover correction was used. The {sup 82}Rb flow-dependent extraction rate was derived from {sup 15}O-water measurements in a subset of 11 control subjects. Myocardial flow reserve (MFR) was defined as the hyperaemic/rest MBF. Pearson's correlation r, Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement (LoA), and Lin's concordance correlation {rho} {sub c} (measuring both precision and accuracy) were used. Over the entire MBF range (0.66-4.7 ml/min/g), concordance was excellent for MBF (r = 0.90, [{sup 82}Rb-{sup 15}O-water] mean difference {+-} SD = 0.04 {+-} 0.66 ml/min/g, LoA = -1.26 to 1.33 ml/min/g, {rho} {sub c} = 0.88) and MFR (range 1.79-5.81, r = 0.83, mean difference = 0.14 {+-} 0.58, LoA = -0.99 to 1.28, {rho} {sub c} = 0.82). Hyperaemic MBF was reduced in CAD patients compared with the subset of 11 control subjects (2.53 {+-} 0.74 vs. 3.62 {+-} 0.68 ml/min/g, p = 0.002, for {sup 15}O-water; 2.53 {+-} 1.01 vs. 3.82 {+-} 1.21 ml/min/g, p = 0.013, for {sup 82}Rb) and this was paralleled by a lower MFR (2.65 {+-} 0.62 vs. 3.79 {+-} 0.98, p = 0.004, for {sup 15}O-water; 2.85 {+-} 0.91 vs. 3.88 {+-} 0.91, p = 0.012, for {sup 82}Rb). Myocardial perfusion was homogeneous in 1,114 of 1,122 segments (99.3%) and there were no differences in MBF among the

  2. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  3. SELF SINTERING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, T.N.; Johnson, J.R.; Struxness, E.G.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1959-12-29

    A method is described for disposal of radioactive liquid waste materials. The wastes are mixed with clays and fluxes to form a ceramic slip and disposed in a thermally insulated container in a layer. The temperature of the layer rises due to conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat boillng off the liquid to fomn a dry mass. The dry mass is then covered with thermal insulation, and the mass is self-sintered into a leach-resistant ceramic cake by further conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat.

  4. Production of zero energy radioactive beams through extraction across superfluid helium surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takahashi, N; Huang, WX; Gloos, K; Dendooven, P; Pekola, JP; Aysto, J

    2003-01-01

    A radioactive Ra-223 source was immersed in superfluid helium at 1.2-1.7 K. Electric fields transported recoiled Rn-219 ions in the form of snowballs to the surface and further extracted them across the surface. The ions were focussed onto an aluminium foil and alpha particle spectra were taken with

  5. Shape coexistence in krypton and selenium light isotopes studied through Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions beams; Etude de la coexistence de formes dans les isotopes legers du krypton et du selenium par excitation Coulombienne de faisceaux radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, E

    2006-06-15

    The light krypton isotopes show two minima in their potential energy corresponding to elongated (prolate) and compressed (oblate) quadrupole deformation. Both configuration are almost equally bound and occur within an energy range of less than 1 MeV. Such phenomenon is called shape coexistence. An inversion of the ground state deformation from prolate in Kr{sup 78} to oblate in Kr{sup 72} with strong mixing of the configurations in Kr{sup 74} and Kr{sup 76} was proposed based on the systematic of isotopic chain. Coulomb excitation experiments are sensitive to the quadrupole moment. Coulomb excitation experiments of radioactive Kr{sup 74} and Kr{sup 76} beam were performed at GANIL using the SPIRAL facility and the EXOGAM spectrometer. The analysis of these experiments resulted in a complete description of the transition strength and quadrupole moments of the low-lying states. They establish the prolate character of the ground state and an oblate excited state. A complementary lifetime measurement using a 'plunger' device was also performed. Transition strength in neighboring nuclei were measured using the technique of intermediate energy Coulomb excitation at GANIL. The results on the Se{sup 68} nucleus show a sharp change in structure with respects to heavier neighboring nuclei. (author)

  6. /sup 5/He radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M. (Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania))

    1984-07-01

    The disintegration of a metastable nuclear state by emission of a light particle can be considered to be a very asymmetric fission process. An approximation of the potential barrier in the overlapping region of the two fragments leads to an analytic relationship for the life-time, allowing us to handle a large number of cases to search for new kinds of radioactivities. In this way, it is predicted that some nuclei with Z=83-92, N=127-137 and 97-105, 145-157 are able to decay spontaneously by emission of /sup 5/He particles. A tentative optimistic estimation leads to the result that only 15 radionuclides should have partial life-times in the range 10/sup 14/-10/sup 38/ years; all others, except some superheavies, are longer lived. The best candidate is /sup 213/Po for which the daughter is a double magic nucleus. Smaller life-times, with a better chance to be experimentally confirmed have some ..beta..-delayed /sup 5/He emitters, as for example /sup 155/Yb, /sup 175/Pt, /sup 209 -217/Ra, /sup 9 -11/Be, /sup 13 -14/B, /sup 13 -17/C and /sup 19 -21/O.

  7. Radioactive decay data tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

  8. [Radioactivity of phosphorus implanted TiNi alloy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingke; Cai, Wei; Zhao, Liancheng

    2003-09-01

    Exposed to neutron flow, the phosphorus implanted TiNi alloy gets radioactive. This radioactive material is used in vascular stent for prevention and cure of restenosis. Phosphorus implantation is carried out in a plasma immerged ion implantation system, and the dose of phosphorus implantation is in the range of 2-10 x 10(17) cm-2. After ion implantation, the alloy is exposed to the slow neutron flow in a nuclear reactor, the dose of the slow neutron is 1.39-5.88 x 10(19) n/cm2. The radioactivity of the TiNi alloy was measured by liquid scintillation spectrometry and radio-chromic-film dosimetry. The result shows that whether the phosphorus is implanted or not, the TiNi alloy comes to be radioactive after exposure to neutron flow. Just after neutron irradiation, the radiation dose of phosphorus implanted TiNi alloy is about one hundred times higher than that of un-phosphorus implanted TiNi alloy. The radiation difference between phosphorus and un-phosphorus implanted alloy decreases as time elapses. Within three months after neutron irradiation, the average half-decay period of phosphorus implanted TiNi alloy is about 62 days. The radiation ray penetration of phosphorus implanted TiNi alloy is deeper than that of pure 32P; this is of benefit to making radiation uniformity between stent struts and reducing radiation grads beyond the edge of stent.

  9. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  10. Environmental radioactivity survey in Suwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Keun; Park, Jong Mi [Kyunghee Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Suwon, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Suwon regional monitoring station m 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  11. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in ... eat, the ground we walk upon, and the consumer products we purchase and use. Although many might ...

  12. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu Espanol Editors ... V. Hennessey, MD Leonard Wartofsky, MD What is hyperthyroidism? The thyroid gland, located at the front of ...

  13. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  14. 1. contribution of the dynamics on the reactions mechanisms in the heavy ions collisions at the intermediary energies (20-100 MeV/A) for the light systems. 2. management of radioactive wastes by new options: nuclear data measurement programme between 20 and 150 MeV; 1. role de la dynamique sur les mecanismes de reactions dans les collisions d'ions lourds aux energies intermediaires (20-100 MeV/A) pour des systemes legers. 2. gestion des dechets radioactifs par des options nouvelles: programme de mesures de donnees nucleaires entre 20 et 150 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudes, Ph

    2000-09-22

    The first part concerns the features of emitted charged particles in heavy ions reactions that have been studied in the framework of the semi classical Landau-Vlasov approach for the light system Ar + Al at 65 MeV/nucleon incident energy. The second part is devoted to the radioactive waste management (transmutation), but it was necessary to increase the data banks evaluated in neutrons up to 150-200 MeV and to create a data bank in protons. In the European framework it was decide to focus on three representative elements: lead (spallation target), iron (structure material) and uranium (actinide). (N.C.)

  15. Radioactivity of the Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-03-01

    The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

  16. Atomic Batteries: Energy from Radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Suhas

    2015-01-01

    With alternate, sustainable, natural sources of energy being sought after, there is new interest in energy from radioactivity, including natural and waste radioactive materials. A study of various atomic batteries is presented with perspectives of development and comparisons of performance parameters and cost. We discuss radioisotope thermal generators, indirect conversion batteries, direct conversion batteries, and direct charge batteries. We qualitatively describe their principles of operat...

  17. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  18. Predicted halflives for cluster radioactivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Greiner, W.; Ivascu, M.

    1989-10-01

    The main results of the analytical superasymmetric fission model, describing in a unified manner cluster radioactivities, alpha-decay and cold fission processes, are briefly reviewed. Predicted halflives for 14C, 24, 25, 26Ne, 28, 30Mg and 32Si radioactivities in the range 10 11-10 26 s and the corresponding branching ratios relative to α-decay 10 -16 - 10 -9 have been experimentally confirmed within 1.5 orders of magnitude.

  19. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  20. CBF/CBV maps in normal volunteers studied with (15)O PET: a possible index of cerebral perfusion pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Tadashi; Shimosegawa, Eku; Kato, Hiroki; Isohashi, Kayako; Ishibashi, Mana; Hatazawa, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Local cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is a primary factor controlling cerebral circulation and previous studies have indicated that the ratio of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to cerebral blood volume (CBV) can be used as an index of the local CPP. In this study, we investigated whether the CBF/CBV ratio differs among different brain structures under physiological conditions, by means of (15)O positron emission tomography. Nine healthy volunteers (5 men and 4 women; mean age, 47.0 ± 1.2 years) were studied by H2 (15)O bolus injection for CBF measurement and by C(15)O inhalation for CBV measurement. The CBF/CBV ratio maps were created by dividing the CBF images by the CBV images after anatomical normalization. Regions of interest were placed on the CBF/CBV maps and comparing the regions. The mean CBF/CBV ratio was highest in the cerebellum (19.3 ± 5.2/min), followed by the putamen (18.2 ± 3.9), pons (16.4 ± 4.6), thalamus (14.5 ± 3.3), cerebral cortices (13.2 ± 2.4), and centrum semiovale (11.5 ± 2.1). The cerebellum and putamen showed significantly higher CBF/CBV ratios than the cerebral cortices and centrum semiovale. We created maps of the CBF/CBV ratio in normal volunteers and demonstrated higher CBF/CBV ratios in the cerebellum and putamen than in the cerebral cortices and deep cerebral white matter. The CBF/CBV may reflect the local CPP and should be studied in hemodynamically compromised patients and in patients with risk factors for small-artery diseases of the brain.

  1. Stabilization and volume reduction of radioactive spent ionexchange resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Stabilization and volume reduction of spent radioactive ion-exchange resins (IERs)were studied. Stabilization technology includes volume reduction with wet chemicaloxidation process and immobilization of the residue into cement. Undersuitable conditions, the exhaustedradioactive ion-exchange resins were dissolved successfully in aH2O2-Fe2+/Cu2+ catalytic oxidationsystem (Fenton reagent). The analytical results indicated that the radioactive nuclides loaded in the resins were concentrated in decomposed solution and solid residues. The process parameters ofwet chemical oxidation and solidification were also obtained. Thedecomposition ratios were 100%and more than 90% for cation and anion IERs respectively. The waste volume was decreased by40% compared with that of original spent resins.

  2. Radioactively labelled phytic acid from maturing seeds of Sinapis alba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaicher, F.M.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    Maturing seeds of Sinapis alba were incubated with D-(U-/sup 14/C)glucose, sodium (1-/sup 14/C) acetate or myo-(U/sup 14/C) inositol in order to prepare radioactively labelled phytic acid with high specific activity. Although each substrate was utilized for the biosynthesis of phytic acid, maximum incorporation of radioactivity into phytic acid was found with myo-inositol. Radiochemical purity of the (U-/sup 14/C)phytic acid preparations was confirmed by chromatographic techniques. Such preparations should be useful for the study of interaction of phytic acid with metal ions and proteins and may serve as substrate in the assay should be useful for the study of interaction of phytic acid with metal ions and proteins and may serve as substrate in the assay of phytase.

  3. Semiconductor to metallic type transition in Ni1.5Fe1.5O4 ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneeshkumar K., S.; Bhowmik, R. N.

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated electrical properties of Ni1.5Fe1.5O4 ferrite. The sample has been prepared by chemical coprecipitation route. The dc limit of conductivity has been derived from the fitting of ac conductivity data using Johnscher power law and Cole-Cole plot of impedance spectrum. The temperature dependence of dc conductivity data indicated a semiconductor to metallic type transition at 373K and metallic to semiconductor transition at 413K. Such electrical transition may be attributed to the effect of localization and de-localization of charge carriers in the hopping paths (Fe3+-O-Fe3+) and (Ni2+-O-Ni3+).

  4. Development of monitoring technology for environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Cho, Young Hyun; Lee, M. H.; Choi, K. S.; Hong, K. H.; Sin, H. S.; Kim, M. K.; Pak, J. H

    2000-05-01

    The accurate and reliable determination techniques of the radioactive isotopes in environmental samples are very important to protect public health from the potential hazards of radiation. Isolation and purification of radiostrontium from environmental aqueous sample was performed by using strontium selectively binding resin (Sr-spec) and strontium selectively permeable liquid membrane. Radioactivity of radiostrontium was measured by liquid scintillation counter coupled with dual counting window and spectrum unfolding method. With combustion apparatus a new determination of Tc-99 in the environmental samples was developed for overcoming demerits of conventional TBP extraction method. An optimized method for determining beta-emitting {sup 2}41Pu in the presence of alpha-emitting nuclides was developed using a liquid scintillation counting system. A method for measuring Rn-222 and Ra-226 in aqueous sample using liquid scintillation counting technique has studied. On-line measurement system coupled with ion chromatography and portable liquid scintillation detector was developed. U and Th measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mehtod of flow-injection preconcentration for the analysis of U and Th in seawater was developed. A new electrodeposition method for alpha spectrometry was developed.

  5. Endangered and Extinct Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, M. D.

    1993-07-01

    Gamma ray spectroscopy holds great promise for probing nucleosynthesis in individual nucleosynthesis events, via observations of short-lived radioactivity, and for measuring global galactic nucleosynthesis today with detections of longer-lived radioactivity. Many of the astrophysical issues addressed by these observations are precisely those that must be understood in order to interpret observations of extinct radioactivity in meteorites. It was somewhat surprising that the former case was realized first for a Type II supernova, when both 56Co [1] and 57Co [2] were detected in SN 1987A. These provide unprecedented constraints on models of Type II explosions. Live 26Al in the galaxy might come from Type II supernovae and their progenitors, and if this is eventually shown to be the case, can constrain massive star evolution, supernova nucleosynthesis, the galactic Type II supernova rate, and even models of the chemical evolution of the galaxy [3]. Titanium-44 is produced primarily in the alpha-rich freezeout from nuclear statistical equilibrium, possibly in Type Ia [4] and almost certainly in Type II supernovae [5]. The galactic recurrence time of these events is comparable to the 44Ti lifetime, so we expect to be able to see at most a few otherwise unseen 44Ti remnants at any given time. No such remnants have been detected yet [6]. Very simple arguments lead to the expectation that about 4 x 10^-4 M(sub)solar mass of 44Ca are produced per century. The product of the supernova frequency times the 44Ti yield per event must equal this number. Even assuming that only the latest event would be seen, rates in excess of 2 century^-1 are ruled out at >=99% confidence by the gamma ray limits. Only rates less than 0.3 century^-1 are acceptable at >5% confidence, and this means that the yield per event must be >10^-3 M(sub)solar mass to produce the requisite 44Ca. Rates this low are incompatible with current estimates for Type II supernovae and yields this high are also very

  6. Ion beam cooler-buncher at the IGISOL facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, A.; Hakala, J.; Huikari, J.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Szerypo, J. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Billowes, J.; Campbell, P.; Moore, I.D.; Moore, R. [Schuster Lab., Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Forest, D.H.; Thayer, H.L.; Tungate, G. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Birmingham, Edgbaston (United Kingdom); Jokinen, A.; Aeystoe, J. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)]|[CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    An ion beam cooler-buncher for manipulating low-energy radioactive ion beams at the IGISOL facility is described. The cooler-buncher serves as a source of cooled ion bunches for collinear laser spectroscopy and it will be used for preparation of ion bunches for injection into a Penning trap system. (orig.)

  7. Accelerator development for a radioactive beam facility based on ATLAS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-01-08

    The existing superconducting linac ATLAS is in many respects an ideal secondary beam accelerator for an ISOL (Isotope separator on-line) type radioactive beam facility. Such a facility would require the addition of two major accelerator elements: a low charge state injector for the existing heavy ion linac, and a primary beam accelerator providing 220 MV of acceleration for protons and light ions. Development work for both of these elements, including the option of superconducting cavities for the primary beam accelerator is discussed.

  8. Rational Design of Metal Ion Sequestering Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Xu, Jide; Gramer, Christine

    1999-06-01

    This project addresses the fundamental issues and requirements for developing hazardous metal ion separation technologies applicable to the treatment and disposal of radioactive waste. Our research encompasses the following areas: the design and synthesis of metal ion specific sequestering ligands, structural and thermodynamic investigations of these ligand and the complexes formed with targeted metal ions, and the development and incorporation of these ligands into applied separation technologies as highly effective materials for hazardous metal ion decontamination.

  9. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  10. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported.

  11. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported.

  12. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  13. Predicted halflives for cluster radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenaru, D.N. (Institutul Central de Fizica, Bucharest (Romania); Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik); Greiner, W. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik); Ivascu, M. (Institutul Central de Fizica, Bucharest (Romania))

    1989-10-09

    The main results of the analytical superasymmetric fission model, describing in a unified manner cluster radioactivities, alpha-decay and cold fission processes, are briefly reviewed. Predicted halflives for {sup 14}C, {sup 24,25,26}Ne, {sup 28,30}Mg and {sup 32}Si radioactivities in the range 10{sup 11}-10{sup 26} s and the corresponding branching ratios relative to {alpha}-decay 10{sup -16}-10{sup -9} have been experimentally confirmed within 1.5 orders of magnitude. (orig.).

  14. The {sup 14}N(p, {gamma}){sup 15}O reaction studied at low and high beam energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta, Michele

    2012-07-01

    The Bethe-Weizsaecker cycle consists of a set of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium and release energy in the stars. It determines the luminosity of low-metal stars at their turn-off from the main-sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram, so its rate enters the calculation of the globular clusters' age, an independent lower limit on the age of the universe. The cycle contributes less than 1% to our Sun's luminosity, but it produces neutrinos that can in principle be measured on Earth in underground experiments and bring direct information of the physical conditions in the solar core, provided that the nuclear reaction rate is known with sufficient precision. The {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction is the slowest reaction of the Bethe-Weizsaecker cycle and establishes its rate. Its cross section is the sum of the contributions by capture to different excited levels and to the ground state in {sup 15}O. Recent experiments studied the region of the resonance at E{sub p} = 278 keV. Only one modern data set from an experiment performed in 1987 is available for the high-energy domain. Both energy ranges are needed to constrain the fit of the excitation function in the R-matrix framework and to obtain a reliable extrapolated S-factor at the very low astrophysical energies. The present research work studied the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction in the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) underground facility at three proton energies 0.36, 0.38, 0.40MeV, and in Dresden in the energy range E{sub p} = 0.6 - 2MeV. In both cases, an intense proton beam was sent on solid titanium nitride sputtered targets, and the prompt photons emitted from the reaction were detected with germanium detectors. At LUNA, a composite germanium detector was used. This enabled a measurement with dramatically reduced summing corrections with respect to previous studies. The cross sections for capture to the ground state and to the excited states

  15. Comment on "15O(alpha,gamma)19Ne Breakout Reaction and Impact on X-Ray Bursts"

    CERN Document Server

    Davids, B

    2008-01-01

    A recently published letter reports a measurement of alpha decay from states in 19Ne at excitation energies below 4.5 MeV. The measured alpha decay branching ratios B_alpha are used to calculate the astrophysical rate of the 15O(alpha,gamma)19Ne reaction and to draw conclusions regarding the transition between steady state and unstable nuclear burning on accreting neutron stars. Here I show that the calculated astrophysical reaction rate is based on an unreliable value of B_alpha for the 4.03 MeV state and point out a serious internal inconsistency in the letter's treatment of low statistics alpha decay measurements.

  16. Trapping of radioactive {sup 21}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruithof, Wilbert L.; Hoek, Duurt J. van der; Giri, Gouri S.; Hoekstra, Ronnie; Hoekstra, Steven; Jungmann, Klaus; Onderwater, Gerco; Santra, Bodhaditya; Shildling, Praveen D.; Sohani, Moslem; Versolato, Oscar O.; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, Hans W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University Groningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Radioactive {sup 21}Na atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) provide an excellent opportunity to search for non-Standard Model contributions in the weak interactions. In particular, correlations between the {beta}-particle and the neutrino are sensitive to time reversal symmetry violating effects. The Na isotope is produced at the TRI{mu}P facility of the KVI using intense {sup 20}Ne beams from the AGOR cyclotron on a cooled deuterium target. The isotopes are stopped and re-thermalized in a Thermal Ionizer. They are transported as a low energy ion beam to a MOT cell where they are neutralized and subsequently captured by laser light. The trapped Na atoms will be transferred to a second MOT which is placed inside a reaction microscope to measure the momentum distribution of the recoiling daughter nuclei after the {beta}-decay. The {beta}-particle will be detected in a scintillation detector. These two devices have been characterized. A pulsed UV laser was used to ionize trapped Na atoms in order to simulate the {beta}-decay in the reaction microscope. The momentum distribution of the recoil ions is measured. The setup of the whole experiment will be presented.

  17. Keeping an Eye on Radioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China sets up a national testing system for levels of radiation from various sources Radioactive iodine had been detected in the air above several regions of China,said China’s National Nuclear Emergency Coordination Committee on March 29.The regions include Heilongjiang

  18. Mass measurement of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Scheidenberger, C

    2004-01-01

    The highest precision in mass measurements on short-lived radionuclides is obtained using trapping and cooling techniques. Here, the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI/Darmstadt and the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN play an important role. Status and recent results on mass measurements of radioactive nuclides with ESR and ISOLTRAP are summarized.

  19. Radioactivity in Dutch consumer products

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, M P M

    2002-01-01

    This study took place within the framework of a general update of the average radiation dose for the Dutch population. It focuses on consumer products in which radionuclides have been intentionally incorporated and on radiation-emitting devices that can be supplied to members of the public without special surveillance. Eleven consumer products were studied in more detail. The radiation from these products determined 90% of the total collective dose due to consumer products in the Netherlands in 1988. Individual and collective doses are presented here for each product. The total collective dose has decreased from 130 personSv in 1988 to 4.6 personSv at present. This reduction was attributed to: a decrease in the number of radioactive products (gas mantles), lower estimates of the number of radioactive products present in the Netherlands thanks to new information (camera lenses, smoke detectors containing Ra-226), replacement of radioactive by non-radioactive products (gas mantles, dental protheses), and a lowe...

  20. Indian programme on radioactive waste management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Wattal

    2013-10-01

    The primary objective of radioactive waste management is protection of human health, environment and future generation. This article describes, briefly, the Indian programme on management of different radioactive wastes arising in the entire nuclear fuel cycle adhering to this objective.

  1. Radioactive waste caracterisation by neutron activation

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, Tangi

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear activities produce radioactive wastes classified following their radioactive level and decay time. An accurate characterization is necessary for efficient classification and management. Medium and high level wastes containing long lived radioactive isotopes will be stored in deep geological storage for hundreds of thousands years. At the end of this period, it is essential to ensure that the wastes do not represent any risk for humans and environment, not only from radioactive point o...

  2. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management. (LK)

  3. Isobar separator for radioactive nuclear beams project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    In order to produce pure beams of radioactive products emanating from the production target/ion source system, both mass and isobar separation is required. A preliminary mass separation with a resolution {triangle}M/M of approximately 10{sup -3} will select the proper mass beam. An isobar separator is needed because the masses of adjacent isobars are usually quite close, especially for beams near stability. In general, a mass resolution of 5 x 10{sup -5} is needed for isobar separation in the A < 120 region, while a resolution of 3 x 10{sup -5} or better is needed for heavier masses. Magnets are used to obtain mass separation. However, in addition to having mass dispersion properties, magnets also have an equal energy dispersion. This means that an energy variation in the beam cannot be distinguished from a mass difference. This is important because ions emerge from the ion source having a small ({approximately} 10{sup -5} - 10{sup -4}) energy spread. In order to make the system respond only to mass differences, it must be made energy dispersion. This is normally accomplished by using a combination of electric and magnetic fields. The most convenient way of doing this is to use an electric deflection following the magnet separator. A preliminary isobar separator which achieves a mass resolution of 2.7 x 10{sup -5} is shown in Figure I-38. It uses two large 60{degrees} bending magnets to obtain a mass dispersion of 140 mm/%, and four electric dipoles with bending angles of 39{degrees} to cancel the energy dispersion. Sextupole and octupole correction elements are used to reduce the geometrical aberrations.

  4. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless...

  5. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  6. Resonance strengths in the 14N(p,gamma)15O and 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Marta, Michele; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Broggini, Carlo; Caciolli, Antonio; Erhard, Martin; Fülöp, Zsolt; Grosse, Eckart; Gyürky, György; Hannaske, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R; Menegazzo, Roberto; Nair, Chithra; Schwengner, Ronald; Szücs, Tamás; Vezzú, Simone; Wagner, Andreas; Yakorev, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    The 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction is the slowest reaction of the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle of hydrogen burning in stars. As a consequence, it determines the rate of the cycle. The 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C reaction is frequently used in inverse kinematics for hydrogen depth profiling in materials. The 14N(p,gamma)15O and 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C reactions have been studied simultaneously, using titanium nitride targets of natural isotopic composition and a proton beam. The strengths of the resonances at Ep = 1058 keV in 14N(p,gamma)15O and at Ep = 897 and 430 keV in 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C have been determined with improved precision, relative to the well-known resonance at Ep = 278 keV in 14N(p,gamma)15O. The new recommended values are \\omega\\gamma = 0.352$\\pm$0.018, 362$\\pm$20, and 22.0$\\pm$0.9\\,eV for their respective strengths. In addition, the branching ratios for the decay of the Ep = 1058 keV resonance in 14N(p,gamma)15O have been redetermined. The data reported here should facilitate future studies of off-resona...

  7. Direct 1{sup +}{yields}N{sup +} conversion of stable alkali ions using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mery, A.; Jardin, P.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Bajeat, O.; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Fraanberg-Delahaye, H.; Lecomte, P.; Leherissier, P.; Maunoury, L.; Pichard, A.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Thomas, J. C. [GANIL, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 5 (France); Alcantara-Nunez, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Universidad Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The production of radioactive ions using the Isotope Separation On-Line method gives rise, in most cases, to singly charged ions. In order to perform experiments with postaccelerated radioactive ion beams, these ions have to be multicharged. We describe here a new compact design for a charge breeder that will be coupled to the production target of SPIRAL1 at GANIL. We present recent results obtained offline with stable alkali ions (Na, K, Rb, and Cs) on the SIRa test bench. Particularly, 1{sup +} to N{sup +} conversion efficiencies and conversion times are presented. Several points have been identified for the improvements of the present performances.

  8. New Constraints on the 18F(p,alpha) 15O Rate in Novae from the (d,p) Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kozub, R.L.; Bardayan, D. W.; Batchelder, J. C.; Blackmon, J. C.; Brune, C. R.; Champagne, A. E.; Cizewski, J. A.; Davinson, T.; Greife, U.; Gross, C. J.; Jewett, C. C.; Livesay, R. J.; Ma, Z.; Moazen, B. H.; Nesaraja, C. D.

    2004-01-01

    The degree to which the (p,gamma) and (p,alpha) reactions destroy 18F at temperatures 1-4x10^8 K is important for understanding the synthesis of nuclei in nova explosions and for using the long-lived radionuclide 18F, a target of gamma-ray astronomy, as a diagnostic of nova mechanisms. The reactions are dominated by low-lying proton resonances near the 18F+p threshold (E_x=6.411 MeV in 19Ne). To gain further information about these resonances, we have used a radioactive 18F beam from the Holi...

  9. Effect of radioactivity on stent-graft incorporation after endovascular treatment of aneurysms: An animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerouge, Sophie; Raymond, Jean; Schloesser, Klaus; Gaboury, Louis; Soulez, Gilles

    2006-12-01

    Poor stent-graft (SG) incorporation into the vessel wall, following endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR), can lead to endoleaks and SG migration. Low-dose radiation can prevent aneurysm recurrence after coil embolization, and has been associated with a "paradoxical" increase in neointima formation after stenting in a few studies. It was hypothesized that in situ beta radiation emitted from SG could improve its incorporation by preventing the persistence of circulating channels between the implant and the vessel wall and increasing neointima formation around the SG. Phosphorus 32 ((32)P, 200 or 400 kBq per SG (n = 6 each)) was ion implanted on the external surface of balloon-expandable SGs. Twelve radioactive and six non-radioactive SGs were deployed in iliac arteries of nine Mongrel dogs. Neointima formation inside the graft and the persistence of circulating flow through an artificial groove created during the endovascular procedure were assessed by follow-up imaging and by blinded, computerized histomorphometric analysis after animal sacrifice at 3 months. Occlusion occurred in four radioactive SGs. A lesser number of patent grooves was observed along high-activity SGs than along control SGs (1/3 versus 4/4). No difference in neointima formation was observed in radioactive and non-radioactive SGs. Alteration of external graft surface was observed after ion implantation. Ion implantation of (32)P on SGs does not seem to be a viable strategy to improve incorporation and prevent type-I endoleak after EVAR.

  10. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  11. S factor of {sup 14}N(p,γ){sup 15}O at 0.4 - 1.4 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Louis; Anders, Michael; Gohl, Stefan; Reinicke, Stefan; Roeder, Marko; Schmidt, Konrad; Serfling, Martin; Takacs, Marcell [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Bemmerer, Daniel; Elekes, Zoltan; Junghans, Arnd; Munnik, Frans; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Marta, Michele [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias; Zuber, Kai [TU Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    For solar model calculations precise knowledge of the relevant fusion cross sections is needed. In the solar core the rate of the CNO cycle is dominated by the bottleneck {sup 14}N(p,γ){sup 15}O reaction, because this is the slowest reaction of the cycle. A proton beam with energies of 0.4-1.4 MeV delivered by the 3 MV Tandetron of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf was used to study the non-resonant cross section of {sup 14}N(p,γ){sup 15}O. The talk presents the characterisation of the used TiN targets with Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), new data for the S factor of {sup 14}N(p,γ){sup 15}O and a R-Matrix extrapolation for capture to the excited state at 6.79 MeV.

  12. Radioactive waste management in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubauer Josef

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf, there are several facilities in stalled for treatment of waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level (radwaste. A separate company within Centers, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, has been formed recently, acting as a centralized facility for treatment, conditioning and storing of such waste within the country. The relevant treatment technology is applied depending on the waste category. In total about 6900 m3 of solid waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level originating from Austria was treated in the period between 1976 and 2002. Presently, there exists no final repository for radwaste in Austria. A study is under way to identify the structure for a long term storage facility.

  13. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  14. A rich revenue from the use of radioactive beams and radioactive targets: recent highlights from the nTOF and ISOLDE facilities (1/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE is a facility dedicated to the production of a large variety of radioactive ion beams for a great number of different experiments, e.g. in the field of nuclear and atomic physics, solid-state physics, life sciences and material science. At ISOLDE, radioactive nuclides are produced in thick high-temperature targets via spallation, fission or fragmentation reactions. The targets are placed in the external proton beam of the PSB, which has an energy of 1.0 or 1.4 GeV and an intensity of about 2 microA. The target and ion-source together represent a small chemical factory for converting the nuclear reaction products into a radioactive ion beam. An electric field accelerates the ions, which are mass separated and steered to the experiments. Until now more than 600 isotopes of more than 60 elements (Z=2 to 88) have been produced with half-lives down to milliseconds and intensities up to 1011 ions per second. Through the advent of post-accelerated beams with the REX-ISOLDE c...

  15. Fast pulsed operation of a small non-radioactive electron source with continuous emission current control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochems, P; Kirk, A T; Bunert, E; Runge, M; Goncalves, P; Zimmermann, S

    2015-06-01

    Non-radioactive electron sources are of great interest in any application requiring the emission of electrons at atmospheric pressure, as they offer better control over emission parameters than radioactive electron sources and are not subject to legal restrictions. Recently, we published a simple electron source consisting only of a vacuum housing, a filament, and a single control grid. In this paper, we present improved control electronics that utilize this control grid in order to focus and defocus the electron beam, thus pulsing the electron emission at atmospheric pressure. This allows short emission pulses and excellent stability of the emitted electron current due to continuous control, both during pulsed and continuous operations. As an application example, this electron source is coupled to an ion mobility spectrometer. Here, the pulsed electron source allows experiments on gas phase ion chemistry (e.g., ion generation and recombination kinetics) and can even remove the need for a traditional ion shutter.

  16. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  17. Clays in radioactive waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun; Tang, Anh-Minh

    2010-01-01

    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  18. Analysis methods for airborne radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ala-Heikkilä, Jarmo J

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry is an analysis method well suitable for monitoring airborne radioactivity. Many of the natural radionuclides and a majority of anthropogenic nuclides are prominent gamma-ray emitters. With gamma-ray spectrometry different radionuclides are readily observed at minute concentrations that are far from health hazards. The gamma-ray spectrometric analyses applied in air monitoring programmes can be divided into particulate measurements and gas measurements. I...

  19. Fabrication, microstructure and luminescence properties of Cr3+ doped Lu3A15O12 red scintillator ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Qiang; Cao, Maoqing; Ma, Peng; Chen, Haohong; Liu, Qian; Li, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Cr3+ doped Lu3A15O12 transparent ceramics were developed as a new red scintillator ceramics. These ceramics were fabricated by a solid state reaction method under vacuum sintering at temperature range of 1550 °C-1890 °C for 10 h. The doping effect of different Cr3+ concentration (0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 at. %) and air annealing effect were investigated as well. The transparent ceramics (70% @1 mm in visible light range) with dense microstructure were obtained when sintered at 1890 °C for 10 h, the average grain size of 0.3 at.% Cr:LuAG was calculated to be 7 μm. Photo-luminescence spectra revealed that there are two typical excitation bands at around 450 nm and 600 nm which were ascribed to the d-d transitions of Cr3+. 0.3 at. % Cr:LuAG exhibited the optimum photoluminescence intensity and fast decay. Radio-luminescence under X-ray excitation indicated a characteristic Cr3+ emission peaking at 687 nm and 706 nm respectively. The Lu3+Al antisite defects related emission at around 300 nm was observed to decrease with the doping of Cr3+. The steady luminescence efficiency (XEL spectrum integral) is around 20 times of the commercial BGO crystals, more important, the broad and continuous red emission between 600 nm and 800 nm demonstrated Cr:LuAG ceramics a prospective application as new red scintillators.

  20. Words in melody: an H(2)15O PET study of brain activation during singing and speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, K J; Fritz, J B; Braun, A R

    2003-04-15

    We used H(2)15O PET to characterize the interaction of words and melody by comparing brain activity measured while subjects spoke or sang the words to a familiar song. Relative increases in activity during speaking vs singing were observed in the left hemisphere, in classical perisylvian language areas including the posterior superior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and frontal operculum, as well as in Rolandic cortices and putamen. Relative increases in activity during singing were observed in the right hemisphere: these were maximal in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and contiguous portions of the insula; relative increases associated with singing were also detected in the right anterior middle temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus, medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, mesial temporal cortices and cerebellum, as well as in Rolandic cortices and nucleus accumbens. These results indicate that the production of words in song is associated with activation of regions within right hemisphere areas that are not mirror-image homologues of left hemisphere perisylvian language areas, and suggest that multiple neural networks may be involved in different aspects of singing. Right hemisphere mechanisms may support the fluency-evoking effects of singing in neurological disorders such as stuttering or aphasia.

  1. Electronic Structure Studies and Photocatalytic Properties of Cubic Bi1.5ZnNb1.5O7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganchimeg Perenlei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic ability of cubic Bi1.5ZnNb1.5O7 (BZN pyrochlore for the decolorization of an acid orange 7 (AO7 azo dye in aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV irradiation has been investigated for the first time. BZN catalyst powders prepared using low temperature sol-gel and higher temperature solid-state methods have been evaluated and their reaction rates have been compared. The experimental band gap energy has been estimated from the optical absorption edge and has been used as reference for theoretical calculations. The electronic band structure of BZN has been investigated using first-principles density functional theory (DFT calculations for random, completely and partially ordered solid solutions of Zn cations in both the A and B sites of the pyrochlore structure. The nature of the orbitals in the valence band (VB and the conduction band (CB has been identified and the theoretical band gap energy has been discussed in terms of the DFT model approximations.

  2. Measurement of the Erc .m .=259 keV resonance in the 14N(p ,γ )15O reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, S.; Kelly, K. J.; Champagne, A. E.; Buckner, M. Q.; Iliadis, C.; Howard, C.

    2016-08-01

    The 14N(p ,γ )15O reaction regulates the power generated by the CN cycle and thus impacts the structure and evolution of every star at some point in its life. The lowest positive-energy resonance in this reaction is located at Erc .m .=259 keV, too high in energy to strongly influence quiescent stellar burning. However, the strength of this resonance is used as a cross-section normalization for lower-energy measurements of this reaction. We report on new measurements of the energy, strength, and γ -ray branching ratios for the 259-keV resonance, using different detection and data-analysis schemes. We have also reevaluated previous results, where possible. Our new recommended strength of ω γ =12.6 (3 ) meV is in agreement with the previous value of 13.1(6) meV, but is more precise and thus provides a more reliable normalization for low-energy (p ,γ ) measurements.

  3. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  4. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  5. Gamma-ray spectroscopy with relativistic exotic heavy-ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samit Mandal; J Gerl; H Geissel; K Hauschild; M Hellström; Z Janas; I Kojouharov; Y Kopatch; R C Lemmon; P Mayet; Z Podolyak; P H Regan; H Schaffner; C Schlegel; J Simpson; H J Wollersheim

    2001-07-01

    Feasibility of gamma-ray spectroscopy at relativistic energies with exotic heavy-ions and new generation of germanium detectors (segmented Clover) is discussed. An experiment with such detector array and radioactive is discussed.

  6. Magneto-optical trapping of radioactive atoms for test of the fundamental symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hirokazu, E-mail: hirokazu.kawamura.c2@tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences (Japan); Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T. [Tohoku University, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (Japan); Inoue, T. [Tohoku University, Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences (Japan); Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Köhler, L.; Mathis, J.; Sakamoto, K.; Uchiyama, A.; Sakemi, Y. [Tohoku University, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We are planning test experiments of fundamental symmetries based on the intrinsic properties of francium. It is expected that the laser cooling and trapping of francium will produce precision measurements. The pilot experiment using rubidium was performed with the goal of francium trapping. The ion beam generated with a francium ion source was investigated using a Wien filter. Each piece of equipment still must be studied in more detail, and the equipment should be upgraded in order to trap radioactive atoms.

  7. Production of fast neutrons from deuteron beams in view of producing radioactive heavy ions beams; Etude de la production de neutrons rapides a partir de faisceaux de deutons en vue de la mise en oeuvre de faisceaux d'ions lourds radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauwels, N

    2000-11-01

    This thesis is part of two research and development programmes for the study of neutron rich radioactive nuclear beam production. The technique is based on the ISOL method and can be summarized as follows. Fast neutrons are generated by the break-up of deuterons in a thick target. These neutrons irradiate a fissionable {sup 238}U target. The resulting fission products are extracted from the target, ionised, mass selected and post-accelerated. The aim of the thesis is to study the neutron angular and energetic distributions. After a bibliographical research to justify the choice of deuterons as the best projectile, we developed more specifically three points: - the extension of the activation detector method for neutron spectroscopy to a wide energy range (1 to 150 MeV), - the experimental measurement of neutron angular and energetic distributions produced by deuterons on thick targets. The deuteron energy ranges from 17 to 200 MeV and the thick targets were Be, C and U, - the realization of a code based on Serber's theory to predict the neutron distribution for any couple (deuteron energy-thick target). We conclude that for our application the most suitable target is C and the best deuteron energy is about 100 MeV. (author)

  8. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)703149; Kröll, Thorsten

    SOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 10^11 ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computanional techniques have been used.

  9. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiffert, Christoph

    2015-06-15

    ISOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 10{sup 11} ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computational techniques have been used.

  10. Removal of radioactive nuclides by alginate microcapsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, H.; Oritani, T.; Akiba, K. [Tohoku Univ., Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The K{sub d} values of Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Y{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+}, for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were estimated to be 1.1x10{sup 4}, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x10{sup 4}, 1.4x10{sup 4}, 3.4x10{sup 3} cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into the gelling salt solutions. The alginate microcapsules have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions. (author)

  11. Alterations in CNS Activity Induced by Botulinum Toxin Treatment in Spasmodic Dysphonia: An H[subscript 2][superscript 15]O PET Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S. Omar; Thomassen, Michael; Schulz, Geralyn M.; Hosey, Lara A.; Varga, Mary; Ludlow, Christy L.; Braun, Allen R.

    2006-01-01

    Speech-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured using H[subscript 2][superscript 15]O positron-emission tomography in 9 adults with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (BTX) injection and 10 age- and gender-matched volunteers without neurological disorders. Scans were acquired at rest…

  12. Rotational analysis of the A(2)Sigma(+)((nu=1,2))-X-2 Pi((nu=0)) electronic bands of (NO)-N-15-O-18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ityaksov, D.; Stolte, S.; Linnartz, H.V.J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Deep-UV spectra of (NO)-N-15-O-18 have been recorded using cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 205-216 nm egion. The rotationally resolved spectra have been assigned for a first time as originating from the nu '' = 0 X-2 Pi(r) states toward nu' = 1 and 2 vibrationally excited levels in the upper A(

  13. BACE0.85Y0.15O3-DELTA Based Materials for Inovative Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhov, Kiril; Vladikova, Daria

    2016-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a promising green technology of direct conversion of chemical energy of fuel into electricity. Among the families of metal oxides, which can be successfully used as electrodes (cathodes or anodes) in SOFC, certain members of the large family of transition-metal oxides with perovskite structure ABO _{3} were found very prospective to fulfil most of the features required for preparation of mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) oxide materials for SOFCs operated in the intermediate temperature range. In this regard Barium cerate with Y-substitution at the B-site (Ce site) is well known for excellent conduction capabilities in the temperature range 400-800 °C as a result from the proton motion in the crystal lattice. Doping with Y ^{3+} is very effective and the proton conductivity in BaCe _{1-x}Y _{x}O _{3-δ} increases with the increasing of the dopant concentration up to x =0.2. However, the phase behaviour of the composition BCY20 (x=0.20) is very complicated. Even at room temperature the crystalline structure remains contradictory because various structures of monoclinic, rhombohedral and orthorhombic symmetry are reported. The characterization of the chemical composition and stability, oxygen stoichiometry and cationic ratios of each synthesized phase is of great importance to understand the defect-chemistry that would govern the transport properties. We report on oxygen-deficient BaCe _{0.85}Y _{0.15}O _{3-δ} (BCY15) perovskites prepared by auto-combustion with following calcination at high temperature. The structural details of powder, dense and porous samples of materials based on BCY15 were investigated from full profile analysis of neutron and x-ray diffraction patterns. The materials were used recently as cathode, anode and central membrane in an innovative monolithic design of SOFC.

  14. Magnetization reversal behavior and magnetocaloric effect in SmCr0.85Mn0.15O3 chromites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Surendra; Coondoo, Indrani; Vasundhara, M.; Patra, Ajit K.; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Panwar, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized SmCr0.85Mn0.15O3 (SCMO) chromites through the ceramic route. The compound crystallized into a distorted orthorhombic structure with the Pnma space group, which was confirmed from the Rietveld refinement of x-ray powder diffraction patterns. Neel temperature, noticed at 168 K from the temperature variation of magnetisation, smaller than that reported for SmCrO3, indicated the influence of Mn3+ substitution on decreasing the antiferromagnetic ordering. A phenomenon of magnetization reversal was observed in the SCMO compound. At low magnetic fields, i.e., 500 Oe, a single compensation temperature (defined as the temperature where magnetization became zero) around 106 K was observed in the field cooled magnetization curve. However, with the application of higher magnetic fields, i.e., under an applied field of 1000 Oe, a second compensation temperature was noticed around 8 K. With a further increase in the magnetic field, the magnetization remained positive in both field cooled and zero field cooled protocols. A normal magnetocaloric effect was observed through an indirect method of field dependence of magnetisation measured in the temperature range of 2-152 K. The magnetic entropy change (-ΔS) of ˜11.36 J kg-1 K-1 along with the relative cooling power (RCP) of ˜175.89 J kg-1 was obtained in the temperature range of 10-20 K for an applied field of 90 kOe, and their values at 50 kOe applied field were, respectively, almost twenty and forty times larger in magnitude in comparison to those for the SmCrO3 compound. The relatively large values of ΔS and RCP make the studied compound a potential candidate for magnetic refrigeration applications at low temperatures.

  15. Cerebral haemodynamics during hypo- and hypercapnia. Determination with simultaneous {sup 15}O-butanol-PET and transcranial Doppler sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppel, T.D.; Hautzel, H.; Mueller, H.W.; Krause, B.J. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Terborg, C.; Witte, O.W. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie; Herzog, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizin

    2007-07-01

    Aim: Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) is increasingly used in cerebrovascular disease for monitoring brain perfusion. It allows estimation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the measurement of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV). The CBFV as well as CBF are intimately associated with the intravascular CO{sub 2}-concentration. Thus, hyper- or hypocapnia can be used to induce a defined range of blood flows. The aim of our study was the comparison of vasomotor reactivity assessed with simultaneous TCD and quantitative regional CBFmeasurements (rCBF) by PET (serving as the reference method for in-vivo quantification of rCBF). Patients, methods: Six healthy young volunteers participated in this study. CBF was measured using {sup 15}O-butanol PET. A flow and dispersion- model was fitted to the measured time activity curves using arterial input curves. Each subject underwent five scans at five different end-tidal CO2 levels (EtCO{sub 2}): 25, 32, 40, 48, and 55 mmHg. CBFV was assessed by continuous bilateral TCD of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Volumes of interest for rCBF determination were placed in grey matter of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as determined from individual MRIs. Comparisons between the rCBF, EtCO{sub 2} and CBFV were carried out with regression and correlation analysis and paired t-tests. Results: Strong positive linear correlations of rCBF and CBFV with the CO{sub 2}-concentration and linear relationships between rCBF and CBFV were found in each individual. Normalised CO{sub 2}-reactivities measured by TCD and PET were closely correlated. Conclusions: TCD-measurements of vascular reactivity in healthy volunteers show a high correlation to those acquired with PET that serves as the reference method of quantitative rCBF-measurement. The results of the MCA insonation are a close approximation of the rCBF changes induced by variations of EtCO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  16. Etude et réalisation de détecteurs ioniques de fumée sans source radioactive

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari, Zohreh

    2011-01-01

    One of the most effective smoke detectors is the ionic smoke detector. However, the present ionic detectors work thanks to a radioactive source, which is no longer favorable mainly because of difficult and expensive recycling processes. The present study has been carried out on new ionic detectors using different ion sources than radioactive ones. Three types of ionic smoke detectors are presented. The first is based on the photoelectric effect, while second and third are based on Corona disc...

  17. Radioactive geochronometry from the treatise on geochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, H D

    2011-01-01

    The history of Earth in the Solar System has been unraveled using natural radioactivity. The sources of this radioactivity are the original creation of the elements and the subsequent bombardment of objects, including Earth, in the Solar System by cosmic rays. Both radioactive and radiogenic nuclides are harnessed to arrive at ages of various events and processes on Earth. This collection of chapters from the "Treatise on Geochemistry" displays the range of radioactive geochronometric studies that have been addressed by researchers in various fields of Earth science. These range from the age of Earth and the Solar System to the dating of the history of Earth that assists us in defining the major events in Earth history. In addition, the use of radioactive geochronometry in describing rates of Earth surface processes, including the climate history recorded in ocean sediments and the patterns of circulation of the fluid Earth, has extended the range of utility of radioactive isotopes as chronometric and tracer ...

  18. Communication from the Radioactive Shipping Service

    CERN Multimedia

    DDGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive materials Import/Export service reminds you that all movements of potentially radioactive material must be declared in advance. For exports, shipping requests must be made via the EDH request form, ticking the box “radioactive material”. For imports, an electronic form must be completed before the arrival of the material. Requests which do not comply with the above procedure and any unauthorized imports of radioactive material will be refused.The same applies to imports/exports of radioactive sources. All necessary information is given in the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Phone: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00 Email: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  19. Application of radiological imaging methods to radioactive waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessaro, Ana Paula Gimenes; Souza, Daiane Cristini B. de; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: aptessaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radiological imaging technologies are most frequently used for medical diagnostic purposes but are also useful in materials characterization and other non-medical applications in research and industry. The characterization of radioactive waste packages or waste samples can also benefit from these techniques. In this paper, the application of some imaging methods is examined for the physical characterization of radioactive wastes constituted by spent ion-exchange resins and activated charcoal beds stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Department of IPEN. These wastes are generated when the filter media of the water polishing system of the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor is no longer able to maintain the required water quality and are replaced. The IEA-R1 is a 5MW pool-type reactor, moderated and cooled by light water, and fission and activation products released from the reactor core must be continuously removed to prevent activity buildup in the water. The replacement of the sorbents is carried out by pumping from the filter tanks into several 200 L drums, each drum getting a variable amount of water. Considering that the results of radioanalytical methods to determine the concentrations of radionuclides are usually expressed on dry basis,the amount of water must be known to calculate the total activity of each package. At first sight this is a trivial problem that demanded, however some effort to be solved. The findings on this subject are reported in this paper. (author)

  20. Atomic and nuclear physics with stored particles in ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Herfurth, F; Quint, W

    2002-01-01

    Trapping and cooling techniques play an increasingly important role in many areas of science. This review concentrates on recent applications of ion traps installed at accelerator facilities to atomic and nuclear physics such as mass spectrometry of radioactive isotopes, weak interaction studies, symmetry tests, determination of fundamental constants, laser spectroscopy, and spectroscopy of highly-charged ions. In addition, ion traps are proven to be extremely efficient devices for (radioactive) ion beam manipulation as, for example, retardation, accumulation, cooling, beam cleaning, charge-breeding, and bunching.

  1. Radioactive Probes on Ferromagnetic Surfaces

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On the (broad) basis of our studies of nonmagnetic radioactive probe atoms on magnetic surfaces and at interfaces, we propose to investigate the magnetic interaction of magnetic probe atoms with their immediate environment, in particular of rare earth (RE) elements positioned on and in ferromagnetic surfaces. The preparation and analysis of the structural properties of such samples will be performed in the UHV chamber HYDRA at the HMI/Berlin. For the investigations of the magnetic properties of RE atoms on surfaces Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements and Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) in the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) are proposed.

  2. Fission approach to cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D N Poenaru; R A Gherghescu

    2015-09-01

    Fission theory is used to explain decay. Also, the analytical superasymmetric fission (ASAF) model is successfully employed to make a systematic search and to predict, with other models, cluster radioactivity. The macroscopic–microscopic method is illustrated for the superheavy nucleus 286Fl. Then a few results of the theoretical approach of decay (ASAF, UNIV and semFIS models), cluster decay (ASAF and UNIV) and spontaneous fission dynamics are described with Werner–Wheeler and cranking inertia. UNIV denotes universal curve and semFIS the fission-based semiempirical formula.

  3. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up: Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, G

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's Radioactive Waste and Clean-up Division performs studies and develops strategies, techniques and technologies in the area of radioactive waste management, the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear installations and the remediation of radioactive-contaminated sites. These activities are performed in the context of our responsibility towards the safety of present and future generations and contribute to achieve intrageneration equity.

  4. Radioactive Waste Management in A Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, AT; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A; Ajaz, M.; Jan, FA

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance w...

  5. MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘自强

    1994-01-01

    The policy and principles on management of radioactive wastes are stipulated.Cement solidification and bituminization unit has come into trial run.Solid radioactive waste is stored in tentative storage vault built in each of nuclear facilities.Seventeen storages associated with applications of nuclear technology and radioisotopes have been built for provinces.Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes pursues the policy of “regional disposal”.Four repositories have been planned to be built in northwest.southwest,south and east China respectively.A program for treatment and disposal of high level radioactive waste has been made.

  6. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  7. Efficient Removal of Cationic and Anionic Radioactive Pollutants from Water Using Hydrotalcite-Based Getters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Arixin; Sarina, Sarina; Liu, Hongwei; Zheng, Zhanfeng; Xiao, Qi; Gu, Yuantong; Ayoko, Godwin A; Zhu, Huaiyong

    2016-06-29

    Hydrotalcite (HT)-based materials are usually applied to capture anionic pollutants in aqueous solutions. Generally considered anion exchangers, their ability to capture radioactive cations is rarely exploited. In the present work, we explored the ability of pristine and calcined HT getters to effectively capture radioactive cations (Sr(2+) and Ba(2+)) which can be securely stabilized at the getter surface. It is found that calcined HT outperforms its pristine counterpart in cation removal ability. Meanwhile, a novel anion removal mechanism targeting radioactive I(-) is demonstrated. This approach involves HT surface modification with silver species, namely, Ag2CO3 nanoparticles, which can attach firmly on HT surface by forming coherent interface. This HT-based anion getter can be further used to capture I(-) in aqueous solution. The observed I(-) uptake mechanism is distinctly different from the widely reported ion exchange mechanism of HT and much more efficient. As a result of the high local concentrations of precipitants on the getters, radioactive ions in water can be readily immobilized onto the getter surface by forming precipitates. The secured ionic pollutants can be subsequently removed from water by filtration or sedimentation for safe disposal. Overall, these stable, inexpensive getters are the materials of choice for removal of trace ionic pollutants from bulk radioactive liquids, especially during episodic environmental crisis.

  8. Import/Export Service of Radioactive Material and Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export Service of radioactive material (http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ - e-mail : service-rp-shipping@cern.ch) and the Radioactive Sources Service (http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources - e-mail : service-radioactive-sources@cern.ch) at bldg. 24/E-024 will be closed on FRIDAY 10 SEPTEMBER 2004. Tel. 73171

  9. Distributions of positron-emitting nuclei in proton and carbon-ion therapy studied with GEANT4

    CERN Document Server

    Pshenichnov, I; Mishustin, I; Greiner, Walter; Mishustin, Igor; Pshenichnov, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Depth distributions of positron-emitting nuclei in PMMA phantoms are calculated within a Monte Carlo model for Heavy-Ion Therapy (MCHIT) based on the GEANT4 toolkit (version 8.0). The calculated total production rates of $^{11}$C, $^{10}$C and $^{15}$O nuclei are compared with the corresponding results of the FLUKA code and with experimental data. The distributions of e$^+$ annihilation points are obtained by simulating radioactive decay of unstable nuclei and transporting positrons in surrounding medium. A finite spatial resolution of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is taken into account in a simplified way. Depth distributions of $\\beta^+$-activity as seen by a PET scanner are calculated and compared to available data for PMMA phantoms. The calculated $\\beta^+$-activity profiles are in good agreement with PET data for proton and $^{12}$C beams at energies suitable for particle therapy. The MCHIT capabilities to calculate $\\beta^+$-activity distributions in tissue-like materials of different chemical ...

  10. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  11. Residual biomass for removal of uranyl ions;Biomassa residual para remocao de ions uranilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniolo, Milena Rodrigues [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFScar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biogeoquimica Ambiental; Yamaura, Mitiko; Monteiro, Raquel Almeida, E-mail: milenaboniolo@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente

    2010-07-01

    Activities related to nuclear industry, production of phosphoric acid and hospitals have generated considerable volumes of radioactive waste containing uranyl ions. Banana pith was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and was investigated as a biosorbent for uranyl ions from nitric solutions by batch experiments. Influences of adsorbent size, kinetics and equilibrium adsorption were studied. The biosorption of the uranyl ions followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorption isotherm data were closely fitted to the Freundlich equation. (author)

  12. Arterial spin labeling in patients with chic cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease - Correlation with {sup 15}O-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamano, Hironori; Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Abe, Koichiro; Yamashita, Koji; Honda, Hiroshi [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)], e-mail: tsu@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Togao, Osamu [Dept. of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Background: Heterogeneity of arterial transit time due to cerebral artery steno-occlusive lesions hampers accurate regional cerebral blood flow measurement by arterial spin labeling (ASL). Purpose: To assess the feasibility of regional cerebral blood flow measurement by ASL with multiple-delay time sampling in patients with steno-occlusive diseases by comparing with positron emission tomography (PET), and to determine whether regional arterial transit time measured by this ASL technique is correlated with regional mean transit time, a PET index of perfusion pressure. Material and Methods: Sixteen patients with steno-occlusive diseases received both ASL and {sup 15}O-PET. The mean regional cerebral blood flow measured by ASL and PET, regional arterial transit time by ASL, and regional mean transit time by PET were obtained by a region-of-interest analysis. Correlation between regional cerebral blood flow by ASL and that by PET, and correlation between regional arterial transit time by ASL and regional mean transit time by PET were tested using Pearson's correlation coefficient for both absolute and relative values. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to test whether regional arterial transit time by ASL was a significant contributor in modeling regional mean transit time by PET after controlling the effect of regional cerebral blood flow by ASL. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between regional cerebral blood flow by ASL and that by PET for both absolute (r = 0.520, P < 0.0001) and relative (r = 0.691, P < 0.0001) values. A significant positive correlation was found between regional arterial transit time by ASL and regional mean transit time by PET both for absolute (r = 0.369, P = 0.0002) and relative (r = 0.443, P < 0.0001) values. The regression analysis revealed that regional arterial transit time by ASL was a significant contributor in modeling regional mean transit time by PET after controlling regional cerebral blood flow by

  13. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The Electron String type of Ion Sources (ESIS) was developed, constructed and tested first in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These ion sources can be the appropriate sources for production of pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams which can be used for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact the test ESIS Krion-6T already now at the solenoid magnetic field only 4.6 T provides more than 10^10 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5*10^9 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable for application at synchrotrons. It was also found, that Krion-6T can provide more than 10^11 C6+ ions per second at 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. As for production of 11C radioactive ion beams ESIS can be the most economic kind of ion source. To proof that the special cryogenic cell for pulse injection of gaseous species into electron string was successfully tested using the ESIS Krion-2M.

  14. REMOTE DETECTION OF RADIOACTIVE PLUMES USING MILLIMETER WAVE TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnowski, R.; Chien; H.; Gopalsami, N.

    2009-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, a common method for manufacturing weapons-grade special nuclear materials, is accompanied by the release of fi ssion products trapped within the fuel. One of these fi ssion products is a radioactive isotope of Krypton (Kr-85); a pure β- emitter with a half-life of 10.72 years. Due to its chemical neutrality and relatively long half life, nearly all of the Kr-85 is released into the surrounding air during reprocessing, resulting in a concentration of Kr-85 near the source that is several orders of magnitude higher than the typical background (atmospheric) concentrations. This high concentration of Kr-85 is accompanied by a proportionately high increase in air ionization due to the release of beta radiation from Kr-85 decay. Millimeter wave (MMW) sensing technology can be used to detect the presence of Kr-85 induced plumes since a high concentration of ions in the air increases the radar cross section due to a combination of atmospheric phenomena. Possible applications for this technology include the remote sensing of reprocessing activities across national borders bolstering global anti-proliferation initiatives. The feasibility of using MMW radar technology to uniquely detect the presence of Kr-85 can be tested using commercial ion generators or sealed radioactive sources in the laboratory. In this paper we describe our work to derive an ion dispersion model that will describe the spatial distribution of ions from Kr-85 and other common lab sources. The types and energies of radiation emitted by isotopes Co-60 and Cs-137 were researched, and these parameters were incorporated into these dispersion models. Our results can be compared with the results of MMW detection experiments in order to quantify the relationship between radar cross section and air ionization as well as to further calibrate the MMW detection equipment.

  15. A study of the formation, purification and application as a SWNT growth catalyst of the nanocluster [HxPMo12O40[subset]H4Mo72Fe30(O2CMe)15O254(H2O)98].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robin E; Colorado, Ramon; Crouse, Christopher; Ogrin, Douglas; Maruyama, Benji; Pender, Mark J; Edwards, Christopher L; Whitsitt, Elizabeth; Moore, Valerie C; Koveal, Dorothy; Lupu, Corina; Stewart, Michael P; Smalley, Richard E; Tour, James M; Barron, Andrew R

    2006-07-07

    The synthetic conditions for the isolation of the iron-molybdenum nanocluster FeMoC [HxPMo12O40 [subset]H4Mo72Fe30(O2CMe)15O254(H2O)98], along with its application as a catalyst precursor for VLS growth of SWNTs have been studied. As-prepared FeMoC is contaminated with the Keplerate cage [H4Mo72Fe30(O2CMe)15O254(H2O)98] without the Keggin [HxPMo12O40]n- template, however, isolation of pure FeMoC may be accomplished by Soxhlet extraction with EtOH. The resulting EtOH solvate is consistent with the replacement of the water ligands coordinated to Fe being substituted by EtOH. FeMoC-EtOH has been characterized by IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, MS, XPS and 31P NMR. The solid-state 31P NMR spectrum for FeMoC-EtOH (delta-5.3 ppm) suggests little effect of the paramagnetic Fe3+ centers in the Keplerate cage on the Keggin ion's phosphorous. The high chemical shift anisotropy, and calculated T1 (35 ms) and T2 (8 ms) values are consistent with a weak magnetic interaction between the Keggin ion's phosphorus symmetrically located within the Keplerate cage. Increasing the FeCl2 concentration and decreasing the pH of the reaction mixture optimizes the yield of FeMoC. The solubility and stability of FeMoC in H2O and MeOH-H2O is investigated. The TGA of FeMoC-EtOH under air, Ar and H2 (in combination with XPS) shows that upon thermolysis the resulting Fe : Mo ratio is highly dependent on the reaction atmosphere: thermolysis in air results in significant loss of volatile molybdenum components. Pure FeMoC-EtOH is found to be essentially inactive as a pre-catalyst for the VLS growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) irrespective of the substrate or reaction conditions. However, reaction of FeMoC with pyrazine (pyz) results in the formation of aggregates that are found to be active catalysts for the growth of SWNTs. Activation of FeMoC may also be accomplished by the addition of excess iron. The observation of prior work's reported growth of SWNTs from FeMoC is discussed with respect

  16. A Second Generation Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Äystö, J; Lindroos, M; Ravn, H L; Van Duppen, P

    2000-01-01

    The proposed Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) at CERN would be an ideal driver for a proton-driven second-generation Radioactive Nuclear Beam facility. We propose to investigate the feasibility of constructing such a facility at CERN close to the present PS Booster ISOLDE facility. The existing ISOLDE facility would be fed with a 10 micro-amps proton beam from SPL, providing the physics community with a low-intensity experimental area. A second, new facility would be built with target stations deep underground, permitting proton beam intensities of more than 100 micro-amps. The secondary beams can be post-accelerated to 20-100 MeV/u and there will be a storage ring complex and large segmented detectors in the experimental area. Also, benefits from a muon-ion collider or from merging the ions and muons should be investigated. Since the antiproton decelerator would be nearby, the opportunities for antiprotonic radioactive atom studies should be pursued as well.

  17. Production and trapping of radioactive atoms at the TRI{mu}P facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traykov, E. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: traykov@kvi.nl; Dammalapati, U.; De, S.; Dermois, O.C.; Huisman, L.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.; Mol, A.J.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Silva e Silva, M. da; Sohani, M.; Versolato, O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-10-15

    The structures for the TRI{mu}P facility have been completed and commissioned. At the facility radioactive nuclides are produced to study fundamental interactions and symmetries. An important feature is the possibility to trap radioactive atoms in order to obtain and hold a pure substrate-free sample for precision measurements. In the TRI{mu}P facility a production target is followed by a magnetic separator, where radioactive isotopes are produced in inverse reaction kinematics. Separation up to 99.95% could be achieved for {sup 21}Na. A novel transmitting thermal ionizing device was developed to stop the energetic isotopes. Some 50% of stopped {sup 21}Na could be extracted and transported as low energy singly charged ions into a radio frequency quadrupole cooler and buncher with 35% transmission efficiency. The ions are transported lossless via a drift tube and a low energy electrostatic beam line into the experimental setup. Such ions can be neutralized on hot metal foils and the resulting atoms can be stored in a magneto-optical trap. The functioning of that principle was demonstrated with stable Na extracted from the thermal ionizer, radioactive beams will follow next.

  18. Production and trapping of radioactive atoms at the TRI\\muP facility

    CERN Document Server

    Traykov, E; De, S; Dermois, O C; Huisman, L; Jungmann, K; Kruithof, W; Mol, A J; Onderwater, C J G; Rogachevskiy, A; Silva, M da Silva e; Sohani, M; Versolato, O; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2007-01-01

    The structures for the TRI$\\mu$P facility have been completed and commissioned. At the facility radioactive nuclides will be produced to study fundamental interactions and symmetries. An important feature is the possibility to trap radioactive atom in order to obtain and hold a pure substrate-free sample that will allow precision measurements. The TRI$\\mu$P facility consists of a chain of several separate units: A production target followed by a magnetic separator produces fast radioactive isotopes. The separator is commissioned and is operating. Various modes to produce radioactive particles have been tested for optimal production. A thermal ionizer stops the fast products and transports the nuclides as low energy singly charged ions into a radio frequency quadrupole cooler and buncher. This allows one to collect and transport the ions via a drift tube and a low energy beam line into a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The ions are neutralized in the MOT chamber and will be transported to a second trap for $\\beta$...

  19. Quantitative analysis of coronary endothelial function with generator-produced {sup 82}Rb PET: comparison with {sup 15}O-labelled water PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Photobiology, Division of Molecular/Cellular Imaging, Kita-Ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University of Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Hokkaido University of Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Sapporo (Japan); Chen, Li; Kemp, Robert A. de; Williams, Kathryn; Beanlands, Rob S.B. [University of Ottawa Heart Institute, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Klein, Ran [Hokkaido University of Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); University of Ottawa Heart Institute, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Naya, Masanao [Hokkaido University of Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Sapporo (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Endothelial dysfunction is the earliest abnormality in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. {sup 82}Rb is a generator-produced positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion tracer that is becoming more widely used. We aimed to (1) develop a method for quantitative assessment of coronary endothelial function using the myocardial blood flow (MBF) response during a cold pressor test (CPT) in smokers, measured using {sup 82}Rb PET, and (2) compare the results with those measured using {sup 15}O-water PET. MBF was assessed at rest and during the CPT with {sup 82}Rb and {sup 15}O-water in nine controls and ten smokers. A one-compartment model with tracer extraction correction was used to estimate MBF with both tracers. CPT response was calculated as the ratio of MBF during the CPT to MBF at rest. At rest, measurements of MBF for smokers vs controls were not different using {sup 15}O-water (0.86 {+-} 0.18 vs 0.70 {+-} 0.13, p = 0.426) than they were using {sup 82}Rb (0.83 {+-} 0.23 vs 0.62 {+-} 0.20, p = 0.051). Both methods showed a reduced CPT response in smokers vs controls ({sup 15}O-water, 1.03 {+-} 0.21 vs 1.42 {+-} 0.29, p = 0.006; {sup 82}Rb, 1.02 {+-} 0.28 vs 1.70 {+-} 0.52, p < 0.001). There was high reliability [intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.48 (0.07, 0.75)] of MBF measurement between {sup 82}Rb and {sup 15}O-water during the CPT. Using a CPT, {sup 82}Rb MBF measurements detected coronary endothelial dysfunctions in smokers. {sup 82}Rb MBF measurements were comparable to those made using the {sup 15}O-water approach. Thus, {sup 82}Rb PET may be applicable for risk assessments or evaluation of risk factor modification in subjects with coronary risk factors. (orig.)

  20. Removal of uranyl ions by p-hexasulfonated calyx[6]arene acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu (Hoştuc), Ioana-Carmen; Petru, Filip; Humelnicu, Ionel; Mateescu, Marina; Militaru, Ecaterina; Humelnicu, Doina

    2014-10-01

    Radioactive pollution is a significant threat for the people’s health. Therefore highly effective radioactive decontamination methods are required. Ion exchange, biotechnologies and phytoremediation in constructed wetlands have been used as radioactive decontamination technologies for uranium contaminated soil and water remediation. Recently, beside those classical methods the calix[n]arenic derivatives’ utilization as radioactive decontaminators has jogged attention. The present work aims to present the preliminary research results of uranyl ion sorption studies on the p-hexasulfonated calyx[6]arenic acid. The effect of temperature, contact time, sorbent amount and uranyl concentration variation on sorption efficiency was investigated. Isotherm models revealed that the sorption process fit better Langmuir isotherm.

  1. Removal of uranyl ions by p-hexasulfonated calyx[6]arene acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Ioana-Carmen [R and D National Institute for Metals and Radioactive Resources–ICPMRR, B-dul Carol I No.70, Sector 2, Bucharest 020917 (Romania); Petru, Filip [“C.D. Nenitescu” Institute of Organic Chemistry, Splaiul Independentei 202B, Sector 6, Bucharest 71141 (Romania); Humelnicu, Ionel [“Al.I. Cuza” University of Iasi, The Faculty of Chemistry, Bd. Carol-I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Mateescu, Marina [National R and D Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Splaiul Independenţei No. 202, Bucharest 060021 (Romania); Militaru, Ecaterina [R and D National Institute for Metals and Radioactive Resources–ICPMRR, B-dul Carol I No.70, Sector 2, Bucharest 020917 (Romania); Humelnicu, Doina, E-mail: doinah@uaic.ro [“Al.I. Cuza” University of Iasi, The Faculty of Chemistry, Bd. Carol-I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive pollution is a significant threat for the people’s health. Therefore highly effective radioactive decontamination methods are required. Ion exchange, biotechnologies and phytoremediation in constructed wetlands have been used as radioactive decontamination technologies for uranium contaminated soil and water remediation. Recently, beside those classical methods the calix[n]arenic derivatives’ utilization as radioactive decontaminators has jogged attention. The present work aims to present the preliminary research results of uranyl ion sorption studies on the p-hexasulfonated calyx[6]arenic acid. The effect of temperature, contact time, sorbent amount and uranyl concentration variation on sorption efficiency was investigated. Isotherm models revealed that the sorption process fit better Langmuir isotherm.

  2. Research on Calibration of Radioactive Aerosol Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xi-lin; WU; Chang-ping; ZHANG; Xi; MENG; Jun; DIAO; Li-jun; CHEN; Ke-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive aerosol monitors were used to monitor the radioactive substance concentration or the total amounts in effluents from the nuclear facilities,in according to which evaluation was done if the national regulated discharged limitations or the designated object amounts were met

  3. Measurements of radioactive contaminants in semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Murray, Conal E.; McNally, Brendan D.

    2016-12-01

    The emission of alpha particles from materials used to manufacture semiconductors can contribute substantially to the single-event upset rate. The alpha particles originate from contamination in the materials, or from radioactive isotopes, themselves. In this review paper, we discuss the sources of the radioactivity and the measurement methods to detect the emitted particles.

  4. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items. (DC)

  5. An Excel™ model of a radioactive series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. G. H.

    2009-01-01

    A computer model of the decay of a radioactive series, written in Visual Basic in Excel™, is presented. The model is based on the random selection of cells in an array. The results compare well with the theoretical equations. The model is a useful tool in teaching this aspect of radioactivity.

  6. Note from the Radioactive Waste Section

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to announce that the radioactive waste treatment centre will be closed on Friday, 19 December. In addition, waste reception will be limited to a strict minimum on Thursday, 18 December. Users of the centre are requested to adjust their plans accordingly. For more information, call 73875.

  7. Establishment of Radioactive Waste Running Safely in Whole Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In 2008, the radioactive wastes treatment and operation center received about 90 m3 of radioactiveliquid waste, about 30 m3 of radioactive solid waste, and about 160 million m3 of treated radioactive

  8. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  9. Structural and impedance studies of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 synthesized by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Laurel Simon; Rubankumar, A.; Kalainathan, S.

    2016-05-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is synthesized by sol-gel method by using succinic acid as chelating agent. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the material is spinel cubic structure with Fd3m space group. Impedance spectroscopy analysis of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was performed under a wide frequency and temperature range of 50 Hz to 5 MHz and 303 K to 783 K respectively. The hopping of the electrons, ionic conductivity and activation energy were analyzed from the relaxation frequency of the imaginary impedance (Z"). The activation energy Ea is calculated from the Arrhenius plots and it is found to be 0.3713 eV, which indicates the existence of oxygen vacancy in the material. Nyquist plot indicates the presence of grain effect in the material and suppression in the grain effect is observed with increasing temperature.

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of 5V spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 prepared by solid-state reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qiang; LI Xin-hai; WANG Zhi-xing; JI Yong

    2009-01-01

    Spinel compound LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with high capacity and high rate capability was synthesized by solid-state reaction. At first, MnCl2·4H2O and NiCl2·6H2O were reacted with (NH4)2C2O4·H2O to produce a precursor via a low-temperature solid-state route, then the precursor was reacted with Li2CO3 to synthesize LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. The effects of calcination temperature and time on the physical properties and electrochemical performance of the products were investigated. Samples were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffractometry(XRD), charge-discharge tests and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) image shows that as calcination temperature and time increase, the crystallinity of the samples is improved, and their grain sizes are obviously increased. It is found that LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 calcined at 800 ℃ for 6 h exhibits a typical cubic spinel structure with a space group of Fd3m. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the sample obtained possesses high capacity and excellent rate capability. When being discharged at a rate as high as 5C after 30 cycles, the as-prepared LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders can still deliver a capacity of 101 mA-h/g, which shows to be a potential cathode material for high power batteries.

  11. 11. international conference on ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C.; Cheng, D.; Galloway, M.L.; Leitner, M.; Todd, D.S.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ando, L.; Torrisi, L.; Cavenago, M.; Galata, A.; Spaedtke, P.; Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Iannucci, R.; Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Hitz, D.; Koivisto, H.; Suominen, P.; Tarvainen, O.; Beijers, H.; Brandenburg, S.; Vanrooyen, D.; Hillo, C.; Kuchler, D.; Homeyer, H.; Rohrich, J.; Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Nakagawa, T.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Aihara, T.; Kase, M.; Goto, A.; Yang, Y.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, Z.M.; Zhang, X.Z.; Guo, X.H.; He, W.E.; Sun, L.T.; Yuan, P.; Song, M.T.; Xie, Z.Q.; Cao, Y.; Zhan, W.L.; Wei, B.W.; Bricault, P.; Lau, C.; Essabaa, S.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Bajeat, O.; Ducourtieux, M.; Lefort, H.; Panteleev, V.N.; Barzakh, A.E.; Fedorov, D.V.; Ionan, A.M.; Mezilev, K.A.; Moroz, F.V.; Orlov, S.Y.; Volkov, Y.M.; Andrighetto, A.; Lhersonneau, G.; Rizzi, V.; Tecchio, L.B.; Dubois, M.; Gaubert, G.; Jardins, P.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Saint Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.O.; Bajeat, O.; Essabaa, S.; Lau, C.; Menna, M.; Franberg, H.; Ammann, M.; Gdggeler, H.W.; Koster, U.; Allen, F.; Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Ames, F.; Baartman, R.; Bricault, P.; Jayamanna, K.; Lamy, T.; McDonald, M.; Olivo, M.; Schmorl, P.; Yuan, D.H.L.; Asaji, T.; Sasaki, H.; Kato, Y.; Atabaev, B.; Radjabov, S.S.; Akhmadjanova, M.K.; Yuzikaeva, F.R.; Baoqun, Cui; Liqiang, Li; Yingjun, Ma; Shengyun, Zhu; Cong, Jiang

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers the summaries of the presentations made at ICIS05 (international conference on ion sources). It can be organized into 3 main topics: 1) 'fundamentals and theory' that deals with plasma, beam extraction, transport and emittance, diagnostics and simulation; 2) 'various types of ion sources' that include ECRIS, EBIS, microwave, negative, radioactive, polarized and laser ion sources, and charge breeders; and 3) 'ion sources and applications' in fields like accelerator injection, fusion energy, space propulsion, mass spectrometry, and neutron and cluster and rare nuclide production.

  12. Parametric imaging of myocardial viability using {sup 15}O-labelled water and PET/CT: comparison with late gadolinium-enhanced CMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, Stefan de; Allaart, Cornelis P.; Danad, Ibrahim; Rossum, Albert C. van; Knaapen, Paul [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Harms, Hendrik J.; Lubberink, Mark; Lammertsma, Adriaan A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chen, Weena J.Y.; Diamant, Michaela [Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Iida, Hidehiro [National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    The perfusable tissue index (PTI) is a marker of myocardial viability. Recent technological advances have made it possible to generate parametric PTI images from a single [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET/CT scan. The purpose of this study was to validate these parametric PTI images. The study population comprised 46 patients with documented or suspected coronary artery disease who were studied with [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET and late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Of the 736 myocardial segments included, 364 showed some degree of LGE. PTI and perfusable tissue fraction (PTF) diminished with increasing LGE. The areas under the curve of the PTI and PTF, used to predict (near) transmural LGE on CMR, were 0.86 and 0.87, respectively. Optimal sensitivity and specificity were 91 % and 73 % for PTI and 69 % and 87 % for PTF, respectively. PTI and PTF assessed with a single [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O scan can be utilized as markers of myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  13. Giant low-field magnetocaloric effect in single-crystalline EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Roy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetic single crystal EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 has been investigated using magnetization and heat capacity measurements. EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 undergoes a continuous ferromagnetic phase transition at TC = 9.5 K due to the long range ordering of magnetic moments of Eu2+ (4f7. With the application of magnetic field, the spin entropy is strongly suppressed and a giant magnetic entropy change is observed near TC. The values of entropy change ΔSm and adiabatic temperature change ΔTad are as high as 51.3 J kg−1 K−1 and 22 K, respectively, for a field change of 0–9 T. The corresponding magnetic heating/cooling capacity is 700 J kg−1. This compound also shows large magnetocaloric effect even at low magnetic fields. In particular, the values of ΔSm reach 14.7 and 23.8 J kg−1 K−1 for field changes of 0–1 T and 0–2 T, respectively. The low-field giant magnetocaloric effect, together with the absence of thermal and field hysteresis makes EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 a very promising candidate for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  14. Comparison of cerebral blood flow measurement with [15O]-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Audrey P; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Holdsworth, Samantha J; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Noninvasive imaging of cerebral blood flow provides critical information to understand normal brain physiology as well as to identify and manage patients with neurological disorders. To date, the reference standard for cerebral blood flow measurements is considered to be positron emission tomography using injection of the [(15)O]-water radiotracer. Although [(15)O]-water has been used to study brain perfusion under normal and pathological conditions, it is not widely used in clinical settings due to the need for an on-site cyclotron, the invasive nature of arterial blood sampling, and experimental complexity. As an alternative, arterial spin labeling is a promising magnetic resonance imaging technique that magnetically labels arterial blood as it flows into the brain to map cerebral blood flow. As arterial spin labeling becomes more widely adopted in research and clinical settings, efforts have sought to standardize the method and validate its cerebral blood flow values against positron emission tomography-based cerebral blood flow measurements. The purpose of this work is to critically review studies that performed both [(15)O]-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling to measure brain perfusion, with the aim of better understanding the accuracy and reproducibility of arterial spin labeling relative to the positron emission tomography reference standard.

  15. Giant low-field magnetocaloric effect in single-crystalline EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S.; Khan, N.; Mandal, P.

    2016-02-01

    The magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetic single crystal EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 has been investigated using magnetization and heat capacity measurements. EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 undergoes a continuous ferromagnetic phase transition at TC = 9.5 K due to the long range ordering of magnetic moments of Eu2+ (4f7). With the application of magnetic field, the spin entropy is strongly suppressed and a giant magnetic entropy change is observed near TC. The values of entropy change ΔSm and adiabatic temperature change ΔTad are as high as 51.3 J kg-1 K-1 and 22 K, respectively, for a field change of 0-9 T. The corresponding magnetic heating/cooling capacity is 700 J kg-1. This compound also shows large magnetocaloric effect even at low magnetic fields. In particular, the values of ΔSm reach 14.7 and 23.8 J kg-1 K-1 for field changes of 0-1 T and 0-2 T, respectively. The low-field giant magnetocaloric effect, together with the absence of thermal and field hysteresis makes EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 a very promising candidate for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  16. HIGH TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES - SIA RADON EXPERIENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Lifanov, F.A.; Kobelev, A.P.; Popkov, V.N.; Polkanov, M.A.; Savkin, A.E.; Varlakov, A.P.; Karlin, S.V.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Karlina, O.K.; Semenov, K.N.

    2003-02-27

    This review describes high temperature methods of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) treatment currently used at SIA Radon. Solid and liquid organic and mixed organic and inorganic wastes are subjected to plasma heating in a shaft furnace with formation of stable leach resistant slag suitable for disposal in near-surface repositories. Liquid inorganic radioactive waste is vitrified in a cold crucible based plant with borosilicate glass productivity up to 75 kg/h. Radioactive silts from settlers are heat-treated at 500-700 0C in electric furnace forming cake following by cake crushing, charging into 200 L barrels and soaking with cement grout. Various thermochemical technologies for decontamination of metallic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces, treatment of organic wastes (spent ion-exchange resins, polymers, medical and biological wastes), batch vitrification of incinerator ashes, calcines, spent inorganic sorbents, contaminated soil, treatment of carbon containing 14C nuclide, reactor graphite, lubricants have been developed and implemented.

  17. Electrical and physical properties of composite BaZr0.85Y0.15O3-d-Nd0.1Ce0.9O2-δ electrolytes for intermediate temperature-solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ka-Young; Lee, Tae-Hee; Jo, Suyeon; Yang, Jayoon; Song, Sun-Ju; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Kim, Jung Hyun; Park, Jun-Young

    2016-12-01

    Co-ionic (H+/O2-) electrolytes are fabricated by compositing both proton conductor (BaZr0.85Y0.15O3-δ, BZY) and oxygen-ion conductor (Nd0.1Ce0.9O2-δ, NDC) for intermediate temperature-solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). This hybrid electrolyte decreases the electronic loss of NDC under reducing atmospheres and improves the poor sinterability of BZY. The electronic conduction caused by the NDC reduction is effectively blocked by the BZY in the composite electrolyte, thus offering both advantages of BZY with its high OCV and more rigid electro-chemo-mechanical property. In addition, the composite BZY-NDC electrolyte also exhibits great chemical stability against exposure to steam and CO2. Furthermore, the compositing of BZY and NDC improves the proton conductivity of the electrolytes, and the conductivity of composite electrolyte is higher than that of single BZY at temperatures >600 °C.

  18. Sustainable and Superior Heat-Resistant Alginate Nonwoven Separator of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li Batteries Operated at 55 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Huijie; Zhang, Jianjun; Chai, Jingchao; Ma, Jun; Yue, Liping; Dong, Tiantian; Zang, Xiao; Liu, Zhihong; Zhang, Botao; Cui, Guanglei

    2017-02-01

    High-voltage lithium-ion batteries have become a major research focus. As a major part of lithium batteries, the separator plays a critical role in the development of high-voltage lithium batteries. Herein, we demonstrated a sustainable and superior heat-resistant alginate nonwoven separator for high-voltage (5 V) lithium batteries. It was demonstrated that the resultant alginate nonwoven separator exhibited better mechanical property (37 MPa), superior thermal stability (up to 150 °C), and higher ionic conductivity (1.4 × 10(-3) S/cm) as compared to commercially available polyolefin (PP) separator. More impressively, the 5 V class LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO)/Li cell with this alginate nonwoven separator delivered much better cycling stability (maintaining 79.6% of its initial discharge capacity) than that (69.3%) of PP separator after 200 cycles at an elevated temperature of 55 °C. In addition, the LiFePO4/Li cell assembled with such alginate nonwoven separator could still charge and discharge normally even at an elevated temperature of 150 °C. The above-mentioned fascinating characteristics of alginate separator provide great probability for its application for high-voltage (5 V) lithium batteries at elevated temperatures.

  19. Natural radioactivity in groundwater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Chau, Nguyen; Dulinski, Marek; Jodlowski, Pawel; Nowak, Jakub; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Sleziak, Monika; Wachniew, Przemyslaw

    2011-12-01

    The issue of natural radioactivity in groundwater is reviewed, with emphasis on those radioisotopes which contribute in a significant way to the overall effective dose received by members of the public due to the intake of drinking water originating from groundwater systems. The term 'natural radioactivity' is used in this context to cover all radioactivity present in the environment, including man-made (anthropogenic) radioactivity. Comprehensive discussion of radiological aspects of the presence of natural radionuclides in groundwater, including an overview of current regulations dealing with radioactivity in drinking water, is provided. The presented data indicate that thorough assessments of the committed doses resulting from the presence of natural radioactivity in groundwater are needed, particularly when such water is envisaged for regular intake by infants. They should be based on a precise determination of radioactivity concentration levels of the whole suite of radionuclides, including characterisation of their temporal variability. Equally important is a realistic assessment of water intake values for specific age groups. Only such an evaluation may provide the basis for possible remedial actions.

  20. A laboratory activity for teaching natural radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilakouta, M.; Savidou, A.; Vasileiadou, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an educational approach for teaching natural radioactivity using commercial granite samples. A laboratory activity focusing on the topic of natural radioactivity is designed to develop the knowledge and understanding of undergraduate university students on the topic of radioactivity, to appreciate the importance of environmental radioactivity and familiarize them with the basic technology used in radioactivity measurements. The laboratory activity is divided into three parts: (i) measurements of the count rate with a Geiger-Muller counter of some granite samples and the ambient background radiation rate, (ii) measurement of one of the samples using gamma ray spectrometry with a NaI detector and identification of the radioactive elements of the sample, (iii) using already recorded 24 h gamma ray spectra of the samples from the first part (from the Granite Gamma-Ray Spectrum Library (GGRSL) of our laboratory) and analyzing selected peaks in the spectrum, students estimate the contribution of each radioactive element to the total specific activity of each sample. A brief description of the activity as well as some results and their interpretation are presented.

  1. Solidification of radioactive liquid wastes. A comparison of treatment options for spent resins and concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, A. [Hansa Projekt Anlagentechnik GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Willmann, F. [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Mannheim (Germany); Ebata, M. [Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, Isogo-Ku, Yokohama (Japan); Wendt, S. [Hansa Projekt Anlagentechnik GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Ion exchange is one of the most common and effective treatment methods for liquid radioactive waste. However, spent ion exchange resins are considered to be problematic waste that in many cases require special approaches and pre-conditioning during its immobilization to meet the acceptance criteria for disposal. Because of the function that they fulfill, spent ion exchange resins often contain high concentrations of radioactivity and pose special handling and treatment problems. Another very common method of liquid radioactive waste treatment and water cleaning is the evaporation or diaphragm filtration. Both treatment options offer a high volume reduction of the total volume of liquids treated but generate concentrates which contain high concentrations of radioactivity. Both mentioned waste streams, spent resins as well as concentrates, resulting from first step liquid radioactive waste treatment systems have to be conditioned in a suitable manner to achieve stable waste products for final disposal. The most common method of treatment of such waste streams is the solidification in a solid matrix with additional inactive material like cement, polymer etc. In the past good results have been achieved and the high concentration of radioactivity can be reduced by adding the inactive material. On the other hand, under the environment of limited space for interim storage and the absence of a final repository site, the built-up of additional volume has to be considered as very critical. Moreover, corrosive effects on cemented drums during long-term interim storage at the surface have raised doubts about the long-term stability of such waste products. In order to avoid such disadvantages solidification methods have been improved in order to get a well-defined product with a better load factor of wastes in the matrix. In a complete different approach, other technologies solidify the liquid radioactive wastes without adding of any inactive material by means of drying

  2. Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-08-31

    A screening investigation of radioactivity in Danish drinking water has been carried out during 2001-2003. Samples of drinking water were collected from 296 water supplies representing more than 40% of the water delivered from water works in the country. Total alpha and total beta radioactivity was determined in the samples and compared with screening levels of 0.1 Bq/l total alpha and 1 Bq/l total beta radioactivity. The levels for total beta radioactivity were met in all the water works while total alpha radioactivity exceeded the screening levels for 13 water supplies. Further investigations were carried out for the water works with concentrations of alpha radioactivity above the screening levels in Ebeltoft, Grenae and Frederikssund to estimate the total indicative dose from the water. The elevated levels were found to be due to uranium in the water from individual boreholes. Radiation doses from consumption of water at these uranium levels are estimated to be well below the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/y specified in the Drinking Water Directive Groundwater used for drinking water was collected from different types of geological structures including bed rock and areas with potentially elevated levels of natural radioactivity. Also in these cases the concentrations of radioactivity were sufficiently low to meet the requirements in the Drinking Water Directive. In view of the results it seems probable that the risk of finding drinking water in Denmark with unacceptable concentrations of radioactivity is very small. Therefore there is no need for further radiological investigations of the Danish water supply based on natural groundwaters. (au)

  3. The Radioactive Waste Management at Studsvik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, R.; Lindskog, A.

    1966-04-15

    The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries.

  4. Radioactive waste management in member states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this part of the report is to present a brief overview of key issues in radioactive waste management on a nation-by-nation basis. Member State representatives were asked to address nine questions in no more than three or four pages. Hence, by design, the presentations are not comprehensive. Even so, the information set out here should provide the reader valuable insights into the nature of problems associated with radioactive waste management. The materials may also be used as a ready reference for specific information about radioactive waste management in individual Member States as well as for comparative purposes. (author).

  5. Environmental radioactivity survey data in Cheonju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mo Sung; Goo, Hyun Mi [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    We surveyed the en environmental radiation and radioactivity in Chungcheongbuk-do in order to provide baseline data in the year of 2003. Data generated from the project will be the information base for making decisions necessary to ensure the protection of public health. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Cheongju regional monitoring station In the year 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  6. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  7. Nuclear Astrophysics Measurements with Radioactive Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael S.; Ernst Rehm, K.

    Radioactive nuclei play an important role in a diverse range of astrophysical phenomena including the early universe, the sun, red giant stars, nova explosions, X-ray bursts, supernova explosions, and supermassive stars. Measurements of reactions with beams of short-lived radioactive nuclei can, for the first time, probe the nuclear reactions occurring in these cosmic phenomena. This article describes the astrophysical motivation for experiments with radioactive beams, the techniques to produce these beams and perform astrophysically relevant measurements, results from recent experiments, and plans for future facilities.

  8. Communication from the Radioactive Waste Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste service of the Radiation protection Group informs you that as of 15 April 2011 radioactive waste can be delivered to the waste treatment centre (Bldg. 573) only during the following hours: Mon- Thu: 08:00 – 11:30 / 13:30 – 16:00 Fri : 08:00 – 11:30 An electronic form must be filled in before the arrival of the waste at the treatment centre: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/General/RadioactiveWaste for further information, please call 73171.

  9. Is Radioactive Decay Really Exponential?

    CERN Document Server

    Aston, Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive decay of an unstable isotope is widely believed to be exponential. This view is supported by experiments on rapidly decaying isotopes but is more difficult to verify for slowly decaying isotopes. The decay of 14C can be calibrated over a period of 12,550 years by comparing radiocarbon dates with dates obtained from dendrochronology. It is well known that this approach shows that radiocarbon dates of over 3,000 years are in error, which is generally attributed to past variation in atmospheric levels of 14C. We note that predicted atmospheric variation (assuming exponential decay) does not agree with results from modelling, and that theoretical quantum mechanics does not predict exact exponential decay. We give mathematical arguments that non-exponential decay should be expected for slowly decaying isotopes and explore the consequences of non-exponential decay. We propose an experimental test of this prediction of non-exponential decay for 14C. If confirmed, a foundation stone of current dating meth...

  10. 不同锂过量和镍过量对5V正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4性能的影响%Effects of excess lithium and excess nickel on the performance of 5 V cathode material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张真; 王超; 张峥; 向小春; 刘兴泉

    2011-01-01

    bstract: 5 V cathode material LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 was synthesized by the self-propagating combustion method with citric acid as the complexing agent. The effects of excess lithium and excess nickel on the structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 were investigated. The results show that: the optimum excess amounts of lithium and nickel for LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 preparation are 9% and 7% (in mole ratio), respectively, when the calcination temperature is 820 "C, the calcination time is 12 h, the annealing temperature is 600 ℃ and the annealing time is 24 h. For the LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 synthesized under the above optimal conditions, its initial discharge capacity reaches 122.7 mAh · G-1, 98.5% of which is still remained after 20 cycles, and there is only one voltage plateau at around 4.7 V found in its initial charge/discharge curve.%采用柠檬酸络合自蔓延燃烧方法制备了5V正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.分别考察了不同锂过量和镍过量对LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4材料结构、形貌和电化学性能的影响.结果表明:当焙烧温度为820℃,焙烧时间为12h,退火温度为600℃,退火时间为24 h时,制备LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4的最佳锂过量为9%(摩尔分数,下同),最佳镍过量为7%,在此条件下所制样品的首次放电比容量达到122.7 mA·hg-1,20次循环后的放电比容量保持率为98.5%,且只存在单一的4.7V平台.

  11. Comparison of Structures and Dielectric Properties of Bi1.65Zn1.0Nb1.5O7.225 Ceramic and Thin Film%Bi1.65Zn1.0Nb1.5O7.225陶瓷和薄膜的结构和介电性能对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张效华; 辛凤; 胡跃辉; 杨丰; 陈义川

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7 formula, the non-stoichiometric pyrochlore Bi1.65 Zn1.0 Nb1.5 O7.225 (BZN) ceramic was prepared by adding the Bi2O3 with 10 mol% excess amount. Bi1.65 Zn1.0 Nb1.5 O7.225 ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction technology. Thin films were prepared on Pt/ SiO2/Si(100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Bi1.65Zn1.0Nb1.5 O7.225 ceramic and thin film was compared to investigate the difference of crystallinity, microstructure and dielectric properties. The results indicated that the sintered BZN ceramic and the deposited BZN thin films have a pure cubic pyrochlore structure, however, BZN thin film exhibits the strong preferential orientation of (222) plane. The lattice constant and microstructure between ceramic and thin film also both exhibit the obvious difference. After contrast the dielectric properties of ceramic and thin film, it can be concluded that the dielectric constant of BZN thin film is significantly larger than that of BZN ceramic, which can be attributed to the difference between bulk ceramic and thin film, such as thickness, density and the preferential orientation, etc.%以立方焦绿石Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7(BZN)为配方基础,通过掺入过量10%的Bi2O3,形成Bi1.65Zn1.0Nb1.5O7.225非化学计量比分子式.采用固相反应法合成具有焦绿石立方结构的Bi1.65Zn1.0Nb1.5O7.225陶瓷,并采用脉冲激光沉积法在Pt/SiO2/Si(100)基片上制备其薄膜.对比研究了非化学计量比Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7.225陶瓷和薄膜的结晶性能,微观形貌以及介电性能的差异.结果表明烧结的Bi1.65Zn1.0Nb1.5O7.225陶瓷和沉积的BZN薄膜都保持立方焦绿石单相结构,但是薄膜展现出较强的(222)晶面择优取向.陶瓷和薄膜的晶格常数,微观形貌都体现出差异.对比二者的介电特性后发现,Bi1.65Zn1.0Nb1.5O7.225薄膜的介电常数明显高于陶瓷的介电常数,这归因于薄膜和块体材料之间的差异,例如厚度,致密度,择优取向等.

  12. Remote monostatic detection of radioactive material by laser-induced breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Joshua; Miao, Chenlong; Sprangle, Phillip

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyzes and evaluates a concept for remotely detecting the presence of radioactivity using electromagnetic signatures. The detection concept is based on the use of laser beams and the resulting electromagnetic signatures near the radioactive material. Free electrons, generated from ionizing radiation associated with the radioactive material, cascade down to low energies and attach to molecular oxygen. The resulting ion density depends on the level of radioactivity and can be readily photo-ionized by a low-intensity laser beam. This process provides a controllable source of seed electrons for the further collisional ionization (breakdown) of the air using a high-power, focused, CO2 laser pulse. When the air breakdown process saturates, the ionizing CO2 radiation reflects off the plasma region and can be detected. The time required for this to occur is a function of the level of radioactivity. This monostatic detection arrangement has the advantage that both the photo-ionizing and avalanche laser beams and the detector can be co-located.

  13. DEPO-related to Radioactive Sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-24

    Design and Evaluation Process Outline (DEPO) is discussed as it pertains to protection of radioactive sources. The bulk of the report describes features of various kinds of detection systems, and follows this with systems for entry control and personnel identification.

  14. Diffusion of Radioactive Materials in the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Wali Ajlouni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The dispersion of radioactive materials in the environment related to escaping of noble gases, halogens and aerosols of non-volatile radioactive materials, from the reactor containment during normal operations, or in the event of a sever reactor accident. Approach: radionuclide dispersion in the environment is demonstrated by mathematical tools which are the partial differential equations, mainly the diffusion equation. A mathematical model to calculate the concentration of nuclear pollutants (radioactivity with certain boundary conditions is constructed. Results: Solving the mathematical model and using some approximations lead to a distribution represents a model for plume of radioactive pollutants dispersed in two dimensions normal to the wind direction in which the plume moves as an entire non-dispersible unit. Conclusion: The obtained result theoretically are very close to those achieved experimentally.

  15. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant. (LK)

  16. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  17. Radioactivity in man: levels, effects and unknowns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J.

    1980-01-01

    The report discusses the potential for significant human exposure to internal radiation. Sources of radiation considered include background radiation, fallout, reactor accidents, radioactive waste, and occupational exposure to various radioisotopes. (ACR)

  18. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-15

    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water.

  19. Proceedings of the workshop on the production and use of intense radioactive beams at the Isospin Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J.D. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    These proceedings report the deliberations of a 3 1/2 day workshop on the Production and Use of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams at the Isospin Laboratory, which was held at the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1992. The purpose of this workshop was not to duplicate the programs of other recent radioactive ion beam workshops or international conferences that have focused on the scientific concepts which radioactive beams can, and in fact already are, addressing. Instead, the intent was to address the technical problems associated with the construction of the next generation ISOL facility and to initiate a discussion of the type of experimental equipment that should be developed for such a facility. We have tried to bring together in Oak Ridge the world`s experts in radioactive targets/ion sources, light and heavy-ion accelerators, and detection systems. After 1 1/2 days of overview presentations, the participants divided into three discussion groups (Experiments with Radioactive Beams, Target Ion Sources and Mass Separation, and Accelerators-Primary and Secondary) for 1 1/2 days of detailed discussions of the most pertinent issues. The final session was devoted to reports from each of the discussion groups and a general discussion of where to go from here. An outgrowth of these discussions was the establishment of working groups to coordinate future technical developments associated with the pertinent issues. The proceedings include the text of all the overview presentations, reports from each discussion group, as well as contributions from those participants who chose to provide the text of their presentations in the discussion groups and the Concluding Remarks. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Ion-Ion Neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-31

    plasma were identified using a downstream quadrupole mass spectrometer. In these experimento it is a simple matter to establish H+(H 2 0):f as the...pressure as predicted by the Thomson t2rnary mechanism whicK hzr been suownr to be valid experimentally at hiTh rrsurs (,han and Peron, 1:EI4 hereafter t...of NO , NO2 ions in various gases and the ternary recombination coefficients of these ions in the higher pres:;ure ( Thomson ) re"ie. Equation (5) cr>n

  1. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iroulard, M.G

    2007-04-15

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  2. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Akar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate since the Chernobyl nuclear fallout in 1986. A recent report on the incidence of neural defects in the west coast of USA, following Fukushima disaster, brought another evidence for effect of radioactive fallout on the occurrence of NTD’s. Here a literature review was performed focusing on this special subject.

  3. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  4. TRI mu P - a radioactive isotope trapping facility under construction at KVI

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, G P; Dermois, O; Harakeh, M N; Hoekstra, R; Jungmann, Klaus; Kopecky, S; Morgenstern, R; Rogachevskiy, A; Timmermans, R; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2003-01-01

    At the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut a new facility (TRI mu P) is under development which aims to investigate fundamental interactions using radioactive ions. A spectrum of radioactive isotopes will be produced in inverse-kinematics and fragmentation reactions using heavy-ion beams from the superconducting cyclotron AGOR. The reaction products will be separated from the primary beam in a dual-mode recoil and fragment separator. The beam of isotopes of interest will be transformed into a low-energy, high-quality, bunched beam and, after neutralization, stored in an atom trap. The emphasis will be put on studying the origin of parity violation via beta-nu angular correlations and the search for permanent electric dipole moments of atoms and nuclei. The facility will be open to outside users; suggestions for collaborations to extend the scientific program are encouraged.

  5. 10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83... Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except as... paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, the Corporation may transfer radioactive material: (1) From...

  6. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  7. Disposal of radioactive waste. Some ethical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The threat posed to humans and nature by radioactive material is a result of the ionizing radiation released during the radioactive decay. The present use of radioactivity in medicine research and technologies produces steadily radioactive waste. It is therefore necessary to safely store this waste, particularly high level waste from nuclear facilities. The decisive factors determining the necessary duration of isolation or confinement are the physical half-life times ranging with some radionuclides up to many million years. It has therefore been accepted worldwide that the radioactive material needs to be confined isolated from the biosphere, the habitat of humans and all other organisms, for very long time periods. Although it is generally accepted that repositories for the waste are necessary, strong public emotions have been built up against the strategies to erect such installations. Apparently transparent information and public participation has been insufficient or even lacking. These problems have led to endeavours to achieve public acceptance and to consider ethical acceptability. Some aspects of such discussions and possibilities will be taken up in this contribution. This article is based on the work of an interdisciplinary group. The results have been published in 'Radioactive Waste - Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal' by C. Streffer, C.F. Gethmann, G. Kamp et al. in 'Ethics of Sciences and Technology Assessment', Volume 38, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  8. Measurements of Beam Ion Loss from the Compact Helical System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Darrow, M. Isobe, Takashi Kondo, M. Sasao, and the CHS Group National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, Japan

    2010-02-03

    Beam ion loss from the Compact Helical System (CHS) has been measured with a scintillator-type probe. The total loss to the probe, and the pitch angle and gyroradius distributions of that loss, have been measured as various plasma parameters were scanned. Three classes of beam ion loss were observed at the probe position: passing ions with pitch angles within 10o of those of transition orbits, ions on transition orbits, and ions on trapped orbits, typically 15o or more from transition orbits. Some orbit calculations in this geometry have been performed in order to understand the characteristics of the loss. Simulation of the detector signal based upon the following of orbits from realistic beam deposition profiles is not able to reproduce the pitch angle distribution of the losses measured. Consequently it is inferred that internal plasma processes, whether magnetohydrodynamic modes, radial electric fields, or plasma turbulence, move previously confined beam ions to transition orbits, resulting in their loss.

  9. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS MATRICES FOR HLW RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.

    2010-03-18

    Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either borosilicate glass or phosphate glass. One of the primary reasons that glass has become the most widely used immobilization media is the relative simplicity of the vitrification process, e.g. melt waste plus glass forming frit additives and cast. A second reason that glass has become widely used for HLW is that the short range order (SRO) and medium range order (MRO) found in glass atomistically bonds the radionuclides and governs the melt properties such as viscosity, resistivity, sulphate solubility. The molecular structure of glass controls contaminant/radionuclide release by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. The molecular structure is flexible and hence accounts for the flexibility of glass formulations to waste variability. Nuclear waste glasses melt between 1050-1150 C which minimizes the volatility of radioactive components such as Tc{sup 99}, Cs{sup 137}, and I{sup 129}. Nuclear waste glasses have good long term stability including irradiation resistance. Process control models based on the molecular structure of glass have been mechanistically derived and have been demonstrated to be accurate enough to control the world's largest HLW Joule heated ceramic melter in the US since 1996 at 95% confidence.

  11. Radioactive Seepage through Groundwater Flow from the Uranium Mines, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamiru Abiye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the seepage of uranium from unlined tailing dams into the alluvial aquifer in the Gawib River floodplain in Namibia where the region solely relies on groundwater for its economic activities as a result of arid climatic condition. The study reviewed previous works besides water sample collection and analyses for major ions, metals and environmental isotopes in addition to field tests on physico-chemical parameters (pH, Electrical Conductivity, Redox and T. Estimation of seepage velocity (true velocity of groundwater flow has been conducted in order to understand the extent of radioactive plume transport. The hydrochemistry, stable isotopes and tritium results show that there is uranium contamination from the unlined uranium tailings in the Gawib shallow aquifer system which suggests high permeability of the alluvial aquifer facilitating groundwater flow in the arid region. The radioactive contaminants could spread into the deeper aquifer system through the major structures such as joints and faults. The contamination plume could also spread downstream into the Swakop River unless serious interventions are employed. There is also a very high risk of the plume to reach the Atlantic Ocean through seasonal flash floods that occurs in the area.

  12. Giant low-field magnetocaloric effect in single-crystalline EuTi{sub 0.85}Nb{sub 0.15}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, S.; Khan, N.; Mandal, P., E-mail: prabhat.mandal@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India)

    2016-02-01

    The magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetic single crystal EuTi{sub 0.85}Nb{sub 0.15}O{sub 3} has been investigated using magnetization and heat capacity measurements. EuTi{sub 0.85}Nb{sub 0.15}O{sub 3} undergoes a continuous ferromagnetic phase transition at T{sub C} = 9.5 K due to the long range ordering of magnetic moments of Eu{sup 2+} (4f{sup 7}). With the application of magnetic field, the spin entropy is strongly suppressed and a giant magnetic entropy change is observed near T{sub C}. The values of entropy change ΔS{sub m} and adiabatic temperature change ΔT{sub ad} are as high as 51.3 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} and 22 K, respectively, for a field change of 0–9 T. The corresponding magnetic heating/cooling capacity is 700 J kg{sup −1}. This compound also shows large magnetocaloric effect even at low magnetic fields. In particular, the values of ΔS{sub m} reach 14.7 and 23.8 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} for field changes of 0–1 T and 0–2 T, respectively. The low-field giant magnetocaloric effect, together with the absence of thermal and field hysteresis makes EuTi{sub 0.85}Nb{sub 0.15}O{sub 3} a very promising candidate for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  13. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, D. S.

    1980-03-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the absorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strengths and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area.

  14. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, A; Buck, R

    2000-03-15

    Lack of a safe disposal method for radioactive nuclear waste (RNW) is a problem of staggering proportion and impact. A typical LWR fission reactor will produce the following RNW in one year: minor actinides (i.e. {sup 237}Np, {sup 242-243}Am, {sup 243-245}Cm) {approx}40 kg, long-lived fission products (i.e, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 93}Zr, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs) {approx}80 kg, short lived fission products (e.g. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr) {approx}50kg and plutonium {approx}280 kg. The total RNW produced by France and Canada amounts to hundreds of metric tonnes per year. Obtaining a uniform policy dealing with RNW has been blocked by the desire on one hand to harvest the energy stored in plutonium to benefit society and on the other hand the need to assure that the stockpile of plutonium will not be channeled into future nuclear weapons. In the meantime, the quantity and handling of these materials represents a potential health hazard to the world's population and particularly to people in the vicinity of temporary storage facilities. In the U.S., societal awareness of the hazards associated with RNW has effectively delayed development of U.S. nuclear fission reactors during the past decade. As a result the U.S. does not benefit from the large investment of resources in this industry. Reluctance to employ nuclear energy has compelled our society to rely increasingly on non-reusable alternative energy sources; coal, oil, and natural gas. That decision has compounded other unresolved global problems such as air pollution, acid rain, and global warming. Relying on these energy sources to meet our increasing energy demands has led the U.S. to increase its reliance on foreign oil; a policy that is disadvantageous to our economy and our national security. RNW can be simplistically thought of as being composed of two principal components: (1) actinides with half lives up to 10{sup 6} years and (2) the broad class of fission fragments with typical half lives of a few hundred

  15. Dielectric properties of the BaTi0.85Zr 0.15O3 ceramics prepared by different techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Petronela Curecheriu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different processing routes, i.e. the classical solid state reaction technique the sol-precipitation method and the oxalate route, were employed for preparing BaTi0.85Zr0.15O3 ceramics. The dielectric properties of these ceramics are comparatively analyzed. The obtained results show that the dielectric properties of these ceramics, even having the same composition, are highly sensitive to the preparation route, causing differences in the microstructures and in the local electrical inhomogeneity, thus, causing complicated dielectric relaxation phenomena.

  16. Calculation of Production and Decay of Radio Isotopes for Future Irradiation Experiments and Ion Bea

    CERN Document Server

    M. Eller, J. Lettry, R. Catherall, T. Stora

    The design of future radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities requires the forecast of radio isotope inventory after irradiation. At CERN ISOLDE we developed a software tool that estimates the roduction and activation of materials for ISOLDE radioactive waste anagement. The tool can also be used in the design of new RIB facilities, for licensing procedures, for irradiation experiments and the estimation of production yields.

  17. Studies of pear-shaped nuclei using accelerated radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffney, L P; Scheck, M; Hayes, A B; Wenander, F; Albers, M; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Blazhev, A; Bonig, S; Bree, N; Cederkall, J; Chupp, T; Cline, D; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; DeWitte, H; Diriken, J; Grahn, T; Herzan, A; Huyse, M; Jenkins, D G; Joss, D T; Kesteloot, N; Konki, J; Kowalczyk, M; Kroll, Th; Kwan, E; Lutter, R; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P; Pakarinen, J; Pfeiffer, M; Radeck, D; Reiter, P; Reynders, K; Rigby, S V; Robledo, L M; Rudigier, M; Sambi, S; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Stora, T; Thoele, P; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M J; von Schmid, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wimmer, K; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Wu, C Y; Zielinska, M

    2013-01-01

    There is strong circumstantial evidence that certain heavy, unstable atomic nuclei are ‘octupole deformed’, that is, distorted into a pear shape. This contrasts with the more prevalent rugby-ball shape of nuclei with reflection-symmetric, quadrupole deformations. The elusive octupole deformed nuclei are of importance for nuclear structure theory, and also in searches for physics beyond the standard model; any measurable electric-dipole moment (a signature of the latter) is expected to be amplified in such nuclei. Here we determine electric octupole transition strengths (a direct measure of octupole correlations) for short-lived isotopes of radon and radium. Coulomb excitation experiments were performed using accelerated beams of heavy, radioactive ions. Our data on and $^{224}$Ra show clear evidence for stronger octupole deformation in the latter. The results enable discrimination between differing theoretical approaches to octupole correlations, and help to constrain suitable candidates for experimental...

  18. Experiments with a radioactive sup 5 sup 6 Ni beam

    CERN Document Server

    Rehm, K E; Jiang, C L; Ackermann, D; Ahmad, I; Brumwell, F; Davids, C N; Decrock, P; Fischer, S M; Görres, J; Greene, J P; Hackmann, G; Harss, B; Henderson, D; Henning, W F; Janssens, R V F; McMichael, G E; Nanal, V; Nisius, D; Nolen, Jerry A; Pardo, R C; Paul, M; Reiter, P; Schiffer, J P; Seweryniak, D; Segel, R E; Wiedenhöver, I; Wiescher, M; Wuosmaa, A H

    2000-01-01

    A technique for producing a high-quality radioactive sup 5 sup 6 Ni (T sub 1 sub / sub 2 =6.1 d) beam via the two-accelerator method has been developed. Beam intensities of 2x10 sup 7 sup 5 sup 6 Ni/s were extracted from the ion source and 2x10 sup 4 sup 5 sup 6 Ni/s were delivered to the target. For a study of neutron transfer reactions in inverse kinematics, a high-efficiency detection system was built consisting of a large solid angle (2.8 sr), high-granularity Si detector array for measuring the outgoing protons in coincidence with the heavy reaction products identified with respect to mass A and nuclear charge Z in the focal plane of a recoil mass separator.

  19. Structure and Vibrational Spectra of Slags Produced from Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinina, G. A.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

    2014-05-01

    The structure of the anionic motif of aluminosilicate and aluminoborosilicate glasses containing simulated slags from a solid radioactive waste incinerator was studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Spectra of melted slag were consistent with Si-O tetrahedra with various numbers of bridging O ions and Al-O tetrahedra embedded in the Si-O network in the slag vitreous and crystalline phases (nepheline, nagelschmidtite). Vibrations of doubly and triply bound Si-O tetrahedra and Al-O tetrahedra embedded between them were mainly responsible for the spectra as the content of sodium disilicate fl ux and the glass fraction in the materials increased. Addition of sodium tetraborate fl ux caused the appearance of B-O vibrations of predominantly three-coordinate B and a tendency toward chemical differentiation preceding phase separation.

  20. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements E Appendix E to Part 835 Energy... Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling... sources and radioactive material areas as those terms are defined at § 835.2(a), establishing the need...

  1. Cellulose nanofiber backboned Prussian blue nanoparticles as powerful adsorbents for the selective elimination of radioactive cesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipin, Adavan Kiliyankil; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Sakata, Ichiro; Isogai, Akira; Endo, Morinobu; Li, Mingda; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2016-11-01

    On 11 March 2011, the day of the unforgettable disaster of the 9 magnitude Tohoku earthquake and quickly followed by the devastating Tsunami, a damageable amount of radionuclides had dispersed from the Fukushima Daiichi’s damaged nuclear reactors. Decontamination of the dispersed radionuclides from seawater and soil, due to the huge amounts of coexisting ions with competitive functionalities, has been the topmost difficulty. Ferric hexacyanoferrate, also known as Prussian blue (PB), has been the most powerful material for selectively trapping the radioactive cesium ions; its high tendency to form stable colloids in water, however, has made PB to be impossible for the open-field radioactive cesium decontamination applications. A nano/nano combinatorial approach, as is described in this study, has provided an ultimate solution to this intrinsic colloid formation difficulty of PB. Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were used to immobilize PB via the creation of CNF-backboned PB. The CNF-backboned PB (CNF/PB) was found to be highly tolerant to water and moreover, it gave a 139 mg/g capability and a million (106) order of magnitude distribution coefficient (Kd) for absorbing of the radioactive cesium ion. Field studies on soil and seawater decontaminations in Fukushima gave satisfactory results, demonstrating high capabilities of CNF/PB for practical applications.

  2. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

  3. CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.

    2010-05-05

    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to

  4. Comparison of global cerebral blood flow measured by phase-contrast mapping MRI with (15) O-H2 O positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mark Bitsch; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob;

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare mean global cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by phase-contrast mapping magnetic resonance imaging (PCM MRI) and by (15) O-H2 O positron emission tomography (PET) in healthy subjects. PCM MRI is increasingly being used to measure mean global CBF, but has not been validated...... of the arterial input function. Flow was measured in the internal carotid and vertebral arteries by a noncardiac triggered PCM MRI sequence at 3T. The measured flow was normalized to total brain weight determined from a volume-segmented 3D T1 -weighted anatomical MR-scan. RESULTS: Mean CBF was 34.9 ± 3.4 mL/100 g...... in vivo against an accepted reference technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Same-day measurements of CBF by (15) O-H2 O PET and subsequently by PCM MRI were performed on 22 healthy young male volunteers. Global CBF by PET was determined by applying a one-tissue compartment model with measurement...

  5. Radioactive source localization inside pipes using a long-range alpha detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xue-Mei; TUO Xian-Guo; LI Zhe; LIU Ming-Zhe; ZHANG Jin-Zhao; DONG Xiang-Long; LI Ping-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Long-range alpha detectors (LRADs) are attracting much attention in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities because of some problems in obtaining source positions on an interior surface during pipe decommissioning.By utilizing the characteristic that LRAD detects alphas by collecting air-driving ions,this article applies a method to localize the radioactive source by ions' fluid property.By obtaining the ion travel time and the airspeed distribution in the pipe,the source position can be determined.Thus this method overcomes the ion's lack of periodic characteristics.Experimental results indicate that this method can approximately localize the source inside the pipe.The calculation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Biosorption of uranium in radioactive liquid organic waste by coconut fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Ferreira, Eduardo Gurzoni Alvares; Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Edson Antonio da, E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive liquid organic waste needs special attention because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to be managed. Biosorption is a potential technique since it allies low cost with relatively high efficiency. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. Biosorption using vegetable biomass from agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metal ions by low cost biosorbent. This technique could be employed in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes. Among the biosorbent reported in the literature, coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera L.) is highlighted due to the large number of functional groups in its composition. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of coconut fiber to remove uranium from radioactive liquid organic waste. This work was divided into three stages: 1) Preparation and activation of the coconut fiber; 2) Physical characterization of the biomass, 3) Batch biosorption experiments. Two forms of coconut fiber were tested, raw and activated. The activation was performed with dilute HNO3 and NaOH solutions. The parameters evaluated for physical characterization of biomass were morphological characteristics of coconut fiber, real and apparent density and surface area. The biomass was suspended in 10 ml of solutions prepared with distillate water and radioactive liquid waste for 2 hours in the proportion of 0.2% w/v. After the contact time, the coconut fiber was removed by filtration and the supernatant, analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).The results were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum capacity for the raw coconut fiber was lower than the activated one, removing only 1.14mg/g against 2.61mg/g. These results suggest that biosorption with coconut fiber in activated form can be applied in the

  7. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    In National Institute of Radiological Sciences, a survey was made on radioactivities in the environment due to the substances released from nuclear installations and radioactive fall-out brought out by nuclear explosion tests since 1959. As the marked progress of non-military utilization of nuclear energy the national concern on environmental radioactivity has been increasing in Japan and thus it has become more and more important to make a survey research of radioactivities, which might affect the environment and human health. In these situations, the institute attempted to make the following six surveys in the fiscal year of 1997; `a survey on radioactive levels in environment, foods and human bodies`, `survey on the radioactive level in the regions around nuclear installations`, `works in radioactive data center`, `fundamental survey on the evaluation of the results from radioactivity survey`, `workshop for technical experts of environmental radioactivity monitoring` and `survey research on the measurement and countermeasures for emergency exposure`. (J.P.N.)

  8. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    In National Institute of Radiological Sciences, a survey was made on radioactivities in the environment due to the substances released from nuclear installations and radioactive fall-out brought out by nuclear explosion tests since 1959. As the marked progress of non-military utilization of nuclear energy the national concern on environmental radioactivity has been increasing in Japan and thus it has become more and more important to make a survey research of radioactivities, which might affect the environment and human health. In these situations, the institute attempted to make the following six surveys in the fiscal year of 1996; `a survey on radioactive levels in environment, foods and human bodies`, `survey on the radioactive level in the regions around nuclear installations`, `works in radioactive data center`, `fundamental survey on the evaluation of the results from radioactivity survey`, `workshop for technical experts of environmental radioactivity monitoring` and `survey research on the measurement and countermeasures for emergency exposure`. (M.N.)

  9. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  10. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  11. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced, transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-sources@cern.ch

  12. The IAEA radioactive waste safety standards programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtellotte, James R.

    1995-12-31

    The IAEA is currently reviewing more than thirty publications in its Safety Series with a view toward consolidating and organizing information pertaining to radioactive waste. the effort is entitled Radioactive Waste Safety Standards programme (RADWASS). RADWASS is a significant undertaking and may have far reaching effects on radioactive waste management both in the international nuclear community and in individual nuclear States. This is because IAEA envisions the development of a consensus on the final document. In this circumstance, the product of RADWASS may ultimately be regarded as an international norm against which future actions of Member States may be measured. This program is organized in five subjects: planning, pre-disposal, disposal, uranium and thorium waste management and decommissioning, which has four levels: safety fundamentals, safety standards, safety guides and safety practices. (author).

  13. Development of a Radioactive Waste Assay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae; Shin, Sang Woon; Sung, Kee Bang; Ko, Dae Hach [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Jeong; Park, Jong Mook; Jee, Kwang Yoong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear Act of Korea requires the manifest of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated at nuclear power plants prior to disposal sites.Individual history records of the radioactive waste should be contained the information about the activity of nuclides in the drum, total activity, weight, the type of waste. A fully automated nuclide analysis assay system, non-destructive analysis and evaluation system of the radioactive waste, was developed through this research project. For the nuclides that could not be analysis directly by MCA, the activities of the representative {gamma}-emitters(Cs-137, Co-60) contained in the drum were measured by using that system. Then scaling factors were used to calculate the activities of {alpha}, {beta}-emitters. Furthermore, this system can automatically mark the analysis results onto the drum surface. An automated drum handling system developed through this research project can reduce the radiation exposure to workers. (author). 41 refs., figs.

  14. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall-out and drinking-water. Environmental samples : vegetables, fishes/shellfishes, fruits, starch and starch roots and drinking waters. Among the all 2001 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  15. The excellent performance of nest-like oxygen-deficient Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 applied in activated carbon air-cathode microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Tian, Pei; Li, Kexun; Ge, Baochao; Liu, Di; Liu, Yi; Yang, Tingting; Ren, Rong

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the performance of nano spinel nest-like oxygen-deficient Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 doping activated carbon (AC) as air cathode in microbial fuel cell (MFC). The Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 was synthesized via hydrothermal method and subsequent annealed. The maximum power density (MPD) of MFC with oxygen-deficient Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 modified cathode was 1928±18mWm(-2), which was 1.53 times higher than the bare cathode. The electrochemical studies showed that Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 doping AC exhibited higher kinetic activity and lower resistance. The mechanism of oxygen reduction for the catalyst was a four electron pathway. The oxygen deficient of Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 played an important role in catalytic activity. So Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 would be an excellent promising catalyst for ORR in MFC.

  16. Natural radiation and radioactivity in education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu [Kanazawa Univ., Takarazuka, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    To understand radiation and radioactivity, it is important to recall the history of their investigation. At first, the works made by Elster and Geitel with a leaf electroscope about 100 years age are introduced. Then the variations of environmental radiation level are shown by the results obtained with a large volume NaI(Tl) detector on my car travelling all over Japan and the data with a pocket dosimeter during my tours in Europe. Among environmental radioactivity, radon and tritium are specially remarked from the historical and educational points of view, with various methods for their measurements. (author)

  17. MONITORING OF RADIOACTIVITY AT DNURT CAMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Dolina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research paper aims to determine radioactive contamination on the territory of campus of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan (DNURT. Methodology. The dosimeters measured the radioactive contamination in different places (points of DNURT campus, focusing on public places. The centres of measurements became dormitories, monuments, stops, main entrances of the new and the old buildings, classrooms, basements, a swimming pool, boiler room and others. Findings. The conducted radiation monitoring for the first time in the history of the University discovered the source of radioactive contamination on DNURT territory and campus. The highest radiation background is observed on three points, namely: the pedestal of the monument, the monument to students-soldiers, the main entrance of the new building (columns. This can be explained by granite materials, which the pedestals and the stairs are made of. Originality. The largest contribution to the total value of annual effective dose of human exposure is made by ionizing radiation sources (IRS of building materials (65 - 70%. The radioactivity level of building materials is determined by the content of natural radionuclides that are included in uranium-radium and thorium decay series (18 and 12 radionuclides as well as potassium-40. Radioactivity of building materials is evaluated by the content of dominant radionuclides radium-226, thorium-232 and potassium-40. Their dominant role is explained by the fact that these long-lived high-energy - emitters are the products of decay of radium-226 in uranium series of and radium-224 in thorium series, exposing radioactive gases (radon-222 and radon-220. Radioactive gases are accumulated in the basements of educational buildings; their decay is accompanied by 100% alpha radiation, which is the most dangerous. Practical value. It is necessary to set radioactivity signs near the objects with high

  18. TRAC laboratory monitoring of Chernobyl radioactive debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, R.A.

    1986-06-09

    A severe accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant number 4 in the Soviet Union on April 25, 1986. An explosion released large amounts of radioactive debris, primarily fission products, to the atmosphere. As winds carried debris from the Soviet Union, scientists in Europe and the United States reported detecting fission product activities in air samples. Monitoring by the Tracking Radioactive Atmospheric Contaminants (TRAC) mobile laboratory showed concentrations in the Southeastern United States were well below those considered hazardous. This document provides details of this monitoring effort.

  19. Decontamination of protective clothing against radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vošahlíková, I; Otáhal, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experimental results of external surface mechanical decontamination of the studied materials forming selected suits. Seven types of personal protective suits declaring protection against radioactive aerosol contamination in different price ranges were selected for decontamination experiments. The outcome of this study is to compare the efficiency of a double-step decontamination process on various personal protective suits against radioactive contamination. A comparison of the decontamination effectiveness for the same type of suit, but for the different chemical mixtures ((140)La in a water-soluble or in a water-insoluble compound), was performed.

  20. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Totsuka, Yumi; Murata, Jiro

    2014-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years), Cs-137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days), and Sr-90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  1. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiba Shuntaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days, Cs-134 (2.1 years, Cs-137 (30 years, Sr-89 (51 days, and Sr-90 (29 years. We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  2. Proton Radioactivity Within a Hybrid Metho d

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿飞

    2016-01-01

    The proton radioactivity half-lives are investigated theoretically within a hybrid method. The potential barriers preventing the emission of protons are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM). The penetrability is calculated with the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. The spectroscopic factor has been taken into account in half-life calculation, which is obtained by employing the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory combined with the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) method. The half-lives within the present hybrid method repro-duced the experimental data very well. Some predictions for proton radioactivity are made for future experiments.

  3. Radioactivity and Environment. Radioactividad y Medio Ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Leon, J.G. (Jefe de Seguridad Nuclear de la Fabrica de Juzbado. Empresa Nacional de Uranio. (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    Radioactivity is one of the most studied natural phenomena. Most of irradiation suffered by the human being is produced by natural sources. The second source in order of importance is nuclear medicine. The average level of radiation received by the man is 2.4 mSv/year and this value can be modified naturally in 20-30%. The author provides a review on radioactivity sources like natural (cosmic rays, extraterrestrial radiation, internal earth radiation, radon) and artificial (Nuclear explosions, professional exposure, nuclear medicine, nuclear power plants and accidents).

  4. [Surveillance of radioactive cesium in foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Ikarashi, Atsuko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed foods on the market from areas that had been exposed to radioactive materials contamination following the Fukushima accident. We used a NaI (Tl) scintillation spectrometer for the screening tests and a germanium semiconductor detector for the final tests. Test results from 1,427 samples showed that 6 samples (0.4%) exceeded the regulatory limit of 500 Bq/kg. Considering the detection rate of radioactive cesium in each food category, we suggest that it is necessary to continue monitoring fruits such as chestnuts and ginkgo nuts, mushrooms (especially raw wood-shiitake), mountain vegetables, and sea fish.

  5. Evil radioactivity. Subjective perception of radioactivity in patients with thyroid disease prior to treatment with radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, L.S. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Grevenbroich (Germany); Beyer, T.; Mueller, S.P.; Goerges, R.; Bockisch, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Hopfenbach, A. [Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Grevenbroich (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Aim: We assess the perspective of patients with thyroid disease towards radiation and radioactivity by means of a cultural-anthropological approach based on qualitative measures and quantitative scores. From the interviews with the patients we evaluate as to how much radioactivity is accepted as an abstract term or as a benefit within the medical context. Patients, methods: 68 patients with autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (35 women, 33 men, 32-81 years) were included in this study. All patients were interviewed in an open dialogue with the principal investigator. Patients were asked to describe their attitude towards radioactivity in general and towards radioiodine therapy in particular. Patients were asked to use a scoring system (1=positive, 5=negative) to quantify their attitudes. Results: The responses of all patients towards radioactivity in general were heterogeneous with most responses reflecting a negative perception. Many patients expressed their associated fears about atomic energy, malignant diseases and radioactive contamination. The scoring system reflected a mostly negative opinion base. However, patients became more positive once they assumed an immediate benefit of radioactivity for the treatment of their own disease (p=0.01). Conclusions: Knowing about significant differences in patient's perception about radioactivity in general or in the clinical context may help to optimise and tailor the initial, pre-therapeutical interview towards the patient. (orig.)

  6. Anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae and identification of urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the main active compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Olivia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural products could play an important role in the challenge to discover new anti-malarial drugs. In a previous study, Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae was selected for its promising anti-plasmodial activity after a preliminary screening of several plants traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat malaria. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the anti-plasmodial properties of this plant and to isolate the active anti-plasmodial compounds. Methods Eight crude extracts obtained from D. tomentosa whole plant were tested in vitro against two Plasmodium falciparum strains (3D7 and W2 using the p-LDH assay (colorimetric method. The Peters’ four-days suppressive test model (Plasmodium berghei-infected mice was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity. An in vitro bioguided fractionation was undertaken on a dichloromethane extract, using preparative HPLC and TLC techniques. The identity of the pure compound was assessed using UV, MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity against WI38 human fibroblasts (WST-1 assay and haemolytic activity were also evaluated for extracts and pure compounds in order to check selectivity. Results The best in vitro anti-plasmodial results were obtained with the dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts, which exhibited a high activity (IC50 ≤ 5 μg/ml. Hot water and hydroethanolic extracts also showed a good activity (IC50 ≤ 15 μg/ml, which confirmed the traditional use and the promising anti-malarial potential of the plant. The activity was also confirmed in vivo for all tested extracts. However, most of the active extracts also exhibited cytotoxic activity, but no extract was found to display any haemolytic activity. The bioguided fractionation process allowed to isolate and identify a sesquiterpene lactone (urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the major anti-plasmodial compound of the plant (IC50 Conclusions The present study

  7. ECR Ion Source Developments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Meyer, F.W.

    1998-10-05

    New techniques for enhancing the performances of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are being investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We have utilized the multiple discrete frequency technique to improve the charge state distributions extracted from conventional magnetic field geometry ECR source by injecting three frequencies into the source. A new flat central magnetic field concept, has been incorporated in the designs of a compact all-permanent-magnet source for high charge-state ion beam generation and a compact electromagnetic source for singly ionized radioactive ion beam generation for use in the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) research program. A review of the three frequency injection experiments and descriptions of the design aspects of the "volume-type" ECR ion sources will be given in this report.

  8. Prediction of radionuclide inventory for the low-and intermediated-level radioactive waste disposal facility the radioactive waste classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Jeong, Noh Gyeom; Moon, Young Pyo; Jeong, Mi Seon; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    To meet nuclear regulatory requirements, more than 95% individual radionuclides in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste inventory have to be identified. In this study, the radionuclide inventory has been estimated by taking the long-term radioactive waste generation, the development plan of disposal facility, and the new radioactive waste classification into account. The state of radioactive waste cumulated from 2014 was analyzed for various radioactive sources and future prospects for predicting the long-term radioactive waste generation. The predicted radionuclide inventory results are expected to contribute to secure the development of waste disposal facility and to deploy the safety case for its long-term safety assessment.

  9. Biosorption of Am-241 and Cs-137 by radioactive liquid waste by coffee husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, has stored many types of radioactive liquid wastes, including liquid scintillators, mixed wastes from chemical analysis and spent decontamination solutions. These wastes need special attention, because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to manage. Biosorption using biomass of vegetable using agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metals ions by low cost biossorbents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the coffee husk to remove Am-241 and Cs-137 from radioactive liquid waste. The coffee husk was tested in two forms, treated and untreated. The chemical treatment of the coffee husk was performed with HNO{sub 3} and NaOH diluted solutions. The results showed that the coffee husk did not showed significant differences in behavior and capacity for biosorption for Am-241 and Cs-137 over time. Coffee husk showed low biosorption capacity for Cs-137, removing only 7.2 {+-} 1.0% in 4 hours of contact time. For Am-241, the maximum biosorption was 57,5 {+-} 0.6% in 1 hours. These results suggest that coffee husk in untreated form can be used in the treatment of radioactive waste liquid containing Am-241. (author)

  10. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Sik [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst-Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration flux under electroneutrality and zero electric current conditions. The distribution coefficient which arises due to ion interactions with the membrane material and the electric potential jump at the membrane interface are included as boundary conditions in solving the equation. A high Peclet approximation is adopted to simplify the calculation, but the effect of concentration polarization is included for a more accurate prediction of separation. Cobalt and cesium are specifically selected for the experiments in order to check the separation mechanism from liquid waste composed of various radioactive nuclides and nonradioactive substances, and the results are compared with the estimated cobalt and cesium rejections of the RO membrane using the model. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in excellent agreement. The proposed model will be very useful for the prediction of separation behavior of various radioactive nuclides by the RO membrane.

  11. Influence of Co substitution for Ni and Mn on the structural and electrochemical characteristics of LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Atsushi; Li, Decheng; Lee, Yunsung; Kobayakawa, Koichi; Sato, Yuichi

    LiNi 0.5- xCo 2 xMn 1.5- xO 4 (0 ≤ 2 x ≤ 0.2) was prepared by spray drying, then re-annealing in O 2. Their structural and electrochemical properties were studied by ex-situ XRD, GITT, and charge-discharge testing. The substitution of cobalt for Ni and Mn in the LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4 resulted in significant structural and electrochemical variations, such as the change in structural transformation with lithium extraction, the increase in the lithium diffusion coefficient and the decrease in the area specific impedance. Moreover, the improved kinetic properties caused by the Co substitution for Ni and Mn result in an improved cyclic performance at a high rate and at elevated temperature as well as the rate capability.

  12. Tomographic measurement of cerebral blood flow by the /sup 68/Ga-labelled-microsphere and continuous-C/sup 15/O/sub 2/-inhalation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinling, M.; Baron, J.C.; Maziere, B.; Loc' h, C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Canabis, E.A.; Guillon, B.

    1985-05-01

    The measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by continuous C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ inhalation has only been validated previously by indirect experimental protocols. In the present study using baboons, these measurements were compared directly with those obtained by injection of /sup 68/Ga-labelled serum-albumin microspheres in the left cardiac ventricle. Using a modified labelling technique, no elution of /sup 68/Ga occurred in vivo. Both methods provided similar regional CBF values, which could be described by a significant linear correlation (CBFsub(CO2) = 0.82 CBFsub(microspheres)+5.7; P < 0.001). The validity of the labelled-microsphere-injection method was verified. The feasibility of stable in vivo labelling of /sup 68/Ga to serum-albumin microspheres provides a reference method for organ blood-flow measurements using positron-emission tomography.

  13. Tomographic measurement of cerebral blood flow by the /sup 68/Ga-labelled-microsphere and continuous-C/sup 15/O/sub 2/-inhalation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinling, M.; Baron, J.C.; Maziere, B.; Loc' h, C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Canabis, E.A.; Guillon, B.

    1985-07-01

    The measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by continuous C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ inhalation has only been validated previously by indirect experimental protocols. In the present study using baboons, these measurements were compared directly with those obtained by injection of /sup 68/Ga-labelled serum-albumin microspheres in the left cardiac ventricle. Using a modified labelling technique, no elution of /sup 68/Ga occurred in vivo. Both methods provided similar regional CBF values, which could be described by a significant linear correlation (CBFsub(CO2)=0.82 CBFsub(microspheres)+5.7; P < 0.001). The validity of the labelled-microsphere-injection method was verified. The feasibility of stable in vivo labelling of /sup 68/Ga to serum-albumin microspheres provides a reference method for organ blood-flow measurements using positron-emission tomography.

  14. Temperature-dependent oxygen behavior of LixNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material for lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Woo; Kim, Su Jae; Jeong, Myung Yung; Lee, Seongsu; Rim, Young Hoon; Yang, Yong Suk

    2016-11-01

    We have investigated the temperature-dependent oxygen behavior in the lithium battery cathode LixNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) materials in the temperature range 30-1000 °C. As the temperature increases, oxygen release occurs and the change of crystal structures from the face centered cubic spinel at 30 °C to other phases follows. The amount of released oxygen and the changed crystalline phases are dependent on Li content and temperature. These phenomena are reversible against temperature in air, but not in vacuum and argon gas environments. This study illustrates the important role of temperature and atmospheric environments in synthesizing the LNMO battery materials.

  15. Ion irradiation induced direct damage to DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Su, Wenhui

    2008-01-01

    Ion beams have been widely applied in a few biological research fields such as radioactive breeding, health protection, and tumor therapy. Up to now many interesting and impressive achievements in biology and agriculture have been made. Over the past several decades, scientists in biology, physics, and chemistry have pursued investigations focused on understanding the mechanisms of these radiobiological effects of ion beams. From the chemical point of view, these effects are due to the ion irradiation induced biomolecular damage, direct or indirect. In this review, we will present a chemical overview of the direct effects of ion irradiation upon DNA and its components, based on a review of literature combined with recent experimental results. It is suggested that, under ion bombardment, a DNA molecule undergoes a variety of processes, including radical formation, atomic displacement, intramolecular bond-scissions, emission of fragments, fragment recombination and molecular crosslink, which may lead to genetic...

  16. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R. (Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak-124001 (India))

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author).

  17. Obtaining and Investigating Unconventional Sources of Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides examples of naturally radioactive items that are likely to be found in most communities. Additionally, there is information provided on how to acquire many of these items inexpensively. I have found that the presence of these materials in the classroom is not only useful for teaching about nuclear radiation and debunking the…

  18. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN BIOSOLIDS: DOSE MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tra...

  19. Thule-2003 - Investigation of radioactive contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Roos, Per

    2006-01-01

    relatively stable conditions and concentrations of plutonium in seawater and animals are low. However, the plutonium contamination of surface soil at Narssarssuk couldconstitute a small risk to humans visiting the location if radioactive particles are resuspended in the air so that they might be inhaled....

  20. Recycling and Reuse of Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dou, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Radiochemistry Program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) has a Radiation Protection Program that was designed to provide students with the ability to safely work with radioactive materials in quantities that are not available in other academic environments. Requirements for continuous training and supervision make this unique…