Sample records for 15-year-old school children

  1. Oral cleanliness of 12-13-year-old and 15-year-old school children of Sunsari District, Nepal

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    Yee R


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.

  2. Bullying victimization among 13 to 15-year-old school children: results from two comparative studies in 66 countries and regions

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    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Soc, Mag Scient


    AIM: to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization in 66 countries and territories from five continents based on data from two large international surveys: the 2001/2 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) and the Global School-based Students Health Survey (GSHS). The surveys...... provide nationally representative, cross-sectional information on 13-15-year-old school children (N = 218,104). OUTCOME MEASURES: Bullying victimization, once or more within the past 2 months (HBSC)/30 days (GSHS). RESULTS: On average, 32.1% of the children were bullied at school at least once within...... the past 2 months in countries involved in the HBSC study and 37.4% of children were bullied at least one day within the past 30 days in countries involved in the GSHS study. In both surveys, a large variation in prevalence was found across countries. The lowest prevalence in the GSHS survey was observed...

  3. Oral health status and treatment needs among 12- and 15-year-old government and private school children in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India (United States)

    Shailee, Fotedar; Girish, M. Sogi; Kapil, R. Sharma; Nidhi, Pruthi


    Objectives: To assess the dental caries, periodontal health, and malocclusion of school children aged 12 and 15 years in Shimla city and to compare them in government and private schools. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 12- and 15-year-old children in government and private schools was conducted in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. A sample of 1011 school children (both males and females) was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recordings of dental caries and malocclusion were done according to World Health Organization diagnostic criteria 1997. Periodontal health was assessed by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index. The data collected was analyzed by SPSS package 13. The statistical tests used were t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 and 15 years, respectively. At the12 years of age, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. At both ages, mean of decayed teeth was statistically higher in government schools as compared with private schools. Children in government schools had significantly less number of mean filled teeth at both ages as compared with private schools. The healthy component of gingiva was present in higher percentage of children in private schools as compared with government schools at both the age groups. The prevalence of malocclusion among the 12- year-old (58.1%) was more as compared with that among the 15-year-old (53.5%). Conclusion: The caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old children was low but the prevalence of gingivitis and malocclusion was quite high. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of school children further in Shimla city. PMID:24478980

  4. The prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 15-year-old school children in Galle district in Sri Lanka: An epidemiological study

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    Chathurangi Niroshana Gunatissa


    Full Text Available Background: To ascertain the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 15 year old school children in Galle district in the Southern Province in Sri Lanka. Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 15-year-old school children in Galle district in the Southern Province in Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 802 school children in the Galle district. Multi-stage cluster sampling technique combined with probability proportionate to size method was used to select the sample. Occlusal characteristics including overjet, overbite, crossbites, crowding, and spacing were recorded using a standard pro forma and the need for orthodontic treatment was assessed using the index of orthodontic treatment need dental health component. SPSS 17 for Windows was used to analyze the data. The awareness of malocclusion among the subjects was also assessed. Results: It was observed that the prevalence of malocclusion among the sample was 69.5%, and the overall treatment need was 26.6%.

  5. [Sex education : representations of 13- to 15-year-old junior high school children and slow learners]. (United States)

    Berger, Dominique; Rochigneux, Jean-Claude; Bernard, Sandie; Morand, Josette; Mougniotte, Alain


    In France, the National Education system has attributed an important health and sex education role to its teachers, based on a global and positive vision of sexuality Parents, teachers, public services and specialized resources each have a role to play in sex education for children and adolescents so that each young person can receive an education allowing him or her to enjoy a healthy sexuality. This study investigated the individual representations of sexuality, declared practices and knowledge of junior high schoolchildren and Section d'Enseignement G6n6ral et Professionnel Adapt6 (SEGPA) students, a structure for children with serious learning difficulties. The study methodology was based on administration of questionnaires (n = 524) to the two cohorts concerned. The secondary objective was to compare these two populations and identify the specificities of SEGPA pupils. The conclusions of this study should allow adults in charge of sex education in junior high schools and SEGPA to adapt sex education tools.

  6. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and15 year-old school children in an endemic fluoride area of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Jagadeeswara Rao Sukhabogi


    Full Text Available Introduction: The published literature on the prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis in Nalgonda district, an endemic fluoride belt in India was scanty. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in Nalgonda district. Materials and Methods: Stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration. The oral examination for dental caries and fluorosis among children who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using mouth mirror and CPI (Community Periodontal Index probe under natural daylight. The data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS version 16. Results: The prevalence of dental caries among 12 and 15 year old school children was 42.6% and 48.6% respectively. The prevalence was more among females (56.9% than males (34.2%. The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (67% followed by very high fluoride area (56.1%. The lowest prevalence was in medium fluoride area (20.5%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in the gender and age distribution. Conclusion: Defluoridation of water in areas where the concentration of fluoride is more than optimal is an immediate need as dental fluorosis is a major public health problem in these areas.

  7. Occurrence of dental caries in primary and permanent dentition, oral health status and treatment needs among 12-15 year old school children of Jorpati VDC, Kathmandu. (United States)

    Shrestha, N; Acharya, J; Sagtani, A R; Shrestha, R; Shrestha, S


    Dental caries occurrence, distribution, oral health status and corresponding treatment needs in 12 - 15 year old children are useful tools for evaluation of oral health. Dental caries status along with its treatment needs was recorded according to World Health Organization (WHO) index (1997) in 366 children from five schools within Jorpati Village Development Committee (VDC), Kathmandu. Dental caries was diagnosed in 156 (42.6%) children, out of which 122 (78.21%) had caries in permanent teeth, 26 (16.67%) had caries in primary teeth, and 8 (5.13%) had caries in both dentition. The age wise distribution of dental caries showed the highest prevalence among 12 year old students (23.8%) and the lowest among 15 year olds (3.8%). Among the female students (177), 43.5% showed presence of dental caries, while the prevalence among male students (179) was 41.8%.Out of the total number of teeth affected by dental caries (336), 273 (81.25%) were permanent teeth and 63 (18.75%) were primary teeth. The intra arch distribution of dental caries in permanent as well as primary dentition was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Restorative treatment (89.38%) was the main need in permanent dentition, and endodontic treatment (60.32%) in primary dentition. Chronologic enamel hypoplasia was found in 14 (3.83%) of the total population, and 62 (16.94%) required oral prophylaxis. These findings are significant as they can initiate further research in this area, which may help establish reliable baseline data for implementation of preventive oral health programs.

  8. Correlation of Dental Caries Experience with pH, Buffering Capacity and Flow Rate of Saliva among 15-year-old School Children in Mangalore

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    Vijay S Kumar


    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: To correlate dental caries experience with pH, buffering capacity and flow rate of saliva among 15-year-old-children Materials & Method : Fifteen year old school children from adopted schools of a dental college in Mangalore were considered as study subjects. The study was carried out using a standardized proforma that consisted of questionnaire for recording demographic data. The caries experience was assessed by DMFT Index. Salivary pH was measured by using a pH meter and salivary buffering capacity was measured by using titration method. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from all subjects by direct expectoration to calculate the flow rate. Results: The mean DMFT of the study population was 2.85 ± 2.5. The mean salivary pH was found to be 6.88 ± 0.69.About 74.1% were having medium salivary buffering capacities. The mean unstimulated salivary flow rate and mean total antioxidant capacity of the study population was 0.41 ± 0.14 ml/min and 94.15 ± 60.72 g/dL respectively. Conclusions: A marked association between the pH, buffering capacity and unstimulated flow rate with dental caries experience suggest that assessment of these salivary parameters can be used as predictors for future dental caries susceptibility in an individual.

  9. Prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated risk factors in 11-15 year old school children of Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India: A cross sectional survey

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    Baskaradoss Jagan


    Full Text Available Objectives: This study presents data on the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 11-15-years-old school children of Kanyakumari district, TamilNadu, India, and also the relationships between prevalence of dental fluorosis and selected risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 1800 children, from all the nine blocks of Kanyakumari district, studying in classes 6-10 were examined using type III examination. The assessment form designed specifically for this study was used while examining each student. Results: Dental fluorosis was present in 15.8% (285 children of the study population and the community fluorosis index was calculated to be 0.27. The prevalence of dental fluorosis varied from as low as 1.4% in some blocks to as high as 29.4% in some others. There was a significant difference in the level of dental fluorosis between rural and urban residents ( P < 0.001. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was higher in children who consumed pipe water as compared to children who consumed ground water. 65% of the children with dental fluorosis had no caries, indicating the positive effects of fluoride. Conclusions: The prevalence of dental fluorosis can be attributed to the level of fluoride in the drinking water as it exhibited a step-wise increase when the water fluoride levels increased from 1.5-1.7 ppm. Measures for defluoridation of drinking water before distribution has to be taken in the high prevalence blocks to lower the burden of dental fluorosis in this community.

  10. Effect of Herbal and Fluoride Mouth Rinses on Streptococcus mutans and Dental Caries among 12–15-Year-Old School Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    Shenoy Panchmal, Ganesh; Kumar, Vijaya; Jodalli, Praveen S.; Sonde, Laxminarayan


    To assess and compare the effect of herbal and fluoride mouth rinses on Streptococcus mutans count and glucan synthesis by Streptococcus mutans and dental caries, a parallel group placebo controlled randomized trial was conducted among 240 schoolchildren (12–15 years old). Participants were randomly divided and allocated into Group I (0.2% fluoride group), Group II (herbal group), and Group III (placebo group). All received 10 ml of respective mouth rinses every fortnight for a period of one year. Intergroup and intragroup comparison were done for Streptococcus mutans count and glucan synthesis by Streptococcus mutans and dental caries. Streptococcus mutans count showed a statistically significant difference between Group I and Group III (p = 0.035) and also between Group II and Group III (p = 0.039). Glucan concentration levels showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.024) between Group II and Group III at 12th month. Mean DMF scores showed no statistical difference between the three groups (p = 0.139). No difference in the level of significance was seen in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. The present study showed that both herbal and fluoride mouth rinses, when used fortnightly, were equally effective and could be recommended for use in school-based health education program to control dental caries. Trial registration number is CTRI/2015/08/006070. PMID:28352285

  11. Social judgments made by children (10–15 year old) in relation to visible incisors trauma: School-based cross-sectional study in Khartoum state, Sudan (United States)

    Awooda, Elhadi Mohieldin; Ali, Yasmeen Abdul-Hai


    Background: Dento-alveolar trauma is a very common occurrence in childhood; however, there is a paucity of data about children's judgments in relation to dental status. There is a significant correlation between the children's incisor teeth status and the social judgments made by their peers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the social attributes of a school child would be influenced by his or her incisor teeth status. Also, it is aimed to determine the judgment between male and female children and different age groups within the same class. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 178 male and female children from year 5 (age 10–11 years) of primary school and year 2 of secondary school (age 14–15 years) within Khartoum state. Materials and Methods: Students were invited to look at colored photographs of four different children's faces and to make a social judgment about these children's photographs. Using a previously validated child-centered questionnaire, participants rated subjects using a four-point Likert scale for three negative and six positive attributes. Statistical Analysis: Total attribute scores were tested for significant differences, according to whether the subject had visible incisor trauma or not, using t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with the level of significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Children with visible incisor trauma were given more negative attributes than children without incisor trauma (P = 0.05). Results were similar in both genders and both school years. Younger students within the same class gave more negative attributes toward children with visible incisor trauma than their older peers, with P = 0.04 and P = 0.9 for children aged 10 years and 11 years, respectively. Conclusion: The data confirmed results of previous studies that children with visible incisor trauma are seen more negatively than those without visible incisor trauma. PMID:26539397

  12. Rheumatic Heart Disease in Kerala: A Vanishing Entity? An Echo Doppler Study in 5–15-Years-Old School Children

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    Bigesh Nair


    Full Text Available Background. Early detection of subclinical rheumatic heart disease by use of echocardiography warrants timely implementation of secondary antibiotic prophylaxis and thereby prevents or retards its related complications. Objectives. The objective of this epidemiological study was to determine prevalence of RHD by echocardiography using World Heart Federation criteria in randomly selected school children of Trivandrum. Methods. This was a population-based cross-sectional screening study carried out in Trivandrum. A total of 2060 school children, 5–15 years, were randomly selected from five government and two private (aided schools. All enrolled children were screened for RHD according to standard clinical and WHF criteria of echocardiography. Results. Echocardiographic examinations confirmed RHD in 5 children out of 146 clinically suspected cases. Thus, clinical prevalence was found to be 2.4 per 1000. According to WHF criteria of echocardiography, 12 children (12/2060 were diagnosed with RHD corresponding to echocardiographic prevalence of 5.83 cases per 1000. As per criteria, 6 children were diagnosed with definite RHD and 6 with borderline RHD. Conclusions. The results of the current study demonstrate that echocardiography is more sensitive and feasible in detecting clinically silent RHD. Our study, the largest school survey of south India till date, points towards declining prevalence of RHD (5.83/1000 cases using WHF criteria in Kerala.


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    Katarzyna Kochan


    Full Text Available Introduction. Increased body growth is connected with higher sensitivity to environmental influence and may be a cause of instability of body posture. This happens when trunk and lower limbs growth is more intense. Because body posture disorders are most often diagnosed in children and school adolescents, the sample chosen were subjects between 7 and 15 years old. Material and methods. The data was gathered in 2002 in the town of Polkowice. Examination concerned 2706 boys and girls aged 7 to 15 years old. The measurement included basic somatic features and for the body posture photogrammetric method was used. Results. It was indicated that the relative trunk length in both sexes was decreasing in early school period but in the three oldest groups of age there was a significant increase. The height of kyphosis was increasing significantly in both sexes with age. Most intensive growth of this parameter was observed between 12 and 13 years old subjects. In both sexes there could be seen significant increase of kyphosis depth between 12 and 14 years old and also the decrease of lumbar lordosis between 12 and 13 years old subjects. Conclusion. Significant increase of thoracical spine relative height and lumbar lordosis depth in adolescents in both sexes can be one of the causes of weakening spine stability and affect correct body posture development.

  14. Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of Spinal Motor Control Between 11- and 15-Year-Old Children. (United States)

    Chow, Daniel H; Lau, Newman M


    Spinal motor control can provide substantial insight for the causes of spinal musculoskeletal disorders. Its dynamic characteristics however, have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study is to explore the dynamic characteristics of spinal motor control via the fractional Brownian motion mathematical technique. Spinal curvatures and repositioning errors of different spinal regions in 64 children age 11- or 15-years old during upright stance were measured and compared for the effects of age and gender. With the application of the fractional Brownian motion analytical technique to the changes of spinal curvatures, distinct persistent movement behaviors could be determined, which could be interpreted physiologically as open-loop behaviors. Moreover, it was found that the spinal motor control of 15-year-old children was better than that of 11-year-old children with smaller repositioning error and less curvature variability as well as shorter response time and smaller curvature deformation.

  15. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water in an endemic fluoride belt of Andhra Pradesh

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    Chandra Shekar


    Full Text Available Background: The published literature on the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis among school going children in Nalgonda district - An Endemic Fluoride belt was lacking . Objectives: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and dental caries among 12 and 15 years old children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water . Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study, done in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India (endemic fluoride belt . Materials and Methods: 5 of the 59 mandals in the district of Nalgonda were selected by simple random sampling. Then, 3 schools from each of these selected mandals were chosen at random. All the eligible 6 th and 9 th standard children were considered for final analysis. The demographic and other relevant information was collected by 3 trained and calibrated dentists, using a structured questionnaire. Dental caries were recorded using dentition status and treatment needs and fluorosis were recorded by Dean′s fluorosis index. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results: The prevalence of dental caries among children was 56.3% with the highest in below optimal fluoride area (71.3% and lowest in optimal fluoride area (24.3%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 71.5%. The prevalence was 39.7% in below optimal fluoride area and 100% in high and very fluoride areas. The prevalence and severity of fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration. The caries experience was more among boys than girls. Conclusion: There was a negative correlation between dental caries and fluoride concentration for the entire study population. However, in high fluoride areas, there was a positive correlation between fluoride concentration and dental caries. Water defluoridation on an urgent basis is a priority here than water fluoridation, because the prevalence and severity of dental flurorosis is very high.

  16. The Bender Gestalt test for 5- to 15-year old Brazilian children: norms and validity. (United States)

    Brito, G N; Santos, T R


    Norms for two modalities (normal and stress) of the Bender Gestalt test were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. For each modality, a measure of performance, a measure of speed and a measure of emotional disturbance were obtained. A total of 398 children (199 males and 199 females), 5 to 15 years old, who were attending a public school in Niterói were the subjects of this study. Analysis of the data revealed that age, but not sex, had a significant effect on performance, but not on speed, in both modalities such that older children made fewer errors than younger children. Also, the number of emotional indicators significantly decreased with age. Additionally, boys needed more time to complete the normal modality than girls, and showed a higher number of emotional indicators in both modalities. The Bender test was found to be valid in the sense that children who had failed at least one grade in school performed worse than those who had not. The number of emotional indicators was shown to be valid since it was significantly correlated with factors such as hyperactivity-conduct problem, and independent functioning, and inattention of the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418). We conclude that the Bender test is valid for use in schoolchildren, and the number of emotional indicators is valid as an index of psychopathology, but sex and age should be considered when using the norms in Brazil.

  17. [Social stratification and nutritional anthropometry in children under 15 years old La Escalera, Lara State, Venezuela]. (United States)

    Torres-Villanueva, Mario; Dellán-Rodríguez, Graciela; Papale-Centofanti, Jham; Rodríguez, Dioslibeth; Mendoza, Norelis; Berné, Yelitza


    Malnutrition is a public health problem for underdeveloped countries. From the 852 million of undernourished estimated by FAO between 2000 and 2002, 815 million belonged to underdeveloped countries, 28 million to countries in transition and 9 million to developed countries. Malnutrition in Venezuela had a 6% raise between 2000 and 2002, when it went from 11% to 17%. This work was done with children under 15 years old from La Escalera, using classic indicators and their combination, relating them with socioeconomic conditions, through the NBI and Graffar Méndez Castellano methods, as to consider the population nutritional profile. The higher prevalence corresponded to normal nutritional values, which oscillated between 55,7% and 80,7% in the 7-14 years old group and the 2-6 years old group, respectively. Malnutrition was found in the under 2 years old group and 7-14 years old group, with values ranging between 12,5 and 41,0% respectively. The least prevalence was found for excess malnutrition. 100% of the families in this study are poor, according to NBI; although the Graffar Mendez Castellano method established that poverty was about 60%, while 40% belonged to a medium-low status. Relating nutritional diagnosis with social stratification and the mother's educational level, three patterns were observed: III, IV and V, prevailing normal diagnosis, followed by malnutrition by deficit and malnutrition by excess, respectively. The predominating mother's educational level corresponded to incomplete high school, followed by analphabetism and the least prevalent has complete basic elementary education. It should be noted that the nutrition deficit was inversely related to the socioeconomic stratification and the mother's educational level.

  18. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study

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    Godeau Emmanuelle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable

  19. Between- and within-day variability in physical activity and inactivity in 9- and 15-year-old European children

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    Nilsson, A; Anderssen, S A; Andersen, Lars Bo;


    To examine differences in levels of physical activity (PA), time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary between and within days in children from four European countries, 1954 9 - and 15-year-olds were included. PA was measured during 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days...... using the manufacturing technology-incorporated (MTI) accelerometer. Average count per minute, time spent sedentary, time spent at MVPA and the proportion of children accumulating >/=60 min of MVPA were calculated. Data were compared between weekdays and weekend days and between school time and leisure....... Few children (4-31%) accumulated >/=60 min of MVPA either during school time or during leisure-time. Differences in activity patterns between weekdays and weekend days are explained by less accumulated time in MVPA during weekend days. Weekend days and leisure-time during weekdays seem appropriate...

  20. Relationship between salivary fluor concentration and caries index in 12–15 years old children

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    Vidyana Pratiwi


    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection leading to dissolution and localized damage of hard tissues. The assessment of caries risk is based on several caries indicators including clinical conditions (DMF-T index, environment (fluor, and general health. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between salivary fluor concentration and caries index in children aging 12–15 years old at SMP Negeri 2 PTPN VIII Pangalengan. Methods: This study is an observational analytical study using crosssectional approach and is conducted in a field trial manner. The study sample consists of 80 students in the age of 12 to 15 years old at SMP Negeri 2 PTPN VIII selected through Probability Sampling manner using simple random sampling method. Results: The result of this study shows a DMF-T index of 4.32 and salivary fluor concentration mean of 0.018. Pearson Product Moment correlation test shows that there is a weak correlation between salivary fluor concentration and DMF-T index. Conclusion: It is concluded that the salivary fluor concentration has an insignificant correlation with the DMF-T index since the fluor concentration in saliva is very low.Latar belakang: Karies gigi adalah penyakit infeksi bakteri yang berakibat pada disolusi dan kerusakan terlokalisasi jaringan keras. Penilaian risiko karies berdasarkan atas beberapa indikator karies yaitu kondisi klinis (indeks DMF-T, lingkungan (fluor, dan kesehatan umum. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan konsentrasi fluor yang terdapat dalam saliva dengan indeks karies pada anak usia 12-15 tahun di SMP Negeri 2 PTPN VIII Pangalengan. Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian analitik observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional yang dilakukan di lapangan. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 80 orang siswasiswi usia 12–15 tahun di SMP Negeri 2 PTPN VIII Pangalengan yang dipilih secara Probability Sampling dengan metode simple random sampling. Hasil

  1. Effects of schooling on reading performance, reading engagement, and reading activities of 15-year-olds in England

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    Luyten, Hans; Peschar, Jules; Coe, Robert


    This article reports the findings of an analysis into the effect of one year's schooling for 15-year-olds in England on reading performance, reading engagement, and reading activities. The analyses were done on PISA 2000 data by applying a regression discontinuity approach within a multilevel framew

  2. Verbal Abuse in School. Constructions of Gender among 14- to 15-Year-Olds (United States)

    Eliasson, Miriam A.; Isaksson, Kerstin; Laflamme, Lucie


    Verbal abuse has been identified as a common element in the life of children in school. This paper explores how this discursive practice is used in the construction of masculinities and femininities among children aged 14-15 through observations and interviews in classes in two schools in Stockholm. Verbal abuse, often with sexual content,…

  3. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil (United States)

    Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória


    This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655

  4. Schistosoma haematobium treatment in 1-5 year old children: safety and efficacy of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel.

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    Francisca Mutapi


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morbidity due to schistosomiasis is currently controlled by treatment of schistosome infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ. Children aged up to 5 years are currently excluded from schistosome control programmes largely due to the lack of PZQ safety data in this age group. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of PZQ treatment in such children. METHODS: Zimbabwean children aged 1-5 years (n = 104 were treated with PZQ tablets and side effects were assessed by questionnaire administered to their caregivers within 24 hours of taking PZQ. Treatment efficacy was determined 6 weeks after PZQ administration through schistosome egg counts in urine. The change in infection levels in the children 1-5 years old (n = 100 was compared to that in 6-10 year old children (n = 435. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pre-treatment S. haematobium infection intensity in 1-5 year olds was 14.6 eggs/10 ml urine and prevalence was 21%. Of the 104 children, 3.8% reported side effects within 24 hours of taking PZQ treatment. These were stomach ache, loss of appetite, lethargy and inflammation of the face and body. PZQ treatment significantly reduced schistosome infection levels in 1-5 year olds with an egg reduction rate (ERR of 99% and cure rate (CR of 92%. This was comparable to the efficacy of praziquantel in 6-10 year olds where ERR was 96% and CR was 67%. INTERPRETATION/SIGNIFICANCE: PZQ treatment is as safe and efficacious in children aged 1-5 years as it is in older children aged 6-10 years in whom PZQ is the drug of choice for control of schistosome infections.

  5. Prevalencia de caries en escolares de 6 a 15 años, Isla de Pascua Caries prevalence in 6 to 15 year-old school children, from Easter Island

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    V Gómez González


    Full Text Available Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia y severidad de caries de piezas permanentes y algunos factores de riesgo relacionados en un grupo de escolares de Isla de Pascua. Materiales y Métodos: 116 niños de 6 a 15 años de edad fueron seleccionados al azar. Se efectuó examen clínico individualizado y se registraron los índices COP-D, significante de caries (SIC, de Higiene Oral de Greene y Vermillon (G-V y se realizó una encuesta de dieta. Para conocer la frecuencia y recuento de Streptococcus mutans y Streptococcus sobrinus, se tomaron muestras de saliva estimulada a 23 niños Rapa Nui elegidos al azar. Finalmente, se analizaron muestras de agua potable en 3 sitios distintos de la isla para medir la cantidad de flúor disponible. Resultados: La prevalencia de caries en piezas permanentes fue 38%. El COP-D fue 1.19. El valor promedio del G-V fue 1.63. Se aisló e identificó S. mutans y S. sobrinus en el 56.2% y 13.2% respectivamente. El recuento promedio para S. mutans fue de 3.3x105 UFC/ml saliva y para S. sobrinus fue de 7.2x104 UFC/ml. Se observó un promedio de 0.223 ppm/Fluoruro en el agua. Desviación Estándar 0.025 ppm. Según la encuesta de dieta el 30% de los niños presenta bajo riesgo de caries, el 47% presenta mediano riesgo y el 23% presenta alto riesgo. Conclusión: El 38% presenta historia de caries en piezas permanentes. El COP-D promedio es 1.19. En niños Rapa Nui 0.9 y en No Rapa Nui 1.77.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of caries and some related risk factors in a group of school children from Easter Island. Materials and Methods: 116 children aged 6 to 15 years were randomly selected. Individual clinical examination was performed and index COP-D, significant caries index (SIC, Greene and Vermillon Oral Hygiene index (GV were recorded. A diet survey was performed. To determine the frequency and count of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

  6. Physical activity 11-15 years old children with oncological disease: pilot study disHBSC

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    Tomáš Vyhlídal


    Full Text Available Background: As of 1993, the Czech and Slovak Republic, along with other countries of Europe and North America, participating in regular intervals to 4 year international project HBSC (Health Behavior in The School-aged Children, for our purposes disHBSC - "with disability". The main objective of this research study is to identify determinants of health and lifestyle pupils and compare the results on the international level. Up to this time, however, the research could not include pupils with disabilities and physical handicaps. On the initiative of WHO were within these categories in the survey also included pupils with cancer. In order to integrate these students, a new study disHBSC, which aims to increase knowledge of health and health behaviors, related to them this target group. Objectives: The aim of the research investigation is to determine the selected determinants affecting the participation of pupils with oncological diseases in the age 11-15 years in physical activities. Part of the aim is to find out their self-assessment and aspiration level, which with the realization of physical activities can immediately relate to. The purpose of the investigation is, however, in particular the pilot revealed any organizational and substantive uncertainties and upgrade research technique with regard to the needs and options of the target group. Methods: The research survey used a pilot version of the questionnaire protocol disHBSC. This pilot version is derived from the questionnaire protocol that was used in 2010 and based on the international version of the questionnaire HBSC. A pilot version of the questionnaire contained 41 questions, which are divided into several thematic areas - basic sociodemographic characteristics and behaviors specific areas (which have a significant relationship to physical and mental health of children and youth youth health, eating habits, physical activity and leisure use substance abuse, self-esteem and

  7. Screening for psychopathology in a national cohort of 8- to 15-year-old children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rackauskaite, Gija; Bilenberg, Niels; Bech, Bodil Hammer


    was associated with an increased prevalence of psychopathology (odds ratio (OR) 2.6, CI 1.4-4.6, for Developmental Quotient of cognitive function (DQ) 50-85 and OR 3.0, CI 1.3-7.0, for DQsingle parent showed increased odds for a positive CBCL screening compared to children living......Cerebral palsy (CP) is often accompanied by psychopathology and learning disability. AIMS: (1) to evaluate the prevalence of psychopathology as estimated by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) parental questionnaire in 8- to 15-year-old Danish children with CP and to analyze its association...... with cognitive ability and families' social characteristics; (2) to examine to what extent children with CP had been evaluated by a child psychiatrist and/or psychologist. METHOD: The parents of 462 children with CP answered a questionnaire about their child's treatment and the family's characteristics and 446...

  8. Facial Emotion and Identity Processing Development in 5- to 15-Year-Old Children


    Johnston, Patrick J.; Kaufman, Jordy; Bajic, Julie; Sercombe, Alicia; Michie, Patricia T.; Karayanidis, Frini


    Most developmental studies of emotional face processing to date have focused on infants and very young children. Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement. In this study, we developed a paradigm that measures processing of facial expression in comparison to facial identity and complex visual stimuli. The three matching tasks were devel...

  9. Facial Emotion and Identity Processing Development in 5- to 15-Year-Old Children


    Patrick eJohnston; Jordy eKaufman; Julie eBajic; Alicia eSercombe; Patricia eMichie; Frini eKarayanidis


    Most developmental studies of emotional face processing to date have focussed on infants and very young children. Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement. In this study, we developed a paradigm that measures processing of facial expression in comparison to facial identity and complex visual stimuli. The three matching tasks were de...

  10. Equally Prepared for Life? How 15-Year-Old Boys and Girls Perform in School (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009


    In the past few decades there has been an increasing interest in the different educational experiences, success and eventual outcomes that prevail for males and females. Women often excel at school, however men often earn more and are more likely to hold positions of power in political and economic life. Looking at these inequalities, government…

  11. Facial Emotion and Identity Processing Development in 5- to 15-Year-Old Children

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    Patrick eJohnston


    Full Text Available Most developmental studies of emotional face processing to date have focussed on infants and very young children. Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement. In this study, we developed a paradigm that measures processing of facial expression in comparison to facial identity and complex visual stimuli. The three matching tasks were developed (i.e., facial emotion matching, facial identity matching and butterfly wing matching to include stimuli of similar level of discriminability and to be equated for task difficulty in earlier samples of young adults. Ninety two children aged 5 to 15 years and a new group of 24 young adults completed these three matching tasks. Young children were highly adept at the butterfly wing task relative to their performance on both face-related tasks. More importantly, in older children, development of facial emotion discrimination ability lagged behind that of facial identity discrimination.

  12. Facial emotion and identity processing development in 5- to 15-year-old children. (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick J; Kaufman, Jordy; Bajic, Julie; Sercombe, Alicia; Michie, Patricia T; Karayanidis, Frini


    Most developmental studies of emotional face processing to date have focused on infants and very young children. Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement. In this study, we developed a paradigm that measures processing of facial expression in comparison to facial identity and complex visual stimuli. The three matching tasks were developed (i.e., facial emotion matching, facial identity matching, and butterfly wing matching) to include stimuli of similar level of discriminability and to be equated for task difficulty in earlier samples of young adults. Ninety-two children aged 5-15 years and a new group of 24 young adults completed these three matching tasks. Young children were highly adept at the butterfly wing task relative to their performance on both face-related tasks. More importantly, in older children, development of facial emotion discrimination ability lagged behind that of facial identity discrimination.

  13. Comparison Efficacy of Interferential Currents and Desmopressin in Primary Enuresis Children of 5-15 Years Old

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    P Yazdanpanah


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nocturnal enuresis as a common disorder in children can create many problems. A variety of modalities has been used for its treatment but applying new and effective modalities can be of much interest. In this study efficacy of interferential currents (IFC, as a new modality, has been compared with nasal spray of desmopressin in treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis in 5-15 year old children. Materials & Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, clinical trial in which 39 patients received desmopressin (20µg/day for 3 weeks and left off gradually in six months, if it was responsive. The other 36 patients received IFC therapy (5 times/week, 20 minutes each session, up to 15 sessions. Efficacy of treatment was evaluated after completion of therapeutic sessions and recurrence rate was calculated one month later. Results: About 66.7% of patients were 5-10 and 33.3% were 11-15 years old. Of all subjects, 58.7% were male and 41.3% were female. In those patients who received IFC, complete response was observed in 25%, partial response in 36.1% and 38.9% had no response while in desmopressin group, complete response was achieved in 61.5%, and partial response in 25.6% of cases and 12.8% had no response to the treatment. The recurrence rate in IFC and desmopressin groups were 16.7 % and 23.1%, respectively. In 11-15 year old children, response rate was better than those for 5-10 years old. Male patients had the most rate of recurrence. Therapeutic side effects were not observed in any of the patients in both groups. Conclusion: Desmopressin and IFC are effective and safe modalities for treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis of children with less recurrence in females. Moreover, desmopressin had better efficacy while IFC had less recurrence rate. In addition, desmopressin showed better efficacy in females. IFC can be recommended as an effective and safe modality for treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis, with less

  14. Examining the Effects of Long Term Exercise Training on Some Physical and Physiological Parameters of 12 - 15 Years Old Children

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    Yeliz ÖZVEREN


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to make a determination about the case, by searching physical and physiological parameters with Eurofit tests of boy students at İzmir. The research was made on the age group of 12 - 15 years old, volunteer 1002 boy students who are studying at primary schools; those were chosen randomly in Karabağlar, Konak and Buca boroughs in İzmir. Height and weight, body fat percentage, vertical bounce, 20 m. shuttle run test test, max VO2, grip strength, leg strength, back strength, FVC and FEV1 tests were applied to these students. In conclusion, there were significant differences between test group and control group.

  15. Dental caries status and oral health practice among 12-15 year old children in Jorpati, Kathmandu. (United States)

    Khanal, S; Acharya, J


    Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.

  16. Correlates of Peer Violence Among 13- to 15-Year-Olds in Gampaha District Schools in Sri Lanka

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    Monika Priyadarshani Wijeratne


    Full Text Available Violence among adolescents in schools is a relatively new research area in South Asian countries. Limited knowledge about factors associated with peer violence hinders the design of prevention programs. This study was carried out to assess correlates of peer violence among 13- to 15-year-old adolescents in Gampaha district schools in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify “violent” and “non-violent” adolescents. Study and control populations were identified based on their participatory roles in violence, and an unmatched case–control (1 case: 1 control analysis was carried out to assess correlates of peer violence. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model was used, and correlates were determined for both physical and relational (verbal and non-verbal violence. Correlates of both physical and relational peer violence were male sex, being 13 years of age, mental health difficulties, dating relationships, school absenteeism, witnessing physical fights among neighbors, and crime-dense residence. Factors associated with peer violence operate at several levels: individual, family/peer relationships, community, and societal. Most of these factors are modifiable and can be targeted by prevention programs.

  17. Seroprevalence of hepatitis a and associated factors among 1-15 year old children in Eastern Turkey (United States)

    Karaman, Serap; Karaman, Kamuran; Kızılyıldız, Baran Serdar; Ceylan, Nesrin; Kaba, Sultan; Parlak, Mehmet; Beger, Burhan; Ceylan, Abdullah


    Background: Hepatitis A is a common infectious disease during childhood worldwide. Recently, great deal of changes in the epidemiology has been reported. The seroepidemiologic studies of this infection are not sufficient in Eastern region of Turkey. Objective: To investigate the seroprevalence and association with socio-demographic variables of hepatitis A in 1-15 year old children in Van. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 510 one to fifteen year old children from outpatient pediatric clinics in Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Medicine during last three months of 2009. Anti-HAV IgG was measured in sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The information about subjects was recorded on standardized forms and a chart review survey was performed. Results: The overall ratio for seropositivity was 54.9%. Statistical significance was found between hepatitis A seroprevalence and age, collective use of domestic items, fresh water resources, localization and type of toilet and the number of households. Conclusion: This study provided the most recent data of seropositivity and revealed the preliminary indication of epidemiological shift in seroprevalence of Hepatitis A virus in a region with high endemicity. PMID:26770581

  18. Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition: Cross-cultural comparison between 11–15 year old children from the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom

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    Rudolf Psotta


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the exception of specific clinical methods, no widely used diagnostic tool for motor development assessment of children exists in the Czech Republic. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children – second edition (MABC-2 seems to be one the most developed instruments for children's motor coordination assessment. However, to use it in the Czech population of children in educational and psychological practice including physical education, the cross-validity of the test battery needs to be examined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to make a comparative analysis of performance in motor tasks of the MABC-2 measured in a Czech sample of 11–15 year old children and the United Kingdom (UK normative sample from which the norms of the MABC-2 were established. METHODS: The Czech sample of 11–15 year old children (total n = 589; 310 boys, 279 girls formed from a random selection of schools from all the geographical regions of the Czech Republic and all size categories of municipalities, was tested by the MABC-2. The results were compared to the performance of the UK normative sample of the same age (n = 344 reported in the MABC-2 Examiner's Manual by Henderson et al. (2007. For this comparative analysis, the effects size coefficient (d and the z-test were used. RESULTS: From three manual dexterity tests of the MABC-2, mean performance of the Czech sample in the Drawing trail test was shown to be significantly higher than the mean performance of the UK sample in all the age groups of both genders (d = 0.68–1.32; p CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that the MABC-2 is valid only for assessment of gross motor coordination in Czech children, but not for assessment of manual dexterity and balance. Before the use of this test battery for Czech children for both practical and research purposes, an adjustment of the norms is needed for the Drawing trail test, Two-board balance test and Zig-zag hopping test.

  19. University-School Partnerships: Polymer Chemistry Days Run at a University for 14-15 Year Olds and Their Impact on Attitudes to Science (United States)

    Shaw, A. J.; Harrison, T. G.; Medley, M. I.; Sellou, L.; Shallcross, K. L.; Croker, S. J.; Williams, S. J.; Shallcross, D. E.


    Polymer Chemistry days run by Bristol ChemLabS at the School of Chemistry, University of Bristol for year 10 (14-15 year olds) school students are described. Pre and post questionnaires were analysed to determine the impact on attitudes to science. There was no change in attitudes to the importance of science or practical work in science, but…

  20. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among 13-15-Year-Old Students Attending Catholic and Protestant Secondary Schools in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Enquiry (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew


    Northern Ireland has been and remains a religiously divided community. This study sets out to examine outgroup prejudice among a sample of 1799 13-15-year-old students attending Catholic or Protestant schools and employs both bivariate analyses and hierarchical modelling to chart the associations between outgroup prejudice and personal factors…

  1. The prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Its Anemia in 1-5 Years Old Children and Their Mothers in Birjand City


    Azita Fesharakinia


    Background &Objective: Micronutrient deficiencies are the most common nutritional disorders in the world in which iron deficiency is the most important one. This study was done for investigating the prevalence of iron deficiency and its anemia in children and their mothers in Birjand city in 2011.Materials & Methods: 143 children of 1-5 years old who referred to the health care centers of Birjand city were chosen by multistage cluster random sampling method and both the children and mothers w...

  2. Causes and Associated Factors of Headaches among 5 to 15-year-old Children Referred to a Neurology Clinic in Kashan, Iran

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    Ahmad TALEBIAN


    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Talebian A, Soltani B, Haji Rezaei M. Causes and Associated Factors of Headaches among 5 to 15-year-old ChildrenReferred to a Neurology Clinic in Kashan, Iran. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:71-75.AbstractObjectiveHeadaches are common neurologic problems for children and adolescents. They are divided into two types: primary and secondary. Primary headaches include migraines and tension-type as well as comprise the majority of headaches. We detect the causes of headaches and their associations with demographic variables among children and adolescents.Materials & MethodsThis cross-sectional study was performed on 5–15 year-old children with headaches from March 2010 to April 2012 who presented at a pediatric neurology clinic in Kashan, Iran. Diagnosis of headaches was done in accordance with the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Data regarding the type of headache, age, gender, pain severity, aura, family history, and sleep disorder were collected.ResultsOne hundred fourteen children (44 male and 70 female with headaches were enrolled in the study. The types of headaches were comprised as follows: 67 cases of migraines, 38 cases of tension-type headaches, 2 cases of cluster headaches, and 7 cases of secondary headaches. Pulsating headaches, family history of headaches, insomnia, and pain severity had higher prevalence in migrainous patients.ConclusionPhysicians should extend their information gathering about primary and secondary headaches. Sleep disturbances and a family history of headaches were the most important factors associated with migraine headaches.ReferencesCuvellier JC, Donnet A, Guegan-Massardier E, Nachit-Ouinekh F, Parain D, Vallee L. Treatment of primary headache in children: a multicenter hospital-based study in France. J Headache Pain 2009; 10: 447-53.Lateef TM, Merikangas KR, He J, Kalaydjian A, Khoromi S, Knight E, et al. Headache in a national sample of American children

  3. Outside school time: an examination of science achievement and non-cognitive characteristics of 15-year olds in several countries (United States)

    Suter, Larry E.


    Elementary and secondary students spend more hours outside of class than in formal school and thus have more time for interaction with everyday science. However, evidence from a large international survey, Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) (OECD 2012), found a negative relationship between number of hours attending after-school science and science assessment scores in many countries, raising questions about why. The secondary analysis of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 PISA surveys found that in most Western countries the longer students attended after-school science programs (in a typical week), the lower their PISA standardized science test score, but the higher their positive attitudes toward future science careers, interest in science, and self-confidence in science. Several potential hypotheses for this relationship are examined and rejected. Further analysis of a causal relationship between frequent attendance in after-school programs and student achievement and attitudes should clearly identify the content of the program so that the analysis could distinguish experiences closely related to regular school curricula from the informal science activities that are not. A new analysis also should include carefully designed longitudinal surveys to test the effectiveness of informal experiences on later life choices in career and study. Revision of a Paper prepared for AERA meetings in Chicago, 19 April 2015.

  4. The effect of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract on acute non-inflammatory diarrhea in 1-5 year old children

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    Khoshdel Abofazl


    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute diarrhea is one of the most important causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. The most common complication of acute diarrhea is dehydration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract in controlling non-inflammatory diarrhea in a hospital setting. Methods: In this case–controlled randomized double blind clinical trial 80 children in age range of 1-5 years were admitted in pediatric ward with diagnosis of non-inflammatory diarrhea. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of 40 cases. The subject in the first group received aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract, 1.2 ml/Kg single dose for 4 days duration and the second group (control group 1.2 cm/Kg distilled water single dose for 4 days duration. Data analysis were performed by Chi-square and t-tests, using SPSS software. Results: The groups were similar regarding gender, mean age, and frequency, and consistency of defecation (p> 0.05. Although the children seemed better in regard to frequency and consistency of defecation, however the results showed that aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not significantly effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the use of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea in children.

  5. Risk factors for acute and overuse sport injuries in Swedish children 11 to 15 years old: What about resistance training with weights? (United States)

    Boström, A; Thulin, K; Fredriksson, M; Reese, D; Rockborn, P; Hammar, M L


    To determine the 1-year self-reported incidence of overuse and traumatic sport injuries and risk factors for injuries in children participating in a summer sports camp representing seven different sports. 4363 children, 11 to 15 years old participating in a summer camp in seven different sports answered a questionnaire. Injury in this cross-sectional study was defined as a sport-related trauma or overload leading to pain and dysfunction preventing the person from participation in training or competition for at least 1 week. A number of risk factors for injury were investigated such as sex, age, number of hours spent on training in general, and on resistance training with weights. Nearly half [49%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48-51%] of the participants had been injured as a result of participation in a sport during the preceding year, significantly more boys than girls (53%, 95% CI 50-55% vs 46%, 95% CI 43-48%; P sport injuries: age, sex, and resistance training with weights. Time spent on resistance training with weights was significantly associated with sport injuries in a logistic regression analysis. In children age 11 to 15 years, the risk of having a sport-related injury increased with age and occurred more often in boys than in girls. Weight training was the only modifiable risk factor that contributed to a significant increase in the incidence of sport injuries.

  6. Assessment of oral health-related quality of life in 9-15 year old children with visual impairment in Uttarakhand, India (United States)

    Singh, Aditi; Dhawan, Preeti; Gaurav, Vivek; Rastogi, Pradeep; Singh, Shilpi


    Background: To assess the prevalence of dental diseases among 9–15-year-old visually impaired children and find out its impact on their daily activities using the Child-Oral Impact on Daily Performance (C-OIDP) questionnaire in districts of Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 423 visually impaired institutionalized children between the age group of 9–15 years were included in the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used to obtain the study population. Dental caries was recorded using dmft for primary dentition and DMFT for permanent dentition, traumatic dental injuries were assessed using traumatic dental injury index, and dentofacial anomalies were recorded using Angle's classification of malocclusion. The Hindi braille version of C-OIDP questionnaire was used to gather information regarding oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Results: There was a high dental caries prevalence of 57.7% in visually impaired children. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries was 50.6%. Crowding (61.5%) was the most commonly seen dentofacial anomaly and the most commonly perceived oral health problem was toothache. There was less favorable OHRQoL in males as compared to females. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of dental diseases in this group and higher C-OIDP scores suggestive of unfavorable OHRQoL.

  7. An epidemiological study to determine the prevalence and risk assessment of gingivitis in 5-, 12- and 15-year-old children of rural and urban area of Panchkula (Haryana

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    Avninder Kaur


    Conclusion: The results showed that the percentage of children affected with gingivitis was significantly higher in the rural areas in 5- and 15-year-old children, but this trend was not seen in 12-year age group, reflecting the lack of awareness in rural areas.

  8. Design of a school-based randomized trial to reduce smoking among 13 to 15-year olds, the X:IT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Bast, Lotus Sofie; Ringgaard, Lene Winther;


    BACKGROUND: Adolescent smoking is still highly prevalent in Denmark. One in four 13-year olds indicates that they have tried to smoke, and one in four 15-year olds answer that they smoke regularly. Smoking is more prevalent in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in Denmark as well...... among 13 to 15-year olds by 25%. METHODS/DESIGN: The X:IT study is based on the Theory of Triadic Influences. The theory organizes factors influencing adolescent smoking into three streams: cultural environment, social situation, and personal factors. We added a fourth stream, the community aspects...... in preventing smoking among adolescents. Program implementation is thoroughly evaluated to be able to add to the current knowledge of the importance of implementation. X:IT creates the basis for thorough effect and process evaluation, focusing on various social groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled...

  9. A Survey of Psychological, Motivational, Family and Perceptions of Physics Education Factors that Explain 15-Year-Old Students' Aspirations to Study Physics in Post-Compulsory English Schools (United States)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.


    This paper investigates the factors that influence 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics post-16, when it is no longer compulsory. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age, 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 England schools as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009. Factor analyses uncovered a range of…

  10. Associations between Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in 12- to 15-Year-Old Tianjin City Children (United States)

    Tan, Sijie; Wang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Yibing; Zhang, Chen


    Objective: The study aim was to explore associations between daily physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome among Chinese children. Design: We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants including 112 boys and 121 girls were recruited from three schools in the urban suburbs of Tianjin…

  11. Development of Face Recognition in 5- to 15-Year-Olds (United States)

    Kinnunen, Suna; Korkman, Marit; Laasonen, Marja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka


    This study focuses on the development of face recognition in typically developing preschool- and school-aged children (aged 5 to 15 years old, "n" = 611, 336 girls). Social predictors include sex differences and own-sex bias. At younger ages, the development of face recognition was rapid and became more gradual as the age increased up…

  12. A Survey of Psychological, Motivational, Family and Perceptions of Physics Education Factors that Explain 15-Year-Old Students' Aspirations to Study Physics in Post-Compulsory English Schools (United States)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.


    This paper investigates the factors that influence 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics post-16, when it is no longer compulsory. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age, 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 England schools as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009. Factor analyses uncovered a range of…

  13. Urgency treatment profile of 0 to 15 year-old children assisted at urgency dental service from Bauru Dental School, University of São Paulo Perfil de tratamento de urgência de crianças de 0 a 15 anos atendidas no serviço de urgência odontológica da Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Universidade de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Thiemy Sakai


    Full Text Available Dental recordings of 0 to 15-year-old patients assisted at Urgency Dental Service (UDS from Bauru Dental School, University of São Paulo, in 2001 and 2002, were assessed in order to quantify the number of patients that used the service, to determine attendance patterns, and to record the frequency of different types of dental emergencies and their performed treatment. Data were plotted and submitted to a descriptive statistical analysis. Among the total of patients attended at UDS (6020, 1166 (19.37% were children, with mean age of 9.24 years. Trauma was the cause for 199 (17.06% of the recorded urgency visits. It occurred more frequently in children between 0 and 3 years of age (34.42%, and between 7 and 12 years of age (18.12%. The main treatments performed were temporary restoration (33.33% for coronal fracture, and orientation (24.44% for luxation. Nontraumatic events were the etiology for 967 (82.92% of the total urgency diagnosis. The most commonly found nontraumatic diagnosis was dental caries lesions (61.75%, followed by problems of eruption or root resorption (14.27% and bone or soft tissue lesions (6.51%, among others (17.47%. The most frequent treatments performed for caries lesions were: excavation and temporary restoration (39.39% when there was no abscess, and coronal opening and dressing (40.95% for caries lesions with abscess. There was an increasing trend in caries lesions prevalence according to the rising of the age, in contrast to trauma prevalence. Treatment for both situations was done according to the indicated protocol for each case.Prontuários odontológicos de crianças de 0 a 15 anos de idade atendidas no Setor de Urgência Odontológica (SUO da Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Universidade de São Paulo, em 2001 e 2002, foram avaliados a fim de se quantificar o número de pacientes que utilizaram o serviço, determinar os padrões de atendimento e relatar a freqüência de diferentes tipos de emergências odontol

  14. Changes in dietary pattern in 15 year old adolescents following a 4 month dietary intervention with school breakfast – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarek Ingebjørg


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies on impact of meals served in school have been published. However, implications of school meals are an actual issue of both public and political concern in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate if breakfast served in a lower secondary school could improve dietary habits and school performance among the students. Methods All students in 10th grade in a lower secondary school, consisting of two school classes, were invited to participate in a controlled study. The students in one class were offered a free breakfast at the beginning of each school day for 4 months, while the students in the second class were controls. Both classes were educated in the importance of healthy eating, and a data program enabling them to evaluate dietary intake was introduced. The students answered two questionnaires, one on school performance and one short food frequency questionnaire, four weeks before study start and one week after. Body weight and height were measured by the school nurse at the beginning and end of the study. Because of few students in each group, non-parametrical statistic analyses were used. Results All students in the intervention group had breakfast at school during the intervention. One week after the intervention the students in the class who received breakfast had returned to their normal breakfast pattern. In the control group the frequency of a lunch intake had increase, as compared to before study start (p Conclusion In a lower secondary school class served breakfast for 4 months, dietary intake changed to a more healthy profile and weight gain was reduced.

  15. Investigation of the relationship between carrying school bags (handbags and backpacks) and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pains among 12-15 year old students in Shiraz. (United States)

    Arghavani, Farshad; Zamanian, Zahra; Ghanbary, Ali; Hassanzadeh, Jafar


    Inappropriate school bags put students at risk of musculoskeletal problems and early fatigue. Heavy bags can change the body posture and the musculoskeletal system must react appropriately in order to compensate for this stress. It is recommended that the weight of a school bag must not be more than 10% of the student's body weight and the weight must be placed on both shoulders. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders by comparing the prevalence of musculoskeletal pains among the students. The present descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in different educational districts of Shiraz. The study samples were selected using cluster sampling method. In this study, 800 students marked their painful areas on body maps and the SPSS statistical software (v. 11.5) was used to analyze the data. The results showed that among the students who used backpacks, 48.9% carried the weight on both shoulders, 40.4% carried the weight on their right shoulders, and 10.6% used their left shoulders. Besides, 68.02% of the students carrying handbags often used their right shoulders, while 31.98% used their left shoulders. The study results showed that similar to other countries, Iranian students also mostly made use of backpacks. Moreover, the musculoskeletal pains were most prevalent in the shoulders, which is in line with many other studies conducted on the issue.

  16. Relationship of insulin-like growth factor 1 and bone parameters in 7–15 years old apparently, healthy Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena H Ekbote


    Full Text Available Objective: Growth hormone through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 plays an important role in both bone growth and mineralization. This cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between serum IGF-1 concentrations and dual energy X-ray (DXA measured whole body less head bone area (BA, lean body mass (LBM, and bone mineral content (BMC. Methods: One hundred and nineteen children (boys = 70, age = 7.3–15.6 years were studied for their anthropometric parameters by standard methods and bone and body composition by DXA. Their fasting serum IGF-1 concentrations were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Z-scores were calculated using available reference data. Bone and body composition parameter Z-scores were calculated using ethnic reference data. Results: Mean age of the boys and girls was similar (11.5 ± 1.8 years. The mean serum IGF-1concentrations and IGF-1 Z-scores were similar (P > 0.1 between boys and girls and were of the order of (302.3 ± 140.0 and − 1.4 ± 1.1, respectively. The LBM for age and BA for age Z-score was greater in children with IGF-1 Z-score > median than children with IGF-1 Z-score 0.1. Conclusion: Serum IGF-1 levels were more strongly associated with BA and LBM, suggesting that its effect on bone is greater with respect to periosteal bone acquisition and through its effect on muscle mass.

  17. Overweight, body image and bullying--an epidemiological study of 11- to 15-years olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina S; Rayce, Signe L B; Rasmussen, Mette


    contribution to the international cross-sectional research project Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2002 was used. Data were assessed from questionnaires and 4781 students aged 11-, 13- and 15-years old were included in the analyses. Logistic regression was used for the analyses. RESULTS......: The regression analyses showed that overweight and obese students were more exposed to bullying than their normal weight peers. Among boys, odds ratios (ORs) for exposure to bullying were 1.75 (1.18-2.61) in overweight and 1.98 (0.79-4.95) in obese boys compared with normal weight. Among girls, the corresponding...

  18. Três anos pós-LASIK em crianças anisométropes de 8 a 15 anos de idade Three years after LASIK in anisometropic children from 8 to 15 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belquiz R. Amaral Nassaralla


    years after LASIK, uncorrected visual acuity improved by at least five Snellen lines in all eyes; five eyes (55.5% were 20/50 or better without correction. Six eyes (66.6%, were 20/50 or better with correction and five eyes (55.5% improved at least 1 line in the best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA. Due to amblyopia, no eye had uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better. The mean spherical refraction equivalent decreased from -7.66 (± 3.75 D to -1.02 (± 1.26 D, and mean preoperative astigmatism decreased from -3.11 (± 2.09 D to -0.75 (± 0.25 D. Highest anisometropia was 1.5 D. CONCLUSION: Three years after surgery, LASIK seems to be a safe and effective option for the correction of high anisometropia in children from 8 to 15 years old, in whom conventional therapy had failed. The natural change in refraction related to maturation did not affect the use of appropriate spectacle correction.

  19. Epidemiological investigation of birth information and physique status in 9 to 15-year-old children from Chengdu City of Sichuan Province%成都市9~15岁儿童出生情况与体格指标流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍亭竹; 杨凡; 熊菲; 李平; 毛萌


    Objective As the intrauterine environment can affect childhood growth and development, this study aims to understand the relationship between birth geBtab'onal age, birth weight and physique development in 9 to 15-year-old children by a cross sectional investigation in Chengdu City, Sichuan Province. Methods A total of 7194 9 to 15-year-old school children were classified according to birth gestational age and birth weight: small for gestational age ( SCA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA)and large for gestational age (LGA). Their heights and weights were measured. Parents completed a questionnaire. Results The prevalence of SGA was 6.23% (448 cases) , and 5.13% of children in the SGA group did not undergo "catch-up growth" (lower than -2 SD). The mean height in these children at various stages was significantly lower than in the AGA group (P<0.05). The prevalence of LGA was 18.06% (1299 cases). A total of 179 children (13.78% )were found to be overweight and 57 children (4.39% ) were found to be obese in the LGA group. The mean weight in the LGA group at various stages was significantly higher than in the AGA group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions Height and weight development in children bom SGA and LGA are different from normal children. More attention should be given to aspects of height and weight development in these school children.%目的 宫内环境可能对儿童生长发育产生影响,通过流行病学调查研究四川省成都市9~15岁儿童出生胎龄、体重与体格发育指标的关系.方法 调查9-15岁的中小学学生共7194名,根据出生胎龄及体重对儿童进行分类(包括小于胎龄儿、适于胎龄儿、大于胎龄儿),测量身高、体重,并对其家长进行问卷调查.结果 被调查人群小于胎龄儿发生率为6.23% (448例),其中身高未出现“追赶生长”(低于均值两个标准差)为5.13%,且多个年龄段儿童平均身高低于适于胎龄儿(P<0.05).大于胎龄儿发生率为18.06%(1299

  20. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds. (United States)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E


    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity.

  1. Bilateral Ota nevus in a 15 years old patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Öztürk


    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is a dermal melanocytosis, clinically localizedon skin that is innervated by the first and secondbranches of the trigeminal nerve. It occurs almost entirelyin Asian people. The clinical manifestations are usuallyunilateral; only 5% of cases are bilateral. In this article,due to rarity of the case, a 15-year-old patient, who was diagnosedwith bilateral ota nevus, without having any dermatologicalcomplaints other than cosmetic appearenceand stains in her eyes and around was presented.Key words: Bilateral ota nevus, child, melanocytosis

  2. The investigation of mumps incidence in children between 7~15 years old of Urumqi in 2013%2013年乌鲁木齐市7~15岁儿童流行性腮腺炎发病情况调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新; 金晓菊; 辛秀梅


    目的:调查分析2013年乌鲁木齐市7~15岁儿童流行性腮腺炎流行病学特征,评价腮腺炎疫苗保护效果。方法采用分层随机整群抽样的方法,选取1083名7~15岁中小学生为调查对象,采用自行设计的调查问卷,其内容包括儿童基本资料、腮腺炎疫苗接种情况、腮腺炎患病情况及未接种腮腺炎疫苗的原因等。结果调查的1083名调查儿童中腮腺炎接种率为74.4%,腮腺炎患病率为8.86%,其中未接种疫苗腮腺炎患病率为9.74%,接种疫苗者腮腺炎患病率为8.56%;7岁年龄组儿童患病率最高(12.74%),其次为14岁年龄组儿童(11.59%);接种国产疫苗儿童的腮腺炎患病率为8.53%,高于接种进口疫苗儿童的腮腺炎患病率(4.76%)。未接种腮腺炎疫苗的主要原因为“不是免费疫苗,且医护人员也没建议接种”。结论流行性腮腺炎的易感人群为学龄期儿童,疫苗接种率较低,应加强对学龄期7~15岁儿童的疫情监测和预防控制工作,推广腮腺炎疫苗接种工作,防止疫情暴发。%Objective To investigate the mumps incidence in children between 7~15 years old children of Urumqi in 2013,and aims to evaluate the protection effect of mumps vaccine.Methods 1083 primary and secondary school students (7-15 years old)were selected in the survey used the stratified cluster sampling method,we investigate the basic health index,the incidence and diagnostic and vaccination of mumps by using the self-designed questionnaire.Results The coverage of mumps vaccine was 74.4% in the 1083 chil-dren,the incidence of mumps is 8.86%.The prevalence in those child who unvaccinated mumps vaccine and vaccinated mumps vaccine were 9.74% and 8.56%;The 7-years-old age group has the highest preva-lence of mumps (12.74%),followed by 14-years-old age group (11.59%);the mumps incidence of children inoculated with domestic vaccine is 8

  3. [Relapse of bleeding ulcer in a 15 year-old boy with collagenous gastritis]. (United States)

    Haase, Anne-Mette; Kelsen, Jens


    Collagenous gastritis (CG) is a rare disorder. Two patient groups are known: 1) Children and young adults, presenting with anaemia and abdominal pain, and 2) adults presenting with watery diarrhoea. In the latter group, CG is frequently associated with collagenous colitis and/or coeliac disease. This case concerns a 15-year-old boy with a bleeding ulcer. The biopsies from corpus ventriculi showed a thickened subepithelial collagen band (> 10 micrometres), and the patient was diagnosed with CG. Ulcers are rarely linked to CG. CG should be considered when ulcers are found in children and young adults.

  4. Youth and acne - a survey among 14- and 15-year-olds



    Acne is a condition which can give both physical and psychological scars. Young persons are vulnerable to the negative effects of acne. Our survey investigates whether the knowledge about causes and treatment of acne is satisfactory among 14- and 15-year-olds. How does acne effect their self-esteem and well-being in school? Is there a need for information and how is their help-seeking behaviour? Our survey included 304 students from 5 different schools. The response rate was 99%. ...

  5. Patterns of Weight Control Behavior among 15 year old Girls (United States)

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.


    Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953

  6. Socratic Teaching Is Not Teaching, but Direct Transmission Is: Notes from 13 to 15-Year Olds' Conceptions of Teaching (United States)

    Tikva, Judith Bar


    We studied what 13-15-year-olds believe teaching's components are. Thirty-six children viewed two films: direct transmission (DT) and Socratic teaching (ST) and a third film of a non-teaching conversation (C). We investigated the participants' understanding of teaching's components and the role of intentionality in teaching. All children judged…

  7. No associations between objectively measured physical activity and spinal pain in 11-15-year-old Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Årtun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Boyle, Eleanor


    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is thought to play a role in spinal pain (neck pain, mid back pain, low back pain) in children and adolescents, either as a risk or protective factor, but current evidence is conflicting. The overall aim of this study was to determine the cross-sectional and longitud......BACKGROUND: Physical activity is thought to play a role in spinal pain (neck pain, mid back pain, low back pain) in children and adolescents, either as a risk or protective factor, but current evidence is conflicting. The overall aim of this study was to determine the cross......-sectional and longitudinal associations between different levels of objectively measured physical activity, i.e. sedentary; moderate and vigorous; vigorous physical activity, and spinal pain in 11-15-year-old Danes. METHODS: Data were collected at baseline (2010) (n = 906) and at follow-up 2 years later (n = 625......) in a school-based prospective cohort study. Physical activity was measured using the Actigraph GT3X Triaxial Activity Monitor, which measures the intensity of physical activity over time. This was worn for 1 week and spinal pain was assessed via e-survey that participants completed during school time...

  8. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Regan, Kevin; Maher, Michael M. [Mercy University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); O' Mahony, Edward; MacEneaney, Peter; Fitzgerald, Edward [Mercy University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland)


    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management. (orig.)

  9. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin


    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management.

  10. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin


    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management.

  11. Mild phenotype in a 15-year-old boy with Pallister-Killian syndrome. (United States)

    Genevieve, D; Cormier-Daire, V; Sanlaville, D; Faivre, L; Gosset, P; Allart, L; Picq, M; Munnich, A; Romana, S; de Blois, Mc; Vekemans, M


    Pallister-Killian syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, coarse face, pigmentary skin changes, seizures, severe mental retardation, and the presence of an extra metacentric chromosome i(12p) confined to skin fibroblasts only. Here, we report on an unusual case of i(12p) in a 15-year-old boy presenting with mild mental retardation, minor facial features (long face, prognathism, short neck), normal weight, length, and OFC parameters as well as hyperpigmented streaks. The boy attended normal school until the age of 14 years. Because of hyperpigmented stripes, chromosome analysis was performed on skin fibroblasts. This study showed that 37% of the cells had an additional isochromosome for the short arm of chromosome 12. This observation illustrates the phenotypic variability of i(12p) and emphasizes the importance of skin fibroblasts chromosome analysis in patients with pigmentary skin changes.

  12. Hearing and loud music exposure in 14-15 years old adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario R Serra


    The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs were classified as: normal (Group 1, slightly shifted (Group 2, and significantly shifted (Group 3. The musical general exposure (MGE, from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01, in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05 only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01. Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05 and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05. A significant difference (P < 0.05 was found in Group 1′s HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2 dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6 dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents.

  13. A 15-year-old boy with central nervous system vasculopathy presenting with dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome. (United States)

    Golomb, Meredith R; Weiss, Shelly K; Ibrahim, Shahnaz H; deVeber, Gabrielle A


    Dysarthria-clumsy hand stroke syndrome has been described frequently in adults but not in children. We report a 15-year-old right-handed boy with sudden onset of dysarthria, dysphagia, right facial weakness, and mild right-hand clumsiness. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated infarction in the genu and posterior limb of the left internal capsule. Magnetic resonance angiography and conventional angiography demonstrated stenosis of the supraclinoid portion of the left internal carotid artery and the origin of the left ophthalmic artery. Lacunar infarction in an older adult is not the only mechanism leading to dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Grad


    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to get information about pro-health behaviours and belief in oneself among 13-15-year old teenagers living in Biała Podlaska. The research included 229 pupils from three Grammar Schools (115 girls and 114 boys. The range of respondents’ age varied from 13 to 15 years old. The research tool was two anonymous questionnaires. The first questionnaire contained questions concerning teenagers’ belief in themselves and the efficacy of their activities (10 statements. The second questionnaire referred to the pro-health behaviours and it consisted of 14 situations described in the form of multiple choice questions. It was shown that Grammar School goers higly evaluated their own sense of efficacy (31,2 points. Girls (30,39 points in comparison to boys (32,05 evaluated their efficacy lower by 1,66 points. Grammar School goers in 85,7% of cases choose healthy behaviours and girls are the group which reach for such behaviours more often.

  15. The Relationship between Bible Reading and Attitude toward Substance Use among 13-15 Year Olds (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.


    The relationship between Bible reading and attitude toward drug use is examined among a sample of 25,888 teenagers, 13-15 year olds, throughout England and Wales. Information about sex, age, personality, belief in God, and church attendance was also considered. The conclusion is that Bible reading makes a small but significant contribution to…

  16. Characteristics of 15-Year-Old Students Predicting Scientific Literacy Skills in Turkey (United States)

    Demir, Ergül


    Since 2003, Turkey regularly participates in PISA. According to the PISA 2012 results, 15-year-old students in Turkey performed below both OECD countries and participating countries. Defining the relations between students' characteristics and their scientific literacy skills is thought to provide deeper understanding for the nature of this…

  17. Prevalence of Malocclusion in 13-15 Year-old Adolescents in Tabriz


    Ahangar Atashi, Mohammad Hossein


    Background and aims Malocclusion with its great hazardous effects seems to have become more prevalent in recent decades; therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of different malocclusions among 13-15 year-old adolescents in Tabriz. Materials and methods The subjects in the present study consisted of 398 adolescents aged 13-15, who were randomly selected from 5 different districts of the city. Students who had previous orthodontic treatment or extraction of any pe...

  18. Fatal pulmonary thromboembolism associated with hemoglobin SC disease in a 15 year-old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Trolez Amancio


    Full Text Available We report a case of hemoglobin SC disease complicated by fatal pulmonarythromboembolism in a 15 year-old Brazilian boy, submitted to autopsy. Thiscase shows the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of sickle celldisease, which generates systemic involvement in youth and the importanceof considering the hypercoagulability in these patients. The autopsy was veryinstructive, revealing the florid morphologic aspect of sickle cell disease andits complications.

  19. Trisomy 18 mosaicism in a 15-year-old boy with normal intelligence and short stature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We report a 15-year-old boy with mosaicism for trisomy 18 and normal intelligence. Approximately 50% of his leukocytes are trisomic. This patient represents the sixth report of an individual with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence. Those individuals with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence need to be advised of increased risks for offspring with chromosome abnormalities and offered the option of prenatal diagnosis for cytogenetic anomalies. 6 refs.

  20. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy


    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.


    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy.

  1. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy (United States)

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.


    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy. PMID:27274896

  2. Objectively assessed physical activity and aerobic fitness in a population-based sample of Norwegian 9- and 15-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolle, E; Steene-Johannessen, J; Andersen, Lars Bo;


    rate was 89% and 74% among the 9- and 15-year-olds, respectively. Physical activity was assessed objectively by accelerometry, and aerobic fitness was measured directly as peak oxygen uptake during a cycle ergometry test. Boys were more physically active than girls, and 9-year-olds were substantially......The present study described current physical activity, determined compliance with physical activity guidelines and assessed aerobic fitness in a nationally representative sample of 9- and 15-year-olds in Norway. In 2005-2006, 2299 children and adolescents were randomly recruited. The participation......, 48.2 (7.1) mL/min/kg; 9-year-old girls, 42.9 (6.7) mL/min/kg; and 15-year-old girls 41.1 (6.0) mL/min/kg and 15-year-old boys 51.9 (8.0) mL/min/kg. Because of the high participation rate, this study provides a good description of the physical activity and aerobic fitness in the young population...

  3. Impacts on quality of life related to dental caries in a national representative sample of Thai 12- and 15-year-olds. (United States)

    Krisdapong, S; Prasertsom, P; Rattanarangsima, K; Sheiham, A


    Dental caries is generally given the highest priority in national oral health services for school-aged populations. Yet, there is no study exploring the impacts on quality of life specifically related to dental caries in national samples of school-aged children. This study assessed prevalence and characteristics of oral impacts attributed to dental caries on quality of life and compared them with overall oral health impacts. In addition, associations of oral impacts attributed to dental caries and dental caries status were investigated. A national representative sample of 1,063 12- and 811 15-year-olds completed a sociodemographic and behavioural questionnaire, and were orally examined and interviewed about oral health-related quality of life using the Child-OIDP or OIDP indexes, respectively. Associations of condition-specific impacts (CS impacts) attributed to dental caries with components of DMF were investigated using χ(2) tests and multivariate logistic regressions. CS impacts attributed to dental caries were reported by nearly half the children and such impacts accounted for half of overall oral impacts from all oral conditions. The majority of impacts were of little intensity and affected only 1-2 daily performances, particularly performances on Eating, Emotional stability and Cleaning teeth. CS impacts were significantly positively associated with number of decayed teeth, and strongly associated with severe decay.

  4. WHO Grade 2 Neuroendocrine Tumor in a 15-Year-Old Male: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Johannesen


    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors, distinguished from adenocarcinomas by their neuroendocrine differentiation, are the most common pediatric epithelial malignancy that most often occurs in the appendix. In 2010, the WHO classified neuroendocrine neoplasms into three grades based on morphology, mitotic count, and Ki67 proliferation index. A 15-year-old male with a history of anemia and failure to thrive was diagnosed with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor in the jejunum that invaded into the subserosal soft tissue and metastasized to four lymph nodes. Pediatric neuroendocrine tumors frequently arise within hereditary tumor syndromes with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors being the most common. Several studies also indicate an elevated risk of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors in which children born to a parent with a history of neuroendocrine tumors in the small intestine have a significant increased risk of developing one.

  5. Gouty arthritis in a 15-year-old girl with Bartter′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derakhshan Nima


    Full Text Available A 15-year-old girl, a known case of Bartter′s syndrome (BS for 7 years, developed severe pain in her right knee and right and left ankle. Her older sister had BS and developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD at the age of 14 years. Her serum uric acid was 12.6 mg/dL, 6 months ago, and 15.4 mg/dL in her recent lab data. Hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis are commonly seen in adults with BS, but to our knowledge there is no report of gouty arthritis in pediatric literature.

  6. Plummer-Vinson syndrome in a 15-year-old boy. (United States)

    Dinler, Gönül; Tander, Burak; Kalayci, Ayhan Gazi; Rizalar, Riza


    Plummer-Vinson syndrome presents as a classical triad of dysphagia, iron deficiency anemia and upper esophageal web(s). The syndrome usually occurs in adults, and is rare in childhood. We report a case of this syndrome occurring in a 15-year-old boy. He presented with dysphagia and anemia. Radiological examination showed the presence of webs at the cervical esophagus. The boy was treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and iron supplementation and remains in good general condition six months after the treatment.

  7. Neuroretinitis with Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ahmadi


    Full Text Available We report a case of Bartonella henselae neuroretinitis with significant disc and peripapillary edema, branch retinal artery occlusion without macula involvement and well preserved central vision. A 15-year-old female presented with loss of vision over 4 weeks in the left eye. She had a history of cat exposure, but a cat scratch, insect bite or conjunctivitis was not reported. An inferotemporal arcuate scotoma developed during the acute phase and persisted over the course of the follow-up.

  8. Pelvic osteomyelitis in a 15-year-old girl: case report. (United States)

    Tural Kara, Tugce; Ozdemir, Halil; Fitoz, Suat; Ciftci, Ergin; Ince, Erdal


    Pelvic osteomyelitis is a rare infection. Ilium, ischium, pubis and acetabulum are commonly affected sites. Pelvic radiography, pelvic magnetic resonance and scintigraphy are useful imaging techniques for diagnosis. However, diagnoses should be confirmed with bone biopsy from the lesion. Sometimes diagnosis is delayed because of deep localization of infection site. Here in, we report a 15-year-old girl with left groin pain who was diagnosed as pelvic osteomyelitis one month after initial symptoms. Patient was successfully treated with antibiotics for 8 weeks. In conclusion, although pelvic osteomyelitis is an unusual infection in childhood, it should be considered as differential diagnoses of pain in groin, hips, thigh, abdomen and spine. If diagnosis is suspicious, empiric treatment should be started quickly, because it will be possible to achieve satisfactory clinical results with effective treatment.

  9. Self-reported recurrent pain and medicine use behaviours among 15-year olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobina, I; Villberg, J; Villerusa, A


    recurrent pain and medicine use for headache, stomachache, nervousness and difficulties in getting to sleep. RESULTS: More than 30% of adolescents reported recurrent headache, almost 30% recurrent backache and approximately 20% recurrent stomachache. Although pain prevalence and medicine use for aches were......BACKGROUND: There is considerable variation in adolescent pain prevalence across epidemiological studies, with limited information on pain-related behaviours among adolescents, including medicine use. The aims of this study were (1) to examine the prevalence of recurrent pain among 15-year......-old adolescents internationally; (2) to investigate the association between recurrent pain and medicine use behaviours among boys and girls; and (3) to evaluate the consistency of these associations across countries. METHODS: The World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative international Health Behaviour...

  10. Self-reported medicine use among 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys in Denmark 1988-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Holme Hansen, Ebba; Due, Pernille;


    difficulties. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of 11-15-year-old girls and boys reported medicine use in relation to common health complaints. The proportion of users increased during the past decade. It is suggested that more information about medicine be built into health education programs in the future.......AIMS: To describe the self-reported medicine use for common health complaints among 11-15-year-olds in Denmark during a ten year period, 1988-1998. The paper focuses on medicine for headache, stomach ache, cough, cold, nervousness, and difficulties in getting to sleep. METHODS: Four cross......: A large proportion of 11-15-year-olds reported medicine use during the past month. It was most common to take medicines for headache (used by 55% of 15-year-old girls and 36% of 15-year-old boys in 1998) and stomach ache (33% among 15-year-old girls in 1998). Pain reliever use was higher among girls than...

  11. 8-15 Years old Children's Table Tennis Forehand Stroke Prone Horizontal Plate Error and Correction Method%8-15岁少儿乒乓球横板正手攻球易犯错误与纠正方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Table tennis is China country ball, it sets the fitness sports entertainment,every major competitions make Chinese people feel proud, as the progenitor people are still with glory. China's table tennis is long and the table ten-nis reserve base China powerful are inseparable, table tennis in the masses especially popular among children is that any country cannot compare, any one of the high level athlete has to go through this stage of enlightenment.Chil-dren's learning table tennis can keep fit, improve physical coordination,can greatly improve the children's constitu-tion, strengthen the heart and lung function, improve the sensitive rate, promote the new supersedes the old,can keep a close eye, hand, coordination between the need to reflect thebrain, and when the body sensitive action, need whole match the body, to the rhythm of the sure, playing table tennis can make children become love brains think-ing, enhance memory, observation, imagination, thinking andattention, so as to develop and diligent in thinking hab-its, cultivate calm,machine intelligence, resolute tenacious will quality, brief analysis and research of common er-rors in children's enlightenment stage often appearthe.%乒乓球是中国的国球,它集健身竞技娱乐为一体,每一次重大比赛中都让国人深深的感到自豪,为祖国和人民带来无尚的荣耀。我国乒乓球之所以长盛不衰与中国强大的乒乓球后备基础是分不开的,乒乓球在群众中尤其是少儿中的普及是任何一个国家都无法比拟的,任何一个高水平运动员都要经历启蒙这一阶段。少儿学习乒乓球可以强身健体,提高身体协调性,可以极大程度的改善少儿体质,增强其心肺功能,提高反映灵敏速度,促进新陈代谢,可以密切眼、手、脑之间的配合,需要灵敏的反映和当机立断的行动,需要身体的整体配合,对节奏的把握,打乒乓球能使少年儿童变得爱动脑筋思考

  12. Guillain Barré syndrome in a population less than 15 years old in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias-Tosta Elza


    Full Text Available To know the impact of the Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS in the population less than 15 years old, after the eradication of poliomyelitis. Data bank from the program of epidemiological surveillance of acute flaccid palsies (AFP from the Fundação Nacional de Saúde were analyzed between 1990 -- 1996. From 3619 notifications of AFP there were 1678 GBS. GBS yearly incidence rates is 0.39-0.63 cases/100,000. No consistent seasonal variation existed or relationship to vaccines. Weakness at inclusion were, moderate 52.1%, severe in 47.9%, sixty days after 57.1% normal, 7.4% mild, 15.7% moderate, 10.4% with severe deficits, death in 5.4%. 67 (4.0% cases unknown. Death rates varies from 2.8% in southeast to 7.9% in the northeast. GBS was the most frequent cause of AFP. In spite of the severity of this disease being similar in the different regions, the outcome varies according to origin of the cases, possibly reflecting the economical conditions in those places.

  13. Nonossifying fibroma (metaphyseal fibrous defect) of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy. (United States)

    Mannan, Abul Ala; Singh, N Gopendro; Al-Waheeb, Salah; Taher, Taher N; Mohammed, Emad El Din El Din


    We describe a rare case of nonossifying fibroma of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy who presented with a left mandibular swelling. Conventional imaging showed an expansile radiolucent lesion involving the angle and the body of the left mandible. The lesion was curetted, and a miniplate was implanted at the excision site. Microscopic examination of the removed specimen revealed a cellular lesion characterized by a proliferation of uniform spindle-shaped cells in a vague but prominent storiform pattern, which represented the classic appearance of nonossifying fibroma. Three months later, radiography detected a fracture of the implantation plate. The area was re-explored with curettage of the soft tissue, which on microscopy demonstrated findings similar to the initial curettage findings. Follow-up radiology revealed satisfactory healing of the jaw, and no further recurrence was seen 2 years after the initial surgery. We present this case to highlight the importance of recognizing nonossifying fibroma in the mandible, which can be easily confused with more common mandibular lesions.

  14. Gout in a 15-year-old boy with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a case study. (United States)

    Morris, Hallie; Grant, Kristen; Khanna, Geetika; White, Andrew J


    Joint pain is a common complaint in pediatrics and is most often attributed to overuse or injury. In the face of persistent, severe, or recurrent symptoms, the differential typically expands to include bony or structural causes versus rheumatologic conditions. Rarely, a child has two distinct causes for joint pain. In this case, an obese 15-year-old male was diagnosed with gout, a disease common in adults but virtually ignored in the field of pediatrics. The presence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) complicated and delayed the consideration of this second diagnosis. Indeed, the absence of gout from this patient's differential diagnosis resulted in a greater than two-year delay in receiving treatment. The patients' BMI was 47.4, and he was also mis-diagnosed with osteochondritis dissecans and underwent medical treatment for JIA, assorted imaging studies, and multiple surgical procedures before the key history of increased pain with red meat ingestion, noticed by the patient, and a subsequent elevated uric acid confirmed his ultimate diagnosis. With the increased prevalence of obesity in the adolescent population, the diagnosis of gout should be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis for an arthritic joint in an overweight patient, regardless of age.

  15. [Socioeconomic inequalities in subjective health among 11- to 15-year-olds in Germany. A trend analysis from 2002-2010]. (United States)

    Moor, I; Pförtner, T K; Lampert, T; Ravens-Sieberer, U; Richter, M


    Health is strongly linked to social position. Several studies showed consistent or increasing health inequalities in the last decades. So far, few studies focused on trends in social inequalities in health among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine changes in socioeconomic differences in subjective health between 2002 and 2010 of 11- to 15-year-old students in Germany.Data were obtained from the German part of the cross-sectional WHO "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children" survey in 2002 (n=5.221), 2006 (n=6.896) and 2010 (n=4.723). Log binomial regression models were used to assess the extent of inequalities in self-rated health across the survey years. Socioeconomic position was measured using the family affluence scale (FAS) and perceived family wealth.A relatively small improvement in good/excellent self-rated health was observed in both boys and girls from 2002 (85.2%) to 2010 (87%). Despite this improvement, inequalities in self-rated health could be identified for all survey years, regardless of which socioeconomic indicator was used (RR 1.4 up to 1.8). The level of these differences remained virtually unchanged in girls and boys in that time period.The same relationship of family affluence, family wealth and self-rated health has persisted for almost a decade in Germany. Recent strategies could not tackle existing inequalities in self-rated health which indicates an increasing need to develop and implement innovative measures and to intensify efforts of social and health policy.

  16. Prevalencia de caries en escolares de 6 a 15 años, Isla de Pascua Caries prevalence in 6 to 15 year-old school children, from Easter Island


    Gómez González,V; R Cabello Ibacache; G. Rodríguez Martínez; Urzúa Araya,I; Silva Steffens,N; Phillips Letelier,M; Yévenes López,I


    Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia y severidad de caries de piezas permanentes y algunos factores de riesgo relacionados en un grupo de escolares de Isla de Pascua. Materiales y Métodos: 116 niños de 6 a 15 años de edad fueron seleccionados al azar. Se efectuó examen clínico individualizado y se registraron los índices COP-D, significante de caries (SIC), de Higiene Oral de Greene y Vermillon (G-V) y se realizó una encuesta de dieta. Para conocer la frecuencia...

  17. A 15-Year-Old Male Baseball Player With a Mass in the Brachialis Muscle. (United States)

    Golub, Ivan J; Garcia, Roberto A; Wittig, James C


    A 15-year-old boy presented with a mass in his right arm after suffering a minor injury playing baseball. He had been diagnosed with a hematoma. There was no other outstanding medical/surgical history. Magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous mass arising from the brachialis muscle that mainly enhanced peripherally with extremely scant internal nodular enhancement. Core needle biopsy cells were positive for CD31 and CD34, markers for atypical endothelial cells, as well as MIB-1 and p53. The final diagnosis was an angiosarcoma of the brachialis muscle. Pediatric angiosarcoma, particularly within deep tissue, is exceedingly rare. Histological and immunohistochemical modalities led to the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images suggested a mass with a large cystic/hemorrhagic space that could have been misconstrued as a hematoma had there been absolutely no nodular or septal enhancement. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation before undergoing limb-sparing surgery that included resection of the mass with the brachialis muscle and short head of the biceps muscle. Neoadjuvant treatment was deemed successful due to a drastic reduction in the size of the tumor and 95% tumor necrosis. The patient was disease free 2 years postoperatively. There had been no local/systemic recurrences. He was pain free, had normal elbow function, and had returned to playing baseball. It is important to be extremely suspicious when a patient presents with a hemorrhagic, painless, enlarging mass after sustaining minor trauma. A careful and meticulous biopsy must be completed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is recommended for evaluation because these masses can be often misinterpreted as hematomas. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e545-e548.].

  18. Self-reported medicine use among 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys in Denmark 1988-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Holme Hansen, Ebba; Due, Pernille


    To describe the self-reported medicine use for common health complaints among 11-15-year-olds in Denmark during a ten year period, 1988-1998. The paper focuses on medicine for headache, stomach ache, cough, cold, nervousness, and difficulties in getting to sleep.......To describe the self-reported medicine use for common health complaints among 11-15-year-olds in Denmark during a ten year period, 1988-1998. The paper focuses on medicine for headache, stomach ache, cough, cold, nervousness, and difficulties in getting to sleep....

  19. Persistence of artificial sweeteners in a 15-year-old septic system plume (United States)

    Robertson, W. D.; Van Stempvoort, D. R.; Solomon, D. K.; Homewood, J.; Brown, S. J.; Spoelstra, J.; Schiff, S. L.


    SummaryGroundwater contamination from constituents such as NO3-, often occurs where multiple sources are present making source identification difficult. This study examines a suite of major ions and trace organic constituents within a well defined septic system plume in southern Ontario, Canada (Long Point site) for their potential use as wastewater tracers. The septic system has been operating for 20 years servicing a large, seasonal-use campground and tritium/helium age dating indicates that the 200 m long monitored section of the plume is about 15 years old. Four parameters are elevated along the entire length of the plume as follows; the mean electrical conductivity value (EC) in the distal plume zone is 926 μS/cm which is 74% of the mean value below the tile bed, Na+ (14.7 mg/L) is 43%, an artificial sweetener, acesulfame (12.1 μg/L) is 23% and Cl- (71.5 mg/L) is 137%. EC and Cl- appear to be affected by dispersive dilution with overlying background groundwater that has lower EC but has locally higher Cl- as result of the use of a dust suppressant (CaCl2) in the campground. Na+, in addition to advective dilution, could be depleted by weak adsorption. Acesulfame, in addition to the above processes could be influenced by increasing consumer use in recent years. Nonetheless, both Na+ and acesulfame remain elevated throughout the plume by factors of more than 100 and 1000 respectively compared to background levels, and are strong indicators of wastewater impact at this site. EC and Cl- are less useful because their contrast with background values is much less (EC) or because other sources are present (Cl-). Nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, K+) and pathogens (Escherichia coli) do not persist in the distal plume zone and are less useful as wastewater indicators here. The artificial sweetener, acesulfame, has persisted at high concentrations in the Long Point plume for at least 15 years (and this timing agrees with tritium/helium-3 dating) and this compound likely

  20. Mucinous Cystic Adenoma of Ovary in a 15-Year-Old Girl with an Unusual Presentation (A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahbakhsh Rahimi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Ovarian cysts are relatively rare in children. Mucinous cystadenomas are rarely encountered in adolescent patients and can reach an enormous size. Mural nodules associated with mucinous tumors of the ovary may represent a benign or malignant process."nCase Presentation: Our case was a 15-year-old female, which referred with a painless abdominal distention gradually appearing during six months. There was no specific symptom only mild discomfort of bowel habits with the regular menstruation. On physical examination, there was complete distention of the abdomen without any tenderness. Ultrasonography revealed a large loculated cystic mass in the abdominopelvic cavity, which contained few septations and mural nodules without any vascularity on color Doppler ultrasonography. All other organs appeared normal. On contrast enhanced CT scan, there was a large intra-peritoneal 280×250×170 mm anteriorly located cystic mass which extended from the upper abdomen down to the lower pelvis displacing and compressing adjacent structures posterolaterally. Multiple enhancing septa and two mural nodules were found in the cystic mass. All solid organs appeared normal and no significant adenopathy or ascitis was detected. According to the above findings, omental cysts, adenexal cysts, urachal cysts, mesenteric cysts were our differential diagnosis. A 10 kg mass was resected (an exophytic cyst in the right ovary and histopathology revealed mucinous cystic adenoma of the right ovary with fibrotic mural nodules. No recurrence was detected after one year."nDiscussion: Mucinous cystadenomas are rarely encountered in adolescent patients and can reach an enormous size. The interesting point of this case was not only because of its rarity but also because of its unusual symptomless manifestation and also fibrotic mural nodules."nKeywords: Mucinous Cystic Adenoma, Ovary, Adolescence

  1. Financial Literacy of 15-Year-Olds: Results from PISA 2012. Data Point. NCES 2014-102 (United States)

    Gonzales, Patrick; Kelly, Dana


    This Data Point uses data from the 2012 administration of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) financial literacy assessment. PISA is an international assessment that measures 15-year-old students' reading, mathematics, and science literacy and, in 2012, general problem solving and financial literacy. PISA is coordinated by the…

  2. Primary internal carotid artery aneurysm in a 15-year-old male: case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Sarac, Timur; Lorenz, Robert


    Extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms are a rare entity in the adult population. Very little information is known in the pediatric population. We present a case of a 15-year-old male with an isolated internal carotid artery aneurysm and a review of the literature.

  3. Prevalence of sealants in relation to dental caries on the permanent molars of 12 and 15-year-old Greek adolescents. A national pathfinder survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamai-Homata Eleni


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of sealants as an effective measure for the prevention of pit and fissure caries in children has been well documented by several studies; either they are used on an individual or on a public health basis. In order to plan and establish a national preventive program with sealants in a community, it is mandatory to know the epidemiological pattern of caries along with other variables influencing their use and effectiveness. Aims: To assess the utilization and distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on the first and second permanent molars of Greek adolescents and to evaluate whether the existing usage of sealants and some socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the population examined Methods A stratified cluster sample of 2481 Greek adolescents was selected according to WHO guidelines (1224 twelve and 1,257 fifteen-year-old, living in urban and rural areas in 11 districts within the country. Five calibrated examiners carried out clinical examinations, recording caries experience at the dentine threshold (BASCD criteria and presence or absence of sealants along with Socio-demographic indicators associated with oral health. Mann Whitney and Pearson's chi-square non parametric tests were utilized for assessing the data. The level of significance was p Results Sealants utilization varied considerably within the different districts, with 8,3% of the 12 and 8,0% of the 15-year-old adolescents having at least one sealed molar. Sealants reduced DMFS scores by 11% in the 12-year-olds and by 24% in the 15-year-olds, while 15-year-old adolescents from rural areas had a statistically significant (p = 0.002 less chance of having sealants (71% compared to children from urban areas. Girls had higher chance to receive sealants in both age groups (26% for the 12 and 19% for the 15-year-old as well as patients that visited the dentist for prevention compared to those visiting the dentist because they

  4. Main meal frequency measures in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Laursen, Bjarne


    OBJECTIVES: To estimate agreement between questionnaire-based frequency measures from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) and 7-day 24-h recall measures of breakfast, lunch and evening meals among 11-15-year-olds, and examine whether disagreement between the two methods varied...... by socio-demographic factors. METHODS: In one week 11-15-year-old Danish students completed HBSC questionnaires including meal frequency items. The following week they completed daily 24-h recall questionnaire about their meals (response rate 88.4 %, n = 412). RESULTS: Good to moderate agreement...

  5. Effectiveness of 14-15 years old tennis players’ competition functioning considering correction of their psychological fitness

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    Makuts T.B.


    Full Text Available Purpose: to determination influence of individualized psychological training on effectiveness of 14-15 years old tennis players’ competition functioning. Material: in the research 24 tennis players of 14-15 years’ age participated. Individualized psychological training consisted of 15 sessions of total duration of 1.5 months. Results: We substantiated necessity of individualized approach to tennis players’ psychological training. Individual psychological profiles for tennis players, which determined content of psychological training and their selection, were worked out. Informative indicators for assessment of 14-15 years old tennis players’ competition functioning were determined: 1 percentage of won and lost scores at the account of own actions; 2 integral criteria of tennis players’ competition functioning assessment (coefficient of stability and effectiveness; complex indicator of efficiency. Conclusions: it is recommended to consider individual potentials and bents of sportsmen in the course of psychological training.

  6. Magnetic Field Mental Representations of 14-15 Years Old Students (United States)

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Pantidos, Panagiotis; Vitoratos, Evangelos


    Children's mental representations about physical concepts and phenomena play a vital role in the learning process. This is confirmed by the data derived from relevant researches which demonstrate that the students formulate incompatible ideas compared with the scientific ones. In this research we investigate the representations of 14-15 years…

  7. Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis

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    Cláudia Di Lorenzo Oliveira


    Full Text Available This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs.

  8. Low-dose CT pulmonary angiography on a 15-year-old CT scanner: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Kaup


    Full Text Available Background Computed tomography (CT low-dose (LD imaging is used to lower radiation exposure, especially in vascular imaging; in current literature, this is mostly on latest generation high-end CT systems. Purpose To evaluate the effects of reduced tube current on objective and subjective image quality of a 15-year-old 16-slice CT system for pulmonary angiography (CTPA. Material and Methods CTPA scans from 60 prospectively randomized patients (28 men, 32 women were examined in this study on a 15-year-old 16-slice CT scanner system. Standard CT (SD settings were 100 kV and 150 mAs, LD settings were 100 kV and 50 mAs. Attenuation of the pulmonary trunk, various anatomic landmarks, and image noise were quantitatively measured; contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR were calculated. Three independent blinded radiologists subjectively rated each image series using a 5-point grading scale. Results CT dose index (CTDI in the LD series was 66.46% lower compared to the SD settings (2.49 ± 0.55 mGy versus 7.42 ± 1.17 mGy. Attenuation of the pulmonary trunk showed similar results for both series (SD 409.55 ± 91.04 HU; LD 380.43 HU ± 93.11 HU; P = 0.768. Subjective image analysis showed no significant differences between SD and LD settings regarding the suitability for detection of central and peripheral PE (central SD/LD, 4.88; intra-class correlation coefficients [ICC], 0.894/4.83; ICC, 0.745; peripheral SD/LD, 4.70; ICC, 0.943/4.57; ICC, 0.919; all P > 0.4. Conclusion The LD protocol, on a 15-year-old CT scanner system without current high-end hardware or post-processing tools, led to a dose reduction of approximately 67% with similar subjective image quality and delineation of central and peripheral pulmonary arteries.

  9. Students conceptions of Basic General Education (14 – 15 years old about the nature and perception of color

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    Bettina M. Bravo


    Full Text Available The ideas of a group of ninth grade Basic General Education students are analized. (14 – 15 years old. The mentioned ideas are related to nature and perception of colour. This was possible after having – the students – participated in didactic proposals that approached the referred theme, once they achieved the entrance to Second Cycle. These ideas are characterized according to underlying ontological, conceptual and epistemological principles, as well as in relation to reasoning schemes associated with them. The consistence and coherence of the responses given by these students to a multiple choice test, and a questionnaire containing open problems, are evaluated. Most of the students present ideas about colour coherent with science, being able to develop explanations that relate an important number of variables, properly.

  10. Cleidocranial dysplasia presenting with retained deciduous teeth in a 15-year-old girl: a case report

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    C Nagarathna


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cleidocranial dysplasia is a rare congenital defect of autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutations in the Cbfa1 gene, also called Runx2, located on the short arm of chromosome 6. It primarily affects bones which undergo intramembranous ossification. This condition is of clinical significance to dentistry due to the involvement of the facial bones, altered eruption patterns and multiple supernumerary teeth. Case presentation Our patient, a 15-year-old Indian girl, presented with the typical features of prolonged retention of deciduous dentition and delayed eruption of permanent teeth, that is, mandibular prognathism along with other skeletal abnormalities like shrugged shoulder and the absence of clavicles. A multidisciplinary approach was followed, comprising orthodontic, surgical and pedodontic teams for management. Conclusion Successful treatment of such a case lies in a holistic approach that takes care of all aspects, including the primary pathology, the deformity itself and even the psychological angle.

  11. Retrospective review of the case of cutaneous anthrax-malignant pustule from 1995 in 15-year old girl. (United States)

    Kajfasz, Piotr; Bartoszcze, Michał; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Basiak, Wojciech


    A 15-year-old girl was admitted to our Department with cutaneous lesion resembling black eschar. Anamnesis revealed that before getting ill she was wearing pullover made of rough sheep's wool and ornaments made of leather like straps. Cutaneous anthrax was confirmed by identification of B. anthracis in specimens from weeping ulceration, culture from black eschar, thermoprecipitation test, and bioassay on guinea pig. The girl was treated with crystalline Penicillin. She responded well to the therapy and recovered after 28 days. What attracts attention in presented case is the fact that the girl didn't belong to high risk group of human anthrax, which might lead to misdiagnosis. In 1990-1999, Poland there were reported 22 cases of anthrax - it was almost exclusively cutaneous form. In the years following 1999 antrax was reported even less often - in the period 1991-2013 it was recorded a total of 26 cutaneous anthrax cases.

  12. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

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    Jason Jiunshiou Lee

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10 students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989 were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857 and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795. The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile. Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17 compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups.

  13. Dietary intake and food sources of total and individual polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Belgian population over 15 years old. (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Vyncke, Krishna; De Maeyer, Mieke; Gerichhausen, Monique; De Henauw, Stefaan


    Advances in our knowledge of the physiological functions of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have led to an increased interest in food sources and the level of dietary intake of these nutrients. Up to now, no representative data was available for the Belgian adult population. This study aimed to describe data on the intake and food sources of total and individual omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA for the Belgian population over 15 years old. PUFA intakes were assessed for 3,043 Belgian adults, based on two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. The results showed that the intake of linoleic acid (LA) is in accordance with the recommendation for almost all Belgian adults. However, the intake of omega-3 PUFA is suboptimal for a large part of the studied population and also the intake of total PUFA should be increased for a part of the population. The main food source of LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA) was the group of fats and oils (60.6 % for LA and 53.1 % for ALA). Fish and fish products were the most important sources of long chain omega-3 PUFA. Age influenced fatty acids intake, with higher intake of omega-3 PUFA in the older age groups. To fill the gap between the intake and recommendation of total PUFA, and in particular omega-3 PUFA, sustainable strategies and efficient consumer communication strategies will be needed.

  14. A 15-year-old female with amenorrhea, abdominal distention, and elevated human chorionic gonadotropin: pregnancy, right? Not so fast…. (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arun; Ocon, Anthony J; Nibhanipudi, Kumara


    Nongestational choriocarcinoma, a rare ovarian tumor, may present in young women with amenorrhea, abdominal distention, and elevated urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), all of which may be mistaken for pregnancy. A 15-year-old Hispanic female, who reported no sexual activity, presented with 6 months of amenorrhea, abdominal pain, and progressive abdominal distension. Initially, suspicion of pregnancy was considered. Physical examination was significant for abdominal distension, but no uterine fundus or fetal anatomy could be palpated, and auscultation did not reveal any fetal heart sounds or bruits. Laboratory values showed elevated urine hCG, cancer antigen 125, and cancer antigen 19.9 levels but normal serum hCG level and was inconsistent with pregnancy. Computed tomographic scans revealed a large abdominal heterogeneous mass and pleural effusions. Salpingo-oophorectomy with total omentectomy and inversion appendectomy removed a 21 × 20.5 × 16.5-cm tumor. Pathological testing determined it to be a nongestational choriocarcinoma. This rare tumor is more common in the pediatric adolescent population than in adults. Surgical resection and chemotherapy often result in a positive prognosis. In female adolescent patients presenting with elevated hCG level, amenorrhea, and abdominal distention, choriocarcinoma should be considered, especially in those with no history of sexual activity or before menarche.

  15. Stroke as the Sole Manifestation of Takayasu Arteritis in a 15-Year-Old Boy with Latent Tuberculosis

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    Espen Benjaminsen


    Full Text Available Introduction. Takayasu arteritis is a rare disease affecting the aorta and its main branches, causing arterial claudication and end-organ ischemia, including stroke. The etiology is unknown but is believed to be autoimmune. An association between Takayasu arteritis and tuberculosis has been suggested, but the possible relation is unclear. Case Presentation. A 15-year-old Somali boy was diagnosed with latent tuberculosis. He had a lesion in the right lung, and both the tuberculin skin test by the Mantoux method and Quantiferon GOLD test turned out positive. After he suffered a cerebral infarct in the right hemisphere, childhood Takayasu arteritis was diagnosed. The diagnosis was based on diagnostic imaging showing a high-grade stenosis of the origin of the right common carotid artery, an occluded common carotid artery on the left side, a circumferential thickening of the vessel walls in the right and left common carotid artery, and laboratory findings with elevated C-reactive protein. Conclusion. Takayasu arteritis is an uncommon cause of stroke. It should however be kept in mind as a cause of cerebrovascular disease, especially in the young.

  16. Concurrent little leaguer's elbow and shoulder in a 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback. (United States)

    Domes, Christopher M; Petering, Ryan C; Chesnutt, James C; Mirarchi, Adam


    Little leaguer's elbow and Little leaguer's shoulder are overuse pathologies seen in overhead-throwing athletes. No instance of simultaneously occurring pathologies has been published. A 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback developed pain in his throwing shoulder and elbow during spring baseball, which partially resolved with several months of rest. During fall football practice, he felt a pop and pain over his medial throwing elbow. Five days after the initial injury, medial elbow tenderness, mild swelling, and decreased range of motion were noted. Radiographs revealed a Salter I avulsion fracture of the medial humeral epicondyle (Little leaguer's elbow) and a periosteal reaction along the lateral aspect of the humeral metadiaphysis with slight widening (Little leaguer's shoulder). Surgical fixation of the medial epicondyle fracture and nonoperative treatment of the shoulder pathology were performed. Two-year follow-up radiographs showed a healed medial epicondylar fracture and resolution of the periosteal reaction of the humeral metadiaphysis. The patient returned to full activity and was starting quarterback for his football team. Biomechanical forces specific to overhead-throwing activities are associated with the development of Little leaguer's elbow and shoulder. Treatments of both pathologies remain controversial, with either initial operative vs nonoperative care. In this patient, a good outcome was achieved with surgical fixation of the elbow fracture and conservative management of the shoulder pathology. Educating coaches and parents on proper throwing technique and pitching limits should be the first step in reducing the occurrence of either pathology in this population.

  17. Effects of mountain beaver management and thinning on 15-year-old Douglas fir growth and survival. (United States)

    Campbell, Dan L; Engeman, Richard M; Farley, James P


    We examined 4-year growth of 15-year-old damaged and undamaged Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzesii) after integrating temporary population reductions of mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) with thinning in a pre-commercial hand-planted plantation in western Washington. Five treatment combinations were considered: (1) trapping mountain beavers in an unthinned area, (2) trapping before thinning to 65 trees/ha (160 trees/ac), (3) no trapping and thinning to 65 trees/ha, (4) no trapping and thinning to 146 trees/ha (360 trees/ac), and (5) no trapping and no thinning. Removal of ≥ 90 % of mountain beavers temporarily reduced mountain beaver activity whether the stand was unthinned or thinned. Diameter growth at breast height (dbh) was greater for undamaged trees than for damaged trees in thinned areas. Tree height growth was greatest in trapped areas whether thinned or not. No differences were detected in 4-year survival between trees damaged aboveground and those without aboveground damage, which may be related to undetected root damage to trees without aboveground damage. Basal diameter growth and dbh growth were greatest for areas thinned to 65 trees/ha. Seventy-eight percent of stomachs from mountain beaver trapped in winter contained Douglas fir root or stem materials. Overall, short-term removal of mountain beavers integrated with pre-commercial thinning promoted growth of crop trees.


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    Alpay Güvenç


    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess levels and patterns of physical activity (PA in relation to age and regular sport activity, and to examine its relationship to physical fitness in trained and untrained boys. One hundred forty-seven 11-to 15- year-old boys (73 trained and 74 untrained participated in this study. Trained boys, comprised of 26 soccer, 25 handball and 22 volleyball players, had been training regularly for at least one year. The intensity, duration and frequency of PA were assessed from four complete days of heart rate monitoring with 15-seconds sampling intervals. Aerobic fitness was assessed by determining peakVO2 with a portable breath-by-breath gas analyzer (Cosmed K4b2 and the running speeds at fixed lactate concentrations during an incremental running test. Anaerobic fitness was evalu-ated with the Wingate Anaerobic Test. Skinfold thicknesses from eight sites and Tanner stages of pubic hair were also obtained. Based on 15-s heart rate data, instead of continuous activity, multiple short bouts of moderate and vigorous PA, lasting up to one minute, were characteristic of daily PA patterns of both trained and untrained boys. PA levels of trained boys were higher than untrained boys (p 0.05. No relationship was observed between PA variables and anaerobic fitness in either group (p> 0.05. It seems that such relationships may somewhat depend on the fitness level of the subjects

  19. Rapid recovery following fulminant meningococcemia complicated by myocarditis in a 15-year-old Nepalese girl: a case report

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    Shrestha P


    Full Text Available Pratyush Shrestha,1 Nabin K Shrestha,2 Smith Giri31Department of Surgery, College of Medical Sciences, Bharatpur, Nepal; 2Department of Internal Medicine, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, NepalIntroduction: Fulminant meningococcemia is a relatively rare life-threatening disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis. The clinical presentation is varied, but, when associated with myocarditis, it carries a particularly poor prognosis. We report a case of a patient with fulminant meningococcemia who subsequently developed severe myocardial dysfunction and successfully recovered within a period of 14 days of hospitalization.Case presentation: A 15-year-old girl presented with headache, fever, body ache, and diarrhea for 1 day, and ecchymotic rash over her body for 4 hours. Blood cultures confirmed infection with N. meningitidis. After 6 days in the hospital, the patient developed anasarca, elevated jugular venous pressure, and shock. The patient was managed with intravenous ceftriaxone and captopril. Over the next 3 days the patient rapidly improved and started walking.Conclusion: Meningococcemia complicated by myocarditis has an extremely poor prognosis with high mortality. Our case suggests that recovery from a severe myocardial dysfunction can occur rapidly within a few days. Prompt recognition and management in this case might have contributed to the patient's rapid recovery from myocarditis.Keywords: Neisseria meningitidis, Nepal, recovery, shock

  20. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years

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    Goyal A


    Full Text Available The prevalence of dental caries in 6, 9, 12 and 15-year-old school children of Chandigarh, selected on a randomized basis was evaluated using Moller′s criteria (1966 and correlated with the various risk factors. The mean deft was found to be 4.0 ± 3.6 in 6 year old and 4.61 ± 3.14 in 9 year old, whereas the mean DMFT in 12 and 15 year old was found to be 3.03 ± 2.52 and 3.82 ± 2.85 respectively. The high prevalence of dental caries in these children was attributed to the lack of use of fluoride toothpaste (80% children, lack of knowledge about etiology of dental caries (98% and frequency of sugar exposures up to more than five times per day (30%.

  1. Chemical, Colour and Strength Changes of Eco-friendly Hot Oil Treatment on 15 Year-old Cultivated Acacia Hybrid

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    Razak Wahab


    Full Text Available The chemical, colour and strength properties of thermally modified cultivated 15-year-old Acacia hybrid were investigated. Logs of A. hybrid were harvested and cut at the bottom, middle and top sections. The wood later underwent hot oilthermal modification using palm oil at temperatures 180°C, 200°C and 220°C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Untreated wood was used as control. The hot oil thermal modification process caused some features changed in the chemical composition, colour appearances and strength properties of A. hybrid wood. Parameters such as temperatures and treatment time were closely monitored as they influence the chemical, colour and strength changes in the treated wood. Temperatures of 180°C, 200°C and 220°C, and treatment time of 1 hr, 2 hrs. and 3 hrs. were used in the study. The degradation in holocellulose, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents was recognized when acacia woods were exposed to oil thermally modified process. Holocellulose and celulose degraded with the increasing of treatment temperature and duration of heating exposure, while lignin showed the increment in content through this treatment. The colour changes in the sapwood and heartwood were measured using the Minolta Chroma-meter CR-310 and the results are presented according to the CIE L*a*b* colour co-ordinates system. The results show that temperature at certain treatment time enhanced and darkened the treated wood. The colour of the treated sapwood can be enhanced to match the colour of the natural A. hybrid heartwood. The strength properties of the oil heat treated A. hybrid wood decreases in values of both MOR and MOE throughout thetreatment process. The decreases in values were influenced by temperature and duration of the treatment.

  2. Marine durability of 15 year old concrete specimens made with ordinary portland, slag, and fly ash cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, T.U.; Yamaji, T.; Hamada, H. [Port and Harbor Research Inst., Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Japan); Aoyama, T. [PS Corp. (Japan)


    A study was conducted in which the marine durability of ordinary portland cement, slag and fly ash cement was examined using 15 year old plain and reinforced concrete cylindrical specimens. In addition, the performance of these cements was also examined in another study for pre-cracked reinforced concrete prism samples. The process of manufacturing cement emits huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the global atmosphere. Replacing a portion of the cement with by-products from the steel industry and thermal power plants (which are both huge emitters of carbon dioxide) can lower carbon dioxide emissions and also solve the disposal issue of slag and fly ash while increasing the long-term durability of concrete structures. In this study, concrete cylindrical specimens were made of ordinary portland cement, slag and fly ash cements. Water-to-cement ratios were 0.45 and 0.55 and the compressive strength of the concrete, corrosion of the steel bars, and chloride-ion concentrations in the concrete were evaluated. It was shown that, with the exception of fly ash cements, the compressive strength of most cements increased after 15 years of exposure compared to its 28 day strength. Type C slag cement demonstrated the best performance against chloride-ion at the surface of concrete made with slag and fly ash. Voids in the steel-concrete interface make it possible for corrosion pits to develop. The use of seawater as mixing water results in earlier strength development at 28 days and does not cause to the strength of the concrete to regress after 15-years of exposure, but it causes more corrosion of steel bars at a lower cover depth. Corrosion of steel bars is not an issue at deeper cover depths. 15 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs.

  3. Prevalence, comorbidity and heritability of hoarding symptoms in adolescence: a population based twin study in 15-year olds.

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    Volen Z Ivanov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hoarding Disorder (HD is often assumed to be an 'old age' problem, but many individuals diagnosed with HD retrospectively report first experiencing symptoms in childhood or adolescence. We examined the prevalence, comorbidity and etiology of hoarding symptoms in adolescence. METHODS: To determine the presence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms, a population-based sample of 15-year old twins (N = 3,974 completed the Hoarding Rating Scale-Self Report. Co-occurring Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD were estimated from parental report. Model-fitting analyses divided hoarding symptom scores into additive genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental effects. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms was 2% (95% CI 1.6-2.5%, with a significantly higher prevalence in girls than boys. Exclusion of the clutter criterion (as adolescents do not have control over their environment increased the prevalence rate to 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.3%. Excessive acquisition was reported by 30-40% among those with clinically significant hoarding symptoms. The prevalence of co-occurring OCD (2.9%, ASD (2.9% and ADHD (10.0% was comparable in hoarding and non-hoarding teenagers. Model-fitting analyses suggested that, in boys, additive genetic (32%; 95% CI 13-44% and non-shared environmental effects accounted for most of the variance. In contrast, among girls, shared and non-shared environmental effects explained most of the variance, while additive genetic factors played a negligible role. CONCLUSIONS: Hoarding symptoms are relatively prevalent in adolescents, particularly in girls, and cause distress and/or impairment. Hoarding was rarely associated with other common neurodevelopmental disorders, supporting its DSM-5 status as an independent diagnosis. The relative importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for hoarding differed

  4. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control. (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni


    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome.

  5. Trisomy rescue mechanism: the case of concomitant mosaic trisomy 14 and maternal uniparental disomy 14 in a 15-year-old girl. (United States)

    Balbeur, Samuel; Grisart, Bernard; Parmentier, Benoit; Sartenaer, Daniel; Leonard, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ullmann, Urielle; Boulanger, Sébastien; Leroy, Luc; Ngendahayo, Placide; Lungu-Silviu, Constantin; Lysy, Philippe; Maystadt, Isabelle


    Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 (upd(14)mat) is responsible for a Prader-Willi-like syndrome with precocious puberty. Although upd(14) is often hypothesized to result from trisomy rescue mechanism, T14 cell lines are usually not found with postnatal cytogenetic investigations. We report the coexistence of both chromosomal abnormalities in a 15-year-old girl.

  6. Community-based interventions to improve HPV vaccination coverage among 13- to 15-year-old females: measures implemented by local governments in Japan.

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    Hiroyuki Fujiwara

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various community-based interventions in support of HPV vaccination implemented by cities and towns within Tochigi prefecture, Japan with a view to identifying useful indicators which might guide future interventions to improve HPV vaccination coverage in the prefecture. A postal questionnaire survey of all 27 local governments in Tochigi Prefecture was conducted in December 2010. All 27 responded, and 22 provided the exact numbers of the targeted and vaccinated populations of 13- to 15-year-old girls from April to December 2010. The local governments also answered questions on the type of interventions implemented including public subsidies, school-based programs, direct mail, free tickets and recalls. Local governments that conducted a school-based vaccination program reported 96.8% coverage for the 1(st dose, 96.2% for the 2(nd dose, and 91.2% for the 3(rd dose. Those that provided subsidies without school-based programs reported a wide range of vaccination rates: 45.7%-95.0% for the 1(st dose, 41.1%-93.7% for the 2(nd dose and 3.1%-90.1% for the 3(rd dose. Among this group, the combination of a free ticket, direct mail and recall was most effective, with 95.0% coverage for the 1(st dose, 93.7% for the 2(nd dose, and 90.1% for the 3(rd dose. The governments that did not offer a subsidy had the lowest vaccination coverage, with 0.8%-1.4% for the 1(st dose, 0.0%-0.8% for the 2(nd dose, and 0.1%-0.1% for the 3(rd dose. The results of this survey indicate that school-based vaccinations and public subsidies are the most effective method to improve HPV vaccination coverage; however, the combination of a free ticket, direct mail, and recalls with public subsidies are also important measures in increasing the vaccination rate. These data may afford important indicators for the successful implementation of future HPV vaccination programs.

  7. Family Affluence and the Eating Habits of 11- to 15-Year-Old Czech Adolescents: HBSC 2002 and 2014

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    Jaroslava Voráčová


    Full Text Available Socioeconomic inequalities in eating habits have a profound impact on the health of adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate socioeconomic disparities in the eating habits of Czech adolescents and to compare their change between 2002 and 2014. The data from the Czech Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC study conducted in 2002 and 2014 was utilized. The Family Affluence Scale (FAS was used to assess socioeconomic disparities. Higher odds of daily consumption of fruit (2002: OR = 1.67; 2014: OR = 1.70, p < 0.001 and vegetables (2002: OR = 1.54; 2014: OR = 1.48, p < 0.001 were associated with high FAS in both genders. Adolescents with higher FAS were less likely to consume sweets (2002: OR = 0.72, p < 0.05 and more likely to eat breakfast on weekdays (2014: OR = 1.19, p < 0.05. In 2002 and 2014, the data showed lower odds of daily consumption of soft drinks (Low: OR = 0.47; Medium: OR = 0.43; High: OR = 0.41, p < 0.001, fruit (Low: OR = 0.73; Medium: OR = 0.74, p < 0.001; High: OR = 0.75, p < 0.05, sweets (Low: OR = 0.71; Medium: OR = 0.79, p < 0.001 and breakfast on weekends (High: OR = 0.70, p < 0.05, and a higher likelihood of eating breakfast on weekdays (Low: OR = 1.26, p < 0.01; Medium: OR = 1.13, p < 0.05. These findings play an important role in future public measures to improve dietary habits and decrease social inequalities in youth.

  8. Unusual cause of acute lower extremity ischemia in a healthy 15-year-old female: A case report and review of popliteal artery aneurysm management in adolescents


    David M. Notrica; Emilie Amaro; Maria E. Linnaus; Jozef Zoldos


    Limb ischemia in healthy teenagers is unusual. While traumatic or iatrogenic injury is the most common etiologies of limb ischemia in the pediatric population, anatomic variants such as true aneurysms should be considered [1]. We report the second documented pediatric case of an idiopathic, isolated true popliteal aneurysm resulting in acute limb ischemia in a previously healthy 15-year-old female. We also review the proper evaluation and surgical management of this anatomic anomaly. In this ...

  9. Is medicine use in adolescence risk behavior? Cross-sectional survey of school-aged children from 11 to 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme


    PURPOSE: To examine the association between smoking, drunkenness, and medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness in a representative sample of 11- to 15-year-old school-aged children. METHODS: Design: Cross-sectional school-based survey. Setting......: A random sample of schools in Denmark in 2002. Participants: All students in the fifth, seventh and ninth grades in these schools, n = 4824. Measurements: Self-reported medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness within the last month; self-reported experience...

  10. Half of 12-15-year-olds with knee pain still have pain after one year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Camilla Rams; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard; Roos, Ewa M.;


    Introduction: Adolescent knee pain is considered benign and presumed to disappear without treatment. However, this has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was to 1) compare leisure time sports participation, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and body mass index between...... adolescents with and without self-reported knee pain, 2) investigate how many adolescents still have knee pain after one year and 3) identify risk factors for one-year persistence of knee pain. Material and methods: The design was a prospective cohort study and a nested case-control study. In September 2011......, a total of 768 adolescents between 12-15 years of age from schools in the municipality of Aalborg answered a questionnaire on demographics, sports participation, current pain and HRQoL. After one year, adolescents who reported knee pain at first contact were again contacted by telephone and asked...

  11. Trends in overweight prevalence among 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds in 25 countries in Europe, Canada and USA from 2002 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Dalmasso, Paola; Rasmussen, Mette


    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess recent changes in the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) among 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds in 33 countries from 2002 to 2010. METHODS: Data from 25 countries from three consecutive survey cycles (2002, 2006 and 2010) that had at least 80...... and highlight the need to understand cross-national differences by examining macro-level indicators. Such research should feed into developing sound translations and practices to prevent and reduce overweight in youth....

  12. Penile fracture with disruption of both cavernosal bodies and complete urethral rupture in a 15-years-old male: Delayed surgical approach

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    Carolina Talini


    Full Text Available Penile fracture is defined as the traumatic rupture of the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosa usually associated to trauma during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Historically penile fracture has been managed conservatively, but contemporary management includes early surgical exploration. The case presents a 15-year-old male who suffered a blunt penile trauma and was first managed with cystostomy and no penile exploration. Five months after trauma was submitted to definitive surgical correction of both, urethral rupture and bilateral corporal fracture. The proposed surgical techinique was a diamond-shape corpora anastomosis. Surgery did well and after 3 years he presented no late complications.

  13. A Rare Case of a 15-Year-Old Boy with Two Accessory Nipples: One in the Forearm and One in the Milk Line

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    Alexander J. Tauchen


    Full Text Available A 15-year-old male presented for evaluation of a volar forearm mass that he noticed four years before. The mass was not painful and his main concern was cosmesis. The mass was two centimeters in diameter with a pinpoint central sinus and scant drainage. After excision, the pathology report noted pilosebaceous units and smooth muscle bundles, consistent with an accessory nipple. In addition, the patient had another accessory nipple in the “milk line” on his torso. While accessory nipples and breast tissue have been reported in numerous locations throughout the body, this is the first reported case of an accessory nipple on the forearm.

  14. A Rare Case of a 15-Year-Old Boy with Two Accessory Nipples: One in the Forearm and One in the Milk Line (United States)

    Tauchen, Alexander J.; Kueberuwa, Essie; Schiffman, Kenneth; Mudaliar, Kumaran M.; Noland, Shelley S.


    A 15-year-old male presented for evaluation of a volar forearm mass that he noticed four years before. The mass was not painful and his main concern was cosmesis. The mass was two centimeters in diameter with a pinpoint central sinus and scant drainage. After excision, the pathology report noted pilosebaceous units and smooth muscle bundles, consistent with an accessory nipple. In addition, the patient had another accessory nipple in the “milk line” on his torso. While accessory nipples and breast tissue have been reported in numerous locations throughout the body, this is the first reported case of an accessory nipple on the forearm. PMID:26783489

  15. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

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    Jan Pavelka


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  16. External Genital Anomaly and Phimosis Prevalence in Male School Children in Sakarya Province

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    Salih Budak


    Full Text Available Aim: The goal of the study was to determine external genital anomaly types in children attending primary school (6-15 years old in Sakarya. Material and Method: 1573, 6-15 years old student randomly selected from 8 schools inside the province. The students were examined in an appropriate room in the school, and external genital anomalies were identified and noted. Results: In this study, a total of 106 (6,7 % anomalies were identified in 1573 students. The most common anomalies were phimosis 3,6 % (56 and undescended testis 2,6 % (41. Discussion: This study shows that the ratio of the external genital anomaly that needs to be cured before primary school is high. Socioeconomic differences and environmental factors can affect anomaly prevalence. Health care workers all over the country should be trained regarding the issue. In addition to these, to identify genital anomalies before children start primary school, specific training programs should be prepared for parents.

  17. Acute simultaneous bilateral avulsion fractures of the tibial tubercles in a 15-year-old male hurler: case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanley, C


    BACKGROUND: Avulsion fractures of the tibial tubercle are an unusual injury pattern generally occurring in the adolescent male during sporting activities. Bilateral simultaneous fractures are extremely rare. They are often associated with other underlying orthopaedic pathology. AIMS: We present a case of bilateral tibial tubercle avulsions occurring in a 15 year-old male hurler. We describe the management and necessary investigations required for this type of trauma and present a literature review on this rarely encountered injury. CONCLUSION: Although this type of atypical fracture pattern is associated with high energy trauma and other underlying pathology, we have shown that once treated, the patient can expect to make a prompt return to sporting activities with no significant long-term functional deficit.

  18. "Whisking of ugly tissue"… A surgical management of gingival fibromatosis in a 15-year-old girl: A rare case report

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    Srinivasa Tenkasale Siddeshappa


    Full Text Available Gingival fibromatosis is a condition characterized by a slow, progressive increase in the gingival tissue that develops as either an isolated disorder or as part of the clinical characteristics of diverse syndrome. The present case report describes a rare case of gingival fibromatosis and its management using scalpel in combination with electrosurgery. A 15-year-old girl patient presented with a chief complaint of gingival overgrowth covering all the surfaces upper and lower teeth. The growth was excised with periodontal knife in combination with electrosurgery under local anesthesia. After 1-year of follow-up, healing was uneventful with no recurrence. Combined technique for the removal of gingival overgrowth represents a unique treatment approach where minimal postoperative bleeding and discomfort were observed.

  19. Occipital Condyle Fracture with Accompanying Meningeal Spinal Cysts as a result of Cervical Spine Injury in 15-Year-Old Girl

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    Łukasz Wiktor


    Full Text Available The occipital condyle fracture is rare injury of the craniocervical junction. Meningeal spinal cysts are rare tumors of the spinal cord. Depending on location, these lesions may be classified as extradural and subdural, but extradural spinal cysts are more common. We present the case of a 15-year-old girl who suffered from avulsion occipital condyle fracture treated with use of “halo-vest” system. We established that clinical effect after completed treatment is very good. Control MRI evaluation was performed 12 months after removal of “halo-vest” traction, and clinically silent extradural meningeal spinal cysts were detected at the ventral side of the spinal cord in the cervical segment of the spine. Due to clinically silent course of the disease, we decided to use the conservative treatment. The patient remains under control of our department.

  20. A 15-year-old boy with abdominal pain, growth retardation, and anemia secondary to Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer. (United States)

    Andrianov, Melissa; Rivera, Edgardo; Azzam, Ruba


    A 15-year-old boy with abdominal pain, growth retardation, and symptomatic anemia requiring blood transfusion was seen by a gastroenterologist and found to have a large ulcerated, fungating, and actively bleeding mass in his stomach. Initially, the patient was screened for Helicobacter pylori and found to be negative, so there was concern for malignancy after multiple endoscopic procedures. The patient did not respond to initial ulcer treatment and immediately prior to scheduled partial gastrectomy, additional tissue sections from the initial biopsy were stained for H. pylori and rare positive staining organisms were found. The test was positive, and the patient was started empirically on treatment to which he responded and ultimately recovered fully. Gastrectomy was not performed, and following treatment, the ulcer, anemia, and poor growth resolved.

  1. Unusual cause of acute lower extremity ischemia in a healthy 15-year-old female: A case report and review of popliteal artery aneurysm management in adolescents

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    David M. Notrica


    Full Text Available Limb ischemia in healthy teenagers is unusual. While traumatic or iatrogenic injury is the most common etiologies of limb ischemia in the pediatric population, anatomic variants such as true aneurysms should be considered [1]. We report the second documented pediatric case of an idiopathic, isolated true popliteal aneurysm resulting in acute limb ischemia in a previously healthy 15-year-old female. We also review the proper evaluation and surgical management of this anatomic anomaly. In this case, surgical management included resection of the aneurysm, reconstruction with reverse saphenous vein grafting, and distal endarterectomies to restore adequate distal blood flow. Ultimately, this patient's limb and function were salvaged with minimal consequences.

  2. Permanent play facility provision is associated with children's time spent sedentary and in light physical activity during school hours: A cross-sectional study

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    Knut Eirik Dalene


    Full Text Available Objective: To study the associations between: 1 number of permanent outdoor play facilities per pupil and 2 the size of the outdoor play area per pupil with sedentary time and physical activity (PA during school hours in six-, nine-, and 15-year olds. We conducted a cross-sectional study of nationally representative samples of Norwegian six- (n = 1071, nine- (n = 1421 and 15-year-olds (n = 1106 in 2011 (the Physical Activity Among Norwegian Children Study. The participation rates were 56.4%, 73.1% and 57.8% for six-, nine- and 15-year olds, respectively. We assessed PA objectively for seven consecutive days using accelerometers, the size of a school's outdoor play area (SOPA using an online map service and the permanent play facility (PPF provision using a standardized form during school site visits. We successfully measured SOPA and PPF in 99 schools, from which 3040 participants provided valid accelerometer data. We used generalized least-squares random-effects models with robust variance estimation to assess associations. Our results indicate that better provision of permanent play facilities may reduce sedentary time and increase time spent in light PA among six-year-olds. Permanent play facility provision was not associated with sedentary time or PA among nine- and 15-year-olds. Associations found between outdoor play area size, physical activity and sedentary time were negligible. Future research should investigate what types of permanent play facilities may be associated with physical activity in both children and adolescents.

  3. Spinal pain in Danish school children – how often and how long? The CHAMPS Study-DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Kristina Boe; Hestbæk, Lise; Hartvigsen, Jan;


    Background Spinal pain in children and adolescents is a common condition, usually transitory, but the picture of spinal pain still needs elucidation, mainly due to variation in measurement methods. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of spinal pain in 8-15 year-old Danish school...... inquiring about the child´s musculoskeletal pain, and on clinical data from examinations of the children. Results The three-year prevalence was 55%. The prevalence was 29%, 33% and 31% for each of the three study years respectively, and increased statistically significantly with age, especially...

  4. Involvement in sports clubs and informal sport activities of primary and secondary school children in Liechtenstein

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    Jürgen Kühnis


    Full Text Available Sport involvement among children and adolescents has been a central field of research in sport science since years. This paper documents the participation of 11- to 15-year-olds in sport clubs and informal sport activities in Liechtenstein and examines possible gender- and age-specific differences. The analysis is based on four cross-sectional studies from 2004 to 2015 and includes the data of 1’262 children in primary (5th grade and secondary (7th and 9th grades school. According to our findings sports and exercise are considered to be one of the main leisure-time activities for all school levels (irrespective of gender. The percentage of fully sport-abstinent adolescents by 11- and 13-year-olds is about 5 %; by 15-year-olds is around 10 %. The culmination of sports club membership (with current 84.7 % appears to be at the age of 11 (5th grade. After the switch to secondary school the sports club commitment tends to decrease, while the high attendance of the informal sport activities (>85 % shows relatively stable age development. In contrast to other child and youth studies, our data indicates a levelling tendency and dissolution of classic gender differences not only in sports club commitment but also in informal sports among girls and boys.

  5. Where Do I Fit in? Cosmic Education and the Children's House (United States)

    Jokanovic, Lila S.


    The children and staff at Council Oak Montessori enjoy a unique opportunity to experience Dr. Montessori's theory of Cosmic Education through all of its stages--from the 3-year-old who first comes to the school to the 15-year-old who completes its Middle School program. And it makes the author thinks much more actively about how the faculty and…

  6. Pulmonary histoplasmosis presenting as chronic productive cough, fever, and massive unilateral consolidation in a 15-year-old immune-competent boy: a case report

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    Mshana Stephen E


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Severe histoplasmosis is known to be among the AIDS-defining opportunistic infections affecting patients with very low CD4 cell counts in histoplasmosis-endemic areas. Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii is common in West and Central Africa, where it occurs in both HIV/AIDS and non-HIV patients. Few cases of life-threatening histoplasmosis in immune-competent individuals have been reported worldwide. Case report We describe a case of pulmonary histoplasmosis diagnosed on the basis of autopsy and histological investigations. A 15-year old East African immune-competent boy with a history of smear-positive tuberculosis and a two-year history of rock cutting presented to our hospital with chronic productive cough, fever, and massive unilateral consolidation. At the time of presentation to our hospital, this patient was empirically treated for recurrent tuberculosis without success, and he died on the seventh day after admission. The autopsy revealed a huge granulomatous lesion with caseation, but no acid-fast bacilli were detected on several Ziehl-Neelsen stains. However, periodic acid-Schiff staining was positive, and the histological examination revealed features suggestive of Histoplasma yeast cells. Conclusion Severe pulmonary histoplasmosis should be considered in evaluating immune-competent patients with risk factors for the disease who present with pulmonary symptoms mimicking tuberculosis.

  7. Psychosis in a 15-Year-Old Female with Herpes Simplex Encephalitis in a Background of Mannose-Binding Lecithin Deficiency

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    Kenneth Asogwa


    Full Text Available Historically, psychotic disorder has been associated with viral infection. Herpes simplex infections and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV among other viral infections have been implicated in psychotic disorder. Of note in this case report is psychotic disorder that occurred following reactivation of herpes simplex infection in a background of mannose-binding lecithin (MBL deficiency, childhood EBV infection, and severe psychosocial stress. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality despite advancement in its treatment with intravenous acyclovir. Many studies have reported psychiatric and neurological manifestation of herpes simplex infection following primary or reactivated infection, while others suggest milder clinical course of herpes simplex encephalitis in a background of immunosuppression. Another contributory factor to psychotic disorder in this case is childhood EBV exposure which has been reported to increase the risk of psychosis in adolescence and adulthood. This case report describes a 15-year-old female with MBL deficiency who presented with psychosis caused by reactivated herpes simplex infection and had good clinical recovery. Based on childhood Epstein-Barr virus exposure and psychosis in adolescence (current case, she is at increased risk of psychotic disorder in adulthood, which underscores the importance of long-term monitoring.

  8. Blister-like supraclinoid internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a 15-year-old male: case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Haji, Faizal Aminmohamed; Boulton, Melfort R; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine


    With an incidence of less than 1-3 per million, pediatric aneurysms are rare clinical entities. A traumatic etiology is implicated in a large proportion of these cases, leading to the formation of both 'false' and 'true' aneurysms. These occur most often in the distal circulation, but have also been described in the supraclinoid distal internal carotid artery (ICA). Blood blister aneurysms are also found in this location; however, they have not been described in the pediatric population. We report the case of a 15-year-old male who presented following cranial trauma with diffuse basal subarachnoid hemorrhage and limited additional intracranial pathology. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated a small, 2-mm blister-like aneurysm arising from the dorsal surface of the left supraclinoid ICA at a non-branching site. Despite early endovascular treatment with Guglielmi detachable coils, the lesion continued to grow over subsequent studies, necessitating open surgical clipping. At the time of surgery, gross pathology of the native ICA was observed, raising the possibility of a preexisting blood-blister aneurysm. We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations of these lesions. The endovascular and surgical management of these complex non-branching supraclinoid ICA aneurysms is also discussed.

  9. "Apraxic dysgraphia" in a 15-year-old left-handed patient: disruption of the cerebello-cerebral network involved in the planning and execution of graphomotor movements. (United States)

    Mariën, Peter; de Smet, Eric; de Smet, Hyo Jung; Wackenier, Peggy; Dobbeleir, Andre; Verhoeven, Jo


    Apraxic agraphia is a peripheral writing disorder caused by neurological damage. It induces a lack or loss of access to the motor engrams that plan and programme the graphomotor movements necessary to produce written output. The neural network subserving handwriting includes the superior parietal region, the dorsolateral and medial premotor cortex and the thalamus of the dominant hemisphere. Recent studies indicate that the cerebellum may be involved as well. To the best of our knowledge, apraxic agraphia has not been described on a developmental basis. This paper reports the clinical, neurocognitive and (functional) neuroimaging findings of a 15-year-old left-handed patient with an isolated, non-progressive developmental handwriting disorder consistent with a diagnosis of "apraxic dysgraphia". Gross motor coordination problems were objectified as well but no signs of cerebellar, sensorimotor or extrapyramidal dysfunction of the writing limb were found to explain the apraxic phenomena. Brain MRI revealed no supra- and infratentorial damage but quantified Tc-99m-ECD SPECT disclosed decreased perfusion in the anatomoclinically suspected prefrontal and cerebellar brain regions crucially involved in the planning and execution of skilled motor actions. This pattern of functional depression seems to support the hypothesis that "apraxic dysgraphia" might reflect incomplete maturation of the cerebello-cerebral network involved in handwriting. In addition, it is hypothesized that "apraxic dysgraphia" may have to be considered to represent a distinct nosological category within the group of the developmental dyspraxias following dysfunction of the cerebello-cerebral network involved in planned actions.


    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl


    The aim of this study was to assess overweight or obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. The analysis included 30,284 school children 13-15 years of age from seven ASEAN members participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of overweight or obesity across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 9.9%, significantly higher in boys (11.5%) than in girls (8.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries, the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was in Brunei Darus-salam (36.1%), followed by Malaysia (23.7%), and the lowest was in Myanmar (3.4%) and Cambodia (3.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, coming from an upper middle country, never been hungry, and not walking or biking to school were associated with overweight or obesity. In addition, among boys, having three or more servings of vegetables per day and having no close friends, and among girls, having fast foods two or more times per week, been victims of bullying and having peer support were additional factors associated with overweight or obesity. Increased strategies utilizing a number of the risk factors identified are needed to prevent and treat overweight or obesity in adolescents in ASEAN member countries.

  11. Trends in Children's Concepts of Vertebrate and Invertebrate. (United States)

    Braund, Martin


    Presents the results of a cross-age study of 7- to 15-year-old children on their thinking about vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Suggests experiences that could be included in the school science curriculum and argues for more classroom work relating structure with function in order to address students' conceptual difficulties. (Contains 18…

  12. The connections between postural reactions, scoliosis postures and scoliosis in girls aged 12-15 years old examined using the Spearman’s Rank OrderCorrelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczyński Jacek


    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyse the Spearman's Rank Order Correlation between the postural reactions, scoliosis postures and scoliosis in girls aged 12-15 years old. Throughout the whole group of girls, positive correlations between attitude parameters in the frontal plane and the postural reactions were observed: The angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed with which eyes closed, angle of primary curvature /average speed with which eyes closed, angle of primary curvature /path length eyes closed, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X eyes closed, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/lateral speed eyes closed. Negative correlations occurred in cases: absolute value angle of secondary curvature/ mean loading point X eyes open, depth of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes open, length of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes open, angle of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes closed. Statistically significant correlations occurred more frequent when the Romberg’s test was held with eyes closed (CE: angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed, torso inclination angle/mean loading point X, angle of primary curvature/average speed, angle of primary curvature/path length, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/ lateral speed, angle of secondary curvature/mean loading point Y. Among the correlations with eyes closed six were positive: angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed, torso inclination angle/mean loading point X, angle of primary curvature/ average speed, angle of primary curvature/ path length, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/lateral speed, and one was negative: angle of secondary curvature/ mean loading point Y. Among the correlations with eyes open (OE only three negative correlations occurred: absolute value angle of secondary curvature

  13. A randomized, observer-blinded immunogenicity trial of Cervarix(® and Gardasil(® Human Papillomavirus vaccines in 12-15 year old girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Draper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current generation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines, Cervarix® and Gardasil®, exhibit a high degree of efficacy in clinical trials against the two high-risk (HR genotypes represented in the vaccines (HPV16 and HPV18. High levels of neutralizing antibodies are elicited against the vaccine types, consistent with preclinical data showing that neutralizing antibodies can mediate type-specific protection in the absence of other immune effectors. The vaccines also confer protection against some closely related non-vaccine HR HPV types, although the vaccines appear to differ in their degree of cross-protection. The mechanism of vaccine-induced cross-protection is unknown. This study sought to compare the breadth and magnitudes of neutralizing antibodies against non-vaccine types elicited by both vaccines and establish whether such antibodies could be detected in the genital secretions of vaccinated individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Serum and genital samples were collected from 12-15 year old girls following vaccination with either Cervarix® (n = 96 or Gardasil® (n = 102 HPV vaccine. Serum-neutralizing antibody responses against non-vaccine HPV types were broader and of higher magnitude in the Cervarix®, compared to the Gardasil®, vaccinated individuals. Levels of neutralizing and binding antibodies in genital secretions were closely associated with those found in the serum (r = 0.869, with Cervarix® having a median 2.5 (inter-quartile range, 1.7-3.5 fold higher geometric mean HPV-specific IgG ratio in serum and genital samples than Gardasil® (p = 0.0047. There was a strong positive association between cross-neutralizing antibody seropositivity and available HPV vaccine trial efficacy data against non-vaccine types. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate for the first time that cross-neutralizing antibodies can be detected at the genital site of infection and support the possibility that cross-neutralizing antibodies play a

  14. Muslim Children's Other School (United States)

    Moore, Leslie C.


    Millions of Muslim children around the world participate in Qur'anic schooling. For some, this is their only formal schooling experience; others attend both Qur'anic school and secular school. Qur'anic schooling emphasizes memorization and reproduction (recitation, reading, and transcription) of Qur'anic texts without comprehension of their…

  15. Prevalence of underweight, overweight, general and central obesity among 8-15-years old Bulgarian children and adolescents (Smolyan region, 2012-2014). (United States)

    Mladenova, Silviya; Andreenko, Emiliya


    Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo es investigar la distribucion de peso insuficiente, demasiado pesado, la obesidad general y central en 8 ninos bulgaros de 15 anos y adolescentes, a traves del uso de los indices antropometricos BMI y WHtR. Materiales y métodos: el objeto de este estudio son 878 ninos y adolescentes (437 ninos y 441 ninas) de la region de Smolyan, Bulgaria, con edades de 8 a 15 anos. El estudio es transversal y se llevo a cabo en el periodo 2012- 2014. Se miden la altura, el peso y la circunferencia de la cintura, asi como el indice de masa corporal. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se definen de acuerdo con los puntos de corte de BMI, recomendado por la IOTF y desarrollado por Cole et al. (2000:2007). La obesidad central fue definida de acuerdo con los valores discriminatorios de 0,500 de WHtR. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por los paquetes de software estadistico STATISTICA 10.0 y SPSS 16. Resultados: el sobrepeso se produce entre el 18,8% de los chicos y el 17,0% de las ninas, y la obesidad entre el 7,6% de los varones y el 3,7% de las chicas. Presentan bajo peso el 8,0% de los chicos y el 10,4% de las chicas. La obesidad central (RCEst ≥ 0.500) se produce en promedio, en el 12,75% de todos los ninos investigados, independientemente de su estado nutricional (16,2% de los varones y el 9,3% de las chicas). Presentan obesidad central (RCEst ≥ 0.500), en promedio, el 2,7% de todos los ninos y ninas con peso normal (n = 96) y un promedio 46,82% de todos los participantes con sobrepeso y con obesidad (n = 205). Con el aumento de riesgo para la salud (RCEst ≥ 0.500) son total de 2,01% (n = 16) de todos los ninos encuestados (n = 793) de las categorias de peso normal. Conclusión: se ha producido un aumento de la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en ninos y adolescentes bulgaros de la region de Smolyan durante mas de una decada. El porcentaje de insuficiencia ponderal entre los ninos, es relativamente alto especialmente entre el grupo de las ninas despues de la pubertad. La obesidad central, asi como su combinacion con el sobrepeso o la obesidad, es mas frecuente en ninos que en ninas.


    Mladenova, Silviya; Andreenko, Emiliya


    Objetivo: estudiar el papel de algunos factores socioeconómicos y demográficos, la alimentación y la actividad física en la prevalencia del sobrepeso, la obesidad y la insuficiencia ponderal entre los niños y adolescentes búlgaros. Material y métodos: en la muestra de esta investigación se incluyeron 881 niños y adolescentes de ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 8 y 15 años, que se midieron de forma transversal en el período 2012 - 2014 en las ocho escuelas del gobierno en la región de Smolyan, Bulgaria. De cada niño se midieron la altura y el peso, y se calculó el índice de masa corporal (IMC). La evaluación del estado nutricional se realizó utilizando los puntos de corte del IMC internacional para niños y adolescentes. Mediante el cuestionario se recogió información sobre el nivel educativo de los padres, el número de hijos en la familia, lugar de residencia, nutrición y hábitos de alimentación y actividad física de los niños y adolescentes. Los datos fueron analizados por el software Statistica 10.0. Resultados: existe una relación positiva significativa entre el factor “comer en exceso” y los valores de IMC para ambos sexos, y una relación negativa entre el factor de “frecuencia de comidas” y el IMC para los varones (p adolescentes búlgaros estudiados son los factores relacionados con la alimentación y la conducta alimentaria, en particular “el comer en exceso” para ambos sexos y la “frecuencia de las comidas” para los niños. Falta la influencia distintiva de factores como el nivel de educación de los padres; el lugar de residencia, ciudad o pueblo; el régimen de alimentación diaria y la actividad física sobre el IMC y el estado nutricional de los niños y adolescentes búlgaros investigados.

  17. School-Phobic Children (United States)

    Gittelman, Rachel


    Separation anxiety is the major difficulty (and anticipatory anxiety a secondary difficulty) in treating school phobic children, and must be dealt with in a coordinated effort by school therapists, teachers, and parents. (MB)

  18. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with frequency of breakfast, lunch and evening meal: cross-sectional study of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds

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    Pedersen Trine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequency of eating breakfast, lunch and evening meal as a determinant of fruit and vegetable intake among young people is little studied. We investigated whether irregular meal consumption was associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. We used separate analyses, and special emphasis was on the potentially modifying effect of sex and age. Methods Data were from the Danish contribution to the international collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC in 2002. We used a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional design to study schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years (n = 3913 selected from a random sample of schools in Denmark. Fruit intake and vegetable intake were measured by a food frequency questionnaire and analyses were conducted using multivariate logistic regression. Results Overall, statistically significant associations were found between irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake and vegetable intake (breakfast: fruit OR = 1.42, vegetables OR = 1.48; lunch: fruit OR = 1.68, vegetables OR = 1.83; evening meal: vegetables OR = 1.70. No association was found for irregular evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake. Analyses stratified by sex showed that the associations between irregular breakfast consumption and both fruit and vegetable intake remained statistically significant only among girls. When analyses were stratified by both sex and age, different patterns appeared. Overall, skipping meals seemed to be a less serious risk factor for low frequency of fruit and vegetable intake among younger participants compared with those who were older. This was especially evident for skipping breakfast. The same tendency was also seen for skipping lunch and evening meal, although the age pattern varied between boys and girls and between fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion Our results showed that irregular breakfast, lunch and

  19. Family structure and breakfast consumption of 11-15 year old boys and girls in Scotland, 1994-2010: a repeated cross-sectional study

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    Levin Kate A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of breakfast during childhood and adolescence have been reported previously though few studies have considered family structure inequalities in breakfast consumption. The proportion of young people living in non-traditional family types has increased in recent years, strengthening the need to describe and monitor the impact of the changing family unit on adolescent breakfast consumption. This study aimed to describe changes in daily breakfast consumption among adolescents in Scotland between 1994 and 2010, while also considering family structure inequalities, and the degree to which these have changed over time. Methods Data from the 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression models for binary outcome variable daily breakfast consumption. Results Daily breakfast consumption among adolescents increased between 1994 and 2010, although there were differences by age and sex. In fact those aged over 14.5 years saw decreases in breakfast consumption, and girls saw significantly larger increases than boys. Daily breakfast consumption was more prevalent among adolescents from 'both parent' families, with lowest prevalence among those from single parent families. Trends in daily breakfast consumption between 1994 and 2010 also varied by family structure. While prevalence of daily breakfast consumption increased among those living with 'both parents', the largest proportion of the population, prevalence decreased over time among adolescents of single parent families, and particularly among those living with their father. Conclusions Family structure inequalities in daily breakfast consumption increased between 1994 and 2010, while breakfast consumption across the population as a whole increased. As the proportion of young people living in an alternative family structure continues to grow it is important to understand why

  20. The relationship of motor skills and social communicative skills in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder. (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A


    Motor skill deficits are present and persist in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Staples & Reid, 2010). Yet the focus of intervention is on core impairments, which are part of the diagnostic criteria for ASD, deficits in social communication skills. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the functional motor skills, of 6- to 15-year-old children with high-functioning ASD, predict success in standardized social communicative skills. It is hypothesized that children with better motor skills will have better social communicative skills. A total of 35 children with ASD between the ages of 6-15 years participated in this study. The univariate GLM (general linear model) tested the relationship of motor skills on social communicative skills holding constant age, IQ, ethnicity, gender, and clinical ASD diagnosis. Object-control motor skills significantly predicted calibrated ASD severity (p communicative skill deficits. How this relationship exists behaviorally, needs to be explored further.

  1. 北京市安定镇15岁以下人群水痘疫苗接种情况%Vaccination status of varicella among people under 15 years old in Anding town of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    [Objective ] To understand the vaccination status of varicella among people under IS years old in Anding town of Beijing, provide the basis for improvement of varicella vaccination coverage rate and control of varicella epidemic. [ Methods] The data of varicella vaccine history of people under 15 years old in Anding town of Beijing collected from immunization program information system and emergency vaccination tables were analyzed descriptively. [Results] A total of 3 461 people were investigated, and the varicella vaccination coverage rate was 66. 57% (76. 62-34. 39%). The coverage rate in 1 to 7 year-old age group was high (71. 64%-76.62% ), and there was a significant difference in coverage rate among different age groups (P<0.01). The coverage rate of the local population and the immigrant population was 60.78% and 67.56% respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). The coverage rate of imported varicella vaccine increased with decreasing age, the coverage rate of students in the nurseries, the primary schools and the secondary schools was 77.72% , 63.84 % and 41.40% respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.01). The number of emergency vaccination accounted for 42. 52% of total vaccinated cases, and the number of emergency vaccination in students of the primary schools and the secondary schools respectively accounted for 52.67% and 94.76% of vaccinated cases in that age group. [ Conclusion] It is essential to increase publicity about varicella vaccination among people under IS years old in Anding town, and improve the coverage rate, so as to control the varicella outbreak in nurseries and schools.%目的 了解北京市安定镇15岁以下人群水痘疫苗接种情况,为提高水痘疫苗接种率和控制水痘疫情提供依据.方法 对北京市安定镇全部15岁以下人群通过免疫规划信息系统和查阅应急接种表,对水痘疫苗接种史进行描述性分析.结果 共调查3461人

  2. Can Gender Differences in Educational Performance of 15-Year-Old Migrant Pupils Be Explained by Societal Gender Equality in Origin and Destination Countries? (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils


    In this paper, we attempt to explain the differences between reading and math scores of migrants' children (8430 daughters and 8526 sons) in 17 OECD destination countries, coming from 45 origin countries or regions, using PISA 2009 data. In addition to the societal gender equality levels of the origin and destination countries (the gender…

  3. The Sustainable Development of the London 2012 Olympic Park: A Real Controversy? 11- to 15-Year-Old Students' Perspectives Right from the Scene (United States)

    Amos, Ruth; Robertson, Helen


    In the midst of challenges facing school science education in providing students with authentic learning experiences aimed at development of important life skills for future citizens, a project at the London 2012 Olympic Park is providing a unique opportunity for urban field visits in the built environment. The Field Studies Council is bringing…

  4. Preschool Children's School Readiness (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra


    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  5. Risk factors and prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in school children of North India. (United States)

    Plaka, Kavita; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mor, Suman; Gauba, Krishan


    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis, dental caries, and associated risk factors in the school children of district Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India, using a cross-sectional study design. Oral health status of children aged between 8 and 15 years was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 criteria. Dental fluorosis was assessed using Dean's index, and dental caries were recorded using decayed, missing, filled/decayed, extracted, filled (DMF/def) indices. Four hundred school children were examined, of which 207 were in the 8-11-year-old group and 193 were in the 12-15-year-old group. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was 4.1%, which might be linked to a high concentration of fluoride in drinking water at certain locations of rural Punjab. The prevalence of dental caries was 36.5% with a mean DMF score of 0.3 and def score of 0.6. Risk factors for dental caries include oral hygiene behavior and sugar consumption patterns. The study highlights the need to increase awareness about the oral health and hygiene among the school children in India.

  6. Physical activity evaluation in Yugoslav Study of the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in School Children – YUSAD study (United States)

    Simeunovic, Slavko; Milincic, Zeljka; Nikolic, Dejan; Simeunovic, Dejan; Arandjelovic, Dragana; Novakovic, Ivana; Petronic, Ivana; Risimic, Dijana; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Vukotic, Milija


    Introduction It is observed that there is a lack of physical activity and exercise in children, stressing higher prevalence of childhood obesity. The purpose of the study was to evaluate duration of physical activity in a child population and correlation of dynamics in physical activity during 5 years of follow-up in the same population. Material and methods We evaluated 3243 school children from 12 regional centres across Serbia. The first examination was done when the children were 10 years old (baseline group), while the second examination was done on the same population when children were 15 years old. Physical activity was classified as recreational activity after school. We analysed 3 groups regarding physical activity: a group of children who were physically active less than 1 hour per day (group I), a second group active from 1 hour to < 3 hours per day (group II), and a third group active ≥ 3 hours per day (group III). Results In our study we have found on examination that the majority of children were physically active between 1 and 3 hours per day. Our results indicate that there is significant movement from groups I and III toward group II on the second examination regarding the proportion in the baseline group. There is a significant increase in the number of children in group I as they get older. Conclusions School children in Serbia are physically active predominantly between 1 and 3 hours per day at the age between 10 and 15 years. PMID:22427760

  7. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among 12–15 years school children of Bharatpur city: A cross-sectional study

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    Harsh Vardhan Dubey


    Full Text Available Introduction: Healthy teeth are important for any section of society. Dental caries, the product of man's progress toward civilization, has a very high morbidity potential. Fluoride has been recognized as one of the most influential factor responsible for the observed decline of caries among children as well as adults of these countries. While fluoride is accepted as an effective method to prevent caries, the excessive consumption of fluoride can put teeth at risk of developing dental fluorosis. Aims and Objectives: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among 12–15 years old government and private school children of Bharatpur city, Rajasthan. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out on total 1400 school children, out of which 700 school children were from government schools and 700 were from private schools. Simple random sampling methodology was used to select the sample. The subjects were examined for dental fluorosis according to WHO 1997 assessment form. Results: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was found higher among government school children, that is, 54.5% when compared to private school children, that is, 45.5% respectively, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The study showed the increased prevalence of dental fluorosis among government school children as compared to private school children. Dental fluorosis was found to be the major public health problem among both government and private school children of Bharatpur city which needed immediate attention. Regular dental check-ups and routine oral hygiene practice will enable them to lead a healthier life.

  8. Patterns of Age Mixing and Gender Mixing among Children and Adolescents at an Ungraded School. (United States)

    Gray, Peter; Feldman, Jay


    Examined age and gender mixing among students, ages 4-19, at an ungraded, self-directed, democratically structured school. Found that age mixing was more frequent for 12- to 15-year-olds than for younger or older students, and that gender mixing was less frequent for 8- to 11-year-olds than for any other age group. (MDM)

  9. 北京市≥15岁常住人口麻疹抗体水平研究%Analysis of Measles Antibody Level in Persistent Population Aged ≥15 Years Old in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东磊; 孙美平; 卢莉; 王冬梅; 刘芳; 徐若辉; 宁召起; 张曙光; 庞星火


    目的 了解北京市≥15岁常住人口麻疹抗体水平和影响因素,评价成人麻疹易感性.方法 采用分层多级整群抽样的方法,按照城区、近郊、远郊分层选择调查对象,收集个人基本信息、麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)接种史、患病史等信息,使用酶联免疫吸附试验检测麻疹IgG抗体.结果 北京市≥15岁常住人口麻疹抗体阳性率为92.83%;多因素分析显示,居住的地理位置、年龄、患病史均对抗体水平有影响.结论 北京市≥15岁常住人口麻疹抗体阳性率较高,不会发生大范围的爆发或流行,但成人活动范围广,作为传染源的意义重大,从消除麻疹的要求考虑,仍有必要对成人接种MV.%Objective To explore the measles antibody level and among the population ≥ 15 years old and the influence factors in Beijing, so as to eraluate the sasceptability of adult to the Measles.Methods Using multi-cluster sampling to select the objects from downtown, suburban and rural areas.Private information, history of vaccination and illness were collected. IgG antibody was measured by ELISA assay in Beijing CDC. Result The seropositive rate ≥ 15 years old was 92.83%. In multivariate analysis model, the site of living location, age, and history of illness were main influence factors to the antibody level using multiple regression analysis. Conclusion The seropositive rate among the population ≥ 15 years old was high enough to prevent outbreak and epidemic of measles. Adult measles cases are main resources for measles transmission. Vaccination for adult is a key measure to eliminate measles.

  10. Factors of children's school readiness


    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek; Urška Fekonja; Katja Bajc


    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progress...

  11. Prevalence, intensity of infection and risk factors of urinary schistosomiasis in pre-school and school aged children in Guma Local Government Area, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EU Amuta; RS Houmsou


    Objective: To determine the prevalence and intensity of infection and the risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis in pre-school and school aged children in Guma Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Methods: Urine filtration technique using polycarbonate membrane filters was employed to process urine specimens and to determine presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine. Questionnaires were also administered to children to collect information on socio-demographic data and water-contact activities. Results: An overall prevalence of 55.0% (165/300) was recorded out of the 300 urine samples examined. Prevalence of infection varied between 36.0%-64.0% with a significant difference (χ2= 11.59, P=0.041) between the different communities visited. Males were more infected (60.6%, 103/170) than females (47.7%, 62/130) with a significant difference (χ2= 4.95, P=0.026). The age-related prevalence showed higher prevalence (70.5%, 36/52) in the 11-15 year old children than that in the 1-5 year old ones (44.9%, 53/118). A significant difference was observed in the prevalence between the age groups (χ2=10.56, P=0.014). The prevalence of light intensity of infection (1-49 eggs/10 mL of urine) (86.6%) was significantly higher than that of heavy intensity of infection (≥50 eggs/10 mL of urine) (13.3%) in the area (t=16.48, P=0.000). Water contact activities of the children revealed that children that were involved in irrigation and those that went swimming in water bodies were observed to be at higher risk of becoming infected with urinary schistosomiasis in the area with odd ratios (risk factors) of 2.756 (1.334-5.693) and 2.366 (1.131-4.948) respectively at P<0.05 level. Conclusions: The study revealed the hyperendemicity of urinary schistosomiasis in the pre-school and school aged children in Guma Local Government Area. It is therefore recommended that praziquantel should be administered to children in the area and systematic epidemiological

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors and blood pressure in a primary care unit: Yugoslav Study of the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in School Children (YUSAD) (United States)

    Bajcetic, Milica; Ilic, Katarina; Singh, Nada Majkic; Novakovic, Ivana; Vukotic, Milija; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Simeunovic, Slavko


    OBJECTIVES The presence of cardiovascular risk factors in children may be important in the development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Adequate control of blood pressure is a cornerstone in atherosclerosis prevention. The aim of the Yugoslav Study of the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in School Children (YUSAD) was to identify risk factors for elevated blood pressure in school children. METHODS The YUSAD study is a multicentre follow-up study comprised of two cross-sectional surveys conducted five years apart. At baseline, 10-year-old children (3226 boys and 3074 girls [n=6300]) were randomly selected during periodical visits to primary health care centres. The risk factors measured were heart rate, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, grade point average and current smoking status. RESULTS Significant age and sex differences were identified in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and all investigated independent variables. In a multivariate analysis, diastolic blood pressure in 10-year-old boys was directly and significantly related to total cholesterol and height, whereas it was inversely related to weight. At follow-up, in the multivariate model, only BMI was a significant predictor of diastolic blood pressure in boys. In girls at baseline in the multivariate regression analysis, the only significant predictor of diastolic blood pressure was total cholesterol. In 15-year-old girls, diastolic blood pressure was significantly and directly related to BMI and heart rate, whereas it was inversely related to weight. For both 10- and 15-year-old male and female participants, none of the variables by multivariate analysis were a significant predictor of systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Age, sex, heart rate, cholesterol and weight are the most important predictors of blood pressure in school children. PMID:18651041

  13. Sedentary lifestyle and passive leisure in Czech school-aged children

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    Zdeněk Hamřík


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour and an insufficient level of physical activity in children are the key factors leading to physically inactive behaviour in adulthood associated with the growing prevalence of mass non-communicable diseases in the population of the Czech Republic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze sedentary lifestyle, focusing on passive leisure (time spent watching television and using computer in school-aged children in the Czech Republic. METHODS: To determine the time spent watching television and using computer, data of a randomly selected set of 11 to 15 year old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4425 was used. Research data collection was conducted within an international research project Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. For statistical processing of results and identification of differences between various age groups of girls and boys, logistic regression analysis in SPSS Statistics 20 programme was used. RESULTS: More than 55% of girls and 60% of boys spend over 2 hours a day in a working week in front of the TV, DVD, video; most of the time was recorded for 13 year old respondents. While playing games on the PC or Playstation occupies more than 2 hours per day for more than a half of boys, for girls more typical is "chatting", "surfing the Internet" or "e-mailing". With age, the proportion of children who spend 2 or more hours a day using computer increases. CONCLUSIONS: The problem of an increasing level of sedentary behaviour in children in their leisure should be addressed together with interventions aimed at increasing the levels of physical activity in children in the national, regional and local policies to encourage physical activity and health in the Czech Republic.

  14. 营养宣教对新疆农村维吾尔族13~15岁学生膳食状况的影响%Effect of nutritional propaganda and education on the dietary status of Uyghur students aged 13 ~ 15 years old in rural areas of Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜超; 武杰; 王明霞; 任相涛; 秦天红


    normal, by fat was low seriously, by carbohydrates was too more; the intake of various nutrients was unbalanced, especially vitamin A, vitamin B2 and calcium, the actual intake of natrium exceeded standard severely. Conclusion: The phenomenon of malnutrition is very common among the investigated students aged 13 ~ 15 years old,regular nutritional propaganda and education can not improve the dietary and nutritional status, the government and schools should make policy to improve the nutritional status of students according to local economic level and living habits.

  15. School Adaptation of Roma Children (United States)

    Gerganov, Encho; Varbanova, Silvia; Kyuchukov, Hristo


    This paper examines the degree of school adaptation among Roma children who were included in a program for the desegregation of Roma schools in Bulgaria. More specifically, the program requires Roma children to attend mixed classes with Bulgarian students and Roma teacher assistants to work with them. The Bulgarian version of the Questionnaire on…

  16. Defining and Assessing Spiritual Health: A Comparative Study among 13- to 15-Year-Old Pupils Attending Secular Schools, Anglican Schools, and Private Christian Schools in England and Wales (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Penny, Gemma; Baker, Sylvia


    This article argues that the nation's commitment to young people involves proper concern for their physical health, their psychological health, and their spiritual health. In this context the notion of spiritual health is clarified by a critique of John Fisher's model of spiritual health. Fisher developed a relational model of spiritual health,…

  17. Changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Finnish regional youth soccer players during a two-year follow-up. (United States)

    Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo


    Vänttinen, T, Blomqvist, M, Nyman, K, and Häkkinen, K. Changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Finnish regional youth soccer players during a two-year follow-up. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3342-3351, 2011-The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 10.8 ± 0.3-year-old (n = 13), 12.7 ± 0.2-year-old (n = 14), and 14.7 ± 0.3-year-old (n = 12) Finnish regional youth soccer players during a 2-year monitoring period and to compare physical fitness characteristics of soccer players with those of age-matched controls (10.7 ± 0.3 years, n = 13; 14.7 ± 0.3 years, n = 10) not participating in soccer. Body composition was measured in terms of height, weight, muscle mass, percentage of body fat, and lean body weight of trunk, legs, and arms. Hormonal status was monitored by concentrations of serum testosterone and cortisol. Physical fitness was measured in terms of sprinting speed, agility, isometric maximal strength (leg extensors, abdominal, back, grip), explosive strength, and endurance. Age-related development was detected in all other measured variables except in the percentage of body fat. The results showed that the physical fitness of regional soccer players was better than that of the control groups in all age groups, especially in cardiovascular endurance (p < 0.01-0.001) and in agility (p < 0.01-0.001). In conclusion, playing in a regional level soccer team seems to provide training adaptation, which is beyond normal development and which in all likelihood leads to positive health effects over a prolonged period of time.

  18. Lumbar disc herniation associated with scoliosis in a 15-year-old girl: case report Hérnia de disco lombar associada a escoliose em uma jovem de 15 anos: relato de caso

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    Fernando Campos Gomes Pinto


    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc herniation is a rare condition in childhood and adolescence, although some cases have already been reported in the literature. We present the case of a 15 year-old-girl with low back pain and scoliosis. She had no previous history of trauma or collagen diseases. MRI showed L4-L5 and L5-S1 disc herniations and no further bone and structural changes. After two level discectomy, pain ceased and scoliosis improved, without further treatment. Based on her evolution and on what has already been reported in literature, we consider that scoliosis associated with disc herniation in young patients is most likely to be only an anthalgic position, not indicative of further structural changes.Hérnia de disco intervertebral é condição rara em crianças e adolescentes. Alguns relatos isolados e algumas séries foram publicadas. Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 15 anos, sem antecedentes relevantes, que apresentou hérnia de disco intervertebral em dois níveis lombares (L4-L5 e L5-S1 associada a escoliose não estrutural que melhorou após a cirurgia, sem necessidade de órtese. Baseados neste caso e no que encontramos na literatura, acreditamos que escoliose associada a hérnia de disco em jovens é resultante apenas de posição antiálgica, não representando necessariamente alteração estrutural.

  19. Factors of children's school readiness

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    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1999, language competence using the Lestvice splošnega govornegarazvoja–LJ (LSGR–LJ, Scales of General Language Development; Marjanovič Umek, Kranjc, Fekonja in Bajc, 2004, and school readiness with the Preizkus pripravljenosti za šolo (PPŠ, Test of School Readiness; Toličič, 1986. The results indicate that children's intellectual ability and language competence have a high predictive value for the school readiness — they explained 51% of the variance in children's scores on the PPŠ. Preschool enrollment has a positive effect on school readiness for children whose parents have a low level of education, but not for those whose parents are highly educated.

  20. Evaluation of School Children%u2019s Voiding Problems in Sakarya Region

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    Adil Sonbahar


    Full Text Available Aim: Our goal was to determine the types of voiding problems of children%u2019s between 6 and 15 years old in Sakarya region. Material and Method: Totally 3246, 5-16 years old student randomly selected from 8 schools inside province. Students are evaluated in an appropriate room at school with a form pre-prepared in our clinic. Results: The survey shows that 486 of 3246 students (15% have voiding problems. The prevalance of dysfunctional voiding problems in all children, was 11.2%(365, nocturia prevalence was 8.7% (279, diurnal enuresis was 1% (32. In boys (totally 1573 the prevalance of dysfunctional voiding problems was 9% (145, nocturia prevalence was 11.7%(184, enuresis nocturia prevalence 11.2% (176, diurnal enuresis was 0.5% (8. In girls (totally 1673 the prevalance of dysfunctional voiding problems was 13.4 (223, nocturia prevalence was 6.7% (111, enuresis nocturia prevalence was 6.2% (103, diurnal enuresis prevalance was 1.4% (24. There was no meaningful statistical difference from the perspective of height and body mass index (BMI between the children with voiding problems and without any problem (p>0.05 . Discussion: The results for enuresis nocturna, nocturia and diurnal enuresis we have got from our study, are similar to ones that have been done in our country before. There is no data for prevalence od dysfunctional voiding study so far. Dysfunctional voiding problems in girls and in children who are in first years of school are more frequent.

  1. Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries


    Karl Peltzer; Supa Pengpid


    The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (

  2. Children, Computers, and School Furniture. (United States)

    Maxwell, Lorraine E.


    Discusses the rise of posture-related discomfort and injury in children using computers in their classrooms and explores the research in the area. Recommends greater effort in encouraging school furniture manufacturers to create ergonomically appropriate computer workstations. Advice on what children can do to lessen musculoskeletal discomfort…

  3. Carga de enfermedad atribuible a las afecciones inmunoprevenibles en la población infantojuvenil española Disease burden due to vaccinable diseases in the Spanish population aged less than 15 years old

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    Marta Cortés


    .Objectives: To estimate the burden of disease due to vaccinable diseases and the relative importance of these diseases in the health of the Spanish population aged less than 15 years old. Methods: Disease burden was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. DALYs were computed by adding years of life lost (YLL to years lived with disability (YLD. The DALYs of the Spanish population aged less than 15 years old were estimated for 1999 and were stratified by diseases according to the classification system of the Global Burden of Disease (adapted to the aim of the study, age group and gender. Diseases included in the childhood vaccination schedule, varicella, and pneumococcal disease were targeted for this study. The sources used were: the national mortality register to compute YLL, the Epidemiologic Surveillance National Network, hospital discharge data (CMBD and the scientific literature to compute YLD due to vaccinable diseases, and World Health Organization estimates (Euro-A or, when these were lacking, morbidity hospital data (Hospital Morbidity Survey to compute the YLD due to non-vaccinable diseases. Results: The burden of disease due to vaccinable diseases was 1.2% of global DALYS (the overall DALYs rate was 46,57/1,000 habitants: diseases included in the vaccination schedule represented 0.00% to 0.03%, depending on age groups, except meningococcal infection (between 0.5% and 3.3%. Pneumococcal meningitis represented 0.06% to 0.65% and varicella 0.00% to 0.15%, also depending on age groups. Conclusions: Disease burden due to vaccinable diseases is a good indicator of the health of the young population in Spain. This measure summarizes and combines information on mortality, morbidity and disability caused by diseases. The DALYs attributable to diseases included in the vaccination schedule demonstrate that immunization programs have achieved their goals.

  4. Development of children male virtual simulator of 15 years old using anatomic parameters of ICRP number 89; Desenvolvimento de um simulador pediatrico virtual masculino de 15 anos com base nos parametros anatomicos da ICRP de numero 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Erick da S.; Junior, Alberico B. de C.; Tavares, Paulo V. dos S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)


    Computational dosimetry is engaged in radiation dose estimate received by an individual exposed to a radiation field and evaluates the cancer risk associated with this type of exposure. To perform such an assessment is used virtual simulators representing humans. Currently, with the development of graphic animation software, the development of these simulators was facilitated using only knowledge of human anatomy to prepare various types of simulators (man, woman, child and baby) in various positions (sitting, standing, running) or part thereof (head, trunk and limbs). In this project, we built a virtual boy 15 years in mesh and voxels to dare in computational dosimetry. (author)

  5. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15year old children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch


    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single-Leg-Hop-...

  6. A comparison of 15 year old children with excellent occlusion and with crowding of the teeth, Angle Class I malocclusion, in respect of face size and shape and tooth size. (United States)

    Adams, C P


    The biological conflict that manifests itself in crowding of the teeth in man has fascinated orthodontists for generations. Correlations between tooth size and tooth arrangement can be shown, but such correlations tend to leave much unexplained in practical terms. The present report presents data from a preliminary examination of face size and shape and tooth size in boys and girls of 15-16 years, of which 47 had excellently arranged teeth and 91 showed crowding. Measurements were taken from lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric X-ray films and from dental casts. The statistical test used was the standard student t-test. Girls' faces were found to be on average significantly smaller than boys' whether the teeth were well arranged or were crowded. The comparisons of face size and shape of boys and girls with well arranged teeth with the faces of those with crowded teeth was less definite in its outcome. Girls' total tooth substance was on average significantly smaller than boys' whether the teeth were well arranged or crowded. Boys and girls with crowded teeth had a larger mean total tooth size than boys and girls with well arranged teeth.

  7. Enuresis in School Children (United States)

    Stehbens, James A.


    Studies relating to the more popular explanations of enuresis, are discussed and research relating to each is presented. Evidence supporting, or failing to support, treatment methods is also presented. Research possibilities for the school psychologist are suggested. (Author)

  8. Parenting School-Age Children (United States)

    ... important role model in her life. For some children, however, school may cause frustration and stress. Learning disabilities can interfere with the joy of learning. Poor study habits and/or a lack of motivation can create academic difficulties. Sometimes youngsters may have ...




  10. The Mexican National Programs on Teaching Mathematics and Science with Technology: The Legacy of a Decade of Experiences of Transformation of School Practices and Interactions (United States)

    Sacristán, Ana Isabel; Rojano, Teresa

    Here we give an overview of the Mexican experience of a national program, begun in 1997, of gradual implementation of computational tools in the lower secondary-school classrooms (children 12-15 years-old) for mathematics and science. This project illustrates, through the benefit of long-term hindsight, the successes and difficulties of large-scale massive implementation of technologies in schools. The key factors for success and for transforming school practices seem to be: adequate planning, gradual implementation, continuous training and support, and enough time (years) for assimilation and integration.

  11. School-Based Interventions for Anxious Children (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A.; Layne, Ann E.; Egan, Elizabeth A.; Tennison, Dana M.


    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of three school-based interventions for anxious children: group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children, group CBT for children plus parent training group, and no-treatment control. Method: Students (7-11 years old) in three elementary schools (N = 453) were screened using the Multidimensional…

  12. Unhealthy Behaviours of School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria LAZA


    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to ascertain nutritional customs of pupils in grade schools.Material and Method: Anonymous questionnaires were done to a sample of 380 children, aged 10 to 14, in 20 fourth-to eight grade classes from 2 schools in Cluj-Napoca: one from down-town, the other one from a poorer neighbourhood.Results: Almost half of students revealed to have an irregular diet. In the last month, some of them did not have enough food or money to buy it (much of them come from the poorer neighbourhood. In this latest school, a triple percent of children have a vegetable diet (no meat, in fact. The obsession to lose weight and the irregular diet has conducted to lose appetite in over 30% of girls. About 60% take vitamins or nutritional supplements. Social status as well as the irregular diet is reflected in general status: over one third feel sad, alone, useless or cry without any reason. Some of the pupils which have problems with daily food supply, think the life is hard and do not worth to live it.Conclusions: There is a wide diversity in nutritional customs of children. Some of them are due to inappropriate nutritional knowledge or a wrong perception of being on fashion as well as to social status. Although the economic conditions are difficult to change, we consider that nutrition education should still be a part of health teaching.

  13. Characteristics of IQ of 293 school-aged children%293例学龄儿童智商测试特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄敏宁; 杨桂凤


    intelligence test scale .The distribution of IQ was observed and its influencing factors were analyzed .Results Of this group of 293 school-aged children , 134 children (45.73%) had average IQ,and 28 children (9.56%) had low IQ.There was no significant difference in mean IQ among different age groups.When the full-scale IQ of 6-year-old children was compared with that of 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11-15 years old children,t value was 1.94, 1.16, 1.51,1.25 and 0.97, respectively(all P>0.05).When the full-scale IQ of 7-year-old children was compared with that of 8, 9, 10, and 11-15 years old children,t value was 1.95, 1.61, 0.56 and 1.64, respectively(allP>0.05).When the full-scale IQ of 8-year-old children was compared with that of 9, 10, and 11-15 years old children,t value was 0.52, 0.43 and 0.24, respectively (all P>0.05).When the full-scale IQ of 10-year-old children was compared with that of 11-15 years old children,t value was 0.03(P>0.05). Performance IQ was generally lower than verbal IQ , and when verbal IQ of each age group was compared with performance IQ , t value was 16.36, 26.57, 15.71, 9.00, 81.94 and 20.95, respectively(all P0.05). The children whose parents were mental workers had higher IQ , and those had lower IQ when their parents were labors .The difference was statistically significant (t=31.82,P<0.05).Conclusion Summarizing intelligence characteristics of school-aged children and formulating intervention measures are the key to promote children ’ s intellectual development .

  14. Dietary trends among czech school children between 2002-2014: HBSC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Voráčová


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unhealthy eating habits and insuffi cient physical activity are common among children and adolescents and are associated with overweight/ obesity which is one of the risk factors of chronic diseases. Recent evidence shows that many children skip breakfast, do not eat recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and consume high amounts of sweets and soft drinks. There is not a good understanding of the changes in eating behaviours of Czech schoolchildren in relation to their age and gender.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the trends in eating behaviours (regular consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets, soft drinks and breakfast during weekdays and at the weekend of 11, 13 and 15 year old boys and girls between 2002 and 2014.METHODS: The data was used from a Czech survey of the International HBSC Study collected in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Participants were randomly selected from all regions and districts of the Czech Republic. The eating behaviours were measured by a standardized questionnaire that was completed by children attending 5th, 7th and 9th grades of primary schools between April and June. Trends in eating behaviours were analyzed by logistic regression analyses for each eating behaviour and gender (boys, girls and age (11, 13, 15 years.RESULTS: Between 2002 and 2014, the fi ndings showed a decrease in number of children and adolescents that reported regular consumption of sweets (p < .01, soft drinks (p < .001 and fruit (p < .01. An increase of daily breakfast consumption during weekdays was also documented, however, signifi cent changes in  consumption were indicated only in girls (p < .001. No signifi cant change was monitored in daily vegetable consumption and breakfast at weekends. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (at weekend consumption was reported by girls and younger children whereas daily soft drink and breakfast (during weekdays intake was more prevalent in boys.CONCLUSIONS: The

  15. T₂ mapping provides multiple approaches for the characterization of muscle involvement in neuromuscular diseases: a cross-sectional study of lower leg muscles in 5-15-year-old boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (United States)

    Arpan, Ishu; Forbes, Sean C; Lott, Donovan J; Senesac, Claudia R; Daniels, Michael J; Triplett, William T; Deol, Jasjit K; Sweeney, H Lee; Walter, Glenn A; Vandenborne, Krista


    Skeletal muscles of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) show enhanced susceptibility to damage and progressive lipid infiltration, which contribute to an increase in the MR proton transverse relaxation time (T₂). Therefore, the examination of T₂ changes in individual muscles may be useful for the monitoring of disease progression in DMD. In this study, we used the mean T₂, percentage of elevated pixels and T₂ heterogeneity to assess changes in the composition of dystrophic muscles. In addition, we used fat saturation to distinguish T₂ changes caused by edema and inflammation from fat infiltration in muscles. Thirty subjects with DMD and 15 age-matched controls underwent T₂ -weighted imaging of their lower leg using a 3-T MR system. T₂ maps were developed and four lower leg muscles were manually traced (soleus, medial gastrocnemius, peroneal and tibialis anterior). The mean T₂ of the traced regions of interest, width of the T₂ histograms and percentage of elevated pixels were calculated. We found that, even in young children with DMD, lower leg muscles showed elevated mean T₂, were more heterogeneous and had a greater percentage of elevated pixels than in controls. T₂ measures decreased with fat saturation, but were still higher (P damage, edema and fat infiltration. This study shows that T₂ mapping provides multiple approaches that can be used effectively to characterize muscle tissue in children with DMD, even in the early stages of the disease. Therefore, T₂ mapping may prove to be clinically useful in the monitoring of muscle changes caused by the disease process or by therapeutic interventions in DMD.

  16. Test-retest reliability of selected items of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey questionnaire in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's health and health behaviour are essential for their development and it is important to obtain abundant and accurate information to understand young people's health and health behaviour. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study is among the first large-scale international surveys on adolescent health through self-report questionnaires. So far, more than 40 countries in Europe and North America have been involved in the HBSC study. The purpose of this study is to assess the test-retest reliability of selected items in the Chinese version of the HBSC survey questionnaire in a sample of adolescents in Beijing, China. Methods A sample of 95 male and female students aged 11 or 15 years old participated in a test and retest with a three weeks interval. Student Identity numbers of respondents were utilized to permit matching of test-retest questionnaires. 23 items concerning physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep and substance use were evaluated by using the percentage of response shifts and the single measure Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC with 95% confidence interval (CI for all respondents and stratified by gender and age. Items on substance use were only evaluated for school children aged 15 years old. Results The percentage of no response shift between test and retest varied from 32% for the item on computer use at weekends to 92% for the three items on smoking. Of all the 23 items evaluated, 6 items (26% showed a moderate reliability, 12 items (52% displayed a substantial reliability and 4 items (17% indicated almost perfect reliability. No gender and age group difference of the test-retest reliability was found except for a few items on sedentary behaviour. Conclusions The overall findings of this study suggest that most selected indicators in the HBSC survey questionnaire have satisfactory test-retest reliability for the students in Beijing. Further test-retest studies in a large

  17. Families with School-Age Children (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell


    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  18. School Social Work with Grieving Children (United States)

    Quinn-Lee, Lisa


    The purpose of the research reported in this article was to advance understanding of the work of school social workers with grieving students. This research was aimed at answering the following question: What are school social workers' experiences working with grieving children? There were two steps in this study. Fifty-nine school social workers…

  19. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob


    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  20. School Phobic Children and Adolescents: A Challenge to Counselors. (United States)

    Harris, Sandra R.


    Although fearful avoidance of school is a complex and serious problem among school-age children, there are techniques available to professionals for assisting children to overcome school-related anxiety. It is important for school personnel to identify school-phobic children and to assist in planning the earliest possible intervention. (Author)

  1. Disabled Children Face Bullying Throughout School Years (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162772.html Disabled Children Face Bullying Throughout School Years More must be done to ... 29, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Bullying is a problem that affects almost all students ...

  2. School bus and children's traffic safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Shu-ming; Stephen Hargarten; ZHU Shan-kuan


    There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries.Methods: We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).Results: There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries.Conclusions: The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.

  3. Buying behaviour of children at secondary school


    Snížková, Kateřina


    The bachelor thesis deals with buying behaviour of children at secondary school. The aim is to describe their buying behaviour and find out their motivational factors to purchase factors with a focus on advertisement. In the theoretical part is specified buying behaviour and factors influencing consumer. Gen Z and Net generation, in which children at secondary school class, are characterized. It described their buying behaviour and specification that characterize this generation. A part of th...

  4. Children's Effortful Control and Academic Competence: Mediation through School Liking (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Castro, Kimberly S.


    We examined the relations among children's effortful control, school liking, and academic competence with a sample of 240 7- to 12-year-old children. Parents and children reported on effortful control, and teachers and children assessed school liking. Children, parents, and teachers reported on children's academic competence. Significant positive…

  5. Serving Hispanic School-Aged Children in after School Programming: Implications for School Social Work (United States)

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan


    The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…

  6. Children, Schools, & Inequality. Social Inequality Series. (United States)

    Entwisle, Doris R.; And Others

    Findings from the Beginning School Study, conducted in Baltimore (Maryland) are used to show how differences in family circumstances translate into beliefs and activities that help or hinder children's development. The Beginning School Study started in 1982 and has followed 790 randomly selected Baltimore students from first-grade in 1982 through…

  7. Ritalin for School Children: The Teachers' Perspective. (United States)

    Robin, Stanley S.; Bosco, James J.

    Research in an urban public school system (Grand Rapids, Michigan) was conducted to determine teachers' view of Ritalin for school children. Three questions were addressed: what contact with and information about Ritalin do teachers have; what attitude do teachers express toward Ritalin; and what professional behaviors do teachers report in regard…

  8. The School Children's Development in Language Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ During the school years, children's development in cognition enables them to focus their thinking on the facts and relationships less intuitively and more analytically. Growing language abilities complement these cognitive skills. As a result, older children can discuss and explain their world and themselves in ways no presehoolers can. And the ability to plan and follow through on cognitive strategies further distinguishes older children from preschoolers.

  9. Anemia among school children in eastern Nepal. (United States)

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Tamang, Man Kumar; Shakya, Prem Raj; Lamsal, Madhab; Baral, Nirmal


    Anemia is one of the most common public health problems in developing countries like Nepal. This study was done to find the prevalence of anemia among the children aged 4-13 years in eastern Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in four districts (Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam) of eastern Nepal to find the prevalence of anemia among the school children of eastern Nepal. Children aged 4-13 years were selected randomly from different schools of above districts and 618 venous blood samples were collected. Hemoglobin level was estimated by using cyanmethemoglobin method. The mean hemoglobin level was 12.2 ± 1.82 gm/dl. About 37.9% (n = 234) children were found anemic. Anemia prevalence was 42.4% (n = 78), 31.6% (n = 60), 45.3% (n = 48) and 34.8% (n = 48) among school children of Morang, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Ilam district, respectively. The study finds anemia as a significant health problem among the school children of eastern Nepal.

  10. Oral health status in 12 to 17-year-old school children from Valle Nonguén, Concepción, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivania Contreras


    Full Text Available Dental caries, periodontal disease and dento-maxillary anomalies are the most common oral problems both globally and nationally. The aim of this study is to determine the oral health status in terms of caries damage, oral hygiene and dento-maxillary anomalies, and their relationship with socio-demographic factors in school children from Valle Nonguén sector, whose ages fluctuate from 12 to 17 years old. This is a study of prevalence which was conducted on a sample of 210 school children, the following indexes were utilized: DMFT, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S, and Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI, sex, age and type of educational establishment (public/subsidized. The results showed that 94.76% of the students have caries damage with a DMFT average of 6.87±3.42, higher in women and adolescents aged 16-17; 73.57% of them have a regular hygiene, with OHI-S higher in 14-15-year-old adolescents and public schools, and a 75.2% has at least one manifest malocclusion (19.05% in a disabling level. These results show that the 12-17-year-old students from Valle Nonguén have a high rate of oral disease in all indexes, higher than national and international studies. A priority is to design and implement preventive/healing dental programs in this group. These results question the design and possible impact of the new program "FONASA Libre Elección 12-17 años" in neighborhoods with limited resources and high treatment needs.

  11. Adolescent vigorous physical activity and the neighborhood school environment: examinations by family social class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Schipperijn, Jasper; Holstein, Bjørn Evald;

    likely to achieve daily VPA than boys. Among children from low family social class backgrounds, girls were less likely to achieve daily VPA than boys (OR = 0.40; CI: 0.28-0.57). Additionally, children from low family social class backgrounds attending schools with low exposure to walking and cycling......Purpose: To investigate whether associations between daily vigorous physical activity (VPA) and the built environment are patterned according to family social class. Methods: We used self-reported daily VPA measured in 6046 11 to 15-year-old boys and girls in 80 schools. Multi-level stratified...... logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between daily VPA and objective exercise resources within 2 km from each school. Results: Total length of walking and cycling paths was the strongest built environment correlate of daily VPA. Overall, girls were significantly less...

  12. [Stress in school-age children]. (United States)

    Plourde, R G


    In April 1988, following preliminary research, Notre Dame Elementary School in Edmunston, N.B. initiated a pilot project entitled Management of Children's Stress. Using a three-dimensional process, parents, teachers and students collaborated to empower all students enrolled at the school to effectively manage their day-to-day stress. To prepare, the children, parents and teachers participated in nine- and 15-hour education sessions, respectively. Various techniques, including deep breathing exercises, stretching, relaxation techniques and listening to music, were considered. Visualization, maximizing the mind's potential to envision relaxing images, became the preferred technique. In addition to complementing other relaxation techniques used by the children, visualization facilitated their learning; developed and improved their concentration, motivation and self-confidence; gave them a positive self-image; and reduced health problems. The project has surpassed all expectations. In March 1993, it became part of a Quality of Life Education Project at the school.

  13. Sleep problems in primary school children: comparison between mainstream and special school children. (United States)

    Quine, L


    This paper reports on a study of the prevalence and social correlates of dyssomnias, features associated with obstructive sleep apnoea, and parasomnias in primary school children aged 4-12. Head teachers of schools selected randomly from lists of local primary and special schools were contacted by telephone and asked to distribute a questionnaire package to the parents of all pupils aged 4-12 years. In all, 890 parents of children from mainstream schools and 300 from special schools were approached. The response rates were 64.7% and 60%, respectively. The results showed that significantly higher proportions of children in special schools than in mainstream schools presented four of the five dyssomnias investigated and all of the features associated with obstructive sleep apnoea. In contrast, only two of the seven parasomnias were presented by higher proportions of the children in special schools. Age and gender differences for the two groups of children are presented. Finally, multiple correlations were computed between a range of child, family, and environmental characteristics and the three problems most frequently reported: frequency of settling problems; sleeping in the parents' bed; and night waking. The findings are discussed with reference to other studies of children's sleep problems, and the implications for treatment are considered.

  14. School playground facilities as a determinant of children's daily activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca;


    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  15. Oral Health: What Parents Can Do: School Age Children (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Oral Health What Parents Can Do: School Age Children Past ... offices, clinics, and sometimes in schools. Read More "Oral Health" Articles Children's Dental Health / What Parents Can Do: ...

  16. A Review of School Reintegration Programs for Children with Cancer. (United States)

    Prevatt, Frances F.; Heffer, Robert W.; Lowe, Patricia A.


    Descriptive articles on school reintegration programs for children with cancer are reviewed to synthesize the information of best practices for program development. Suggestions are given for school psychologists working with chronically ill children. (Author/JDM)

  17. On dental caries and caries-related factors in children and teenagers. (United States)

    Alm, Anita


    Dental caries is still a common disease among children and adolescents. The aims of the present thesis were therefore: 1) to investigate the approximal caries prevalence in posterior teeth in 15-year-olds, 2) to study past caries experience in the primary dentition in relation to future caries development and need for treatment, 3) to investigate factors during early childhood which are associated with caries development later in life, and 4) to study the association between age-specific body mass index (isoBMI) and approximal caries status in 15-year-olds. Paper I has a retrospective design and the analyses were based on record data from a randomly selected sample. Papers II, III and IV are based on radiographic analyses of posterior teeth in 15-year-olds followed longitudinally from 1 to 15 years of age. The data for these studies were selected from examinations, interviews and questionnaires from early childhood and school health care records at 15 years (isoBMI values). The result showed that the approximal caries prevalence in 15-year-olds is underestimated in official caries data, since initial caries lesions are not included in these statistics. Two thirds of all 15-year-olds had approximal caries and initial caries constituted 86% of the total number of caries lesions. There was a strong relationship between caries in early childhood and approximal caries prevalence in the posterior teeth at 15 years of age. Children with caries experience at 6 years received significantly more treatment in the primary dentition during the period from 7 to 12 years compared with children who were caries free at the same age. Further, it was pointed out that parents' attitudes to dental health and psychosocial factors during early childhood have an effect on approximal caries in 15-year-olds. Additionally, plaque on primary incisors at 1 year of age and infrequent toothbrushing at 3 years of age were associated with a high caries experience at 15 years. It was also

  18. The prevalence of fibromyalgia among school children in Kalubia



    Aim of the work This study aimed to determine the prevalence of juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFMS) among school children in Kalubia. Patients and methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted on school children in Kalubia governorate in January 2012 to determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome among school children. A total of 2000 children attending on the days of our visits were recruited from (a) primary and (b) preparatory schools. JFMS was diagnosed according to ...

  19. Transition of special needs children from kindergarten to primary school


    Purkat, Maja


    In my master's thesis, I dealt with the issue of transition of special needs children from kindergarten to school. First, I provided a general description of the term transition, and then I focused more on the period when children first enter school. I described two dominant approaches to transition of children when starting schoolschool readiness and transition in accordance with the ecological model. I showed why this transition to school may represent an obstacle, what may hinder the pr...

  20. Communicating Astronomy to School Children Through Art (United States)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Collado, M. G.


    Artistic activities permeate our culture and our education, mainly because they speak of our most precious and intimate feelings, hopes, fears and sensations. Art constitutes, therefore, a universal language that can communicate and inspire through time and space, addressed to anybody with any kind of background. The power of inspiration of art is a wonderful way to excite children's imagination while communicating astronomical concepts. We present an example of communicating astronomy through different kinds of art pieces to school children. Also, children artworks are very useful to understand many of their conceptions and misconceptions about astronomical concepts.

  1. Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Andreas; Andersen, Lars Bo; Ommundsen, Yngvar


    BACKGROUND: Identifying leisure time activities performed before and after school that influence time in physical activity (PA) and/or time spent sedentary can provide useful information when designing interventions aimed to promote an active lifestyle in young people. The purpose of this study...... was to examine associations between mode of transportation to school, outdoor play after school, participation in exercise in clubs, and TV viewing with objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviour in children. METHODS: A total of 1327 nine- and 15-year-old children from three European countries (Norway......-report. Independent associations between self-reported correlates with percent time in MVPA and percent time sedentary were analysed by general linear models, adjusted by age, gender, country, measurement period, monitored days and parental socio-economic status. RESULTS: In 9-year-olds, playing outdoors after school...

  2. Country, age, and gender differences in the prevalence of screen-based behaviour and family-related factors among school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka


    Full Text Available Background: New information and communication technologies have become an important part of adolescents' everyday lives. However, the sedentary behaviour of young people in Central Europe has become more similar to that found in Western European countries. This study can provide baseline data for a future comparison and investigation of lifestyle and health behaviours in this region in the future. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess country, age, and gender differences in the prevalence of sedentary behaviour activities and family-related factors among school-aged children. Methods: Using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study was performed in 2013, collecting data from 11- and 15-year-old Slovak (n = 488 and Czech (n = 418 children. The data was explored using c2 tests to determine statistical significance. Results: Two-thirds of the respondents watch television or use a computer for at least two hours a day. The older children (older vs. younger: 73.6% vs. 53.9%, c2 = 35.6, p < .001 spent excessive amounts of time watching television. More than half of the children have a television (51.9% or a computer (73.0% in their bedroom. More than half of their parents rarely or never apply rules about how long they can watch TV (63.9% or time spent on the computer (55.5%. The Slovak children reported watching television together with their parents every day significantly more frequently than their Czech peers (Slovak vs. Czech children 31.0% vs. 18.7%, c2 = 17.9, p < .001. Conclusions: The prevalence of screen-based behaviour is relatively high, as is screen time spent together with parents, especially among the Slovak children. Moreover, many children reported that their parents rarely or never applied rules about the length and content of their television watching or time spent on the computer.

  3. Children's School Placement in Germany: Does Kindergarten Attendance Matter? (United States)

    Spiess, C. Katharina; Buchel, Felix; Wagner, Gert G.


    Examined the relationship between kindergarten attendance and seventh-grade school placement of children in West Germany, differentiating associations for children of citizens from those of immigrants' children. Found a significant relationship between kindergarten attendance and later school placement for children in immigrant households but not…

  4. Perceptions of Elementary School Children's Parents Regarding Sexuality Education (United States)

    Fisher, Christine M.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Glassman, Tavis


    This study examined the preferences of parents of elementary school-aged children regarding when sexuality topics should be discussed in school and at home. The survey was mailed to a national random sample of parents of elementary school age children. Overall, 92% of parents believed that sexuality education should be taught in schools.…

  5. Children, Schools and Hallowe'en (United States)

    Plater, Mark


    This article explores the attitudes and experiences of key stage one and two children concerning the British autumn festival of Hallowe'en, and then compares the results with data on the attitudes and practices of British primary schools and their teachers towards the festival, showing that there is a discordance between the two. After outlining…

  6. Children Diagnosed with Cancer: Returning to School (United States)

    ... Cancer: Late Effects of Cancer Treatment . How your child’s cancer may affect schoolwork Most children adjust well to ... what to say when others ask about the cancer. Talk with your child about going back to school and about being ...

  7. Children's Need to Know: Curiosity in Schools (United States)

    Engel, Susan


    In this essay, Susan Engel argues that curiosity is both intrinsic to children's development and unfolds through social interactions. Thus, it should be cultivated in schools, even though it is often almost completely absent from classrooms. Calling on well-established research and more recent studies, Engel argues that interactions between…

  8. Families with school-age children. (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell


    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanika DIKIC


    Full Text Available The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation, the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.

  10. Social anxiety in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakyan, Tamara V.


    Full Text Available Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanage near the Moscow region, aged 10 to 16 years old. The control group comprised 66 students from a general school, aged 10 to 15 years old, and all living with their families. Differences were found in the parameters studied. The orphans were characterized by higher levels of social and general anxiety. On the one hand, they strove for the attention and approval of adults, but, on the other hand, they were more worried than their peers who lived with their families about the impression they made on others. They were afraid of receiving a negative evaluation.

  11. Study on the Impact of Vibration Training on 14 to 15 Years Old Young Long Jump Athletes%振动训练对14-15岁青少年跳远运动员运动成绩的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper uses documents and materials, expert interview, mathematical statistics method and some other scientific research methods, take twelve of Zhan Jiang 14 to 15 years old long jump athletes as the research object to discusses the vibration training on teenagers long jump athletes result influence. The research thinks that vibration training will mobilize the long jump athletes more even all movement unit to participate in the activities, improve the long jump athletes of the force at the core, can effectively improve participants' explosive force level, increase athletes muscle volume, improve muscle strength, so as to improve the performance of long jump athletes.%本文运用文献资料法、专家访谈法、数理统计法等科研方法,以湛江市体校12名14-15岁的跳远运动员为研究对象,探讨振动训练对青少年跳远运动员成绩的影响。研究认为:振动训练会动员跳远运动员更多甚至全部运动单位参加活动,提高跳远运动员的核心力量,能有效提高受试者的爆发力水平,增大运动员肌肉体积,提高肌肉力量,从而提高运动员的跳远成绩。

  12. Nocturnal enuresis among primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohamed Aljefri


    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and personal and family risk factors for nocturnal enuresis (NE among primary school children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered, three-part structured questionnaire involving 832 school children aged 6 - 15 years between 2007 and 2008. We assessed participants′ socio-demographic factors, family characteristics and factors related to the presence of NE. The mean age of the children was 11.5 (±2.7 years. The overall prevalence of NE was 28.6%, with a predominance of girls, and the prevalence decreased with increasing age (P 0.002 and a higher number of siblings (P = 0.01. Our findings reveal a high prevalence of NE among children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, with a higher prevalence in girls than in boys compared with the other studies. Sleep pattern, stressful life events, family history of NE, large family size and more children in the household may act as a risk factor for NE.

  13. Maternal Parenting Styles, School Involvement, and Children's School Achievement and Conduct in Singapore (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Yeo, Kim Lian


    This study examined the roles of children's perceptions of maternal parenting styles (warmth, psychological control, and behavioral control) and maternal involvement in school-focused parenting practices (home-based involvement, home-school conferencing, and school-based involvement) predicting children's school achievement and conduct in…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU


    Full Text Available The right to education is a fundamental right that should not be and can not be denied to any child regardless of his condition of normality or deviation from it. The historic route of educational policies regarding the children with disabilities experienced a positive evolution, from denying the possibility of attending a mainstream school, to current policies of integration and inclusion based on the idea of equal opportunities The rejection of what is considered atypical, unknown, strange, unusual, is the result of perpetuating stereotypes, prejudices regarding the disability, constituting signs of less advanced societies. Is the duty of society to accept children / people with disabilities as part of the reality that surrounds us, and try by all means not to turn a disable child into one normal child, but to normalize the conditions of his life, to give him the possibility to live the same social and school experiences that live any other typically child.

  15. Oral health related knowledge and health behavior of parents and school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Maja


    Full Text Available Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old. Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and nutrition of parents and their children were collected by questionnaires. The parental dental health was assessed according to self-reported data on tooth loss and prosthodontic rehabilitation, while the dental status of children was determined by clinical examination. Results. The parents reported the use of dental floss (p < 0.001 and mouth rinses (p<0.05 more often than their children and they had better knowledge on fluorides. Approximately one third of parents thought they should not control sugar consumption of their child. There was a statistically significant correlation between parental oral hygiene and their habit to control the child in brushing with the child’s oral health status. Conclusion. Oral health education activities directed towards the prevention of risk factors for developing caries should involve both parents and their children, because parental behavior is a significant predictor of children’s oral health.

  16. The Effectiveness of Smart Schooling on Students' Attitudes towards Science (United States)

    Ong, Eng-Tek; Ruthven, Kenneth


    This article reports the relative effect of Smart and Mainstream schooling on students' attitudes towards science which was measured using ATSSA(M)--the Malay version of the Germann's (1988) Attitudes Towards Science in School Assessment (ATSSA) instrument. The participants comprised 775 Form 3 (15-year-old) students from two Smart Schools and two…

  17. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children. (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  18. School Social Work with Grieving Children in the Twin Cities (United States)

    Quinn-Lee, Lisa


    A review of the literature reveals few articles that deal with social work with grieving children in the public school setting. The purpose of this research is to describe and analyze the services that school social workers provide to grieving children. Grieving children are defined as those who have experienced loss through death of someone…

  19. School Readiness and Children's Developmental Status. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas; And Others

    In order to provide data to help schools respond to the diversity in the backgrounds and educational needs of children entering school, a U.S. Department of Education study asked parents of 3- to 5-year-old children who had not yet started kindergarten about their children's accomplishments that indicated emerging literacy and numeracy skills and…

  20. Educational Specifications for Hope School for Exceptional Children and Youth. (United States)

    Jackson County Public Schools, Marianna, FL.

    A presentation of the Hope School's physical plant and program specifications is introduced with a listing of the specifications committee, a history of the school, the needs of the children served, and a philosophy of teaching mentally handicapped children. Areas discussed are school-wide specifications, the administrative complex, the diagnostic…

  1. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli


    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  2. Scientific Reasoning, School Achievement and Gender: A Multilevel Study of between and within School Effects in Finland (United States)

    Thuneberg, Helena; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Hotulainen, Risto


    The relationships between reasoning and school achievement were studied taking into account the multilevel nature (school- and class-levels) of the data. We gathered data from 51 classes at seven schools in metropolitan and Eastern Finland (N = 769, 395 males, 15-year-old students). To study scientific reasoning, we used a modified version of…

  3. Proprioceptive versus Visual Control in Autistic Children. (United States)

    Masterton, B. A.; Biederman, G. B.


    The autistic children's presumed preference for proximal over distal sensory input was studied by requiring that "autistic," retarded, and "normal" children (7-15 years old) adapt to lateral displacement of the visual field. Only autistic Ss demonstrated transfer of adaptation to the nonadapted hand, indicating reliance on proprioception rather…

  4. The Effectiveness of Smart Schooling in Terms of Student Achievement in Science: A Study of Malaysian Practice (United States)

    Ong, Eng-Tek; Ruthven, Kenneth


    This paper reports the relative effectiveness of Smart and Mainstream schooling in terms of student achievement in science. The participants comprised 770 secondary school Form 3 (15-year-old) students from two Smart Schools and two Mainstream Schools in Malaysia. Using students' Standardised National Examination (SNE) primary-school science…

  5. [Health-related quality of life and mental health of children and adolescents in Germany: results from the German HBSC Study 2006-2010]. (United States)

    Ravens-Sieberer, U; Ottova, V; Hillebrandt, D; Klasen, F


    With medical advances, acute -disease in childhood and adolescence could be substantially reduced, thus shifting the focus towards chronic and mental health problems. Currently there is a lack of studies on trends in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental well-being and their determinants in the context of children's and adolescents' environment (e. g., family, school). The aim of this paper is to describe the trend in HRQoL in children and adolescents from 2006 to 2010 and to analyse factors associated with HRQoL and mental well-being of children and adolescents.Results are based on the German sample (11-, 13- and 15-year-old school children) of the international WHO Study from the 2006 (n=6 896) and 2010 (n=4 723) surveys. HRQoL was assessed by means of KIDSCREEN-10. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a screening instrument for mental health problems, was used as an indicator of mental health. Logistic regressions were performed to analyse the effects of covariates on HRQoL as well as on mental health problems.HRQoL remained fairly stable between 2006 and 2010 for both boys and girls. Approximately 85% of the school children report a high or normal HRQoL, whereby girls indicate a lower HRQoL than boys. Overall, 14,3% of the pupils show signs of mental health problems. The model results show that poor communication with parents, spending little time with friends, lack of perceived support from classmates and a negative attitude towards school are negatively associated with mental health.The majority of children and adolescents report a high HRQoL over time. The fact that every 7th 11- to 15-year-old shows signs of mental health problems raises concern and suggests that addressing mental health problems needs to gain more priority in public health measures.

  6. When Do Children Read Books? (United States)

    van Ours, Jan C.


    This paper investigates the reading of fiction books by 15 year olds in 18 OECD countries. It appears that girls read fiction books more often than boys, whereas boys read comic books more often than girls. Parental education, family structure, and the number of books and televisions at home influence the intensity with which children read fiction…

  7. Oral health behaviours of children in England, Wales and Northern Ireland 2013. (United States)

    Porter, J; Ravaghi, V; Hill, K B; Watt, R G


    Background The 2013 Children's Dental Health Survey is the fifth in a series of national surveys.Aim To describe the oral health behaviours in children and adolescents in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.Method A representative sample of children (aged 5, 8 12 and 15 years) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were invited to participate in dental examinations. Children and parents were also invited to complete a questionnaire about oral health behaviours.Results Overall, the majority of children and young people reported good oral health behaviours. For example, more than three quarters of the 12- and 15-year-olds reported brushing their teeth twice a day or more often. However, a sizeable proportion of the sample reported less positive behaviours. Nearly 30% of 5-year-olds first started to brush their teeth after the age of one year. Among 15-year-olds, 11% were current smokers and 37% reported that they currently drank alcohol. Sixteen percent of 12-year-olds reported to consume drinks containing sugar four or more times a day. Of particular concern was the marked differences that existed by level of deprivation. Children living in lower income households (eligible for free school meals) were less likely to brush their teeth twice a day, more likely to start brushing after six months, more likely to be a smoker and more likely to consume frequent amounts of sugary drinks.Conclusion Despite some encouraging overall patterns of good oral health behaviours, a sizeable proportion of children and young people reported behaviours that may lead to poorer oral and general health. Preventive support should be delivered in clinical dental settings to encourage positive oral health behaviours. Public health strategies are also needed to reduce inequalities in oral health behaviours among children and young people.

  8. Health lifestyles of pre-school children in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Povlsen, Lene; Ringsberg, Karin C


    Holistic understanding of health is one of the key principles of health promotion indicating that the health status of individuals and populations is determined by a variety of environmental, economic, social and personal factors. Traditionally, research focus has been on school-aged children...... and school-based interventions and less on pre-school children and their families' engagement in promoting health in everyday life. The aim of the present study was to explore factors that parents of pre-school children in the Nordic countries experienced as influencing health lifestyles in their children......'s everyday lives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 parents of pre-school children in the five Nordic countries. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The parents identified themselves as the primary shapers of their children's lifestyles and described influencing factors...



    Basanta Kumar; Saubhagya Kumar; Shakthipriya; Anugya Aparajita; Soumya


    ABSTRACT: AIM: To assess the hygiene practices among rural school children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross - sectional study was conducted at Government higher secondary school in rural ar ea of Puducherry. METHODS AND MATERIAL : Around 214 children studying in standard 6 th to 8 th were randomly selected for the study during June to August 2011. The study was explained to the school children and their assent was taken before the study. They an...

  10. School Personnel Responses to Children Exposed to Violence (United States)

    Kenemore, Thomas; Lynch, John; Mann, Kimberly; Steinhaus, Patricia; Thompson, Theodore


    Authors explored the experiences of school personnel in their responses to children's exposure to violence. Thirty-one school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school social workers, and psychologists, were interviewed to obtain data on their experiences related to violence exposure in their schools and the surrounding…

  11. "Entre Familia": Immigrant Parents' Strategies for Involvement in Children's Schooling (United States)

    Poza, Luis; Brooks, Maneka Deanna; Valdés, Guadalupe


    Teachers and administrators in schools with large, working-class Latino populations often complain of parents' indifference or lack of involvement in children's schooling because of their low visibility at school events and relatively little face-to-face communication with teachers and school administration. In a series of semi-structured…

  12. Elementary school children's science learning from school field trips (United States)

    Glick, Marilyn Petty

    This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.

  13. Do You See What I See? School Perspectives of Deaf Children, Hearing Children and Their Parents (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Bull, Rebecca; Sapere, Patricia; Nordmann, Emily; Skene, Wendy; Lukomski, Jennifer; Lumsden, Sarah


    Perspectives on academic and social aspects of children's school experiences were obtained from deaf and hearing children and their (deaf or hearing) parents. Possible differences between (1) the views of children and their parents and (2) those of hearing children and their parents compared to deaf children and their parents were of particular…

  14. School lunch program for health promotion among children in Japan. (United States)

    Tanaka, Nobuko; Miyoshi, Miki


    In Japan, the present school lunch program has been implemented under the "School Lunch Act" enacted in 1954. The main purpose of the school lunch program is to promote healthy development of the minds and bodies of school children. Later, "The School Lunch Act" was revised in 2008 and its aim was changed to "promoting Shokuiku". As of May 2009, approximately 10 million school children participate in the school lunch program. This program itself is an educational activity. School children are responsible for serving lunch and clearing the dishes. They could also learn proper manners, by having meals together with classmates. Furthermore, understanding of balanced diet and food culture can be enhanced through learning the menu of each meal. Recently, as eating disorders and obesity increase among adults and school children, there is rising concern on development of lifestyle-related diseases. Under this circumstance, the Basic Law on Shokuiku was enacted in 2005. Besides, in order to enhance Shokuiku to school children, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology established the Diet and Nutrition Teacher System in April 2007. It is reported that, in those schools with Diet and Nutrition Teachers, a positive impact has been observed in terms of awareness and interest in diet among teachers and guardians. It is also reported that proportion of children skipping breakfast has decreased, and quality of life has been improved. In this way, the Japanese school lunch program system is essential for fostering healthy mind and bodies for the next generation.

  15. Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardinha Luis B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying leisure time activities performed before and after school that influence time in physical activity (PA and/or time spent sedentary can provide useful information when designing interventions aimed to promote an active lifestyle in young people. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between mode of transportation to school, outdoor play after school, participation in exercise in clubs, and TV viewing with objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviour in children. Methods A total of 1327 nine- and 15-year-old children from three European countries (Norway, Estonia, Portugal participated as part of the European Youth Heart Study. PA was measured during two weekdays and two weekend days using the MTI accelerometer, and average percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA and time spent sedentary were derived. Potential correlates were assessed by self-report. Independent associations between self-reported correlates with percent time in MVPA and percent time sedentary were analysed by general linear models, adjusted by age, gender, country, measurement period, monitored days and parental socio-economic status. Results In 9-year-olds, playing outdoors after school was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P Conclusion Frequency of outdoor play after school is a significant correlate for daily time in MVPA in 9-year-olds, while this correlate is attenuated in favour of participation in sport and exercise in clubs in 15-year-olds. Targeting walking to school or reduced TV viewing time in order to increase time in daily MVPA in children is unlikely to be sufficient. Correlates related to time spent sedentary need further examination.

  16. Effect of School System and Gender on Moral Values and Forgiveness in Pakistani School Children (United States)

    Javed, Anam; Kausar, Rukhsana; Khan, Nashi


    The present research was conducted to compare children studying in private and public schools in Pakistan on forgiveness and moral values. It was hypothesized that the type of school and gender of the child are likely to affect forgiveness and moral values in children. A sample of 100 children with equal number of girls and boys was recruited from…

  17. Starting School at a Disadvantage: The School Readiness of Poor Children. The Social Genome Project (United States)

    Isaacs, Julia B.


    Poor children in the United States start school at a disadvantage in terms of their early skills, behaviors, and health. Fewer than half (48 percent) of poor children are ready for school at age five, compared to 75 percent of children from families with moderate and high income, a 27 percentage point gap. This paper examines the reasons why poor…

  18. Attitudes to Mathematics in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Dowker


    Full Text Available 44 Grade 3 children and 45 Grade 5 children from English primary schools were given the British abilities scales basic number skills subtest, and a Mathematics Attitude and Anxiety Questionnaire, using pictorial rating scales to record their Self-rating for maths, Liking for maths, Anxiety about maths, and Unhappiness about poor performance in mathematics. There were few year group differences in attitudes. Boys rated themselves higher than girls, but did not differ significantly in actual performance. Overall, Anxiety was not related to actual performance, but Self-rating was. This relationship between Self-rating and actual performance seemed to develop between Grade 3 and Grade 5. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Bullying among school children: a case report. (United States)

    Benčić, Miro


    The case study shows an example of peer violence, a physical attack on a high school student. The attacker was a child his own age attending the same school. Immediately after the attack the victim visited his chosen family doctor accompanying by mother. After interviewing in calm and safe environment and physical examination he was referred to the hospital emergency, because of evident trauma. During the follow up, it was obvious that the patient is interested in talking about the event but is uncomfortable to do so in front of his mother. Having obtained the mother's permission the conversation was carried out alone and the patient revealed all the details regarding the assault as well as his own feelings. The case study contains a description of the incident, the basic information regarding types of abuse amongst children, information on how to approach a victim as well as the obligation to report every type of abuse.

  20. Dietary levels for Tri-City elementary school children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J.K.; Honstead, J.F.


    This program investigates dietary pathways affecting school-age children. Primarily elementary school children are approached with this study, including ages 6 through 12. A much smaller number of children aged 13 and 14 have also been contacted. The research includes measurements of the body burdens of radioactive materials in children and a study of the children's diets. This report presents a partial compilation of the dietary levels obtained for children of different ages. These data are tabulated here for reference purposes. 3 refs., 13 tabs.

  1. Voices of Children, Parents and Teachers: How Children Cope with Stress during School Transition (United States)

    Wong, Mun


    This study explores how children's perceptions of stress factors and coping strategies are constructed over time. Children were interviewed before and after they made the transition from preschool to primary school. This study also explores teachers' and parental strategies in helping children to cope with stress at school. The sample included 53…

  2. A Cross-National Study of Students' Attitudes toward School (United States)

    Lai, Shu-Ling; Stevens, Carla; Martinez, Jorge; Ye, Renmin


    Using an international educational database, PISA 2009, this study investigates and analyzes 15-year-old students' attitudes toward school in 11 Asia-Pacific units (country, city, or area). For each unit, the study demonstrates four types of students' attitudes toward school, compares male and female students, and examines the relationships of the…

  3. [Vulnerable children detected by the school health service: the forgotten?]. (United States)

    Noirhomme-Renard, F; Bullens, Q; Malchair, A; Gosset, C


    The current health needs of children largely exceeds the biomedical model. The school doctor occupies a special position where he can take into account the social determinants of health and identify vulneirable children. After the detection by the school health service, the harmonious development of, the child requires that health professionals cooperate in a "preventive network".

  4. Canadian Indian Children Who Had Never Attended School (United States)

    Wilson, Lolita


    This study was designed to compare the performance on selected intelligence tests of a group of Canadian Indian children who had never been to school with the performance of a similar group of children who were attending school regularly. (Author/RK)

  5. Senior Secondary School Children's Understanding of Plant Nutrition (United States)

    Mosothwane, Modise


    The purpose of this study was to assess children's understanding of plant nutrition. The research was done on a sample of secondary school pupils in the age range of 16 to 19 years in two senior secondary schools in Botswana. The sample contained 137 senior secondary pupils all in their final year of study. These children were above average…

  6. Children of Separation and Divorce: School Policies, Procedures, Problems. (United States)

    Drake, Ellen A.


    Approximately 20 percent of school children are members of families experiencing separation or divorce. This article clarifies 10 major issues affecting these children and provides guidelines for school administrators and teachers who must contend with their special needs. (Author/WD)

  7. Creativity, Emotional Intelligence, and School Performance in Children (United States)

    Hansenne, Michel; Legrand, Jessica


    Previous studies have shown that both creativity and emotional intelligence (EI) were related to children school performance. In this study, we investigated the incremental validity of EI over creativity in an elementary school setting. Seventy-three children aged from 9 to 12 years old were recruited to participate in the study. Verbal and…

  8. Relations between School Performance and Depressive Symptoms in Spanish Children (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Gomez, Marta; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.


    Introduction: Despite data showing the relationship between depression and decreased school performance, there is a lack of studies with Spanish children. The objective of this research is to examine school performance as a function of depression and gender. Method: Participants were 658 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years, 49.6% male,…

  9. Effects of Inequality, Family and School on Mathematics Achievement: Country and Student Differences (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming


    Inequality, family and school characteristics were linked to student achievement as shown by multi-level analyses of 107,975 15 year olds' mathematics tests and questionnaires in 41 countries. Equal distribution of country and school resources were linked to higher mathematics scores. Students scored higher in families or schools with more…

  10. Dimensions of Adolescent Subjective Social Status within the School Community: Description and Correlates (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Young, Robert; Kelly, Shona


    School pupils strive to meet both school-defined and social goals, and the structure of adolescent self-concept is multidimensional, including both academic and non-academic self-perceptions. However, subjective social status within the school community has been represented as a single dimension. Scottish 15-year olds participating in a…

  11. China Earthquake Relief: Participatory Action Work with Children (United States)

    Zeng, Emily Jie; Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux


    This article presents a community-focused participatory action project designed to promote children's resilience in the early aftermath of the cataclysmic May 2008 Earthquake in Beichuan, China. Thirty children aged 7- to 15-years-old participated in the project. The project encompassed four phases that evolved from adult-directed/initiated…

  12. Diverse Family Types and Out-of-School Learning Time of Young School-Age Children (United States)

    Ono, Hiromi; Sanders, James


    Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological…

  13. Does a smoking prevention program in elementary schools prepare children for secondary school?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, M.R.; Spruijt, R.; Dijkstra, N.S.; Willemsen, M.C.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.


    A smoking prevention program was developed to prepare children in elementary school for secondary school. This study assessed the effects on smoking in secondary school. Methods: In 2002, 121 schools in The Netherlands were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention gro

  14. [Mobbing and violence at school. Trends from 2002 to 2010]. (United States)

    Melzer, W; Oertel, L; Ottova, V


    The purpose of this study was to undertake an assessment and differentiated examination of the development of bullying and violence in schools between 2002 and 2010 in Germany.We examined the national German data of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in 2002, 2006 and 2010. A paper-pencil questionnaire was distributed to a representative sample (N=17 929) of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old school children. The evaluation of the data was done by descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses, controlled by age, gender, family affluence, school type and survey year.A clear positive trend could be identified: from 2002 to 2010 the number of bullies and bully victims decreased whereas the group of the uninvolved pupils increased. There was a delay in this trend for children with low family affluence.The obvious success in the prevention of violence is shown by the decreasing rate of bullies. The paper discusses whether future prevention should focus more on victims and children with educationally deprived background.

  15. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children


    Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Jennette P. Moreno; O’Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O; Baranowski, Janice; Woehler, Deborah; Kimbro, Rachel T.; Johnston, Craig A.


    Background Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. Methods This is a secondary analysis of 1651 elementary school children with complete biannual longitudinal data from kindergarten to the beginning of 5th grade. Heights and weights were ...

  16. Day/Night Cycle: Mental Models of Primary School Children (United States)

    Chiras, Andreas


    The study investigated the mental models of primary school children related to the day/night cycle. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade children. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data indicated that the majority of the children were classified as having geocentric models. The results also…

  17. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian


    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  18. Elementary School Children's Perception of Helpers and Their Characteristics (United States)

    Bachman, Randall W.


    Data suggest that family members, especially mothers, are primary sources of help for elementary school children who want to discuss problems. This is more true with younger children than with older ones. Moreover, children consider warmth, trust and understanding as the main characteristics of helping persons. (Author/SE)

  19. Passive cigarette smoke exposure in primary school children in Liverpool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Delpisheh; Y. Kelly; B.J. Brabin


    Objective: To assess environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure amongst primary school children. Methods: A descriptive, community-based, cross-sectional study of self-reported parental smoking patterns and children's salivary cotinine concentrations in 245 children aged 5-11 years attending 10 prim

  20. Teaching Young Children How to Sing: One School's Experience (United States)

    Kenney, Susan


    In many schools, classroom teachers are responsible for the music experiences of young children. Children may learn songs, but may not learn "how" to sing. This article outlines simple teaching strategies to help young children develop listening and vocal habits leading to beautiful singing. The article discusses how the kindergarten classes at…

  1. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD (United States)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove


    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  2. Sick Schools 2009: America's Continuing Environmental Health Crisis for Children (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2010


    Everybody knows that healthy school buildings contribute to student learning, reduce health and operating costs, and ultimately, increase school quality and competitiveness. However, 55 million of the nation's children attend public and private K-12 schools where poor air quality, hazardous chemicals and other unhealthy conditions make students…

  3. Diagnostics of children's school readiness in scientific studies abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko V.V.


    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of children's school readiness as it is represented in contemporary studies of foreign scholars. It displays a variety of approaches to estimation of school readiness as well as the ways of measuring the levels of child development as relating to school readiness, namely those of them which are in common practice in education.





    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  5. Can Schools Promote the Health of Children with Asthma? (United States)

    McWhirter, Jenny; McCann, Donna; Coleman, Helen; Calvert, Marguerite; Warner, John


    This report describes the evaluation of a whole-school intervention to improve morbidity and psychosocial well-being in pupils with asthma. In all, 193 children with asthma (7-9 years) from 23 primary/junior schools in the south of England participated. Schools (n = 12) randomly assigned to the intervention group (IV) received a staff asthma…

  6. Determinants of Children's Schooling: The Case of Tigray Region, Ethiopia (United States)

    Abafita, Jemal; Kim, Chang-Soo


    We analyze the determinants of educational outcomes of primary school children in Tigray region of Ethiopia using a survey data gathered from four villages in 2013. Four different measures of schooling were used to examine the impact of household and child-specific factors. First, we examine the determinants of school attendance (ever-attendance,…

  7. Can Future Uncertainty Keep Children Out of School?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    There is little doubt in the literature, that poverty and liquidity constraints can drive children out of school and into child labour in developing countries. But are there other important explanations for low primary school enrolment rates? The child labour and schooling literature often ignore...

  8. Backpack palsy: A rare complication of backpack use in children and young adults - A new case report. (United States)

    Rose, Katy; Davies, Anne; Pitt, Matthew; Ratnasinghe, Didi; D'Argenzio, Luigi


    Backpack palsy is a well-recognised, albeit rare, complication of carrying backpacks. Although it has been mostly described in cadets during strenuous training, sporadic cases of brachial nerve impairment have been reported in children and young adults. Here we reported the case of a 15-year-old girl who presented with a left-side brachial palsy with axonal denervation of C5C7 motor roots following a school challenge for the Duke of Edinburgh Award. Her symptoms began soon after starting the challenge and included weakness of shoulder abduction and elevation, as well as forearm, wrist and fingers extension. After 6 months of physiotherapy her motor function was completely restored. Backpack palsy can sometimes present in children and young adults. This disorder should be taken in consideration when planning for daily, as well as more challenging, physical activities in these age groups.

  9. Kwaliteit van leven bij kinderen met sikkelcelziekte in de regio Amsterdam [Quality of life of children with sickle cell disease in the Amsterdam area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, A.P.; Heijboer, H.; Peters, M.; Vogels, T.; Prins, M.H.; Heymans, H.S.A.


    Objective. To determine the differences in quality of life between children with sickle cell disease and healthy immigrant children. Design. Descriptive, comparative. Method. The quality of life of children with sickle cell disease between 5 and 15 years old being treated in the Emma Children's Hosp

  10. School environment, socioeconomic status and weight of children in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia N.M. Meko


    Full Text Available Background: The continued existence of undernutrition, associated with a steady increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, necessitates identification of factors contributing to this double burden of disease, in order for effective treatment and prevention programmes to be planned.Aim: To determine the nutritional status of 13–15-year-old children in Bloemfontein and its association with socioeconomic factors.Setting: Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa (2006.Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Randomly selected children (n = 415 completed structured questionnaires on socioeconomic status. The children’s weight and height were measured and body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores were computed according to World Health Organization growth standards in order to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and stunting. Waist circumference was measured to classify the children as having a high or very high risk for metabolic disease.Results: Of the 415 children who consented to participate in the study, 14.9% were wasted and 3.4% were severely wasted. Only 6% of the children were overweight/obese. Significantly more boys (23.0% were wasted than girls (10% and severe stunting was also significantly higher in boys than in girls (10.3% and 4.2%, respectively. Children whose parents had graduate occupations were significantly more overweight/obese than those with parents working in skilled occupations. Stunting was significantly higher in low (31.4% and medium (30.4% socioeconomic groups compared to the high socioeconomic group (18.1%.Conclusion: A coexistence of underweight and overweight was found and gender and parental occupation were identified as being predictors of nutritional status.

  11. Turkish children's Bender-Gestalt test performance: differences in public and private school children. (United States)

    Ozer, Serap


    The present study was undertaken to provide data on the Bender-Gestalt test for children aged 5 to 11 in Turkey. Although it is well documented that sociocultural factors are important in cognitive evaluations, the effects of type of school and differing educational opportunities provided by these schools on the Bender-Gestalt test have not been previously investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of age, sex, and school type on Bender-Gestalt performance. The test was individually administered to 484 children between the ages of 5 and 11 years. The children were enrolled in either public or private schools. Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System was utilized. The results indicated that older children performed with fewer errors. Girls performed with fewer errors than boys. Finally, as expected, private school children outperformed their public school peers. The results are discussed with respect to the importance of taking into account various educational factors in utilizing commonly used tests.

  12. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    Background In 2011 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that more than 40 million children under the age of five were overweight and ten per cent of the world’s school aged children are estimated to carry excess body fat. Childhood obesity is associated with a number of immediate...... and youth and plays an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity and related morbidities. Schools are recognized as potentially effective settings for public health initiatives, as they access a large population of children and youth across a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups......-school to 6th grade) on health related outcomes in children. The objectives are: 1.To describe the Svendborg Project and the CHAMPS study-DK (paper I). 2.To evaluate the effect of four extra PE lessons per week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8 to 13 (paper II). 3.To...

  13. Analysis of the mismatch between school furniture and children


    Gonçalves, Maria Antónia; Arezes, Pedro


    The characteristics of school furniture are strongly associated with back and neck pain, referred by school-aged children. In Portugal, about 60% of the adolescents involved in a recent study reported having felt back pain at least once in the last three months. The aim of this study was to compare furniture sizes of the 2 types indicated for primary schools, within 9 schools, with the anthropometric characteristics of Portuguese students, in order to ...

  14. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children (United States)

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula


    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Damayanthi


    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Food habit strongly predicts individual nutritional status. It is largely influenced by family food habit and family socioeconomic, partly by nutrition education learning in the school.  Objectives of this study were to analyze elementary school children eating habit and examine whether it relates to family socioeconomic and nutritional status. One hundred elementary school children, and their mother, from one school in urban Bogor were chosen purposively according to SIBERMAS Program criteria (i.e. grade 4th and 5th, morning school, having UKS program and not having canteen. Self administered, structured pre-coded questionnaire were used to collect the data. Nutritional status was assessed using weight and height, and body mass index for age (BAZ and height for age (HAZ were then calculated using AnthroPlus software developed by WHO (2009. School children were 8-11 years old (mean 9.37 + 0.66 years, more girls (54%, and mostly had normal nutritional status using both indexes (72% for BAZ and 95% for HAZ. School children were commonly from middle class as indicated by father education (sarjana and mother (senior high school.  Almost all school children (99% knew breakfast was important and 81% of them ate breakfast. Only 32% school children brought lunch box everyday although 92% stated their habit to bring lunch box to school. Buying snack in school was also common among school children. Generally school children ate rice 3 times a day (2.95 + 0.97 with fish, meat, chicken (2.47 + 1.14, tempe and

  16. School Reintegration for Children and Adolescents with Cancer: The Role of School Psychologists (United States)

    Harris, Mekel S.


    As a result of advancements in medical expertise and technology, children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer now have opportunities to participate in many typical activities, including school. To some extent, school reintegration reflects positive adjustment to their illness. Nevertheless, children and adolescents with cancer may experience…

  17. Hypothesis: Impregnated school uniforms reduce the incidence of dengue infections in school children. (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, A; Lover, A; Kittayapong, P; Burnham, G


    Dengue infection causes a significant economic, social and medical burden in affected populations in over 100 countries in the tropics and sub-tropics. Current dengue control efforts have generally focused on vector control but have not shown major impact. School-aged children are especially vulnerable to infection, due to sustained human-vector-human transmission in the close proximity environments of schools. Infection in children has a higher rate of complications, including dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndromes, than infections in adults. There is an urgent need for integrated and complementary population-based strategies to protect vulnerable children. We hypothesize that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue in school-aged children. The hypothesis would need to be tested in a community based randomized trial. If proven to be true, insecticide-treated school uniforms would be a cost-effective and scalable community based strategy to reduce the burden of dengue in children.

  18. Overweight and School: Are There Any Perceived Achievement Consequences of Overweight Among American Youth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Ding


    Full Text Available In an effort to address the issue of overweight among youth, there is a growing body of research concerning the procurement food, the consequences of ingesting it and knowledge of the cultural cuisine rules (such as American cuisine may include hot dogs, hamburgers, fries and apple pie. However, there are few studies that examine the relationships between overweight and academic performance among adolescents. Based on the data collected by the World Health Organization in 1998, this study analyzed the relationships between overweight and student perceived academic performance for 15,686 children who were 10 to 15 years old. The results indicated that reported overweight was not statistically significantly related to perceived academic performance for these adolescents, while controlling for parental education level, gender, age, ethnicity, body image and other school-related variables. However, adolescents who were overweight were more likely to report that students were less friendly than those who were not overweight.

  19. Use of the Leiter International Performance Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised with Hearing-Impaired Children. (United States)

    Ulissi, Stephen Mark; Gibbins, Spencer


    Educational records of 40 hearing-impaired children (3-15 years old) given both the Leiter International Performance Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Performance Scale, were reviewed. The Leiter had a standard deviation significantly greater than that reported in the examiner's manual. Care is suggested when…

  20. No More Bullying: An Analysis of Primary School Children's Drawings of School Bullying (United States)

    Slee, Phillip T.; Skrzypiec, Grace


    Bullying in schools is an international problem impacting negatively on children's well-being. Children's drawings can provide an insight into their emotional states. There is little published literature that uses children's drawings to gain better understandings of the nature and impact of bullying. We report two studies using indicators of…

  1. Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Predictors of Middle School Children's After-School Physical Activity Participation (United States)

    King, Kristi M.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Brown, Stephen L.; Partridge, Julie A.


    Children's participation in after-school physical activity can attenuate the overweight and obesity rates among rural, low socioeconomic status (SES) children. Children's individual determination, as well as social and environmental factors, can influence their behaviors. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to determine if a difference…

  2. School Satisfaction of Elementary School Children : The Role of Performance, Peer Relations, Ethnicity and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem


    The present study examines school satisfaction among 1,090 Dutch and ethnic minority children aged between ten and twelve in relation to their school context. Data were gathered in 51 classes from 26 schools. Individual and classroom variables were examined simultaneously, using multilevel analysis.

  3. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice (United States)

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.


    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  4. Families, Schools, and Children's School Achievement: A Study Based on Rural Regions in China Gansu Province (United States)

    Zhijun, Sun; Zeyun, Liu; Baicai, Sun


    This paper focuses on the impact of school factors on student achievement due to differences in family backgrounds. Based on the principle of diminishing effects of school investment in children's achievement, this study built a model that includes individual characteristics, family characteristics, and school characteristics. Family and school…

  5. Nasal nitric oxide levels in healthy pre-school children. (United States)

    Piacentini, G L; Bodini, A; Peroni, D G; Sandri, M; Brunelli, M; Pigozzi, R; Boner, A L


    The evaluation of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) has been proposed as a screening tool in children with clinically suspectable primary ciliary dyskinesia. Nevertheless, normal values have been reported for school-aged children. This study was designed to identify normal nNO levels in pre-school children. nNO was assessed in 300 healthy children aged between 1.5 and 7.2. Two hundred and fifty of them were unable to fulfill the guideline requirements for nNO measurement and were assessed by sampling the nasal air continuously with a constant trans-nasal aspiration flow for 30 s during tidal breathing. For those children who were able to cooperate, the average nNO concentration was calculated according to guidelines. A statistically significant relationship between nNO level and age was demonstrated in this study group of pre-school children (p < 0.001). An increase in nNO of about 100 ppb was observed in children older than 6 yr vs. those aged < 3. This study presents a description of normal nNO values in pre-school children. The effect of the age and the eventual presence of rhinitis and snoring need to be considered whenever nNO is evaluated in the clinical practice, in particular in non-cooperative children.

  6. Health Assessment of School Children II -- Screening Tests (United States)

    Eisner, Victor; Oglesby, Allan


    The article concludes that adequate screening, and the use of expensive diagnostic procedures (such as medical referral) only for children who have failed a screening test, will result in the most effective use of school health time and funds. (Author)

  7. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children (United States)

    McGovern, John P.


    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  8. Children stories about primary schools: sceneries and (autobiographic research challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Passeggi


    Full Text Available This study deals with 4-10 year-old children stories and analyses how they portrait their experiences at school. It is the outcome of an inter-institutional research project performed at schools in Natal, São Paulo, Recife, Niterói and Boa Vista. To collect data, we opted for conversations of children in groups of five, who would share a conversation with a little alien whose planet lacked schools. The analyses revealed consensus and tensions between scholar cultu - re and childhood cultures, which affect the way children play and learn, make friends or not, remain children or not. When narrating, the child redefines his/her experience and contributes to seize the primary school as a place where he/she becomes (or not a citizen.

  9. Who's in charge of children's environmental health at school? (United States)

    Paulson, Jerome; Barnett, Claire


    Children spend many hours each week in and around school buildings. Their short- and long-term health outcomes and ability to learn are affected by numerous environmental factors related to the school buildings, the school grounds, the school transportation system, and the use of various products and materials in and around the school. Many school buildings are old, and they-and even newer buildings-can contain multiple environmental health hazards. While some districts self-report they have environmental health policies in place, no independent verification of these policies or their quality exists. Teachers and other staff, but not children who are more vulnerable to hazards than adults, are afforded some protections from hazards by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations, by their employment contracts, or through adult occupational health services. Major environmental problems include: indoor air quality, lighting, pests and pesticides, heavy metals and chemical management issues, renovation of occupied buildings, noise, and cleaning processes and products. No agency at the federal or state levels is charged with ensuring children's health and safety in and around school buildings. No systematic means exists for collecting data about exposures which occur in the school setting. Recommendations are made for dealing with issues of data collection, federal actions, state and local actions, and for building the capacity of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-designated and funded Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units (PEHSU) in responding to and evaluating risks to children's environmental health in schools.

  10. Prevalence of pertussis and serum Bordetella pertussis antibody level among 1-15 years old children in Shenzhen city ,2009-2013%深圳市百日咳流行特征及1~15岁人群抗体水平调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 了解深圳市百日咳流行特征和疫情发生影响因素,检测1~15岁人群百日咳血清抗体水平,评价免疫效果并为免疫程序提供科学依据.方法 通过国家疾病监测信息报告管理系统收集深圳市2009-2013年百日咳病例资料,分析深圳市百日咳流行特征,用ELISA检测方法检测1~15岁人群百日咳血清抗体水平,采用病例对照研究方法分析百日咳影响因素.结果 深圳市2009-2013年共报告百日咳163例,年平均发病率为0.32/10万,发病高峰在7-8月,发病人群主要集中在5月龄以内,占全部发病85.27%;监测256人,百日咳抗体阳性率为38.30%,不同年龄百日咳抗体水平差异无统计学意义(x2=4.737,P>0.05).接触史、住房面积和家庭收入是影响发病的主要因素.结论 深圳百日咳以婴幼儿发病为主;不同年龄组百日咳血清抗体保护率呈上升趋势;接触是百日咳发病的重要危险因素.

  11. Detection of Specific Antibody against Bordetella Pertussis in 0-15 Year Old Healthy Children and the Puerpera%0~15岁健康人群及产妇血清百日咳抗体水平的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



  12. 2006-2010年河北省儿童格林-巴利综合征流行病学特征分析%Epidemiological Survey of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children Under 15 Years Old in Hebei, 2006-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 张俊棉; 张振国; 张富斌; 郭玉; 赵娜; 崔志强; 陈玫; 李琦


    目的 了解河北省15岁以下儿童格林-巴利综合征(Guillain-Barre Syndrome,GBS)的流行病学特征及可能的危险因素.方法 对河北省2006-2010年15岁以下儿童的GBS病例进行个案调查,并对其发病情况进行描述性分析.结果 2006-2010年河北省报告15岁以下GBS病例559例,年平均发病率0.92/10万.病例分布全省11个市,以散发为主.发病时间以6、7、8月份为主;≤3岁儿童发病占40.1%;男女性别比为1.70∶1.麻痹前有39.4%病例曾出现发热;实验室从采集粪便标本的556例病例当中分离到73株肠道病毒.结论 河北省2006-2010年GBS发病在区域上呈散发状态,季节呈现夏秋季高发特点.

  13. 湘西地区农村7-15岁儿童体重指数、血压及其相关性研究%BMI, Blood Pressure and their Association among Children of 7-15 Years Old in Rural Areas of Xiangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小仙; 宋薇; 杨启鑫; 高劝; 蒲泉州; 舒莎


    目的:探讨湘西地区农村7-15岁儿童体重指数、血压及其相关性.方法:随机抽取湘西地区怀化市,吉首市,张家界市农村地区,于2011年1月到3月对7-15岁儿童进行调查.我们采用问卷调查法和体格检查法收集资料,采用中国肥胖问题工作组(WGOC)推荐的”中国学龄儿童青少年超重、肥胖筛查体重指数值分类标准”.高血压诊断采用文献中国儿童青少年血压参照标准评价肥胖和高血压.结果:1755名7-15岁儿童中,男性938人、占53.4%,女性817人占46.6%.男性BMI正常组838人、超重组7人和肥胖组30人,SBP分别为101.1± 23.5 mmHg、103.9± 12.0 mmHg、106.9±8.8 mmHg,DBP分别为66.7± 9.0 mmHg、69.8± 7.4 mmHg、71.7± 9.1 mmHg.女性BMI正常组768人、超重组43人和肥胖组17人;SBP分别为101.3士35.1 mmHg、104.5± 18.0 mmHg、109.1±9.8 mmHg,差异显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05),DBP分别为66.21±8.1 mmHg、71.1± 8.8 mmHg、72.0±7.9 mmHg,差异显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05).制年龄和性别后,BMI与收缩压(SBP)和舒张压(DBP)成独立正相关关系(P<0.05);BMI正常组、超重组和肥胖组的高SBP发生率分别是1.3%、7.1%和15.2%,高DBP发生率分别是4.5%、9.2%和17.4%,高SBP发生率分别是5.3%、13.3%和32.6%,差异显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:儿童BMI与SBP和DBP密切相关,儿童超重和肥胖增加高血压的发生风险,且高血压发生率随肥胖程度的增加呈现成倍上升趋势.%Objective:Microscrew implant anchorage had been developed in recent years. It had many advantages, including small trauma, simple operation, low cost. And it could provide stable bony anchorage and reliable anchorage effect. The operation could be flexible and have little dependence of patients' cooperation. This review summarized the clinical research situation of microscrew implant anchorage.

  14. Prevalence and influential factors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children aged 5~15 years old in Zhabei District in Shanghai%上海市闸北区5~15岁儿童注意缺陷多动障碍患病率及其影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文岚; 阿依努尔·吾买尔; 杜亚松; 钟向阳; David Coghill


    目的 了解上海市闸北区5~15岁儿童注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)的患病率特征及其影响因素.方法 采用一般情况调查表和注意缺陷及多动症状调查表对上海市闸北区5~15岁儿童进行整群-分层抽样调查.共回收有效问卷9 900份,以美国精神障碍诊断和统计手册第4版ADHD的诊断标准对可疑患儿及其家长进行诊断性访谈,将ADHD患者分为注意缺陷为主型(ADHD-I)、多动-冲动为主型(ADHD-HI)和混合型(ADHD-C),并分析ADHD的影响因素.结果 ADHD患病率为4.6%,其中ADHD-I型为2.4%,ADHD-HI型为0.4%,ADHD-C型为1.8%.男童患病率为6.6%,女童患病率为2.7%,男女患病率之比为2.41 :1.各年龄组ADHD各型的患病率存在差异,7~10岁组患病率最高(6.3%).外地户籍儿童的患病率高于本市户籍儿童患病率.父母间的不同文化程度和人均月收入水平比较,其儿童的ADHD患病率差异有统计学意义.儿童月龄、性别及母亲低文化程度(初中及以下)是ADHD患病的影响因素.结论 ADHD-I型发病率高,7~10岁组患病率最高,儿童月龄、性别及母亲低文化程度影响ADHD患病率.

  15. Prevalence of intolerance to food additives among Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, C.; Saval, P.


    The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg......, Denmark. The children in the study group followed an elimination diet for two weeks before they were challenged with a mixture of food preservatives, colourings and flavours. The challenge was open and the additives were prepared as a fizzy lemonade. If the open challenge was positive, a double...... clinics, the prevalence of intolerance to food additives in school children is estimated to be 1-2%....

  16. Re-Visit to the School Nurse and Adolescents' Medicine Use (United States)

    Borup, Ina K.; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjorn E.


    Objective: To examine if students who re-visit the school nurse use medicines differently than other students when exposed to aches and psychological problems. Methods: The study includes all 11-, 13- and 15-year-old students from a random sample of schools in Denmark, response rate 87 per cent, n = 5,205. The data collection followed the…

  17. Keeping on: How ALP Brings Disaffected Youth Back to School in Liberia (United States)

    von Hahmann, Gail; Tengbeh, Josephine F. D.


    Moses is entering 7th grade this semester. He is a graduate of the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP), a Liberian government initiative to assist over-age students to complete six grades of primary school in three years. He has all the interests of a typical 15-year old--fixing generators, playing football, earning money to buy a school uniform.…

  18. If It's about Me, Why Do It without Me? Genuine Student Engagement in School Cyberbullying Education (United States)

    Cross, Donna; Lester, Leanne; Barnes, Amy; Cardoso, Patricia; Hadwen, Kate


    This study reports on a three-year group randomized controlled trial, the Cyber Friendly Schools Project (CFSP), aimed to reduce cyberbullying among grade 8 students during 2010-2012. In each year, 14-15 year old student "cyber" leaders acted as catalysts to develop and implement whole-school activities to reduce cyberbullying-related…

  19. Students’ sense of belonging at school in 41 countries: cross-cultural variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Chiu; B.W.Y. Chow; C. McBride; S.T. Mol


    This study examined whether students’ sense of belonging at school (SOBAS) differed across attributes of countries, families, schools, teachers, or students. Multilevel analyses of survey and test data from 193,073 15-year-old students in 41 countries yielded four main findings. First, students in m

  20. School Effects, Gender and Socioeconomic Differences in Reading Performance: A Multilevel Analysis (United States)

    Shera, Perparim


    The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics of Albanian secondary schools, which are associated with reading achievement and the effects of gender and socio-economic status on reading performance of 15-year-old students. This study used data on the background and achievement of 4,596 students in 181 Albanian schools from the 2009…

  1. Prevalence of Malocclusion Among School Children in Bangalore, India



    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusion among school children of Bangalore city, India during their mixed dentition period. The sample consisted of 745 children (388 males and 357 females) in the age group of 8-12 years randomly selected from twelve different schools in Bangalore city. The subjects were randomly selected, and none had received previous orthodontic treatment. Occlusal anteroposterior relationships were assessed based on the Angle classificat...

  2. Anemia among Primary School Children in Eastern Ethiopia


    Firehiwot Mesfin; Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku


    Background Anemia during childhood impairs physical growth, cognitive development and school performance. Identifying the causes of anemia in specific contexts can help efforts to prevent negative consequences of anemia among children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and identify correlates of anemia among school children in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2012 in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included ran...

  3. Perceived Neighborhood Safety and Adolescent School Functioning


    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert


    This study examined the association between adolescents’ perceptions of their neighborhoods’ safety and multiple elements of their functioning in school with data on 15 year olds from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 924). In general, perceived neighborhood safety was more strongly associated with aspects of schooling that were more psychosocial in nature (e.g., school attachment) than those that were more cognitive (e.g., test scores). Examination of neighborhoo...

  4. A Factor Analysis Study of Intellectual Development in Deaf and Hearing Children. (United States)

    Zweibel, Abraham; Mertens, Donna M.

    The Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test (SON) was administered to 251 deaf children (6-15 years old) and 101 hearing children (10-12 years old) in Israel. The SON was judged appropriate for measuring cognitive functioning in the deaf because it requires no verbal instructions or responses and includes a measure of abstract thinking ability.…

  5. Treating Sexually Abused Children: 1 Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    Cohen, J.A.; Mannarino, A.P.; Knudsen, K.


    Objective:: To measure the durability of improvement in response to two alternative treatments for sexually abused children. Method:: Eighty-two sexually abused children ages 8-15 years old and their primary caretakers were randomly assigned to trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) or non-directive supportive therapy (NST) delivered…

  6. Perception-Action and Adaptation in Postural Control of Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy (United States)

    Barela, Jose A.; Focks, Grietje M. Jaspers; Hilgeholt, Toke; Barela, Ana M. F.; Carvalho, Raquel de P.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.


    The aim of this study was to examine the coupling between visual information and body sway and the adaptation in this coupling of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifteen children with and 15 without CP, 6-15 years old, were required to stand upright inside of a moving room. All children first performed two trials with no movement of the room…

  7. Breakfast-skipping in children and young adolescents in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, E.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Spee-Wekke, A. van der; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.


    Background: The objective of this study was to provide national figures on the prevalence of breakfast-skipping and the association with sociodemographic variables in 4-15 year old children. Methods: Data of 4,377 children were collected. A food questionnaire (24 h recall) was completed by the paren


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert


    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  9. Overweight and school performance among primary school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study. (United States)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C E; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriëtte A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H


    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,159 12-year-old children who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used. Two indicators of school performance were parental reported when children were 12 years of age and included (i): the score on a standardized achievement test that Dutch children have to complete at the end of their primary education (Cito)-test and (ii): the teacher's advice regarding a child's potential performance level in secondary education. Children's height and weight were measured by a trained research assistant at the age of 8 and by their parents at the age of 12. Overweight was defined using age and gender specific cut-off points. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between overweight and school performance. Besides, both confounder and mediation analyses were conducted. Results showed lower Cito-test scores and lower teacher's school-level advice among overweight children. These associations were no longer significant when adjusting for parental educational level, skipping breakfast, and screen time. This study found no independent association between overweight and school performance among primary school children. Results showed strong confounding by parental educational level.

  10. Too Cool for School?: Gifted Children and Homeschooling (United States)

    Winstanley, Carrie


    Homeschooling can be a last resort for frustrated families where gifted children are not having their complex needs met through mainstream schooling. Unlike many other groups of homeschoolers, parents of highly able children take this option for pragmatic reasons rather than as a kind of moral stance. This article explores some of the ways that…

  11. Education, Schooling, and Children's Rights: The Complexity of Homeschooling (United States)

    Kunzman, Robert


    By blurring the distinction between formal school and education writ large, homeschooling both highlights and complicates the tensions among the interests of parents, children, and the state. In this essay, Robert Kunzman argues for a modest version of children's educational rights, at least in a legal sense that the state has the duty and…

  12. Say the Word Islam: School Counselors and Muslim Children (United States)

    Saleem, Daa'iyah; Rasheed, Sakinah


    Two Muslim women who hold Ph.D.'s, a clinical and developmental psychologist and a teacher educator speak personally and professionally about important information school counselors need to know about Islam and providing services to Muslim children. First, the authors draw from personal experiences in parenting Muslim children who have come of age…

  13. Developing Children's Language Learner Strategies at Primary School (United States)

    Kirsch, Claudine


    This article discusses the strategy repertoires and strategy development of six English children who learned foreign languages at primary school. My study differs from mainstream research, in that it focuses on young children and on the development of their strategies, draws on sociocultural theory and uses ethnographic methods. My findings show…

  14. Epidemiological Study of Mental Health Problems among Handicapped School Children. (United States)

    Bahadur Singh, Tej


    Indian teachers rating the prevalence of psychiatric problems in 79 school children with visual handicaps, 91 with hearing handicaps, and 105 nonhandicapped identified a higher prevalence than did psychiatrists. Although similar percentages of children in the 3 groups were diagnosed as having psychiatric problems, the types of problems experienced…

  15. Emergent Technological Literacy: What Do Children Bring to School? (United States)

    Mawson, W. B.


    There has been very little research into children's technological practice in early childhood settings. This article describes four typical examples of the technological activity that occurs on a daily basis in New Zealand early childhood settings. It is suggested that children come to compulsory schooling with well-developed technological…

  16. Civic and Patriotic Education of Pre-School Children (United States)

    Mokeyeva, Ekaterina V.; Andreeva, Irina N.


    The urgency of the current research devoted to civic and patriotic education of pre-school children is determined by the contradiction between the necessity of civic-patriotic education of children in the current context, their readiness to defend their Motherland and the lack of the development of this issue both in pedagogical theory and…

  17. An Investigation of School Violence through Turkish Children's Drawings (United States)

    Yurtal, Filiz; Artut, Kazim


    This study investigates Turkish children's perception of violence in school as represented through drawings and narratives. In all, 66 students (12 to 13 years old) from the middle socioeconomic class participated. To elicit children's perception of violence, they were asked to draw a picture of a violent incident they had heard, experienced, or…

  18. Children's Diurnal Cortisol Activity during the First Year of School (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte


    The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…

  19. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  20. Recapturing Hope: Elementary School Support Groups for Children of Alcoholics. (United States)

    O'Rourke, Kathy


    Considers the usefulness of elementary school support groups for children of alcoholics. Discusses identification of young children of alcoholics and offers suggestions for establishing support groups. Examines techniques for exploring feelings, building self-esteem, developing coping skills, managing stress, rehearsing decision making, and…

  1. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon


    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  2. Life style and behavior of school children without parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvrgić Svetlana T.


    Full Text Available Indroduction Life style (behavior is one of the most significant factors affecting health. Although a number of factors participate in creating behavior, family is one the most important. The goal was to analyze the life style of children without parental care. Material and methods The research was done using cross-sectional data from "Children village" in Sremska Kamenica (N=127, and a questionnaire was especially created for this purpose. Results and discussion It was established that 75% of elementary school children and 43% of high school children are physically active. The greatest health risk is smoking (only 50% of students reported never to smoke cigarettes, while 17.5% were daily smokers. The problem is greatest in high school children (43% polled are daily smokers. Alcohol consumption is less common than in the general population of the same age (10% polled drink beer and wine several times a month, while 5% drink spirits - brandy, whisky etc.. Attitudes to sports, smoking and alcohol are mainly positive, but at older age there is an increased number of children with negative attitudes. Knowledge regarding healthy diet is on a lower level comparing with general population, meals are more regular, but with less desirable food. Conclusion From the aspect of health, life style of children without parental care is characterized by risky behavior, particularly in high school children.

  3. Teaching Humility in First-Grade Christian School Children (United States)

    Yonker, Julie E.; Wielard, Cassie J.; Vos, Carolyn L.; Tudder, Ashley M.


    Four classes of first-grade children at a Christian school took pre- and post-tests measuring humility. Two intervention classes had devotional lessons on humility and two comparison classes did not. For one week, devotional lessons featured humility-related children's literature, cognitively appropriate discussions, writing about humility, and…

  4. Children with Asthma: Assessment and Treatment in School Settings (United States)

    Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Grigerick, Sarah E.; Loftus, Susan; Nicholson, Heather


    Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways. It affects approximately 12% of American children, and it appears that that incidence is increasing. Asthma in children negatively influences school-based outcomes such as absenteeism and friendship formation. Potential triggers of asthma include environmental allergens, exercise, weather, and emotional…

  5. High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivers Patrick A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.

  6. Developing School Provision for Children with Dyspraxia. A Practical Guide (United States)

    Jones, Nichola, Ed.


    With a much greater awareness in schools of conditions like dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism, and the effects they have in the context of the educational curriculum, schools are becoming better placed to help children access a curriculum that takes account of the diverse needs of its learners. It has been predicted that as people move through the…

  7. The Realities of Middle School for Mexican Children. (United States)

    Bollin, Gail G.


    Presents information about the middle school educational system in Mexico. Considers the implications for better meeting the needs of Mexican children in U.S. schools. Describes experiences and knowledge gained while the author taught a graduate workshop to American teachers in Guanajuato, Mexico. Places the information gained in the context of…

  8. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the School Nurse (United States)

    Grace, Lisa Goldblatt; Starck, Maureen; Potenza, Jane; Kenney, Patricia A.; Sheetz, Anne H.


    As trusted health professionals in the school setting, school nurses are well positioned to identify students who may be victims of commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). However, until recently this issue has been clouded by lack of awareness, stigma, and/or denial. Since nationally the average age of entry for girls into the…

  9. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children (United States)

    Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. T...

  10. Obesity and Other Predictors of Absenteeism in Philadelphia School Children (United States)

    Rappaport, Elizabeth B.; Daskalakis, Constantine; Andrel, Jocelyn


    Background: Limited data indicate that obese children are absent from school more than their normal-weight peers. We analyzed administrative data from a large urban school district to investigate the association of obesity and student sociodemographic characteristics with absenteeism. Methods: We analyzed 291,040 records, representing 165,056…

  11. Sleep Disorders in Children: Collaboration for School-Based Intervention (United States)

    Everhart, D. Erik


    The effects of sleep disturbance on children are wide ranging and include alterations in behavior, mood, cognition, and academic performance. Screening and intervention for pediatric sleep disorders within the schools are not widely implemented, and the concept of integrating school personnel into the multidisciplinary sleep team has yet to be…

  12. School Psychologists Working with Children Affected by Abuse and Neglect (United States)

    Dezen, Kristin A.; Gurl, Aaron; Ping, Jenn


    School psychologists encounter children regularly who have been affected by abuse and neglect. Maltreatment adversely affects the mental health status and academic achievement of youth, thereby making the topic an area of concern for school psychologists. More recently, child protection laws have been expanded to include mandatory child abuse…

  13. Caregivers' perspective of school reintegration in children survivors of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, R.; Santos, B.D.; Van Loey, N.E.E.; Geenen, R.; Rossi, L.A.; Nascimento, L.C.


    Introduction: Pediatric burns are an important reason of treatment and hospitalization. Children victims of burns may interrupt or even abandon school activities. The process of school reintegration of this population has become a point of attention. Aim: To analyze the caregivers’ perspective of th

  14. Children of Divorce in the Elementary School Classroom. (United States)

    Strom, Mary E.

    In this document, literature is reviewed concerning (1) effects of divorce on the academic achievement, behavior, and self-concept of elementary school students; and (2) ways the adjustment of children whose parents have divorced can be facilitated in schools by teachers and counselors. Annotations of 40 articles are provided. Also included are a…

  15. Children's Rights, School Exclusion and Alternative Educational Provision (United States)

    McCluskey, Gillean; Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet


    This paper examines findings from a recent study in Wales of school exclusion and alternative educational provision. Many, but not all, children in alternative provision have been excluded from school. The most recent statistics reveal that nearly 90% of pupils in alternative provision have special educational needs, nearly 70% are entitled to…

  16. Color Vision Defects in School Going Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Shrestha


    Full Text Available Introduction: Color Vision defect can be observed in various diseases of optic nerve and retina and also a significant number of people suffer from the inherited condition of red and green color defect. Methods: A cross-sectional descritptive study was designed with purposive sampling of students from various schools of Kathmandu Valley. All children were subjected to color vision evaluation using Ishihara Isochromatic color plates along with other examination to rule out any other causes of color deficiency. Results: A total of 2001 students were examined, 1050 male students and 951 females with mean age of 10.35 (±2.75 and 10.54 (±2.72 respectively. Among the total students examined, 2.1% had some form of color vision defects. Of the male population , 3.9% had color vision defects while none of the female was found with the deficiency. Conclusions: The prelevance of color vision defect in Nepal is significant and comparable with the prelevance quoted in the studies from different countries. Keywords:color vision; congenital red green color effect; Nepal; prevalence.

  17. Awareness of dengue fever among school children: a comparison between private and government schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Kalra


    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is the mosquito born viral disease spreading its tentacles all over the world. Dengue constitutes for major cause of deaths in children. According to WHO, globally it was estimated that approximately 70-100 million people were infected every year. Therefore, the study has been conducted with the aim to assess knowledge regarding dengue fever among school children. Methodology: Total of 500 children were selected from 9th and 10th class of private and government schools using total enumerative sampling technique. Data was collected using questionnaire method. After assessing knowledge classes were taken by investigators focusing on prevention of dengue fever. Results: Finding of study revealed that among Private schools excellent knowledge was found in 06 (01.2% children, good in 123 (24.6% children, average 112 (22.4% children and poor in 02 (00.41 whereas in Government schools none of students had excellent knowledge, 76(15.2% children were having good knowledge, 178(35.6% children were having average knowledge & 03 (00.6 children were having poor knowledge. The mean knowledge scores were higher in students of Private schools i.e. 31.45 ± 6.41 as compared to students of Government schools i.e. 28.17 ± 5.39 at t=6.19 (p=0.00. Conclusion: It is concluded that majority of school students of private and government schools were having average knowledge regarding prevention of dengue fever. Therefore, there is need for further information, education and communication programs regarding prevention of dengue fever and this can be achieved by organizing health education campaigns in community involving schools.

  18. Prevalence of obesity in school-going children of Karachi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Javed Warraich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is an emerging problem in Pakistan. The authors sought to determine prevalence of obesity and malnutrition in school-going children, from grades 6(th to 8(th of different schools of Karachi and assess associations that affect the weight of the children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study design with children studying in grades 6(th to 8(th grade, in different schools of Karachi. We visited 10 schools of which 4 consented; two subsidized government schools and two private schools. A questionnaire was developed in consultation with a qualified nutritionist. Height and weight were measured on calibrated scales. A modified BMI criterion for Asian populations was used. Data was collected from 284 students. Of our sample, 52% were found to be underweight whereas 34% of all the children were normal. Of the population, 6% was obese and 8% overweight. Of all obese children, 70% belonged to the higher socio-economic status (SES group, while of the underweight children, 63.3% were in the lower SES. Amongst obese children in our study, 65% ate meat every day, compared to 33% of normal kids. CONCLUSION: Obesity and undernutrition co-exist in Pakistani school-children. Our study shows that socio-economic factors are important since obesity and overweight increase with SES. Higher SES groups should be targeted for overweight while underweight is a problem of lower SES. Meat intake and lack of physical activity are some of the other factors that have been highlighted in our study.

  19. Narrative Development in Preschool and School-Age Children


    Hegsted, Sara


    Children hear and use narratives in a variety of contexts including school, social situations, and at home. A narrative is a form of discourse that is used to tell the listener what happened in a temporally sequenced, agent-focused way, and these stories can be a production of a real or fictional account. Speech language pathologists take a particular interest in children's narrative abilities because children's story telling capabilities play a large role in language acquisition as well as f...



    Kolli Sree Karuna


    ‘’Sarvendriya nam nayanam pradhanam” Of all the organs in the body, eyes are the most important. The blindness or defect in vision decreases the productivity of the nation in addition to increased dependability. The refractive errors in the school children throw them in to defective future. Nutrition deficiency, mental strain, wrong reading habits etc are some of the causes for this defect in these children. Vision is essential for all the children, for the academic and overal...

  1. Children Reading Fiction Books Because They Want To

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.


    This paper investigates the reading of fiction books by 15-year-olds in 18 OECD countries.It appears that girls fiction books more often than boys, whereas boys read comic books more often than girls.The intensity by which children read fiction books is influenced by parental education, family struc

  2. [Prevalence of obesity amount elementary school children in Grenoble]. (United States)

    Viguié, M; Fayard, M; Micheletti, P; Boussuges, S


    Facing the growing increase of childhood obesity in France, the Grenoble Municipal School Health Service wanted to evaluate the importance of this phenomenon present among elementary school children in the area. A descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective survey was conducted during the 2000/2001 academic year among a group of 1361 children born in 1990. The Quetelet Index was utilized to measure the level of being overweight, and the breaking point levels for being overweight and obese were defined according to new international standards. The prevalence of obesity is approximately 3% (2.7% in girls and 2.9% in boys) and remains constant from nursery school to elementary school. Nearly 35% of obese children in nursery school remain obese at the end of elementary school. Overweight prevalence is at its highest and increases significantly from nursery school (8.3%) through elementary school (14%). The study further revealed that girls aged 10-12 who did not pass and were held back from the next grade are five times more at risk of obesity than those who pass. The Municipal School Health Service has a critical role to play in the prevention of childhood obesity and its early screening and detection.

  3. School performance in cholesteatoma-operated children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki; Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe


    Cholesteatoma in childhood had no long-term effect on school performance for the majority who completed lower secondary school. Aim To investigate whether individuals operated on for cholesteatoma in childhood have impaired school performance in adolescence. Methods All children born in Denmark...... between 1986-1991 with cholesteatoma surgery performed before the age of 15 years were included (cholestetaoma group). A control group consisting of a 5% random sample of all children born in Denmark during the same period was used for comparison. Final marks (average, mathematics, Danish, and English...

  4. Communities of Children in the transition from preschool to school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt


    This article is concerned with the meaning of Communities of Children in the transition from preschool to school – analyzed from the children’s perspectives (Aronsson, Hedegaard, Højholt, & Ulvik, 2012).The text is based on an ethnographic study where a group of Danish children where followed...... participation possibilities within the children’s communities in preschool. This means that we need both cooperation with the children’s parents and professional collaboration and information sharing across preschool and school and professional cooperation within the school....

  5. [School failure and epilepsy: a case-control study]. (United States)

    Kasraoui, Chawki; Kasraoui, Sabeh; Fredj, Mohamed; Zouari, Bechir; Halayem, Mohmamed B; Mrabet, Amel


    School difficulties and educational inadequacy usually correlate with the child's epilepsy. The target of our study is to discover the most precocious possible the epilepsy and to prevent educational failure in the population of children from 6 to 15 years old. We have carried out a retrospective study on 162 children of an educational age. This population was made up of 100 epileptic children followed over a period of 3 years (1995-1997) and a witness group made up of 62 children selected from brothers and sisters of the study group, with the same sex in default of the opposed sex who are educated. We have noted that at the same age between children from the group of study and children from the witness group. The class of study was significantly inferior in the group of study: the educational average class is 4th against 5th in the witness group P = 0.11. The difference was about one year. The difference of educational results was significant. For the last educational year, the educational mark was 8.99/20 in the group of study against 12/20 in the witness one. P < 10-5. For the last educational semester, the educational mark was 9.5/20 in the group of study against 11.9/20 in the witness group. (P = 3 x 10(-4)).

  6. Lifestyle riskfactors of noncommunicable diseases: Awareness among school children

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    B Divakaran


    Full Text Available Background : Currently, the health scenario is riddled with the burden of noncommunicable diseases. Aim : The aim of this study is to assess the awareness of school children regarding the risk factors of noncommunicable diseases (NCD. Setting and Design : Three hundred and seventy-five school children, studying in classes 6 to 10, formed the study subjects. Materials and Methods : The school selected for the study was a government school, located in a rural area. The socioeconomic status of the children was mainly in the upper lower and lower class. Students from the 6 to 10 grades formed the study subjects and from among them, a random sample of 375 children were selected for the study. A close-ended questionnaire relating to 3 most commonly occurring NCDs, namely, Cancer, Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD, and Diabetes Mellitus (DM was administered to the students. Statistical Analysis: Frequency and proportions were used to analyze the data. Results : It is found that awareness among the school children regarding lifestyle risk factors of NCDs is not satisfactory. The areas of least knowledge were found to be regarding passive smoking, early age at marriage, and reuse of cooking oil as risk factors for NCD. Conclusion : The study recommends the need for curriculum-based health education regarding the prevention aspects and motivation of the children to incorporate healthy lifestyle practices into their daily lives.

  7. Children's Books in a High School Library? A Risky Question Worth Asking. (United States)

    Johnson, Keith


    An online survey seeking librarians' opinions about including children's books in the high school library returned many positive responses. Lists ways children's books could be used in high school. Discusses the new wave of children's literature; children's books made into movies; commonality of high school libraries having collections of…

  8. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.


    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  9. Towards Healthy Schools 2015: Progress on America's Environmental Health Crisis for Children (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2013


    States compel children to attend school; in fact, 98% of all school-age children attend schools--irrespective of conditions. Yet the environmental conditions of decayed facilities or facilities close to hazards can damage children's health and ability to learn. At the same time, it is well documented that healthy school facilities can help…

  10. School Readiness among Low-Income, Latino Children Attending Family Childcare versus Centre-Based Care (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Winsler, Adam


    Latino children often struggle in school. Early childhood education programmes are seen as critical for fostering children's school readiness. Latino families often choose family childcare (FCC) over centre-based childcare (CBC), yet little is known about the school readiness of Latino children attending FCC. We compared school readiness over the…

  11. Lactose intolerance in Indonesian children. (United States)

    Hegar, Badriul; Widodo, Ariani


    "Lactose intolerance (LI)" is considered a common problem in Asians, and in many parts of the world. Its prevalence and age of manifestation varies between by Asian country, for possible genetic or cultural reasons. Studies in Indonesian children 3-15 years old (y) are available within the past two decades, using a pure lactose tolerance test. The prevalences of lactose malabsorption (LM) in pre-elementary (3-5 y), elementary (6-11 y), and junior high (12-14 y) school-children were 21.3%, 57.8%, and 73%, respectively. An increasing trend for LM prevalence was seen within the pre-elementary group, from 9.1% at 3 y to 28.6% at 5 y. The most frequent symptoms of LI in junior high school (JHS) group were abdominal pain (64.1%), abdominal distention (22.6%), nausea (15.1%), flatulence (5.7%), and diarrhea (1.9%), mostly within one hour of lactose ingestion. In children with regular and irregular milk drinking, LM occurred in 81.2% and 69.6%; LI was found in 56.2% and 52.1%, respectively. Most JHS children with dairy-associated recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) symptoms proved to be malabsorbers. Dairy products most related to RAP were milk and yogurt. LI was found in 81% of RAP children with abdominal pain most frequently, followed by nausea, bloating, diarrhea, borborygmi, and flatulence. Symp-tom onset occurred 30 minutes after lactose ingestion, especially nausea, bloating, and abdominal pain. In RAP children LI symptoms mostly found in breath hydrogen concentration>20 ppm. More LI symptoms were found in lactose malabsorbers, but symptoms were mild and generally disappeared in 7 hours, and in most by 15 hours.

  12. Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals

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    Mackelprang Alyssa J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria. Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of the schools had breakfast in the classroom; all other schools had breakfast in the cafeteria. Information about 180 days of school breakfast and school lunch participation during fourth grade for each of 1,571 children (90% Black; 53% girls was available in electronic administrative records from the school district. Children were weighed and measured, and BMI was calculated. Each of a subset of 465 children (95% Black; 49% girls was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch on the same day. Mixed-effects regression was conducted with BMI as the dependent variable and school as the random effect; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, combined participation (breakfast and lunch on the same day, average observed energy intake for breakfast, average observed energy intake for lunch, sex, age, breakfast location, and school year. Analyses were repeated for BMI category (underweight/healthy weight; overweight; obese; severely obese using pooled ordered logistic regression models that excluded sex and age. Results Breakfast participation, lunch participation, and combined participation were not significantly associated with BMI or BMI category irrespective of whether the model included observed energy intake at school meals. Observed energy intake at school meals was significantly and positively associated with BMI and BMI category. For the total sample and subset, breakfast location was significantly associated with BMI; average BMI was larger for

  13. A survey of learning problems in black primary school children. (United States)

    Cartwright, J D; Jukes, C; Wilson, A; Xaba, D


    A survey of the prevalence and types of learning disorders among Black primary school children was undertaken on the East Rand. Class teachers were given a questionnaire and asked to identify the number of children in their class with learning problems and the number of those with specific disabilities such as poor eyesight or hearing, epilepsy, physical handicaps or mental retardation. There were 7516 children in the classes surveyed; 1692 (22,4%) of them were identified by their teachers as having learning problems, while 666 (8,7%) had a physical or mental handicap. The prevalence and present status of children with learning disability need to be defined before plans to improve their education can be established. Our data show that at present classes are large and the prevalence of children with learning problems is high. Improving teachers' skills and reducing the number of children per class might improve the education of children with learning problems.

  14. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren


    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Status of Physical Fitness Index (PFI % and Anthropometric Parameters in Residential School Children Compared to Nonresidential School Children

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    Jyoti P Khodnapur


    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival, to achieve any goal and to lead a healthy life. Effect of exercise to have a good physical fitness is well known since ancient Vedas. Physical fitness can be recorded by cardiopulmonary efficiency test like Physical Fitness Index (PFI % which is a powerful indicator of cardiopulmonary efficiency. Regular exercise increases PFI by increasing oxygen consumption. Residential school children are exposed to regular exercise and nutritious food under the guidance. Aims and Objectives: Our study is aimed to compare the physical fitness index status and anthropometric parameters in Residential Sainik (n=100 school children compared to Non-Residential (n=100 school children (aged between 12-16 years of Bijapur. Material and Methods: PFI was measured by Harvard Step Test [1]. TheAnthropometrical parameters like Height (cms, Weight (Kg, Body Surface Area (BSA in sq.mts, Body Mass Index (BMI in Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference (cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were recorded. Results: Mean score of PFI(%, Height(cms, Weight(Kg, BSA(sq.mts, BMI(Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference(cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were significantly higher (p=0.000 in Residential school children compared to Non Residential school children. In conclusion regular exercise and nutritious diet under the guidance increases the physical fitness and growth in growing children.

  16. Interpretation of Logical Words in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Uncovering Knowledge of Semantics and Pragmatics (United States)

    Su, Yi; Su, Lin-Yan


    This study investigated the interpretation of the logical words "some" and "every…or…" in 4-15-year-old high-functioning Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD performed similarly to typical controls in demonstrating semantic knowledge of simple sentences with "some", and…

  17. Determinants of Substance Abuse in a Population of Children and Adolescents Involved with the Child Welfare System (United States)

    Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil


    Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…

  18. "Robovie, You'll Have to Go into the Closet Now": Children's Social and Moral Relationships with a Humanoid Robot (United States)

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Kanda, Takayuki; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Freier, Nathan G.; Severson, Rachel L.; Gill, Brian T.; Ruckert, Jolina H.; Shen, Solace


    Children will increasingly come of age with personified robots and potentially form social and even moral relationships with them. What will such relationships look like? To address this question, 90 children (9-, 12-, and 15-year-olds) initially interacted with a humanoid robot, Robovie, in 15-min sessions. Each session ended when an experimenter…

  19. Pre-School Age Visually Impaired Children's Motives for Learning


    Gudonis, Vytautas


    The article presents longitudinal data of the survey of 212 Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre’s 6–7-year-old pre-school children’s motives to attend school. A brief theoretical analysis of significance of motives for learning in child’s development is displayed. Analysing research results, a positive experience on development of positive motives for school attendance in pre-school age children attending Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre is rendered in a generalising way.

  20. Organization of school health education in obesity in children

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    Joanna Woźniak-Holecka


    Full Text Available Abnormal body weight poses a risk of the development of various health disorders, having a negative impact on the quality and length of life. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among European children is estimated to be 10–20%. In Poland this figure reaches 18%. A war on the epidemic obesity waged from the youngest age of the child is a strategy that brings long-term health benefits for the entire population. Apart from the family, the school is the second important educational environment responsible for conducting health education activities among children and teenagers. School health education programs should be implementing by teachers in collaboration with other school staff, parents and the broadly understood local community. Comprehensive health education aiming at combating obesity should cover the entire population of school children and teenagers, with special attention given to high risk groups. The school, undertaking health education activities aimed at preventing abnormal body weight, should implement nationwide programs for the prevention of obesity, and should also pursue its own health education program based on its curriculum. In most cases, development of obesity at children results from improper eating habits and insufficient physical activity, and therefore school health education programs aimed at the prevention of overweight and obesity should focus on these two most important modifiable risk factors of abnormal body weight.


    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N


    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.

  2. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children (United States)

    Rivers, Charisse L.


    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  3. Overweight and School Performance Among Primary School Children : The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C. E.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriette A.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.


    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,1

  4. Overweight and School Performance Among Primary School Children: The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, J.; Fries, M.C.E.; Bemelmans, W.J.E.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Smit, H.A.; Koppelman, G.H.; Wijga, A.H.


    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,1

  5. Food Group Preferences of Elementary School Children Participating in the National School Lunch Program (United States)

    Cashman, Linda; Tripurana, Madhuri; Englund, Tim; Bergman, Ethan A.


    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the food group preferences of second through fifth grade children based on ethnic background, gender, and grade. Food group preferences were determined by the amount of various food groups consumed in meals served as part of the National School Lunch Program at selected schools. Research…

  6. A Controlled Evaluation of a School-Based Obesity Prevention in Turkish School Children (United States)

    Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Savaser, Sevim


    This research was conducted to assess the effect of a weight management program in Turkish school children with overweight and obesity. Forty one students formed the intervention group while 40 students formed the control group in two elementary schools. Students in intervention group were given seven training sessions in a period of 2.5 months.…

  7. Association between serum ferritin and goitre in Iranian school children. (United States)

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Soheilipour, Fahimeh; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Siavash, Mansour; Amini, Masoud; Kelishadi, Roya


    Despite long-standing supplementation of iodine in Iran, the prevalence of goitre among general people remains high in some regions. The study investigated the role of iron status in the aetiology of goitre in school children in Isfahan, Iran. Two thousand three hundred and thirty-one school children were selected by multi-stage random sampling. Thyroid size was estimated by inspection and palpation. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and serum ferritin (SF) were measured. Overall, 32.9% of the children had goitre. The median UIC was 195.5 microg/L. The mean +/- SD of SF in the goitrous and non-goitrous children was 47.65 +/- 42.51 and 44.55 +/- 37.07 microg/L respectively (p=0.52). The prevalence of iron deficiency in goitrous and non-goitrous children was 9.6% and 3.1% respectively (p=0.007). Goitre is still prevalent in school children of Isfahan. However, their median UIC was well in the accepted range. Iron deficiency is associated with goitre in a small group of goitrous children. The role of goitrogens should also be investigated in this region.


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    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity in children and adolescents is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions globally as well as in India. It is a well-recognized risk factor for adult obesity, which in turn may be the basis of various chronic diseases. So, by preventing the development of obesity in childhood can reduce the likelihood of obesity in adulthood and its health consequences. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children in Bhopal city. MATERIAL & METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. STUDY POPULATION: Students studying in IX, X, XI, XII class in government and private schools of Bhopal STUDY PERIOD: July 2012-June 2014 (24 Months SAMPLING PROCEDURE: Multistage simple random sampling method was used to select schools from a list obtained by Ministry of education. Total 38 schools were chosen to fulfill the sample size, in which 120 students from each school were included under study. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION: Data was collected by taking anthropometric measurements like body weight, height, BMI (Body mass index, WC (waist circumference. RESULTS: In present study, 256 (5.6% students were overweight and 46 (1.0% were obese. Total 2505 (55.0% of students have waist circumferences between 70 to 85 cm, whereas only 187(4.0% students have waist circumference more than 85 cm. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 5.6% and 1.0% respectively among school children. It was more common in girls and among students of private schools.

  9. Incidence of malignant hemopathies and thyroid carcinomas in infants less than 15 years old around the nuclear site of Marcoule; Incidence des hemopathies malignes et des cancers thyroidiens chez les enfants de moins de 15 ans autour du site nucleaire de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouges, S.; Daures, J.P. [Montpellier Institut Universitaire de Recherche Clinique, 34 - Montpellier (France); Arthus, J.C. [Centre Hospitallier Universitaire de Nimes, 30 - Nimes (France); Vidonne Sartre, O. [Medecin Inspecteur Chef, 83 - Gard (France)


    The objective was to determine, for the last ten years (1985-1995), the incidence of malignant blood diseases and thyroid carcinomas for children less than fifteen years old in a periphery of 35 km around the nuclear site of Marcoule. The conclusions are that it does not seem to exist a sur-incidence of these pathologies around Marcoule. But a surveillance register is placed for these carcinomas for the coming years, because of the choices made by the site of Marcoule and the expected developments. (N.C.).

  10. Does school mobility place elementary school children at risk for lower math achievement? The mediating role of cognitive dysregulation. (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele


    Children growing up in poverty have a higher likelihood of exposure to multiple forms of adversity that jeopardize their chances of academic success. The current paper identifies school mobility, or changing schools, as 1 such poverty-related risk. Using a sample of low-income, predominantly ethnic-minority children (n = 381) in Chicago, this study tests the hypothesis that repeatedly changing schools during the 5-year period between Head Start (preschool) and third grade is a potent predictor of children's math achievement in fourth grade and that children's cognitive dysregulation serves as a mechanism through which school mobility may negatively affect children's math achievement. Hierarchical linear models controlling for baseline child and family characteristics (including children's early math and dysregulation measured during Head Start) revealed an inverse relation between the number of times low-income children changed schools between preschool and third grade and children's math achievement on state standardized tests in fourth grade. Furthermore, frequently changing schools (3 or 4 school changes over the same time period) was positively associated with teacher-reported cognitive dysregulation in third grade and negatively associated with children's math achievement in fourth grade. Evidence for the role of children's cognitive dysregulation as a partial statistical mediator was found for the relation between frequently changing schools and math achievement, even after accounting for baseline risk. Results are discussed in terms of school policies, practices, and intervention strategies to prevent the disruptive and potentially stressful experiences of school mobility for young, low-income children.

  11. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

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    Soepardi Soedibyo


    Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

  12. Empirical estimation of school siting parameter towards improving children's safety (United States)

    Aziz, I. S.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Rasam, A. R. A.; Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Omar, D.


    Distance from school to home is a key determination in ensuring the safety of hildren. School siting parameters are made to make sure that a particular school is located in a safe environment. School siting parameters are made by Department of Town and Country Planning Malaysia (DTCP) and latest review was on June 2012. These school siting parameters are crucially important as they can affect the safety, school reputation, and not to mention the perception of the pupil and parents of the school. There have been many studies to review school siting parameters since these change in conjunction with this ever-changing world. In this study, the focus is the impact of school siting parameter on people with low income that live in the urban area, specifically in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. In achieving that, this study will use two methods which are on site and off site. The on site method is to give questionnaires to people and off site is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) and Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS), to analyse the results obtained from the questionnaire. The output is a maps of suitable safe distance from school to house. The results of this study will be useful to people with low income as their children tend to walk to school rather than use transportation.

  13. Children's Voice or Children's Voices? How Educational Research Can Be at the Heart of Schooling (United States)

    Stern, Julian


    There are problems with considering children and young people in schools as quite separate individuals, and with considering them as members of a single collectivity. The tension is represented in the use of "voice" and "voices" in educational debates. Voices in dialogue, in contrast to "children's voice", are…

  14. Children Writing Ethnography: Children's Perspectives and Nomadic Thinking in Researching School Classrooms (United States)

    Hohti, Riikka


    This article makes a connection between narrative ethnography, childhood studies and new materialist theories in studying children's perspective on school. It presents "children writing ethnography" as an approach based on complexity and involving participatory research. The question of "what is happening in the classroom" is…

  15. Impacto do nascimento pré-termo e com baixo peso na cognição, comportamento e aprendizagem de escolares Impacto del nacimiento pretérmino y con bajo peso en la cognición, el comportamiento y el aprendizaje de escolares Impact of preterm birth and low birth weight on the cognition, behavior and learning of school-age children

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    Tatiana Izabele J Riechi


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto do nascimento pré-termo e com baixo peso no neurodesenvolvimento, na cognição e, consequentemente, na aprendizagem de crianças e adolescentes em idade escolar. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal caso-controle de 120 escolares com idades entre seis e 15 anos, regularmente matriculados no Ensino Fundamental e pareados socioeconomicamente. Todos foram submetidos ao protocolo de avaliação neuropsicológica, neurológica e escolar. O Grupo Propósito (GP foi formado por 60 escolares nascidos com idade gestacional OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto del nacimiento pretérmino y con bajo peso en el neurodesarrollo, la cognición, y por consiguiente en el aprendizaje de niños y adolescentes en edad escolar. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal caso-control en 120 escolares con edades entre 06 y 15 años, regularmente matriculados en la Primaria y pareados socioeconómicamente. Todos fueron sometidos al protocolo de Evaluación Neuropsicológica, Neurológica y Escolar. El Grupo Propósito fue formado por 60 escolares nacidos con edad gestacional OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of preterm birth with low birth weight on neurodevelopment, cognition, and academic learning of school-age children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 120 school-age children with ages between six and 15 years old, attending Elementary Schools, and socio-economically paired. All of them underwent neuropsychological, neurological and academic assessments. The Purpose Group (PG was formed by 60 children born with gestational age <37 weeks and birthweight <2500g. The Control Group (CG had 24 children who were siblings of the PG subjects, and 36 school-age children who were neighbors and colleagues of the PG subjects. The following tools were used for assessment: WISC III, Bender Gestalt Test, Trail Making, Rey Complex Figure, Luria Nebraska-C Neuropsychological Test, Rutter's Behavioral Scale A2, Child Behavior Checklist and Test of School Performance

  16. Prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children and it's association with children's sociodemographic and lifestyle in Indonesia

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    Syahrul Syahrul


    Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children in Makassar, Indonesia is high. These conditions are associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of children and parents, as well as the lifestyle of children. Parental characteristics and children's lifestyle should be considered when planning prevention and intervention programs for underweight or overweight children.

  17. Positive psychological strengths and school engagement in primary school children

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    Bronwyn Wilkins


    Full Text Available A sizeable body of research has investigated the impact of specific character strengths or traits on significant outcomes. Some recent research is beginning to consider the effects of groups of strengths, combined as a higher order variable and termed covitality. This study investigated the combined influence of four positive character traits, gratitude, optimism, zest and persistence, upon school engagement, within a sample of 112 Australian primary school students. The combined effect of these four traits, in defining covitality as a higher or second-order factor within a path analysis, was found to predict relatively higher levels of school engagement and pro-social behaviour.

  18. 78 FR 64153 - Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for Free School... (United States)


    ... of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for Free School Meals; Approval of Information Collection... Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for Free School Meals was published on April 25, 2011. The ICR...


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    Anosov I. P.


    Full Text Available This work addresses the question of primary school age children`s blood microcirculation in dependence on their individual typical features. We examined some 120 healthy children of 6-9 years, which were the students of secondary schools of the city of Melitopol. Anthropometric survey was conducted by the standard measurement scheme of longitudinal chest and weight parameters of the bodies of children. Diagnosis of body type (somatotype was conducted by the method of M. Chernorutskiy. According to the index of physical development - Pine index (PI, the children were divided into three somatic type: asthenic with IP> 30 gipersteni at PI <10 and normostenic type at 10 children of 6-9 years correspond to normoemic type. This pattern doesn’t change with age, and counts about of 51% from prepubertal age children; hypoemic type was registered for 48% of children, hyperemic type – for 1%

  20. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran


    Morteza Naserbakht; Mitra Hakim Shooshtari; Maryam Rasoulain; Mohammad Salehi; Mirfarhad Ghalebandi; Mohammad Hosien Salarifar


    "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmar...

  1. Sleep clinical record: what differences in school and preschool children?

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    Maria Pia Villa


    Full Text Available The sleep clinical record (SCR may be a valid method for detecting children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA. This study aimed to evaluate whether there were differences in SCR depending on age and to identify the possible risk factors for OSA development. We enrolled children with sleep disordered breathing between 2013 and 2015, and divided them according to age into preschool- and school-age groups. All patients underwent SCR and polysomnography. OSA was detected in 81.1% and 83.6% of preschool- and school-age groups, respectively. Obesity, malocclusions, nasal septal deviation and inferior turbinate hypertrophy were significantly more prevalent in school-age children (p6.5 had a sensitivity of 74% in predicting OSA in preschool children with positive predictive value of 86% (p=0.0001. Our study confirms the validity of the SCR as a screening tool for patient candidates for a PSG study for suspected OSA, in both school and preschool children.


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    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia is a nutritional problem worldwide and its prevalence is higher in developing countries when compared to the developed countries. Anaemia, a manifestation of under-nutrition and poor dietary intake of iron is a public health problem, not only among pregnant women, infants and young children, but also among adolescents. Recent studies on the prevalence of anaemia have been conducted on preschool children only, so there is a need for more studies related to anaemia among school children. The present study was done to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among school children aged 10-15 years from Guntur, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 school children aged 10 to 15 years. Purposive sampling was used to include 250 boys and 250 girls. Haemoglobin estimation was done by cyanmethaemoglobin method. The severity of anaemia was classified on the basis of WHO criteria into Mild, Moderate and Severe. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 21. RESULTS The overall prevalence of anaemia was 27.4% in the present study. A higher prevalence of anaemia was observed among girls (42.4% than boys (12.4%. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 34.4% and 9.6% among girls and boys respectively. CONCLUSION The prevalence of anaemia is high among school going adolescents. Special emphasis should be given on nutritional supplementation with iron and health education for this age group.

  3. Schoolyard upgrade in a randomized controlled study design-how are school interventions associated with adolescents' perception of opportunities and recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars B; Toftager, Mette; Pawlowski, Charlotte S


    schools of a school-based intervention on students perceived opportunities for physical activity in the schoolyard, and to evaluate if an improved collective perception of opportunities was followed by an increase in PA during recess for the 13-15 year-old students. The intervention components included...

  4. Schoolyard upgrade in a randomized controlled study design—how are school interventions associated with adolescents’ perception of opportunities and recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov; Toftager, Mette; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau


    schools of a school-based intervention on students perceived opportunities for physical activity in the schoolyard, and to evaluate if an improved collective perception of opportunities was followed by an increase in PA during recess for the 13–15 year-old students. The intervention components included...

  5. Children's Progress through School: A Research Note. (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.


    Socioeconomic characteristics exert much stronger effects on grade retention among Hispanic, Black, and White children than do family compositional factors. One important exception is that the probability of enrollment below modal grade is much higher for Hispanic children living in single-parent households than for those in two-parent households.…

  6. School-Based Counseling of Abused Children (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Rivelis, Erin; Diaz, Vielka


    Abused children experience high rates of behavior, emotional, and learning problems but infrequently receive treatment. Most services provided to abused children and their families are not based on any clear evidence that they work. A number of evidence-based treatments (EBTs), demonstrated to be safe and effective in treating a range of…

  7. Reliability of upright posture measurements in primary school children


    Grimmer Karen; McEvoy Maureen P


    Abstract Background Correct upright posture is considered to be a measure of good musculoskeletal health. Little is known about the usual variability of children's upright standing posture. The aim of this study was to assess differences between repeated measures of upright posture in a group of primary school children. Methods Sagittal plane photographs of usual, relaxed upright standing posture of 38 boys and girls aged 5–12 years were taken twice within an hour. Reflective markers were pla...

  8. Getting southern Sudanese children to school

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    Sibeso Luswata


    Full Text Available The Government of Southern Sudan’s Go to School Initiative,supported by UNICEF, which seeks to get 1.6 millionchildren back in school by the end of 2007, incorporateskey elements of the INEE Minimum Standards for Educationin Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction.

  9. Sexual Abuse of School Age Children : Evidence from Kenya



    Student unrest that sometimes culminates in violent expressions have had a long history in Kenyan schools. Recent evidence, however, points to new expressions of abuse on children. There is concern that an ethos of gendered violence often expressed by sexual subjugation of girls by boys is getting institutionalised within Kenyan Schools. The rise in incidents of reported crimes of a sexual nature and the periodic mass sexual violence directed at girls within learning institutions attest to th...

  10. Children's Physical Activity during Recess and Outside of School (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy; Pangrazi, Robert P.


    The purpose of this study was to examine children's physical activity during recess and outside of school. Third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students (N = 270; 121 boys, age = 9.5 plus or minus 0.9 years; 150 girls, age = 9.6 plus or minus 0.9 years) wore sealed pedometers during a 15-minute recess period and outside of school for 4 consecutive…

  11. Clustering of Unhealthy Food around German Schools and Its Influence on Dietary Behavior in School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buck, Christoph; Börnhorst, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann


    to investigate (1) the clustering of food outlets around schools and (2) the influence of junk food availability on the food intake in school children. Methods We geocoded food outlets offering junk food (e.g. supermarkets, kiosks, and fast food restaurants). Spatial cluster analysis of food retailers around......-HDR. Conclusion In the built environment of the German study region, clustering of food retailers does not depend on the location of schools. Additionally, the results suggest that the consumption of junk food in young children is not influenced by spatial availability of unhealthy food. However......Background The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy...


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    Nowak Agata


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  13. Observations on early school failure in Zulu children. (United States)

    Frets-Van Buuren, J J; Letuma, E; Daynes, G


    The outcome of the screening of 2,190 children who had to repeat the school entry grades (Substandard A) in 25 junior primary schools in two KwaZulu townships is reported and the implications are discussed. The high number of repeaters did not appear to be due to an excess of mentally retarded children, the percentage being similar to that which could be expected in such a community world-wide. Difficulty in intelligence testing was experienced, but we describe how this was overcome by testing speed of learning. Visual defects, hearing defects and having no food before school accounted for the failure of many repeaters. Lack of preschool teaching by parents and schools and very strict discipline necessitated by large classes and a wide range in ages, which both led to anxiety on the part of the pupils, and sending children to school at too young an age were regarded as additional factors. Simple interventions were suggested to the school teachers; more than 1,000 pupils were followed up, with encouraging results.

  14. Ophthalmic Morbidity in School Children in Hilly Areas of Uttarakhand

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    Surekha Kishore


    Full Text Available Introduction: School children constitute about one fourth of population of India. Early detection and treatment of various eye diseases helps in avoiding many complications. The magnitude of blindness is 3-4 times greater in developing countries. Very few studies have been conducted in Uttarakhand revealing the ophthalmic morbidity in school children or general population. Hilly areas especially the remote ones face various problems like, poor transportation facilities, distant health facilities, use of traditional methods for treatment, faith healing, customs and belief system, lack of information.  Moreover   water supply, poor personal hygiene and other factors also add up to these problems. Aim: To study the ophthalmic morbidities in school children in 3 schools of Thatyur block. Methodology: It was a cross sectional study. Result: A total of 705 students were enrolled. Permission from school authorities was seeked before the start of study. Schools were visited twice in a week current and preliminary information was taken from the students & teacher regarding education, occupation, income etc. General examination and ophthalmic examination was done with day & torch light along with refraction, with the help of standard Snellen’s chart. Each eye was examined separately. A vision of 6/6 was considered as normal. Near vision was tested with new vision Snellen’s chart at 12-14 inches away from eye.

  15. Formation of concept of decimal system in Mexican school children

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    L. Quintanar Rojas


    Full Text Available The present study deals with initial formation of concept of decimal system in second year of education at primary school in Mexico (City of Puebla. Our research is based on Activity Theory conception of teaching-learning process and of gradual introduction of scientific concepts in school age. The method has been designed and worked out with the help of actions in which logic, symbolic, spatial and mathematical aspects were implemented. All actions were introduced within divided activity of children in group guided by adult. A pretest-posttest design was used with an experimental group of Mexican school children. The results showed that children have developed the significant skills necessary for understanding the concept of decimal number system. They were also able to apply this concept for new kind if activity al the end of school year. Such new activity was solving of mathematic problems, which was not included in official school program. We consider that proposed method can be an approximation for solution of common difficulties which arise at primary school concerning teaching of mathematics.

  16. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study). (United States)

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal


    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children.

  17. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Voráčová


    Full Text Available Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends, fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001 in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001, sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01 and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001 between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children.

  18. Supporting Language in Schools: Evaluating an Intervention for Children with Delayed Language in the Early School Years (United States)

    Lee, Wendy; Pring, Tim


    Extensive evidence exists that many children who experience early socio-economic disadvantage have delayed language development. These delays have been shown to exist when children start school and appear to persist through their education. Interventions that can help these children are desirable to ease the difficulties they have in school and to…

  19. Visiting Again? Subjective Well-Being of Children in Elementary School and Repeated Visits to School Health Nurses (United States)

    Leaver, Cynthia A.


    Background: Children with vague complaints are without chronic illness, and who repeatedly visit the school nurse may be at risk for limited academic success. This study compares student reports of subjective well-being between children who do and do not repeatedly visit the school nurse with vague complaints. Methods: Children in grades 4 through…

  20. 49 CFR 372.103 - Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school. (United States)


    ... school children and teachers to or from school. 372.103 Section 372.103 Transportation Other Regulations... Exemptions § 372.103 Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from... motor vehicles being used at the time of operation in the transportation of schoolchildren and...

  1. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee


    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  2. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School (United States)

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman


    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  3. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna


    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  4. Cultural Relay in Early Childhood Education: Methods of Teaching School Behavior to Low-Income Children (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie C.


    There is a distinct class difference in the way that children are taught school behavior. Teachers in affluent schools use more implicit teaching techniques while teachers of low-income children are more explicit in their teaching of behavior. This stems largely from the alignment of the home culture of middle class children to school behavior and…

  5. Pets, pica, pathogens and pre-school children


    Newton, R W; Stack, Tom; Blair, R. E.; Keel, J. C.


    The incidence of pica in pre-school children was investigated by studying 192 children attending a general paediatric hospital clinic and 69 attending a general practice surgery. The incidence of pica was twice as common in those who kept pets in both study groups. Half of the pet-keeping children with pica had eaten their pet's food. Imitative behaviour is suggested as a probable cause. Pet-keeping compounds a child's risk of infestation not only by providing close contact with a reservoir o...

  6. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T Harel

    Full Text Available Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  7. Poly-helminth infection in east guatemalan school children

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    William C Sorensen


    Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.

  8. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children. (United States)

    Dobashi, Kazushige


    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  9. Urban/Rural Disparity and Migrant Children's Education: An Investigation into Schools for Children of Transient Workers in Beijing (United States)

    Shaoqing, Lu; Shouli, Zhang


    In the study of compulsory education for transient children, Beijing Xingzhi School for the Children of Transient Workers is a good example. There is no question that this is the most well-known school to date for transient children in China, and it has to a certain extent become a symbol of this social issue. The initial reports regarding this…

  10. Time Concepts for Elementary School Children. (United States)

    Muir, Sharon Pray


    Points out that children have difficulty learning time concepts. Presents instructional activities for concepts associated with clocks, calendars, and chronology. Outlines Jerome Bruner's three different stages of representation for each concept: enactive, iconic, and symbolic. (DB)

  11. Fungal infection risk groups among school children

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    Elżbieta Ejdas


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ocurrence of fungi in children and living environment (city - countryside, sex, age, diet, undergone diseases therapy with antibiotics and exposure to hospital environment, and to indicate children potentially vulnerable to fungal infections. The material was consisted of swabs collected from the oral cavily, the throat and the nose of healthy children, aged 6-9 and 10-15, from both urban and rural environmens. Candida albicans, the basic aetiological factor in thc majority of mycoses recorded in humans, unquestionably prevailed in the group of the 13 speciec of yeast-like fungi and yeasts isolated. Records of C. glabrata and C. krusei increasing numbers of whose strains show resistance to basic antimycoties, as well as relatively frequent records of Trichosporon beigelii, Saccharomycopsis capsularis and Saccharomyces sp., fungi whose expansiveness and enzymatic activity have been growing, may be considered disconcerting. Vulnerability to fungal infection increases following anti-bacterial antibiotic therapy in the majority of subjects regardless season or age. This is particularly true primarily of the most stable ontocoenosis of the throat. Younger children, on the other hand, are the most vulnerable foUowing infection of the respiratory system. Fungi are likely to colonise the nose in this case. Children living in the countryside who had been ll immediately prior to the collection of the material constitute the highest risk group of the occurrence of fungi in any of the ontocoenoses studied. A greater number of positive inoculations were recorded in these children in comparison to the children from the city. It may be indicative of a more extensive spectrum of natural reservoirs of fungi and the vectors of their transmission in rural areas than those in the city, lower health hygiene and lower immunity or of a more common carriage of fungi among rural children.

  12. Hand Washing Practices among School Children in Ghana

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    M. Steiner-Asiedu


    Full Text Available The high incidence of diarrhoeal diseases and other communicable diseases among children due to poor personal hygiene and sanitation remains a concern on the public health agenda in most countries. To address the problem efficiently, an understanding of the knowledge and practices among target populations is needed to plan and design behavioural interventions. It is against this background that the present study was carried out to determine the hand washing practices among children in private and public school in the Metropolis in the Greater-Accra region of Ghana, with both private and public schools. A total of 295 school children were randomly recruited into the study. The study was cross-sectional in design and used qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographics. A check list was used during the observation of hand washing practices and an interview guide was used for the focus group discussions. The results showed that, most school children observed did not practice proper hand washing with soap, both in school and at home due to the unavailability and inaccessibility of hand washing facilities such as soap, towel and clean running water. However, majority (90.2% of those who used the school toilet practiced hand washing with soap after defecation. Private schools were found to be 63% (p = 0.02 less likely to wash their hands after using the toilet, 51% (p = 0.03 less likely to wash their hands before eating and 77% (p<0.001 less likely to wash their hands with soap after eating compared to their public school counterparts. Parents reported the presence of hand washing facilities at home but structured observations during home visits proved otherwise. The need to extend the hand washing campaigns to private schools cannot be overemphasised. It will be useful for the Ghana Education Service to collaborate with all stakeholders; such as Ghana Health Services, National

  13. Protecting the Rights of School Children with Diabetes (United States)

    Wood, James M.


    School children with diabetes are facing increasing difficulties in receiving care during the school day. Despite theexistence of federal statutes ensuring their rights to a free, appropriate public education, many school districts throughout the country do little, if anything, to ensure that their condition is treated throughout the school day. The chronic shortage of school nurses has resulted in hardships on families, relatives, and friends to ensure that care, including insulin, is timely and appropriately provided. While many states have taken measures to provide care by unlicensed trained volunteers, efforts to accomplish this in California have resulted in prolonged litigation. A variety of nursing organizations oppose all efforts to train unlicensed volunteers, arguing that such is not permitted by California law. The issue is unresolved and currently pending in the California Supreme Court. PMID:23566990

  14. Protecting the rights of school children with diabetes. (United States)

    Wood, James M


    School children with diabetes are facing increasing difficulties in receiving care during the school day. Despite theexistence of federal statutes ensuring their rights to a free, appropriate public education, many school districts throughout the country do little, if anything, to ensure that their condition is treated throughout the school day. The chronic shortage of school nurses has resulted in hardships on families, relatives, and friends to ensure that care, including insulin, is timely and appropriately provided. While many states have taken measures to provide care by unlicensed trained volunteers, efforts to accomplish this in California have resulted in prolonged litigation. A variety of nursing organizations oppose all efforts to train unlicensed volunteers, arguing that such is not permitted by California law. The issue is unresolved and currently pending in the California Supreme Court.

  15. Use of tolterodine in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity : Relationship between dose and urodynamic response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellsworth, PI; Borgstein, NG; Nijman, RJM; Reddy, PP


    Purpose: Three exploratory studies were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of tolterodine in children 1 month to 15 years old with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. We urodynamically evaluated the dose and concentration effects of tolterodine to establish safe and effectiv

  16. The Prevalence and Context of Family Violence against Children in Finland. (United States)

    Sariola, Heikki; Uutela, Antti


    Questionnaires completed by approximately 7,600 15 year olds in Finland indicated that mild family violence was reported by 72% of respondents and severe violence by 8%. Severe violence was most common in families with a stepfather. Overall, the frequency of violence toward children in Finland was significantly lower than in the United States. (DB)

  17. Form and Meaning in the Written Language of Hearing-Impaired Children. (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Snyder, Lynn


    Semantic discourse features of written narratives of 49 hearing impaired children (10-15 years old) were examined in an analysis of the relationship between form and meaning in the writing of both hearing and hearing impaired Ss. Syntactic and semantic written language growth appear to be qualitatively and quantitatively different in the groups.…

  18. Acute relief of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by inhaled formoterol in children with persistent asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Mette Northman; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Buchvald, Frederik;


    -controlled, crossover study of the immediate effect of formoterol, 9 microg, vs terbutaline, 0.5 mg, and placebo administered as dry powder at different study days. Exercise challenge test was used as a model of acute bronchoconstriction. PATIENTS: Twenty-four 7- to 15-year-old children with persistent asthma...

  19. Severe Impairments of Social Interaction and Associated Abnormalities in Children: Epidemiology and Classification. (United States)

    Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith


    The prevalence of severe impairments of social interaction, language abnormalities, and repetitive stereotyped behaviors was investigated in a group of 132 children under 15 years old, consisting of a socially impaired group (more than half of whom were severely retarded) and a comparison group of sociable severely mentally retarded. Author/DLS)

  20. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children of Different Socioeconomic Status. (United States)

    Abidoye, R. O.; Koleoso, Titilayo Abiodun


    Compares incidence of caries in 60 13 to 15 year olds in 2 Nigerian schools, 1 with an affluent population and the other with students from a lower socioeconomic level. Data on parental occupations, patterns of dental practice, and eating habits were collected. Caries incidence in different categories of social standing was similar. (NH)

  1. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan (United States)

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi


    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  2. A Hidden Minority Becomes Visible: Romani Refugee Children in the Schools. (United States)

    Tamas, Judit


    Discusses educational concerns of Roma, or Gypsy, children in Canada. Provides background information on this minority group and discusses Roma attitudes toward education and Romani children's experiences in Eastern European schools. Provides suggestions for welcoming Romani children into new schools, including developing children's first and…

  3. Effects of Divorce on Children, Traits of Resiliency and School Intervention. (United States)

    Ackerman, Betty J.

    Gaining an awareness of the needs of children of divorce and how children achieve resilience should help students become well-adjusted and productive. This paper explores ways in which school systems and school counselors can meet the needs of these children. It portrays the effects of divorce on children by drawing on the literature, observations…

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and behavior of children in relation to oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidović Bojana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Health education plays a very important role in maintaining health of individuals. Good oral health, as a part of general health, is largely dependent on the level of knowledge, attitudes and habits that children already have. The aim of this study is to examine the level of knowledge and habits in children regarding oral hygiene, diet and bad habits. Methods. The study included 506 school children aged 12 and 15 years in three towns (Foča, Čajniče, Kalinovik, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The survey was conducted in order to assess knowledge, attitudes and habits that children have in relation to their own oral health. Results. Most respondents stated that they began to brush their teeth at the age of 4, while a smaller number linked beginning of tooth brushing to the start of school. The parents more often help the boys during tooth brushing. A total of 54.9% of children brush their teeth after every meal, while 40.1% of them brush teeth only once during the day. Twelve year olds brush their teeth more often, especially after a meal. A total of 92.5% of children had never used fluoride tablets nor are the tablets recommended to them by anyone. More than half of the children (61.7% visited the dentist for the first time before starting school that is on the regular examination that is performed upon enrollment to school. A pain as a reason for dental visits was present in 43.9%, while the preventive check in only 31.4% of the children. Conclusion. Children included in this study, particularly 15-year-olds, are quite well informed about teeth brushing frequency and proper selection of tools for hygiene maintenance, but this knowledge is not applied. Girls are more responsible for their own health, and come regularly to the preventive dental checkups.

  5. The Impact of Pre-School on Young Children's Cognitive Attainments at Entry to Reception (United States)

    Sammons, Pam; Elliot, Karen; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda


    This article explores the impact of pre-school experience on young children's cognitive attainments at entry to primary school and analyses data collected as part of a wider longitudinal study, the Effective Provision of Pre-school Education (EPPE) project, which followed a large sample of young children attending 141 pre-school centres drawn from…

  6. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de


    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (Magen=n6.09 years; 70 girls) participate

  7. Schooling of Immigrant Children in West Germany, Sweden, England (United States)

    Willke, I.


    The focus of this article is on children of migrant workers and immigrants in the schools of West Germany, Sweden and England. One central problem, that of language, is considered both as it is dealt with in policy, i. e., in curricula, and as it is actually implemented in some programs, which are typical for the actions in these countries.…

  8. Comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  9. Children and Natural Disasters: A Primer for School Psychologists (United States)

    Evans, Linda; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy


    Worldwide children are impacted by natural disasters, including hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, landslides and sandstorms, winter and severe storms, heat waves, volcanoes and tsunamis. School psychologists should understand natural disaster effects, such as economic loss, relocation and health concerns and mental health…

  10. Effects of Follow Through on School Fearfulness Among Black Children (United States)

    Rhine, W. Ray; Spencer, Leilani M.


    Results suggest some progress in formulating educational environments that reduce the level of school fearfulness among black children. Other studies should explore the differences in classroom atmosphere that nediate these encouraging results; i.e. patterns of pupil-teacher and pupil-pupil interaction. (Author/AM)

  11. Exploring Categorical Body Mass Index Trajectories in Elementary School Children (United States)

    Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody


    Background: Studies of body mass index (BMI) change have focused on understanding growth trajectories from childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood, but few have explored BMI trajectories solely in elementary (grades K-5) school children. This report complements these studies by exploring changes in obesity status using analytic…

  12. Preschool Predictors of Narrative Writing Skills in Elementary School Children (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Nelson, Lauren; Zeisel, Susan; Kasambira Fannin, Danai


    This study examined the preschool predictors of elementary school narrative writing skills. The sample included 65 typically developing African American children, ranging in age from 5.0 to 5.5 years, and was 44.6% male. Targeted preschool predictors included measures of phonological processing, core language abilities, prereading skills, and…

  13. Enhancing Home-School Collaboration through Children's Expression (United States)

    Yuen, Lai Ha


    There is a growing concern within the early childhood education sector to empower parents to support the education of young children. Research has shown the importance of home support in early childhood learning and development. Working within the context of a school improvement project, the researcher responded to parents' concerns towards…

  14. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt (United States)

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo


    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  15. Should Young School Children be Required to Study Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai; Jingting


    Now,more and more parents believe the theory that their children should take the lead as soon as possible at the starting line,requiring the young to study art in school.But after years,we witness the disadvantages of it.This essay states the drawbacks of this demand and exemplifies them through facts in daily life.

  16. Should Young School Children be Required to Study Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Jingting


    Now, more and more parents believe the theory that their children should take the lead as soon as possible at the starting line, requiring the young to study art in school. But after years, we witness the disadvantages of it. This essay states the drawbacks of this demand and exemplifies them through facts in daily life.

  17. Position Effects in Play Equipment Preferences of Nursery School Children. (United States)

    Witt, Peter A.; Gramza, Anthony F.

    With reference to the need for delineation of parameters operative in children's play, the position preferences of four groups of nursery school subjects were studied in a laboratory playroom. A large and small trestle were interchanged between center and corner positions in a series of play sessions. The frequency with which the subjects used…

  18. Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage. (United States)

    Grant, D. R. B.

    This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

  19. Family Background and School Achievement of Children with Motoric Disorders (United States)

    Radojlovic, Jasmina; Ilic-Stosovic, Danijela; Djonovic, Nela; Simovic, Tatjana


    There is no pedagogical literature about school achievement that does not include the family as a very important factor. Family and family relationships of children with motoric disorders are determined by the ability of parents and other family members to build an objective attitude toward the child with disability. That includes the construction…

  20. Parenting Style and Only Children's School Achievement in China. (United States)

    Xie, Qing; And Others

    This report describes a study which examined the relation of Chinese parenting style to only-children's academic achievement. Subjects, 186 middle-class parents of fifth and sixth graders (10-13 years old) from one Beijing elementary school, completed a Chinese translation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approximately equal…

  1. Metacomprehension and School-Aged Children's Reading: An Overview. (United States)

    Pace, Ann Jaffe

    Several research studies were reviewed to formulate a definition of metacomprehension in elementary school children. Although much additional research is needed, the one conclusion evident from the review is that metacomprehension is not a unitary phenomenon. It encompasses several kinds of abilities and degrees of awareness that may appear at…

  2. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie


    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  3. Opera as an Intervention for Rural Public School Children. (United States)

    McGinnis, Pearl Yeadon


    Describes Southwest Missouri State University's efforts to transform opera from an event that the audience simply watches to an event that stimulates life-long learning and interest in the arts for rural public school children. The project incorporates elements of experiential and interactive learning to benefit both the student performers and the…

  4. Innovative Financing for Out-of-School Children and Youth (United States)

    UNESCO Bangkok, 2015


    Despite government commitments to Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to improve access to education, more than 18 million primary-aged children remain out of school in the Asia-Pacific (UNESCO, 2014). Given the impact of education on individuals, societies, and economies, there is great urgency for governments to…

  5. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures? (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca


    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  6. Lexical Quality and Reading Comprehension in Primary School Children (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Isberner, Maj-Britt; Naumann, Johannes; Neeb, Yvonne


    In a cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between the quality of lexical representations and text comprehension skill in German primary school children (Grades 1-4). We measured the efficiency and accuracy of orthographical, phonological, and meaning representations by means of computerized tests. Text comprehension skill was…

  7. Developmentally Appropriate Soccer Activities for Elementary School Children (United States)

    Quinn, Ronald; Carr, David


    The sport of soccer has seen significant growth across multiple levels for the past two decades. Nowhere has this growth been more dramatic than at the youth level. It is estimated that well over 20 million children have some involvement with the game each year. As a result of this growth in community youth soccer, elementary school students are…

  8. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children (United States)

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty


    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related…

  9. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid


    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  10. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.K. Addo; S. van den Hof; G.I. Mensah; A. Hesse; C. Bonsu; K.A. Koram; F.K. Afutu; F.A. Bonsu


    Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged

  11. Self-Esteem Enhancement in Upper Primary School Children. (United States)

    Burnett, Paul C.

    Self-esteem has been defined as the "totality of the individual's thoughts and feelings having reference to himself as an object." Self-concept has been defined as the descriptive and evaluative beliefs that a person holds about multidimensional characteristics of the self. As children progress through primary school, general…

  12. Measuring Children and Young People's Wellbeing in the School Context (United States)

    McLellan, Ros; Steward, Susan


    Although being rooted in the work of ancient Greek philosophers, contemporary research on wellbeing is a relatively new phenomenon. As a term in the literature, wellbeing is often used interchangeably with others, such as happiness, flourishing, enjoying a good life and life satisfaction. Furthermore, the wellbeing of school-aged children is only…

  13. The critical role of children and schools in internet adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Belo (Rodrigo)


    markdownabstractChildren are fast learners, and the speed at which they learn can have an impact on the broader adoption of new technology. In particular, the provision of broadband in schools can be an effective way to encourage household internet uptake in neighbouring areas.

  14. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht


    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  15. Music therapy with children and adolescents in mainstream schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine; Wigram, Tony


    This article identifies existing research and clinical activity utilising music therapy with mainstream children, and a potential need for music therapy with this client group.  A systematic review was undertaken of music therapy literature relating to work with children in mainstream schools.  S...... intervention. The review demonstrates that further research is required if music therapy is to be considered an effective intervention to address the needs of mainstream schoolchildren.......This article identifies existing research and clinical activity utilising music therapy with mainstream children, and a potential need for music therapy with this client group.  A systematic review was undertaken of music therapy literature relating to work with children in mainstream schools...... to be addressed by the UK government. However further research, service-planning and reorganisation is required.  There is evidence that music therapy is being used with children in mainstream schools both at home and abroad, and both research and clinical reports suggest that music therapy is an effective...

  16. Evaluation of hearing ability in Danish children at the time of school start and at the end of school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, S.; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll; Juul, S.


    in North Jutland County, Denmark were evaluated for hearing ability by a review of 1,605 school health records. We found a higher prevalence of impaired hearing ability in children who started school 1987 and 1997 compared to those who started school 1977. Reduced hearing was typically at high frequencies......Since previous studies have shown reduced hearing ability in children and adolescents at school start, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hearing ability in Danish children at the time of start and end of school. Children starting school in 1977, 1987, and 1997 from four minor municipalities....... At the end of school, hearing ability of the year group 1977 was just as poor as for the year group 1987. Whether reduced hearing can influence the learning abilities of these children should be evaluated by further studies including information on the exposure to noise....

  17. Migrant children and migrants’ children: Nativity differences in school enrollment in Mexico and the United States (United States)

    Glick, Jennifer E.; Yabiku, Scott T.


    BACKGROUND The growing prevalence of migrant children in diverse contexts requires a reconsideration of the intergenerational consequences of migration. To understand how migration and duration of residence are associated with children’s schooling, we need more comparative work that can point to the similarities and differences in outcomes for children across contexts. OBJECTIVE This paper addresses the importance of nativity and duration of residence for children’s school enrollment on both sides of a binational migration system: The United States and Mexico. The analyses are designed to determine whether duration of residence has a similar association with school enrollment across these different settings. METHODS The analyses are based on nationally representative household data from the 2010 Mexican Census and the 2006–2010 American Community Survey. Logistic regression models compare school enrollment patterns of Mexican and U.S.-born children of Mexican origin in the United States and those of Mexican and U.S.-born children in Mexico. Interactions for nativity/duration of residence and age are also included. RESULTS The results demonstrate that, adjusting for household resources and household-level migration experience, Mexican-born children in the United States and U.S.-born children in Mexico, particularly those who arrived recently, lag behind in school enrollment. These differences are most pronounced at older ages. CONCLUSIONS The comparisons across migration contexts point to greater school attrition and non-enrollment among older, recent migrant youth, regardless of the context. The interactions suggest that recent migration is associated with lower schooling for youth who engage in migration at older ages in both the United States and Mexico. PMID:28077926


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagoja GESHOSKI


    Full Text Available In special education and rehabilitation a large number of implemented researches on physical and motor development of children with disabilities have been targeted in comparison to development of standards for children with normal development. It is evident that the overall physical and motor development of children with disabilities is unfolding in various pace and it is achieving a different level compared to children with normal development. The theory and practice of special education and rehabilitation takes into account the specifics of the rhythm of physical development, that is predisposed to the biological development plans (regulated by internal factors, but differences in the pace and level of development of children with disabilities require a special research approach, interpretation and application of the results obtained. It is necessary to explain the specifics of the physical and motor development and the impact of sensory, cognitive and motor development disorders on physical growth and motor development among people of different calendar age and its results to be linked to programs for education and rehabilitation.

  19. [Influence of pedagogy on vigilance in school age children]. (United States)

    Zaczyk-Martin, C; Nuttens, M C; Hautekeete, M; Salomez, J L; Lequien, P


    The relationship between vigilance and pedagogy was studied in 3 middle classes of primary school (children aged between 8 and 9 yrs). Three different types of pedagogy, belonging to 3 major pedagogic currents were evaluated: the pedagogy of Maria Montessori, the traditional one and the so-called "open" pedagogy. The vigilance of children was tested with the psychometric test of Zazzo. The rate of performance of the test was significantly different according to the nature of pedagogy after adjustment of the only 2 confusing factors between the 3 schools: the age of the children and the degree of the mother. This difference was in favor of the pedagogy of Maria Montessori compared with the 2 others. It was observed on the results to the tests but also on learning.

  20. De-worming school children and hygiene intervention. (United States)

    Luong, T V


    Helminths or worm infestations refer to worms that live as parasites in the human body and are a fundamental cause of disease associated with health and nutrition problems beyond gastrointestinal tract disturbances. Globally, over 3.5 billion people are infected with intestinal worms, of which 1.47 billion are with roundworm, 1.3 billion people with hookworm and 1.05 billion with whipworm. School children aged 5 - 15 years suffer the highest infection rate and worm burden that attributes to poor sanitation and hygiene. About 400 million school-age children are infected with roundworm, whipworm and hookworm worldwide, a large proportion of whom are found in the East Asia region (Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam). These parasites consume nutrients from children they infect, thus retarding their physical development. They destroy tissues and organs, cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, intestinal obstruction, anaemia, ulcers and other health problems. All of these consequences of infection can slow cognitive development and thus impair learning. De-worming school children by anthelmintic drug treatment is a curative approach for expelling the heavy worm load. However, drug therapy alone is only a short-term measure of reducing worm infection and re-infection is frequent. Control measures through improved sanitation, hygiene and de-worming are needed to prevent infection and re-infection. UNICEF has supported many governments in this (and other) regions to assist in the provision of water supply and sanitary facilities and intensive hygiene education in many schools through the Water, Environment and Sanitation (WES) programme. The UNICEF supported school sanitation and hygiene education (SSHE) programme, and other programmes, could effectively enhance behaviour change in children to break the routes of worm transmission and other waterborne diseases.

  1. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter


    according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification......INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... will not have negative consequences for this group. FUNDING: The Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  2. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens


    Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children's physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining...... participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups...... preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate children's physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development of future...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Khanzada


    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of backache is increasing in children with heavy weighed school bags and abnormal sitting posture both, at home and school. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of this much avoided issue of back pain among school going children of Hyderabad, Sindh. Methodology: 240 pupils (range, 7-14 years old were recruited in their respective schools of Hyderabad city. Inclusions were all the present students on that particular day of data collecting and excluding those who were absent that day. A preformed questionnaire form was filled with all due consent, following which, examination was done to check the parameters of height, weight, BMI, weight of school bag, and posture analysis. Result: The prevalence of back pain was 46.7% among the total 240 subjects studied. Out of which 14.4% boys and 32.3% girls were affected. The majority of affected children were age group of 10-12 years old. In our study 61% children had school bags weighing around 5 kg, which is point to be considered by high officials of Primary Education System in Pakistan. Conclusion: The symptoms of backache were significantly visible in those students carrying heavy bags in proportion to their own weight and BMI. This was also closely related to the time duration, subjects were spending in front of computer/television. After analysis and all, it turned out that a significant number of students were affected by abnormal postures leading to backache-, which may be held equally responsible for further Alleviation of such symptoms later in life.

  4. Factors Related to Overweight in Kindergarten School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helwiah Umniyati


    Full Text Available Obesity has become a significant public health problem of the twenty first century. An increasing number of preschool children are becoming overweight. Although many risk factors have been identified for school-age children, less is known about this young age group. This study was aimed to determine factors associated with overweight among preschool children. Study design was a cross sectional survey. Sample in this study was 90 children aged 3–6 years old in Bina Putik Kindergarten School in Cempaka Putih District (total sampling. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample were 24.4% and 13.3% respectively. There were significant relationships between overweight and some variables using chi-square test such as: age of the children, having overweight parents, nutritional knowledge of the mother, duration of breast feeding, frequency of fast food consumption (p5 years old. It could be concluded that mother’s knowledge on nutrition played an important role in preventing overweight children. Suggested recommendation in order to prevent overweight since childhood was by increasing mother’s knowledge through optimizing relevant programs in the Puskesmas.

  5. The effectiveness of nutrition education programme for primary school children. (United States)

    Ruzita, A T; Wan Azdie, M Ab; Ismail, M N


    This study was conducted to determine changes in nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice of 8-year-old school children after receiving a nutrition education package. A total of 418 school children from urban and rural areas participated in this study. The intervention group consisted of 237 children while 181 children who did not receive the nutrition education package acted as controls. The nutrition education programme that was conducted for 3 weeks comprised of a video viewing session and a comic reading session followed by exercise questions as reinforcement for each session, and also classroom activities. Knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaires were distributed to the children before (pre-intervention) and after (postintervention) receiving the nutrition education programme. A follow-up visit was conducted six months after the programme had elapsed. The results obtained indicated that the nutrition knowledge score increased significantly in the intervention group from 48.3±13.2 at pre-test to 54.6±16.2 in post-test and 55.0±14.3 in follow-up test (ppositive impact whereby better nutrition knowledge, attitude and healthy eating habits in children were seen. It is hoped that the improvements would be sustained throughout their lives.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  7. Determinants of School Enrolment of Children in Slums of Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Nayak


    Full Text Available Introduction: Education plays a vital role to developing a nation. In India, urban slums constituting about 22.6% of the urban population are the poor and socially disadvantaged. This slum community is least concerned for school enrolment of their children inspite of the fact that primary education is compulsory and is free in public schools. In urban areas schools available are mostly of private sector that are not free and beyond affordability to slums; government and corporation schools are few, but beyond reach. Motive of the parents is to involve children in income generating activities and the girls are more deprived of school enrolment in poorer society. Objectives: 1 assess the enrolment status of slum children and 2 determine the factors influencing school enrolment.Methodology: The data was collected during 2011-12 from 15 randomly selected slums out of 227 in which a total of 893 families were contacted and mothers with children aged 5-15 years interrogated. In addition to child history on age, sex and school enrolment, the family background characteristics were e.g. religion, caste, and family size as well as age, education and occupation of both mother & father were recorded.Results: Out of 1145 children, male and female equal represented; mostly (90.9% were Hindus and half were SC/ST class. About 30% father and 57.2% mothers were illiterate; about half fathers were unskilled-worker and 96.0% mother’s house wife. Overall 31.3% children were not enrolled and were decreasing from 49.2% to 24.3% to 21.4% in the age groups 5-6, 7-9 and 10-15 years respectively. Enrolment was poor in Muslims (50.0% compared to Hindus (29.4%; enrolment was similar irrespective of child sex among Hindus, but in Muslims 62.5% male and 35.4% female children were only enrolled. Similar was the situation as one move from SC/ST (67.6% to OBC (73.4% and general caste (77.9%. Education of father and mother had significant role to enrolment but not the age and

  8. The Disadvantage of Homelessness in Children's Schooling. (United States)

    Shaver, Debra M.; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the extent to which homeless children in the United States receive the "free and appropriate education" to which they are entitled. Data were collected through several surveys conducted in two San Francisco Bay Area counties: (1) surveys of parents in homeless shelters with 313…

  9. School and everydaylife - Children in Mongolia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Ambrosius; Nørgaard, E.; Egelund, N.;


    This article comprises the results from a research project carried out in Mongolia from 1994-1999. The study focuses on the changes of children's everydaylife as part of the democratisation and modernisation processes. The data consists of interveiws, classroomobservation and diaries from75 child...

  10. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2008 (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah


    Child Care and Development Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  11. School Gardens: Raising Environmental Awareness in Children. (United States)

    Brynjegard, Shira

    This paper explores the reasons for gardens and natural spaces on school campuses and the effects that such exposure to the natural world has on the students. Blending case studies, observational data, and personal experience, the paper discusses the impacts a garden has on the students who participate in it. During the evolution from rough…

  12. Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinth, Lone


    ’s collaboration and how the institutional demands influence children’s collaborative encounters. The study is based on video recordings of paedagogical activities (workshops and circle times) in two Danish pre-schools over a period of 11 months. Although institutional demands challenge children’s initiatives...

  13. Prevalence of myopia among school going children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B. Hittalamani


    Conclusions: Early diagnosis and visual rehabilitation of myopic students can be achieved by periodic eye examination at regular intervals by school teachers and basic health workers and this can help in preventing the development of amblyopia thereby reducing the burden of morbidity due to myopia. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2786-2790

  14. School functioning in 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization. (United States)

    Wagenaar, Karin; Ceelen, Manon; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Knol, Dirk L; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Huisman, Jaap


    The aim of this study was to examine the school functioning of 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We compared 233 children born after IVF to 233 matched control children born spontaneously from parents with fertility problems on measures of education level, general cognitive ability, school performance (need for extra help, repeating a grade, special education), and rates of learning and developmental disorders. No differences were found between IVF and control children on these measures of school functioning. More than 60% of adolescents at secondary school attended high academic levels (with access to high school or university). We conclude that children and adolescents born after IVF show good academic achievement and general cognitive ability. They do not experience any more educational limitations than the naturally conceived children and adolescents of the control group. The tendency of reassuring school functioning already found in younger IVF children has been shown to continue at secondary school age.

  15. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness

  16. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui


    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  17. Snoring in primary school children and domestic environment: A Perth school based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Andy H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The home is the predominant environment for exposure to many environmental irritants such as air pollutants and allergens. Exposure to common indoor irritants including volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide, may increase the risk of snoring for children. The aim of this study was to investigate domestic environmental factors associated with snoring in children. Methods A school-based respiratory survey was administered during March and April of 2002. Nine hundred and ninety six children from four primary schools within the Perth metropolitan area were recruited for the study. A sub-group of 88 children aged 4–6 years were further selected from this sample for domestic air pollutant assessment. Results The prevalences of infrequent snoring and habitual snoring in primary school children were 24.9% and 15.2% respectively. Passive smoking was found to be a significant risk factor for habitual snoring (odds ratio (OR = 1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.20–2.61, while having pets at home appeared to be protective against habitual snoring (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.37–0.92. Domestic pollutant assessments showed that the prevalence of snoring was significantly associated with exposure to nitrogen dioxide during winter. Relative to the low exposure category (3, the adjusted ORs of snoring by children with medium (30 – 60 μg/m3 and high exposures (> 60 μg/m3 to NO2 were 2.5 (95% CI: 0.7–8.7 and 4.5 (95% CI: 1.4–14.3 respectively. The corresponding linear dose-response trend was also significant (P = 0.011. Conclusion Snoring is common in primary school children. Domestic environments may play a significant role in the increased prevalence of snoring. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide in domestic environment is associated with snoring in children.

  18. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.


    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting General population of 11-15-year-old adolescents

  19. Advising a Bus Company on Number of Needed Buses: How High-School Physics Students' Deal With a "Complex Problem"? (United States)

    Balukovic, Jasmina; Slisko, Josip; Hadzibegovic, Zalkida


    Since 2003, international project PISA evaluates 15-year old students in solving problems that include "decision taking", "analysis and design of systems" and "trouble-shooting". This article presents the results of a pilot research conducted with 215 students from first to fourth grade of a high school in Sarajevo…

  20. Why Are Migrant Students Better off in Certain Types of Educational Systems or Schools than in Others? (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; van der Velden, Rolf; Dunne, Allison


    The main research question of this article is concerned with the combined estimation of the effects of educational systems, school composition, track level, and country of origin on the educational achievement of 15-year-old migrant students. The authors focus specifically on the effects of socioeconomic and ethnic background on achievement scores…