Sample records for 14-mer cuucgg tetraloop

  1. Common and distinctive features of GNRA tetraloops based on a GUAA tetraloop structure at 1.4 A resolution. (United States)

    Correll, Carl C; Swinger, Kerren


    GNRA tetraloops (N is A, C, G, or U; R is A or G) are basic building blocks of RNA structure that often interact with proteins or other RNA structural elements. Understanding sequence-dependent structural variation among different GNRA tetraloops is an important step toward elucidating the molecular basis of specific GNRA tetraloop recognition by proteins and RNAs. Details of the geometry and hydration of this motif have been based on high-resolution crystallographic structures of the GRRA subset of tetraloops; less is known about the GYRA subset (Y is C or U). We report here the structure of a GUAA tetraloop determined to 1.4 A resolution to better define these details and any distinctive features of GYRA tetraloops. The tetraloop is part of a 27-nt structure that mimics the universal sarcin/ricin loop from Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA in which a GUAA tetraloop replaces the conserved GAGA tetraloop. The adenosines of the GUAA tetraloop form an intermolecular contact that is a commonplace RNA tertiary interaction called an A-minor motif. This is the first structure to reveal in great detail the geometry and hydration of a GUAA tetraloop and an A-minor motif. Comparison of tetraloop structures shows a common backbone geometry for each of the eight possible tetraloop sequences and suggests a common hydration. After backbone atom superposition, equivalent bases from different tetraloops unexpectedly depart from coplanarity by as much as 48 degrees. This variation displaces the functional groups of tetraloops implicated in protein and RNA binding, providing a recognition feature.

  2. Free-energy landscape of a hyperstable RNA tetraloop. (United States)

    Miner, Jacob C; Chen, Alan A; García, Angel E


    We report the characterization of the energy landscape and the folding/unfolding thermodynamics of a hyperstable RNA tetraloop obtained through high-performance molecular dynamics simulations at microsecond timescales. Sampling of the configurational landscape is conducted using temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics over three isochores at high, ambient, and negative pressures to determine the thermodynamic stability and the free-energy landscape of the tetraloop. The simulations reveal reversible folding/unfolding transitions of the tetraloop into the canonical A-RNA conformation and the presence of two alternative configurations, including a left-handed Z-RNA conformation and a compact purine Triplet. Increasing hydrostatic pressure shows a stabilizing effect on the A-RNA conformation and a destabilization of the left-handed Z-RNA. Our results provide a comprehensive description of the folded free-energy landscape of a hyperstable RNA tetraloop and highlight the significant advances of all-atom molecular dynamics in describing the unbiased folding of a simple RNA secondary structure motif.

  3. Investigating the thermodynamics of UNCG tetraloops using infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Stancik, Aaron L; Brauns, Eric B


    Using infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy, we have explored the folding thermodynamics of the UNCG class of RNA hairpin tetraloops (N = U, A, C, or G). Without the need to introduce non-native probes, IR spectroscopy makes it possible to distinguish specific structural elements such as base pairing versus base stacking or loop versus stem motions. Our results show that different structural components exhibit different thermodynamics. Specifically, we have found that tetraloop melting proceeds in a thermally sequential fashion, where base pairing in the stem is disrupted before (i.e., at a lower temperature) base stacking along the entire chain. In addition, for N = A, our data argue that the structure immediately surrounding adenine is particularly stable and melts at a higher temperature than either base-pairing or base-stacking interactions. Taken together, these results suggest that hairpin loop formation is not a simple two-state process, even in the equilibrium limit.

  4. Tumor imaging and targeting potential of an Hsp70-derived 14-mer peptide.

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    Mathias Gehrmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously used a unique mouse monoclonal antibody cmHsp70.1 to demonstrate the selective presence of a membrane-bound form of Hsp70 (memHsp70 on a variety of leukemia cells and on single cell suspensions derived from solid tumors of different entities, but not on non-transformed cells or cells from corresponding 'healthy' tissue. This antibody can be used to image tumors in vivo and target them for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Tumor-specific expression of memHsp70 therefore has the potential to be exploited for theranostic purposes. Given the advantages of peptides as imaging and targeting agents, this study assessed whether a 14-mer tumor penetrating peptide (TPP; TKDNNLLGRFELSG, the sequence of which is derived from the oligomerization domain of Hsp70 which is expressed on the cell surface of tumor cells, can also be used for targeting membrane Hsp70 positive (memHsp70+ tumor cells, in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The specificity of carboxy-fluorescein (CF- labeled TPP (TPP to Hsp70 was proven in an Hsp70 knockout mammary tumor cell system. TPP specifically binds to different memHsp70+ mouse and human tumor cell lines and is rapidly taken up via endosomes. Two to four-fold higher levels of CF-labeled TPP were detected in MCF7 (82% memHsp70+ and MDA-MB-231 (75% memHsp70+ cells compared to T47D cells (29% memHsp70+ that exhibit a lower Hsp70 membrane positivity. After 90 min incubation, TPP co-localized with mitochondrial membranes in memHsp70+ tumors. Although there was no evidence that any given vesicle population was specifically localized, fluorophore-labeled cmHsp70.1 antibody and TPP preferentially accumulated in the proximity of the adherent surface of cultured cells. These findings suggest a potential association between membrane Hsp70 expression and cytoskeletal elements that are involved in adherence, the establishment of intercellular synapses and/or membrane reorganization. CONCLUSIONS

  5. Free Energy Landscape of GAGA and UUCG RNA Tetraloops

    CERN Document Server

    Bottaro, Sandro; Sponer, Jiri; Bussi, Giovanni


    We report the folding thermodynamics of ccUUCGgg and ccGAGAgg RNA tetraloops using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We obtain a previously unreported estimation of the folding free energy using parallel tempering in combination with well-tempered metadynamics. A key ingredient is the use of a recently developed metric distance, eRMSD, as a biased collective variable. We find that the native fold of both tetraloops is not the global free energy minimum using the Amber\\c{hi}OL3 force field. The estimated folding free energies are 30.2kJ/mol for UUCG and 7.5 kJ/mol for GAGA, in striking disagreement with experimental data. We evaluate the viability of all possible one-dimensional backbone force field corrections. We find that disfavoring the gauche+ region of {\\alpha} and {\\zeta} angles consistently improves the existing force field. The level of accuracy achieved with these corrections, however, cannot be considered sufficient by judging on the basis of available thermodynamic data and solution experim...

  6. Computer Folding of RNA Tetraloops: Identification of Key Force Field Deficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    Kührová, Petra; Bottaro, Sandro; Bussi, Giovanni; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, Michal; Banáš, Pavel


    The computer-aided folding of biomolecules, particularly RNAs, is one of the most difficult challenges in computational structural biology. RNA tetraloops are fundamental RNA motifs playing key roles in RNA folding and RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions. Although state-of-the-art Molecular Dynamics (MD) force fields correctly describe the native state of these tetraloops as a stable free-energy basin on the microsecond time scale, enhanced sampling techniques reveal that the native state is not the global free energy minimum, suggesting yet unidentified significant imbalances in the force fields. Here, we tested our ability to fold the RNA tetraloops in various force fields and simulation settings. We employed three different enhanced sampling techniques, namely, temperature replica exchange MD (T-REMD), replica exchange with solute tempering (REST2), and well-tempered metadynamics (WT-MetaD). We aimed to separate problems caused by limited sampling from those due to force-field inaccuracies. We found that ...

  7. Bioinformatics and molecular dynamics simulation study of L1 stalk non-canonical rRNA elements: kink-turns, loops, and tetraloops. (United States)

    Krepl, Miroslav; Réblová, Kamila; Koča, Jaroslav; Sponer, Jiří


    The L1 stalk is a prominent mobile element of the large ribosomal subunit. We explore the structure and dynamics of its non-canonical rRNA elements, which include two kink-turns, an internal loop, and a tetraloop. We use bioinformatics to identify the L1 stalk RNA conservation patterns and carry out over 11.5 μs of MD simulations for a set of systems ranging from isolated RNA building blocks up to complexes of L1 stalk rRNA with the L1 protein and tRNA fragment. We show that the L1 stalk tetraloop has an unusual GNNA or UNNG conservation pattern deviating from major GNRA and YNMG RNA tetraloop families. We suggest that this deviation is related to a highly conserved tertiary contact within the L1 stalk. The available X-ray structures contain only UCCG tetraloops which in addition differ in orientation (anti vs syn) of the guanine. Our analysis suggests that the anti orientation might be a mis-refinement, although even the anti interaction would be compatible with the sequence pattern and observed tertiary interaction. Alternatively, the anti conformation may be a real substate whose population could be pH-dependent, since the guanine syn orientation requires protonation of cytosine in the tertiary contact. In absence of structural data, we use molecular modeling to explore the GCCA tetraloop that is dominant in bacteria and suggest that the GCCA tetraloop is structurally similar to the YNMG tetraloop. Kink-turn Kt-77 is unusual due to its 11-nucleotide bulge. The simulations indicate that the long bulge is a stalk-specific eight-nucleotide insertion into consensual kink-turn only subtly modifying its structural dynamics. We discuss a possible evolutionary role of helix H78 and a mechanism of L1 stalk interaction with tRNA. We also assess the simulation methodology. The simulations provide a good description of the studied systems with the latest bsc0χOL3 force field showing improved performance. Still, even bsc0χOL3 is unable to fully stabilize an essential

  8. Structural variation and uniformity among tetraloop-receptor interactions and other loop-helix interactions in RNA crystal structures.

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    Li Wu

    Full Text Available Tetraloop-receptor interactions are prevalent structural units in RNAs, and include the GAAA/11-nt and GNRA-minor groove interactions. In this study, we have compiled a set of 78 nonredundant loop-helix interactions from X-ray crystal structures, and examined them for the extent of their sequence and structural variation. Of the 78 interactions in the set, only four were classical GAAA/11-nt motifs, while over half (48 were GNRA-minor groove interactions. The GNRA-minor groove interactions were not a homogeneous set, but were divided into five subclasses. The most predominant subclass is characterized by two triple base pair interactions in the minor groove, flanked by two ribose zipper contacts. This geometry may be considered the "standard" GNRA-minor groove interaction, while the other four subclasses are alternative ways to form interfaces between a minor groove and tetraloop. The remaining 26 structures in the set of 78 have loops interacting with mostly idiosyncratic receptors. Among the entire set, a number of sequence-structure correlations can be identified, which may be used as initial hypotheses in predicting three-dimensional structures from primary sequences. Conversely, other sequence patterns are not predictive; for example, GAAA loop sequences and GG/CC receptors bind to each other with three distinct geometries. Finally, we observe an example of structural evolution in group II introns, in which loop-receptor motifs are substituted for each other while maintaining the larger three-dimensional geometry. Overall, the study gives a more complete view of RNA loop-helix interactions that exist in nature.

  9. Three-dimensional motifs from the SCOR, structural classification of RNA database: extruded strands, base triples, tetraloops and U-turns. (United States)

    Klosterman, Peter S; Hendrix, Donna K; Tamura, Makio; Holbrook, Stephen R; Brenner, Steven E


    Release 2.0.1 of the Structural Classification of RNA (SCOR) database,, contains a classification of the internal and hairpin loops in a comprehensive collection of 497 NMR and X-ray RNA structures. This report discusses findings of the classification that have not been reported previously. The SCOR database contains multiple examples of a newly described RNA motif, the extruded helical single strand. Internal loop base triples are classified in SCOR according to their three-dimensional context. These internal loop triples contain several examples of a frequently found motif, the minor groove AGC triple. SCOR also presents the predominant and alternate conformations of hairpin loops, as shown in the most well represented tetraloops, with consensus sequences GNRA, UNCG and ANYA. The ubiquity of the GNRA hairpin turn motif is illustrated by its presence in complex internal loops.

  10. Influence of In Vitro IL-2 or IL-15 Alone or in Combination with Hsp 70 Derived 14-Mer Peptide (TKD) on the Expression of NK Cell Activatory and Inhibitory Receptors on Peripheral Blood T Cells, B Cells and NKT Cells. (United States)

    Hromadnikova, Ilona; Li, Shuang; Kotlabova, Katerina; Dickinson, Anne M


    Previous studies from Multhoff and colleagues reported that plasma membrane Hsp70 acts as a tumour-specific recognition structure for activated NK cells, and that the incubation of NK cells with Hsp70 and/or a 14-mer peptide derived from the N-terminal sequence of Hsp70 (TKDNNLLGRFELSG, TKD, aa 450-463) plus a low dose of IL-2 triggers NK cell proliferation and migration, and their capacity to kill cancer cells expressing membrane Hsp70. Herein, we have used flow cytometry to determine the influence of in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals with IL-2 or IL-15, either alone or in combination with TKD peptide on the cell surface expression of CD94, NK cell activatory receptors (CD16, NK2D, NKG2C, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKp80, KIR2DL4, DNAM-1 and LAMP1) and NK cell inhibitory receptors (NKG2A, KIR2DL2/L3, LIR1/ILT-2 and NKR-P1A) by CD3+CD56+ (NKT), CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and CD19+ populations. NKG2D, DNAM-1, LAMP1 and NKR-P1A expression was upregulated after the stimulation with IL-2 or IL-15 alone or in combination with TKD in NKT, CD8+ T cells and B cells. CD94 was upregulated in NKT and CD8+ T cells. Concurrently, an increase in a number of CD8+ T cells expressing LIR1/ILT-2 and CD4+ T cells positive for NKR-P1A was observed. The proportion of CD8+ T cells that expressed NKG2D was higher after IL-2/TKD treatment, when compared with IL-2 treatment alone. In comparison with IL-15 alone, IL-15/TKD treatment increased the proportion of NKT cells that were positive for CD94, LAMP1 and NKRP-1A. The more potent effect of IL-15/TKD on cell surface expression of NKG2D, LIR1/ILT-2 and NKRP-1A was observed in B cells compared with IL-15 alone. However, this increase was not of statistical significance. IL-2/TKD induced significant upregulation of LAMP1 in CD8+ T cells compared with IL-2 alone. Besides NK cells, other immunocompetent cells present within the fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were influenced by the treatment

  11. Influence of In Vitro IL-2 or IL-15 Alone or in Combination with Hsp 70 Derived 14-Mer Peptide (TKD on the Expression of NK Cell Activatory and Inhibitory Receptors on Peripheral Blood T Cells, B Cells and NKT Cells.

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    Ilona Hromadnikova

    Full Text Available Previous studies from Multhoff and colleagues reported that plasma membrane Hsp70 acts as a tumour-specific recognition structure for activated NK cells, and that the incubation of NK cells with Hsp70 and/or a 14-mer peptide derived from the N-terminal sequence of Hsp70 (TKDNNLLGRFELSG, TKD, aa 450-463 plus a low dose of IL-2 triggers NK cell proliferation and migration, and their capacity to kill cancer cells expressing membrane Hsp70. Herein, we have used flow cytometry to determine the influence of in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals with IL-2 or IL-15, either alone or in combination with TKD peptide on the cell surface expression of CD94, NK cell activatory receptors (CD16, NK2D, NKG2C, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKp80, KIR2DL4, DNAM-1 and LAMP1 and NK cell inhibitory receptors (NKG2A, KIR2DL2/L3, LIR1/ILT-2 and NKR-P1A by CD3+CD56+ (NKT, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and CD19+ populations. NKG2D, DNAM-1, LAMP1 and NKR-P1A expression was upregulated after the stimulation with IL-2 or IL-15 alone or in combination with TKD in NKT, CD8+ T cells and B cells. CD94 was upregulated in NKT and CD8+ T cells. Concurrently, an increase in a number of CD8+ T cells expressing LIR1/ILT-2 and CD4+ T cells positive for NKR-P1A was observed. The proportion of CD8+ T cells that expressed NKG2D was higher after IL-2/TKD treatment, when compared with IL-2 treatment alone. In comparison with IL-15 alone, IL-15/TKD treatment increased the proportion of NKT cells that were positive for CD94, LAMP1 and NKRP-1A. The more potent effect of IL-15/TKD on cell surface expression of NKG2D, LIR1/ILT-2 and NKRP-1A was observed in B cells compared with IL-15 alone. However, this increase was not of statistical significance. IL-2/TKD induced significant upregulation of LAMP1 in CD8+ T cells compared with IL-2 alone. Besides NK cells, other immunocompetent cells present within the fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were influenced by

  12. Stable RNA hairpins in 88 coding regions of human mRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Min; WANG Chuanming; LIU Ciquan


    RNA hairpins containing UNCG, GNRA, CUUG (N=A, U, C or G, R=G or A) loops are unusually thermodynamic stable and conserved structures. The structural features of these hairpin loops are very special, and they play very important roles in vivo. They are prevalent in rRNA, catalytic RNA and non-coding mRNA. However, the 5′ C(UUCG)G 3′ hairpin is not found in the folding structure of 88 human mRNA coding regions. It is also different from rRNA in that there is no preference for certain sequences among tetraloops in these 88 mRNA folding structures.

  13. High resolution 4D HPCH experiment for sequential assignment of {sup 13}C-labeled RNAs via phosphodiester backbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Saurabh; Stanek, Jan [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry, Biological and Chemical Research Centre (Poland); Cevec, Mirko; Plavec, Janez [National Institute of Chemistry, Slovenian NMR Centre (Slovenia); Koźmiński, Wiktor, E-mail: [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry, Biological and Chemical Research Centre (Poland)


    The three-dimensional structure determination of RNAs by NMR spectroscopy requires sequential resonance assignment, often hampered by assignment ambiguities and limited dispersion of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shifts, especially of C4′/H4′. Here we present a novel through-bond 4D HPCH NMR experiment involving phosphate backbone where C4′–H4′ correlations are resolved along the {sup 1}H3′–{sup 31}P spectral planes. The experiment provides high peak resolution and effectively removes ambiguities encountered during assignments. Enhanced peak dispersion is provided by the inclusion of additional {sup 31}P and {sup 1}H3′ dimensions and constant-time evolution of chemical shifts. High spectral resolution is obtained by using non-uniform sampling in three indirect dimensions. The experiment fully utilizes the isotopic {sup 13}C-labeling with evolution of C4′ carbons. Band selective {sup 13}C inversion pulses are used to achieve selectivity and prevent signal dephasing due to the C4′–C3′ and C4′–C5′ homonuclear couplings. Multiple quantum line narrowing is employed to minimize sensitivity loses. The 4D HPCH experiment is verified and successfully applied to a non-coding 34-nt RNA consisting typical structure elements and a 14-nt RNA hairpin capped by cUUCGg tetraloop.

  14. Functional roles of a tetraloop/receptor interacting module in a cyclic di-GMP riboswitch. (United States)

    Fujita, Yuki; Tanaka, Takahiro; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya


    Riboswitches are a class of structural RNAs that regulate transcription and translation through specific recognition of small molecules. Riboswitches are attractive not only as drug targets for novel antibiotics but also as modular tools for controlling gene expression. Sequence comparison of a class of riboswitches that sense cyclic di-GMP (type-I c-di-GMP riboswitches) revealed that this type of riboswitch frequently shows a GAAA loop/receptor interaction between P1 and P3 elements. In the crystal structures of a type-I c-di-GMP riboswitch from Vibrio cholerae (the Vc2 riboswitch), the GNRA loop/receptor interaction assembled P2 and P3 stems to organize a ligand-binding pocket. In this study, the functional importance of the GAAA loop-receptor interaction in the Vc2 riboswitch was examined. A series of variant Vc2 riboswitches with mutations in the GAAA loop/receptor interaction were assayed for their switching abilities. In mutants with mutations in the P2 GAAA loop, expression of the reporter gene was reduced to approximately 40% - 60% of that in the wild-type. However, mutants in which the P3 receptor motif was substituted with base pairs were as active as the wild-type. These results suggested that the GAAA loop/receptor interaction does not simply establish the RNA 3D structure but docking of P2 GAAA loop reduces the flexibility of the GAAA receptor motif in the P3 element. This mechanism was supported by a variant riboswitch bearing a theophylline aptamer module in P3 the structural rigidity of which could be modulated by the small molecule theophylline.

  15. Intermolecular interaction between a branching ribozyme and associated homing endonuclease mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisdottir, Asa B; Nielsen, Henrik; Beckert, Bertrand;


    processing site. Upon release, the 5' end of the mRNA forms a distinct hairpin structure termed HEG P1. Our biochemical data, in concert with molecular 3D modelling, provide experimental support for an intermolecular tetraloop receptor interaction between the L9 GAAA in DiGIR1 and a GNRA tetraloop receptor...

  16. The application of cluster analysis in the intercomparison of loop structures in RNA. (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Chung; Nagaswamy, Uma; Fox, George E


    We have developed a computational approach for the comparison and classification of RNA loop structures. Hairpin or interior loops identified in atomic resolution RNA structures were intercompared by conformational matching. The root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) values between all pairs of RNA fragments of interest, even if from different molecules, are calculated. Subsequently, cluster analysis is performed on the resulting matrix of RMSD distances using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The cluster analysis objectively reveals groups of folds that resemble one another. To demonstrate the utility of the approach, a comprehensive analysis of all the terminal hairpin tetraloops that have been observed in 15 RNA structures that have been determined by X-ray crystallography was undertaken. The method found major clusters corresponding to the well-known GNRA and UNCG types. In addition, two tetraloops with the unusual primary sequence UMAC (M is A or C) were successfully assigned to the GNRA cluster. Larger loop structures were also examined and the clustering results confirmed the occurrence of variations of the GNRA and UNCG tetraloops in these loops and provided a systematic means for locating them. Nineteen examples of larger loops that closely resemble either the GNRA or UNCG tetraloop were found in the large ribosomal RNAs. When the clustering approach was extended to include all structures in the SCOR database, novel relationships were detected including one between the ANYA motif and a less common folding of the GAAA tetraloop sequence.

  17. Effect of secondary structure on the thermodynamics and kinetics of PNA hybridization to DNA hairpins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kushon, S A; Jordan, J P; Seifert, J L;


    The binding of a series of PNA and DNA probes to a group of unusually stable DNA hairpins of the tetraloop motif has been observed using absorbance hypochromicity (ABS), circular dichroism (CD), and a colorimetric assay for PNA/DNA duplex detection. These results indicate that both stable PNA...

  18. Hamiltonian replica-exchange in GROMACS: a flexible implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Bussi, Giovanni


    A simple and general implementation of Hamiltonian replica exchange for the popular molecular-dynamics software GROMACS is presented. In this implementation, arbitrarily different Hamiltonians can be used for the different replicas without incurring in any significant performance penalty. The implementation was validated on a simple toy model - alanine dipeptide in water - and applied to study the rearrangement of an RNA tetraloop, where it was used to compare recently proposed force-field corrections.

  19. Hamiltonian replica-exchange in GROMACS: a flexible implementation


    Bussi, Giovanni


    A simple and general implementation of Hamiltonian replica exchange for the popular molecular-dynamics software GROMACS is presented. In this implementation, arbitrarily different Hamiltonians can be used for the different replicas without incurring in any significant performance penalty. The implementation was validated on a simple toy model - alanine dipeptide in water - and applied to study the rearrangement of an RNA tetraloop, where it was used to compare recently proposed force-field co...

  20. NMR structure of stem-loop D from human rhinovirus-14. (United States)

    Headey, Stephen J; Huang, He; Claridge, Jolyon K; Soares, Giselle A; Dutta, Kaushik; Schwalbe, Martin; Yang, Daiwen; Pascal, Steven M


    The 5'-cloverleaf of the picornavirus RNA genome is essential for the assembly of a ribonucleoprotein replication complex. Stem-loop D (SLD) of the cloverleaf is the recognition site for the multifunctional viral protein 3Cpro. This protein is the principal viral protease, and its interaction with SLD also helps to position the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3Dpol) for replication. Human rhinovirus-14 (HRV-14) is distinct from the majority of picornaviruses in that its SLD forms a cUAUg triloop instead of the more common uYACGg tetraloop. This difference appears to be functionally significant, as 3Cpro from tetraloop-containing viruses cannot bind the HRV-14 SLD. We have determined the solution structure of the HRV-14 SLD using NMR spectroscopy. The structure is predominantly an A-form helix, but with a central pyrimidine-pyrimidine base-paired region and a significantly widened major groove. The stabilizing hydrogen bonding present in the uYACGg tetraloop was not found in the cUAUg triloop. However, the triloop uses different structural elements to present a largely similar surface: sequence and underlying architecture are not conserved, but key aspects of the surface structure are. Important structural differences do exist, though, and may account for the observed cross-isotype binding specificities between 3Cpro and SLD.

  1. Evaluation of The Interaction between Netropsin and Double Stranded DNA by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was applied to study the interaction between netropsin and a 14mer double stranded DNA (dsDNA). The binding constant of this interaction calculated from Scatchard plot was (1.07±0.10)×105 (mol/L)-1. The binding stoichiometry was 1:1. The use of polyacrylamide coated capillary showed better effect in the analysis of DNA than noncoated capillary.

  2. Single nucleotide RNA choreography. (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiaolong; Mohan, Srividya; Hershkovitz, Eli; Tannenbaum, Allen; Williams, Loren Dean


    New structural analysis methods, and a tree formalism re-define and expand the RNA motif concept, unifying what previously appeared to be disparate groups of structures. We find RNA tetraloops at high frequencies, in new contexts, with unexpected lengths, and in novel topologies. The results, with broad implications for RNA structure in general, show that even at this most elementary level of organization, RNA tolerates astounding variation in conformation, length, sequence and context. However the variation is not random; it is well-described by four distinct modes, which are 3-2 switches (backbone topology variations), insertions, deletions and strand clips.

  3. α-Pheromone-Induced “Shmooing” and Gene Regulation Require White-Opaque Switching during Candida albicans Mating


    Lockhart, Shawn R.; Zhao, Rui; Daniels, Karla J.; Soll, David R.


    A 14-mer α-pheromone peptide of Candida albicans was chemically synthesized and used to analyze the role of white-opaque switching in the mating process. The α-pheromone peptide blocked cell multiplication and induced “shmooing” in a/a cells expressing the opaque-phase phenotype but not in a/a cells expressing the white-phase phenotype. The α-pheromone peptide induced these effects at 25°C but not at 37°C. An analysis of mating-associated gene expression revealed several categories of gene re...

  4. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes with short peptide fragments from class IIa bacteriocins as recognition elements. (United States)

    Azmi, Sarfuddin; Jiang, Keren; Stiles, Michael; Thundat, Thomas; Kaur, Kamaljit


    We employed a direct peptide-bacteria binding assay to screen peptide fragments for high and specific binding to Listeria monocytogenes. Peptides were screened from a peptide array library synthesized on cellulose membrane. Twenty four peptide fragments (each a 14-mer) were derived from three potent anti-listerial peptides, Leucocin A, Pediocin PA1, and Curvacin A, that belong to class IIa bacteriocins. Fragment Leu10 (GEAFSAGVHRLANG), derived from the C-terminal region of Leucocin A, displayed the highest binding among all of the library fragments toward several pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, including L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The specific binding of Leu10 to L. monocytogenes was further validated using microcantilever (MCL) experiments. Microcantilevers coated with gold were functionalized with peptides by chemical conjugation using a cysteamine linker to yield a peptide density of ∼4.8×10(-3) μmol/cm2 for different peptide fragments. Leu10 (14-mer) functionalized MCL was able to detect Listeria with same sensitivity as that of Leucocin A (37-mer) functionalized MCL, validating the use of short peptide fragments in bacterial detection platforms. Fragment Leu10 folded into a helical conformation in solution, like that of native Leucocin A, suggesting that both Leu10 and Leucocin A may employ a similar mechanism for binding target bacteria. The results show that peptide-conjugated microcantilevers can function as highly sensitive platforms for Listeria detection and hold potential to be developed as biosensors for pathogenic bacteria.

  5. Identification of a CD4 T-cell epitope in tumor rejection antigen RLakt on BALB/c radiation-leukemia RL male 1. (United States)

    Kaya, Savas; Uenaka, Akiko; Sato, Shuichiro; Ono, Toshiro; Aji, Toshiki; Nakayama, Eiichi


    We have previously shown that the RLakt antigen was predominantly recognized by CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in RL male 1-bearing or -rejected syngeneic BALB/c mice. CD8 CTL were directed to the octamer pRL1a peptide IPGLPLSL of which recognition was H-2L(d)-restricted. In this study, we identified a CD4 T-cell epitope peptide in the tumor rejection antigen RLakt on BALB/c radiation-leukemia RL male 1. Analyses of the recognition of a bulk CD4 T-cell line using several recombinant RLakt proteins suggested the presence of multiple CD4 T-cell epitopes in the molecule. However, cloning from a bulk CD4 T-cell line resulted in only two clones from 200 wells seeded at three cells per well, and those two CD4 T-cell clones recognized the same epitope peptide in RLakt. The epitope peptide was 14-mer p12-25, AYREETLSIIPGLP, and its recognition was H-2IA(d)-restricted. This sequence overlapped with the CD8 T-cell epitope pRL1a in its N-terminal 5 amino acid residues. The relationship of the epitope to the pRL1a peptide predominantly recognized by CD8 CTL suggests that the 14-mer epitope is predominantly recognized by CD4 T-cells.

  6. Four small puzzles that Rosetta doesn't solve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiju Das

    Full Text Available A complete macromolecule modeling package must be able to solve the simplest structure prediction problems. Despite recent successes in high resolution structure modeling and design, the Rosetta software suite fares poorly on small protein and RNA puzzles, some as small as four residues. To illustrate these problems, this manuscript presents Rosetta results for four well-defined test cases: the 20-residue mini-protein Trp cage, an even smaller disulfide-stabilized conotoxin, the reactive loop of a serine protease inhibitor, and a UUCG RNA tetraloop. In contrast to previous Rosetta studies, several lines of evidence indicate that conformational sampling is not the major bottleneck in modeling these small systems. Instead, approximations and omissions in the Rosetta all-atom energy function currently preclude discriminating experimentally observed conformations from de novo models at atomic resolution. These molecular "puzzles" should serve as useful model systems for developers wishing to make foundational improvements to this powerful modeling suite.

  7. Revisiting GNRA and UNCG folds: U-turns versus Z-turns in RNA hairpin loops (United States)


    When thinking about RNA three-dimensional structures, coming across GNRA and UNCG tetraloops is perceived as a boon since their folds have been extensively described. Nevertheless, analyzing loop conformations within RNA and RNP structures led us to uncover several instances of GNRA and UNCG loops that do not fold as expected. We noticed that when a GNRA does not assume its “natural” fold, it adopts the one we typically associate with a UNCG sequence. The same folding interconversion may occur for loops with UNCG sequences, for instance within tRNA anticodon loops. Hence, we show that some structured tetranucleotide sequences starting with G or U can adopt either of these folds. The underlying structural basis that defines these two fold types is the mutually exclusive stacking of a backbone oxygen on either the first (in GNRA) or the last nucleobase (in UNCG), generating an oxygen–π contact. We thereby propose to refrain from using sequences to distinguish between loop conformations. Instead, we suggest using descriptors such as U-turn (for “GNRA-type” folds) and a newly described Z-turn (for “UNCG-type” folds). Because tetraloops adopt for the largest part only two (inter)convertible turns, we are better able to interpret from a structural perspective loop interchangeability occurring in ribosomes and viral RNA. In this respect, we propose a general view on the inclination for a given sequence to adopt (or not) a specific fold. We also suggest how long-noncoding RNAs may adopt discrete but transient structures, which are therefore hard to predict. PMID:27999116

  8. Crystallization of a member of the recFOR DNA repair pathway, RecO, with and without bound oligonucleotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aono, Shelly; Hartsch, Thomas; Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula


    RecFOR proteins are important for DNA repair by homologous recombination in bacteria. The RecO protein from Thermus thermophilus was cloned, purified and characterized for its binding to oligonucleotides. The protein was crystallized alone and in complex with a 14-mer oligonucleotide. Both crystal forms grow under different crystallization conditions in the same space group, P3121 or P3221, with almost identical unit cell parameters. Complete data sets were collected to 2.8 Angstrom and 2.5 Angstrom for RecO alone and the RecO-oligonucleotide complex, respectively. Visual comparison of the diffraction patterns between the two crystal forms and calculation of an Rmerge of 33.9 percent on F indicate that one of the crystal forms is indeed a complex of RecO with bound oligonucleotide.

  9. Bran data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and profiles of proanthocyanidins and whole grain physical traits of 32 red and purple rice varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsuan Chen


    Full Text Available Phytochemicals in red and purple bran rice have potential health benefit to humans. We determined the phytochemicals in brans of 32 red and purple global rice varieties. The description of the origin and physical traits of the whole grain (color, length, width, thickness and 100-kernel weight of this germplasm collection are provided along with data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total proanthocyanidin contents. The contents and proportions of individual oligomers, from degree of polymerization of monomers to 14-mers, and polymers in bran of these 32 rice varieties are presented (DOI: [1].

  10. Study of Interaction between Red-tide Toxin, Domoic Acid and Double -stranded DNA by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da Zhi LI; Xin Ya HE; Hui WANG; Li SUN; Bing Cheng LIN


    The interactions between amnesic red-tide toxin, domoic acid (DA) and 14mer double-stranded DNA (dsDNA with three kinds of sequences) were studied by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). For the dsDNA with a sequence of 5'-CCCCCTATACCCGC-3', the amount of free dsDNA decreases with the increase of added DA; and the signal of DA-dsDNA complex was observed. Meanwhile, the other two dsDNAs, 5'-(C)12GC-3' and 5'-(AT)7-3', the existence of DA could not lead to the change of dsDNA signal and indicated that there is no interaction between DA and these two dsDNAs.

  11. An oligodeoxyribonucleotide that supports catalytic activity in the hammerhead ribozyme domain. (United States)

    Chartrand, P; Harvey, S C; Ferbeyre, G; Usman, N; Cedergren, R


    A study of the activity of deoxyribonucleotide-substituted analogs of the hammerhead domain of RNA catalysis has led to the design of a 14mer oligomer composed entirely of deoxyribonucleotides that promotes the cleavage of an RNA substrate. Characterization of this reaction with sequence variants and mixed DNA/RNA oligomers shows that, although the all-deoxyribonucleotide oligomer is less efficient in catalysis, the DNA/substrate complex shares many of the properties of the all-RNA hammerhead domain such as multiple turnover kinetics and dependence on Mg2+ concentration. On the other hand, the values of kinetic parameters distinguish the DNA oligomer from the all-RNA oligomer. In addition, an analog of the oligomer having a single ribonucleotide in a strongly conserved position of the hammerhead domain is associated with more efficient catalysis than the all-RNA oligomer.

  12. Structure dependent spin selectivity in electron transport through oligopeptides (United States)

    Kiran, Vankayala; Cohen, Sidney R.; Naaman, Ron


    The chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect entails spin-selective electron transmission through chiral molecules. In the present study, the spin filtering ability of chiral, helical oligopeptide monolayers of two different lengths is demonstrated using magnetic conductive probe atomic force microscopy. Spin-specific nanoscale electron transport studies elucidate that the spin polarization is higher for 14-mer oligopeptides than that of the 10-mer. We also show that the spin filtering ability can be tuned by changing the tip-loading force applied on the molecules. The spin selectivity decreases with increasing applied force, an effect attributed to the increased ratio of radius to pitch of the helix upon compression and increased tilt angles between the molecular axis and the surface normal. The method applied here provides new insights into the parameters controlling the CISS effect.

  13. Transient formation of nano-crystalline structures during fibrillation of an Abeta-like peptide. (United States)

    Otzen, Daniel E; Oliveberg, Mikael


    During the first few minutes of fibrillation of a 14-residue peptide homologous to the hydrophobic C-terminal part of the Abeta-peptide, EM micrographs reveal small crystalline areas (100 to 150 nm, repeating unit 47 A) scattered in more amorphous material. On a longer time scale, these crystalline areas disappear and are replaced by tangled clusters resembling protofilaments (hours), and eventually by more regular amyloid fibrils of 60 A to 120 A diameter (days). The transient population of the crystalline areas indicates the presence of ordered substructures in the early fibrillation process, the diameter of which matches the length of the 14-mer peptide in an extended beta-strand conformation.

  14. One-end immobilization of individual DNA molecules on a functional hydrophobic glass surface. (United States)

    Matsuura, Shun-ichi; Kurita, Hirofumi; Nakano, Michihiko; Komatsu, Jun; Takashima, Kazunori; Katsura, Shinji; Mizuno, Akira


    We demonstrate an effective method for DNA immobilization on a hydrophobic glass surface. The new DNA immobilizing technique is extremely simple compared with conventional techniques that require heterobifunctional crosslinking reagent between DNA and substrate surface that are both modified chemically. In the first process, a coverslip was treated with dichlorodimethylsilane resulting in hydrophobic surface. lambda DNA molecules were ligated with 3'-terminus disulfide-modified 14 mer oligonucleotides at one cohesive end. After reduction of the disulfide to sulfhydryl (thiol) groups the resulting thiol-modified lambda DNA molecules were reacted on silanized coverslip. Fluorescent observation showed that the thiol-modified lambda DNA molecules were anchored specifically to the hydrophobic surface at one terminus, although non-specific binding of the DNA molecules was suppressed. It was observed that the one-end-attached DNA molecule was bound firmly to the surface and stretched reversibly in one direction when a d.c. electric field was applied.

  15. Biopanning and characterization of peptides with Fe3O4 nanoparticles-binding capability via phage display random peptide library technique. (United States)

    You, Fei; Yin, Guangfu; Pu, Ximing; Li, Yucan; Hu, Yang; Huang, Zhongbin; Liao, Xiaoming; Yao, Yadong; Chen, Xianchun


    Functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) play an important role in biomedical applications. A proper functionalization of NPs can improve biocompatibility, avoid a loss of bioactivity, and further endow NPs with unique performances. Modification with vairous specific binding biomolecules from random biological libraries has been explored. In this work, two 7-mer peptides with sequences of HYIDFRW and TVNFKLY were selected from a phage display random peptide library by using ferromagnetic NPs as targets, and were verified to display strong binding affinity to Fe3O4 NPs. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, fluorescence microscopy, thermal analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of peptides on the surface of Fe3O4 NPs. Sequence analyses revealed that the probable binding mechanism between the peptide and Fe3O4 NPs might be driven by Pearson hard acid-hard base specific interaction and hydrogen bonds, accompanied with hydrophilic interactions and non-specific electrostatic attractions. The cell viability assay indicated a good cytocompatibility of peptide-bound Fe3O4 NPs. Furthermore, TVNFKLY peptide and an ovarian tumor cell A2780 specific binding peptide (QQTNWSL) were conjugated to afford a liner 14-mer peptide (QQTNWSLTVNFKLY). The binding and targeting studies showed that 14-mer peptide was able to retain both the strong binding ability to Fe3O4 NPs and the specific binding ability to A2780 cells. The results suggested that the Fe3O4-binding peptides would be of great potential in the functionalization of Fe3O4 NPs for the tumor-targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia.

  16. Replication bypass of the trans-4-Hydroxynonenal-derived (6S,8R,11S)-1,N(2)-deoxyguanosine DNA adduct by the sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV. (United States)

    Banerjee, Surajit; Christov, Plamen P; Kozekova, Albena; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Egli, Martin; Stone, Michael P


    trans-4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is the major peroxidation product of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in vivo. Michael addition of the N(2)-amino group of dGuo to HNE followed by ring closure of N1 onto the aldehyde results in four diastereomeric 1,N(2)-dGuo (1,N(2)-HNE-dGuo) adducts. The (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo adduct was incorporated into the 18-mer templates 5'-d(TCATXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3' and d(TCACXGAATCCTTCCCCC)-3', where X = (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo adduct. These differed in the identity of the template 5'-neighbor base, which was either Thy or Cyt, respectively. Each of these templates was annealed with either a 13-mer primer 5'-d(GGGGGAAGGATTC)-3' or a 14-mer primer 5'-d(GGGGGAAGGATTCC)-3'. The addition of dNTPs to the 13-mer primer allowed analysis of dNTP insertion opposite to the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo adduct, whereas the 14-mer primer allowed analysis of dNTP extension past a primed (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo:dCyd pair. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) belongs to the Y-family of error-prone polymerases. Replication bypass studies in vitro reveal that this polymerase inserted dNTPs opposite the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo adduct in a sequence-specific manner. If the template 5'-neighbor base was dCyt, the polymerase inserted primarily dGTP, whereas if the template 5'-neighbor base was dThy, the polymerase inserted primarily dATP. The latter event would predict low levels of Gua → Thy mutations during replication bypass when the template 5'-neighbor base is dThy. When presented with a primed (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo:dCyd pair, the polymerase conducted full-length primer extension. Structures for ternary (Dpo4-DNA-dNTP) complexes with all four template-primers were obtained. For the 18-mer:13-mer template-primers in which the polymerase was confronted with the (6S,8R,11S)-HNE-1,N(2)-dGuo adduct, the (6S,8R,11S)-1,N(2)-dGuo lesion remained in the ring-closed conformation at the active site. The incoming dNTP, either d

  17. Characterization of the kinetic and thermodynamic landscape of RNA folding using a novel application of isothermal titration calorimetry. (United States)

    Vander Meulen, Kirk A; Butcher, Samuel E


    A novel isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) method was applied to investigate RNA helical packing driven by the GAAA tetraloop-receptor interaction in magnesium and potassium solutions. Both the kinetics and thermodynamics were obtained in individual ITC experiments, and analysis of the kinetic data over a range of temperatures provided Arrhenius activation energies (ΔH(‡)) and Eyring transition state entropies (ΔS(‡)). The resulting rich dataset reveals strongly contrasting kinetic and thermodynamic profiles for this RNA folding system when stabilized by potassium versus magnesium. In potassium, association is highly exothermic (ΔH(25°C) = -41.6 ± 1.2 kcal/mol in 150 mM KCl) and the transition state is enthalpically barrierless (ΔH(‡) = -0.6 ± 0.5). These parameters are significantly positively shifted in magnesium (ΔH(25°C) = -20.5 ± 2.1 kcal/mol, ΔH(‡) = 7.3 ± 2.2 kcal/mol in 0.5 mM MgCl(2)). Mixed salt solutions approximating physiological conditions exhibit an intermediate thermodynamic character. The cation-dependent thermodynamic landscape may reflect either a salt-dependent unbound receptor conformation, or alternatively and more generally, it may reflect a small per-cation enthalpic penalty associated with folding-coupled magnesium uptake.

  18. Prediction of hydrogen and carbon chemical shifts from RNA using database mining and support vector regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Joshua D.; Summers, Michael F. [University of Maryland Baltimore County, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); Johnson, Bruce A., E-mail: [University of Maryland Baltimore County, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)


    The Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank (BMRB) contains NMR chemical shift depositions for over 200 RNAs and RNA-containing complexes. We have analyzed the {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C chemical shifts reported for non-exchangeable protons of 187 of these RNAs. Software was developed that downloads BMRB datasets and corresponding PDB structure files, and then generates residue-specific attributes based on the calculated secondary structure. Attributes represent properties present in each sequential stretch of five adjacent residues and include variables such as nucleotide type, base-pair presence and type, and tetraloop types. Attributes and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR chemical shifts of the central nucleotide are then used as input to train a predictive model using support vector regression. These models can then be used to predict shifts for new sequences. The new software tools, available as stand-alone scripts or integrated into the NMR visualization and analysis program NMRViewJ, should facilitate NMR assignment and/or validation of RNA {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shifts. In addition, our findings enabled the re-calibration a ring-current shift model using published NMR chemical shifts and high-resolution X-ray structural data as guides.

  19. Structural basis for piRNA 2'-O-methylated 3'-end recognition by Piwi PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domains. (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Simanshu, Dhirendra K; Ma, Jin-Biao; Patel, Dinshaw J


    Argonaute and Piwi proteins are key players in the RNA silencing pathway, with the former interacting with micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and siRNAs, whereas the latter targets piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that are 2'-O-methylated (2(')-OCH(3)) at their 3' ends. Germline-specific piRNAs and Piwi proteins play a critical role in genome defense against transposable elements, thereby protecting the genome against transposon-induced defects in gametogenesis and fertility. Humans contain four Piwi family proteins designated Hiwi1, Hiwi2, Hiwi3, and Hili. We report on the structures of Hili-PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domain in the free state and Hiwi1 PAZ domain bound to self-complementary 14-mer RNAs (12-bp + 2-nt overhang) containing 2(')-OCH(3) and 2'-OH at their 3' ends. These structures explain the molecular basis underlying accommodation of the 2(')-OCH(3) group within a preformed Hiwi1 PAZ domain binding pocket, whose hydrophobic characteristics account for the preferential binding of 2(')-OCH(3) over 2'-OH 3' ends. These results contrast with the more restricted binding pocket for the human Ago1 PAZ domain, which exhibits a reverse order, with preferential binding of 2'-OH over 2(')-OCH(3) 3' ends.

  20. Quantitative analysis of the ion-dependent folding stability of DNA triplexes. (United States)

    Chen, Gengsheng; Chen, Shi-Jie


    A DNA triplex is formed through binding of a third strand to the major groove of a duplex. Due to the high charge density of a DNA triplex, metal ions are critical for its stability. We recently developed the tightly bound ion (TBI) model for ion-nucleic acids interactions. The model accounts for the potential correlation and fluctuations of the ion distribution. We now apply the TBI model to analyze the ion dependence of the thermodynamic stability for DNA triplexes. We focus on two experimentally studied systems: a 24-base DNA triplex and a pair of interacting 14-base triplexes. Our theoretical calculations for the number of bound ions indicate that the TBI model provides improved predictions for the number of bound ions than the classical Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation. The improvement is more significant for a triplex, which has a higher charge density than a duplex. This is possibly due to the higher ion concentration around the triplex and hence a stronger ion correlation effect for a triplex. In addition, our analysis for the free energy landscape for a pair of 14-mer triplexes immersed in an ionic solution shows that divalent ions could induce an attractive force between the triplexes. Furthermore, we investigate how the protonated cytosines in the triplexes affect the stability of the triplex helices.

  1. Inhibition of SERPINe1 reduces rhabdoviral infections in zebrafish. (United States)

    Estepa, Amparo; Coll, Julio


    While exploring the molecular mechanisms behind the fin hemorrhages that follow zebrafish (Danio rerio) early infection with viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), we discovered that most serpin (serine protease inhibitor) gene transcripts were upregulated, except those of serpine1. Surprisingly, only SERPINe1-derived 14-mer peptide and low molecular weight drugs targeting SERPINe1 (i.e. tannic acid, EGCG, tiplaxtinin) inhibited in vitro infections not only of VHSV, but also of other fish rhabdoviruses such as infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and spring viremia carp virus (SVCV). While the mechanisms that inhibited rhabdoviral infections remain speculative, these and other results suggested that SERPINEe1-derived peptide specifically targeted viral infectivity rather than virions. Practical applications might be developed from these studies since preliminary evidences showed that tannic acid could be used to reduce VHSV-caused mortalities. These studies are an example of how the identification of host genes targeted by viral infections using microarrays might facilitate the identification of novel prevention drugs in aquaculture and illuminate viral infection mechanisms.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the DNA-binding domain of AdpA, the central transcription factor in the A-factor regulatory cascade in the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces griseus, in complex with a duplex DNA. (United States)

    Yao, Ming Dong; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Ohtsuka, Jun; Hirano, Setsu; Nagata, Koji; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Tanokura, Masaru


    Streptomyces griseus AdpA is the central transcription factor in the A-factor regulatory cascade and activates a number of genes that are required for both secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation, leading to the onset of streptomycin biosynthesis as well as aerial mycelium formation and sporulation. The DNA-binding domain of AdpA consists of two helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motifs and shows low nucleotide-sequence specificity. To reveal the molecular basis of the low nucleotide-sequence specificity, an attempt was made to obtain cocrystals of the DNA-binding domain of AdpA and several kinds of duplex DNA. The best diffracting crystal was obtained using a 14-mer duplex DNA with two-nucleotide overhangs at the 5'-ends. The crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 76.86, b = 100.96, c = 101.25 Å. The Matthews coefficient (V(M) = 3.71 Å(3) Da(-1)) indicated that the crystal was most likely to contain one DNA-binding domain of AdpA and one duplex DNA in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 66.8%.

  3. A temperature-jump NMR probe setup using rf heating optimized for the analysis of temperature-induced biomacromolecular kinetic processes (United States)

    Rinnenthal, Jörg; Wagner, Dominic; Marquardsen, Thorsten; Krahn, Alexander; Engelke, Frank; Schwalbe, Harald


    A novel temperature jump (T-jump) probe operational at B0 fields of 600 MHz (14.1 Tesla) with an integrated cage radio-frequency (rf) coil for rapid (HR) liquid-state NMR-spectroscopy is presented and its performance investigated. The probe consists of an inner 2.5 mm "heating coil" designed for generating rf-electric fields of 190-220 MHz across a lossy dielectric sample and an outer two coil assembly for 1H-, 2H- and 15N-nuclei. High B0 field homogeneities (0.7 Hz at 600 MHz) are combined with high heating rates (20-25 K/s) and only small temperature gradients (NMR console and can therefore easily be accessed by the pulse programmer. Furthermore, implementation of a real-time setup including synchronization of the NMR spectrometer's air flow heater with the rf-heater used to maintain the temperature of the sample is described. Finally, the applicability of the real-time T-jump setup for the investigation of biomolecular kinetic processes in the second-to-minute timescale is demonstrated for samples of a model 14mer DNA hairpin and a 15N-selectively labeled 40nt hsp17-RNA thermometer.

  4. Transition State Structure of RNA Depurination by Saporin L3. (United States)

    Yuan, Hongling; Stratton, Christopher F; Schramm, Vern L


    Saporin L3 from the leaves of the common soapwort is a catalyst for hydrolytic depurination of adenine from RNA. Saporin L3 is a type 1 ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) composed only of a catalytic domain. Other RIPs have been used in immunotoxin cancer therapy, but off-target effects have limited their development. In the current study, we use transition state theory to understand the chemical mechanism and transition state structure of saporin L3. In favorable cases, transition state structures guide the design of transition state analogues as inhibitors. Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were determined for an A14C mutant of saporin L3. To permit KIE measurements, small stem-loop RNAs that contain an AGGG tetraloop structure were enzymatically synthesized with the single adenylate bearing specific isotopic substitutions. KIEs were measured and corrected for forward commitment to obtain intrinsic values. A model of the transition state structure for depurination of stem-loop RNA (5'-GGGAGGGCCC-3') by saporin L3 was determined by matching KIE values predicted via quantum chemical calculations to a family of intrinsic KIEs. This model indicates saporin L3 displays a late transition state with the N-ribosidic bond to the adenine nearly cleaved, and the attacking water nucleophile weakly bonded to the ribosyl anomeric carbon. The transition state retains partial ribocation character, a feature common to most N-ribosyl transferases. However, the transition state geometry for saporin L3 is distinct from ricin A-chain, the only other RIP whose transition state is known.

  5. The Runt domain of AML1 (RUNX1) binds a sequence-conserved RNA motif that mimics a DNA element (United States)

    Fukunaga, Junichi; Nomura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Amano, Ryo; Tanaka, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Gota; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kozu, Tomoko


    AML1 (RUNX1) is a key transcription factor for hematopoiesis that binds to the Runt-binding double-stranded DNA element (RDE) of target genes through its N-terminal Runt domain. Aberrations in the AML1 gene are frequently found in human leukemia. To better understand AML1 and its potential utility for diagnosis and therapy, we obtained RNA aptamers that bind specifically to the AML1 Runt domain. Enzymatic probing and NMR analyses revealed that Apt1-S, which is a truncated variant of one of the aptamers, has a CACG tetraloop and two stem regions separated by an internal loop. All the isolated aptamers were found to contain the conserved sequence motif 5′-NNCCAC-3′ and 5′-GCGMGN′N′-3′ (M:A or C; N and N′ form Watson–Crick base pairs). The motif contains one AC mismatch and one base bulged out. Mutational analysis of Apt1-S showed that three guanines of the motif are important for Runt binding as are the three guanines of RDE, which are directly recognized by three arginine residues of the Runt domain. Mutational analyses of the Runt domain revealed that the amino acid residues used for Apt1-S binding were similar to those used for RDE binding. Furthermore, the aptamer competed with RDE for binding to the Runt domain in vitro. These results demonstrated that the Runt domain of the AML1 protein binds to the motif of the aptamer that mimics DNA. Our findings should provide new insights into RNA function and utility in both basic and applied sciences. PMID:23709277

  6. Processing of nuclear viroids in vivo: an interplay between RNA conformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Eugenia Gas


    Full Text Available Replication of viroids, small non-protein-coding plant pathogenic RNAs, entails reiterative transcription of their incoming single-stranded circular genomes, to which the (+ polarity is arbitrarily assigned, cleavage of the oligomeric strands of one or both polarities to unit-length, and ligation to circular RNAs. While cleavage in chloroplastic viroids (family Avsunviroidae is mediated by hammerhead ribozymes, where and how cleavage of oligomeric (+ RNAs of nuclear viroids (family Pospiviroidae occurs in vivo remains controversial. Previous in vitro data indicated that a hairpin capped by a GAAA tetraloop is the RNA motif directing cleavage and a loop E motif ligation. Here we have re-examined this question in vivo, taking advantage of earlier findings showing that dimeric viroid (+ RNAs of the family Pospiviroidae transgenically expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana are processed correctly. Using this methodology, we have mapped the processing site of three members of this family at equivalent positions of the hairpin I/double-stranded structure that the upper strand and flanking nucleotides of the central conserved region (CCR can form. More specifically, from the effects of 16 mutations on Citrus exocortis viroid expressed transgenically in A. thaliana, we conclude that the substrate for in vivo cleavage is the conserved double-stranded structure, with hairpin I potentially facilitating the adoption of this structure, whereas ligation is determined by loop E and flanking nucleotides of the two CCR strands. These results have deep implications on the underlying mechanism of both processing reactions, which are most likely catalyzed by enzymes different from those generally assumed: cleavage by a member of the RNase III family, and ligation by an RNA ligase distinct from the only one characterized so far in plants, thus predicting the existence of at least a second plant RNA ligase.

  7. Molecular recognition of DNA by ligands: roughness and complexity of the free energy profile. (United States)

    Zheng, Wenwei; Vargiu, Attilio Vittorio; Vargiu, Attlio Vittorio; Rohrdanz, Mary A; Carloni, Paolo; Clementi, Cecilia


    Understanding the molecular mechanism by which probes and chemotherapeutic agents bind to nucleic acids is a fundamental issue in modern drug design. From a computational perspective, valuable insights are gained by the estimation of free energy landscapes as a function of some collective variables (CVs), which are associated with the molecular recognition event. Unfortunately the choice of CVs is highly non-trivial because of DNA's high flexibility and the presence of multiple association-dissociation events at different locations and/or sliding within the grooves. Here we have applied a modified version of Locally-Scaled Diffusion Map (LSDMap), a nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique for decoupling multiple-timescale dynamics in macromolecular systems, to a metadynamics-based free energy landscape calculated using a set of intuitive CVs. We investigated the binding of the organic drug anthramycin to a DNA 14-mer duplex. By performing an extensive set of metadynamics simulations, we observed sliding of anthramycin along the full-length DNA minor groove, as well as several detachments from multiple sites, including the one identified by X-ray crystallography. As in the case of equilibrium processes, the LSDMap analysis is able to extract the most relevant collective motions, which are associated with the slow processes within the system, i.e., ligand diffusion along the minor groove and dissociation from it. Thus, LSDMap in combination with metadynamics (and possibly every equivalent method) emerges as a powerful method to describe the energetics of ligand binding to DNA without resorting to intuitive ad hoc reaction coordinates.

  8. The Impact of Chain Length and Flexibility in the Interaction between Sulfated Alginates and HGF and FGF-2. (United States)

    Arlov, Øystein; Aachmann, Finn L; Feyzi, Emadoldin; Sundan, Anders; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund


    Alginate is a promising polysaccharide for use in biomaterials as it is biologically inert. One way to functionalize alginate is by chemical sulfation to emulate sulfated glycosaminoglycans, which interact with a variety of proteins critical for tissue development and homeostasis. In the present work we studied the impact of chain length and flexibility of sulfated alginates for interactions with FGF-2 and HGF. Both growth factors interact with defined sequences of heparan sulfate (HS) at the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. Whereas FGF-2 interacts with a pentasaccharide sequence containing a critical 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid, HGF has been suggested to require a highly sulfated HS/heparin octasaccharide. Here, oligosaccharides of alternating mannuronic and guluronic acid (MG) were sulfated and assessed by their relative efficacy at releasing growth factor bound to the surface of myeloma cells. 8-mers of sulfated MG (SMG) alginate showed significant HGF release compared to shorter fragments, while the maximum efficacy was achieved at a chain length average of 14 monosaccharides. FGF-2 release required a higher concentration of the SMG fragments, and the 14-mer was less potent compared to an equally sulfated high-molecular weight SMG. Sulfated mannuronan (SM) was subjected to periodate oxidation to increase chain flexibility. To assess the change in flexibility, the persistence length was estimated by SEC-MALLS analysis and the Bohdanecky approach to the worm-like chain model. A high degree of oxidation of SM resulted in approximately twice as potent HGF release compared to the nonoxidized SM alginate. The release of FGF-2 also increased with the degree of oxidation, but to a lower degree compared to that of HGF. It was found that the SM alginates were more efficient at releasing FGF-2 than the SMG alginates, indicating a greater dependence on monosaccharide identity and charge orientation over chain flexibility and charge density.

  9. Solution NMR characterization of chemokine CXCL8/IL-8 monomer and dimer binding to glycosaminoglycans: structural plasticity mediates differential binding interactions. (United States)

    Joseph, Prem Raj B; Mosier, Philip D; Desai, Umesh R; Rajarathnam, Krishna


    Chemokine CXCL8/interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays a crucial role in directing neutrophils and oligodendrocytes to combat infection/injury and tumour cells in metastasis development. CXCL8 exists as monomers and dimers and interaction of both forms with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mediate these diverse cellular processes. However, very little is known regarding the structural basis underlying CXCL8-GAG interactions. There are conflicting reports on the affinities, geometry and whether the monomer or dimer is the high-affinity GAG ligand. To resolve these issues, we characterized the binding of a series of heparin-derived oligosaccharides [heparin disaccharide (dp2), heparin tetrasaccharide (dp4), heparin octasaccharide (dp8) and heparin 14-mer (dp14)] to the wild-type (WT) dimer and a designed monomer using solution NMR spectroscopy. The pattern and extent of binding-induced chemical shift perturbation (CSP) varied between dimer and monomer and between longer and shorter oligosaccharides. NMR-based structural models show that different interaction modes coexist and that the nature of interactions varied between monomer and dimer and oligosaccharide length. MD simulations indicate that the binding interface is structurally plastic and provided residue-specific details of the dynamic nature of the binding interface. Binding studies carried out under conditions at which WT CXCL8 exists as monomers and dimers provide unambiguous evidence that the dimer is the high-affinity GAG ligand. Together, our data indicate that a set of core residues function as the major recognition/binding site, a set of peripheral residues define the various binding geometries and that the structural plasticity of the binding interface allows multiplicity of binding interactions. We conclude that structural plasticity most probably regulates in vivo CXCL8 monomer/dimer-GAG interactions and function.

  10. Solid-Phase Synthesis and Evaluation of Glycopeptide Fragments from Rat Epididymal Cysteine-Rich Secretory Protein-1 (Crisp-1 ‡

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Barany


    Full Text Available Three 18-residue peptides with the sequence Glp-Asp-Thr-Thr-Asp-Glu-Trp-Asp-Arg-Asp-Leu-Glu-Asn-Leu-Ser-Thr-Thr-Lys, taken from the N-terminus of the rat epididymal cysteine-rich secretory protein (Crisp-1 that is important in the fertilization process, were prepared by Fmoc solid-phase synthesis using a convergent strategy. These peptides were the parent sequence, plus two possible α-O-linked TN antigen-containing glycopeptides with a Thr(α-D-GalNAc residue in place of either Thr3 or Thr4. During chain assembly, two deletion peptides [des-Asp2 and des-Thr(Ac3-α-D-GalNAc] and one terminated peptide [N-acetylated 14-mer] arose, as did several peptides in which aspartimide formation had occurred at each of the four possible positions in the sequence. These by-products totaled ~20% of the desired product; they were recognized by HPLC and ESI-MS and removed during the intermediate purifications. Final products, obtained in 15-21% overall yields, were characterized by HPLC purities and ESI-MS. Circular dichroism (CD spectra for all three purified peptides, recorded in pure water and in trifluoroethanol-H2O (1:1, revealed that the presence of a sugar moiety does not significantly impact the sampled conformations. Future biological evaluation could elucidate the nature and locus of sugar modification of Crisp-1, and provide insight as to why Crisp-1 protein E binds sperm irreversibly, in contrast to protein D that lacks a sugar near the N-terminus and only binds sperm loosely.

  11. Evidence of Liquid Crystal-Assisted Abiotic Ligation of Nucleic Acids (United States)

    Fraccia, Tommaso P.; Zanchetta, Giuliano; Rimoldi, Valeria; Clark, Noel A.; Bellini, Tommaso


    The emergence of early life must have been marked by the appearance in the prebiotic era of complex molecular structures and systems, motivating the investigation of conditions that could not only facilitate appropriate chemical synthesis, but also provide the mechanisms of molecular selection and structural templating necessary to pilot the complexification toward specific molecular patterns. We recently proposed and demonstrated that these functions could be afforded by the spontaneous ordering of ultrashort nucleic acids oligomers into Liquid Crystal (LC) phases. In such supramolecular assemblies, duplex-forming oligomers are held in average end-to-end contact to form chemically discontinuous but physically continuous double helices. Using blunt ended duplexes, we found that LC formation could both provide molecular selection mechanisms and boost inter-oligomer ligation. This paper provides an essential extension to this notion by investigating the catalytic effects of LC ordering in duplexes with mutually interacting overhangs. Specifically, we studied the influence of LC ordering of 5'-hydroxy-3'-phosphate partially self-complementary DNA 14mers with 3'-CG sticky-ends, on the efficiency of non-enzymatic ligation reaction induced by water-soluble carbodiimide EDC as condensing agent. We investigated the ligation products in mixtures of DNA with poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) at three PEG concentrations at which the system phase separates creating DNA-rich droplets that organize into isotropic, nematic LC and columnar LC phases. We observe remarkable LC-enhanced chain lengthening, and we demonstrate that such lengthening effectively promotes and stabilizes LC domains, providing the kernel of a positive feedback cycle by which LC ordering promotes elongation, in turn stabilizing the LC ordering.

  12. Adenovirus-based vaccine with epitopes incorporated in novel fiber sites to induce protective immunity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Krause, Anja; Xu, Yaqin; Sung, Biin; Wu, Wendy; Worgall, Stefan


    Adenovirus (Ad) vector-based vaccines displaying pathogen-derived epitopes on Ad capsid proteins can elicit anti-pathogen immunity. This approach seems to be particularly efficient with epitopes incorporated into the Ad fiber protein. Here, we explore epitope insertion into various sites of the Ad fiber to elicit epitope-specific immunity. Ad vectors expressing the 14-mer Pseudomonas aeruginosa immune-dominant outer membrane protein F (OprF) epitope 8 (Epi8) in five distinct sites of the Ad5 fiber, loops CD (AdZ.F(CD)Epi8), DE (AdZ.F(DE)Epi8), FG (AdZ.F(FG)Epi8), HI (AdZ.F(HI)Epi8) and C terminus (AdZ.F(CT)Epi8), or the hexon HVR5 loop (AdZ.HxEpi8) were compared in their capacity to elicit anti-P. aeruginosa immunity to AdOprF, an Ad expressing the entire OprF protein. Intramuscular immunization of BALB/c mice with AdZ.F(FG)Epi8 or AdZ.F(HI)Epi8 elicited higher anti-OprF humoral and cellular CD4 and CD8 responses as well as enhanced protection against respiratory infection with P. aeruginosa compared to immunization with AdZ.F(CD)Epi8, AdZ.F(DE)Epi8, AdZ.F(CT)Epi8 or AdZ.HxEpi8. Importantly, repeat administration of the fiber- and hexon-modified Ad vectors boosted the OprF-specific humoral immune response in contrast to immunization with AdOprF. Strikingly, following three doses of AdZ.F(FG)Epi8 or AdZ.F(HI)Epi8 anti-OprF immunity surpassed that induced by AdOprF. Furthermore, in the presence of anti-Ad5 immunity, immunization with AdZ.F(FG)Epi8 or AdZ.F(HI)Epi8, but not with AdOprF, induced protective immunity against P. aeruginosa. This suggests that incorporation of epitopes into distinct sites of the Ad fiber is a promising vaccine strategy.

  13. Competitive formation of DNA linkage isomers by a trinuclear platinum complex and the influence of pre-association. (United States)

    Moniodis, Joseph J; Thomas, Donald S; Davies, Murray S; Berners-Price, Susan J; Farrell, Nicholas P


    2D [(1)H, (15)N] HSQC NMR spectroscopy has been used to monitor the reaction of fully (15)N-labelled [{trans-PtCl(NH3)2}2(μ-trans-Pt(NH3)2{NH2(CH2)6NH2}2)](4+) (BBR3464 ((15)N-1)) with the 14-mer duplex (5'-{d(ATACATG(7)G(8)TACATA)}-3'·5'-{d(TATG(18)TACCATG(25)TAT)}-3' or I) at pH 5.4 and 298 K, to examine the possible formation of 1,4 and 1,5-GG adducts in both 5'-5' and 3'-3' directions. In a previous study, the binding of the dinuclear 1,1/t,t to I showed specific formation of the 5'-5' 1,4 G(8)G(18) cross-link, whereas in this case a mixture of adducts were formed. Initial (1)H NMR spectra suggested the presence of two pre-associated states aligned in both directions along the DNA. The pre-association was studied in the absence of covalent binding, by use of the "non-covalent" analog [{trans-Pt(NH3)3}2(μ-trans-Pt(NH3)2{NH2(CH2)6NH2}2)](6+) (AH44, 0). Chemical shift changes of DNA protons combined with NOE connectivities between CH2 and NH3 protons of 0 and the adenine H2 protons on I show that two different molecules of 0 are bound in the minor groove. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed to study the interaction of 0 at the two pre-association sites using charges derived from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Structures where the central platinum is located in the minor groove and the aliphatic linkers extend into the major groove, in opposite directions, often represent the lowest energy structures of the snapshots selected. In the reaction of (15)N-1 and I, following the pre-association step, aquation occurs to give the mono aqua monochloro species 2, with a rate constant of 3.43 ± 0.03 × 10(-5) s(-1). There was evidence for two monofunctional adducts (3, 4) bound to the 3' (G8) and 5' (G7) residues and the asymmetry of the (1)H,(15)N peak for 3 suggested two conformers of the 3' adduct, aligned in different directions along the DNA. The rate constant for combined monofunctional adduct formation (0.6 ± 0.1 M(-1)) is ca. 2-fold lower