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Sample records for 131i labeled 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin

  1. Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin inhibits the proliferation of ARPE-19 cells

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    Wang Lin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antiproliferative effect of the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin on human retinal pigment epithelial cells is investigated. Methods MTT and flow cytometry were used to study the antiproliferative effects of the 17-AAG treatment of ARPE-19 cells. 2D gel electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectrometry were applied to detect the altered expression of proteins, which was verified by real-time PCR. Gene Ontology analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA were utilized to analyze the signaling pathways, cellular location, function, and network connections of the identified proteins. And SOD assay was employed to confirm the analysis. Results 17-AAG suppressed the proliferation of ARPE-19 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of 94 proteins was altered by a factor of more than 1.5 following exposure to 17-AAG. Of these 94, 87 proteins were identified. Real-time PCR results indicated that Hsp90 and Hsp70, which were not identified by proteomic analysis, were both upregulated upon 17-AAG treatment. IPA revealed that most of the proteins have functions that are related to oxidative stress, as verified by SOD assay, while canonical pathway analysis revealed glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. Conclusions 17-AAG suppressed the proliferation of ARPE-19 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and possibly by oxidative stress.

  2. Expression of interleukin-6 is downregulated by 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin in human prostatic carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-hung TSUI; Tsui-hsia FENG; Wen-chi HSIEH; Phei-lang CHANG; Horng-heng JUANG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is associated with tumor metastasis and prostate cancer. We evaluated the mechanism and effect of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG), a novel inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), on the IL-6 gene expression in human prostatic carcinoma (PC-3) cells. Methods: Quantitative IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expressions were assessed using RT-PCR. The deregulation of 17AAG and phor-bol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on the IL-6 gene was determined by ELISA and transient gene expression assays using an IL-6 reporter vector. Results: Although the IL-6R is ubiquitously expressed by prostatic epithelium cells, the IL-6 expression is only found in advanced prostatic carcinoma cells, such as PC-3 and DU145. Further studies using RT-PCR indicated that 17AAG downregulated the gene expression of IL-6. ELISA and the transient gene expression assay revealed that 17AAG blocked the stimulation of PMA of IL-6 gene expression in PC-3 cells. The PMA-induced IL-6 gene expression is dependent on the NF-κB response element. However, the effect of 17AAG appears to be mediated via a region located at -149 to +8 bp upstream of the transcriptional starting site of the IL-6 gene, and might not be through the NF-κB signaling pathway. Conclusion: The present study reveals that IL-6 is transcriptionally downregulated in human prostatic carcinoma cells in response to 17AAG. This result suggests the presence of a novel Hsp90 mediation pathway that is involved in the deregulation on the transcription of the human IL-6 gene in human prostate cancer.

  3. The effect of 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin alone or in combination with paclitaxel on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Hyoung; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Chul Sik; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Lee, Seong Jin

    2015-04-01

    The effect of 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an hsp90 inhibitor, alone or in combination with paclitaxel on survival of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) was evaluated. In 8505C and CAL62 cells, after treatment of 17-AAG, cell viability decreased, and the percentage of dead cells increased. 17-AAG did not cause cleavage of caspase-3 protein, and change expression of IAPs. Pretreatment of z-VAD-fmk did not alter cell viability and the percentage of dead cells. In 17-AAG-treated cells, knockdown of p53 rescued growth inhibition, while cycloheximide attenuated cell death. When cells were treated with both 17-AAG and paclitaxel, all of the combination index values were higher than 1, indicating antagonism between 17-AAG and paclitaxel. In 17-AAG- and paclitaxel-treated cells, compared with paclitaxel alone-treated cells, the protein levels of hsp90, hsp70, and hsc70 increased. In conclusion, our results suggest that 17-AAG induces non-apoptotic cell death requiring de novo protein synthesis in ATC cells. Moreover, these results demonstrate that 17-AAG antagonizes paclitaxel with concomitant alterations in hsp90 client proteins in ATC cells. PMID:25096912

  4. Inhibition of homologous recombination repair in irradiated tumor cells pretreated with Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the mechanism of radio-sensitization by an Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), we studied repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in irradiated human cells pre-treated with 17-AAG. DSBs are thought to be the critical target for radiation-induced cell death. Two human tumor cell lines DU145 and SQ-5 which showed clear radio-sensitization by 17-AAG revealed a significant inhibition of DSB repair, while normal human cells which did not show radio-sensitization by the drug indicated no change in the DSB repair kinetics with 17-AAG. We further demonstrated that BRCA2 was a novel client protein for Hsp90, and 17-AAG caused the degradation of BRCA2 and in turn altered the behavior of Rad51, a critical protein for homologous recombination (HR) pathway of DSB repair. Our data demonstrate for the first time that 17-AAG inhibits the HR repair process and could provide a new therapeutic strategy to selectively result in higher tumor cell killing

  5. Synergistic effect of heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and X-rays, but not carbon-ion beams, on lethality in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), in combination with X-rays or carbon-ion beams on cell killing in human oral squamous cell carcinoma LMF4 cells. Cell survival was measured by colony formation assay. Cell-cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry. Expression of DNA repair-related proteins was investigated by western blotting. The results showed 17-AAG to have synergistic effects on cell lethality with X-rays, but not with carbon-ion beams. The 17-AAG decreased G2/M arrest induced by X-rays, but not by carbon-ion beams. Both X-ray and carbon-ion irradiation up-regulated expression of non-homologous end-joining-associated proteins, Ku70 and Ku80, but 17-AAG inhibited only X-ray-induced up-regulation of these proteins. These results show that 17-AAG with X-rays releases G2/M phase arrest; cells carrying misrepaired DNA damage then move on to the G1 phase. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the radiosensitization effect of 17-AAG is not seen with carbon-ion beams because 17-AAG does not affect these changes. (author)

  6. Radiochromatographic Determination of 131I Labeled Eugenol

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    F. Zümrüt Biber Müftüler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic phytochemicals are a broad class of nutraceuticals found in plants which have been extensively researched by scientists for medicinal potential. Eugenol, a phenolic natural compound available in the essential oils primarily extracted from clove plants, has been exploited for various medicinal applications. It possesses antioxidant, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The goal of current study was to extract Eugenol compound from clove plant and radiolabel the eugenol with 131I which is a well known radioisotope for imaging and therapy in Nuclear Medicine by utilizing iodogen method. The yield of radiolabeling of Eugenol (131I-E was calculated over 80% by Thin Layer Radio Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Radio Chromatograpy methods. Structural analysis of Eugenol was confirmed by Liguid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy. Lipophilicity and stability studies were performed. Due to the attachment of iodine to Eugenol, radioiodinated Eugenol was more lipophilic. Stability of 131I-E was appropriate for study period. All experimental results suggest that 131I labeled Eugenol compound may be used in the applications of Nuclear Medicine as a radiolabeled agent for imaging and therapy on various cancer types.

  7. Identification of genes involved in the sensitivity to antitumour drug 17-allylamino,17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barresi, Vincenza; Fortuna, Cosimo G; Garozzo, Roberta; Musumarra, Giuseppe; Scirè, Salvatore; Condorelli, Daniele F

    2006-05-01

    In the present study we analysed the gene expression database provided by the National Cancer Institute in an attempt to correlate activity profiles of geldanamycin, 17AAG and 11 other analogues in 60 human tumor cell lines with their gene expression profiles determined by the cDNA microarray technique. On the basis of the activity profiles two classes of geldanamycin analogues could be distinguished, having geldanamycin and 17AAG, respectively, as prototype compounds (denominated as gelda-like and 17AAG-like classes). Application of the "soft" statistical methodology of PLS (partial least squares modelling in latent variables or projections to latent structures) allowed us to evaluate the influence of each gene expression target in determining the therapeutical responses. The transcript encoding the translocating chain-associated membrane protein (TRAM) showed a significant statistical correlation with activity profiles of 17AAG. In order to validate the role of TRAM in determining sensitivity to 17AAG we induced a selective knocking-down of this transcript by the RNA interference methodology in H226 non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line. The efficiency of double-stranded RNA oligonucleotides (short-interfering RNAs, siRNAs) was determined by measuring TRAM mRNA levels by quantitative real-time RT-PCR at different times (24-72 hours) after siRNA lipotransfection. A significant increase in chemosensitivity to 17AAG was observed in siRNA-silenced cells. Although a number of factors may affect tumour sensitivity to 17AAG the present methodology allowed us to dissect out a single parameter which may be partly responsible for its activity. PMID:16880941

  8. Synthesis and labelling of 19-iodocholesterol 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the increasing interest in obtaining agents for vizualization of the adrenal gland with radioisotopic techniques, 19-iodocholesterol was prepared by means of chemical synthesis and radioiodine (131I) introduced by isotopic exchange reaction. The reaction product was identified by determination of the melting point and elementary spectroscopic analysis (infra-red absorption and magnetic nuclear ressonance). Radiochemical analysis of the labelled compound was performed by means of then-layer cromatography in silica-gel. In order to confirm its capacity of concentration in the adrenal gland, the distribution of 19-iodocholesterol 131I, after intravenous injection, was tested in rats. (Author)

  9. Distribution of 131 I- labeled Bothrops erythromelas venom in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothrops erythromelas is responsible for many snake bites in northeastern Brazil. In the present study we determined the in vivo distribution of the venom following its subcutaneous injection into mice. B. erythromelas venom and albumin were labeled individually with 131 I by the chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephacryl S-200 column. The efficiency of labeling was 68%.Male Swiss mice (40-45 g), which had been provided with drinking water containing 0.05% KI over a period of 10 days prior to the experiment, were inoculated dorsally (sc) with 0.3 ml (2.35 x 105 cpm/mouse) of 131 I-venom (N = 42), 131 -albumin or 131 I (controls, N = 28 each). Thirty minutes and 1,3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h after inoculation, the animals were perfused with 0.85% Na Cl and skin and various organs were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. There was a high rate of venom absorption int he skin (51%) within the first 30 min compared to albumin (20.1%) and free iodine (8.2%). Up to the third hour after injection there was a tendency for venom and albumin to concentrate in the stomach ( 3 rd h),small intestine (3 rd h) and large intestine (6th h). Both control groups had more radioactivity in the digestive tract, especially in the stomach, but these levels decreased essentially to baseline by 12-18 h postinjection. In the kidneys, the distribution profiles of venom, albumin and iodine were similar. Counts at 30 min postinjection were low in all three groups (1.37, 1.86 and 0.77, respectively), and diminished to essentially 0% by 12-18 h. Albumin tended to concentrate in muscle until the 3 rd h postinjection (1.98%).There was a low binding of labeled venom in the liver (B. erythromelas venom does not specifically target most internal organs. That is, the systemic effects of envenomation ar mainly due to an indirect action. (author)

  10. Synthesis and 131I labelling of epidepride as a dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-iodo-2, 3-dimethoxybenzamide (Epidepride) and its iodine labeling precursor S-(-)-N-[(1-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-tributyltin-2, 3-dimethoxybenzamide are synthesized from 3-methoxy salicylic acid. The labeling precursor is labeled with 131I by hydrogen peroxide method, and 131I-epidepride is gained, its radiolabelling yield (RLY) and the radiochemical purity (RCP) are all over 95%. The RCP of 131I-epidepride is over 90% under 4 degree C after 15 days. 131I-epidepride has high affinity to dopamine D2 receptor. The striatal uptake can be blocked completely by spiperone. The striatum and cerebellum uptake ratio can reach 237 at 320 min in rats. The results show that 131I-epidepride may be used as a dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT

  11. Synthesis labeling and biological studies of 16-131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing interest in obtaining radiopharmaceuticals for metabolic imaging of heart muscle led us to prepare 16-IODINE HEXADECANOIC ACID by tosilation of the corresponding hydroxy acid, following iodination with NaI and finally, introducing radioiodine (Na131I) by isotopic exchange reaction. The reaction products were identified by determination of melting point, elementary and spectroscopic analysis such as infra-red absortion and magnetic nuclear resonance. The radiopharmaceutical after radiochemical and other specific control procedures for injetable such as sterility and apyrogenicity, was firstly utilized in dogs: preferencial uptake by the heart, as well as by the liver was confirmed. Then, studies in patients with or without heart diseases were performed. The biodistribution of 16-131I-HEXADECANOIC ACID was carried out in Wistar rats. The scintigraphic images in animals and in humans demonstrated that 16-131-HEXADECANOIC ACID is suitable for studying viable areas as well as energetic exchange of heart muscle. (author)

  12. Therapeutic efficacy of intralesional 131I-labelled hyaluronectin in grafted human glioblastoma

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    Girard, N.; Courel, M.N.; Vera, P.; Delpech, B. [Centre Henri-Becquerel, Rouen (France). Laboratoire d' Oncologie Moleculaire

    2000-07-01

    The grafted human glioblastoma cell CB109 was used as a model for intralesional therapy with 131I-labelled hyaluronectin glycoprotein (131I-HN). 131I-HN bound specifically to in situ hyaluronic acid (HA), a main component of the extracellular matrix which is involved in tumour invasion. Labelling experimental conditions were determined and, finally, 25 {mu}Ci/{mu}gHN, 1 {mu}g chloramine-T/{mu}gHN and a 60-s stirring period provided a 131I-HN preparation with an optimal affinity for HA (64% compared to unlabelled HN). Following intratumoral injection, 131I-HN was retained with a limited diffusion outside the tumour. On day 4 the radioactivity concentrated in the tumour was still 25 times greater than that in the liver, spleen and kidneys combined. For therapeutic assays, 65 {mu}Ci 131I-HN was injected into the tumour, resulting in a delivery of 6.8 Gy over a 7-day period. Controls received unlabelled HN, heat-inactivated HN, a mixture of inactivated HN plus free 131I or no treatment (six animals per group). Tumour volumes were evaluated every second day from treatment day and the rate of tumour growth was expressed as a ratio of tumour size at time intervals to the tumour size at the time of injection. Growth curves were compared: heat-inactivated with or without free 131I had no anti-tumour effect. Unlabelled HN-injected tumours had a slightly slower growth rate than untreated tumours (p < 0.02) and growth rate of 131I-HN-injected tumours was much lower (p < 0.00002). A pronounced inhibitory effect with intralesional 131I-labelled HN injection resulted from a combination of a) blockage of HA, a proliferation facilitating factor, and b) local irradiation of tumoral tissue, while uptake in normal tissues was minimized.

  13. Extraction, radiolabeling and in vivo biological evaluation of {sup 131}I labeled egonol glycosides extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akguel, Yurdanur; Pazar, Erdinc [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Chemistry Dept.; Yilmaz, Habibe; Sanlier, Senay Hamarat [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Biochemistry Dept.; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications; Yilmaz, Osman [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Lab. Animal Science

    2015-09-01

    Crude extract of S. officinalis L. was found to have suspending agent, hemolytic, antitumor, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Its major components benzofurans and benzofuran glycosides have antifungal, anticancer, antibacterial and anticomplement activities and display acetylcholinesterase-cyclooxygenase inhibitory and cytotoxic properties. Recently, it has been reported that egonolgentiobioside is a valuable target for structural modification and warrants further investigation for its potential as a novel pharmaceutical tool for the prevention of estrogen deficiency induced diseases. The aim of the current study is to perform in vivo biological evaluation of a glycosides extract, which was isolated from the fruits endocarp of Styrax officinalis L, identified as egonolgentiobioside and homoegonolgentiobioside and labeled with {sup 131}I. The radiolabeled glycosides extract was labeled with {sup 131}I with high yield. The labeled obtained radiolabeled compound was found to be quite stable and lipophilic. In order to determine its tissue distribution, an in vivo study was performed using healthy female Albino Wistar rats injected by {sup 131}I-glycosides. The biodistribution results showed that clearance of the radiolabeled compound is through the hepatobiliary pathway. The experimental study indicated that the radiolabeled glycosides extract accumulated in the large intestine. Therefore, the potential of {sup 131}I-glycosides might be evaluated in colon cancer cell lines and this might be a promising of tumor-imaging agent.

  14. A pioneer experience in Malaysia on In-house Radio-labelling of (131)I-rituximab in the treatment of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and a case report of high dose (131)I-rituximab-BEAM conditioning autologous transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Jew Win; Law, Chiong Soon; Wong, Xiang Qi; Ko, Ching Tiong; Awang, Zool Hilmi; Chew, Lee Ping; Chang, Kian Meng

    2016-10-01

    Radioimmunotherapy is an established treatment modality in Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The only two commercially available radioimmunotherapies - (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan is expensive and (131)I-tositumomab has been discontinued from commercial production. In resource limited environment, self-labelling (131)I-rituximab might be the only viable practical option. We reported our pioneer experience in Malaysia on self-labelling (131)I-rituximab, substituting autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and a patient, the first reported case, received high dose (131)I-rituximab (6000MBq/163mCi) combined with BEAM conditioning for autologous HSCT. PMID:27472826

  15. A pioneer experience in Malaysia on In-house Radio-labelling of (131)I-rituximab in the treatment of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and a case report of high dose (131)I-rituximab-BEAM conditioning autologous transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Jew Win; Law, Chiong Soon; Wong, Xiang Qi; Ko, Ching Tiong; Awang, Zool Hilmi; Chew, Lee Ping; Chang, Kian Meng

    2016-10-01

    Radioimmunotherapy is an established treatment modality in Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The only two commercially available radioimmunotherapies - (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan is expensive and (131)I-tositumomab has been discontinued from commercial production. In resource limited environment, self-labelling (131)I-rituximab might be the only viable practical option. We reported our pioneer experience in Malaysia on self-labelling (131)I-rituximab, substituting autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and a patient, the first reported case, received high dose (131)I-rituximab (6000MBq/163mCi) combined with BEAM conditioning for autologous HSCT.

  16. SPECT imaging of neuropilin receptor type-1 expression with 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaofeng; Yan, Jianghua; Zhang, Yafei; Liu, Peng; Jiang, Yizhen; Lv, Sha; Zeng, Fanwei; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Shengyu; Zhang, Haipeng; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Hong; Ouyang, Lin; Su, Xinhui

    2016-09-01

    As a novel co-receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), neuropilin receptor type-1 (NRP-1) is overexpressed in several cancers and metastases, and serves as an attractive target for cancer molecular imaging and therapy. Previous single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) studies demonstrated that the small NRP-1-targeting peptides 99mTc-MA-ATWLPPR and 99mTc-CK3 showed poor tumor imaging quality, because of their rapid blood clearance and very low tumor uptake. Compared with small peptides, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can improve imaging of NRP-1-expression, due to their high affinity, specificity and slow extraction. A6-11-26 is a novel monoclonal antibody against NRP-1 b1b2 domain that exhibits inhibition of tumor growth in NPR-1-expressing preclinical models. The aim of the present study was to develop the 131I-labeled anti-NRP-1 monoclonal antibody A6-11-26 as a SPECT probe for imaging of NRP-1-positive tumor. An anti-NRP-1 monoclonal antibody (A6-11-26) was produced by hybridomas and was labeled with iodine-131 by the iodogen method. In vitro, the radiolabeling efficiency, radiochemical purity, immunoreactive fraction and stability were assessed. Binding affinity and specificity of 131I‑A6-11-26 to NRP-1 were evaluated using human glioblastoma U87MG cells. In vivo, biodistribution and SPECT/CT studies were conducted on mice bearing U87MG xenografts after the injection of 131I-A6-11-26 with or without co-injection of unlabeled A6-11-26 antibody. A6-11-26 was generated successfully by hybridoma with high purity (>95%) and was labeled with iodine-131 within 60 min with high labelling efficiency (95.46±3.34%), radiochemical purity (98.23±1.41%). 131I-A6-11-26 retained its immunoreactivity and also displayed excellent stability in mouse serum and PBS solution during 1 to 96 h. Cell uptake assays showed high NRP-1-specific uptake (15.80±1.30% applied activity at 6 h) in U87MG cells. 131I-A6-11-26 bound to NRP-1 with low nanomolar

  17. Distribution of 131I-labeled Bothrops erythromelas venom in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.L. Vasconcelos

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops erythromelas is responsible for many snake bites in northeastern Brazil. In the present study we determined the in vivo distribution of the venom following its subcutaneous injection into mice. B. erythromelas venom and albumin were labeled individually with 131I by the chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephacryl® S-200 column. The efficiency of labeling was 68%. Male Swiss mice (40-45 g, which had been provided with drinking water containing 0.05% KI over a period of 10 days prior to the experiment, were inoculated dorsally (sc with 0.3 ml (2.35 x 105 cpm/mouse of 131I-venom (N = 42, 131I-albumin or 131I (controls, N = 28 each. Thirty minutes and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h after inoculation, the animals were perfused with 0.85% NaCl and skin and various organs were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. There was a high rate of venom absorption in the skin (51% within the first 30 min compared to albumin (20.1% and free iodine (8.2%. Up to the third hour after injection there was a tendency for venom and albumin to concentrate in the stomach (3rd h, small intestine (3rd h and large intestine (6th h. Both control groups had more radioactivity in the digestive tract, especially in the stomach, but these levels decreased essentially to baseline by 12-18 h postinjection. In the kidneys, the distribution profiles of venom, albumin and iodine were similar. Counts at 30 min postinjection were low in all three groups (1.37, 1.86 and 0.77, respectively, and diminished to essentially 0% by 12-18 h. Albumin tended to concentrate in muscle until the 3rd h postinjection (1.98%. There was a low binding of labeled venom in the liver (<0.54%, thyroid (<0.11% and lungs (<0.08%, and no iodinated venom was detected in brain, heart, diaphragm, spleen or bladder. The low venom binding observed in most internal organs, comparable to that of albumin, suggests that B. erythromelas venom does not specifically target most internal organs

  18. Labelling of meta-iodobenzylguanidine with iodine-131 (I-131-MIBG) for adrenal gland diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labelling of meta-iodobenzylguanidine with iodine-131 (I-131 MIBG, for adrenal gland diagnosis has been studied. The MIBG was synthesized from the reaction of meta-iodobenzylamine hydrochloride with cyanamide and labelled with iodine-131 by isotope exchange method using copper(II) as a catalyst. The percentage of labelling was about 98%, with a specific activity of 1.5-2.0 mCi/mg. The radiochemical purity was found to be greater than 99%. Biodistribution studies were performed on mice, the results showed great affinity for the adrenal gland uptake with highest radioactivity after 1 day of injection. The stability of the product with 1% benzyl alcohol was 7 days upon storing at 40C

  19. Radioimmunotherapy of carcinoma of colon with [131I]-labeled recombinant chimeric monoclonal antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-jun LU; Guang-xing BIAN; Yuan-yuan CHEN; Min ZHANG; Shao-ming GUO; Li-qing WEN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the distribution of [131I]-labeled anti-CEA MoAbs and its therapeutic effect on the human colonic cancer model in nude mice. Methods: A nude mice model of human colonic cancer was established. [131I]-labeled anti-CEA MoAbs were injected intravenously into mice. The distribution of the MoAbs was then determined and the effect of RIT on human colonic cancer was observed. Results:The [131I]-labeled anti-CEA MoAbs had a specific distribution after injection.Tumor/non-tumor ratios for [131I]-labeled anti-CEA MoAbs were 10-20 times higher than [131I]-labeled IgG 96 h after injection. Thirty days after injection, significant inhibition of the volume and weight of tumor was observed in the treated mice compared with the control. The tumor growth inhibition rate of 3.1 mCi/kg CEA MoAbs group (LS 180, LS 174T, SW1116) was 47.8%-64.0%. This was 69.6%-78.6%in the 6.25 mCi/kg CEA MoAbs group, and 81.8%-86.2% in the 12.5 mCi/kg [131I]-labeled anti-CEA MoAbs group. The plasma CEA level was also lower in treated mice. Conclusion: The results indicate that [131I]-labeled anti-CEA MoAbs can be effective in RIT on colonic cancers.

  20. Vitamin a derivatives labelled with 131I — Potential agents for liver scientigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadeřávek, J.; Kozempel, J.; Štícha, M.; Petrášek, J.; Jirsa, M.; Taimr, P.; Lešetický, L.

    2006-01-01

    Two retinol derivatives, 4-[(131I)-4-iodobenzoyloxy]retinol propionate and 4-[(131I)-3-iodobenzylcarbamoyl]retinol propionate, were synthesized and their biodistribution in rats was studied in vivo by the whole body scintigraphy.

  1. Labeling of - N-Isopropil - p - I-Anphetamine (IMP-131I) and its biological distribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The described labeling and purification preparation of N-Isopropil-p131I-anphetamine (131I-IMP) represents a fast and efficient method to obtains a compound that fullfills all criterions of purity for its application 'IN VIVO'. The labeling yield was 68-78% and the radiochemical purity performed by paper chromatography and electrophorese was 97-99%. As demostrated in animal experiments, the cerebral affinity offers a possibility to study brain diseases in clinical studies when the product will be labelled with 123I. (author)

  2. Distribution of {sup 131} I- labeled Bothrops erythromelas venom in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, C.M.L.; Valenca, R.C.; Araujo, E.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Modesto, J.C.A.; Pontes, M.M.; Guarnieri, M.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Brazil, T.K. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1998-03-01

    Bothrops erythromelas is responsible for many snake bites in northeastern Brazil. In the present study we determined the in vivo distribution of the venom following its subcutaneous injection into mice. B. erythromelas venom and albumin were labeled individually with {sup 131} I by the chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephacryl S-200 column. The efficiency of labeling was 68%.Male Swiss mice (40-45 g), which had been provided with drinking water containing 0.05% KI over a period of 10 days prior to the experiment, were inoculated dorsally (sc) with 0.3 ml (2.35 x 10{sup 5} cpm/mouse) of {sup 131} I-venom (N = 42), {sup 131} -albumin or {sup 131} I (controls, N = 28 each). Thirty minutes and 1,3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h after inoculation, the animals were perfused with 0.85% Na Cl and skin and various organs were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. There was a high rate of venom absorption int he skin (51%) within the first 30 min compared to albumin (20.1%) and free iodine (8.2%). Up to the third hour after injection there was a tendency for venom and albumin to concentrate in the stomach ( 3 rd h),small intestine (3 rd h) and large intestine (6th h). Both control groups had more radioactivity in the digestive tract, especially in the stomach, but these levels decreased essentially to baseline by 12-18 h postinjection. In the kidneys, the distribution profiles of venom, albumin and iodine were similar. Counts at 30 min postinjection were low in all three groups (1.37, 1.86 and 0.77, respectively), and diminished to essentially 0% by 12-18 h. Albumin tended to concentrate in muscle until the 3 rd h postinjection (1.98%).There was a low binding of labeled venom in the liver (B. erythromelas venom does not specifically target most internal organs). That is, the systemic effects of envenomation ar mainly due to an indirect action. (author) 14 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Radionuclide (131)I labeled reduced graphene oxide for nuclear imaging guided combined radio- and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Yi, Xuan; Huang, Min; Ning, Ping; Liu, Teng; Ge, Cuicui; Chai, Zhifang; Liu, Zhuang; Yang, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Nano-graphene and its derivatives have attracted great attention in biomedicine, including their applications in cancer theranostics. In this work, we develop 131I labeled, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated reduced nano-graphene oxide (RGO), obtaining 131I-RGO-PEG for nuclear imaging guided combined radiotherapy and photothermal therapy of cancer. Compared with free 131I, 131IRGO- PEG exhibits enhanced cellular uptake and thus improved radio-therapeutic efficacy against cancer cells. As revealed by gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of 131I-RGO-PEG is observed after its intravenous injection. While RGO exhibits strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and could induce effective photothermal heating of tumor under NIR light irradiation, 131I is able to emit high-energy X-ray to induce cancer killing as the result of radio ionization effect. By utilizing the combined photothermal therapy and radiotherapy, both of which are delivered by a single agent 131IRGO- PEG, effective elimination of tumors is achieved in our animal tumor model experiments. Toxicology studies further indicate that 131I-RGO-PEG induces no appreciable toxicity to mice at the treatment dose. Our work demonstrates the great promise of combing nuclear medicine and photothermal therapy as a novel therapeutic strategy to realize synergistic efficacy in cancer treatment. PMID:26188609

  4. Uptake and depuration of {sup 131}I from labelled diatoms (Skeletonema costatum) to the edible periwinkle (Littorina littorea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.C. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: richard.c.wilson@westlakes.ac.uk; Vives i Batlle, J. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); Watts, S.J. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); McDonald, P. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); Parker, T.G. [British Nuclear Group, Sellafield, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Uptake and depuration of {sup 131}I into winkles through consumption of the diatom Skeletonema costatum is described. The work follows on from previous studies that investigated the uptake of iodine into winkles from seawater and seaweed. Incorporation of {sup 131}I in S. costatum from labelled seawater followed linear first-order kinetics with an uptake half-time of 0.40 days. Iodine uptake in winkles from labelled S. costatum also followed linear first-order kinetics, with a calculated equilibrium concentration (C {sub {infinity}}) of 42 Bq kg{sup -1} and a transfer factor (TF) of 1.1 x 10{sup -4} with respect to labelled diatom food. This TF is lower than that observed for uptake of {sup 131}I in winkles from labelled seaweed. For the depuration stage, a biphasic sequence with biological half-lives of 1.3 and 255 days was determined. The first phase is biokinetically important, given that winkles can lose two-thirds of their activity during that period. This study shows that, whilst winkles can obtain radioactive iodine from phytoplankton consumption, they do not retain the majority of that activity for very long. Hence, compared with other exposure pathways, such as uptake from seawater and macroalgae, incorporation from phytoplankton is a relatively minor exposure route.

  5. DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate labelled with 177Lu and 131I. A comparative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical structure of somatostatin receptor ligand 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- N,N',N',N'''-tetraacetic acid-Tyr3-octreotate (DOTA-Tyr3-TATE), provides the means for radiolabelling with halogen, by electrophilic substitution, to the Tyr3 residue and with metal, by a coordination mechanism, to the DOTA chelator. In this study, the DOTA-Tyr3-TATE was radiolabelled with 177Lu and 131I of high radiochemical purity and specific activity. The in vitro study regarding the competitive and the saturation binding assays were performed using rat brain cortex membrane. The IC50 value was determined as 4.74nM for natLu-DOTA-Tyr3-TATE and the Kd value was 142.8pM for 177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-TATE. The biodistribution data of 177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-TATE and DOTA-131I-Tyr3-TATE in HRS1 (hepato-colangiom carcinomas) tumour bearing rats, show that the 177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-TATE is more stable and has better uptake than DOTA-131I-Tyr3-TATE. Furthermore, the competitive localization index of 177Lu- DOTA-Tyr3-TATE is three times higher than that obtained for DOTA-131I -Tyr3-TATE. The results of work based on comparative experiments suggest that 177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3- TATE could be an effective targeted radiotherapy agent of SSTR tumours. (author)

  6. Labelling of Iomazenil with 123I and 131I to be used as neurotracer in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iomazenil, a benzodiazepine analogue of Flumazenil, was labeled with 131I and 123I to enable SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) investigations of central benzodiazepine receptors in human brain. First, the bromoprecursor was characterized by means of elemental analysis and infrared spectrophotometry. The chromatography of this chemical was performed by means of HPLC - High Performance Liquid Chromatography. In order to optimize the labeling parameters of the Iomazenil, Iodine 123I was first used. The following parameters were investigated: temperature, time period, amount of precursor and radioactivity. The labeling parameters described in the literature were used during this study. Several chromatograms were evaluated; as a result, the chromatogram proposed by the literature achieved the best performance. After the establishment of the best labeling parameters and the determination of the radiochemical purity, the stability of the 131I-Iomazenil was studied. Studies using 123I solutions fi-om IEN/CNEN and IPEN/CNEN, were done and the last one showed the best result. Biological investigations were done using iomazenil labeled with 121I. Toxicity, biological distribution and cerebral uptake in mice were evaluated. This study showed that this labeled product cross the blood brain barrier, allowing benzodiazepine brain receptor imaging. (author)

  7. Localization of 131I-labelled monoclonal antibody ERIC1 in a subcutaneous xenograft model of neuroblastoma in SCID mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to evaluate a novel strategy of immunolocalization of human neuroblastoma by targeting the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), which is over-expressed on neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma is the most frequent solid extracranial childhood tumour and also the most common neoplasm in the first year of life. The most frequent metastatic sites are bone, bone marrow and liver. The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is constitutively expressed on nearly 100% of all neuroblastomas. NCAM has been successfully used as a target for immunotoxines and bi-specific antibodies in multiple myeloma, small cell lung cancer, glioma or neuroblastoma, in vitro and in vivo. NCAM expression was quantified on established neuroblastoma cells by real time PCR and NCAM expression on the cell surface shown by flow cytometry. A SCID mouse model using IMR5-75 neuroblastoma cells to induce subcutaneous tumour growth was established. 131I was used to label monoclonal NCAM specific ERIC1 antibodies generating the 131I-ERIC1 antibody, which shows a high affinity to NCAM also after labelling (KD= 9 x 10-8). Groups of five to six mice received intravenous injections of 3-9 MBq of 131I-ERIC1 on day 0 into the tail vein. At time points 2.5 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h post injection mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood, liver, spleen, kidneys, muscle, femur, thyroid, intestines, lung, tumour and urine were removed and weighed. Organ-specific radioactivity was measured in a well-counter as well as that of the tail and remnant cadavers. Data were calculated as dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) and tumour to non-tumour ratios (T/NT ratio). For blocking experiments mice were pre-injected with 140μg of unlabelled ERIC1 into the tail vein 24 h prior 131I-ERIC1 application. Mice from these blocking experiments were measured after 72 h. Measurement of organ-specific radioactivity showed low organ-specific uptake (5.33 %ID/g after 72 h), which continuously decreased over the 96 hour

  8. Comparison of 131I- and 90Y-labeled monoclonal antibody 17-1A for treatment of human colon cancer xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of radionuclide remains an important question in clinical radioimmunotherapy. Therefore, a study was initiated, using an in vivo model system, to assess the relative merits of 131I- and 90Y-labeled 17-1A monoclonal antibody as therapeutic agents in the treatment of colon cancer. 131I- and 90Y-labeled 17-1A were assessed in animal therapy trials using athymic nude mice bearing LS174T human colon cancer xenografts. 131I-labeled 17-1A decreased tumor growth in a dose-dependent fashion without lethality. In contrast, the doses of 90Y-labeled 17-1A which were required to produce a significant increase in tumor doubling time also caused marked toxicity. Although similar tumor growth inhibition was produced by 250 μCi 90Y- and 150 μCi 131I-labeled 17-1A, Medical Internal Radiation Dose calculations based on biodistribution data estimated that the dose delivered by 90Y was greater than that delivered by 131I. To investigate this discrepancy, 3-dimensional dose distributions within LS174T tumors were assessed using autoradiography and 3-dimensional calculational techniques. It was found that a greater fraction of the dose was deposited in the tumor after treatment with 131I- compared to 90Y-labeled 17-1A. When the Medical Internal Radiation Dose calculations were adjusted using the 3-dimensional dose distributions, 250 μCi of 90Y- and 150 μCi of 131I-labeled 17-1A were found to deliver similar tumor doses. These studies suggest that 131I-labeled 17-1A is superior to 90Y-labeled 17-1A, since 131I-labeled antibody produced less hematological and animal toxicity and was more effective at inhibiting LS174T tumor growth than 90Y-labeled antibody across the range of radionuclide doses tested. Furthermore, they suggest that it will be necessary to perform 3-dimensional dose calculations. 33 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Study of labeling, biodistribution and scintilographic images in dog of the 15-p- iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid labeling with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The myocardium scintigraphy obtained after a radioactive tracer administration is a way to identify and quantify ischemic or infarct areas. The acid 15-p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic is marked with 131I (IPPA - 131I), through the isotopic exchange methodology in copper sulfate and ascorbic acid presence. The radiochemical purity will be evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and rising chromatography in paper. The optimization of the mark conditions was done by varying time and marking temperatures where it was shown considerable mark revenue with high radiochemical purity at 120 deg C in 30 minutes. The marked mixture stays stable up the seventh day after marking. In the biological distribution studies is observed that right after the intravenous administration of the IPPA - 131I it is achieved a considerable capitation by the cardiac muscle. The radiopharmaceutical displays a fast blood metabolizing. The scintigraphy images obtained in dogs indicates that there is a stay in heart, allowing the identification of the cardiac muscle. (author)

  10. Biological distribution of 131I-labeled anti-nucleus antigen monoclonal antibody chTNT in patients with pulmonary metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qingjie; GAO Shi; ZHAO Jie; WEN Qiang; BAI Lin; ZHANG Haoran; ZHAO Guoqing

    2008-01-01

    This work is to study the in vivo biological distribution of 131I-labeled mouse/human chimeric monoclonal antibody (131I-chTNT) in patients with pulmonary metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Ten patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were injected intravenously with a single dose of 131I-chTNT (5 MBq.kg-1 body weight).Radioactivity of blood and urine samples was measured at different time points.The in vivo stability and the metabolic status of 131I-chTNT were detected with supersaturated trichloroacetic acid.Continuous imaging was performed to outline the region of interest (ROD and estimate the intake level on the whole body,major organs and tumor lesions at different time points.The serum time-radioactivity curve of 131I-ehTNT accorded with the two-compartment model after a single intravenous injection:T1/2(h)=65.28±14.83,AUC0-t(MBq.h.mL-1)=8.93±1.32,AUC0-∞(MBq-h-mL-1)=10.58±2.19,and CL(mL.min-1.kg-1)=1635±359.The time-radioactivity percentage curve of 131I-chTNT urine excretion accorded with the one-compartment model after a single intravenous injection:T1/2(h)=99±10,and accumulative (31±9) % radioactivity of the injected dose was excreted in urine in one week.The percentages of serum 131I-ehTNT in radioactive components at 24,48 and 72 h were over 95% and it was still (88±7)% at 168 h.As for chemical composition of radioactive substances in urine,radioactivity in urine samples originated from free 131I by 100%.Radioactivity of 131I-chTNT after intravenous administration was mainly concentrated in the lung and liver,least in the brain.Radioactivity of tumor tissues reached the maximum at 24 h and the tumor/normal tissue (T/N) ratio reached the maximum (1.28~3.83) during 3~7 d.The characteristics of in vivo biological distribution of 131I-chTNT in patients with pulmonary metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma are favorable for its therapeutic application for the metastasis tumors.

  11. Survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with intra-arterial {sup 131}I labelled lipiodol.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, S.P.; Morris, D.L.; Ring, M.T.; King, J.; Parks, S.L.; Glenn, D.W. [St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1997-09-01

    Full text: The prognosis of untreated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is dismal with a median survival of less than two months having been reported. {sup 131}l labelled Lipiodol as a treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been shown to be as efficacious as intraarterial chemotherapy but with less toxicity than chemotherapy. 23 patients (19 men and four women, mean age 69 years, range 28 to 80 years) with unresectable Okuda Stage I (n = 23) or 11 (n = 2) HCC were treated over a three-year period. All patients had biopsy proved HCC and had not received any prior therapy. Before therapy, all patients underwent CT scans of abdomen and thorax and scintigraphic bone scans to exclude extrahepatic disease. Further, CT scanning of the liver was performed following the hepatic artery injection of unlabelled Lipiodol to ensure that the HCC was Lipiodol avid. 1 GBq of {sup 131}l labelled Lipiodol was injected into the hepatic artery followed by CT liver scanning at day 1 and day 60 to calculate tumour response. Whole body scintigraphic scanning was performed on days 1 and 21 for dosimetry calculations. Ten patients had a second dose of {sup 131}l Lipiodol due either increasing serum alpha feto-protein levels and/or tumour progression on CT scanning. Minimal toxicity was seen with this dose regime. Survival time was estimated from the time of treatment by the Kaplan-Meier method. For Okuda I, the median survival length was 12 months with actuarial survival rates of 91 per cent, 65 per cent, 59 per cent and 20 per cent at 3,6,9,12 and 24 months respectively. All Okuda II patients died within five months. Iodine-131 Lipiodol therapy is well tolerated and may prolong survival in certain HCC patients.

  12. Quantitative uptake studies of 131I-labeled (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine in herpes simplex virus-infected cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have synthesized a 131I-radiolabeled antiviral compound (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (IVdU) and shown that this agent was selectively trapped within rabbit kidney cells, infected in vitro by thymidine kinase-positive (TK+) herpes simplex virus (HSV). The uptake of 131I-labeled IVdU was specific, as it was not concentrated within either HSV (TK-) or mock-infected cells. In certain conditions, over 40% of the radiolabel was selectively trapped within HSV (TK+)-infected cells. This was a 20- to 30-fold increase over the uptake of 131I-labeled IVdU by HSV (TK-) or mock-infected cells. The uptake of 131I-labeled IVdU varied directly with (i) the dose of the virus used to infect the rabbit kidney cells; (ii) the concentration of radiolabeled IVdU added to the system; and (iii) the time of exposure of IVdU to infected cells. The ability of this agent to be trapped within HSV (TK+)-infected cells merits further evaluation in animal models as it has potential as a noninvasive, herpes-specific diagnostic test, in particular for HSV encephalitis

  13. Comparative Study of Regional Lung Function With Intravenous Injection of 131I-Labelled Macroaggregated Albumin and 133Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In each of 22 patients with known or suspected lung disease regional lung perfusion was assessed by measuring the radioactivity over the lower and upper part of each lung after intravenous injection of 133Xe and by scanning after intravenous injection of macroaggregated serum albumin labelled with 131I. The aim of the investigation was to decide which of the two methods was best suited as a clinical routine procedure in cases where information about regional lung function was required, e.g. in patients in whom lung surgery was considered. Direct comparison of results was possible only for lung perfusion. The xenon technique, but not the macroaggregated serum albumin technique, measures ventilation in addition. There was good agreement between the two methods in those instances where the perfusion ratio, left lung/(left lung+ right lung), was normal, i. e. near 0.5. On the other hand, there were discrepancies in patients with great difference between the perfusion of the two lungs. From the present limited material it is concluded that scanning after injection of macroaggregates is the method to be preferred in hospitals which have facilities for scintigraphy. Information on ventilation is not obtained by this method, but is probably often dispensable. (author)

  14. Targeting cancer stem cells with an 131I-labeled anti-AC133 monoclonal antibody in human colorectal cancer xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation within a tumor, which possesses the characteristics of self-renewal, differentiation, tumorigenicity, and drug resistance. The aim of this study was to target the colorectal CSC marker CD133 with an131I-labeled specific monoclonal antibody (AC133 mAb) in a nude mouse xenograft model. Methods: Colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (LoVo cell line) were separated into CD133(+) and CD133(−) cells by magnetic activated cell sorting. CD133(+), CD133(−), and unsorted LoVo cells were cultured and then implanted subcutaneously into the lower limbs of nude mice (n = 5). AC133 mAb was labeled with 131I by the iodogen method. Results: The radiolabeled compound, 131I-AC133 mAb, showed high stability, specificity, and immunoactivity in vitro. Obvious accumulation of 131I-AC133 mAb was seen in nude mice bearing xenografts of CD133(+) and unsorted LoVo cells, but no uptake was found in mice bearing CD133(−) xenografts or specifically blocked xenografts. Biodistribution analysis showed that the tumor uptake of 131I-AC133 mAb was 6.97 ± 1.40, 1.35 ± 0.48, 6.12 ± 1.91, and 1.61 ± 0.44% ID/g (n = 4) at day 7 after injection of 131I-AC133 mAb in CD133(+), CD133(−), unsorted LoVo cell and specifically blocked xenografts, respectively. The results of immunofluorescence, autoradiography, and western blotting further verified the specific binding of 131I-AC133 mAb to CD133(+) tumors. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the possibility of targeting CSCs with a radiolabeled AC133 mAb in colorectal cancer xenografts based on in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments. Our findings suggest a new method for imaging CSCs non-invasively

  15. A comparison of 67Cu- and 131I-labelled forms of monoclonal antibodies SEN7 and SWA20 directed against small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A; Zangemeister-Wittke, U; Waibel, R; Schenker, T; Schubiger, P A; Stahel, R A

    1994-01-01

    The intact anti-SCLC monoclonal antibody (MAb) SEN7 and its F(ab')2 were labelled with the beta-emitting isotope 67Cu. Both materials retained their biological activity in vitro as determined by the Lindmo assay. In a direct comparison of in vivo distribution in a xenograph model, 131I- and 67Cu-labelled intact SEN7 showed similar absolute tumour accumulation. Blood levels were markedly lower in the case of the 67Cu-labelled antibody, resulting in improved tumour:blood ratios which reached a maximum of 13:1 compared with only 4.5:1 for 131I-SEN7. In the case of the 67Cu-labelled F(ab')2, very high accumulation of the nuclide was observed in the kidney. Levels of radio copper in liver and spleen were also found to be significantly raised when compared with radio iodine. SWA20, a MAb which had previously failed to show any selective in vivo accumulation in tumour xenografts when labelled with radio iodine showed higher and more stable tumour accumulation when labelled with 67Cu.

  16. Enzymatic synthesis of {sup 125/131}I labeled 8-hydroxyquinoline glucuronide and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of biological influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesilagac, Reyhan [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Science, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Unak, Perihan, E-mail: perihan.unak@ege.edu.t [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Science, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Medine, E. Ilker; Ichedef, Cigdem A. [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Science, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ertay, Turkan [Dokuz Eyluel University, Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Inciralti, Izmir (Turkey); Mueftueler, F.Z. Biber [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Science, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    8-Hydroxyquinoline (8-OHQ) is a long-known molecule which due to its metal-complexation ability is frequently used for analysis. It is also called oxine. Oxine and derivatives have been investigated to process antitumor and antimicrobial activities. 8-Hydroxyquinolyl-glucuronide (8-OHQ-Glu) was enzymatically synthesized using microsome preparates separated from Hutu-80 cells, labeled with {sup 125}I to perform a radionuclide labeled prodrug and investigated of its biological affinities on Hutu-80 (human duodenum intestinal adenocarcinoma), Caco-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma), Detroit 562 (human pharynx adenocarcinoma) cells and ACBRI 519 (primary human small intestine epithelial cells) in this work. UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) rich microsome preparates, which are used for glucuronidation in enzymatic synthesis, were extracted from Hutu-80 cells. 8-OHQ-Glu components were labeled using iodogen method with {sup 125}I and {sup 131}I. Structural analyses were performed with LC/MS/MS, {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C-MMR for identify and measure chemical constituents. Results confirmed expected molecular structure. 8-OHQ-Glu could successfully radioiodinated with {sup 125/131}I according to iodogen method. {sup 125}I-8-OHQ-glucuronide incorporated with human gastrointestinal cancer cells such as Detroit-562 (human pharynx adenocarcinoma) (12.6%), Caco-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma) (7.8%), Hutu- 80 (human duodenum intestinal adenocarcinoma) (9.5%) and ACBRI 519 (primary human small intestine epithelial cells) (6.40%). {sup 131}I-8-OHQ-Glu was tested in mice bearing subcutaneously implanted Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The results demonstrated that radioiodinated 8-OHQ-Glu may be promising anticancer prodrug.

  17. Indocyanine green labeled with /sup 123/I for dynamic studies of the hepato-biliary system. [/sup 131/I, /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Ansari, A.N.; Wolf, A.P.; Atkins, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    This report summarizes the results to develop an iodine-123 labeled agent for dynamic studies of the hepato-biliary system. Iodine-123 is an ideal nuclide for radiopharmaceuticals, because of its short half-life (T/sub /sup 1///sub 2// = 13.3 hr); its decay with a high abundance (83%) of 159 keV photons; and the reduced patient radiation exposure (a factor of 100 less than iodine-131). Indocyanine green, a tricarbanocyanine dye, was introduced by Heseltine and co-workers in 1956, has several characteristics which suggested that iodine-123 labeled ICG might be potentially useful for hepatic functional evaluation. The plasma clearance and biliary excretion kinetics of /sup 123/I-ICG (in dogs) will be compared to /sup 131/I-rose bengal and bromosulphalein labeled with iodine-125.

  18. Second antibody clearance of /sup 131/I-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen for improved tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have investigated the use of a second antibody (SA) directed against the radiolabeled primary anti-tumor antibody (PA) to enhance the clearance rate of the PA from the circulation and nontarget tissues. Administration of 50 or 250 μg of anti-goat IgG (SA) hr after the administration of 10 μg of /sup 131/I-goat anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody (PA) to hamsters bearing human colonic tumor xenografts resulted in a 5-fold reduction in the level of circulating PA after 4 hr in comparison to the control group only given /sup 131/I-PA. The percentage of PA in the blood decreased rapidly over 72 hr in animals given 250 μg of the SA, but at 50 μg of SA the level of activity in the blood after 24 hr was similar to the control. Tumor accretion was identical after 4 hr, but after 24 hr the animals given 250 μg of SA had 2-3 fold less PA in the tumor than either the control group or the 50 μg dose of SA. Tumor/nontumor ratios for all major organs but the spleen improved 6-8 fold within 48 hr after injection of 250 μg of the SA with tumor/blood ratios as high as 40:1. A SA dose of 50 μg resulted in a significantly higher tumor/blood ratio after only 4 hr; tumor/nontumor ratios at later times were similar to the control group. Tumors located in the hind legs were visible in all groups by imaging 24 hr after injection of the SA, but only the 250 μg dose of SA showed a significant reduction in total body activity. These results suggest that the SA approach may be used to reduce the total background radioactivity while maintaining tumor accretion of /sup 131/I-PA to allow for selective tumor imaging

  19. Labeling mothod and biodistribution of 131I-Tyr-octreotide%131I-Tyr-octreotide的标记方法学及其生物学分布的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏燕; 王峰; 王自正; 孟庆乐; 张乐乐; 蒋娥

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨131I 采用氯胺-T氧化还原法标记生长抑素类似物Tyr-octreotide的可行性和标记物的稳定性,并研究其在正常小鼠体内的生物学分布和非小细胞肺癌荷瘤鼠SPECT显像.方法 采用氯胺-T法制备131I-Tryr-octreotide,并测定标记物的放化纯、胶体含量及正常小鼠体内的生物学分布,不同时间点眼球取血后处死,测定血液及各主要脏器的放射性,计算%ID/g.对非小细胞肺癌荷瘤鼠模型进行131I-Tyr-octreotide显像研究.结果 采用氯胺-T法131I标记Tyr-octreotide的最佳条件:磷酸缓冲液(0.2 mol/L)0.15 ml,Tyr-octreotide(lg/L)10μl,Na131I(3.7MBq)0.1 ml,氯胺.T(30 g/L)4μl,迅速混匀反应2.5 min,之后加入Na2S2O5(30g/L)5μI终止反应,放化纯可达97%,6 h后放化纯可达83%,胶体含量为1.02%.小鼠体内分布实验表明,肾脏和肝脏对131I-Tyr-octreotide的摄取最高,胃肠消化器官次之,其他脏器摄取较少;对肿瘤组织具有较好的亲和力.结论 131I-Tyr-octreotide采用氯胺-T法标记具有标记率高、方法简便和迅速、体外稳定性较好、无需进一步纯化等优点.在小鼠体内主要经肝、肾系统代谢,血液清除快,有望成为以生长抑素介导的生物靶向诊断和治疗非小细胞肺癌的分子药物.

  20. /sup 131/I-labelling of frozen ram sperma and distribution pattern of sperma in the genital tract of sheep, following artificial insemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin); Kaempfer, I. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1983-04-01

    The method of /sup 131/I-labelling of ram sperma was applied to frozen sperma and used in experimental insemination to test the spermatozoa for both migratory capacity and distribution in the genital tract of sheep. The penetration rate of frozen sperma into the upper genital tract was found to be slower than that of native sperma. The two sperma variants were compared also for migratory performance, and the distance travelled into the upper genital tract by frozen sperma one hour after insemination amounted to only 40 per cent of the distance covered by native sperma in the same period of time. The ratio of native to frozen sperma in the tubal region was 100 : 75.3. Sperma population in the tubal region was higher than that in the uterus, two hours after insemination, which seems to indicate a certain reservoir function. Pronounced asymmetrical distribution patterns in the oviducts were equally recordable from native and frozen sperma.

  1. Effect of 22-hours liquid preservation on migration of /sup 131/I-labelled sperma in the genital tract of ewes, following artificial insemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin); Kaempfer, I. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1984-02-15

    Comparative studies on migration and distribution of /sup 131/I-labelled ram sperma in the genital tract of estrus-synchronized ewes at different points of time after insemination (40, 120, 180, and 240 minutes). The sperma had been preserved in liquid condition for 4 or 22 hours. The results suggested that up to 2 hours after insemination the migration of sperma preserved 22 hours was clearly slower (lower transcervical passage and smaller amount in oviducts) than that of sperma preserved 4 hours. These differences were significant 2 hours after insemination and were reduced, with mutual adjustment of distribution patterns, between 2 and 4 hours after insemination. The pattern of migration was affected by certain physiological factors. Obviously the optimum timing of insemination is of great importance in applying 22 hours preserved ram sperma.

  2. Genotoxic evaluation of [DOTA,Tyr3]octreotate labeled with 131I and 177Lu in human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro by micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiolabeled receptor-binding peptides have being used for cancer diagnosis and therapy. The octreotate, a somatostatin analogue peptide, bound to various tumors expressing sst receptors (thyroid, pancreas, prostrate, melanoma and lymphomas). The amount and the type of receptors for somatostatin influence the tissue uptake. The [DOTA, Tyr3]octreotate has been used because of its high affinity to somatostatin subtype receptors sstr2 and sstr5. The pharmacokinetic study showed that the blood clearance is rapid and only 9% of the intravenous injected activity remains in human blood after one hour. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytogenetic effect of radiolabeled [DOTA, Tyr3]octreotate in blood cells in vitro, using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay. This technique allows evaluating the mutagenic effects of both endogenous and exogenous agents at chromosome level. Blood samples of healthy donors were collected in heparinized syringes and exposed to different activities of [DOTA, Tyr3]octreotate labeled with with 131I (n=3) and 177Lu (n=3), where radioactive concentration ranged from 600 to 5600 kBq/mL, corresponding to an injected activity of 3.1 to 28.9 GBq in a reference man of 70 kg weight. 131I and 177Lu are beta- and gamma-emitters. After one-hour exposition to radiopharmaceuticals at 37 deg C, the cells were washed with culture medium for removing the non internalised octreotate and cultivated for 72 hours, according to criteria adopted by the IAEA. The results showed a positive correlation between radioactive concentrations (X) and the frequency of binucleated cells with micronuclei (Y) (P131I-DOTA, Tyr3]octreotate was Y = (1.634 ± 0.236) + (0.912 ± 0.137) 10-3 X and for [177Lu-DOTA, Tyr3]octreotate was Y = (1.715 ± 0.342) + (0.743 ± 0.135) 10-3 X. The non labeled molecule, [DOTA, Tyr3]octreotate, has no influence in the induction of cytogenetic damage. The micronucleus assay with rat pancreatic tumor cells (AR42J) that express the

  3. 多巴胺D2受体显像剂Epidepride的合成及其131I标记%Synthesis and 131I Labeling of Epidepride as a Dopamine D2 Receptor Imaging Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 胡名扬; 裴著果; 王博诚; 周杏琴

    2001-01-01

    以3-甲氧基水杨酸为原料合成了Epidepride[S-(-)-N-[(1-乙基-2-吡咯烷基)甲基]-5-碘-2,3-二甲氧基苯甲酰胺]及其标记前体(S-(-)-5-(三正丁基锡)-N-[(1-乙基-2-吡咯烷基)甲基]2,3-二甲氧基苯甲酰胺),并采用双氧水法对标记前体进行131I标记,获得131I-epidepride,标记率和放化纯度均大于95%。131I-epidepride溶液体外稳定性好,4 ℃放置15 d放化纯度仍大于90%。131I-epidepride与D2受体亲和力高,大鼠脑内纹状体与小脑的摄取比在320 min时高达237;在脑内纹状体的吸收可被Spiperone完全阻断。因此,131I-epidepride有望成为多巴胺D2受体SPECT显像剂。%S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (Epidepride) and its iodine labeling precursor S-(-)-N-[(1-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-tributyltin-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide are synthesized from 3-methoxy salicylic acid. The labeling precursor is labeled with 131I by hydrogen peroxide method, and 131I-epidepride is gained, its radiolabelling yield(RLY) and the radiochemical purity(RCP)are all over 95%. The RCP of 131I-epidepride is over 90% under 4 ℃ after 15 days. 131I-epidepride has high affinity to dopamine D2 receptor. The striatal uptake can be blocked completely by spiperone. The striatum and cerebellum uptake ratio can reach 237 at 320 min in rats.The results show that 131I-epidepride may be used as a dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT.

  4. Biodistribution and kinetics of {sup 131}I-labelled anti-CD20 MAB IDEC-C2B8 (rituximab) in relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidhauer, Klemens; Wolf, Ingo; Baumgartl, Hans-Joachim; Reidel, Guenther; Schwaiger, Markus [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Schilling, Christoph von; Schmidt, Burkhard; Peschel, Christian [III. Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    The native chimeric human-mouse anti-CD20 antibody IDEC-C2B8 (rituximab) is therapeutically applied in relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution and pharmacokinetics of iodine-131 labelled rituximab in humans for radioimmunotherapy of relapsed CD20-positive NHL. Thirty-five patients with relapsed NHL were administered 20-40 mg rituximab labelled with 250 MBq {sup 131}I. Biodistribution was determined by the gamma camera whole-body scans, whole-body probe measurements and the analysis of serial blood and urine samples. Dosimetry was performed using the MIRDOSE 3 program. Antibody administration was well tolerated. The whole-body activity showed a mono-exponential decrease with a wide range of effective half-lives, the mean value (88 h) being significantly longer than the half-life of its murine counterpart, tositumomab. This led to appropriately higher dose factors for the whole body and organs. Activity was excreted mainly through the kidneys. Normal organs showed decreasing ratios of organ to whole-body activity over time, whereas the tumour tissue presented different kinetics, with increasing ratios of tumour to whole-body activity as evidence for specific antibody binding. It is concluded that {sup 131}I-labelled rituximab is suitable for pretherapeutic dosimetry. Due to the wide range of whole-body and organ dose factors, individual dosimetry is necessary for radioimmunotherapy with {sup 131}I-labelled rituximab. The therapeutic activities of {sup 131}I-labelled rituximab required to deliver similar doses should be lower than those of its murine counterpart. (orig.)

  5. Initial experience with locoregional radioimmunotherapy using {sup 131}I-labelled monoclonal antibodies against tenascin (BC-4) for treatment of glioma (WHO III and IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poepperl, G.; Gildehaus, F.J.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany); Goetz, C.; Reulen, H.J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany); Yousry, T.A. [Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie der LMU Muenchen, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    of activity within the resection cavity and low systemic toxicity. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bei der Standardtherapie von Gliomen (Resektion, Radiatio, Chemotherapie) ist die Prognose sehr schlecht. Ein neuer Therapieansatz besteht in der additiven lokalen Radioimmuntherapie (RIT) mit {sup 131}I-markierten Tenascin-Antikoerpern (BC-4). Diese Studie berichtet ueber unsere initialen Erfahrungen hinsichtlich Nebenwirkungen, Biokinetik und klinischem Verlauf. Methoden: Zwoelf Patienten (4 Gliome WHO III, 8 Gliome WHO IV) erhielten nach Operation und perkutaner Radiatio 1-5 RIT-Zyklen im Abstand von 6 Wochen mit durchschnittlich 1100 MBq {sup 131}I-markierten Antikoerpern ueber ein Ommaya-Reservoir. Der Verlauf wurde durch FDG-PET- und MRT-Untersuchungen dokumentiert. Die Biokinetic wurde an Ganzkoerperaufnahmen, Blut- und Urinproben sowie Proben aus der Tumorhoehle nach RIT beurteilt. Ergebnisse: Unter RIT traten bei vier Patienten passagere Anfaelle, bei einem in Kombination mit transienter Sprachstoerung auf. Acht Patienten bildeten im Verlauf HAMAs (humane Antikoerper gegen Mausantigen) aus. Die biologische HWZ der Aktivitaet in der Turmorhoehle lag im Mittel bei 3,9 d (1,0-10,2 d) und blieb intraindividuell bei Folgetherapien konstant. Das Radioimmunkonjugat in der Tumorhoehle blieb mindestens 5 d stabil. Die mittlere Ueberlebenszeit liegt zurzeit bei 18,5 Monaten und ist damit deutlich hoeher als bei einer historischen Patientengruppe mit Standardtherapie (9,7 Monate; n=89). Fuenf Patienten zeigen bisher keinen Hinweis auf ein Rezidiv. Bei drei Patienten mit einem Tumorrest nach Operation zeigte sich unter RIT in einem Fall partielle Remission, ein stabiler und ein progredienter Krankheitsverlauf. Vier Patienten ohne Tumorrest zu Therapiebeginn entwickelten unter Therapie ein Rezidiv. Schlussfolgerungen: Erste Erfahrungen mit der lokalen RIT zeigen, dass diese komplikationsarme Therapieform additiv zur Standardtherapie ein Erfolg versprechender Ansatz bei malignem

  6. Labelling of Dotatate with 177Lu and 131I for diagnosis and targeted therapy: In vitro and In vivo comparative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies focused on the radiolabelling of DOTA-Tyr3-TATE (DOTATATE) with 177Lu and 131I, on the biological behaviour of 177Lu-DOTATATE and 131IDOTATATE and on comparative evaluation of the results obtained to select an appropriate radiopeptide for potential application in somatostatin receptor radionuclide therapy. The radiopeptides were obtained with high purities and specific activities, but with different stabilities, with the 177Lu-DOTATATE being more stable than the 131IDOTATATE. The results of competition and saturation binding experiments using rat brain cortex membrane homogenates show a high in vitro affinity (IC50: 4.74nM, Kd: 142.8 for 177Lu-DOTATATE; IC50: 1.28nM, Kd: 157.6 for 131I-DOTATATE). The biodistribution of each radiopeptide as well as the competitive biodistribution of 177Lu- DOTATATE and 131I-DOTATATE in rats bearing HRS1 (Hepatom RS1, a hepatocolangiom carcinoma) tumours illustrate that 177Lu-DOTATATE is more stable and shows better tumour uptake than 131I-DOTATATE, and that the competitive localization index of 177Lu-DOTATATE is three times higher than that of 131I-DOTATATE. The flow cytometry measurements of the HRS1 tumour samples from rats treated with multiple doses of 177Lu-DOTATATE in combination with absorbed dose data show decreases of both the tumour cell proliferation index and DNA ploidy. These data indicate that 177Lu- DOTATATE is a good option for application in somatostatin receptor radionuclide therapy. (author)

  7. Addendum to report of the research co-ordination meeting on labelling techniques of biomolecules for targeted radiotherapy. Country report: Hungary. Preparation, quality control and animal testing of 125I and 131I labelled monoclonal antibody for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against tumour-associated antigens have been used to detect tumour deposits. Since gamma camera imaging of patients injected with radiolabelled MoAbs has demonstrated, selective tumour uptake of MoAbs, antibody-directed radiotherapy has gained greater interest. Prior to employing antibodies for radioimmunotherapy, their tumour and normal tissue uptake and pharmacokinetics as well as therapeutic efficacy in the animal tumour model must be determined. The therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals consist of two components the radionuclide (beta, alpha, Anger and conversion electron emitters) and the biological carrier (from peptide- to antibody). In the first step of our research program anti CEA MoAb inj. labelled with iodine-125 and 131I isotopes were used to study therapeutic efficacy in nude mice bearing human gastric adenocarcinoma xenografts

  8. Hepatic artery injection of {sup 131}I-labelled metuximab combined with chemoembolization for intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective nonrandomized study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lu; Yang, Ye-Fa; Ge, Nai-Jian; Shen, Shu-Qun; Liang, Jun [Second Military Medical University, The First Department of Interventional Radiology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wang, Yi [Second Military Medical University, The Second Department of Hepatic Surgery, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhou, Wei-Ping [Second Military Medical University, The Third Department of Hepatic Surgery, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shen, Feng; Wu, Meng-Chao [Second Military Medical University, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2012-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth and seventh most common cause of cancer in men and women, respectively. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the standardized therapy for the intermediate stage of HCC. However, the 3-year overall survival remains low (<30 %) in these patients. Thus, there is a critical need for the development of treatment modalities to improve the survival rate. This study aimed to evaluate whether the combination of {sup 131}I-metuximab with chemoembolization could improve treatment efficiency. Between January 2009 and January 2010, a prospective two-arm nonrandomized study was performed in patients with intermediate HCC. Of 138 patients, 68 (combination therapy group) received 132 courses of intraarterial {sup 131}I-metuximab injections combined with chemoembolization (mean 1.94 per patient, median 2, range 1-2), followed by 152 sessions of TACE (mean 2.24 per patient, median 2, range 0-4). The remaining 70 patients (monotherapy group) received 296 sessions of TACE (mean 4.23 per patient, median 4, range 1-7). The overall median survival times for the combination therapy group and the group treated only with TACE were 26.7 months (95 % CI 20.7-31.3 months) and 20.6 months (95 % CI 15.3-24.7 months), respectively. The combination therapy group had a significantly higher survival rate than the TACE-only group (P = 0.038). Age {>=}65 years, serum albumin {<=}35 g/l, and treatment category (combination therapy or TACE only) were independent prognostic factors for survival according to multivariate analysis. The combination of {sup 131}I-metuximab and chemoembolization extended survival in patients with intermediate HCC compared with TACE only, and was well tolerated by patients with Child-Pugh class A or B disease. This combination seems to be a promising treatment modality for patients with intermediate HCC. (orig.)

  9. Radiation dosimetry and first therapy results with a {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I-labeled small molecule (MIP-1095) targeting PSMA for prostate cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechmann, Christian M.; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Mier, Walter [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Armor, Tom; Joyal, John [Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA (United States); Stubbs, James B. [Radiation Dosimetry Systems RDS, Inc., Apharetta, GA (United States); Hadaschik, Boris [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Urology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kopka, Klaus [Division Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, DKFZ, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Babich, John W. [Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA (United States); Cornell University, Division of Radiopharmacy, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Haberkorn, Uwe [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, DKFZ, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Since the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is frequently over-expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) several PSMA-targeting molecules are under development to detect and treat metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We investigated the tissue kinetics of a small molecule inhibitor of PSMA ((S)-2-(3-((S)-1-carboxy-5-(3-(4-[{sup 124}I]iodophenyl)ureido)pentyl)ureido) pentan edioicacid; MIP-1095) using PET/CT to estimate radiation dosimetry for the potential therapeutic use of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095 in men with mCRPC. We also report preliminary safety and efficacy of the first 28 consecutive patients treated under a compassionate-use protocol with a single cycle of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095. Sixteen patients with known prostate cancer underwent PET/CT imaging after i.v. administration of {sup 124}I-MIP-1095 (mean activity: 67.4 MBq). Each patient was scanned using PET/CT up to five times at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h post injection. Volumes of interest were defined for tumor lesions and normal organs at each time point followed by dose calculations using the OLINDA/EXM software. Twenty-eight men with mCRPC were treated with a single cycle of {sup 131}I-MIP-1095 (mean activity: 4.8 GBq, range 2 to 7.2 GBq) and followed for safety and efficacy. Baseline and follow up examinations included a complete blood count, liver and kidney function tests, and measurement of serum PSA. I-124-MIP-1095 PET/CT images showed excellent tumor uptake and moderate uptake in liver, proximal intestine and within a few hours post-injection also in the kidneys. High uptake values were observed only in salivary and lacrimal glands. Dosimetry estimates for I-131-MIP-1095 revealed that the highest absorbed doses were delivered to the salivary glands (3.8 mSv/MBq), liver (1.7 mSv/MBq) and kidneys (1.4 mSv/MBq). The absorbed dose calculated for the red marrow was 0.37 mSv/MBq. PSA values decreased by >50 % in 60.7 % of the men treated. Of men with bone pain, 84.6 % showed complete or

  10. Comparison of 131I-TYR3-octreotate and 131I-DOTA-TYR3-octreotate: The effect of DOTA on pharmacokinetics and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors compared the biodistribution, and in vivo and in vitro stabilities of 131I-Tyr3-octreotate and 131I-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate. The peptides were radioiodinated by the chloramine T method and high radiochemical yields were obtained (greater than 97%). Both labelled compounds showed high stability when incubated in human plasma at 37 deg C. The 131I-Tyr3-octreotate showed significant hepatic uptake and biliary excretion. The biodistribution of 131I-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate, however, can be compared with the distribution of radiometal labelled octreotide analogues. (author)

  11. 131I-chTNT-mediated radioimmunotherapy for non-uptaking 131I pulmonary metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the safety and efficacy of 131I-labeled mouse/human chimeric monoclonal antibody (131I-chTNT)-mediated radioimmunotherapy are evaluated because the patients have non-uptaking 131I pulmonary metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The 16 patients were injected intravenously by 29.6±3.7 MBq·kg-1 using 131I-chTNT. The chest computer tomography was performed before treatment, as well as 28 and 70 days after treatment. Responses and safety were assessed during the treatment. The results show that the 131I-chTNT infusion was well tolerated with the 12.5% complete response, 18.8% partial response, 25.0% progressive disease, and the 43.8% stable disease, indicating that most treatment-related adverse effects are mild transient and reversible. The 131I-chTNT is promising for patients with non-uptaking the 131I pulmonary metastases from DTC. (authors)

  12. Optimization of labelling conditions of 15-p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid with {sup 123}I and its pharmacokinetics evaluation; Otimizacao das condicoes de marcacao do acido 15-p-iodo fenil pentadecanoico com {sup 123/131} I e sua avaliacao farmacocinetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ione Caselato; Colturato, Maria Tereza; Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de; Barbosa, Marycel Figols de; Muramoto, Emiko; Pereira, Nilda Petrona Sosa de; Silva, Constanca Pagano Goncalves da; Almeida, Maria Aparecida T.M. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    The 15-p-iodo-phenyl pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) labelled with {sup 123} I is an important radiopharmaceutical for use in cardiology, due to its favorable physical characteristics and its labelling stability. The labelling procedure studies for the preparation of IPPA {sup 123/131} I was according to the procedures described by Dougan et col. The optimization of the labelling of the labelling condition and product stability were evaluated by radiochemical controls and by biological distribution study using animal models. (author)

  13. Experimental Study of the Labeling Method and Inhibitive Effects on Non-Hodgkin's B-cell Lymphoma Cells of 131I-Rituximab%131I-Rituximab对B细胞淋巴瘤的放射免疫导向治疗的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    智生芳; 樊卫; 王国慧; 刘长征; 何军芳

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨放射性核素131I标记Rituximab及131I-Rituximab对B细胞淋巴瘤细胞进行放射免疫导向治疗的可行性.方法:采用氯胺-T法制备131I-Rituximab,采用CCK-8法观察131I-Rituximab对Raji细胞的抑制作用,对照组为131I、 Rituximab组.结果:131I-Rituximab标记率在92%以上,放化学纯度达98%以上.CCK-8法表明131I-Rituximab对Raji细胞的抑瘤率与131I组和Rituximab组的抑瘤率有统计学差异(P<0.01).结论:提示131I-Rituximab对人B细胞淋巴瘤的放射免疫导向治疗具有可行性.

  14. Therapeutical uses of 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiology of thyroid gland, pathology of thyroid , papillary, follicular cancer is considered together as differentiated thyroid cancer with very good results under therapy with iodine, invitro determination of calcitonin, search of metastasis, anaplastic carcinoma, as indifferentiated carcinoma with similar results as medullary carcinoma. This work gives a protocol for therapeutical use of 131I , in hyperthyroidism due to Graves-Basedow disease, thyrotoxic adenoma or Plummer disease, toxic multi nodular goiter, subacute thyroiditis. Is studied too the treatment with pharmaceuticals, surgery and radioactive iodine. A recommended use of each and protocol for iodine administration, fixed dose technique, dose estimation,absorbed dose, recommendations about when to use and not use 131I are included in this work

  15. Production of fission 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of iodine separation from other radionuclides generated by 235U fission has been developed in order to explore the possibilities to obtain 131I as by-product of the 99Mo routine production in the Ezeiza Atomic Centre. The experiments were designed to remove this element to gas phase, and the recoveries were investigated both with and without carrier addition. High volatilization percentages were achieved in the presence of iodine carrier. Some other alternatives to increase the iodine displacement to the gaseous phase, namely vacuum distillation, addition of hydrogen peroxide and use of a carrier gas, were also studied. The method developed, which employs a carrier gas stream, without carrier addition, allows the recovery of about 97% of the 131I, with high specific activity, in a simple and clean way. (author)

  16. In vivo biological evaluation of {sup 131}I radiolabeled-paclitaxel glucuronide ({sup 131}I-PAC-G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, O.; Biber Muftuler, F.Z.; Yurt Kilcar, A.; Ichedef, C.; Unak, P. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2012-07-01

    Paclitaxel (PAC) is a natural occurring diterpene alkoloid originally isolated from the bark of Taxus Brevifolia. It is one of the most important antitumor agents for clinical treatment of ovarian, breast non-small cell lung and prostate cancers. It is known that these types of cancer cells have high {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme which can catalyze the hydrolysis of glucuronides. This is why the synthesis compounds which undergo glucuronidation come into question in the imaging and therapy of these cancer cells. The aim of current study is conjugation of glucuronic acid (G) to the starting substance PAC, labeling with {sup 131}I and to perform its in vivo biological evaluation. Glucuronic acid derived paclitaxel compound [paclitaxel-glucuronide (PAC-G)] was labeled with {sup 131}I using iodogen method. According to thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC) method, the radiochemical yield of {sup 131}I-PAC-G was 84.30 {+-} 7.40% (n=10). The biodistribution of {sup 131}I-PAC-G in healthy female and male Wistar Albino rats has been investigated. Imaging studies on male Balb-C mice were performed by using the Kodak FX PRO in vivo Imaging System. The range of the breast/blood, breast/muscle; ovary/blood, ovary/muscle ratios is approximately between 1.29 and 11.34 in 240 min, and between 0.71 and 8.24 in 240 min for female rats. The prostate/blood and prostate/muscle ratio is between 1.94 and 6.95 in 30 min for male rats. All these experimental studies indicate that {sup 131}I-PAC-G may potentially be used in breast, ovary and prostate tissues as an imaging agent. Also it is thought that {sup 131}I-PAC-G bears a therapy potential because of the {sup 131}I radionuclide and can be improved with further investigations. (orig.)

  17. Initial experience with locoregional radioimmunotherapy using 131I-labelled monoclonal antibodies against tenascin (BC-4) for treatment of glioma (WHO III and IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: None of the established treatments (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) for malignant glioma has improved its very poor prognosis. Adjuvant locoregional radioimmunotherapy (RIT) represents a new therapeutic approach. We present our initial experience with this therapeutic tool with respect to adverse effects, biokinetics and clinical follow-up. Methods: Following surgery and radiotherapy, 12 patients with glioma (4, WHO stage III; 8, WHO stage IV) underwent 1-5 RIT-cycles (average dose 1100 MBq 131labelled monoclonal BC-4 antibodies) at six week intervals. Follow-up included serial FDG-PET and MRI investigations. Evaluation of biokinetics included whole body scans, together with analysis of blood, urine and fluid from the tumor cavity. Results: Following RIT, four patients experienced temporary seizures, which, in one case, were associated with temporary aphasia. Eight patients developed HAMA (human anti-mouse anti-bodies) during follow-up. Mean biologic half-life of the radiopharmaceutical in the resection cavity was 3.9 d (range: 1.0-10.2 d) and remained stable intraindividually during further RIT-cycles. The antibody/radionuclide conjugate remain stable in the tumor cavity for at least 5 d. Median survival presently stands at 18.5 months compared to 9.7 months in a historical patient group (n=89) undergoing conventional therapeutic strategies. Five patients show no signs of recurrence. In three patients with post-surgical evidence of residual tumor, one patient showed partial remission, one stable disease, and one progressive disease during RIT. Four patients without evidence of residual tumor mass at the beginning of RIT developed recurrence during therapy. Conclusions: Initial experience demonstrates that locoregional RIT is a well tolerated treatment modality that may represent a promising new approach in the management of patients with malignant glioma. Advantages of local application include passage of the blood-brain barrier, high concentration of

  18. Radioimmunotherapy with Tenarad, a {sup 131}I-labelled antibody fragment targeting the extra-domain A1 of tenascin-C, in patients with refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloj, Luigi [Istituto Nazionale Tumori ' ' Fondazione G. Pascale' ' - IRCCS, Struttura Complessa di Medicina Nucleare, Napoli (Italy); D' Ambrosio, Laura; Aurilio, Michela; Morisco, Anna; Caraco' , Corradina; Di Gennaro, Francesca; Lastoria, Secondo [Istituto Nazionale Tumori ' ' Fondazione G. Pascale' ' - IRCCS, Struttura Complessa Medicina Nucleare, Napoli (Italy); Frigeri, Ferdinando; Capobianco, Gaetana; Pinto, Antonio [Istituto Nazionale Tumori ' ' Fondazione G. Pascale' ' - IRCCS, Struttura Complessa di Ematologia Oncologica, Napoli (Italy); Giovannoni, Leonardo; Menssen, Hans D. [Philogen, SpA, Siena (Italy); Neri, Dario [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    The extra-domain A1 of tenascin-C (TC-A1) is highly expressed in the extracellular matrix of tumours and on newly formed blood vessels and is thus a valuable target for radionuclide therapy. Tenarad is a fully human miniantibody or small immunoprotein (SIP, molecular weight 80 kDa) labelled with {sup 131}I that is derived from a TC-A1-binding antibody. Previous phase I/II studies with a similar compound ({sup 131}I-L19SIP) used for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) have shown preliminary efficacy in a variety of cancer types. In this ongoing phase I/II trial, Tenarad was administered to patients with recurrent Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) refractory to conventional treatments. Eight patients (four men, four women; age range 19 - 41) were enrolled between April 2010 and March 2011. All patients had received a median of three previous lines of chemotherapy (range three to six) and seven had also undergone autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) or bone marrow transplantation. In addition, seven patients received external beam radiation. All patients had nodal disease, constitutional B symptoms and some showed extranodal disease in skeletal bone (four patients), lung (three), liver (two) and spleen (one). Baseline assessments included whole-body FDG PET with contrast-enhanced CT and diagnostic Tenarad planar and SPECT studies. Patients were considered eligible to receive a therapeutic dose of Tenarad (2.05 GBq/m{sup 2}) if tumour uptake was more than four times higher than that of muscle. All patients were eligible and received the therapeutic dose of Tenarad. Only one patient developed grade 4 thrombocytopenia and leucocytopenia, requiring hospitalization and therapeutic intervention. All other patients had haematological toxicity of grade 3 or lower, which resolved spontaneously. At the first response assessment (4 - 6 weeks after therapy), one patient showed a complete response, one showed a partial response (PR) and five had disease stabilization (SD). Five patients

  19. Interventions in 131I-MIBG treatment of neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Specific targeting of neuroendocrine tumours for therapy may be achieved either via the metabolic route (MIBG), via receptor binding (peptides) or via the immunological route (antibodies). Any malignant neural crest tumour, showing sufficient uptake and retention of 131I-meta-odobenzylguanidine (MIBG) on a diagnostic tracer study is a candidate for therapy using this agent. The principle indications for 131I-MIBG therapy are malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, neuroblastoma stage III and IV, medullary thyroid carcinoma and symptomatic, metastatic carcinoid tumors. At an EANM Radionuclide Therapy Committee workshop on 131IMIBG therapy in 1999 the results of treatment in 534 patients with neural crest tumours were gathered, showing cumulative objective response rates of 51% for malignant pheochromocytoma, 48% for paraganglioma, 51% for neuroblastoma, 23% for medullary thyroid carcinoma and 8% for carcinoid tumors. Moreover, symptomatic palliation occurred in more than 60% of the patients. These results compare favorably with the best reported results of combination chemotherapy. An active uptake-1 mechanism at the cell membrane and neurosecretory storage granules in the cytoplasm of neural crest tumours are responsible for the uptake and retention of 131I-MIBG, respectively, resulting in high tumour/nontumour ratio's. Many drugs are known or may be expected to interfere with (i.e. have a negatively effect on) the uptake and/or retention of 131I-MIBG by the tumour cell. In contrast, there are also factors which may influence either the uptake/retention of 131I-MIBG or the results of therapy in a positive way. Possible interventions: 1. Use of other labels, for example 125I-MIBG, 211At-MABG and 76Br-MBBG, which, in view of their ultrashort pathway, may have a role in the treatment of micrometastases and bone marrow infiltration, particularly as the results of 131I-MIBG therapy under these circumstances are poor. 2. By increasing the specific

  20. Radiochromatographic Determination of 131I Labeled Eugenol

    OpenAIRE

    F. Zümrüt Biber Müftüler; Emine Derviş; Buse Cetkin

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic phytochemicals are a broad class of nutraceuticals found in plants which have been extensively researched by scientists for medicinal potential. Eugenol, a phenolic natural compound available in the essential oils primarily extracted from clove plants, has been exploited for various medicinal applications. It possesses antioxidant, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The goal of current study was to extract Eugenol compound from clove p...

  1. Preparation and stability of 131I-tetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the iodination of tetracycline is presented which yields > 85% labeling efficiency. The product is stable for a minimum of 72 hr and appears to retain tetracycline-like properties when studied in vivo. The critical factors in the synthesis are reaction temperature, acidity, and drying temperature. The data suggest that 131I-TET can be studied as a tumor scanning agent without fear of product artifact. (author)

  2. Evaluation of {sup 131}I retention in several adsorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catanoso, Marcela F.; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto, E-mail: marcela.forli@gmail.co, E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Radiofarmacia

    2011-07-01

    Several iodine radioisotopes are used in nuclear medicine for treatment and diagnostic purposes. The radioisotope {sup 131}I is used both in diagnosis and therapy due to its physical characteristics of decay by {beta}{sup -} and its {gamma}-ray emissions suitable for diagnosis. It is routinely produced at IPEN through the irradiation of TeO{sub 2} targets in the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor. After the irradiation, the {sup 131}I is separated by dry distillation, where the targets are put in an oven, heated at 760 deg C for 2 hours and the {sup 131}I, volatile, is carried by an O{sub 2} gas stream. The aim of this work was to evaluate the retention and elution of {sup 131}I samples produced at IPEN in several adsorbers as part of a project aiming the purification of these radioisotopes, allowing the labeling of biomolecules. Samples of {sup 131}I were used for retention and elution studies with the following adsorbers: commercial cartridges, anionic resin columns and cationic resin column. The results showed that Ag cartridges and anionic resins Dowex 1X8, Dowex 3 and IRA 400 had a great iodine retention but no elution after using specific eluents. The QMA light, acid alumina, neutral alumina and cationic resin Dowex 50WX4 showed high retention and elution and QMA plus and cationic resin Dowex 50WX8 and Dowex 50WX12 had a good retention but lower elution. Regarding to the better retention and elution, Ag cartridges and resins showed a higher percentage of iodine retention but lower elution yield and QMA light, acid and neutral alumina cartridges showed better results. (author)

  3. Evaluation of 131I retention in several adsorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several iodine radioisotopes are used in nuclear medicine for treatment and diagnostic purposes. The radioisotope 131I is used both in diagnosis and therapy due to its physical characteristics of decay by β- and its γ-ray emissions suitable for diagnosis. It is routinely produced at IPEN through the irradiation of TeO2 targets in the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor. After the irradiation, the 131I is separated by dry distillation, where the targets are put in an oven, heated at 760 deg C for 2 hours and the 131I, volatile, is carried by an O2 gas stream. The aim of this work was to evaluate the retention and elution of 131I samples produced at IPEN in several adsorbers as part of a project aiming the purification of these radioisotopes, allowing the labeling of biomolecules. Samples of 131I were used for retention and elution studies with the following adsorbers: commercial cartridges, anionic resin columns and cationic resin column. The results showed that Ag cartridges and anionic resins Dowex 1X8, Dowex 3 and IRA 400 had a great iodine retention but no elution after using specific eluents. The QMA light, acid alumina, neutral alumina and cationic resin Dowex 50WX4 showed high retention and elution and QMA plus and cationic resin Dowex 50WX8 and Dowex 50WX12 had a good retention but lower elution. Regarding to the better retention and elution, Ag cartridges and resins showed a higher percentage of iodine retention but lower elution yield and QMA light, acid and neutral alumina cartridges showed better results. (author)

  4. 131I metabolism in the study of antithyroid drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the present report was to study the action of antithyroid drugs on different parameters of thyroid activity utilizing 131I, in the offsprings of rats treated during pregnancy and the perinatal period. Both PTU and MMI caused alterations in growth and thyroid activity, but they were more dramatic with the former. A significative increase in 131I thyroid uptake and in circulating radioactivity was observed. When % uptake was expressed as a function of thyroidal and body weights, a significative decrease was noticed. The ratio T/S and the percentage of labelled iodothyronines in pancreatin digests were also decreased. Neuromuscular maturation was evaluated, by means of the test of Schapiro. A group of animals treated with PTU plus T4 had a significant delay, reaching normal developement later than the controls or those treated with MMI. (author)

  5. Hypothyroidism following 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 890 patients who received 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism, the results of therapy were examined on 584 who could be followed up. Of these 502 (86%), were sured including 3 patients who had been completely healed after recurrence, 9 patients are still under medical treatment, and 10 died. The incidence of hypothyroidism following 131I therapy was 1.6% after 1 year, 2.3% after 2 years, 4.7% after 5 years, 15.0% after 10-12 years, 22.1% after 13-15 years and 27.5% after 16-20 years. The incidence increased constantly with the passage of time. Factors influencing the response to treatment have been investigated. As a consequence, the number of rads delivered to the thyroid gland, the gland size, and previous surgery correlated with the incidence of hypothyroidism. The number of doses of 131I, uptake and half-life of 131I in the thyroid, previous antithyroid medication, time between the onset of hyperthyroid symptoms and 131I therapy, and the age or sex of the patients appeared unrelated. The times taken to become euthyroid following a single dose of 131I were 5.6 months with 2000-4000 rads, 4.4 months with 4001-7000 rads, 4.2 months with 7001-10000 rads and 3.5 months with more than 10001 rads. The time was prolonged with decrease of rads delivered to the thyroid gland. It was found that the patients who passed through a transient hypothyroid phase in the period of three to four months after administration of 131I had a high incidence of late permanent hypothyroidism. (Evans, J.)

  6. Radioiodine 131I metabolism in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic fate of orally administered 131I in human was studied. Chronological observations of whole body radioactivity distribution and thyroid 131I uptake curve revealed that 131I metabolism was greatly affected by the amount of dietary iodine intake. Under the high iodine intake exceeding 1 mg per day, uptake curve showed biphasic descending type, that is, rapid accumulation during 3 to 6 hours and rapid fall up to 48 hours and gradual decrease afterwards. While, ascending type, monophasic and maximal at 24 hours, was found universary under low iodine intake less than 500 μg per day. Thyroid function should not be affected by the amount of iodine intake, and we analysed 131I metabolism using a new four compartments which included intrathyroidal inorganic iodine pool. The results, especially hormone production rate, were found quite useful even under high iodine intake. Thyroidal organic iodine contents were calculated as approximately 2.5 mg and this value was much less than previously reported values from other countries. Administered radioiodine were mixed up with stable body iodine and reached equilibration by around 10 days. From seroimmunological, histological (microscopic and electron microscopic) studies, and irradiation studies to the cultured human thyroid cells, we concluded that this unexpected phenomenon was derived from chromosomal damage which induced gradual decrease in cell population because of inability to reproduce. Carcinogenic and genetic effects were not serious, and only three leukemic patients were reported in this country and 484 normal babies were born from 7,500 treated parents. Thus, therapeutic dose of 131I was proved rather safe, and even when exposed to radioiodine, administration of perchlorate or thiocyanate, excessive iodine and TSH seemed effective to avoid radiation injuries. (auth.)

  7. 131I-m IBG preparation and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors affecting the preparation of 131I-mIBG were studied and the optimal labelling and preparation conditions were determined in a manner that the requirements of GRP and GMP are satisfied. The m-IBG was labeled by isotopic exchange method where in situ produced Cu (II) was used as a catalyst. The Cu (II) was in situ produced by the effect of thiosulfate on Cu(II) ions in the presence of acetic acid. The optimal conditions were determined as: (The ratio of acetic acid to the iodide-131 solution is 0.5-1.5, the reaction temperature is (160 Centigrade), the reaction period is 60 minutes, and the quantity of m-IBG must be more than 1mg). At these conditions, high labelling yield of 98% was obtained. Further purification lead to an increase in the RCP to more than 99%. All preparations produced sterile and Pyrogen free solutions. The biodistribution studies in rats showed random distribution, which were slightly higher than that were shown in literature. These differences were attributed to the absence of stable iodine saturation of the rats prior to the injection of 131I-mIBG in this study. Clinical studies using our products showed high localization in the tumors in case of neuroblastoma patients and in adrenal gland in case of pheochromocytoma patients. (author)

  8. Disposition of 131I proinsulin in the rat comparisons with 131I insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patterns of disposition of intravenously injected doses of 131I proinsulin and 131I insulin were compared in the rat with respect to plasma clearance, uptake, and degradation in selected organs and tissues, and rates of accumulation of degraded products in plasma and urine. The studies indicate that the differences in dose dependency in plasma clearance and degradation of 131I insulin and 131I proinsulin can be attributed to differences in relative uptakes and degradation by the liver and kidneys. The liver appeared to be the major organ involved in the removal and degradation of insulin, whereas the kidney appeared to be the major organ involved in the case of proinsulin. The hepatic process was rapid but relatively saturable, whereas the kidney process was slower but relatively unsaturable. The inverse relationship between initial concentration of hormone in plasma and uptake by liver suggests that the ratio may provide a sensitive index of the role of the liver in plasma hormone clearance

  9. A monitor of airborne 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study was conducted of the designing problems of a monitor for air contamination by 131I, i.e., choice of the detector, optimization of the configuration of the adsorbent-detector system, choice of the pump and the interaction of the pump and the adsorbent. A comparison was made of beta and gamma detectors suitable for 131I monitoring. The background was determined for each detector and their sensitivity determined using a 131I source of known activity. The relative sensitivity of the individual detectors was calculated with regard to detector SKW U 04. The ambient area of the SKG-1 detector (45 mm diameter by 50 mm thick) was scanned using a 131I point detector (1x1 mm) to assess the effect of adsorbent shape, size and location on detector efficiency, and the dependence of the sensitivity of well-type scintillators on the position of the source along the well axis was determined. The pumping characteristics of four different pumps are given, i.e., the dependence of the volume flow rate of pumped air on the pressure loss at the pump inlet, the dependence of pressure losses on the flow rate of pumped air for selected adsorption materials, and the values of the specific resistance of filtration materials. Based on the experiments, two monitor designs are suggested, one portable and the other stationary. The portable monitor is equipped with a semiconductor PSC detector and a diaphragm pump, and filtration paper impregnated with activated carbon is used as the adsorbent. The stationary monitor uses a transversely bored 60 mm diameter by 50 mm thick NaI(Tl) crystal. The adsorbent bed is located in the crystal's through-hole which is 16.5 mm in diameter. A stationary air-pump is used. (B.S.)

  10. Comparison of 131I-tetracycline and 67Ga-citrate as abscess localizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that radiolabeled tetracyclines tend to accumulate in infarcts and necrotic tumors. These results suggested that radiolabeled tetracyclines might also accumulate in necrotic abscesses or areas of inflammation. In order to develop a better abscess scanning agent, we compared the efficiency of 131I-tetracycline with 67Ga-citrate in labeling experimentally induced staphylococcal aureus abscesses in rats 24 and 72 hours after injection. In addition to evaluating 131I-tetracycline as an abscess scanning agent, we hoped to obtain data which might clarify the controversy regarding early versus late gallium scanning in suspected infection. 131I-tetracycline was chosen over sup(99m)Tc-tetracycline because the longer half-life of 131I would allow 72 hour imaging. Absolute concentrations of gallium in the abscess contents and in the surrounding areas of inflammation were significantly greater than the concentration of 131I-tetracycline at both 24 and 72 hours. With the exception of blood, muscle, and bone, the abscess-to-tissue activity ratios for gallium and 131I-tetracycline were similar; however, the ratio of gallium activity in the inflammed tissue to other tissues was greater than that of 131I-tetracycline for every tissue examined at both time periods. The data suggest that 131I-tetracycline has little potential as a general abscess scanning agent. The gallium tissue concentrations and tissue ratios suggest that abscesses which can be imaged at 72 hours can probably be imaged at 24 hours, thus allowing earlier initiation of appropriate therapy. Because of the higher lesion-to-blood ratio at 72 hours, a 72-hour scan would appear to be indicated before a scan is interpreted as normal. (orig.)

  11. In Vitro Activities of Moxifloxacin, 127I-Moxifloxacin and 131I-Moxifloxacin Against Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Demiroğlu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of Moxifloxacin (MXF, radio (Na131I and cold (K127I iodinated MXF on methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 35556 (MSSA biofilms. Methods: MXF was labeled with Na131I using the iodogen method. The optimum radiodination conditions for 131I-MXF was determined by thin-layer radio chromatography studies. Thin-layer radio chromatography (TLRC chromatograms were obtained by using Cyclone Plus Storage Phosphor System. The MICs of MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF were determined using the microdilution broth method according to CLSI criteria. Time kill curves were performed over 24 h using an inoculum of 2×105 (CFU/mL. Biofilms were grown in microtitre plates, dyed with crystal violet and the mean optical density (OD630 was used for quantification. Biofilms were incubated MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF at various concentration (0.03 to 64 µg/mL. Results: MXF was labeled with 131I iodogen method. 131I-MXF was obtained with high a yield 95±3%. The MIC values for MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF was 0.06 µg/mL. Bactericidal activity was demonstrated at 0.25 µg/mL 4 hour for MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF. At MIC levels, MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF was not showed a marked reduction of metabolic activity in the S. aureus biofilm. The ODs of biofilm after incubation with an increasing antibiotic concentration were significantly lower than the ODs of biofilms without antibiotic p≤005. The radiolabeled MXF was most effective than MXF, 127I-MXF in reducing the number of bacteria in biofilm. After 24 h incubation Log10 CFU/mL values for 32 µg/mL antibiotic concentration: Control, MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF were 9.5, 4.3, 4.8 and 3.1, respectively. Conclusion: 131I and 127I were used alone there was no penetration of the S. aureus biofilm and no damage. In contrast our results demonstrate that the radiolabeled Moxifloxacin (131I-MXF have potent anti-biofilm activity against S. aureus

  12. Chrono- and pyro- pharmaceutics (stability) of aqueous 131I-MIBG injectable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Stability of a radiopharmaceutical is an important parameter of quality assurance. 131I-mIBG is used for Dx and Rx of neural crest tumours, but its efficacy and even safety (of the patient) depends to a great extent on the integrity of the molecule in the dispensed dosage form because of the nature of the label, 131I. In the case of 131I-mIBG, the structure of the molecule including the specific activity and bonding characteristics of the iodine carrying the hot label are the intrinsic factors, while the aqueous environment, composition, temperature and time of storage serve as the external determinants. For a specific species, it is far easier to control the latter than the former. Since 131I-mIBG is composed of a reactive guanidine moiety, there is a possibility that it could break down into stabler organic component species with or without the radiolabel and free 131I. We have investigated the stability of radiodiagnostic dosage forms at 37 MBq/ml radioactive concentration of 131I-mIBG formulated in acetate buffer at 5 different temperatures (-37,-20,0,20 and 37 deg C) for up to 56 d. We found that the product is relatively stable at -37 deg C for up to 56 d. (8-10% impurity was 131I). The one stored at +37 deg C was the least stable (∼ 75% impurity), the others were of intermediate stability characteristics. The stability of the dosage form could be greatly enhanced by the addition benzyl alcohol; a formulation containing 1% was superior to 0.1%, only the rate of decomposition was slowed down. The former afforded a better shelf life to most of the dosage forms. Thus it can be seen that by changing the external milieu, one could obtain a superior dosage form

  13. Disposition of /sup 131/I proinsulin in the rat comparisons with /sup 131/I insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, J.L.; Roncone, A.M.; Helton, D.L.; Izzo, M.J.

    1978-04-01

    The patterns of disposition of intravenously injected doses of /sup 131/I proinsulin and /sup 131/I insulin were compared in the rat with respect to plasma clearance, uptake, and degradation in selected organs and tissues, and rates of accumulation of degraded products in plasma and urine. The studies indicate that the differences in dose dependency in plasma clearance and degradation of /sup 131/I insulin and /sup 131/I proinsulin can be attributed to differences in relative uptakes and degradation by the liver and kidneys. The liver appeared to be the major organ involved in the removal and degradation of insulin, whereas the kidney appeared to be the major organ involved in the case of proinsulin. The hepatic process was rapid but relatively saturable, whereas the kidney process was slower but relatively unsaturable. The inverse relationship between initial concentration of hormone in plasma and uptake by liver suggests that the ratio may provide a sensitive index of the role of the liver in plasma hormone clearance.

  14. Efficient production of therapeutic doses of [131I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine for clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [131I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) is a known radiopharmaceutical used for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors. The development of therapeutic [131I]-mIBG doses at production level is highly challenging due to rapid product degradation and high radiation exposures to the production plant personnel. In the present work, a working module for the production of 10 doses (100 mCi each) in a single operation was developed following copper (I) assisted isotope exchange. The labeled product complies with the pharmaceutical specifications suitable for in-vivo patient use.

  15. Efficient production of therapeutic doses of [{sup 131}I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine for clinical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, G.; Mathur, Anupam; Shunmugam, G.; Teje, Y.D.; Sachdev, S.S. [Radiopharmaceuticals Program, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Sec. 20, Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400705 (India); Sivaprasad, N., E-mail: drnsivaprasad@rediffmail.co [Radiopharmaceuticals Program, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Sec. 20, Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400705 (India)

    2011-01-15

    [{sup 131}I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) is a known radiopharmaceutical used for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors. The development of therapeutic [{sup 131}I]-mIBG doses at production level is highly challenging due to rapid product degradation and high radiation exposures to the production plant personnel. In the present work, a working module for the production of 10 doses (100 mCi each) in a single operation was developed following copper (I) assisted isotope exchange. The labeled product complies with the pharmaceutical specifications suitable for in-vivo patient use.

  16. Tumor model studies of 131I-tetracycline and other compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131-tetracycline (131I-TET) was prepared by allowing tetracycline hydrochloride to react with radioiodide in acidic methanol (labeling efficiency greater than 85 percent). This preparation was found to be stable at --40C for at least 72 hr. Some minimal in vivo breakdown did occur. The 131I-TET, 67Ga, and several /sup 99m/Tc compounds were studied in a rat hepatoma model. The incorporation of the radiopharmaceuticals into the tumor occurred rapidly, with peak levels at 0.5 and 24 hr after injection for 131I-TET and 67Ga, respectively. The clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from nonviable tumor was slower than for viable tumor, and by 72 hr after injection the greatest concentration of radioactivity appeared in the nonviable fraction. All normal tissues showed faster clearance than did tumor tissue, regardless of viability. Decreasing the quantity of 131I-TET injected increased the percent of uptake in the nonviable tumor tissue but had no effect on the viable tumor uptake. Of the /sup 99m/Tc compounds studied, the phosphates developed the highest tumor-to-background ratios. Unfortunately these ratios were not as high as those achieved for 67Ga or 131I-TET

  17. An alternative intraarterial therapeutic agent for hepatic tumors. 131I lipiodol/histoacryl mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipiodol has excellent retainable ability in hepatoma cells. This agent can be labeled with radioisotope (131I) and mixed with tissue adhesive (Histoacryl), and then attached on the lesion of liver by intrahepatic arterial administration. In this study, we attempt to obtain the optimal ratio of Lipiodol to Histoacryl and evaluate the consolidation of blood in vitro and toxicity and biodistribution in vivo. The ratio of 131I Lipiodol/Histoacryl mixture (L/H), concentration of heparin and flow rate of blood are varied by simulating the installation of bloodstream to test the time of consolidation. In addition, the optimal ratios of the L/H mixtures are assessed in vitro in heparinized human blood. According to those results, Lipiodol and Histoacryl mixed with 1:1 or 2:1 ratio have an ideal time of 13 to 15 seconds in vitro; in addition, 1.2:1 ratio is an optimal ratio in the biodistribution study. Interestingly, heparin and acetic acid does not alter the consolidation time, in addition, no variation occurs when varying the flow rate of blood. The consolidation of L/H mixture with blood is incubated in the 37 deg C, normal saline bath for 24 hours. No dissociation of free 131I is found. The optimal mixture is also injected into the hepatic artery of the Sprague-Dawley rats carrying hepatocellular carcinoma (N1S1 cell line). Radioactive consolidate is well confined in the tumor without evidence of leakage of the mixture to the lung or distribution of free 131I in the thyroid. In conclusion, this mixture has the merits of both irradiation and embolization of the tumor. The 131I Lipiodol/Histoacryl mixture (1.2:1) is a promising alternative for intrahepatic arterial administration to treat hepatic tumors. Histoacryl can confine the 131I and, also, embolize the tumor vessels. (author)

  18. Chemical and physical quality control of the HIPPURAN-131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some physico-chemical methods for analytical control of Hippuran-131I are compared. The most convenient to applicate in hospitals and in more specialized quality control laboratories are recommended. The quality of Hippuran-131I produced by ISOTOP (USSR) is also evaluated. The product met the requirement of the International Pharmacopeia

  19. Renal 131I-hippuran extraction in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, M; Hesse, B; Grønvall, J;

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the 131I-hippuran extraction fraction during baseline renal blood flow rates and at high flow rates induced by dopamine.......This study examined the 131I-hippuran extraction fraction during baseline renal blood flow rates and at high flow rates induced by dopamine....

  20. Dose assessment of medical staff taking care of patients treated with 131I due to the intake of 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Legislation requires that patient receiving 131I in activities greater than 550MBq have to be hospitalized in special closed department. Medical staff taking care of these patients can be exposed to external irradiation and internal contamination with 131I. The aim of this study was to assess the annual effective dose of medical staff taking care of patients treated with 131I due to the occupational intake of 131I. Material - Medical Staff: 6 nurses took care of 6 patients (placed into two rooms) treated with 131I in activities between 550 and 1100 MBq. 131I was normally delivered to patients once per week. After patients received 131I nurses were in contact with patients in average 4 hours per day, 4 days per week. Methods: Direct Method - whole body counting (WBC) of staff was performed daily after they finished their work and indirect method - determination of air 131I concentration in patient's rooms (AC) were used to assess the intake of 131I by staff. Measurements were done in winter period.Results and Dose Assessment: Results of measurements of medical staff and determination of 131I air concentration are presented. Average daily 131I intake of staff assessed from WBC results was 315 Bq; average daily 131I air concentration for first four days was 35 Bq/m3. Assessment of annual effective dose due to the internal contamination (realistic approach): - Direct method: 315 Bq/day x 208 days/year x 7,6 Sv/Bq x 10-9 = 0,498 mSv/year. - Indirect method: 35 Bq/m3 x 1,5 m3/hour x 832 hours/year x 7,6 Sv/Bq x 10-9 = 0,332 mSv/year. Conclusion: Medical staff taking care of patients treated with 131I received effective dose less than 0,5 mSv/year due to the intake of 131I. In the some time period they received 1,65 to 2,24 mSv due to the exposure to the external radiation coming from patients treated with 131I

  1. Toxicity of upfront 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) therapy in newly diagnosed neuroblastoma patients: a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the treatment of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma, different doses of 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) are administered at different time points during treatment. Toxicity, mainly haematological (thrombocytopenia), from 131I-MIBG therapy is known to occur in extensively chemotherapy pretreated neuroblastoma patients. Up to now, acute toxicity from 131I-MIBG as initial treatment has never been studied in a large cohort. The aim of this retrospective study was to document acute toxicity related to upfront 131I-MIBG. All neuroblastoma patients (stages 1-4 and 4S) treated upfront with 131I-MIBG at the Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Centre (1992 - 2008) were included in this retrospective analysis. The acute toxicity (during therapy) and short-term toxicity (1st month following therapy) of the first two 131I-MIBG therapies were studied. Of 66 patients (34 boys, 32 girls; median age 2.2 years, range 0.1 - 9.4 years), 49 had stage 4 disease, 5 stage 4S, 6 stage 3, 1 stage 2 and 5 stage 1. The median first dose was 441 MBq/kg (range 157 - 804 MBq/kg). The median second dose was 328 MBq/kg (range 113 - 727 MBq/kg). The most frequently observed symptoms were nausea and vomiting (21 %, maximum grade II). The main toxicity was grade IV haematological, occurring only in stage 4 patients, after the first and second 131I-MIBG therapies: anaemia (5 % and 4 %, respectively), leucocytopenia (3 % and 4 %) and thrombocytopenia (2 % and 4 %). No stem cell rescue was needed. The main acute toxicity observed was haematological followed by nausea and vomiting. One patient developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome during 131I-MIBG therapy, possibly related to 131I-MIBG. We consider 131I-MIBG therapy to be a safe treatment modality. (orig.)

  2. BIODISTRIBUTION OF 131I LABELLING ANTI-PLANT PROTIEN ANTIBODY AND IT′S FRAGMENT IN TUMOR BREAING MICE%131I标记的一种抗植物蛋白抗体及其片段在荷瘤小鼠体内的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁献义; 郑振海; 韩冰; 郑新文

    2003-01-01

    目的研究131碘标记的抗植物蛋白抗体(131I-anti-plant protein antibody,131I-APPAb)及其片段[131I-F(ab′)2]在荷瘤小鼠体内的生物学分布.方法氯胺-T法将131I标记于APPAb及F(ab′)2分子上.成年昆明种小鼠,于前肢根部皮下接种H22肝癌瘤细胞使其荷瘤,随机分组.尾静脉注射131I-APPAb或131I-F(ab′)2 185KBq(0.2ml*每鼠).于注药后12、24和48 h分别处死动物,取血液、心、肝、脾、肾、肌肉和肿瘤组织,用r计数器测量各组织放射性.结果各组织中以肿瘤组织放射性摄取率(%ID*g-1)最高,不同组不同时相131I-F(ab′)2的%ID*g-1均高于131I-APPAb,而且131I-F(ab′)2的摄取速度也较131I-APPAb快,12 h即达到最大值,131I-APPAb则需48 h.肿瘤组织对正常组织的摄取比值(T/NT)在3~6之间.血液中的放射性浓度较高,T/NT比值也低.结论肿瘤组织中131I-APPAb和131I-F(ab′)2的摄取明显高于正常组织,131I-F(ab′)2的摄取速度快,这为肿瘤的免疫诊断和免疫治疗研究提供一种新途径.

  3. Radiation shielding of 131I therapeutic ward in department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To rebuild an 131I therapeutic ward of the department of nuclear medicine in the hospital, and design the radiation shielding to make the radiation safety achieve the national standards. Methods: According to the protection demands of national relating standards, the design of the ward was based on the basic principles and methods of radiation shielding of 131I, and combined the distribution of radioactive sources, rooms and people. Results: The design parameters and radioprotection data of the rebuilt ward were obtained and the radiation shielding was safe by monitoring. Conclusion: The design of the 131I therapeutic ward achieved the anticipated target that the radiation safety could be controlled. (authors)

  4. Inhibitory effect of 131 I-labeled epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted liposome nanoparticle on EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro%131 I标记靶向EGFR免疫纳米脂质体抑制肿瘤细胞生长的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮; 刘中云; 李承霞; 谭建; 常津; 李宁; 季艳会

    2015-01-01

    目的:制备131 I标记的、抗西妥昔单克隆抗体( C225)修饰的免疫纳米脂质体131 I⁃C225⁃BSA⁃PCL,探讨其体外抑制EGFR过表达肿瘤细胞生长的作用。方法分别构建EGFR靶向性和非靶向性纳米脂质体C225⁃BSA⁃PCL和BSA⁃PCL,并行透射电镜和动态光散射分析;使用流式细胞仪和激光扫描共聚焦显微镜观察上述纳米脂质体在EGFR过表达肿瘤细胞中的靶向性结合及内吞情况。用氯胺T直接标记法对纳米脂质体进行131 I标记,MTT法检测131 I标记纳米脂质体的细胞杀伤活性,并观察其细胞摄取及胞内存留情况。采用独立样本t检验对数据进行分析。结果成功构建EGFR靶向性和非靶向性纳米脂质体C225⁃BSA⁃PCL和BSA⁃PCL,其有效直径约为130~180 nm。流式细胞仪检测和共聚焦显微镜观察结果均显示C225⁃BSA⁃PCL能被EGFR过表达的肿瘤细胞摄取,而BSA⁃PCL的摄取相对较弱。 MTT检测结果显示,靶向性核素纳米脂质体131 I⁃C225⁃BSA⁃PCL较非靶向性的131 I⁃BSA⁃PCL具有更强的细胞杀伤效果,IC50值分别为0.03~1.32和0.25~12.19。细胞摄碘实验结果显示,131 I⁃C225⁃BSA⁃PCL能被细胞快速摄取,并于4 h达摄取峰值,其细胞摄取明显高于131 I⁃BSA⁃PCL( t=3.03~16.86,均P<0.05)。结论 EGFR靶向性纳米脂质体C225⁃BSA⁃PCL较BSA⁃PCL具有更强的与EGFR过表达肿瘤细胞结合并被其摄取的能力。131 I⁃C225⁃BSA⁃PCL可在EGFR过表达的肿瘤细胞中存留较长时间并表现出明显的靶向性杀伤效果,能有效抑制肿瘤细胞的生长。%Objective To construct 131 I labeled anti⁃EGFR immunoliposome nanoparticle ( 131 I⁃Cetuaximab ( C225)⁃BSA⁃PCL) , and investigate its inhibitory effect on EGFR⁃overexpressing cancer cells in vitro. Methods Anti⁃EGFR liposome nanoparticle C225⁃BSA⁃PCL and non⁃targeted liposomes BSA

  5. Coupling Reaction of Oligo p-Phenylene Ethynylene and Peptide Antagonist RM26 Labeling with 131 I%寡聚对苯乙炔与多肽拮抗剂RM26的偶联及131I标记研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蹇源; 周志军; 卓连刚; 赵鹏; 廖伟; 王关全; 刘宁

    2016-01-01

    结合寡聚对苯乙炔(oligo p‐phenylene ethynylene ,OPE)较强细胞膜穿透能力和多肽拮抗剂RM26对PC‐3癌细胞的高亲和性,设计合成OPE‐RM26偶联物。采用Iodogen涂管法对偶联物进行131 I标记,得到标记率为95%的放射性标记物131 I‐OPE‐RM26,室温下放置24 h后其放化纯度仍大于90%,具有良好的体外稳定性。研究结果为制备具有靶点识别、膜穿透性、射线杀伤的多功能放射性药物提供参考。%Investigations reveale that oligo p‐phenylene ethynylene (OPE) molecule can insert into cell membrane ,which leads to its cellular internization capacility .Antago‐nists have high cancer cell affinity ,high uptake in cancer cells and fast clearance in nor‐mal tissue ,these capabilities have attracted much research interest in radiopharmaceuti‐cal development .Combining the strong cell‐penetrating ability and high affinity of Gas‐trin‐releasing peptide w hich is overexpressed in the PC‐3 cells ,the thesis designed and synthesized unsymmetric OPE(NH2 ) molecule .Then the OPE(NH2 ) molecule was fol‐lowed by the coupling reaction with RM 26 peptide to obtain the OPE‐RM26 , and (Tyr)3‐RM26 was also got for controling study .After that ,the (Tyr)3‐RM26 and OPE‐RM26 were radiolabeled with I‐131 to give high radiolabeling yields that could up to 95% .The radiolabeling compound was stable after 24 h storage at room temperature . These labeled compounds are ready for animal in‐vivo experiment .It is expected that OPE‐RM26‐131 I has multi‐properties with targeting membrane crossing fire of radioac‐tive elements .The molecule may fast travel to the target tissue and bind to GRP recep‐tor and internalized into cancer cells .The casade process will give rise to its cancer cell toxicity due to longer retention and more killing effect of ray ’ s irradiation to cancer cells .In this way ,OPE‐RM26‐131 I can achieve better anti‐cancer ability .

  6. Analysis of pelvic 131I uptake after 131I whole body scan in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze and explore the possible mechanism for pelvic 131I uptake after 131I post treatment whole body scan (Rx-WBS)in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: (1) Data were retrospectively reviewed from 168 female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (everyone has a Rx-WBS). (2) 46 patients were accepted by analyzing the characteristics of Rx-WBS and combing with some inclusion criteria,and then followed up. Results: Among the 46 patients (46 positions accumulated 131I) with significant pelvic 131I uptake, 6 patients had two reasons leading to pelvic 131I uptake, and 2 patients had no specific reason. Among the 50 reasons for pelvic 131I uptake, 41 reasons related with uterus, 3 reasons related to rectum, 5 related to bladder and 1 related to ovarian chocolate cyst. Among the 41 reasons related to uterus, by combining the examinations of SPECT/CT, ultrasound, CT and the follow-up results, 18 were uterine leiomyomas, 9 were intrauterine devices, 2 were endometrial thickening, 3 were uterine cavity effusion, 7 were menstrual periods, 1 were uterine adenomyosis, 1 were gestational sac. Conclusions: (1) In the Rx-WBS of female, the significant pelvic 131I uptake is generally caused by uterus, but not bladder. And it usually means gynecological disease, especially uterine leiomyomas when excluding physiological factors. (2) It is generally easy to differentiate bladder from rectum because they have different characteristic features of the pelvic 131I uptake. (3) SPECT/CT plays a very important role in locating 131I uptake in uterus. (authors)

  7. Variations in soil texture and levels of 131I contamination on the 131I uptake and transfer in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of soil texture and levels of 131I contamination on 131I uptake and soil to crop transfer factor (TF) in sunflower were studied in a pot experiment. The 131I uptake and tf were significant in root and in the sandy soil. With increase in the level of '131I contamination 131I uptake tended to increase, but the TF decreased. (author)

  8. Comparison of [131I]-Tyr3-octreotate and [131I]DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate: the effect of DOTA on the pharmacokinetics and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs for peptide receptor imaging and therapy of neuroendocrine cancer have become a primary focus of interest in nuclear medicine. In this work we studied the possibility of preparing radioiodinated octreotate derivatives, with high stability and favourable kinetic in vivo, because 131I-iodide is most frequently used in therapeutic nuclear medicine and aviable. We studied molar peptide to radionuclide ratio in order to obtain the mono-iodinated peptide (di-iodinated no longer binds to the somatostatin receptor). Like other radioiodinated proteins labeled on constituent tyrosine residues, it was important to study the possibility of dehalogenation in vivo. Despite DOTA chelating group was not necessary to the radioiodination procedure, we intended to evaluate the influence of the chelating group on the pharmacokinetic and the in vivo stability of the labeled peptide. 131I radiolabeling of Tyr3-octreotate and DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate was performed using Chloramine T method. A solution of 10 μg of peptide/40 μL of PBS (0.05M phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.5) was transferred to an Eppendorf cap. After addition of 10 μL (74 MBq) radioiodine and 5 μL of chloramine T solution (1mg/mL PBS), the cap was carefully stirred and the labeling reaction was allowed to proceed for 3 minutes at room temperature; 5 μL of sodium methabisulfite solution (2mg/mL PBS) was introduced as reducing agent. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC (Waters) using a RP C18 column (4.2 x 50 mm, 5 μm, Waters) with UV (230 nm) and radioactivity (Packard Canberra) detection, flow rate of 0.5 mL/minute with a linear gradient of 40-80% (v/v) methanol in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.5) for 20 minutes, maintained for another 25 minutes. Free radioiodine was also determined by horizontal zone electrophoresis (Amershan Pharmacia) on Whatman 1 paper, 0.05M barbital buffer, pH 8.6, 300V, 40 minutes. The stability of the compounds were evaluated

  9. 131I treatment for brain metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong-Li; LU Han-Kui; ZHU Rei-Sen; MA Ji-Xiao

    2004-01-01

    To assess the clinical value of treatment with 131I for brain metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), we have observed 8 cases of brain metastases from DTC who received follow-up after 131I therapy (2male, 6 female, aged 12~65 years). The results of 131I therapy were evaluated with clinical presentation, imaging scan and survival analysis. The main results are as follows. (1) All cases had been survival for 2~35 years in follow-up. (2)A space-occupying lesion in right cerebellum was reduced after taking 20.65 GBq and disappeared after 23.61 GBq,demonstrated by computed tomography. (3) The sequences and doses of 131I therapy were clearly decreased for the cases with total thyroidectomy in comparison with those with semithyroidectomy (p<0.01). (4) The brain metastases with lung and/or bone metastasis from DTC were 75% (6/8) and it was difficult to cure these metastases at the same time. It is concluded that the postoperative treatment of 131I for brain metastases from DTC after undergoing thyroidectomy may improve clinical symptoms and life quality, reduce lesions, and prolong survival.

  10. Familial phaeochromocytoma: Successful treatment with sup 131 I-MIBG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, E.; Ninane, J.; Wese, F.X.; Leonet, J.; Piret, L.; Cornu, G.; De Meyer, R. (Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium))

    1990-01-01

    We report the case of a family in which the mother died of hypertensive encephalopathy following the relapse of a phaeochromocytoma. Two of her children are still alive. Both children had malignant phaeochromocytomas that have been treated by surgery and {sup 131}I-MIBG. The first child presented with phaeochromocytoma of the right suprarenal gland at the age of 7 years. Surgery was performed. At the age of 14 years, he developed a tumour of the left suprarenal gland and two pulmonary metastases demonstrated by {sup 131}I-MIBG. The three tumours were removed, but new lesions occurred. The boy then was treated with 200 mCi (7,400 MBq) of 131I-MIBG given twice, and is now free of disease more than 2 years after treatment. His sister presented at the age of 12 years with phaeochromocytoma of the left suprarenal gland, the only lesion recognized by {sup 131}I-MIBG. The tumour was removed, but 5 months later, she developed phaeochromocytoma in the right suprarenal gland. She was treated with 200 mCi (7,400 MBq) of {sup 131}I-MIBG and surgery was performed 6 months later. Histology of the suprarenal gland could not demonstrate the persistence of phaeochromocytoma cells. The child is now free of disease more than 2 years after treatment.

  11. Differential role of Rad51 in repair of DNA damage induced by β-rays of 131I in Raji cells: a comparison with the γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodine is one of the oldest radionuclide used in therapy of thyroid disorder. The scope of application of radioiodine increased tremendously due to simple method of labeling of biomolecules with 131I without significant changes in biological properties. Thus, biomolecules labeled with 131I promised immense potential as therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for cancer. The therapeutic efficacy depends on the characteristics of the β-emitter attached. The mechanisms of cell death and DNA damage repair induced by β-emitting radionuclide are not well known. In this experiment, the authors have attempted to investigate the underlying mechanism causing cell death in Raji cells and have compared the therapeutic efficacy of beta emitter, 131I, to γ-radiation by exposing the cells to an equivalent dose of γ-. Raji cells were incubated for 2h with 1.85 MBq of 131I radioactivity. Equal numbers of cells were exposed to an equivalent dose (0.4 Gy) and a therapeutic dose of 2 Gy from gamma radiation. Cell toxicity was assessed by trypan blue dye and MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed by estimation of DNA fragmentation and cleaved PARP proteins. Radiosensitivity and DNA damage repair gene expression were analyzed by real time q-PCR. Cell viability and proliferation study confirms that Raji cell line showed comparatively higher radiosensitivity with beta emitter (131I) compared to γ-rays. In the case of apoptosis, beta emitter (131I) showed significantly high DNA fragmentation and PARP cleavage. RAD51 gene expression does not change with time in the case of 131I while it changes in the case of γ-radiation. Beta radiation from 131I is observed to be more potent in induction of cell toxicity and apoptosis in Raji cells than the γ-rays. However, RAD51 does not take part in the DNA DSB repair pathway induced by 131I and therefore play a major role in discriminating the effect of gamma rays. (author)

  12. Prototype development of filter monitor for 131I processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131 (131I) is used extensively in nuclear medicine because of its short half-life and useful beta emission. Isotope Production and Applications Division (IP and AD) of BARC produces 131I in its processing plant. The charcoal filters that are capable of extracting high levels of radioactive iodine and particulates in the suction flow are installed in the plant. The radioactive iodine is fully removed and deposited onto activated charcoal impregnated with potassium iodide. These charcoal filters get saturated over a period of use and need to be replaced with fresh ones. A 5-channel Filter monitor for online measurement of radiation level of trapped 131I on the charcoal filter is being developed by IP and AD, BARC. The unavailability of this type of instrument motivated to undertake this development. Current paper deals with a prototype filter monitor developed with single detector. Some results prove the functionality of the system. (author)

  13. Effects of specific activity on meta-[131I]iodobenzylguanidine kinetics in isolated rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of specific activity of meta-[131I]iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were studied in uptake-2 blocked isolated perfused rat heart. [131I]MIBG was administered in the perfusate as an 8-min pulse, followed by an 80-min washout period. Kinetic analysis of the externally monitored time-activity curves gave estimates of uptake rate and multiexponential clearance. Uptake rate showed an MIBG concentration dependence that is sigmoidal, yielding Michaelis-Menten constants KM = 52 nM and Vmax = 0.23 nmol/min/g. Clearance rate was also dependent on loading MIBG concentrations; the primary effect of increasing loading concentration was an increase in the rate of the slowest clearance component, possibly reflecting nonspecific turnover. No effect of specific activity was observed on tissue uptake and retention of [131I]MIBG for loading concentrations of MIBG in the heart tissue under 0.5 nmol/g. Extrapolation of these results to human studies indicates that isotope-exchange-labeled [123I]MIBG has a specific activity sufficiently high to avoid mass effects on its heart retention

  14. Development of a recovery method of 131I in the 99Mo process through the fission of 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I is an iodine radioisotope widely used in nuclear medicine that can be used either for diagnostic or for treatment due to its physical decay by β- and its high emission of y-rays. It is produced at IPEN using the indirect reaction: 130Te(n,y)131mTe → 131Te → 131I where TeO2 targets are irradiated in a Nuclear Reactor. There is also the possibility of producing 131I by the fission of 235U, where about 300 different elements are produced together with 131I. The 131I produced through this method presents high specific activity and radioactive concentration suitable for the labeling of molecules. The aim of this work was to develop a recovery method of 131I with the required quality to be used in Nuclear Medicine in the 99Mo production process through the route of acid dissolution of metallic 235U targets. 131I can appear in two phases of the process, both in the gaseous phase produced during the dissolution of metallic U targets and in the dissolution solution. This work studied the recovery of 131I in these two phases. Several materials were used for the capture and recovery of 131I at the two phases of the process, the gaseous one and the solution of dissolution of U targets. Columns of alumina with Cu, acid alumina with Cu, Ag microspheres, Cu microspheres, Ag nanospheres, anionic cartridges, Ag cartridges, anion exchange resin and activated charcoal columns were tested. Solutions containing 131I in 0.1 mol.L-1 NaOH were percolated through the materials and the eluted solutions were analyzed in a dose calibrator. The precipitation of AgI was also studied wth further dissolution of this precipitate with 0.1 mol L-1 NH4OH and 5% Na2S2O3. The recovery results varied according to the material, activated charcoal showed recovery yields between 42% and 83% but the recovery yield of the alumina column with Cu ranged from 20% to 85%. Tests with Ag nanospheres showed recovery yield of 26% using 0.1 mol L-1NaOH and 72% for Na2S2O3. Tests with anionic cartridges

  15. Stability studies of therapeutic 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (131I-mIBG) using high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRIT is a manufacturer and supplier of therapeutic doses (100 mCi) of the radiopharmaceutical 131I-mIBG to various nuclear medicine centers in India. The therapeutic formulation is of high radioactive concentration (>10 mCi/ml) and is thus prone to radiolytic damage during transport, storage until administration. Earlier stability studies at this laboratory were done using conventional methods like Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) which has an inherent limitation in terms of resolution. In view of this, a suitable HPLC method has been developed and the stability of therapeutic 131I-mIBG was monitored at various conditions

  16. Biodistribution of 131I-Herceptin in breast cancer xenograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to establish Her-2 positive SK-BR-3 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice. To explore the biologic distribution of 131I-herceptin in human breast cancer xenografts. Methods: Implant SK-BR-3 cells subcutaneously to BALB/c-neu athymic mice to establish animal model. To measure the radiocounting per minute (cpm) of every organ on a γ arithmometer at 4, 12, 24, 48 h postinjection of 131I-Herceptin or 131I-mIgG, then to gain the T/NT ratios and the uptakes percentage per gram of the injection dose (% ID/g). Results: After subcutaneously planted, a 96% of tumor forming rate was achieved. Compared with the control group, bigger T/NT and % ID/g was obtained in the experimental group (P<0.05 and <0.01). Conclusion: A high tumor forming rate can be get by implanting SK-BR-3 cells subcutaneously to athymic mouse, 131I-Herceptin is obviously concentrated in tumor tissues. (authors)

  17. Therapeutic Feasibility Study and Clinical Trial of Intrahepatic 131I-Lipiodol on Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An iodized oil such as Ethiodol or Lipiodol was selectively retained in the tumor vessels of the large hepatomas as well as in the small daughter hepatomas for long periods following the intra-arterial hepatic injection of such contrast material. The specific aim of the study is to deliver a high internal radiation dose to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in an attempt to control the disease. We were able to replace a small fraction of the stable iodine (I-127) of the 37% iodine in Lipiodol by the 131I with 100% exchange efficiency. 131I labeled Lipiodol was injected through the super-selected tumor feeding artery under superselection or into the proper hepatic arterial level of patients who have malignant hepatomas confirmed by aspiration cytology, serum AFP and various imaging modalities, Clinical trail was performed on 43 cases during recent 6 months and follow-up observation was carried out. No severe complications or other adverse reactions were encountered until nowadays. 131I-Lipiodol was stable in vivo and no significant activity was noted in the thyroid, stomach, blood and urine after the injection. Only small fraction of radioisotope activity was noticed in the both side of lungs. Tumor to normal liver radio was very high. Therefore, 131I-Lipiodol (or P-32-Lipiodol) will be effective delivering high internal radiation dose to the tumor while delivering small radiation doses to normal tissues. Labeling, tumor dose calculation and preliminary findings will be presented.

  18. Determination of 131I-hippuran and its main contaminants by thin-layer cromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin-layer elution-spectrophotometric and densitometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of orthoidohippuric acid and its main contaminant, orthoiodobenzoic acid after their chromatographic separation using a methanol-chloroform-acetic acid 100:75:2.5 solvent mixture and Kieselgel 60 F254 layer. Benzyl alcohol, also present in the pharmaceutical preparation, does not interfere. The precision of the procedures corresponds to that of radio paper chromatography. It is pointed out that, besides the orthoiodobenzoic acid, traces of other similar 131I-labelled organic contaminants may be present in the preparation. (author)

  19. Effect of antilymphoma antibody, 131I-Lym-1, on peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Orazio; DeNardo, Gerald L; DeNardo, Sally J; Goldstein, Desiree S; Kroger, Linda A; O'Donnell, Robert T; Lamborn, Kathleen R

    2007-08-01

    Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), unlabeled rituximab (Rituxan, Biogen Idec Inc., Cambridge, MA; and Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA) or radiolabeled 90Y-ibritumomab (Zevalin, Biogen Idec Inc., Cambridge, MA) and 131I-tositumomab (Bexxar; Glaxo Smith Kline, Research Triangle Park, NC), have proven to be effective therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), but also induce immediate and persistent decreases in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Lym-1, a mAb that selectively targets malignant lymphocytes, also has induced therapeutic responses and prolonged survival in patients with NHL when labeled with iodine-131 (131I). We have retrospectively examined its effect on PBLs in 41 NHL patients that had received 131I-Lym-1 therapy. Absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs) were evaluated before and after the first and last 131I-Lym-1 infusion. Modest decreases in PBLs were observed in most of the patients. Using strict criteria to define recovery, time to recovery was determined for 19 patients, with the remainder censored because of insufficient follow-up (median follow up for censored patients: 22 days). Using Kaplan-Meier estimates, it would be predicted that 31% of patients would recover by 28 days and that median time to recovery would be 44 days after the last 131I-Lym-1 infusion. No predictors were found for time to recovery, considering such factors as the administered Lym-1 or 131I dose, spleen volume, or radiation doses to the body, marrow, or spleen. The data suggest that the effect of 131I-Lym-1 on ALC is the result of a nonspecific radiation effect, rather than a specific Lym-1 mAb effect. The shorter time required for ALC recovery after 131I-Lym-1 when compared to that reported for anti-CD20 mAbs, whether radiolabeled or otherwise, is probably related to differing mechanisms for lymphocytotoxicity and lesser Lym-1 antigenic density on normal B-lymphocytes.

  20. Matched pairs dosimetry: {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I metaiodobenzylguanidine and {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I and {sup 86}Y/{sup 90}Y antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Fanti, Stefano [Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi and University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Chiti, Arturo; Pepe, Giovanna; Antunovic, Lidija [IRCCS Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Castellani, Maria Rita; Bombardieri, Emilio [Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    The technological advances in imaging and production of radiopharmaceuticals are driving an innovative way of evaluating the targets for antineoplastic therapies. Besides the use of imaging to better delineate the volume of external beam radiation therapy in oncology, modern imaging techniques are able to identify targets for highly specific medical therapies, using chemotherapeutic drugs and antiangiogenesis molecules. Moreover, radionuclide imaging is able to select targets for radionuclide therapy and to give the way to in vivo dose calculation to target tissues and to critical organs. This contribution reports the main studies published on matched pairs dosimetry with {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I- and {sup 86}Y/{sup 90}Y-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, with an emphasis on metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and monoclonal antibodies. (orig.)

  1. Hypothyroidism caused by 131I treatment for Graves disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The refollow-up has been carried out in hypothyroidism caused by 131I treatment for Graves disease. The serum HS-TSH(IRMA), FT3, TSH(RIA), TT3, TT4, FT4I, MCA, TGA, Cholesterol and Triglyceride has been measured in 26 patient after 131I treatment for 9.5 years in average. At the same time TRH stimulation test was also performed, and the clinical symptoms and signs assessed. The results showed that TSH is the most sensitive criterion for hypothyroidism, followed by Cholesterol and FT4I. The occurence of hypothyroidism may be related to the presence of thyroid antibody as demonstrated by the elevation of serum MCA, TGA. Therefore measurement of serum TSH, FT4I and Cholesterol during long term follow-up is beneficial for early diagnosis of hypothyroidism and evaluating the effect of substitution treatment

  2. Hypertension complicating 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine therapy for neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG), used as targeted therapy for neuroblastoma, is known to have effects on blood pressure (BP). In this study we audited BP changes in patients receiving 131I-mIBG therapy for neuroblastoma to identify BP-related adverse events (AE) and possible predictive factors. Between 2003 and 2010, 50 patients with neuroblastoma received 110 131I-mIBG administrations. BP measurements before and after administration were compared with age- and sex-matched centile values. AE were analysed, and possible predisposing factors identified. This population had a baseline BP distribution higher than that of their age- and sex-matched peers, with 16% of preadministration systolic BP values above the 95th centile. Changes in BP after administration showed an approximately normal distribution with similar numbers of reduced and increased values. Four AE, all related to hypertension, occurred with one patient having generalized seizures. One AE was immediate, others occurred between 20 and 25 h after administration. No significant association between AE and patient age or sex was demonstrated. However, a significant association between AE and high preadministration BP was shown, both above the 90th centile (p = 0.0022) and above the 95th centile (p = 0.0135). Clinically relevant hypertension following 131I-mIBG therapy affected less than 5% of administrations, but was more common in those patients with preexisting hypertension. As hypertensive episodes may occur many hours after treatment, close monitoring of BP needs to be continued for at least 48 h after administration of 131I-mIBG. (orig.)

  3. Specific energy from Auger and conversion electrons of 131I, 188Re-anti-CD20 to a lymphocyte's nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-García, E.; Carrillo-Cazares, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The typical radionuclides used to label anti-CD20 in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are 90Y, 131I, and 188Re, with the emission of beta particles, Auger electrons, and conversion electrons for the latter two. The aim of the present work was to calculate the contribution of high linear energy transfer radiation as Auger electrons (AE) and conversion electrons (CE) of 131I and 188Re-anti-CD20 to mean specific energy into the cell nucleus by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), so as to infer therapeutic effectiveness on a dosimetric basis. MCS was used to quantify the frequency-mean specific energy into the cell nucleus, where the cell was modeled by two concentric spheres, considering two cell models. The results showed that 10% and 33% of the mean-specific energies (z¯) per disintegration imparted to the cell nucleus for both geometries are due to AE and CE; on the other hand, if the hit of AE and CE occurs, the contribution to (z¯) is about 64% and 86% for 131I and 188Re, respectively. According to the amount of specific energy from AE and CE into the cell nucleus by positive event, they can cause catastrophic effects in the nuclear DNA in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with 131I, 188Re-anti-CD20.

  4. 131I-Zn-Chlorophyll derivative photosensitizer for tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocakoglu, Kasim; Er, Ozge; Kiyak, Guven; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt; Gunduz, Cumhur; Kayabasi, Cagla

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, the photodynamic therapy studies have gained considerable attention as an alternative method to surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which is commonly used to fight cancer. In this study, biological potentials of a benzyloxy bearing zinc(II) pheophorbide-a (Zn-PH-A) were investigated via in vivo and in vitro experiments. Zn-PH-A was labeled with (131)I with high efficiency (95.3 ± 2.7%) and its biodistribution studies were investigated on female Albino Wistar rats. The radiolabeled photosensitizer had been intravenously injected into the tail vein, and then the animals were sacrificed at 30, 60 and 120 min post injection. The percent of radioactivity per gram of organs (%ID/g) was determined. The radiolabeled Zn-PH-A showed high uptake in ovary. In addition, photodynamic therapy studies of the photosensitizer were conducted in EMT6, murine mammary carcinoma and HeLa, human cervix carcinoma cell lines. For the photodynamic therapy studies, the cells with Zn-PH-A were exposed to red light (650 nm) at the doses of 10-30 J/cm(2). The results showed that Zn-PH-A has stronger PDT effect in EMT6 than HeLa cell. Our present work demonstrates (131)I-labeled photosensitizer as a bifunctional agent (PDT and nuclear imaging) which could be improved in future by using EMT6 growing tumor in nude mice.

  5. Preparation of an imaging agent for cerebral muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, (R,S)131I-QNB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The method to synthesize a high affinity muscarinic receptor antagonist (R,S)I-QNB[(R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo [2,2,2]oct-3-yl-(S)-(+)-α-hydroxy-α-(4-[127I]iodophenyl)-α-phenyl acetate] from 4-nitrobenzophenone with improvement compared to literatures was reported in this article. IR, MS and 1HNMR characterized the final product. (R,S)131I-QNB was prepared using Cu(I) assisted iodine exchange labeling, and showed by TLC that the radiolabeling yield(RLY) was over 80%, and radiochemical purity(RCP) was over 95%. Stability of the labeled compound was also determined. It was found that (R,S)131I-QNB dried by nitrogen blowing can stay at 4-10℃ for a week without change of RCP.

  6. Changes in percentage of lymphocyte subsets after 131I treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Quan-Yong; CHEN Li-Bo; YU Yong-Li; LU Han-Kui; ZHU Rui-Sen

    2005-01-01

    To monitor the extent and the duration of lymphocyte subset changes in patients with thyroid carcinoma undergoing therapeutic 131I administration, the percentage of lymphocyte subsets were serially analyzed before and after 131I treatment. In patients who received 1850 MBq of 131I for ablation of thyroid remnants, only for NK cells and B cells showed a significant reduction. In patients received 3700 MBq of 131I for treatment of local lymph node metastases, NK cells, B cells and CD4+ were found decreased. In patients received 7400 MBq of 131I for treatment of distant metastases, NK cells, B cells and CD4+ and CD8+ were all affected. However, there is no significant reduction compared to the baseline in the percentage of all lymphocyte subsets three months after 131I treatment. The results show that the sensitivity of lymphocytes to 131I internal radiation depends upon lymphocyte phenotype and 131I activity. The immunosuppression effects are temporary and reversible.

  7. Observation of radioactive iodine ((131)I, (129)I) in cropland soil after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hideshi

    2016-10-01

    During the early stages of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the temporal variations of (131)I deposited on the ground and of (131)I accumulated in cropland soil were monitored at a fixed location in Japan. Moreover, concentrations of long-lived radioactive iodine ((129)I) in atmospheric deposits and soil were measured to examine the feasibility of retrospectively reconstructing (131)I levels from the levels of accident-derived (129)I. The exceptionally high levels of (131)I in deposits and soil were attributed to rainfall-related deposition of radionuclides. In the crop field studied, the losses of deposited (131)I and (129)I due to volatilization were small. The atomic ratio (129)I/(131)I in the topsoil corresponded to the same ratio in deposits. The (131)I concentrations measured in the topsoil were very consistent with the (131)I concentrations reconstructed from the (129)I concentrations in the soil. PMID:27320744

  8. The clinical significance of measuring the thyroid 131I uptake rate to identify the type of premature hypothyroidism for hyperthyroid after 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3 h thyroid 131I uptake rate and the content of serum TT3, TT4, TSH are measured in 63 patients of premature hypothyroidism (consisting of 33 provisional hypothyroids and 30 perpetual hypothyroidism) before and after thyroxine substitutes treatment for six moths. The results show that there is obvious difference in 131I uptake rate compared provisional hypothyroidism with perpetual hypothyroidism, and no difference in the content of serum TT3, TT4, TSH before the treatment. Compared with normal conditions, there is no difference in 131I uptake rate of provisional hypothyroidism, but the 131I uptake rate of perpetual hypothyroidism has obvious decrease before and after the treatment. Therefore the type of patients who suffer from premature hypothyroidism can be distinguished according to the 131I uptake rate: if the 3 h thyroid 131I uptake rate is normal, it is provisional hypothyroidism; if not, it is perpetual hypothyroidism

  9. Comparative biodistribution profile of [131I]VIP and [131I]VIP10-28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Colturato

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various tumor cells express significantly higher amounts of VIP receptors (VIPR that provided the basis for the clinical use of radiolabeled VIP for the in vivo localization of tumors. This work studied the labeling of VIP and VIP10-28 with iodine-131 to compare the biological distribution of the labeled compounds in Nuce mice and the affinity for tumor cells. Both VIP and VIP10-28 peptides contain two tyrosine residues, in positions 10 and 22, that are theoretically equally susceptible to radioiodination employing oxidative electrophilic substitution using oxidizing agents like Chloramine T. Radiochemical purity of the reaction mixture was determined by electrophoresis and HPLC. The VIP peptide and the fragment were labeled with radioiodine with good radiochemical yield (above 96%. Suitable, but important differences can be observed in biological distribution studies. Comparatively, blood clearance was faster for labeled VIP and perhaps because of this, the uptake in tumor was lower, especially during the first hour. These differences observed in the biological distribution of the compounds can be related to the lipophilicity of the labeled compounds.Várias células tumorais expressam significantemente uma alta quantidade de receptores VIP (VIPR que determinam a base para o uso clínico de VIP radiomarcado para localização de tumores in vivo. Foi estudado neste trabalho a marcação do VIP e do fragmento VIP10-28 com iodo-131 comparando a distribuição biológica dos compostos marcados em camundongos Nude e sua afinidade pelas células tumorais. Ambos os peptídeos, VIP e VIP10-28. contém dois resíduos de tirosina nas posições 10 e 22, que teoricamente são igualmente susceptíveis pela substituição eletrofílica oxidativa do radioiodo utilizando Cloramina T como agente oxidante. A pureza radioquímica da mistura de reação foi determinada por eletroforese e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. O VIP e fragmento foram

  10. The success of {sup 131}I ablation in thyroid cancer patients is significantly reduced after a diagnostic activity of 40 MBq {sup 131}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, F.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany); Verkooijen, R.B.T. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center (Netherlands); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Maxima Medical Centre (Netherlands); Stokkel, M.P.M. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center (Netherlands); Isselt, J.W. van [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Objective: Dosimetry studies have shown that activities of {sup 131}I as small as 10-20 MBq may cause a stunning effect. A result of this stunning effect may be a lower success rate of the ablative {sup 131}I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The aim of this study was to determine whether pre-therapeutic uptake measurement with 40 MBq {sup 131}I causes a lower success rate of ablation. Design: retrospective chart review study. Patients, methods: In two hospitals the ablation protocols differed in one respect only: in the one hospital no diagnostic {sup 131}I was applied before ablation (group 1, n = 48), whereas in the other hospital a 24-h uptake-measurement with 40 MBq {sup 131}I was performed (group 2, n = 51). Included were all DTC patients without distant metastases who had undergone {sup 131}I ablation between July 2002 and December 2005, and who had returned for {sup 131}I follow-up. Successful ablation was defined as absence of pathological {sup 131}I uptake on diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy and undetectable thyroglobulin-levels under TSH stimulation. Results: Overall, ablation was successful in 31/48 patients (65%) in group 1 and in 17/51 patients (33%) in group 2 (p=0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that pre-therapeutic uptake measurement using 40 MBq {sup 131}I was an independant determinant for success of ablation (p = 0.002). Conclusions: After applying a diagnostic activity of 40 MBq {sup 131}I before ablation, the success rate of ablation is severely reduced. Consequently, the routine application of {sup 131}I for diagnostic scintigraphy or uptake measurement prior to {sup 131}I ablation is best avoided. (orig.)

  11. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles mediated 131I-hVEGF siRNA inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma tumor growth in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver tumor and is the most difficult human malignancy to treat. In this study, we sought to develop an integrative approach in which real-time tumor monitoring, gene therapy, and internal radiotherapy can be performed simultaneously. This was achieved through targeting HCC with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) carrying small interfering RNA with radiolabled iodine 131 (131I) against the human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF). hVEGF siRNA was labeled with 131I by the Bolton-Hunter method and conjugated to SilenceMag, a type of SPIOs. 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag was then subcutaneously injected into nude mice with HCC tumors exposed to an external magnetic field (EMF). The biodistribution and cytotoxicity of 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag was assessed by SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) studies and blood kinetics analysis. The body weight and tumor size of nude mice bearing HCC were measured daily for the 4-week duration of the experiment. 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag was successfully labeled; with a satisfactory radiochemical purity (>80%) and biological activity in vitro. External application of an EMF successfully attracted and retained more 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag in HCC tumors as shown by SPECT, MRI and biodistribution studies. The tumors treated with 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag grew nearly 50% slower in the presence of EMF than those without EMF and the control. Immunohistochemical assay confirmed that the tumor targeted by 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag guided by an EMF had a lower VEGF protein level compared to that without EMF exposure and the control. EMF-guided 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag exhibited an antitumor effect. The synergic therapy of 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag might be a promising future treatment option against HCC with the dual functional properties of tumor therapy and imaging

  12. Treatments with radioactive iodine, 131 I. How, when and where?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great variety of approaches exists in the application of the treatments with radioactive materials, as the 131I, but it is necessary to standardize them for the patient's benefit, because their doctor doesn't always know the principle that it bases this therapy, called metabolic therapy or radioiodine therapy (RYT). In this work the experience that was acquired by more of 50 years of RYT management in the Thyroid and Nuclear Medicine Clinic in patients with thyroid pathologies is informed, so that their management fulfills its function and it was carried out inside the corresponding juridical frame and the physicochemical and endocrinological principles that should take implicit. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of irradiation in patient's environment receiving 131I therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes measurements made in the bed station of Clinic of Nuclear Medicine in St. Elizabeth Oncological Institute in Bratislava. There are treated thyroid cancer and thyrotoxicosis with the use of 131I. The aim of the measurements was to determine the possibility of the ambulation treatment of thyrotoxicosis or the possibility of shortening of the patient;s stay in the bed station that the effective dose would not be exceeded suggestions according to the publication of EURATOM. The measurements were made also with thyroid cancer patients but owing to clinical reasons the ambulation treating in this case is not permissible. Therefore this article does not describe the results of these measurements.The effective dose rates were measured in 0.25 m; 0.5 m; 1 m and 2 m distances from the patient's thyroid so the effective dose in the patient's surroundings could be determined. To the present time the results of effective dose rates measurements for 17 patients were evaluated by described way. The age of the patients was from 41 to 82 years, the administered quantity of 131I was from 259 to 481 MBq, in fractions 37 MBq, 74 MBq, or 111 MBq. The calculated effective half-life of 131I excretion from the patients body is crucial for the length of patient's necessary staying in the bed station, were from 4.2 days to 8 days. This great extend of values is given by by the different clinical parameters of the treated patients. After the analyse of them can be said that the effective half-life increases, when the patient is elder, has greater mass of thyroid and the accumulation is higher. At the present time authors don't suggest using the ambulation treatment of thyrotoxicosis by 131I. For discharging the patient from the hospital authors suggest to think criteria according to the model of behaviour D with the effective dose limit 0.5 mSv. For the households with children up to 2 years and/or pregnant women according to the model B with effective dose limit 0

  14. Toxicity of upfront {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 131}I-MIBG) therapy in newly diagnosed neuroblastoma patients: a retrospective analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, Gitta; Schoot, Reineke A.; Caron, Huib N.; Kraker, Jan de; Tytgat, Godelieve A. [Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Centre (AMC), Department of Paediatric Oncology, PO Box 22700, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoefnagel, Cees A. [National Cancer Institute (NKI-AvL), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eck, Berthe L. van [Academic Medical Centre (AMC), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    In the treatment of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma, different doses of {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 131}I-MIBG) are administered at different time points during treatment. Toxicity, mainly haematological (thrombocytopenia), from {sup 131}I-MIBG therapy is known to occur in extensively chemotherapy pretreated neuroblastoma patients. Up to now, acute toxicity from {sup 131}I-MIBG as initial treatment has never been studied in a large cohort. The aim of this retrospective study was to document acute toxicity related to upfront {sup 131}I-MIBG. All neuroblastoma patients (stages 1-4 and 4S) treated upfront with {sup 131}I-MIBG at the Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Centre (1992 - 2008) were included in this retrospective analysis. The acute toxicity (during therapy) and short-term toxicity (1st month following therapy) of the first two {sup 131}I-MIBG therapies were studied. Of 66 patients (34 boys, 32 girls; median age 2.2 years, range 0.1 - 9.4 years), 49 had stage 4 disease, 5 stage 4S, 6 stage 3, 1 stage 2 and 5 stage 1. The median first dose was 441 MBq/kg (range 157 - 804 MBq/kg). The median second dose was 328 MBq/kg (range 113 - 727 MBq/kg). The most frequently observed symptoms were nausea and vomiting (21 %, maximum grade II). The main toxicity was grade IV haematological, occurring only in stage 4 patients, after the first and second {sup 131}I-MIBG therapies: anaemia (5 % and 4 %, respectively), leucocytopenia (3 % and 4 %) and thrombocytopenia (2 % and 4 %). No stem cell rescue was needed. The main acute toxicity observed was haematological followed by nausea and vomiting. One patient developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome during {sup 131}I-MIBG therapy, possibly related to {sup 131}I-MIBG. We consider {sup 131}I-MIBG therapy to be a safe treatment modality. (orig.)

  15. Interventional therapy for human breast cancer in nude mice with 131I gelatin microspheres (131I-GMSs) following intratumoral injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 131I gelatin microspheres (131I-GMS) on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in nude mice and the biodistribution of 131I-GMSs following intratumoral injections. A total of 20 tumor-bearing mice were divided into a treatment group and control group and received intratumoral injections of 2.5 mci 131I-GMSs and nonradioactive GMSs, respectively. Tumor size was measured once per week. Another 16 mice received intratumoral injections of 0.4 mci 131I-GMSs and were subjected to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans and tissue radioactivity concentration measurements on day 1, 4, 8 and 16 postinjection. The 20 tumor-bearing mice received intratumoral injections of 0.4 mci [131I] sodium iodide solution and were subjected to SPECT scans and intratumoral radioactivity measurements at 1, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h postinjection. The tumors were collected for histological examination. The average tumor volume in the 131I-GMSs group on post-treatment day 21 decreased to 86.82 ± 63.6%, while it increased to 893.37 ± 158.12% in the control group (P < 0.01 vs. the 131I-GMSs group). 131I-GMSs provided much higher intratumoral retention of radioactivity, resulting in 19.93 ± 5.24% of the injected radioactivity after 16 days, whereas the control group retained only 1.83 ± 0.46% of the injected radioactivity within the tumors at 1 h postinjection. 131I-GMSs suppressed the growth of MCF-7 in nude mice and provided sustained intratumoral radioactivity retention. The results suggest the potential of 131I-GMSs for clinical applications in radiotherapy for breast cancer

  16. Use of gamma probe in 131I thyroid uptake studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of thyroid uptake by administration of radioactive iodine is a well-defined procedure to assess patient thyroid function. In general, nuclear medicine institutions use gamma cameras coupled to pinhole collimators to perform uptake studies. With the growing use of intraoperative gamma probes in the radioguided surgical techniques, several institutions are purchasing this new and portable equipment, which can technically be also employed to assess patient's thyroid function, permitting further other applications of gamma cameras. The aim of the study was to compare thyroid uptake trails carried out with both gamma camera and intraoperative gamma probe, in order to evaluate the possible use of gamma probe for this purpose. At first a preliminary study of feasibility was carried out using a neck phantom to verify equipment efficiency with known activities of 131 I. Henceforth, work data from 12 patients undergone studies of thyroid uptakes were evaluated, 24 hours after oral administration of 370 kBq of 131 I. The maximum difference observed between the values obtained with both equipment was 60%, which demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed protocol and made clear that gamma probe can be useful for thyroid uptake studies. (author)

  17. Effect of 131I on the anemia of hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlman, J.A.; Sternthal, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    Data from the National Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-Up Study (NTTFS) are presented here to document the existence of anemia in hyperthyroidism, a mild and reversible anemia that is simultaneously ameliorated with reversal of the hyperthyroid state. Among 20,600 women entered into the NTTF study with no previous history of hematological disorders, the prevalence of anemia was found to range from 10-15%, appearing to be higher in those selected for treatment with 131I when compared to those selected for surgery. An attempt is made to verify the recent hypothesis that thyroid hormone levels in the supraphysiologic range may suppress erythrogenesis. Two statistically significant regression models are consistent with a hypothesis of thyrotoxic bone marrow suppression. However, both associations are weak enough to suggest that some other physiologic improvement underlies the amelioration of anemia when hyperthyroidism is reversed. The degree of improvement in hematological status is similar for women in both treatment groups. Among 4464 women for whom serial hematological tests are obtained, over 3/4 of anemic patients are no longer anemic after an average 6.2 yr of follow-up. Clinicians are reassured that radioactive iodine exposure causes no further insult to the bone marrow, no matter what the cumulative dosage. The highly fractionated low dose bone marrow exposures to radiation account for the minimal hematological risks of 131I treatment.

  18. Diagnosis of pheochromocytome by 131-I-MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of 131-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a newly developed radiopharmaceutical which accumulated in the neuro transmitter adrenergic sacs, in diagnosing pheochromocytomes, which originate from well-differentiated cells in the adrenergic region of the autonomous nervous system. A sizeable number of these cells appear in the adrenal medulla, the para-spinal ganglion and the para-aortic (Organ of Zuckerkandl), however, a certain number of pheochromocytomes are found in other sites including the bladder, heart and vagus nerves. Adrenergic tumors which are located outside the adrenal medulla and which secrete both norepinephrine and epinephrine are called pheochromocytomes. Scintigraphic distribution of 131-I-MIBG, an imaging agent for the adrenal medulla, was studied to determine the uptake in patients suspected of harboring pheochromocytomes. Normal distribution of the radiotracer includes: the salivary glands, liver, spleen, gall-bladder, kidneys and heart. Accumulations in the thyroids are detected only in cases of inadequate thyroid blocking. Injected were 0.5 mCi/1.7 m2 and scans taken 24, 48 and 72 hours afterward. The five patients investigated showed high levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine and revealed abnormal accumulations of radioactive material. These data were surgically verified. (author)

  19. Treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas with 131-I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonnel, B.; Chatal, J.F.; Brendel, A.J.; Marchandise, X.; Wemeau, J.L.; Lanehche, B.; Mornex, R.; Lumbroso, J.; Schlumberger, M.

    1988-01-01

    Twelve patients (2 with only bone metastases, 3 with only soft tissues metastases and 7 with bone and soft tissues metastases) were treated with 131-I -MIBG (specific activity: 20 mCi/mg), 100 to 200 mCi every 3-6 months. A dosimetric study was carried out before each administration. The follow-up ranged from 6 to 24 months and the number of doses ranged from 1 to 8, with 1.85-9 GBq per administration and a cumulative activity of 1.85-62.2 GBq according to patients. The cumulative absorbed activity ranged from 850 to 9700cGy. The following side effects were observed: a bone marrow hypoplasia (1 patient) and a transient increase in catecholamines (3 patients). The treatment was successfull in 7 patients (3 with soft tissue metastases, 3 with bone and soft tissue metastases and one with bone metastases). This success consisted in clinical improvement and a decrease > 50% of hormonal values in the 7 patients and a decrease > 50% of tumoral masses in only 3 patients. No complete remission was obtained at this stage of the study. The disease recurred in 1 patient after a year of partial remission. There was no clear-cut relation between the number of doses and the results. This study shows that 131-I-MIBG can give encouraging though limited results.

  20. Discordant imaging of a thyroid nodule with /sup 131/I and /sup 99m/Tc: concordance of /sup 131/I and fluorescent scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, J.H.; Burman, K.D.; Wartofsky, L.; Corcoran, R.J.; Johnson, M.C.; Gillin, M.T.

    1978-09-01

    A thyroid nodule, hot by /sup 99m/Tc and cold by /sup 131/I scanning, was reimaged with a fluorescent scanner. The fluorescent scan was qualitatively similar to the /sup 131/I scan and demonstrated low iodine content in the nodule. This combination of scan patterns is compatible with an organification defect in the nodular tissue.

  1. Preparation of the radiopharmaceutical 131I-Anti-CD20 for the treatment of lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time they are considered to the lymphomas like a problem of first magnitude since has happened it is necessary to be the fifth cancer cause in the world. Different treatments focused to the lymphoma like the chemotherapy and the radiotherapy, have been employees to counteract the No-Hodgkin lymphoma, without these they don't exclude the healthy tissue of the toxicity. It is for it that is taking a new direction with the employment of the directed radioimmunotherapy since this it allows to kill wicked cells selectively with radiation dose joined to the apoptosis and cytotoxicity induced by the own one bio molecule. The radioimmunotherapy with radiolabelled antibodies directed to the surface antigen CD20 represents a new modality for the treatment of No-Hodgkin lymphoma and potentially other illnesses. In this work the parameters of optimization are presented for the preparation, control of quality and evaluation of the stability in vitro and in vivo of the monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 labelled with 131 I for the treatment of No-Hodgkin lymphoma. The anti-CD20 labelled by the chloramine-T method with high radiochemical purity (>98%), it is stable in solution for but of a half life of the radionuclide (8.04 days) The 131 I-anti-CD20 doesn't present dehalogenation in vitro (human serum) during 24 h of incubation at 37 C. According to the tests carried out to establish the immunoreactivity, a percentage of union to cells was obtained (B lymphocytes) bigger to 30%. The biodistribution in mice balb/c one hour after their administration, it shows that there is not high reception in mucous neither kidneys, what indicates that the complex is stable in vivo. In conclusion, the radiopharmaceutical 131 I-anti-CD20 was obtained in sterile injectable solution and free of pyrogens with a radiochemical purity bigger to 98% and a specific activity of 296 MBq. The radiolabelled molecule maintains its biological recognition for the receiving CD20 highly expressed in

  2. 131I标记VEGFR-3高亲和融合多肽对荷人卵巢癌裸鼠靶向治疗的实验研究%Targeting therapy for human ovarian cancer transplanted into nude mice with 131I-labeled high affinity fusion polypeptide VEGF receptor 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽芳; 梁志清; 王玲; 徐燕; 张广运

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察131I标记血管内皮生长因子受体-3(vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3,VEGFR-3)高亲和融合多肽(phage-SHSWHWLPNLRHYAS)对荷人卵巢癌小鼠移植瘤的靶向治疗作用.方法 用Iodogen法合成131I-多肽及131I-单抗,体外分别与人淋巴管内皮细胞(LEC)共培养,MTT法检测其对LEC细胞生长的抑制作用;体内44只裸鼠经皮下接种卵巢癌细胞株,成瘤后2周,将20只荷瘤小鼠按随机数字表法分成4组,每组5只.分别经尾静脉注射,Ⅰ组:多肽4.4 μg/只,Ⅱ组:131I-多肽7.4 MBq/只,Ⅲ组:131I-单抗7.4 MBq/只,Ⅳ组:生理盐水0.2 ml作为对照组.干预后每周测量1次小鼠肿瘤的长径及短径,观察4周.余24只荷瘤鼠瘤体达1 cm后行SPECT显像.结果 体外131I多肽组对LEC细胞的生长抑制率在72 h达到最高,131I单抗组对LEC细胞的生长抑制率在96 h达到最高;72 h及96 h 131I多肽组与131I单抗组及多肽组比较抑制率差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);体内4周治疗结束时,Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ组小鼠肿瘤的体积分别为(723±164)、(291±68)、(457±88)、(792±112) mm3,其中Ⅱ、Ⅲ组与Ⅳ组肿瘤体积相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而Ⅰ组治疗结束时肿瘤体积与Ⅳ组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),Ⅱ、Ⅲ组的抑瘤率分别为63%和44%.结论 131I标记高亲和融合多肽对荷人卵巢癌小鼠移植瘤的生长具有显著抑制作用.

  3. Biodistribution and SPECT imaging of 125/131I-crotoxin on mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search of specific radiopharmaceuticals to be used in breast tumour diagnosis is relevant to complement the techniques applied in conventional medicine. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CV) and its main polypeptide, Crotoxin (Crtx), are natural source of several bioactive substances with therapeutical potential. The aim of this work was to evaluate the binding of Crtx with tumour targets in vivo, as well as, evaluate its applicability for breast tumours diagnosis. Crtx was labelled with 125/131I using lactoperoxidase method and radiochemical analysis was performed by chromatography. 125I-Crtx was used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies on swiss mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour, while 131I-Crtx was used for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Crtx presented specific binding sites on Ehrlich tumour cells and had a rapid blood clearance (T1/2= 201.1 min.). Intratumoral administration increased significantly the activity delivered into the tumour site (128-fold higher) and reduced the kidney burden (7.2-fold lower). 131I-Crxt demonstrated to interact with tumour cells for until 72 hours allowing good quality images of tumour. Our results indicate the biotechnological potential of Crtx as template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  4. Biodistribution and SPECT imaging of {sup 125/131}I-crotoxin on mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcellaaraugio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: santosr@cdtn.br; Silveira, Marina B.; Simal, Carlos [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Dias, Consuelo L. Fortes [Fundacao Ezequiel Dias (FUNED), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The search of specific radiopharmaceuticals to be used in breast tumour diagnosis is relevant to complement the techniques applied in conventional medicine. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CV) and its main polypeptide, Crotoxin (Crtx), are natural source of several bioactive substances with therapeutical potential. The aim of this work was to evaluate the binding of Crtx with tumour targets in vivo, as well as, evaluate its applicability for breast tumours diagnosis. Crtx was labelled with {sup 125/131}I using lactoperoxidase method and radiochemical analysis was performed by chromatography. {sup 125}I-Crtx was used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies on swiss mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour, while {sup 131}I-Crtx was used for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Crtx presented specific binding sites on Ehrlich tumour cells and had a rapid blood clearance (T{sub 1/2}= 201.1 min.). Intratumoral administration increased significantly the activity delivered into the tumour site (128-fold higher) and reduced the kidney burden (7.2-fold lower). {sup 131}I-Crxt demonstrated to interact with tumour cells for until 72 hours allowing good quality images of tumour. Our results indicate the biotechnological potential of Crtx as template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  5. Differential expression profiling of circulation microRNAs in PTC patients with non-131I and 131I-avid lungs metastases: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Loss of the ability to concentrate 131I is one of the important causes of radioiodine-refractory disease in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Recent advantages of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) open a new realm of possibilities for noninvasive diagnosis and prognosis of many cancers. The aim of the current study was to identify differential expression profiling of circulation miRNAs in PTC patients with non-131I and 131I-avid lungs metastases. Methods: The expressions of miRNAs were examined using miRNA microarray chip. The most significantly changed miRNAs from microarray were verified by using qRT-PCR. The potential miRNAs regulating target genes and their preliminary biological functions were forecasted by Bioinformatic analysis. Results: Compared to 131I-avid lung metastases, 13 kinds of significantly differential serum miRNAs including 5 upregulated miRNAs (miR-1249, miR-106a, miR-503, miR-34c-5p, miR-1281) and 8 downregulated miRNAs (miR-1915, miR-2861, miR-3196, miR-500, miR-572, miR-33b, miR-554, miR-18a) in PTC patients with non-131 I-avid lung metastases were identified. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that miR-106a was the core miRNA regulating 193 genes in the network. The results of validation confirmed the up-regulation of miR-106a in non-131I-avid lungs metastatic PTC patients. Conclusion: Differentially expressed serum miRNA profiles between PTC patients with non-131I and 131I-avid lungs metastases were analyzed. These findings in our present study could represent new clues for the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy in PTC patients with non-131I-avid metastatic disease

  6. Transient cytotoxicity of 131I beta radiation in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioactive iodine

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram, P. Shanmuga; Padma, S.; Sudha, S.; Sasikala, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Radioiodine (131I) or radioactive iodine in low doses is used worldwide as the first line of management in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Information is available on the extent and severity of cell damage after a high dose radioiodine (131I) therapy for thyroid cancer, but information is scanty on its cellular effects, its extent and severity of cell damage after a low dose 131I therapy. The present investigation was aimed to study the cytotoxic effects of a low do...

  7. Metabolic therapy of thyroid by {sup 131}I and radiation protection; Therapie metabolique thyroidienne par {sup 131}I et radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, I.; Caussin, J.; Smeesters, P.; Wambersie, A.; Beckers, C. [Centre de Medecine Nucleaire, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    The recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 60) to be applied in the European Union from the year 2000 imply a limit of the annual dose of 1 mSv for public as well as the compliance with the dose constraints. In order to verify the possibility of observing these new standards without losing the very favourable cost-profit of the {sup 131}I therapy in thyroiditis, 73 members of patient families treated by radioiodine were surveyed by direct dosimetry. A number of 22 patients afflicted with thyroid cancer received doses of 3700 to 7400 MBq and 18 hyperthyroid patients received 200 to 600 MBq. Dosemeters mounted around the neck were carried for 2-3 weeks by 35 spouses and 38 children 4 months to 25 years old. The residual thyroid radioactivity and the T{sub 1/2} of {sup 131}I were measured by gamma chambers in every patients. In the group of patients with thyroid cancers the effective T{sub 1/2} is 2.2 days. The doses measured in families are lower than 1 mSv in any spouses and lower than 0.3 mSv in all the children except one. In hyperthyroid patients the effective T{sub 1/2} is 6.2 days. The average dose received is 1.04 mSv (0.05-5.2) for spouses and 0.13 mSv (0.04-3.1) for children. These direct dosimetry data are reliable and allow to propose reasonable and efficient restrictions which will not compromise neither the efficiency of treatment or the environment safety

  8. Determination of the flight range of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1813) (Coleoptera Bruchidae) using 131I as radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the objective of determining the flight range (activity) of the bean weevil (A. obtectus) 800 adult insects were labelled with sodium iodide (Na 131I) at 0.468 mCi/ml. In order to label the weevil they were kept on Petri dishes with filter paper embedded in 3.2 ml sodium iodide (Na 131I) radioactive solution. The labelled insects (over 800,000 c.p.m./800 insects at 5 cm distance) were released in the middle of a bean plantation cv. Rosinha G-2 at physiological maturation stage. The labelled insects were located using a 'Victoreen' monochannel gamma spectrometer with NaI(Tl) cristal, the countings in the field being repeated 8 times. The first two countings (2 and 3 hours after release) showed that the insects had flow in different directions, reaching about 20 m from the releasing point. the 3rd and 4th countings (6 and 7 hours after release) indicate that they reached around 30 m. According to the 5th, 6th and 7th countings (8, 50 and 54 hours after release) the dispersion of the insects continued, maintaining a radius of 30 m. At the last counting (120 hours after release) a greater uniformity in the dispersion rate was observed, probably because the insects adapted themselves to the local environmental conditions. It was also noted that during the day the insects were located under small soil agregates or crop residues, close to the nutrients but never on the foliage. (Author)

  9. Direct in vivo injection of ~(131)I-GMS and its distribution and excretion in rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To explore the distribution and metabolism of 131 I-gelatin microspheres ( 131 I-GMSs) in rabbits after direct injection into rabbits’ livers.METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy New Zealand rabbits were divided into seven groups,with four rabbits per group.Each rabbit’s hepatic lobes were directly injected with 41.336 ± 5.106 MBq 131 I-GMSs.Each day after 131 I-GMSs administration,4 rabbits were randomly selected,and 250 μL of serum was collected for γ count.Hepatic and thyroid functions were tested on days ...

  10. A new and simple method for separation of 131I from tellurium oxide using an activated charcoal column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for separation of 131I from irradiated TeO2 is described. Initially Te was separated from the 131I by precipitation technique. 131I solution containing traces of Te was adsorbed on an activated charcoal. After sufficient washings with HCl and water, 131I was desorbed from charcoal with NaOH. The recovery of Te was 99%. Retention of 131I on charcoal was 100% and elution efficiency was 75-80%. (author)

  11. Effectiveness of Linezolid, 127I-Linezolid and 131I-Linezolid Against Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus Aureus by Time Kill Curve Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Demiroğlu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Linezolid (LNZ is one of the most effective treatments against Gram positive bacteria. However LNZ resistant intermediate strains have recently emerged in worldwide. The aim of the study was to compare the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC of LNZ, 127I-LNZ and 131I-LNZ against methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 35556 (MSSA biofilms. Methods: LNZ radiolabeled with 131I and cold labeling study with 127I was performed. Radiolabeling and inactive labeling quality-control studies of LNZ were carried out by using TLC (Thin Layer Radiochromatography and HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. LNZ, 127I-LNZ and 131I-LNZ against biofilm-forming MSSA was investigated, using a twofold serial broth microtiter method, biofilm challenge, and bacterial count recovery. Results: The binding yield was obtained to be about 86±2% for radiolabeled LNZ. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration for LNZ, 127I-LNZ and 131I-LNZ ranged from 1 to 2 µg/mL respectively. In time-kill studies LNZ, 127I-LNZ and 131I-LNZ were bactericidal against staphylococci, producing ≥3 Log10 decrease in viable counts (cfu/mL within 6 h at 2xMIC. Following the biofilm formation on polystyrene U-bottom microtiter plates to investigate the minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC of LNZ, 127I-LNZ and 131I-LNZ was defined as the minimal concentration of antibiotic required to inhibite the biofilm. None of the LNZ, 127I-LNZ and 131I-LNZ killed 100% of biofilm associated cells. Mean cell survival in biofilms treated with 64 µg/mL LNZ, 127I-LNZ and 131I-LNZ (64 µg/mL was 48%, 49%, and 33%, respectively. Conclusion: Our results show that radiolabeled Linezolid demonstrated that 24 h of exposure to 64 µg/mL, promise in treating biofilm producing Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Pharmacokinetic studies of 131 I-stevioside and his metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevia rebaudiana is a shrub widely in Paraguay and Brazil, belonging to the compositae family. The leaves of this plant contain large amounts of stevioside. Since the use of stevioside as sugar substitute continues to increase, the purpose of this study is to investigate the biological distribution, excretion and the possibility of stevioside to be degraded to steviol 'in vitro'. 131-I-stevioside (1,10 MBq) was i.v. injected in Wistar male rats its distribution in the body and metabolism were studied. The highest concentration of radioactivity was observed in the liver and the small intestine after 10 and 120 minutes respectively. RP-HPLC analysis of the bile showed that steviol appeared as a major metabolite, representing 47,3% of the radioactivity while stevioside represented 37,3% and the remaining 15,4% was due to an unidentified metabolite. The results showed that stevioside was partially degraded 'in vivo' to steviol and other metabolite, and that part of the radioactivity was absorbed from the small intestine. (author)

  13. 131I-iodocholesterol (NP-59) scintigraphy in adrenocortical diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic usefulness of adrenal imaging with 131I-iodocholesterol (NP-59) is now well established. In order to correlate histopathology with the adrenal scan the authors examine and report their experience in 37 patients with surgically proven adrenal lesions or pituitary adenomas. This series included 24 patients with Cushing's syndrome: 14 caused by benign adrenal adenoma and 10 due to bilateral pituitary-ACTH-dependent adrenocortical hyperplasia. Ten patients with primary aldosteronism were submitted to surgery which confirmed the presence of aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas. Two women with hyperandrogenism (due to virilizing ovarian tumors) had normal adrenals but the ovarian stromal luteoma markedly concentrated the iodocholesterol while the arrhenoblastoma did not. A patient with adrenal hematoma is also included in this report. The overall histopathological correlation with the radiocholesterol scintiscan yields an accuracy in our series of 97 percent (36/37). The false-negative adrenal scan (also missed by other non-invasive techniques) occurred in a patient with an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma measuring 1.0 x 1.5 cm

  14. Biokinetics and dosimetry of 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with clinical 131I-MIBG studies of patients with suspected sporadic pheochromocytoma or multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN II), quantitative biokinetic data have been collected in order to improve the present estimates of absorbed dose to various organs and tissues as well as of the effective dose equivalent and its variation from patient to patient. The authors find considerably higher liver uptake than earlier published, but their estimates of the uptake in the thyroid and in the normal adrenal medulla show lower values than earlier reported. This results in the following absorbed dose per activity unit administered (mGy/MGq) (mean and typical range): Liver: 0.83 (0.50 - 1.2); Spleen: 0.61 (0.17 - 1.3); Salivary glands: 0.22 (0.082 - 0.41); Thyroid (blocked): 0.1; Total body: 0.082 (0.055 -0.12). The effective dose equivalent was estimated to be 0.20 (0.1 -0.3) mSv/MBq when the thyroid is adequately blocked. 16 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  15. Individualised 131I-mIBG therapy in the management of refractory and relapsed neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: 131I labeled mIBG is used as targeted radionuclide therapy for relapsed and refractory neuroblastoma. An individualized form of 131I-mIBG-therapy using whole body dosimetry has been developed at our institution. We report toxicity and outcome data. Methods: a retrospective review of children treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) from 1994-2012. The overall aim was initially to deliver a whole body dose (WBD) of 2 Gy based on a tracer study, or in later years a total 4 Gy WBD in two fractions, with cell support, was delivered by a first therapeutic activity of 444 mBq/KXg and a subsequent therapy adjusted according to the measured WBD. Toxicity and outcome data were collated by clinical note review. Institutional review board approval was obtained. Results: 45 treatments were given to 26 patients (16 male, 10 female). Median age at first mIBG: 72 months (range 17-241), median 2 treatments per patient. Indication: primary refractory disease (12), relapse (8), other (6). Administered mean mIBG activity 10951 mBq (range 3539-32871). Mean mIBG whole body dose 1.8 Gy, (range: 1-3.5). Recorded toxicities: grade 3-4 neutropenia in 20/24 treatments, grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia in 20/26 treatments. Acute toxicity occurred following 21/45 treatments, including 9 cases of febrile neutropenia and 1 hypertensive crisis. The only long-term toxicity was prolonged thrombocytopenia in a patient where there was no hematopoietic stem cell rescue. There were no toxic deaths related to mIBG therapy. Response rates as reported on first post-treatment mIBG scan were complete response (4.5%), partial response (52%), stable disease (30%), progression (9%) and mixed response (4.5%). Median time to progression was 3 months (range 6 weeks to 11 months). 6 patients were alive with disease at last follow up (mean 11 months) and 3 are alive and disease-free at last follow up (4 months, 20 months and 10 years). Conclusions: in children with

  16. Hepatoma-Targeted Radionuclide Immune Albumin Nanospheres: (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Zhang, Dongsheng; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Xiao, Yanhong; Shi, Yujuan; Guo, Ting

    2016-01-01

    An effective strategy has been developed for synthesis of radionuclide immune albumin nanospheres ((131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs). In vitro as well as in vivo targeting of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs to AFP-positive hepatoma was examined. In cultured HepG2 cells, the uptake and retention rates of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were remarkably higher than those of (131)I alone. As well, the uptake rate and retention ratios of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs in AFP-positive HepG2 cells were also significantly higher than those in AFP-negative HEK293 cells. Compared to (131)I alone, (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were much more easily taken in and retained by hepatoma tissue, with a much higher T/NT. Due to good drug-loading, high encapsulation ratio, and highly selective affinity for AFP-positive tumors, the (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs are promising for further effective radiation-gene therapy of hepatoma.

  17. Analysis of factors for early hypothyroidism after 131I treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the factors for the early hypothyroidism following 131I treatment of hyperthyroidism, clinic data of 120 hyperthyroidism patients including 8 independent and 1 dependent variables after one year 131I treatment were analyzed by logistic regression analysis method. The results showed that the average 131I dosage given to one gram thyroid tissue was correlated positively with early hypothyroidism occurrence, and the weight of thyroid was negatively correlated to early hypothyroidism occurrence. The positive and negative prediction accuracy of the early hypothyroidism were 53.3% and 96.1% respectively, and the total prediction accuracy was 46.7%. The results suggest that the 131I dosage and the weight of thyroid are key factors for early hypothyroidism; the appropriate adjustment of 131I dosage based on the thyroid mass could prevent the early hypothyroidism occurrence in certain degree. (authors)

  18. Biochemistry of derivatives of amino acid with (/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocene. Comparison with /sup 131/I-hippuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, M.; Park, I.-H.

    1986-01-01

    The potential radiopharmaceuticals: ruthenocenoyl alanine, ruthenocenoyl methionine, 1'methyl-ruthenocenoyl glycine and its esters were labelled with /sup 103/Ru starting from the analogous ferrocene compounds. In a series of tests in mice and rats these substances were compared with hippuran and ruppuran (=ruthernocenoyl glycine, a ruthenocene-amino acid analogue of hippuran). The organ distribution of these compounds was measured at various times after injection. Kidney concentrations of 1'-methyl-ruthenocenoyl glycine and its esters were found to be extremely high, followed by a rapid excretion. In contrast with these compounds, ruthenocenoyl methionine indicated a significantly greater affinity for liver than for kidney, but not for pancreas. Ruthenocenoyl alanine exhibits a high affinity for tumor cells. The advantages of /sup 97/Ru labelled radiopharmaceuticals compared with sup(99m)Tc or /sup 123/I//sup 131/I labelled compounds are discussed.

  19. Can calcification predict {sup 131}I accumulation on metastatic lymph nodes in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients receiving {sup 131}I therapy? Comparison of CT, {sup 131}I WBS and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Koichiro; Abe, Koichiro; Baba, Shingo; Tanabe, Yoshitaka; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Sasaki, Masayuki [Kyushu University, Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this study was to clarify the predictive significance of nodal calcification in terms of the therapeutic option of {sup 131}I therapy in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients. We reviewed 19 computed tomography (CT) examinations of PTC patients on receiving {sup 131}I therapy for the presence of nodal calcification, and compared the {sup 131}I whole-body scintigraphy and {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT findings. The metastatic lymph nodes (mLNs) were divided into three groups: A, those with calcification; B, those without calcification but belonging to patients who had calcified mLNs; C, those without calcification and belonging to patients who had no calcified mLNs. The incidences of {sup 131}I accumulation and maximum standardised uptake values (SUV max) in the three groups were compared. A total of 70 mLNs were evaluated. Twelve mLNs belonged to group A, 13 to group B and 45 to group C. The incidences of {sup 131}I accumulation were significantly higher in groups A (100%) and B (100%) than in group C (11.1%) (p < 0.0001 for both). The SUVmax was significantly lower in groups A (4.1 {+-} 1.9) and B (3.9 {+-} 1.4) than in group C (7.1 {+-} 4.4) (p = 0.01, p = 0.002, respectively). Our results indicated that calcification in mLNs related to the ability of {sup 131}I accumulation and less dedifferentiation. (orig.)

  20. Dedifferentiation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line FTC-133 is enhanced by {sup 131}I pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Fang; Wang Hui, E-mail: wanghuishanghai@hotmail.com; Fu Hongliang; Wu Shuqi; Ye Zhiyi; Chen Suyun; Li Jianing

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) usually has a high iodine uptake. However, dedifferentiation of DTC with decreased or no radioiodine ({sup 131}I) uptake is observed in clinical practice, with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of {sup 131}I radiation on radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and the expression of thyroid-specific molecules. Methods: FTC-133 cells were treated with {sup 131}I, the dosage dictated by methylthiazol tetrazolium test results and preliminary experiments. The experimental cell group was incubated with {sup 131}I for 48 h and then cultured for 3 months in {sup 131}I-free medium. The control group was set without {sup 131}I. Primary cells were defined as the blank group. Following treatment, RAIU was measured with a gamma counter as the counts/cell number. Na{sup +}/I{sup -} symporter (NIS), thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were detected by Western blotting and radioimmunoassay, and their mRNAs were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: RAIU of FTC-133 cells decreased gradually after coincubation with {sup 131}I and did not recover even if {sup 131}I was removed. The relative RAIU of the control and experimental groups was 0.567 and 0.182, respectively, a statistically significant difference (P<.01). Expression of NIS, TSHR, TPO and Tg decreased in the experimental group to a statistically significant degree compared to that of controls (P<.05). Conclusion: Changes in the mRNA levels were in accordance with the expression of thyroid-specific proteins. Thus, FTC-133 cells undergo dedifferentiation during long-term culture in vitro, and {sup 131}I may promote this progress.

  1. 131I treatment for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the association between 131I therapy for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1997-2008. The data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The cumulative 131I dose in each patient was calculated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a proportional hazards model to estimate the effect of 131I therapy on the risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism in the cohort. A total of 8,946 patients with thyroid cancer were eligible for the final analysis. Among these patients, 8 developed primary hyperparathyroidism during the follow-up period that represented 38,248 person-years giving an incidence rate of 20.9 per 105 person-years. 131I was used in the treatment of 6,153 patients (68.8 %) with a median cumulative dose of 3.7 GBq. The adjusted HRs were 0.21 (95% CI 0.02-1.86) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.10-2.10) for those receiving a cumulative 131I dose of 0.1-3.6 GBq and ≥3.7 GBq, respectively, compared to no therapy. The risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism did not increase with increasing 131I dose (test for trend p = 0.51). No interaction was found between 131I dose and age (p = 0.94) or 131I dose and sex (p = 0.99). 131I treatment for thyroid cancer did not increase risk of primary hyperparathyroidism during a 10-year follow-up in this study population. Further research with a longer follow-up period is needed to assess late adverse effects beyond 10 years. (orig.)

  2. Predictive value of tracer studies for /sup 131/I treatment in hyperthyroid cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broome, M.R.; Turrel, J.M.; Hays, M.T.

    1988-02-01

    In 76 cats with hyperthyroidism, peak thyroidal radioiodine (/sup 131/I) uptakes and effective half-lives were determined after administration of tracer and therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I. In 6 additional hyperthyroid cats, only peak thyroidal uptakes after administration of tracer and therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I were determined. Good correlation was found between peak thyroidal uptakes of tracer and therapeutic /sup 131/I; however, only fair correlation was observed between effective half-lives. In 79% of the cats, the effective half-life for therapeutic /sup 131/I was longer than that for tracer /sup 131/I. After administration of therapeutic activity of /sup 131/I, monoexponential and biphasic decay curves were observed in 51 and 16 cats, respectively. Using therapeutic kinetic data, radiation doses to the thyroid gland were calculated retrospectively on the basis of 2 methods for determining the activity of /sup 131/I administered: (1) actual administration of tracer-compensated activity and (2) hypothetic administration of uniform activity (3 mCi). Because of the good predictive ability of tracer kinetic data for the therapeutic kinetic data, the tracer-compensated radiation doses came significantly (P = 0.008) closer to the therapeutic goal than did the uniform-activity doses. In addition, the use of tracer kinetic information reduced the extent of the tendency for consistently high uniform-activity doses. A manual method for acquiring tracer kinetic data was developed and was an acceptable alternative to computerized techniques. Adoption of this method gives individuals and institutions with limited finances the opportunity to characterize the iodine kinetics in cats before proceeding with administration of therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I.

  3. {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism: a cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chien-Mu [Taipei Medical University - Shuang Ho Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Doyle, Pat [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London (United Kingdom); Tsan, Yu-Tse [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Taichung (China); Chung Shan Medical University, School of Medicine, Taichung (China); Lee, Chang-Hsing [Ton Yen General Hospital, Department of Occupational Medicine, Hsinchu County (China); Wang, Jung-Der [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Tainan (China); Chen, Pau-Chung [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Department of Public Health, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Taipei (China); Collaboration: Health Data Analysis in Taiwan (hDATa) Research Group

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the association between {sup 131}I therapy for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1997-2008. The data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The cumulative {sup 131}I dose in each patient was calculated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a proportional hazards model to estimate the effect of {sup 131}I therapy on the risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism in the cohort. A total of 8,946 patients with thyroid cancer were eligible for the final analysis. Among these patients, 8 developed primary hyperparathyroidism during the follow-up period that represented 38,248 person-years giving an incidence rate of 20.9 per 10{sup 5} person-years. {sup 131}I was used in the treatment of 6,153 patients (68.8 %) with a median cumulative dose of 3.7 GBq. The adjusted HRs were 0.21 (95% CI 0.02-1.86) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.10-2.10) for those receiving a cumulative {sup 131}I dose of 0.1-3.6 GBq and ≥3.7 GBq, respectively, compared to no therapy. The risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism did not increase with increasing {sup 131}I dose (test for trend p = 0.51). No interaction was found between {sup 131}I dose and age (p = 0.94) or {sup 131}I dose and sex (p = 0.99). {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer did not increase risk of primary hyperparathyroidism during a 10-year follow-up in this study population. Further research with a longer follow-up period is needed to assess late adverse effects beyond 10 years. (orig.)

  4. The early development of hypothyroidism after 131I treatment for hyperthyroid Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    827 patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism following 131I treatment were followed up at 3 monthly intervals for 12∼36 months from 1985 to 1991. Physical examination and serum total T3, T4, TSH measurements were made at each visit. According to the authors data, 90% early hypothyroidism occurred within 2∼3 months after 131I treatment, thereby, careful follow-up study is very important during this period. T4 was much more sensitive than T3 in diagnosing early hypothyroidism, while the TSH level shows thyroid reservation function, and is less sensitive than T4 in diagnosing 131I induced hypothyroidism. The study confirmed the view that the early incidence of post 131I therapy hypothyroidism was strongly dose dependent

  5. Current trend of research on 131I therapy for thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present time, there are two current trends of research on 131I therapy for thyroid diseases. The first is extension of the application on the field of thyroid diseases. Formerly, the authors use the 131I only on the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease, plummer's disease or toxic nodular goiter as well as thyroid cancer, but now, also for some thyroid diseases with normal thyroid function, such as nontoxic multi-nodular goiter, simple diffuse goiter even the thyroid cyst. It seems quite rational to use the 131I more widely, because it is really safe, easy and cheaper than others. The second trend is using 131I combined together with other drugs in order to reduce the occurrence of hypothyroidism and enhance the therapeutic effect. Authors call it as combined therapy. Drugs recommended for such therapy are antithyroid drugs, β-adrenergic receptor blocking agents, thyroid hormone, gtucocorticoid as well as Chinese herb drugs and so on

  6. 131I therapy of teen-age hyperthyroidism: the primary results in 46 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore various conditions of teen-age hyperthyroidism with 131I therapy. Methods: 46 patients were administrated with 131I, the changes of T3 and T4 level of serum were tested by radioimmunoassay. The improvement of clinical symptoms has been observed in 46 cases with teen-age hyperthyroidism by 131I before and after treatment. Results: 39 of 46 (84%) has been proved complete responses (CR), partial responses (PR) 7 cases. 3 months later; we found that 39 patients have hypothyroidism symptoms, T3 and T4 level of serum decreased. There are significance increases of TSH 23 percent patients. Conclusion: It has been proved that treatment of teen-age hyperthyroidism by 131I is effective and safe

  7. Local delivery of 131I-MIBG to treat peritoneal neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal radiotherapy involving systemic administration of iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) in neural crest tumours such as neuroblastoma has shown considerable success. Although peritoneal seeding of neuroblastoma occurs less often than metastases to organs such as the liver, no effective treatments exist in this clinical setting. Previous reports have demonstrated the effectiveness of peritoneal application of chemotherapeutic drugs or radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies in several kinds of carcinomas. Local delivery of 131I-MIBG should produce more favourable dosimetry in comparison with its systemic administration in the treatment of peritoneal neuroblastoma. In the current investigation, a peritoneal model of neuroblastoma was established in Balb/c nu/nu mice by i.p. injection of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. Two weeks after cell inoculation, comparative biodistribution studies were performed following i.v. or i.p. administration of 131I-MIBG. Mice were treated with 55.5 MBq of 131I-MIBG administered either i.v. or i.p. at 2 weeks. Intraperitoneal injection of 131I-MIBG produced significantly higher tumour accumulation than did i.v. injection (P131I-MIBG failed to improve the survival of mice; mean survival of untreated mice and mice treated with i.v. administration of 131I-MIBG was 59.3±3.9 days and 60.6±2.8 days, respectively. On the other hand, radiotherapy delivered via i.p. administration of 131I-MIBG prolonged survival of mice to 94.7±17.5 days (P131I-MIBG therapy). Radiation doses absorbed by tumours at 55.5 MBq of 131I-MIBG were estimated to be 4,140 cGy with i.p. injection and 450 cGy with i.v. injection. These results indicate the benefits of locoregional delivery of 131I-MIBG in the treatment of peritoneal neuroblastoma. (orig.)

  8. Behavior of medically-derived 131I in the tidal Potomac River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131 (t1/2 = 8.04 d) is administered to patients for treatment of thyroid disorders, excreted by patients and discharged to surface waters via sewage effluent. Radionuclides generally behave like their stable analogs; therefore, medically-derived 131I is useful as a transport-reaction tracer of anthropogenic inputs and the aquatic biogeochemistry of iodine. Iodine-131 was measured in Potomac River water and sediments in the vicinity of the Blue Plains Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP), Washington, DC, USA. Concentrations measured in sewage effluent from Blue Plains WPCP and in the Potomac River suggest a relatively continuous source of this radionuclide. The range of 131I concentrations detected in surface water was 0.076 ± 0.006 to 6.07 ± 0.07 Bq L−1. Iodine-131 concentrations in sediments ranged from 1.3 ± 0.8 to 117 ± 2 Bq kg−1 dry weight. Partitioning in the sewage effluent from Blue Plains and in surface waters indicated that 131I is associated with colloidal and particulate organic material. The behavior of medically-derived 131I in the Potomac River is consistent with the nutrient-like behavior of natural iodine in aquatic environments. After discharge to the river via sewage effluent, it is incorporated into biogenic particulate material and deposited in sediments. Solid phase sediment profiles of 131I indicated rapid mixing or sedimentation of particulate debris and diagenetic remineralization and recycling on short time scales. - Highlights: ► Medically-derived 131I was measured in sewage effluent, river water, and sediments. ► Sediment 210Pb and 7Be profiles help characterize the sedimentary environment. ► 131I flux to sediments in study area is ∼ 1% of that discharged in sewage effluent. ► 131I distributions constrain reaction-transport processes to weekly time scales. ► Collectively these data are used to better understand iodine biogeochemistry

  9. Metabolic comparison of radiolabeled aniline- and phenol-phthaleins with {sup 131}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avcibasi, Ugur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Celal Bayar University, 45030 Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: ugur.avcibasi@bayar.edu.tr; Avcibasi, Nesibe [Ege Vocational Training School, Ege University, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Unak, Turan [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Ege University, Faculty of Science, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Unak, Perihan; Mueftueler, Fazilet Zuemruet [Department of Nuclear Applications, Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Yildirim, Yeliz [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Ege University, Faculty of Science, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Dincalp, Haluk [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Celal Bayar University, 45030 Manisa (Turkey); Guemueser, Fikriye Guel; Dursun, Ebru Rueksen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, 45030 Manisa (Turkey)

    2008-05-15

    The metabolic comparison of aniline- and phenol-phthaleins radiolabeled with {sup 131}I ({sup 131}I-APH and {sup 131}I-PPH, respectively) has been investigated in this study. To compare the metabolic behavior of these phthaleins and their glucuronide conjugates radiolabeled with {sup 131}I, scintigraphic and biodistributional techniques were applied using male Albino rabbits. The results obtained have shown that these compounds were successfully radioiodinated with a radioiodination yield of about 100%. Maximum uptakes of {sup 131}I-APH and {sup 131}I-PPH, which were metabolized as N- and O-glucuronides, were observed within 2 h in the bladder and in the small intestine, respectively. In the case of verification of considerably up taking of these compounds also by tumors developed in the small intestine and in the bladder tissues, these results can be expected to be encouraging to test these compounds, which will be radiolabeled with other radioiodines such as {sup 125}I, {sup 123}I and {sup 124}I as imaging and therapeutic agents in nuclear medical applications.

  10. Preparation of 131I-epidepride and biodistribution study in SD rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose is to study the preparation and biodistribution in animals of dopamine D2 receptor ligand 131I-epidepride. Epidepride was 131I radioiodinated with hydroperoxide or chloramine-T method. The purity and stability of 131I-epidepride were studied by HPLC and TLC, the dynamic distribution in brain and critical organs of SD rats were studied. The radiolabelling yields of 131I-epidepride were 97.4% and 52.9% respectively. With no more purification, the hydroperoxide method is better than the chloramine-T method. After 4 hours in room temperature, the radiochemical purity of 131I-epidepride was still over 90%. The striatum uptake was good, the striatum/cerebellum ratio reached 237:1 at 320 min. Among the critical organs, lung had the first and the highest uptake. All organs had quick clearance (T1/2131I-epidepride has a high striatum uptake and a high striatum/cerebellum ratio. 131I-epidepride is a good dopamine D2 receptor agent

  11. Preclinical study of dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent 131I-epidepride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the radioactivity distribution and the characteristic of imaging with dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent-epidepride. Methods: 131I-epidepride was prepared using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The authors chose SD rats to study the characteristics of 131I-epidepride distribution in vivo and in brain. Two rabbits were used in SPECT imaging. Dynamic acquisition was performed in one rabbit after rapid injection of 370 MBq 131I-epidepride, and time-activity curve was obtained with Region of Interesting (ROI) technique. The other rabbit had brain tomography imaging and whole body imaging according to the result of time-activity curve. Results: The radiolabeling yield (RLY) of 131I-epidepride with hydrogen peroxide was over 95%. In vivo, the uptake of heart and lung was the fastest, so was the clearance of the two organs. The clearance of 131I-epidepride from the body was mainly through liver, stomach and intestines. The striatum uptake was concentrated and stable, while the cerebellum clearance was rapid. Conclusion: The hydrogen peroxide method is simple and fast with high RLY. The striatum uptake is concentrated and stable. 131I-epidepride is an effective agent suitable for dopamine D2 receptor imaging and may be a promising agent for clinical application

  12. Biodistribution of 131 I-Herceptin in Breast Cancer Xenograft%131I-Herceptin在乳腺癌裸鼠模型中的体内分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志学; 蒋国勤; 邢春根; 危少华; 刘增礼

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立Her-2高表达乳腺癌动物模型,了解小鼠体内131 I-Herceptin的生物分布.方法 以对数生长期的SK-BR-3细胞皮下接种BALB/c-neu裸鼠建立动物模型.测量小鼠注射131I-Herceptin后4、12、24、48 h每克各组织每分钟的放射性计数(cpm/g),并计算肿瘤与非肿瘤组织放射性计数比值(T/NT)及每克组织放射性计数占注射剂量放射性计数的百分比(% ID/g).结果 SK-BR-3细胞皮下接种BALB/c-neu裸鼠后成瘤率96%.实验组与对照组T/NT值及%ID/g比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或<0.01).结论 以SK-BR-3细胞皮下接种裸鼠成瘤率高,131 I-Herceptin在肿瘤组织中浓聚明显.%Objective To establish Her-2 positive SK-BR-3 human breast cance xenografts in athy-mic mice . To explore the biologic distribution of 131I-Herceptin in human breast cancer xenografts. Method Implant SK-BR-3 cells subcutaneously to BALB/c-neu athymic mice to establish animal model. To measure the radiocounting per minute (cpm) of every organ on a γ arithmometer at 4、12、24、48 h postin-jection of 131I-Herceptin or 131I-mIgG , then to gain the T/NT ratios and the uptakes percentage per gram of the injection dose (%ID/g). Results After subcutaneously planted, a 96% of tumor formming rate was achieved . Compared with the control group, bigger T/NT and % ID/g was obtained in the experimental group(P <0.05 and <0. 01). Conclusion A high tumor formming rate can be get by implanting SK-BR-3 cells subcutaneously to athymic mouse,131I-Herceptin is obviously concentrated in tumor tissues.

  13. Behavior of 131I and 137Cs in environments released from the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.; Kubota, T.; Igarashi, T.

    2011-12-01

    The devastating tsunami that caused by the great earthquake (M = 9.0) off the coast of northeastern Honshu on 11 March 2011 destroyed large coastal areas of Tohoku and north Kanto, Japan. Radionuclides, including 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs, were released into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Daiichi plants. Concentration of levels of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, released from the Fukushima Daiichi plant were investigated in the soil and precipitation. The concentrations of 131I and 137Cs in the soil from the surface to 1 cm depth in Ibaraki Prefecture were 9360-13,400 Bq/kg and 720-3250 Bq/kg, respectively. The concentration of 137Cs at this soil observation site originating from the Fukushima plant was 8.4 to 21 times that found locally after the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion. Most of the 134Cs and 137Cs from rainwater were trapped by the surface soil and sand to a depth of 1 cm, whereas only about 30% of the 131I was collected by the surface soil, suggesting that 131I would move deeper than 137Cs and 134Cs. The 131I in the rainwater was in the anion exchangeable form, and all of it could be collected by anion exchangeable mechanisms, whereas 30% of the 131I that had passed through the soil could not be trapped by the anion exchange resin, suggesting that the chemical form of this 30% was in a changeable, organic-bound form. The 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs that were absorbed on soil were difficult to be dissolved into water. As the half-life of 131I is short and 137Cs is strongly adsorbed on the surface soil and sand, these radionuclides would be unlikely to reach the groundwater before completely decaying; contamination of groundwater with 131I and 137Cs supplied from rainwater to the surface soil is therefore exceedingly unlikely. As the 137Cs is likely to migrate only 0.6 cm in 10 years, people living in the Fukushima and Kanto areas will be exposed to radiation from 137Cs in the surface soil and sand. For protection, surface soils and sands

  14. Required therapeutic dose of 131I for thyroid ablation after surgery for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. After operation for carcinoma of the thyroid gland a lot of patients are treated with radioactive iodine for ablation of the residual thyroid parenchyma. Aim: to determine the appropriate dose of radioactive iodine for ablation of the residual thyroid parenchyma in patients operated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Materials and methods: the study includes 316 patients who underwent a whole-body scan (WBS) scintigraphy with 131I. From 2009 to 2012 year 632 images were taken. Patients range from 21 to 78 years old. The scan was performed on a dual-headed gamma camera Siemens after an oral reception of a diagnostic dose 131I (2 mCi). The remnants of thyroid parenchyma were registered in 67 of the patients. 39 patients with registered remnants of thyroid parenchyma and slightly elevated thyroglobulin (TG) values who took therapeutic dose 131I (80-100 mCi) underwent a WBS scintigraphy with 131I and did not display remnants of thyroid parenchyma or extra thyroid accumulation of the radio nucleotide. 23 patients with several remnants of thyroid parenchyma and elevated values of TG who underwent a WBS scintigraphy with 131I eight to ten months after reception of the first dose therapeutic iodine (80-100 mCi) displayed persisting remnants of thyroid parenchyma. They were treated with a second dose of 131I (50-100 mCi). In 5 patients with high values of TG besides the thyroid remnants 3 of the patients displayed an extra thyroid accumulation in the lungs and 2 of them displayed an extra-thyroid fixation in the thoracic vertebras in addition to the fixation in the lungs. These 5 patients were treated twice with 131I, but still displayed the remnants of thyroid parenchyma and extra thyroid fixation. That group was treated with a third dose of 131I (30-50 mCi) and no remnants of thyroid parenchyma and extra-thyroid fixation of the radio nucleotide were visualized on the control WBS scintigraphy. Conclusion: in the majority of the patients

  15. False positive images with 131-I scan (WBS) in patients (P) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the WBS studies with 131I in the follow-up or treatment of p bearing DTC, it is observed frequently fixation focal areas of the tracer in fauces. These areas present during the first 72 hs correspond generally to the salivary glands but others are kept during long lapses of more than 20 days. These latter ones were considered as possible metastasis in thyroid cells, iodized proteins, salivary glands and other assertions. Others considered that the fixation took place in dental amalgams and/or diseases. To study these problems, the revision of 131I WBS studies was carried out on p with DTC in the last 4 years. Material and methods: The WBS of 436 p (aged 21 - 82 years old) was reviewed. In 246 the 131-I WBS was carried-out after 48 hs of oral administration of 148 MBq of 131I. In the 172 remaining p, after 5-7 days of administration of 3.7-11.1 GBq as therapeutic activity. In 4 p a bone scan was done with 740 MBq of 99 mTc-MDP i.v. immediately to the 131I WBS afterwards, to determinate coincidence or not of the 2 images. In 5 p was determined the effective T 1/2 of 131I in the interest areas and a panoramic Rx of the maxilla. Results: In 139 p (32%) active areas in the fauces were observed with 131I WBS corresponding to amalgams or dental lesion. The retention of activity corresponded to 0,3-1,5% of the administrated activity of 131I. The effective T 1/2 in these areas was 7-7.6 days. The comparative study between bone and WB scans showed a good correlation for positive images. In 6 p treated with 3,7 GBq 131I or more, ulcer lesions were observed in lingual and gin-gival mucous membrane. Conclusion: These observations confirm that radioiodine is deposited in dental lesions or amalgams and that this 131I does move it at a very slow pace. This mechanism of fixation has to be determined. We fully recommended taking into account the existence of caries and amalgams especially with the administration of higher activities than 3.7 GBq. (author)

  16. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of 131I in aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of 131I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of 131I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of 131I are handled. Samples were collected over 1 h using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, 131I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4 Bq/m3. This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of 8.4 kBq/m3. Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during 1 h, 131I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6 Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13×10−5 mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of 131I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific workplace. Thus, it is suggested to apply the methodology developed in this

  17. Application of 131I-MIBG scintigraphy in diagnosis of pheochromocytoma%131I-MIBG显像诊断嗜铬细胞瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎强; 陈黎波; 李方; 龙明清; 王凤英

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical value of 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy in pheochromocytoma. Methods A total of 430 patients with clinically suspected pheochromocytoma underwent 131I-MIBG whole body scintigraphy, 326 among them underwent B-ultrasound, 400 for CT and 77 for MR examination respectively. While 178 among them were diagnosed with pathology and the others were diagnosed clinically. Results Of all the patients, 108 were diagnosed pheochromocytoma, including 89 131I-MIBG scan positive and 19 negative. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 131I-MIBG were 82.41%, 100% and 95.70%, respectively. 131I-MIBG scan detected 90.00% of unilateral adrenal, 45.45% of bilateral adrenal, 85.71% of ectopic and 66.67% of malignant lesions, respectively. The proportion of patients with positive 131I-MIBG scan increased from 20.69% in all patients to 35.15% in patients with clinical symptoms and positive conventional imaging (at least one of B-ultrasonography, CT or MR was positive) and 64.58% in those with clinical symptoms, positive conventional imaging, and elevated 24 h urinary catacholamines. In 59 patients with adrenal incidentaloma, 8 were scan-positive and all had confirmed pheochromocytoma, while 2 of scan-negative patients also had confirmed pheochromocytoma. Conclusion 131I-MIBG scintigraphy is the first choice for the diagnosis of both adrenal and extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma. However, it is inappropriate to take this method as the initial screening approach.%目的 探讨131I-MIBG显像诊断嗜铬细胞瘤的临床价值.方法 430例临床疑似嗜铬细胞瘤的患者接受131I-MIBG全身显像,其中接受B超、CT和MR检查者分别有326、400和77例,接受病理检查者178例. 结果 430例患者中108例确诊为嗜铬细胞瘤,89例131I-MIBG显像阳性,阴性19例.131I-MIBG显像诊断嗜铬细胞瘤的敏感性、特异性和准确性分别为82.41%、100%和95.70%;对单侧肾上腺病灶、双侧肾

  18. Preparation of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 131}I-Anti-CD20 for the treatment of lymphomas; Preparacion del radiofarmaco {sup 131}I-Anti-CD20 para el tratamiento de linfomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantoja H, I.E

    2004-07-01

    At the present time they are considered to the lymphomas like a problem of first magnitude since has happened it is necessary to be the fifth cancer cause in the world. Different treatments focused to the lymphoma like the chemotherapy and the radiotherapy, have been employees to counteract the No-Hodgkin lymphoma, without these they don't exclude the healthy tissue of the toxicity. It is for it that is taking a new direction with the employment of the directed radioimmunotherapy since this it allows to kill wicked cells selectively with radiation dose joined to the apoptosis and cytotoxicity induced by the own one bio molecule. The radioimmunotherapy with radiolabelled antibodies directed to the surface antigen CD20 represents a new modality for the treatment of No-Hodgkin lymphoma and potentially other illnesses. In this work the parameters of optimization are presented for the preparation, control of quality and evaluation of the stability in vitro and in vivo of the monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 labelled with {sup 131} I for the treatment of No-Hodgkin lymphoma. The anti-CD20 labelled by the chloramine-T method with high radiochemical purity (>98%), it is stable in solution for but of a half life of the radionuclide (8.04 days) The {sup 131} I-anti-CD20 doesn't present dehalogenation in vitro (human serum) during 24 h of incubation at 37 C. According to the tests carried out to establish the immunoreactivity, a percentage of union to cells was obtained (B lymphocytes) bigger to 30%. The biodistribution in mice balb/c one hour after their administration, it shows that there is not high reception in mucous neither kidneys, what indicates that the complex is stable in vivo. In conclusion, the radiopharmaceutical {sup 131} I-anti-CD20 was obtained in sterile injectable solution and free of pyrogens with a radiochemical purity bigger to 98% and a specific activity of 296 MBq. The radiolabelled molecule maintains its biological recognition for the receiving

  19. Development of a recovery method of {sup 131}I in the {sup 99}Mo process through the fission of 235{sup U}; Desenvolvimento de metodo de recuperacao de {sup 131}I no processo de producao de 99{sup M}o pela fissao de 2{sup 35}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignardi, Aline Moraes Teixeira

    2013-07-01

    {sup 13}1{sup I} is an iodine radioisotope widely used in nuclear medicine that can be used either for diagnostic or for treatment due to its physical decay by {beta}{sup -} and its high emission of y-rays. It is produced at IPEN using the indirect reaction: {sup 130}Te(n,y){sup 131m}Te {yields} {sup 131}Te {yields} {sup 131}I where TeO{sub 2} targets are irradiated in a Nuclear Reactor. There is also the possibility of producing {sup 131}I by the fission of {sup 235}U, where about 300 different elements are produced together with {sup 131}I. The {sup 131}I produced through this method presents high specific activity and radioactive concentration suitable for the labeling of molecules. The aim of this work was to develop a recovery method of {sup 131}I with the required quality to be used in Nuclear Medicine in the {sup 99}Mo production process through the route of acid dissolution of metallic {sup 235}U targets. {sup 131}I can appear in two phases of the process, both in the gaseous phase produced during the dissolution of metallic U targets and in the dissolution solution. This work studied the recovery of {sup 131}I in these two phases. Several materials were used for the capture and recovery of {sup 131}I at the two phases of the process, the gaseous one and the solution of dissolution of U targets. Columns of alumina with Cu, acid alumina with Cu, Ag microspheres, Cu microspheres, Ag nanospheres, anionic cartridges, Ag cartridges, anion exchange resin and activated charcoal columns were tested. Solutions containing {sup 131}I in 0.1 mol.L{sup -1} NaOH were percolated through the materials and the eluted solutions were analyzed in a dose calibrator. The precipitation of AgI was also studied wth further dissolution of this precipitate with 0.1 mol L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}OH and 5% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The recovery results varied according to the material, activated charcoal showed recovery yields between 42% and 83% but the recovery yield of the alumina column

  20. Factors predlisposing to developing early hypothyroidism after 131I therapy in patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical meanings of changes of serum TRAb, TGA, TMA contents during treatment of Graves' disease with 131I, especially in those patients developing early hypothyroidism. Methods: Serum levels of TRAb, TGA, TMA, TSH, T3, T4 were measured in 167 patients with Graves' disease both before and six months after mi therapy. Results: Six months after 131I treatment, the original 167 patients could be divided into three groups based apon their thyroid ruction statas: Group A, improved but remained hyperthyroid, n=91, Group B, enthyroid, n=48, Group C, developing early hypothyroidism, n=28. Average age in Group C (hypothyroid) was significantly lower than that in Group A (hyperthyroid) (P131I treatment in younger patients. (2) Patients with high TRAb levels before 131I therapy were less likely to be rendered enthyroid after a single course of treatment while those with low TRAb levels were easily rendered hypothyroid. (3) Development of hypothyroidism after 131I treatment was closely related to the increase of TGA, TMA levels. (authors)

  1. 131I-iodine treatment of hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of 131I-iodine treatment of hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents. Methods: Twenty-nine, patients aged 11-18 years (mean 15.9±2.32 years old), with hyperthyroidism received 131I-iodine treatment in a dose of 25-90μCi/g (median 50μCi/g) of thyroid. Of the 29 patients, 3 patient required 2 doses, 14 received ATD therapy before 131I, 11 patients suffered from TAO(thyroid associated ophthalmopathy). The total maximum and minimum doses were 15 and 1.6 mCi respectively. Results: All patients treated with 131I-iodine, follow-up after the most recent treatment (median 14, range 4 to 60 months), 15 patients were euthyroid, 5 suffered from late-onset hypothyroidism, 9 were still hyperthyroidism, but their symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism were improved or markedly. Of the 16 patients with TAO, TAO in 11 patients disappeared or were improved, TAO in 5 patients didn't or mildly change. The size of thyroid in all patients had largely been reduced. Conclusions: 131I-iodine is effective for initial treatment of hyperthyroidism, the treatment of medical treatment failures and the patients with TAO in children and adolescents. (authors)

  2. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (131I, 14C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  3. In Vivo Determination of Site and Rate of Insulin Catabolism Using the Double Tracer Technique with 51Cr And 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double labelling of a peptide with 51Cr and 125(131)I results in an isotopic ratio that changes when and where the molecule in vivo is catabolized. Intracellular hydrolysis of the peptide liberates the iodine into the iodine pool, whereas the chromium by virtue of being a multivalent ion enters a new linkage at the site of breakdown. The isotopic ratio at the site of breakdown alters concomitantly with the hydrolysis rate. Experiments with 51Cr- and 125I-labelled insulin in mice in vivo and in vitro showed the liver (not muscle), bone (including marrow) and thyroid gland to be the major site of insulin catabolism with a half-life of approximately 10 min. In eight normal persons and diabetic patients insulin catabolism was analysed by the whole body counter following an iv injection of 0.77-0.95 μg insulin labelled with 51Cr and 131I. Counts were taken simultaneously from the area of the liver, thyroid, thigh and posterior pelvis. Again, the.data indicated the liver as the site of insulin catabolism, the normal half-life being approximately 20 min. Iodine- labelled insulin was commercially supplied. 51Cr-labelled insulin, prepared according to the methods of Kavai and Kesztyüs, was analysed by immune precipitation and Sephadex G200 chromatography. In the countercurrent distribution the 51Cr insulin showed enhanced water solubility. (author)

  4. Excretion of 131I by freshwater catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish in waters to which wastes from nuclear power stations are discharged accumulate radionuclides for a short time during batch discharges and then eliminate them during the longer intervals between discharges. Hence, the elimination rates of radionuclides are of importance in computing radiation doses to humans who eat fish caught in these waters. The excretion rates of 131I in two freshwater fish species were studied. Findings show that 131I is excreted quite rapidly by both species. 131I loss from fish muscle during deep frying was also measured and found to be 20 +- 4%. It is concluded that the practice of simply applying a concentration factor to convert the concentration in water to that in fish, without considering excretion, grossly overestimates the dose to the consumer, and that further studies should be made to identify other nuclides that behave similarly. (author)

  5. Validation of a technique of measurement in vivo of 131I in thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Total Body Counter (TBC) Laboratory of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, following the institutional initiative of quality assurance in its measurement techniques, has been involved in an accreditation process based on the ISO/IEC 17205:2005 norm. In vivo measurement of 131I in thyroid has been selected as the first technique in this process, and it is described in this paper. The TBC Laboratory uses for this technique a gamma spectrometry system with a NaI(Tl) detector, calibrated with a neck simulator of the IRD and a certified plane source of 131I with thyroid form. It has been carried out a validation plan that has permitted the characterization of the 131I measurement technique, and its uncertainty evaluation. Measurement parameters that affect the uncertainty are discussed and recommendations for the technique optimization are proposed. (authors)

  6. Micronuclei induction by {sup 131}I exposure. Study in hyperthyroidism patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, S.; Carbonell, E.; Creus, A.; Marcos, R. [Grup de Mutagenesi, Departament de Genetica i de Microbiologia, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Galofre, P. [Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria Vall d`Hebron, Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-01-03

    To evaluate the eventual genetic damage induced by therapeutic exposure to {sup 131}I, we have studied the presence of micronuclei (MN) in binucleated peripheral blood lymphocytes from a group of 28 hyperthyroidism patients who received {sup 131}I sodium iodide, via oral administration. The study was conducted over time and blood samples were obtained before the treatment, and 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after it. The results obtained indicate a positive relationship between dose and BNMN frequency as calculated by the linear regression coefficient, showing significant increases in the frequency of MN and BNMN (binucleated cells with MN) in the subgroup of patients that received more than 500 MBq. Taking into account that the patients studied were treated with relatively low doses of {sup 131}I, our positive results support the view that the MN assay is sensitive enough to monitor the chromosome damage resulting from the exposure.

  7. Transfer of 131I and /sup 95m/Tc from pasture to goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field measurements were made in 1983 on the transfer of 131I and /sup 95m/Tc from spray-contaminated pasture to goat's milk. The transfer of 131I to milk was similar to that used for mathematical models in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109, which was derived from stall-feeding experiments using capsulized doses. Compared to 131I, the /sup 95m/Tc transferred to milk was about 5600 times less. The lower transfer resulted from both immobilization of technetium on pasture prior to ingestion as well as reduced gastrointestinal absorption. The results show that the food chain transfer of technetium to milk is much less than that previously expected based on inferences made from metabolism studies. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  8. The indication for 131I-therapy in occult thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of occult papillary thyroid carcinoma in the normal population is several orders of magnitude higher than the incidence of clinically apparent thyroid cancer, and the recurrence rate or mortality is very low, even after conservative therapy. Therefore, occult papillary thyroid carcinoma has to be considered as distinct biologic entity. Therefore, we recommend no further surgery or ablation of the thyroid remnant with 131I for patients less than 40 years old with occult papillary carcinoma without metastases. In case of metastases, however, 131I-therapy should be performed after total thyroidectomy. All follicular thyroid carcinomas, regardless of their size, are to be treated by total thyroidectomy and 131I-therapy. All patients receive TSH-suppressive levothyroxine therapy and undergo regular follow-up. (orig.)

  9. Pulmonary sequestration. A 131I whole body scintigraphy false-positive result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35-year-old woman affected by a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma was referred to our hospital to perform a 131Iodine (131I) whole body scintigraphy for restaging purpose. The patient had been previously treated with total thyroidectomy and three subsequent doses of 131I for the ablation of a remnant jugular tissue and a suspected metastatic focus at the superior left hemi-thorax. In spite of the previous treatments with 131I, planar and tomographic images showed the persistence of an area of increased uptake at the superior left hemi-thorax. This finding prompted the surgical resection of the lesion. Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed the presence of a pulmonary tissue consistent with pulmonary sequestration. Even though rare, pulmonary sequestration should be included in the potential causes of false-positive results of radioiodine scans. (author)

  10. Pulmonary sequestration: a (131)I whole body scintigraphy false-positive result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinapolice, Elena Giulia; Chytiris, S; Fuccio, C; Leporati, P; Volpato, G; Villani, L; Trifirò, G; Chiovato, L

    2014-08-01

    A 35-year-old woman affected by a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma was referred to our hospital to perform a (131)Iodine ((131)I) whole body scintigraphy for restaging purpose. The patient had been previously treated with total thyroidectomy and three subsequent doses of (131)I for the ablation of a remnant jugular tissue and a suspected metastatic focus at the superior left hemi-thorax. In spite of the previous treatments with (131)I, planar and tomographic images showed the persistence of an area of increased uptake at the superior left hemi-thorax. This finding prompted the surgical resection of the lesion. Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed the presence of a pulmonary tissue consistent with pulmonary sequestration. Even though rare, pulmonary sequestration should be included in the potential causes of false-positive results of radioiodine scans.

  11. Influence of nonstatistical variations on low-level measurements of 131I in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure described in the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission Regulatory Guide 4.3, which is intended to keep 131I levels in milk ''as low as practicable,'' does not properly account for all sources of analytical error that can occur in a low-level radiochemical procedure. Inaccurate chemical recovery factors due to large amounts of stable iodine in milk and incomplete evaluation of detector background fluctuations are the sources of largest error. Significant errors are also contributed in incorrect application of factors for protein-bound iodine and counting efficiency. Ambient levels of 131I contribute to difficulties in evaluating the local impact of any reactor. Use of a beta/gamma coincidence system for counting 131I, measurement of the stable iodine in milk samples and collection of control samples remote from any site are among the recommendations provided to ensure compliance with the Regulatory Guides

  12. Comparison of different 131I doses for thyroid remnant ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the ablation efficacy of different 131I doses for thyroid remnant in patients with DTC, and to analyze the factors related to the ablation efficacy. Methods: A total of 343 DTC patients without local or distant metastases post total or near-total thyroidectomy were enrolled into this study. The patients were divided into three groups according to the initial 131I ablation dose: group A included 101 patients with 1850 to 2220 MBq, group B included 103 patients with 2590 to 2960 MBq, group C included 139 patients with 3330 to 3700 MBq. The patients were followed up for 6 to 12 months after initial 131I ablation. Successful ablation was determined according to follow-up 131I whole body scan and TSH stimulated serum Tg levels (<10 μg/L). The χ2 test and logistic regression were performed. Results: The overall successful rate was 63% (215/343). The successful rates in groups A, B and C were 59% (60/101), 64% (66/103) and 64% (89/139), respectively, with no significant difference among three groups (χ2=0.657, P=0.720). Univariant analysis identified that gender (P=0.030), type of surgery (P<0.01), number of the operations (P=0.004), pre-treatment TSH (P=0.019) and pre-treatment Tg (P<0.01) levels were related to the successful ablation rate. Logistic regression identified type of surgery (P<0.01) and pre-treatment Tg (P<0.01) level as the independent predictors for successful ablation. Conclusions: Low dose 131I for thyroid remnant ablation is almost similar to higher dose for DTC patients. However, the type of surgery and pre-treatment TSH stimulated Tg level affect the success rate of 131I ablation. (authors)

  13. S values for 131I based on the ICRP adult voxel phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, Andre; Moroz, Brian E; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-01-01

    To improve the estimates of organ doses from nuclear medicine procedures using (131)I, the authors calculated a comprehensive set of (131)I S values, defined as absorbed doses in target tissues per unit of nuclear transition in source regions, for different source and target combinations. The authors used the latest reference adult male and female voxel phantoms published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 110) and the (131)I photon and electron spectra from the ICRP Publication 107 to perform Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using MCNPX2.7 to compute the S values. For each phantom, the authors simulated 55 source regions with an assumed uniform distribution of (131)I. They computed the S values for 42 target tissues directly, without calculating specific absorbed fractions. From these calculations, the authors derived a comprehensive set of S values for (131)I for 55 source regions and 42 target tissues in the ICRP male and female voxel phantoms. Compared with the stylised phantoms from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that consist of 22 source regions and 24 target regions, the new data set includes 1662 additional S values corresponding to additional combinations of source-target tissues that are not available in the stylised phantoms. In a comparison of S values derived from the ICRP and ORNL phantoms, the authors found that the S values to the radiosensitive tissues in the ICRP phantoms were 1.1 (median, female) and 1.3 (median, male) times greater than the values based on the ORNL phantoms. However, for several source-target pairs, the difference was up to 10-fold. The new set of S values can be applied prospectively or retrospectively to the calculation of radiation doses in adults internally exposed to (131)I, including nuclear medicine patients treated for thyroid cancer or hyperthyroidism.

  14. Clinical study of dopamine transporter imaging with 131I-epidepride for Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Epidepride is a novel benzamide derivative with high affinity for dopaminergic D2 receptors. It has been used to study striatal and extrastriatal D2 receptor abnormalities in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of D2 receptors in dopaminergic nitrostriatal pathway and its correlation with clinical severity in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Thirty-eight patients with idiopathic PD [graded according to Hoehn and Yahr (H/Y) stage: n(I)=13, n(II)=11, n(III)=8, n (IV)=6] and 12 healthy volunteers as control were included in this study. SPECT brain imaging was performed 3 h after 18.5 MBq 131I-epidepride administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn over the striatum (ST) and occipital cortex (OC). The ratios of ST to OC ROI counts (ST/OC) were calculated and correlated with clinical severity H/Y stage. SPSS 10.0 was used for data analysis, the t test and Spearman correlation analysis were used. Results: ST showed intense uptake of 131I-eplaepnde, whereas frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital lobes and cerebellum showed low uptake in control group. Increased 131I-epidepride uptake was observed in PD patients when compared with normal control group but without statistically significant difference. Early stage patients (hemi-PD with H/Y I) showed increased 131I-epidepride uptake intensity and size in contralateral ST (especially caudate nucleus) significantly more than unilateral ST (t= 7.89, P0.05). Conclusions: This study suggested that 131I-epidepride SPECT was useful in qualitative and quantitative evaluation of D2 receptor status in dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons, which were over-expressed in PD patients. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between ST 131I-epidepride binding ratios and disease severity. (authors)

  15. {sup 131}I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torlak, V.; Capkun, V.; Stanicic, A. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Zemunik, T. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Medical Biology]. E-mail: tzemunik@bsb.mefst.hr; Modun, D. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pesutic-Pisac, V. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pathology; Markotic, A. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry; Pavela-Vrancic, M. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Faculty of Natural Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-08-15

    Therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of {sup 131}I (64-277 {mu}Ci). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before {sup 131}I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following {sup 131}I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 {+-} 8.16 to 55.0 {+-} 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 {+-} 6.9 to 25.4 {+-} 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after {sup 131}I administration to rats, which was not {sup 131}I dose dependent. (author)

  16. Effect of thyroid auto-antibodies on hypothyroidism of adolescents with graves disease after 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) levels in adolescents with Graves disease (GD) before 131I treatment on the incidence of hypothyroidism after 131I therapy. The total 264 adolescent with GD were treated with 131I. All patients before the treatment were divided into A, B, C, D, E and F groups in accordance with the levels of TRAb and TPOAb in various combinations. The serum TSH, FT3, FT4, TRAb and TPOAb levels in all patients were measured after 131I treatment. The incidence of hypothyroidism within three years were observed in each group. The results showed that the incidence of hypothyroidism in TRAb negative group was higher than that of positive group (χ2=4.67, P2=4.10, 4.34, 5.66, P131I therapy. It could be cautious in treatment of GD adolescents of TRAb negative and TPOAb positive with 131I. (authors)

  17. The Application Value of 131 I Whole Body Imaging in Small Doses in the 131 I Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma%小剂量131I 全身显像在131I治疗分化型甲状腺癌中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄谋清; 张水香; 曾小建; 陈华

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To research on the application value of 131 I whole body imaging in small doses in the 131 I treatment of thyroid carcinoma. Methods:131 I whole body imaging in small doses was performed before and after their 131 I treatment to 15 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients who needed 131 I therapy after surgery. Differences of the results of the two 131 I whole body imaging in small doses were analyzed. Results:When 131 I whole body imaging in small doses were performed,28 lesions were found in the 15 cases;43 lesions,including 20 newly lesions,were found during 131 I whole body imaging after 131 I therapy,while 5 lesions in the first examination disappeared. There was no change in 7 cases. Conclusion:Although the sensitivity of small doses of 131 I whole body imaging to discover thyroid cancer metastases is less than a therapeutic dose of 131 I whole body imaging,it is still valuable to perform a 131 I whole body imaging in small dose before the 131I treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.%目的:研究小剂量131 I 全身显像在131 I 治疗甲状腺癌中的应用价值。方法:15例需要在手术后进行131 I 治疗的分化型甲状腺癌病例,在做131 I 治疗前进行小剂量的131 I 全身显像检查,并在131 I 治疗后再次进行全身显像检查,分析两组结果的差异性。结果:小剂量131 I 全身显像时,15例病例中共发现28个病灶,131 I 治疗后进行的全身显像共发现43个病灶,新增病灶20个,减少病灶5个,7例病例病灶无变化。结论:虽然小剂量131 I 全身显像发现甲状腺癌转移灶的敏感性不及治疗剂量131 I 全身显像,但在131 I 治疗分化型甲状腺癌前做小剂量的131 I 全身显像仍然很有价值。

  18. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of {sup 131}I in aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes C, L.; Lucena, E. A.; Da Silva S, C.; Almeida D, A. L.; Oliveira S, W.; Souza S, M.; Maranhao D, B., E-mail: carneiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, 22783-127 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    {sup 131}I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of {sup 131}I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of {sup 131}I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of {sup 131}I are handled. Samples were collected over one hour using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, {sup 131}I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4 Bq /m{sup 3}. This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (Dac) of 8.4 kBq/m{sup 3}. Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during one hour, {sup 131}I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6 Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13 x 10{sup -5} mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of {sup 131}I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific

  19. Enhanced therapeutic tumour dose of /sup 131/I-MIBG by accelerated diuresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darte, L.; Tennvall, J.

    1988-10-01

    Different biokinetics of intravenously (i.v.) administered /sup 131/I-MIBG in the same patient, a child with abdominal neuroblastoma, is demonstrated with and without accelerated elimination by means of hyperhydration. By hyperhydration it was possible to increase the estimated tumour dose by a factor of 2.1 without affecting the whole body dose. The present results indicate that, if accelerated diuresis is implemented, higher radioactivity of /sup 131/I-MIBG can be administered and thereby an increased therapeutic tumour dose achieved.

  20. Enhanced therapeutic tumour dose of 131I-MIBG by accelerated diuresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different biokinetics of intravenously (i.v.) administered 131I-MIBG in the same patient, a child with abdominal neuroblastoma, is demonstrated with and without accelerated elimination by means of hyperhydration. By hyperhydration it was possible to increase the estimated tumour dose by a factor of 2.1 without affecting the whole body dose. The present results indicate that, if accelerated diuresis is implemented, higher radioactivity of 131I-MIBG can be administered and thereby an increased therapeutic tumour dose achieved. (orig.)

  1. Dose-specific transcriptional responses in thyroid tissue in mice after 131I administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: In the present investigation, microarray analysis was used to monitor transcriptional activity in thyroids in mice 24 h after 131I exposure. The aims of this study were to 1) assess the transcriptional patterns associated with 131I exposure in normal mouse thyroid tissue and 2) propose biomarkers for 131I exposure of the thyroid. Methods: Adult BALB/c nude mice were i.v. injected with 13, 130 or 260 kBq of 131I and killed 24 h after injection (absorbed dose to thyroid: 0.85, 8.5, or 17 Gy). Mock-treated mice were used as controls. Total RNA was extracted from thyroids and processed using the Illumina platform. Results: In total, 497, 546, and 90 transcripts were regulated (fold change ≥ 1.5) in the thyroid after 0.85, 8.5, and 17 Gy, respectively. These were involved in several biological functions, e.g. oxygen access, inflammation and immune response, and apoptosis/anti-apoptosis. Approximately 50% of the involved transcripts at each absorbed dose level were dose-specific, and 18 transcripts were commonly detected at all absorbed dose levels. The Agpat9, Plau, Prf1, and S100a8 gene expression displayed a monotone decrease in regulation with absorbed dose, and further studies need to be performed to evaluate if they may be useful as dose-related biomarkers for 131I exposure. Conclusion: Distinct and substantial differences in gene expression and affected biological functions were detected at the different absorbed dose levels. The transcriptional profiles were specific for the different absorbed dose levels. We propose that the Agpat9, Plau, Prf1, and S100a8 genes might be novel potential absorbed dose-related biomarkers to 131I exposure of thyroid. Advances in knowledge: During the recent years, genomic techniques have been developed; however, they have not been fully utilized in nuclear medicine and radiation biology. We have used RNA microarrays to investigate genome-wide transcriptional regulations in thyroid tissue in mice after low

  2. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of (131)I in aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; de Lucena, Eder Augusto; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Letícia Almeida; Sousa, Wanderson Oliveira; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhão

    2015-06-01

    (131)I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of (131)I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of (131)I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of (131)I are handled. Samples were collected over 1h using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, (131)I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4Bq/m(3). This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of 8.4kBq/m(3). Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during 1h, (131)I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13×10(-5)mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of (131)I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific workplace. Thus, it is suggested to apply the methodology

  3. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of 131I in aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of 131I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of 131I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of 131I are handled. Samples were collected over one hour using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, 131I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4 Bq /m3. This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (Dac) of 8.4 kBq/m3. Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during one hour, 131I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6 Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13 x 10-5 mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of 131I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific workplace. Thus, it is suggested to apply the methodology developed

  4. 124I-L19-SIP for immuno-PET imaging of tumour vasculature and guidance of 131I-L19-SIP radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human monoclonal antibody (MAb) fragment L19-SIP is directed against extra domain B (ED-B) of fibronectin, a marker of tumour angiogenesis. A clinical radioimmunotherapy (RIT) trial with 131I-L19-SIP was recently started. In the present study, after GMP production of 124I and efficient production of 124I-L19-SIP, we aimed to demonstrate the suitability of 124I-L19-SIP immuno-PET for imaging of angiogenesis at early-stage tumour development and as a scouting procedure prior to clinical 131I-L19-SIP RIT. 124I was produced in a GMP compliant way via 124Te(p,n)124I reaction and using a TERIMO trademark module for radioiodine separation. L19-SIP was radioiodinated by using a modified version of the IODO-GEN method. The biodistribution of coinjected 124I- and 131I-L19-SIP was compared in FaDu xenograft-bearing nude mice, while 124I PET images were obtained from mice with tumours of 3. 124I was produced highly pure with an average yield of 15.4 ± 0.5 MBq/μAh, while separation yield was ∝90% efficient with 2. Overall labelling efficiency, radiochemical purity and immunoreactive fraction were for 124I-L19-SIP: ∝80, 99.9 and >90%, respectively. Tumour uptake was 7.3±2.1, 10.8±1.5, 7.8±1.4, 5.3±0.6 and 3.1±0.4%ID/g at 3, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h p.i., resulting in increased tumour to blood ratios ranging from 6.0 at 24 h to 45.9 at 72 h p.i. Fully concordant labelling and biodistribution results were obtained with 124I- and 131I-L19-SIP. Immuno-PET with 124I-L19-SIP using a high-resolution research tomograph PET scanner revealed clear delineation of the tumours as small as 50 mm3 and no adverse uptake in other organs. 124I-MAb conjugates for clinical immuno-PET can be efficiently produced. Immuno-PET with 124I-L19-SIP appeared qualified for sensitive imaging of tumour neovasculature and for predicting 131I-L19-SIP biodistribution. (orig.)

  5. Estimation of intake by maximum likelihood method using follow up measurements of 131I thyroidal burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I is widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Since thyroid is the main deposition site for 131I, so it can be detected by direct thyroid monitoring. This work presents results of follow-up measurements of an individual who was internally contaminated with 131I with injected activity being determined by maximum likelihood method. Importance of dose per unit content is also shown in this study. The whole body monitoring system available in Radiation Safety Systems Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is calibrated for estimation of 131I in the thyroid of radiation worker using BOttle MAnnikin Absorber (BOMAB) phantom with neck part being replaced by American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) neck. The estimated intake was found to be 89.24 kBq and the committed effective dose is calculated as 1.96 mSv. The data are analyzed with autocorrelation and Chi-square test to establish goodness of fit with log-normal distribution. The overestimation of thyroid activity by use of mid axial hole in BOMAB phantom is removed by using ANSI/IAEA neck phantom. Measured retained thyroidal data on different days following the intake has closely fitted to the ICRP predicted retained activity. (author)

  6. Analysis of factors affecting the early hypothyroidism following 131I treatment of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: It is a retrospective study designed to evaluate the early therapeutic outcome of radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' disease and determine whether the outcome of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease depends on thyroid volume, function, thyreo-stasis, therapeutic dosage, 131I uptake, age, sex, and absorbed doses by per gram of thyroid tissue. Methods: One year after treatment, 342 patients were divided into two groups according to whether there was hypothyroidism, t test and x2 test were used to compare the variable parameters between the two groups. Results: 92.1% were cured with a single dose of 131I, and 21.2% contracted hypothyroidism at 12 months after treatment. The outcome of treatment at 12 months depended on the volume of thyroid and the absorbed doses by per gram of thyroid tissue. And pretreatment with thyreo-stasis did not reduce the therapeutic efficacy of 131I in hyperthyroidism if antithyroid drugs were discontinued at least 3 days before 131I treatment. Conclusions: Since most hypothyroidism occurred in patients whose thyroid volume is small, appropriate reduction of target dose is recommended here for those patients

  7. Metastases from carcinoid tumours visualized by 131 I-MIBG. Report of five cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I-MIBG whole body scan is useful for visualizing neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma but also other neural crest tumors such as carcinoid tumors: 5 cases of patients with metastases of carcinoid tumors of various anatomical origins (midgut, thymus, bronchus), are reported

  8. Cytogenetic effects in the bone marrow of rats with long-term domestic revenue 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic effects in the rats bone marrow after long-term ingestion of 131I were studied. Significant increase of chromosomal aberrations by dicentric aberrations with and without fragments, acentric fragments, atypical chromosomes and polyploidies was found. Chromatid-type aberrations in exposed animals were present at the same level as in the control

  9. Occupational exposure to 99mTc and 131I in a radiopharmacy room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has about 310 nuclear medicine services and 90% of these services use Molybdenum/Technetium generators to prepare several radiopharmaceuticals to diagnostics; about 70% use also 131I for diagnosis and therapy. These radionuclides are associated to compounds in liquid form and during the manipulation to prepare and administer the patient dose some radioactive airborne particle can be generated. As consequence the workers can be exposed to airborne particles in the respirable fraction containing 99mTc and 131I. The aim of this study is develop a simple and rapid method to verify if the exhaust systems installed in the SMN are efficient in preventing the inhalation of radionuclides airborne particles by workers. In order to estimate the occupational exposure a nuclear medicine service was selected and aerosol samples were collected using personal air sampler with a cyclone. The samples were analyzed using a germanium detector system and the 99mTc and 131I average concentrations were obtained as 16,6 ± 14,34 mBq/m3 and 0.72 ± 0.36 mBq/m3, respectively. It was not observed a correlation among air concentration and total activity processed in laboratory. These results show that the worker inhales airborne particles containing 99mTc and 131I. (author)

  10. Tissue to plasma capillary permeability of 131I-albumin in the perfused rabbit ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bent-Hansen, L; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    1991-01-01

    The tissue to plasma transfer of 131I-albumin was recorded in perfused rabbit ears (n = 6) following equilibration for 24 hr. 125I-fibrinogen served as the plasma marker, and was introduced intravenously 15 min before clamping. The ears were rollerpump perfused with isotonic diluted plasma at a c...

  11. Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands. False- positive images in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the whole body scans (WBS) with 131-I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but others are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996) and Gutierrez et al. (SLAT,Chile, 1997) considered that the fixation took place also in maxillary bones probably in areas in relation with dental illness (inflammation, pulpitis, dental caries, perionditis, periapical granuloma, periapical cyst and resorption of surrounding bone seen radiologically as periapical radiolucency). This presumption was sustained for two publications (Clin. Nucl. Med. 1998;23. 747-749, and Clin. Nucl. Med. 2000; 23; 314-315). This end the review of 638 131-I WBS carried out between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st of 2007 in 502 patients that were studied for ablation, treatment of metastasis or relapses or follow up. In 31,5% of the patients were observed areas of activity in maxilla. The intensity of concentration of the tracer was 0.3 to 1.2 % of the activity administered. In 10 patients was determinate the effective T 1/2 and in 5 a panoramic Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MDP; there were correlation between both images, the 131-I one an the 99m-Tc-MDP with radiology. The effective T 1/2 mean value was 6,87 days ± 0,94 (S.D.) very close to the physical T 1/2 of the radioiodine tracer indicating a strongly labeled molecule. In 6 patients treated with high activities of radioiodine (5,55 to 11,1 MBq - 150 to 300 mCi) actinic lesions were observed in mouth and lingual mucous membrane, including ulcers. The intensity of the images and of the lesions correlate

  12. The research on biodistribution of 131I-iodosennoside A in normal mice and to evaluate myocardial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The objective of this project is to evaluate biodistribution of [131I]-Iodosennoside A in normal mice and explore the feasibility on the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Methods: Iodogen method was used to radioiodinate sennoside A with 131I. [131I] Iodosennoside A was intravenously injected into mice. Three groups of mice were killed at 4 h, 24 h and 48 h post injection respectively and the radioactive uptake in major organs were calculated. Rats were subjected to left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation to induce acute myocardial infarction. Rat models of myocardial infarction were intravenously injected [131I] iodosennoside A. 24 h after injection of [131I] iodosennoside A, the regional distribution of radioiodinated sennoside A was determined by radioactivity counting technique. 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and autoradiography were per- formed with 2 mm thick sections of hearts for postmortem verifications. Results: The study showed high uptake of [131I] iodosennoside A in kidneys and fast blood clearance. At 24 h post injection, radioactivity concentration in infarcted myocardium was over 11.9 times higher than in normal myocardium. Preferential uptake of the [131I] iodosennoside A in necrotic tissue was confirmed by perfect match of images from TTC staining and autoradiography. Conclusion: The result proved that [131I] iodosennoside A has myocardial necrosis affinity and may serve as a marker on the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. (authors)

  13. Determination of thephysico-chemical 131I species in the exhausts and stack effluent of a PWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To quantify the credit that can be granted in the assessment of the 131I ingestion doses and the improvement that can be achieved in the ventilation systems if differences of the physico-chemical 131I species with respect to the environmental impact are taken into account, the fractions of the 131I species were determined in the stack effluent and in various exhausts of a 1300 MW/sub e/ PWR power plant during a period of 3 months. Based on these measurements, calculations for different cases of filtration of the main exhausts for iodine were carried out. The average fractions of elemental and organic 131I were about 70 and 30% respectively in the stack effluent during the time indicated. Elem. 131I orginated mainly from the hoods in which samples of the primary coolant are taken and processed. Org. 131I was mainly contributed by the equipment compartments. If the hood exhaust had been filtered, as was the case with the equipment compartment exhaust, the fractions of elem. and org. 131I would have been on the order of 50% each and the calculated 131I ingestion doses would have been a factor of 3 lower

  14. Use of gamma probe in {sup 131}I thyroid uptake studies; Utilizacao da sonda a cintilacao na captacao de {sup 131}I pela tireoide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, Andrea Gondim Leitao

    2002-11-01

    Evaluation of thyroid uptake by administration of radioactive iodine is a well-defined procedure to assess patient thyroid function. In general, nuclear medicine institutions use gamma cameras coupled to pinhole collimators to perform uptake studies. With the growing use of intraoperative gamma probes in the radioguided surgical techniques, several institutions are purchasing this new and portable equipment, which can technically be also employed to assess patient's thyroid function, permitting further other applications of gamma cameras. The aim of the study was to compare thyroid uptake trails carried out with both gamma camera and intraoperative gamma probe, in order to evaluate the possible use of gamma probe for this purpose. At first a preliminary study of feasibility was carried out using a neck phantom to verify equipment efficiency with known activities of {sup 131} I. Henceforth, work data from 12 patients undergone studies of thyroid uptakes were evaluated, 24 hours after oral administration of 370 kBq of {sup 131} I. The maximum difference observed between the values obtained with both equipment was 60%, which demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed protocol and made clear that gamma probe can be useful for thyroid uptake studies. (author)

  15. Relationship between the serum TGA, TMA positiveness and development of hypothyroidism after 131I therapy in patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the likelihood of development of hypothyroidism after 131I therapy in patients with Graves' disease as related to the serum positiveness of TGA and TMA before treatment. Methods: Altogether, 176 patients with Graves' disease were treated with 131I and followed for 3 years of these patients, serum TGA and TMA were positive in 70 and were negative in 106. Results: In the 70 patients with positive TGA and TMA, development of hypothyroidism after 131I treatment occurred in 22 subjects three years later (31.4%). However, only 4 of the 106 patients with negative TGA and TMA developed hypothyroidism 3 years after 131I therapy (3.8%). Difference in the incidence of hypothyroidism was significant (P131I be administered to patients with Graves' disease and positive serum TGA, TMA. (authors)

  16. Optimization of the therapeutic dose of {sup 131}I for thyroid differentiated carcinoma; Otimizacao da dose terapeutica com {sup 131}I para carcinoma diferenciado da tiroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Fabiana Farias de

    2002-09-01

    I-131 thyroid cancer therapy is based on the strategy of concentrating radioactive iodine in the thyroid tissue, to completetly eliminate thyroid tissue and functioning thyroid cancer metastases remaining after thyroidectomy. In Brazil, fixed activities of {sup 131} I generally are given, sometimes either delivering insufficient activities to ablate all of the remnants, or unnecessarily high activities, with patients remaining in the hospital for some period of time. This investigation proposes a protocol of individualized planning of ablative doses, based on individual patients metabolisms and measured thyroid remnant masses. Simulated thyroid remnants were fabricated in various forms, volumes and activities, and optimum image acquisition parameters were determined using Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography 9SPECT). Resultant images were evaluated, to determine the apparent volumes and the {sup 131} I concentrations. I-131 metabolism was studied in 9 patients who had undergone thyroidectomies. Their thyroid remnant masses were determined applying the same parameters used in SPECT simulation studies, and the optimum activity for their therapy was calculated and compared to the established fixed activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi), which would have normally been assigned. Background subtraction using the method of percent maximum counts, using a value of 67.5%, combined with scatter correction (triple energy window method), was shown to be optimum for SPECT quantification of volumes between 3-10 ml. Errors in the method were below 9% for sources with regular geometries and around 11% for sources with irregular geometries. In the patient studies, it was observed that 78% of patients could have received reduced activities of {sup 131} (from 0.8-3-2. GBq (20-87 nCi). In addition, 33% of these patients could have received low enough activities to have discharged from the hospital, using an individualized administration scheme. This could also have resulted in a dose

  17. Clinical scale preparation and evaluation of 131I-Rituximab for Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with anti CD20 MoAb conjugated to a β- emitting radioisotope like 131I or 90Y has the added advantage of delivering radiation not only to tumor cells that bind the antibody but also due to a crossfire effect, to neighboring tumor cells inaccessible to the antibody. In order to make available an indigenous radioimmunotherapeutic agent for Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), radioiodinated Rituximab has been prepared and evaluated at a clinical scale. Radioiodination of Rituximab was performed by the conventional Chloramine T method using 7.4 GBq Na131I in a lead shielded plant. Six batches of radioiodination were prepared and characterized by electrophoresis and HPLC to evaluate the reproducibility of the product. The product remained stable retaining the radiochemical purity > 95% upto 5 days after radioiodination. In vitro cell binding studies and biodistribution studies in normal Swiss mice have indicated the potential of this molecule as a radioimmunotherapeutic agent for NHL. (orig.)

  18. Factors affecting uptake of 131I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors affecting the uptake of 131I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn) were studied. The time required for the ratio between the activity in the vegetable (Bq kg-1 dry mass) and the activity in the soil (Bq kg-1 dry mass) to reach equilibrium was around 72 h derived from an investigation period of 145 h. The ratio was also dependent on the mass of the vegetable (increased by more than twice when the vegetable mass was decreased to around 60%), the growth period of the vegetable (almost linearly decreased from 3.0x10-2 to 1.1x10-2 when the growth period changed from 66 to 81 d) and the season of culture, while it was independent of the concentration of 131I applied to the soil. The mean concentration ratio obtained for 51 samples was (6.3±4.4)x10-2

  19. Seric thyroglobulin behavior in thyroid carcinoma patients treated with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid carcinomas, mainly the differentiated ones, for involving originally young patients and for showing relatively benign course, require a long term follow-up. So, every new available method that may be useful for the follow-up of these patients soon becomes very important. The advent of radioimmunoassay made the determination of thyroglobulin seric levels possible and this practice has been incorporated into medical routine in the past few years. The analysis of the results permit to conclude that the administration of 131I therapeutic dose to differentiated and medular thyroid carcinoma patients is followed by imediate and transitory rise in circulating thyroglobulin levels. It denotes immediate effect of the 131I that can be observed in a short period of time independently of L-T3 administration and endogen TSH levels. After this period the thyroglobulin is at least in a partial way, TSH-dependent. (author)

  20. Contamination of the rivers Limmat and Lower Aare by 131I from nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In both rivers the 131I content was determined, Limmat/Aare intermixture having been considered. It was found that inspite of the prior contamination of the main water source 131I discharges from the nuclear research center EIR can still be measured downstream. The radiation doses of the population by permanent consumption of fish were calculated. (River water is not used as drinking water in the whole area). For a daily consumption of 1.1 l of Limmat water there were to be expected thyroid doses of 3 mrem/y, for that of left-shore Aare water a smaller exposure by a factor 2-3. The thyroid dose that could result from a more than average consumption of fish meat (100 g/d; total Swiss average 0.7 g/d) would be 14 mrem/y. (HP) 891 HP/HP 892 MB

  1. {sup 131}I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soprani, Juliana; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br; Figueiredo, Suely Gomes de [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas. Lab. de Quimica de Proteinas

    2009-07-01

    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's {sup 125}ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the {sup 131}I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I were considered. (author)

  2. Clinical effects of hyperbaric oxygen on hypothyroidism after 131I therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the influence of hyperbaric oxygen on hypothyroidism after mi therapy. Methods: Fourty-two patients with early hypothyroidism after 131I therapy were randomly divided into two groups the hbo group (n=21) and the non-hbo group (n=21). Serum T3, T44 and TSH levels were measured twice (four months apart) with CLIA in both groups. Results: Serum T3 and T4 levels were increased significantly in both groups after the four months course of low-dosage thyroid hormone replacement but there were no significantly differences between the final levels in the two groups (P>0.05). TSH levels were lowered significantly in both groups (both P131I. (authors)

  3. Early prediction of hypothyroidism following 131I treatment for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly to assess the post treatment predictive value of various biochemical and immunological tests for early hypothyroidism after 131I therapy of Graves' disease, and secondly to determine whether or not pretreatment with Carbimazole protects against post treatment hypothyroidism. The early changes observed in serum T3, T4, TSH, thyroid microsomal and thyroglobulin antibody levels were found to be of no predictive value. A sharp rise, around 2 months, in TRAb levels following 131I therapy indicated that hypothyroidism was likely to occur. This rise was thought to reflect a greater degree of thyroid damage. Lower levels of thyroglobulin in patients who had become hypothyroid by 12 months after treatment would support this view. Five weeks Carbimazole pretreatment in this relatively small group of patients did not appear to protect against hypothyroidism. (orig.)

  4. Intercomparison of Activity Measurement of Isotopes 57Co5 and 131I (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intercomparison of activity measurement of isotopes 57Co and 131I between PSPKR-BATAN and several hospitals in Indonesia, PPTN-BATAN Bandung as well as PPR-BATAN Serpong was carried out. Both isotopes used have been standardized at PSPKR-BATAN. Each isotope consisted of 2 samples with different activities, where the weight of each sample was about 3 gram + 0.2%. To know the performance of dose calibrator belong to the hospitals, these standardized isotopes were measured. The differences of the activity measurement for 57Co were vary from 0.13 to 32 %, and for 131I from 0.3 to 50 %. In general, deviation of dose calibrator using Geiger Muller was relatively greater than that of ionization chamber

  5. 131I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's 125ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the 131I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131I were considered. (author)

  6. 131I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. 125I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, 125I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for 131I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  7. Hypertension complicating {sup 131}I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine therapy for neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmin, Michael A.; Cork, Nicholas J.; Gaze, Mark N. [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Bomanji, Jamshed B. [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Shankar, Ananth [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Paediatric Oncology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Radiolabelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG), used as targeted therapy for neuroblastoma, is known to have effects on blood pressure (BP). In this study we audited BP changes in patients receiving {sup 131}I-mIBG therapy for neuroblastoma to identify BP-related adverse events (AE) and possible predictive factors. Between 2003 and 2010, 50 patients with neuroblastoma received 110 {sup 131}I-mIBG administrations. BP measurements before and after administration were compared with age- and sex-matched centile values. AE were analysed, and possible predisposing factors identified. This population had a baseline BP distribution higher than that of their age- and sex-matched peers, with 16% of preadministration systolic BP values above the 95th centile. Changes in BP after administration showed an approximately normal distribution with similar numbers of reduced and increased values. Four AE, all related to hypertension, occurred with one patient having generalized seizures. One AE was immediate, others occurred between 20 and 25 h after administration. No significant association between AE and patient age or sex was demonstrated. However, a significant association between AE and high preadministration BP was shown, both above the 90th centile (p = 0.0022) and above the 95th centile (p = 0.0135). Clinically relevant hypertension following {sup 131}I-mIBG therapy affected less than 5% of administrations, but was more common in those patients with preexisting hypertension. As hypertensive episodes may occur many hours after treatment, close monitoring of BP needs to be continued for at least 48 h after administration of {sup 131}I-mIBG. (orig.)

  8. Clinical observation of associated treatment for Graves' disease with traditional chinese medicine and 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the method and curative effect of associated treatment for Graves Disease (GD) with traditional Chinese medicine and 131I. 100 patients with GD were randomly divided into two groups, the patients in group A was only given 131I treatment and the patients in group B was given traditional Chinese medicine (Shimaiqing Fluid, 3 times of 20 mL per day for 40 days) after 7 days of 131I treatment. The serum FT3, FT4 and TSH were measured before and 30 and 90 days after treatment. 8 cardinal symptoms were selected and Kupperman 4-grade grading method was used to assess the remission of the disease. The Results showed that the symptoms of patients in group B were improved ahead of time, and pass through the FT3 and FT4 rebound elevation period safely after one month of 131I treatment. The symptoms of patients in group A after 30 days treatment were more serious than that of before treatment, the levels of serum FT3 and FT4 were both higher than those of before treatment. The symptoms of patients in group B after 90 days treatment were improved significantly, and the levels of serum FT3, FT4 and TSH were in normal value. The clinical symptoms of patients in group A were improved, but the levels of serum FT3 and FT4 were lower and TSH was higher than normal value. The curative effect in group B was better than that in group A, the patients passed through the high risk period safely after 30 days treatment, and the hypothyroidism rate was decreased after 90 days treatment. The Shimaiqing Fluid is a nontoxic and safe medicine, and it may be widely used in clinical treatment for patients with GD. (authors)

  9. Use of m-( sup 131 I)iodobenzylguanidine in the treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krempf, M.; Lumbroso, J.; Mornex, R.; Brendel, A.J.; Wemeau, J.L.; Delisle, M.J.; Aubert, B.; Carpentier, P.; Fleury-Goyon, M.C.; Gibold, C. (University Hospital, Nantes (France))

    1991-02-01

    The efficacy and safety of m-(131I)iodobenzylguanidine ((131I)MIBG) were assessed in 15 patients with malignant pheochromocytomas in a nonrandomized, single arm trial, in which patients were treated with (131I)MIBG (SA, 740 megabequerel/mg) every 3 months. Seven of these patients had bone and soft tissue metastases, 4 had only soft metastases, and 4 had only bone metastases. The follow-up period ranged from 6-54 months; the number of doses ranged from 2-11, with 2.9 (78.4 mCi) to 9.25 gigabequerel (GBq) (250 mCi)/administration and a cumulative activity from 11.1-85.90 GBq (300-2322 mCi). The absorbed cumulative dose in tumors ranged from 12-155 Gy. A beneficial effect of the treatment was observed in 9 patients (60%). No complete remission of the disease was observed. Seven patients died during the study, among whom 4 never responded to the treatment. Seven had hormonal responses (4 complete and 3 partial), with a duration ranging from 5-48 months. Among these patients, 4 relapsed, and 3 died within 3 months. Five patients had partial tumoral responses mainly located in soft tissues and for a duration ranging from 29-54 months. All patients with a hormonal response had objective improvement in clinical status and blood pressure. There was no clear-cut relationship between the cumulative dose and the responses. The main side-effect observed in 1 patient with widespread bone metastases after three doses (12.9 GBq) was a pancytopenia, which resolved after treatment was discontinued. This study suggests that repeated (131I)MIBG treatment could be effective in patients with advanced malignant pheochromocytoma.

  10. Comparison of Radiation Dose Estimation for Myeloablative Radioimmunotherapy for Relapsed or Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma using 131I Tositumomab to that of Other Types of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, Joseph G.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Durack, Larry; Fisher, Darrell R.; Press, Oliver W.; Eary, Janet F.

    2004-12-01

    Patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) demonstrate poor survival after standard treatment. Myeloablative radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I tositumomab (anti-CD20) has the ability to deliver specific radiation absorbed dose to antigen bearing tumor. We reviewed normal organ radiation absorbed doses in MCL patients. METHODS: Records of patients with MCL (n = 25), who received myeloablative RIT between January 1996 and December 2003 were reviewed. Individual patient radiation dosimetry was performed on all patients after a trace labeled infusion of 131I tositumomab (mean = 348 MBq), to calculate the required amount of radioactivity for therapy, based on MIRD schema. RESULTS: Mean organ residence times (hr) corrected for CT derived organ volumes for MCL, were as follows: Lungs:9.0; Liver:12.4; Kidneys:1.7; Spleen:2.17; Whole Body:62.4 and mean radiation absorbed doses mGy/Mbq were: Lungs:1.2; Liver:1.1; Kidneys:0.85; Spleen:1.7; Whole Body: 0.21. This is similar to patients with other NHL. Patients received a mean activity of 21 GBq of 131I (range = 11.5 - 41.4) for therapy estimated to deliver 25 Gy to the normal organ receiving the highest radiation absorbed dose. CONCLUSION: Myeloablative RIT using 131I tositumomab results in normal organ radiation absorbed doses similar to those in patients with other non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and is suitable for treating patients with relapsed or refractory MCL.

  11. Radioimmunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using /sup 131/I-anti HCC isoferritin IgG: preliminary results of experimental and clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, K.D.; Tang, Z.Y.; Bao, Y.M.; Lu, J.Z.; Qian, F.; Yuan, A.N.; Zhao, H.Y.

    1989-02-01

    Based on radioimmunoimaging for HCC using /sup 131/I-anti HCC isoferritin IgG, the experimental and clinical studies on radioimmunotherapy for HCC were reported. Thirty-six nude mice bearing human HCC were used for the study of labeled IgG, pure /sup 131/NaI and pure IgG. In the labeled IgG group, the tumor inhibition rate was significantly higher than that in other groups (81%, 60%, and 18%, respectively, p less than 0.05). The tumor cell DNA analysis showed the tumor cell was inhibited in the S stage of the cell cycle. Twenty pathologically proven unresectable HCC patients were treated by /sup 131/I-antihuman HCC isoferritin IgG 20-55mCi monthly for 1-3 times (via hepatic arterial catheter or intravenously). The short-term response was promising, a decline in AFP level and shrinkage of tumor were observed in 80% (12/15) and 65% (13/20) of patients respectively. Sequence resection was successful in five patients (5/20) after radioimmunotherapy. No marked toxic effects were noted in our limited experience, but some problems remain to be discussed.

  12. A methodology for auto-monitoring of internal contamination by 131I in nuclear medicine workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manipulation of 131I in Nuclear Medicine involves significant risks of internal contamination of the staff. In the event of an accidental contamination, or when the Radiological Protection Program includes routine individual monitoring of internal contamination, it is necessary to implement internal dose estimation through in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques. Due to the huge extension of the Brazilian country, this type of monitoring becomes unfeasible if all measurements have to be performed at the institutes of the CNEN. Thus, if the Nuclear Medicine Centres (NMC) become able to conduct the monitoring of their employees, this skill would be of great significance. The methodology proposed in this work consists in a simple and inexpensive protocol for auto-monitoring the internal contamination by 131I, using the resources available at the NMC. In order to verify the influence of the phantom in the calibration factor for the measurement of 131I in thyroid, it was performed a comparison among a variety of phantoms commercially available, including the Neck-Thyroid Phantom developed in IRD. A protocol for performing in vivo and in vitro measurements by the NMC was established. The applicability of the individual monitoring techniques was also evaluated by comparing the detection limits with the derived limits associated with the annual dose limits for workers. (authors)

  13. Related factors of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy in patents with Graves' disease after 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analysis the related factors of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy(TAO) in patients with Graves' disease after 131I treatment. Methods: Five hundred and sixty two patients with Graves' disease were followed up after 131I treatment, included 243 cases with TAO and 319 cases without TAO. Logistic multivariate regression analysis was used to analyse the data of the improvement of the TAO, stability and progression. Results: Of the patients without TAO, 10 new cases of TAO were diagnosed (3.13%). Of the patients with TAO, 134 (55.14%) had experienced improvement, 99 (40.74%) cases with stable disease and 10 (4.12%) cases with progressed disease. The progression rate were no difference between the part of patients with and without TAO (χ2=0.576, P>0.05), and were difference between simple and invasive prominent eyes groups (χ2=11.893, P2=10.621, P131I therapy had no obviously influence between Graves' disease with and without TAO, and early controling the risk factors and treatment with glucocorticoid could prevent aggravation of TAO. (authors)

  14. Design and construction of a prototype for distillation of 131 I by the dry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to need of a procedure standard for production of 131 I in the Mexican Republic, is very important stablish, based in two proof for the method in hot of distillation in dry development satisfactory (radiochemistry purity of distillation 99.7 %. The development of the methodology used is based in the necessity to experience with greater amount of raw material or activity in the white as soon more time of irradiation, and, using a semiautomatic for the personal agent of the production of prototype is independent of specific characteristics to method for dry distillation, as: raw materials used, temperatures of distillation and gas for carry to 131 I. The proof to prototype are functional mechanical type, however to perfect the dry method of distillation is necessary to finish the stage of factibility to prototype. The results of proofs were in form general satisfactory waiting only to refine details and to propose the construction of a better equipment of distillation used stainless steel with completed more exacts for to garantized an useful life great to equipment and to obtain a production of 131 I continuously in the next years. (Author). 21 refs, 26 figs, 8 tabs

  15. Compensated low-dose /sup 131/I therapy of Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudebush, C.P.; Hoye, K.E.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1977-10-01

    To minimize the high rate of residual thyrotoxicosis encountered in low-dose /sup 131/I therapy of Graves' disease, we have treated 62 patients with a low-dose /sup 131/I protocol that includes a compensation for thyroid size. Dose varied between 40 ..mu..Ci retained/g for glands of normal size to 100 ..mu..Ci/g for glands of 100 g or greater. Mean dose was 51.9 ..mu..Ci/g. At 1 year after therapy, 66.1 percent of subjects were euthyroid, 9.7 percent hypothyroid, and 24.2 percent hyperthyroid, a significant improvement (P less than 0.01) over our previous experience using 50 ..mu..Ci/g independent of gland size. Several factors, other than /sup 131/I dose, which might influence the outcome of therapy, were investigated. Initial free thyroxine index observed before therapy was found to have prognostic significance. Hypothyroidism developed only in patients having an initial free thyroxine index of 22.5 or less (about 2.5 times the upper limit of normal in our laboratory).

  16. Subclinical Hypothyroidism after 131I-Treatment of Graves' Disease: A Risk Factor for Depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    Full Text Available Although it is well accepted that there is a close relationship between hypothyroidism and depression, previous studies provided inconsistent or even opposite results in whether subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH increased the risk of depression. One possible reason is that the etiology of SCH in these studies was not clearly distinguished. We therefore investigated the relationship between SCH resulting from 131I treatment of Graves' disease and depression.The incidence of depression among 95 patients with SCH and 121 euthyroid patients following 131I treatment of Graves' disease was studied. The risk factors of depression were determined with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy was performed in patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels exceeding 10 mIU/L.Patients with SCH had significantly higher Hamilton Depression Scale scores, serum TSH and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb levels compared with euthyroid patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed SCH, Graves' eye syndrome and high serum TPO antibody level as risk factors for depression. L-thyroxine treatment is beneficial for SCH patients with serum TSH levels exceeding 10 mIU/L.The results of the present study demonstrated that SCH is prevalent among 131I treated Graves' patients. SCH might increase the risk of developing depression. L-thyroxine replacement therapy helps to resolve depressive disorders in SCH patients with TSH > 10mIU/L. These data provide insight into the relationship between SCH and depression.

  17. Clinical analysis of 131I-orthoiodohippurate renogram in diagnosis of urinary system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of the 131I-orthoiodohippurate renography in patients with a variety of urinary system disease. Methods: Retrospectively analyzed 190 unilateral 131I-orthoiodohippurate renography in 95 cases with urologic system disease. Disease group included the cases with unilateral or bilateral renal or ureter, bladder and prostate gland disease. The cases with normal unilateral renal or ureter were classified as normal group. The incidence of abnormal renography and the clinical features of a variety of abnormal renography were analyzed. The SPSS.16 software was used to statistical analysis. Results: The incidence of abnormal renography in disease group was significantly higher than normal group(81.34% vs.19.64% , χ2=64.617, P<0.005). The renographies of urethra obstruction, such as calculus and mild degree hydronephrosis, always showed steep and steadily rising curves or high flat lines. Severe hydronephrosis,renal insufficiency renographies and renal parenchymal disease showed low flat lines or straight line of low level falls gradually. The nephrograms were presenting with delayed drop of the excretory segments and stairs-like in sharp to descent in the halves or functional obstruction. Nephrogram pattern were mostly normal in the renal space-occupying lesion and adrenal glands disease. Conclusion: The 131I-orthoiodohippurate renography has a higher sensitivity in assessing the hydronephrosis and renal function, it should be combined with clinical situation for lack of specificity. (authors)

  18. {sup 131}I-MIBG therapy of neural crest tumours: from palliation to cure; Traitement des tumeurs issues de la crete neurale par la {sup 131}I-MIBG: de l`effet palliatif a la guerison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefnagel, C.A. [Het Nederlands Kanker Instituut, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Therapeutic assays with {sup 131}I-MIBG in neuroendocrine tumours began in the mid-eighties. A survey of the current results in the main indications is reported. Furthermore, the authors insist on new applications and future directions of this therapy. They report the first results of a protocol involving {sup 131}I-MIBG first-line administration in 31 children who presented with inoperable neuroblastoma. After {sup 131}I-MIBG therapy, 16 patients have been successfully operated. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Dose {sup 131}I radioactivity interfere with thyroglobulin measurement in patients undergoing radioactive iodine therapy with recombinant human TSH?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun; Bang, Ji In; Lee, Ho Young; Kim, Sang Eun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) is widely used in radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) to avoid side effects caused by hypothyroidism during the therapy. Owing to RIT with rhTSH, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is measured with high 131I concentrations. It is of concern that the relatively high energy of 131I could interfere with Tg measurement using the immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). We investigated the effect of 131I administration on Tg measurement with IRMA after RIT. A total of 67 patients with thyroid cancer were analysed retrospectively. All patients had undergone rhTSH stimulation for RIT. The patients’ sera were sampled 2 days after 131I administration and divided into two portions: for Tg measurements on days 2 and 32 after 131I administration. The count per minute (CPM) of whole serum (200 μl) was also measured at each time point. Student’s paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed for statistical analysis. Serum Tg levels were significantly concordant between days 2 and 32, irrespective of the serum CPM. Subgroup analysis was performed by classification based on the 131I dose. No difference was noted between the results of the two groups. IRMA using 125I did not show interference from 131I in the serum of patients stimulated by rhTSH.

  20. Comparative analysis of therapeutic efficacy of 131I in different clinical stages postoperative patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhao; Shuyao Zuo; Guoming Wang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 131I therapy of different clinical stages in postopera-tive patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods: Eighty-seven PTC patients after surgery ablated with high doses of 131I from 2004 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The efficacy of 131I therapy was assessed by three diagnostics that serum thyroglobulin (Tg) was normal or significantly reduced, 131I whole body scan (131I-WBS) was negative or the metas-tases shrank or the number of them decreased and new metastases was not found in cervical ultrasound examination. The χ2 test was used to analyze 3 factors which might affect the therapeutic efficacy of 131I in patients of different clinical period, including different surgical ways (total or subtotal thyroidectomy along with half or double sides neck lymph node dissection), age ( 0.25, P < 0.005, P < 0.01). The effective rate was 91.67% (44) in 48 cases undergoing total thyroidectomy; the effective rate was 53.85% (21) in 39 patients undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy. There was a significant difference between the two groups above by χ2 test (χ2 = 16.291; P < 0.005). Conclusion: The efficacy of 131I ablation of stage I and stage III in postoperative PTC patients was almost alike, while the efficacy of stage IV descended markedly. The results was mainly determined by residual thyroid tissue size because of different surgical modus.

  1. Micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes of differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients before and after exposure to 131I therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out to assess the DNA damage due to the presence of thyroid carcinoma as well as post- therapeutic 131I exposure at 72h in peripheral blood lymphocytes in patient population. The study population consisted of 29 healthy donors and 22 patients of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The blood samples of the patient population were collected pre- and post- 131I administration of therapeutic 131I dose (Range 1.6-9.3 GBq). The blood samples of study population were cultured and processed by cytokinesis-block micronuclei assay. The statistical analysis was performed by using Student's t-test for comparison between healthy donors and patient population ( pre-131I therapy) whereas paired t-test was used for comparing micronuclei frequency in patient population pre- and post- 131I therapy. This study has revealed an increased preexisting DNA damage in patients with thyroid cancer in comparison to healthy subjects. Further increase in DNA damage was observed in patient population after receiving therapeutic 131I exposure at 72 h. However, no dose dependency was observed, thereby indicating individual variation in DNA damage in response to in vivo 131I exposure

  2. Treatments with radioactive iodine, {sup 131} I. How, when and where?; Tratmientos con yodo radiactivo, {sup 131} I. Como, cuando y donde?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz J, A.; Gonzalez T, O. [INCMNSZ, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: seguridad_radiologica@hotmail.com

    2006-07-01

    A great variety of approaches exists in the application of the treatments with radioactive materials, as the {sup 131}I, but it is necessary to standardize them for the patient's benefit, because their doctor doesn't always know the principle that it bases this therapy, called metabolic therapy or radioiodine therapy (RYT). In this work the experience that was acquired by more of 50 years of RYT management in the Thyroid and Nuclear Medicine Clinic in patients with thyroid pathologies is informed, so that their management fulfills its function and it was carried out inside the corresponding juridical frame and the physicochemical and endocrinological principles that should take implicit. (Author)

  3. Changes of the serum IL-18 and TRAb in patients with Graves' disease after 131I treatment within one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate immunological function change in Graves' disease (GD) patients with hypothyroidism within one year after 131I treatment, and evaluate the relationship between the 131I treatment and autoimmune thyroid disease. Serum levels of IL-18, TRAb and TPOAb in 41 patients with GD were determined by EIA, IRMA and CLIA, thyroid weight (TDW) were measured by B ultrasonic instrument. The patients were divided into two groups based on whether appear the early hypothyroidism after 131I treatment during 6-12 months graded as: the hypothyroidism group in 13 and the recovery group in 28; 25 healthy people as control group. Results showed that the serum levels of IL-18 and TRAb in hypothyroidism group and recovery group were significantly increased before 131I treatment compared with control group (P3, FT4, sTSH, TDW and 131I dosage were not significant differences (P>0.05). The serum levels of IL-18 in two groups were decreased (P131I treatment (P3, FT4, TDW(r=0.372 P131I therapy and 6/13 after therapy, and in the recovery group were 10/28 before therapy and 12/28 after therapy. These data suggest that radiation has a little influence on GD patients for adjusting immune system during 6-12 months after 131I treatment. The changes of serum IL-18 and combine with serum TRAb and TPOAb might be valuable implication for assessing the effect and prognosis of 131I treatment in patients with GD hyperthyroidism. (authors)

  4. Comprehensive analysis of the related factors of early hypothyroidism occurring in patients with Graves' disease after 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To make a comprehensive analysis of the related factors of early hypothyroidism occurring in patients with Graves' disease after 131I treatment. Methods: The information of 131I treated Graves' disease was collected including general data, clinical observation, laboratory data, thyroid function test, etc. Then a retrospective statistical analysis was carried out, using cluster analysis, factor analysis, discriminant analysis, multivariate regression analysis, etc. Results: 1) Cluster analysis and factor analysis showed that among clinical observation such as clinical course, treatment course, patients' state and disease occurrance, the first three factors correlated highly; among laboratory data such as thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb), thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) and thyroid microsomal antibody (TMAb), both the first two and the last two correlated highly, each two factors had the similar effect. 2) Fsher discriminant analysis showed that among the thyroid weight, the effective half life, the maximum 131I uptake percentage, total dose of 131I and the average dose of 131I per gram of thyroid, the last one had the most predicting value for incidence of early hypothyroidism. 3) Logistic regression analysis showed that among all the related factors of early hypothyroidism occurred after 131I treated Graves' disease, thyroid weight, average dose of 131I per gram of thyroid, the maximum 131I uptake percentage and the level of TSI were effective factors. Conclusions: The occurrence of early hypothyroidism for 131I-treated Graves' disease is probably affected by many factors. If more factors are taken into consideration before therapy and the theraputic dose is well adjusted accordingly, it can reduce the incidence of early hypothroidism to a certain extent. (authors)

  5. Rapid measurement of 131I in the thyroid gland using a portable Ge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid yet accurate measurement of the 131I activity in the thyroid gland as well as in the air, water and vegetation may have an important role in obtaining quantitative information on internal doses for the people living in the vicinity of nuclear facilities shortly after an accidental release of radionuclides. Whole body counting technique is still the standard method for measuring radionuclides in the body while necessity for in situ measurement techniques has considerably increased especially after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. For measurement of 131I in the thyroid gland in emergency situations, NaI (Tl) detectors, as in a scintillation survey meter as in the simplest case, are most often used while measurement of urinary excretions for members of the public may also effective. The scintillation survey meter method, being easily implemented, may not have enough selectivity for radioiodine and even be liable to an elevated background radiation spectrum. This would possibly lead to higher detection limits and lower accuracy. A use of a laboratory Ge (Li) detector system in the thyroidal radioiodine measurement was suggested to overcome the problem. A real measurement with a similar instrument was reported for the residents in U.K. after the Chernobyl accident. A use of a scintillation spectro-survey meter with a NaI (Tl) probe with lead collimation to thyroidal radioiodine measurement was also reported to give satisfactorily accurate evaluation of the thyroidal 131I burden. In this paper, a movable Ge system was developed for the above purpose and preliminarily evaluated particularly for counting efficiency. It is consisted of a portable high-purity Ge detector and a battery-operated MCA. It employs a laboratory made thin Pb shield with a collimation window and an elevator for the detector platform. The elevator was designed to adjust the height of the thyroid radioiodine probe in relation to the height and position of the neck of a subject

  6. Optimization of the therapeutic dose of 131I for thyroid differentiated carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I-131 thyroid cancer therapy is based on the strategy of concentrating radioactive iodine in the thyroid tissue, to completetly eliminate thyroid tissue and functioning thyroid cancer metastases remaining after thyroidectomy. In Brazil, fixed activities of 131 I generally are given, sometimes either delivering insufficient activities to ablate all of the remnants, or unnecessarily high activities, with patients remaining in the hospital for some period of time. This investigation proposes a protocol of individualized planning of ablative doses, based on individual patients metabolisms and measured thyroid remnant masses. Simulated thyroid remnants were fabricated in various forms, volumes and activities, and optimum image acquisition parameters were determined using Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography 9SPECT). Resultant images were evaluated, to determine the apparent volumes and the 131 I concentrations. I-131 metabolism was studied in 9 patients who had undergone thyroidectomies. Their thyroid remnant masses were determined applying the same parameters used in SPECT simulation studies, and the optimum activity for their therapy was calculated and compared to the established fixed activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi), which would have normally been assigned. Background subtraction using the method of percent maximum counts, using a value of 67.5%, combined with scatter correction (triple energy window method), was shown to be optimum for SPECT quantification of volumes between 3-10 ml. Errors in the method were below 9% for sources with regular geometries and around 11% for sources with irregular geometries. In the patient studies, it was observed that 78% of patients could have received reduced activities of 131 (from 0.8-3-2. GBq (20-87 nCi). In addition, 33% of these patients could have received low enough activities to have discharged from the hospital, using an individualized administration scheme. This could also have resulted in a dose reduction for many

  7. Accumulation and tissue distribution of radioiodine (131I) from algal phytoplankton by the freshwater clam Corbicula manilensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes discharged from establishments involved in the use of radioisotopes such as nuclear-powered industries, tracer research and nuclear medicine are a potential public health hazard. Such wastes contain radionuclides, particularly Iodine-131 (131I), produced in fission with a yield of about 3%. Radionuclides in waste waters are known to be taken up by molluscs such as mussels, oysters, and clams. This study aims to determine the uptake of 131I from algal phytoplankton (Chroococcus dispersus) fed to the freshwater clam Corbicula manilensis as well as the organ/tissue distribution. The results will be compared with a previous study on 131I uptake from water by the same clams

  8. 131I-Anti-CD45 Antibody Plus Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide before Allogeneic Hematophoietic Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Remission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagel, John M.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Eary, Janet F.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gooley, Ted; Ruffner, Katherine; Nemecek, Eneida; Sickle, Eileen; Durack, Larry; Carreras, Jeanette; Horowitz, Mary; Press, Oliver W.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, Paul J.; Bernstein, Irwin D.; Matthews, Dana C.

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to improve outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we conducted a Phase I/II study in which targeted irradiation delivered by 131I-anti-CD45 antibody was combined with targeted busulfan (BU; area-under-curve, 600-900 ng/ml) and cyclophosphamide (CY; 120 mg/kg). Fifty-two of 59 patients (88%) receiving a trace 131I-labeled dose of 0.5 mg/kg anti-CD45 murine antibody had higher estimated absorbed radiation in bone marrow and spleen than in any other organ. Forty-six patients were treated with 102-298 mCi 131I delivering an estimated 5.3-19 (mean 11.3) Gy to marrow, 17-72 (mean 29.7) Gy to spleen, and 3.5 Gy (n=4) to 5.25 Gy (n=42) to the liver. The estimated 3-year non-relapse mortality and disease-free survival (DFS) were 21% and 61%, respectively. These results were compared to those from 509 similar International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry patients transplanted using BU/CY alone. After adjusting for differences in age and cytogenetics-risk, the hazard of mortality among all antibody-treated patients was 0.65 times that of the Registry patients (95% CI 0.39-1.08; p=.09). The addition of targeted hematopoietic irradiation to conventional BU/CY is feasible and well tolerated, and Phase II results are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further study.

  9. Analysis of uncertainties in a individualized method of estimation activity of {sup 1}31I for hyperthyroid patient; Analisis de incertidumbres en un metodo individualizado de estimacion de actividad de {sup 1}31I para el paciente hipertiroideo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orellana Salas, A.; Melgar Perez, J.; Arrocha Acevedo, J. F.

    2013-07-01

    The determination of the activity to prescribe the hyperthyroid patients presented difficult consideration uncertainties. The uncertainties associated with the experimental design can exceed 20%, so it should be valued to customize activity therapy of {sup 1}31 I. (Author)

  10. Usefulness of {sup 131}I-SPECT/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating successful {sup 131}I and retinoic acid combined therapy in a patient with metastatics struma ovarii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyo Jung; Lee, In Ki; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hoon [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Hye Sook [Dept. of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dae Hee [Dept. of Oncology, GSAM Hosptial, Gunpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Metastatic struma ovarii is an extremely rare disease, and the treatment of choice has not been established. Here, we introduce the case of a 36-year-old female pregnant patient with metastatic struma ovarii. Initial treatment was an exploratory laparotomy to remove multiple peritoneal masses. After delivery, a total thyroidectomy was done for the further {sup 131}I-therapy. {sup 131}I-SPECT/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT showed multiple hepatic metastases and extensive peritoneal seeding nodules. Multiple {sup 131}I and retinoic acid combination therapies were performed, resulting in marked improvement. {sup 131}I-SPECT/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were quite useful for evaluating the biologic characteristics of the metastase.

  11. Repeated Radionuclide therapy in metastatic paraganglioma leading to the highest reported cumulative activity of 131I-MIBG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezziddin Samer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 131I-MIBG therapy for neuroendocrine tumours may be dose limited. The common range of applied cumulative activities is 10-40 GBq. We report the uneventful cumulative administration of 111 GBq (= 3 Ci 131I-MIBG in a patient with metastatic paraganglioma. Ten courses of 131I-MIBG therapy were given within six years, accomplishing symptomatic, hormonal and tumour responses with no serious adverse effects. Chemotherapy with cisplatin/vinblastine/dacarbazine was the final treatment modality with temporary control of disease, but eventually the patient died of progression. The observed cumulative activity of 131I-MIBG represents the highest value reported to our knowledge, and even though 12.6 GBq of 90Y-DOTATOC were added intermediately, no associated relevant bone marrow, hepatic or other toxicity were observed. In an individual attempt to palliate metastatic disease high cumulative activity alone should not preclude the patient from repeat treatment.

  12. Reconstruction of (131)I radioactive contamination in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident using atmospheric transport modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talerko, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of (131)I air and ground contamination field formation in the territory of Ukraine was made using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The (131)I atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The airborne (131)I concentration and ground deposition fields were calculated as the database for subsequent thyroid dose reconstruction for inhabitants of radioactive contaminated regions. The small-scale deposition field variability is assessed using data of (137)Cs detailed measurements in the territory of Ukraine. The obtained results are compared with available data of radioiodine daily deposition measurements made at the network of meteorological stations in Ukraine and data of the assessments of (131)I soil contamination obtained from the (129)I measurements. PMID:16024139

  13. High-Dose 131I-Tositumomab (Anti-CD20) Radioimmunotherapy for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Adjusting Radiation Absorbed Dose to Actual Organ Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-tositumomab has been used successfully to treat relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgin's lymphoma (NHL). Our approach to treatment planning has been to determine limits on radiation absorbed close to critical nonhematopoietic organs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using CT to adjust for actual organ volumes in calculating organ-specific absorbed dose estimates. Methods: Records of 84 patients who underwent biodistribution studies after a trace-labeled infusion of 131I-tositumomab for RIT (January 1990 and April 2003) were reviewed. Serial planar -camera images and whole-body Nal probe counts were obtained to estimate 131I-antibody source-organ residence times as recommended by the MIRD Committee. The source-organ residence times for standard man or woman were adjusted by the ratio of the MIRD phantom organ mass to the CT-derived organ mass. Results: The mean radiation absorbed doses (in mGy/MBq) for our data using the MIRD model were lungs= 1.67; liver= 1.03; kidneys= 1.08; spleen= 2.67; and whole body= 0.3; and for CT volume-adjusted organ volumes (in mGy/MBq) were lungs= 1.30; liver= 0.92; kidneys= 0.76; spleen= 1.40; and whole body= 0.22. We determined the following correlation coefficients between the 2 methods for the various organs; lungs, 0.49; (P= 0.0001); liver, 0.64 (P= 0.004); kidneys, 0.45 (P= 0.0001), for the residence times. For therapy, patients received mean 131I administered activities of 19.2 GBq (520 mCi) after adjustment for CT-derived organ mass compared with 16.0 GBq (433 mCi) that would otherwise have been given had therapy been based only using standard MIRD organ volumes--a statistically significant difference (P= 0.0001). Conclusion: We observed large variations in organ masses among our patients. Our treatments were planned to deliver the maximally tolerated radiation dose to the dose-limiting normal organ. This work provides a simplified method for calculating patient-specific radiation

  14. Clinical study of 312 cases with matastatic differentiated thyroid cancer treated with large doses of 131 I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Rui-sen; YU Yong-li; LU Han-kui; LUO Quan-yong; CHEN Li-bo

    2005-01-01

    @@ Patients with metastatic thyroid cancer (MTC) was routinely treated with a small dose of 131I before 1989. After that we have been switched to multiple courses of large dose 131I therapy. In this paper, the therapeutic result and its effect, in particular on bone marrow depression, pulmonary, parathyroid and salivary gland function as well as chromosome aberration1-3 were observed and reported.

  15. Combined therapy with {sup 131}I and retinoic acid in Korean patients with radioiodine-refractory papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, So Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Seung-hwan; Chung, June-Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Do Joon; Cho, Bo Youn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyeong Cheon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University WCU Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcome of redifferentiation therapy using retinoic acid (RA) in combination with {sup 131}I therapy, and to identify biological parameters that predict therapeutic response in Korean patients with radioiodine-refractory papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A total of 47 patients (13 men, 34 women; age 54.2 {+-} 13.6 years) with radioiodine-refractory PTC underwent therapy consisting of consecutive treatment with {sup 131}I and RA. Each {sup 131}I/RA treatment cycle involved the administration of oral isotretinoin for 6 weeks at 1-1.5 mg/kg daily followed by a single oral dose of {sup 131}I (range 5.5-16.7 GBq). Therapeutic responses were determined using serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and the change in tumour size 6 months after completing the {sup 131}I/RA therapy. Biological parameters and pathological parameters before and after combined therapy were compared. After completing {sup 131}I/RA therapy, 1 patient showed a complete response, 9 partial response, 9 stable disease, and 28 progressive disease, representing an overall response rate of 21.3%. Univariate analysis revealed that an age of <45 years and a persistently high serum Tg level were related to a good response. No clinical response was achieved when metastases showing no iodine uptake were present. Multivariate regression analysis showed that an age of <45 years was significantly associated with a good response. Of the 24 patients with well-differentiated carcinoma, 5 (20.8%) responded to {sup 131}I/RA therapy, whereas all 6 patients with poorly differentiated carcinoma failed to respond. {sup 131}I/RA therapy was found to elicit a response rate of 21.3% among patients with radioiodine-refractory PTC, and an age of <45 years was found to be significantly associated with a good response. (orig.)

  16. Estimation of Speciation and Distribution of {sup 131}I in urban and natural Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hormann, Volker; Fischer, Helmut W. [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    {sup 131}I is a radionuclide that may be introduced into natural and urban environments via several pathways. As a result of nuclear accidents it may be washed out from air or settle onto the ground by dry deposition. In urban landscapes this is again washed out by rain, partly introduced into the sewer system and thus transported to the next wastewater plant where it may accumulate in certain compartments. In rural landscapes it may penetrate the soil and be more or less available to plant uptake depending on chemical and physical conditions. On a regular basis, {sup 131}I is released into the urban sewer system in the course of therapeutic and diagnostic treatment of patients with thyroid diseases. The speciation of iodine in the environment is complex. Depending on redox state and biological activity, it may appear as I{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, I{sub 2} or bound to organic molecules (e.g. humic acids). Moreover, some of these species are bound to surfaces of particles suspended in water or present in soil, e.g. hydrous ferric oxides (HFO). It is to be expected that speciation and solid-liquid distribution of iodine strongly depends on environmental conditions. In this study, the speciation and solid-liquid distribution of iodine in environmental samples such as waste water, sewage sludge and soil are estimated with the help of the geochemical code PHREEQC. The calculations are carried out using chemical equilibrium and sorption data from the literature and chemical analyses of the media. We present the results of these calculations and compare them with experimental results of medical {sup 131}I in waste water and sewage sludge. The output of this study will be used in future work where transport and distribution of iodine in wastewater treatment plants and in irrigated agricultural soils will be modeled. (authors)

  17. Dosimetry for {sup 131}I-MIBG therapies in metastatic neuroblastoma, phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudbrock, Ferdinand [University of Cologne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cologne (Germany); University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cologne (Germany); Schmidt, Matthias; Eschner, Wolfgang; Schicha, Harald [University of Cologne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cologne (Germany); Simon, Thorsten; Berthold, Frank [University of Cologne, Children' s Hospital, Cologne (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Radiation dosimetry is a basic requirement for targeted radionuclide therapies (TRT) which have become of increasing interest in nuclear medicine. Despite the significant role of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for the treatment of metastatic neuroblastoma, phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma details for a reliable dosimetry are still sparse. This work presents our procedures, the dosimetric data and experiences with TRT using {sup 131}I-MIBG. A total of 21 patients were treated with {sup 131}I-MIBG between 2004 and 2008 according to a clearly defined protocol. Whole-body absorbed doses were determined by a series of scintillation probe readings for all 21 cases. Tumour absorbed doses were calculated on the basis of quantitative imaging for an entity of 25 lesions investigated individually using the region of interest (ROI) technique based on five scans each. Typical whole-body absorbed doses are found in the region of 2 Gy (range: 1.0-2.9 Gy) whereas tumour absorbed doses in turn cover a span between 10 and 60 Gy. Nonetheless this variation of tumour absorbed doses is comparatively low. The trial protocol in use is a substantial advancement in terms of reliable dosimetry. A clearly defined modus operandi for MIBG therapies should involve precisely described dosimetric procedures, e.g. a minimum of 20 whole-body measurements using a calibrated counter and at least four gamma camera scans over the whole period of the inpatient stay should be carried out. Calculation of tumour volumes is accomplished best via evaluation of SPECT and CT images. (orig.)

  18. Estimation of Speciation and Distribution of 131I in urban and natural Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I is a radionuclide that may be introduced into natural and urban environments via several pathways. As a result of nuclear accidents it may be washed out from air or settle onto the ground by dry deposition. In urban landscapes this is again washed out by rain, partly introduced into the sewer system and thus transported to the next wastewater plant where it may accumulate in certain compartments. In rural landscapes it may penetrate the soil and be more or less available to plant uptake depending on chemical and physical conditions. On a regular basis, 131I is released into the urban sewer system in the course of therapeutic and diagnostic treatment of patients with thyroid diseases. The speciation of iodine in the environment is complex. Depending on redox state and biological activity, it may appear as I-, IO3-, I2 or bound to organic molecules (e.g. humic acids). Moreover, some of these species are bound to surfaces of particles suspended in water or present in soil, e.g. hydrous ferric oxides (HFO). It is to be expected that speciation and solid-liquid distribution of iodine strongly depends on environmental conditions. In this study, the speciation and solid-liquid distribution of iodine in environmental samples such as waste water, sewage sludge and soil are estimated with the help of the geochemical code PHREEQC. The calculations are carried out using chemical equilibrium and sorption data from the literature and chemical analyses of the media. We present the results of these calculations and compare them with experimental results of medical 131I in waste water and sewage sludge. The output of this study will be used in future work where transport and distribution of iodine in wastewater treatment plants and in irrigated agricultural soils will be modeled. (authors)

  19. The determination and monitoring of 131I activity in sewage treatment plants based on A2/O processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I, a radionuclide used in nuclear medicine facilities, is habitually dumped into domestic sewer systems, which causes its control in municipal sewage treatment plants (STP) to become necessary. In this paper, we describe a procedure for the determination of the 131I activity based on its precipitation as silver (I) iodide, its dissolution with cyanide in ammonia medium and its measurement by the liquid scintillation counting technique (LSC). After optimization, this LSC procedure allows the determination of 131I activities with a limit of detection (CCβ) of 11 mBq kg-1. The procedure was successfully validated by comparison with the normative and requires both less sample volume and measurement time than the standard procedure. The method has been applied to the monitoring of 131I in the STP of Valladolid (Spain), which found activities below the maximum allowed by legislation and showed a near constant background 131I activity in the influents with punctual increases corresponding to authorized spills. The mean 131I removing efficiency of the STP was 52%.

  20. /sup 131/I-Orthoiodohippurate clearance in the detection of cisplatin nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengst, W.; Wieler, H.; Rabs, U.; Buerger, R.A.

    1985-06-01

    In this study, 26 patients were treated with 20 mg cisplatin (CP)/m/sup 2/ body surface daily for 5 days as part of a combination therapy for testicular cancer. Simultaneously a vigorous hyperhydration (3000 ml daily) was applied to reduce the nephrotoxic effect induced by the drug. sup(/sup 131/I)-orthoiodophippurate clearance values obtained by the modified method of Oberhausen did not show any significant evidence of tubular dysfunction after therapy. These results may have been due to the vigorous hydration as well as to the youth of the patients.

  1. 131I-orthoiodohippurate clearance in the detection of cisplatin nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, 26 patients were treated with 20 mg cisplatin (CP)/m2 body surface daily for 5 days as part of a combination therapy for testicular cancer. Simultaneously a vigorous hyperhydration (3000 ml daily) was applied to reduce the nephrotoxic effect induced by the drug. sup(131I)-orthoiodophippurate clearance values obtained by the modified method of Oberhausen did not show any significant evidence of tubular dysfunction after therapy. These results may have been due to the vigorous hydration as well as to the youth of the patients. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of 131I in the thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, S. M.; Dantas, A. L. A.; Dantas, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in vivo monitoring of 131I in the thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. Results show that all models evaluated in this work present enough sensitivity for the evaluation of accidental intakes.

  3. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of {sup 131}I in thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, S.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: salomao.marques@ymail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in-vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. All models evaluated showed suitable sensitivity for such application. (author)

  4. National comparison of {sup 131}I measurement among nuclear medicine clinics of eight countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsovcova, Veronika, E-mail: volsovcova@cmi.c [Czech Metrology Institute, Radiova 1, Praha 10, 102 00 (Czech Republic); Iwahara, Akira [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 22780-160 Brazil (Brazil); Oropesa, Pilar [Centro de Isotopos, Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada, Km 31/2, Guanabacoa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Joseph, Leena; Ravindra, Anuradha [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiation Safety Systems Division, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Ghafoori, Mostafa [SSDL, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School (AMIRS). Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Son, Hye-Kyung [Radiation Safety Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 194 Tongilro, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul, 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Sahagia, Maria [Horia Hulubei National Institute of R and D for Physics and Engineering, POB MG-6, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Tastan, Selma [Ankara University Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cebeci 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Zimmerman, Brian [Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8462 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    A generally applicable protocol for organizing comparisons among nuclear medicine clinics created within the IAEA project CRP E2.10.05 was tested in Brazil, Cuba, Czech Republic, India, Iran, Republic of Korea, Romania and Turkey in 2007. Comparisons of measurement of {sup 131}I were organized by local pilot laboratories with different backgrounds and levels of experience in this field. The results and experiences gained were compared and analyzed. A majority of results in each national comparison were within 10% of the reference value.

  5. Relationships between properties of {sup 131}I-therapy capsules and the radioiodine kinetics; Zusammenhaenge zwischen Eigenschaften von {sup 131}I-Therapiekapseln und der Radioiodkinetik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaecker, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Wellner, U. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Scheidhauer, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Gabruk-Szostak, B. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Fischer, T. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Steinbach, J. [Inst. fuer Bioanorganische und Radiopharmazeutische Chemie, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany); Fuechtner, F. [Inst. fuer Bioanorganische und Radiopharmazeutische Chemie, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany); Schicha, H. [Inst. fuer Bioanorganische und Radiopharmazeutische Chemie, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    Aim: The reason of unreproducible data under diagnosis and therapy with radioiodine should be elucidated. Methods: The iodine content of the capsules was tested by a colorimetric method and by activation analysis. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC and by electrophoresis. Solubility of the capsules was investigated under different conditions. Results: The iodine content of the capsules varied between 0,8 and appr. 100 {mu}g/capsule. The radiochemical purity of the capsule iodine varied between 75% and 99.5% (main contamination: Iodate). The solubility of the capsules differed. Conclusion: Additional non-radioactive iodine in the therapy capsules could be one reason of the reduced radioiodine-uptake under therapy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Es sollte das Auftreten nichtreproduzierbarer Messwerte bei Radioiodtest und Radioiodkinetik unter {sup 131}I-Therapie geklaert werden. Methoden: Der Iodgehalt der Kapseln wurde kolorimetrisch und mit der Aktivierungsanalyse bestimmt. Die Messung der radiochemischen Reinheit erfolgte mittels HPLC und Elektrophorese. Das Loeseverhalten der Kapseln wurde unter unterschiedlichen Bedingungen ueberprueft. Ergebnisse: Der Iodgehalt der Kapseln schwankte zwischen 0,8 und ca. 100 {mu}g/Kapsel. Die radiochemische Reinheit der Kapseln differierte ebenfalls (75%-99,5%). Hauptverunreinigung war Iodat. Das Loeseverhalten war ebenfalls unterschiedlich. Schlussfolgerung: Zusaetzliches nichtradioaktives Iod in den Therapiekapseln koennte eine Ursache verminderter Radioiodaufnahme unter Therapie sein. (orig.)

  6. Biological response of B-cell lymphoma cells in vitro to 131I-rituximab%131I-rituximab对B细胞淋巴瘤细胞生物学效应的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏莉; 罗荣城; 张军一; 严晓; 方永鑫; 费丽华

    2006-01-01

    目的研究131I标记的rituximab对CD20高表达的B细胞淋巴瘤细胞的生物学效应,为放射免疫导向治疗提供实验依据.方法IODO-GEN法将131I标记于抗CD20单抗rituximab,用Annexin V-FITC/PI双染法检测131I-rituximab对Raji细胞的诱导凋亡作用,PI染色法检测细胞周期分布.结果Annexin V-FITC/PI双染法检测凋亡率:131I-rituximab组凋亡率为51.99%,1311I组为42.71%,rituximab组为29.42%,对照组为26.17%.对照组和rituximab组凋亡率明显低于131I组和131I-rituximab组(P<0.05).PI染色法对比各组的凋亡率(亚二倍体峰):131I-rituximab组细胞凋亡率为4.32%,131I组为1.47%,rituximab组为1.39%,对照组仅0.37%,131I-rituximab组凋亡率明显高于其他各组(p<0.05).131I-rituximab组Raji细胞周期发生变化,细胞大部分被阻滞于G1/G2期.结论131I-rituximab能够调控Raji细胞的细胞周期并诱导其凋亡,从而抑制Raji细胞增殖.

  7. Roles of TgAb and TPOAb in the development of hypothyroidism after 131I treatment in hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the roles of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and antithyroglobulin antibodies (TbAb) in the development of hypothyroidism after 131I treatment in hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease (GD), data were collected from 160 GD patients who were treated with 131I in the department of nuclear medicine of Tongji Hospital between January 2008 and February 2011. Patients were divided into four groups: group A (TgAb 131I. The incidence of hypothyroidism after 131I treatment was different for each group(P=0.034 131I treatment. In conclusion, because TgAb and TPOAb play important roles in the occurrence of hypothyroidism after 131I therapy, in patients with positive levels of TgAb and TPOAb, lower doses of 131I might prevent hypothyroidism. (authors)

  8. Organ Dose Estimates for Hyperthyroid Patients Treated with (131)I: An Update of the Thyrotoxicosis Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Dunstana R; Brill, Aaron B; Zanzonico, Pat; Vicini, Paolo; Moroz, Brian; Kwon, Deukwoo; Lamart, Stephanie; Brenner, Alina; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L

    2015-12-01

    The Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-up Study (TTFUS) is comprised of 35,593 hyperthyroid patients treated from the mid-1940s through the mid-1960s. One objective of the TTFUS was to evaluate the long-term effects of high-dose iodine-131 ((131)I) treatment (1-4). In the TTFUS cohort, 23,020 patients were treated with (131)I, including 21,536 patients with Graves disease (GD), 1,203 patients with toxic nodular goiter (TNG) and 281 patients with unknown disease. The study population constituted the largest group of hyperthyroid patients ever examined in a single health risk study. The average number (± 1 standard deviation) of (131)I treatments per patient was 1.7 ± 1.4 for the GD patients and 2.1 ± 2.1 for the TNG patients. The average total (131)I administered activity was 380 ± 360 MBq for GD patients and 640 ± 550 MBq for TNG patients. In this work, a biokinetic model for iodine was developed to derive organ residence times and to reconstruct the radiation-absorbed doses to the thyroid gland and to other organs resulting from administration of (131)I to hyperthyroid patients. Based on (131)I data for a small, kinetically well-characterized sub-cohort of patients, multivariate regression equations were developed to relate the numbers of disintegrations of (131)I in more than 50 organs and tissues to anatomical (thyroid mass) and clinical (percentage thyroid uptake and pulse rate) parameters. These equations were then applied to estimate the numbers of (131)I disintegrations in the organs and tissues of all other hyperthyroid patients in the TTFUS who were treated with (131)I. The reference voxel phantoms adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were then used to calculate the absorbed doses in more than 20 organs and tissues of the body. As expected, the absorbed doses were found to be highest in the thyroid (arithmetic means of 120 and 140 Gy for GD and TNG patients, respectively). Absorbed doses in organs other than the thyroid

  9. Indigenous design, development and calibration of an online 131I monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing of spent fuels result in release of radioactive gases, vapours and volatile fission products. Monitoring of the gaseous effluents in the stack is mandatory to ensure compliance with the discharge limits specified by the regulatory agency. Though the fuel that is being reprocessed at COmpact Reprocessing of Advanced Lead cells (CORAL) at Kalpakkam are sufficiently cooled resulting in significant decay of all the iodine 129I, any other major event could result in release of 131I. In CORAL, as a matter of abundant caution and due to the possibility of processing highburn up, short cooled fuels, discharge limits are specified for Iodine also. Previously, monitoring of iodine was done offline using charcoal cartridges but present paper highlights the indigenous design, development and calibration of an online 131I monitor for stack. The estimated activity in one litre bottle was 4.396 nCi/ml. Assuming the same activity is dispensed in the sampling head, the efficiency for the sampling head was estimated to be 0.029 counts/Bq. Integrity of the sampling head was established by analysing the data obtained from repeated counting of the sampling head at fixed intervals. The online iodine monitor is presently installed in the existing stack sampling system with data logging facility and is connected to the Radiation Data Acquisition System at CORAL

  10. Measurement of radiation exposure in attendants of thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients treated with 131I for differentiated thyroid cancer present radiological risk to relatives, occupational exposed workers and general public. Recently, the IAEA issued document K-9010241, 2010, which recommends that patient discharge from hospital must be based on the particular status of each patient, unlike the current criteria applied in Mexico based on the exposure rate at a 1 m distance. In this work thermoluminescent dosimeters were used during a 15 day period to measure the effective dose received by 40 family caregivers of patients treated with 131I, after their release from hospital 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia', Mexico. Relatives were classified in two groups, ambulatory (outpatients) and hospitalized (inpatients), according to the release mode of the patient. Measurements were performed for 20 family caregivers in each group. The effective dose received by all family members of outpatient and inpatient groups was found to be smaller that 5 mSv. In addition, 70 and 90% of inpatient and outpatient groups, respectively, received doses lower than 1 mSv. These data provide information which allow to give recommendations of possible modifications to current regulations in Mexico regarding discharge from hospital of patients treated with radiopharmaceuticals. (Author)

  11. Distribution in pregnant mice of radioactivity after injection of 131I, and immunosuppressive effect by the whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of decreasing resistance to leprous bacilli, 100 μCi of 131I was injected subcutaneously to 2-3 week pregnant, dd-strain mice. Internal distribution of 131I was followed up by measuring radioactivity in each organ of parent mice (I-P) and fetal mice (I-F). 300 rad in all of 60Co was irradiated to 2-3 week pregnant mice (R-P) in two directions from the dorsal side of the abdomen. Immunosuppressive effect of the irradiation was evaluated in the parent mice and their offsprings (R-F) and compared with that in the 131I-treated mice using a skin graft method. It was shown that 131I of parent mice stayed in the uterus and was transmitted to their fetus through the placenta, and clarified that 131I which remained in parent mice was continually supplied to their infant mice through milk still after birth. These findings seem to explaine the result that I-F which had been affected continually by 131I had higher sensitivity to leprous bacilli than I-P. Immunosuppressive effect on a skin graft disclosed that the chief mechanisms of 131I are to decrease the function of the reticulo-endothelial system by iodine and to suppress cellular immunity by its radioactivity. The rejecting time for the mouse skin homograft in the untreated mouse was 8.8 days on the average, and the lymph node weight was 33 mg. The order of the duration in the graft survival was R-P>I-F>I-P>R-F> normal mice, while that of lymph node weights was completely inverse. Therefore, the immunosuppressive effect on I-P and I-F mice, when it is compared with normal mice, could be confirmed, and the I-F was said to be favorable further than to I-P when based on this immunity test by transplantation. (Ueda, J.)

  12. Determinants of successful ablation and complete remission after total thyroidectomy and {sup 131}I therapy of paediatric differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maeder, Uwe [University of Wuerzburg, Comprehensive Cancer Center Mainfranken, Wuerzburg (Germany); Luster, Markus [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marburg (Germany); Haenscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    In adult differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients, successful ablation and the number of {sup 131}I therapies needed carry a prognostic significance. The goal was to assess the prognosis of DTC in children and adolescents treated in our centre in relation to the number of treatments needed and to establish the determinants of both complete remission (CR) and successful ablation. Seventy-six DTC patients <21 years of age at diagnosis were included. Recurrence and death rates, rates of CR (=negative stimulated thyroglobulin, negative neck ultrasound and negative {sup 131}I whole-body scintigraphy) and successful ablation (=CR after initial {sup 131}I therapy) were studied. No patients died of DTC. Seven patients were treated by surgery alone and did not show signs of recurrence during follow-up. Of the 69 patients also treated with {sup 131}I therapy, 47 patients achieved CR, 25 of whom had successful ablation. In multivariate analysis, female gender and the absence of distant metastases were independent determinants of a higher CR rate. Female gender, lower T stage and higher {sup 131}I activity (successful ablation, median activity 3.1 GBq, unsuccessful ablation 2.6 GBq) were determinants of a higher rate of successful ablation. After {sup 131}I therapy no patient showed recurrence after reaching CR or disease progression if CR was not reached. In our paediatric DTC population prognosis is extremely good with no deaths or recurrences occurring regardless of the number of {sup 131}I therapies needed or whether CR was reached. The determinants of CR and successful ablation can be used to optimize the chance of therapy success. (orig.)

  13. Effects of whole-body irradiation on the degradation of 125I insulin and Na131I insulin in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of simultaneously (i.v.) injected Na131I- and 125I-bovine insuline by rabbit blood and the urinary excretion of Na131I- and 125I-containing insulin degradation products have been investigated before and 24 h after 700 R X-ray irradiation. Also, the distribution of the two substances in the livers, kidneys, spleens, and KI-blocked thyroids was observed after irradiation. Radiation effects on the distribution of Na131I- and 125I-insulin on the livers, kidneys, and spleens of rabbits were not observed. On irradiation, there was a significant reduction of diuresis and also of the urinary excretion of 131I and 125I radioactivity. Irradiation had no influence on the distribution of Na131I-and 125I-insulin between plasma and extravascular space. The renal excretion function for water, iodide, and insulin degradation products was clearly impaired after irradiation. The same applies to the insulincatabolism by the degrading organs. The leukocyte count was reduced to about 17% during the first 4 days after irradiation. (orig./MG)

  14. Comparison of {sup 131}I whole-body imaging, {sup 131}I SPECT/CT, and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of metastatic thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jong-Ryool; Chong, Ari; Kim, Jahae; Kang, Sae-Ryung; Song, Ho-Chun; Bom, Hee-Seung [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Medicine Research Center, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Byung-Hyun; Hong, Sun-Pyo; Yoo, Su-Woong [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Medicine Research Center, Hwasun, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Yeon [Dongguk University, Department of Chemistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Medicine Research Center, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung-Joon [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Medicine Research Center, Hwasun, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Center for Biomedical Human Resources at Chonnam National University, Brain Korea 21 Project, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to compare {sup 131}I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS), WBS with {sup 131}I single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT), and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in the detection of distant metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). A total of 140 patients with 258 foci of suspected distant metastases were evaluated. {sup 131}I WBS, {sup 131}I SPECT/CT, and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images were interpreted separately. The final diagnosis was obtained from histopathologic study, serum thyroglobulin level, other imaging modalities, and/or clinical follow-up. Of the 140 patients with 258 foci, 46 patients with 166 foci were diagnosed as positive for distant metastasis. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of each imaging modality were 65, 55, and 59%, respectively, for {sup 131}I WBS; 65, 95, and 85% for {sup 131}I SPECT/CT, respectively; and 61, 98, and 86%, respectively, for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patient-based analyses. Lesion-based analyses demonstrated that both SPECT/CT and PET/CT were superior to WBS (p<0.001) in all patient groups. SPECT/CT was superior to WBS and PET/CT (p<0.001) in patients who received a single challenge of radioiodine therapy, whereas PET/CT was superior to WBS (p=0.005) and SPECT/CT (p=0.013) in patients who received multiple challenges. Both SPECT/CT and PET/CT demonstrated high diagnostic performance in detecting metastatic thyroid cancer. SPECT/CT was highly accurate in patients who underwent a single challenge of radioiodine therapy. In contrast, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT presented the highest diagnostic performance in patients who underwent multiple challenges of radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  15. Individual monitoring of internal exposure of {sup 131}I of workers from the nuclear medicine service FUESMEN, Argentina; Monitoraje individual debido a exposicion interna por {sup 131I} de los trabajadores del servicio de medicina nuclear de FUESMEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, G.; Acosta, N.; Venier, V.; Bedoya Toboo, C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (FUESMEN/CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Fundacion Escuela de Medicina Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    It is presented the FUESMEN experience in routine monitoring of thyroid internal doses due to inhalation of {sup 131}I in workers of the Nuclear Medicine Service in normal operation or accidental exposure. It is used a surface contamination monitor, type Geiger Mueller, calibrated with a acrylic phantom based on specifications of the simulator of thyroid of ICRU 48 with {sup 131}I reference activity. Through the obtained measurements is achieved to validate the use of Portable Monitor to carry out preliminary exploration on the monitoring scenarios of incidental situations.

  16. Imaging the primate adrenal medulla with [123I] and [131I] metaiodobenzylguanidine: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of radioiodinated meta-iodobenzylguanidine (m-IBG) as an adrenomedullary imaging agent is reported in 15 rhesus monkeys. Scintiscans of the monkey adrenal medulla have been obtained with [123I]- and [m-131]IBG at 2 to 6 days after injection. The imaging superiority of m-IBG over its positional isomer, para-iodobenzylguanidine (p-IBG), is documented in both dogs and monkeys. Administration of reserpine, a depletor of catecholamine stores, markedly lowers the [m-131I]-IBG content of the dog adrenal medulla, but the adrenergic blocking agents phenoxybenzamine and propanolol have no effect. Subcellular fractionation of the dog's adrenal medullae reveals that m-IBG is sequestered mainly in the chromaffin storage granules. The results of this study suggest that radioiodinated m-IBG, previously reported to image the primate myocardium, also merits evaluation as a clinical radiopharmaceutical for the adrenal medulla

  17. Use of 82Br and 131I radionuclides in studies of goitrogenic effects of exogenous bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interference of excessive bromide intake with iodine metabolism in the rat was studied using 82Br and 131I radionuclides. Mainly lactating rat dams and their pups were used, in addition to adult male rats, in the present studies. Particularly, the influence of high bromide intake in lactating rat dams on the transfer of iodine and bromide to suckling young through breast milk was evaluated. The induction of hypothyroid status in the pups by high bromide intake in the mothers was proved unambiguously. Excessive bromide in lactating rat dams caused a marked decrease in plasma levels of thyroid hormones both, in the mothers and in their sucklings. The effects of an enhanced bromide intake on the thyroid function in relation to iodine status in the animals were also followed. Marked goitrogenic and thyrotoxic effects of excessive bromide in adult rats were significantly enhanced under the conditions of simultaneous iodine deficiency in the experimental animals. (author)

  18. Radiation load of population due to treatment of children neuroblastoma by 131I-MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes radiation protection aspects of 131I-MIBG treatment of children neuroblastoma. It presents and discusses dose equivalents found for two population groups: (1) family members taking care of the child treated; (2) ambulance drivers transporting children to oxygenotherapy and the staff of the Institute Aviation Medicine where the hyperbaric chamber used for oxygenotherapy resides. The time needed for single trip is about 10 minutes. The minimum dose equivalents per transportation (two ways) was 0.1 μSv, the maximum 11.4 μSv. The total value in the year 1997 was 20.8 μSv. The presented results indicate that no danger of exceeding limits of dose equivalents in sense of (1) occurs under normal conditions. The shortest recommended time interval between two therapies is 6 months

  19. Specific activity determination and stability studies of therapeutic 131I-mIBG radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, India is a manufacturer and supplier of therapeutic doses of the 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine to various nuclear medicine centers in India. The therapeutic dosage of radiopharmaceutical involves a single variable dose of >3.7 GBq activity. Since the radiopharmaceutical produced is mainly by isotope exchange, which yields a low specific activity product, the determination of its accurate mass is a critical parameter for its safe administration in patients. In view of this, a suitable high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of specific activity with high precision. Also, quantification of stability in terms of the % radiochemical purity of the formulation >370 MBq/mL supplied, under different storage conditions over time was carried out using the developed HPLC method. (author)

  20. Radiation exposure of owners and veterinary staff members after treatment of hyperthyroid cats with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: the present study aims to evaluate radiation exposure of owners and veterinary staff members after 131I treatment of hyperthyroid cats. Additionally, radiation dose rates from the treated cats were measured at different time points to analyze the effective half-life of 131I within the cat. Materials and methods: 28 cats received a mean activity of (173 ± 84) MBq of 131I. During the 5 day hospitalization period, the veterinary staff (3 persons) involved in the care for these cats wore waterproof bracelets and rings (at left and right hand) containing calibrated (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). TLDs were read out after 5 days and readings were converted in a dose value using an in-house measured calibration factor. Further, equivalent dose rates (μSv/h) were registered at 1 m distance from the cat at 4 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after injection. The dose rates were plotted against time and fitted to an exponential function. From the fitting results, the effective half-life (T1/2eff) could be calculated. Owners were also given waterproof bracelets containing TLDs at the moment their cat was released from the Veterinary Nuclear Medicine Division. They were given strict instructions concerning the management of the cat at home (emphasizing limited time, keeping distance and waste management). The bracelets were returned by mail after 1 week together with the owners' estimation of the time spent with the cat. TLDs doses were analyzed using the aforementioned procedure. Results: 4 hours after injection, mean equivalent dose rate at 1 m was (9 ± 4) μSv/h. This value further decreased to (4 ± 3) μSv/h. Based on the dose rate measurements a mean T1/2eff of (3.0 ± 1.6) days was found. Over 7 days, the average accumulated wrist dose of the owners was 504 μSv (range 26-2682 μSv). Concerning staff members, mean accumulated wrist doses over 5 days were 101 μGy and 120 μGy for left and right wrists respectively

  1. 131I content in canine thyroids in the Warsaw urban area after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of 131I were determined in the thyroids of 20 dogs from Warsaw submitted to euthanasia between May and September 1986. The animals were living with humans and were in similar way exposed to contamination after the Chernobyl reactor accident. After calculation of the radioactivity for May 10th the contamination was found to range from 142.9 to 1372.9 Bq. These values corresponded to the contamination of human thyroids as reported by Central Laboratory for Radiation Protection in Warsaw. From the begining of May to the end of November the number of operations performed in dogs for pathological thyroid hyperplasia was six times higher than in the preceding time period. 5 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

  2. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of {sup 131}I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay (India)

    1994-11-01

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne {sup 131}I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 {mu}m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of {sup 131}I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1}. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of absorbed dose in studies of renal function due to 123I/131I (hippuran) e 111In (DPTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorbed dose of the kidneys during renal function studies of adult patients is estimated through biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing the 123I/131I (hippuran) e 111In (DPTA). Using the methodology MIRD and representation Cristy-Eckerman for adult kidneys, it is shown that dosimetric contributions of organs of biokinetics 123I/131I (hippuran) e 111In (DPTA) are significant, in estimative of dose for renal function studies. Dosimetric contributions (body and whole bladder, kidneys excluding) are given by 11.90% (for 123I), 4.97% (for 131I) and 28.32% (for 111In). In all cases, the dosimetric contributions are mainly due to photons issued by the whole body

  4. Meta[{sup 131}I]iodobenzylguanidine therapy for patients with metastatic and unresectable pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsby, Robert E. [Division of Pediatric Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0106 (United States); Fitzgerald, Paul A. [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-1222 (United States)], E-mail: paul.fitzgerald@ucsf.edu

    2008-08-15

    Introduction: Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are tumors that can exhibit a malignant behavior. Targeted radiotherapy with {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 131}I-MIBG) has proven useful in patients with unresectable, metastatic and/or relapsed disease. Methods: We review the literature and our experience at UCSF to highlight important characteristics of PHEO/PGL and the use of {sup 131}I-MIBG in the treatment of this disease. Results: These tumors are rare, with a diagnosed incidence of only two to four cases per million annually; 40% are discovered at autopsy. Clinical manifestations are caused by excess secretion of catecholamines, although some PGLs are nonsecretory. Approximately 25% of patients with PHEO/PGLs have an underlying genetic predisposition. The risk of a germline mutation is higher in children. Diagnostic evaluation should include serial determinations of fractionated metanephrines and serum chromogranin A. Staging requires both {sup 123}I-MIBG and full-body magnetic resonance imaging or {sup 18}FDG-PET scanning. The primary treatment for PHEO/PGL is resection. Patients may be candidates for treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG if they have unresectable or metastatic tumors that are avid for MIBG. Such patients usually respond to this targeted radioisotope therapy and many achieve a durable remission. Myelosuppression is a dose-related side effect that can be treated with transfusions or autologous hematopoietic stem cells. Late side effects can include infertility, myelodysplasia and second cancers. Conclusions: Treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG can be considered for patients if surgery is not feasible. There are significant risks associated with this treatment, but the majority of patients will respond. Treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG should be done at institutions with experience in delivering targeted radiotherapeutics.

  5. Genetically significant dose and sex ratio of the offsprings of patient treated with 131I for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gonadal doses following the 131I treatment of 6 male and 14 female patients with hyperthyroidism were calculated by the method of MIRD, measuring daily radioactivity in the thyroid gland and circulating blood. The testicular dose was 0.52 +- 0.256 rads and the ovarian dose was 0.632 +- 0.488 rads per mCi. In 1965, the genetically significant dose from 131I treatment of 925 patients with hyperthyroidism was estimated to be 0.0136 mrads/person/year. The genetically significant dose would amount to 0.0613 mrads/person/year, assuming that the total amount of 131I supplied for treatment in 1965 was administered to treat the hyperthyroid patients with an age-and sex distribution similar to that of the above mentioned group of patients. Sex ratios of the offspring of male and female patients treated with 131I from 1953 to 1966 were compared with those of offspring born to male and female patients before the treatment. The proportion of males was higher among the offspring of male patients after 131I treatment than among the offspring of the controls, but the difference was not statistically significant. The sex ratio of the offspring of female patients was not different from that of controls. The mean age of the parents at the times of their children's birth after 131I treatment was 2.6 - 6.0 year older in male patients and 2.8 - 2.9 year older in female patients than that of controls. (J.P.N.)

  6. The non-condition logistic regression analysis of the reason of hypothyroidism after hyperthyroidism with 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many opinions on the reason of hypothyroidism after hyperthyroidism with 131I treatment. In this respect, there are a few scientific analyses and reports. The non-condition logistic regression solved this problem successfully. It has a higher scientific value and confidence in the risk factor analysis. 748 follow-up patients' data were analysed by the non-condition logistic regression. The results shown that the half-life and 131I dose were the main causes of the incidence of hypothyroidism. The degree of confidence is 92.4%

  7. Multifocal hot spots demonstrated by whole-body 131I scintigraphy and SPECT/CT after transaxillary endoscopic thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Seong; Kim, Seok Hwi; Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2015-03-01

    A 35-year-old woman received open thyroidectomy for a thyroid nodule that was confirmed as papillary carcinoma. Whole-body 131I scintigraphy during thyroid ablation demonstrated high uptake in the thyroid bed and multiple focal hot spots in the thorax. SPECT/CT localized the hot spots to the right chest wall and axilla, as well as to the left chest wall. The surgeon recognized these sites to concur with the transaxillary tract used during endoscopic thyroidectomy for nodular hyperplasia 8 years previously. Thus, this case illustrates how thyroidal tissue fragments seeded during endoscopic thyroidectomy can be mistaken for thyroid cancer metastasis on 131I scintigraphy.

  8. Significance of 131I whole body scan combined with thyroglobulin in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroid ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of 131I whole body scans with that of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) determination for the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma(DTC) receiving postoperative 131I therapy. Methods: There were 153 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer receiving postoperative 131I therapy for more than one time at the dose of 1.85-9.25 GBq. Serum Tg levels were measured before 131I treatment and 131I whole body scans were performed 5 days after treatment. Results: Among the 153 patients who underwent 131I therapy, serum Tg levels and 131I-whole body scans were both abnormal in 85 patients (55.6%). Both examinations were negative in 21 patients (13.7%). In the 19 patients with abnormal 131I whole body scans only,image study with means of 18F-FDG, SPECT, CT, ultrasonic or whole body bone scan revealed lesions in 13 patients; while in the 28 patients with abnormal Tg levels only, image study with the above means revealed lesions in 25 patients. The sensitivity of Tg positiveness and 131I whole body scans positiveness were 89% (110/123) and 79.6% (98/123) respectively, and the specificity were 90% (27/30)and 80% (24/30) respectively. Conclusions: Routine serum Tg measurement and 131I whole body scans in patients with DTC with 131I radiotherapy after thyroidectomy is essential. It is of greatly clinical value in early detecting metastases, optimizing the 131I treatment protocol and evaluating the curative effect. (authors)

  9. Radioimmunotherapy using {sup 131}I-rituximab in patients with advanced stage B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, Maren; Reisinger, Ingrid; Humplik, Beatrice I.; Reim, Christel; Kroessin, Thomas; Avril, Norbert; Munz, Dieter L. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Srock, Stefanie; Pezzutto, Antonio [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Haematology and Oncology, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, toxicity and therapeutic response of non-myeloablative radioimmunotherapy using {sup 131}I-rituximab in previously heavily treated patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). Nine patients with relapsed, refractory or transformed B-NHL received ten radioimmunotherapies. Patients had a median of 5 (range 2-7) prior standard therapies. Four patients had received prior high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, and eight had received prior rituximab therapy. Histopathology consisted of four mantle cell, one follicular and four diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Rituximab, a monoclonal chimeric anti-CD20 antibody (IDEC-C2B8), was labelled with {sup 131}I using the Iodogen method. The administered activity (2,200{+-}600 MBq) was based on a dosimetrically calculated 45 cGy total-body radiation dose. All patients received an infusion of 2.5 mg/kg of rituximab prior to administration of the radiopharmaceutical. No acute adverse effects were observed after the administration of{sup 131}I-rituximab. Radioimmunotherapy was safe in our patient group and achieved one complete response ongoing at 14 months and two partial responses progressing at 12 and 13 months after treatment. One partial responder was re-treated with radioimmunotherapy and achieved an additional progression-free interval of 7 months. Four non-responders with bulky disease died 4.8{+-}2.0 months after therapy. Three patients had an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level prior to radioimmunotherapy and none of the patients responded. Of two patients who received radioimmunotherapy as an additional treatment after salvage chemotherapy, one continues to be disease-free at 9 months and one relapsed at 5 months' follow-up. Reversible grade 3 or 4 haematological toxicity occurred in seven of nine patients. Median nadirs were 35 days for platelets, 44 days for leucocytes and 57 days for erythrocytes. (orig.)

  10. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with {sup 131}I thyroid treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewji, S., E-mail: dewjisa@ornl.gov; Bellamy, M.; Leggett, R.; Eckerman, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS-6335, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Hertel, N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS-6335, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 and Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0745 (United States); Sherbini, S.; Saba, M. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Estimated dose rates that may result from exposure to patients who had been administered iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) as part of medical therapy were calculated. These effective dose rate estimates were compared with simplified assumptions under United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 8.39, which does not consider body tissue attenuation nor time-dependent redistribution and excretion of the administered {sup 131}I. Methods: Dose rates were estimated for members of the public potentially exposed to external irradiation from patients recently treated with {sup 131}I. Tissue attenuation and iodine biokinetics were considered in the patient in a larger comprehensive effort to improve external dose rate estimates. The external dose rate estimates are based on Monte Carlo simulations using the Phantom with Movable Arms and Legs (PIMAL), previously developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. PIMAL was employed to model the relative positions of the {sup 131}I patient and members of the public in three exposure scenarios: (1) traveling on a bus in a total of six seated or standing permutations, (2) two nursing home cases where a caregiver is seated at 30 cm from the patient’s bedside and a nursing home resident seated 250 cm away from the patient in an adjacent bed, and (3) two hotel cases where the patient and a guest are in adjacent rooms with beds on opposite sides of the common wall, with the patient and guest both in bed and either seated back-to-back or lying head to head. The biokinetic model predictions of the retention and distribution of {sup 131}I in the patient assumed a single voiding of urinary bladder contents that occurred during the trip at 2, 4, or 8 h after {sup 131}I administration for the public transportation cases, continuous first-order voiding for the nursing home cases, and regular periodic voiding at 4, 8, or 12 h after administration for the hotel room cases. Organ

  11. Whole body dosimetry for treatment individualized neuroblastoma with {sup 1}31I-MIBG; Dosimetria de cuerpo entero para el tratamiento individualizado del neuroblastoma con {sup 1}31I-MIBG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer Gracia, C.; Luquero Llopis, N.; Sanchez Munoz, F.; Plaza Aparicio, R.; Huerga Cabrerizo, C.; Corredoira Silva, E.; Serrada Hierro, A.

    2013-07-01

    It according to in this study, that in therapy with {sup 1}31I-MIBG for the treatment of neuroblastoma, it can prescribe and manage dose whole body accurately, allowing individualized treatments and major activities that in the treatments based on a fixed activity according to weight management. (Author)

  12. 131I标记纳米脂质体靶向治疗结肠癌的实验研究%Evaluation of the internal therapeutic effectiveness of 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL in nude mice with colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季艳会; 李玮; 李承霞; 李宁; 常津; 谭建

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biological effects of internal radiation and therapeutic effectiveness of 131I-labeled anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in colorectal cancer of model mice.Methods Nano-liposome characterized for EGFR-targeting was constructed.The efficacy of cellular binding and uptake of the liposome was evaluated by the analysis of confocal microscopy observation and the iodide uptake assay.After intra-tumor injections of 74 MBq (740 MBq/ml) 131 I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL,131 I-BSA-PCL,131 I or an equivalent volume of normal saline.The biological effects of internal irradiation and therapeutic efficacy of the liposomes on colorectal cancer modeled in a male BALB/c mouse were evaluated by means of tumor size,body weight,histopathology,and SPECT imaging.Results The confocal fluorescence images showed that the antiEGFR-BSA-PCL was successfully internalized into LS180 cells.The 131I uptake efficacy of 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL was significantly higher than that of 131I-BSA-PCL in LS180 cells (t =2.77-5.40,P < 0.01).Tumor size measurement showed that tumor growth was inhibited by the treatment with 131 I-EGFR-BSA-PCL and 131I-BSA-PCL,but had no significant differences between these two groups (P >0.05).It was found that the 131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL was markedly taken up by the tumor and reac hed its uptake value of (21.61 ± 1.0 1) and (20.58 ± 0.65)% ID/g at 72 h following drug injection,which was higher than the uptake value of 131 I (t =9.36,8.69,P < 0.01).SPECT imaging assay showed that,after being injected into mouse tumor,the 131 I-EGFR-BSA-PCL and 131I-BSA-PCL were uniformly distributed inside the tumor.Conclusions 131 I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL obviously suppresses the development of colorectal cancer in mice.%目的 研究131I-antiEGFR-BSA-PCL对LS180细胞结肠癌裸鼠移植瘤内照射的治疗效果.方法 构建抗表皮生长因子受体(EGFR)标记的纳米脂质体及EGFR靶向性.通过荧光共聚焦显微镜、细胞摄碘实验观察

  13. In vivo and in vitro stability of 131I-Herceptin and its form of existence in the blood of rabbits%131I-Herceptin的血液存在方式及体内外稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范义湘; 石卫民; 黄凯龄; 刘青竹; 李科斌; 吴继珍; 罗荣城

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨131I-Herceptin的稳定性与生物学特性.方法 131I-H-Herceptin采用Iodogen法制备,其基础放射化学纯度(RCP)为(94.9+2.7)%.4℃冰箱内放置3、24、48、72、96 h,取各时间样品测RCP.取家兔5只,静脉注射131I-Herceptin后1 h、3 h、6h、24 h、2 d、3 d,4 d、5 d取血,分离血清及血细胞,测血清131I-Herceptin的RCP,并测定血清或血细胞放射性计数百分比.各组样品RCP的差异分析采用One-way Anova检验.结果 4℃放置72 h以内,RCP未见显著下降(F=15.985,P<0.001);72 h后显著(t=9.971,P<0.001)下降至(82.6±2.8)%.注射后1~96 h,131I-Herceptin主要存在于血清,其放射性所占比例稳定在81%~87%.注射体内后1 h,血清内131I-Herceptin的RCP为(90.9±8.5)%.未见显著差异(t=1.753,P>0.05).24 h后为(75.4±3.9)%,提示开始显著降低(t=6.564,P<0.001).结论 采用Iodogen法标记的131I-Herceptin,体外放置72h内,放射化学纯度基本稳定,注入体内后主要存在于血清,24h以内放射化学纯度稳定,24h后降解明显.

  14. Evaluation of internal occupational exposure of workers from nuclear medicine services by aerosol analysis containing {sup 131}I; Avaliacao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em servicos de medicina nuclear atraves da analise de aerossois contendo {sup 131}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Lucena, Eder Augusto; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao, E-mail: carneiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Paula, Gustavo Affonso de [Escola SESC de Ensino Medio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the risk of internal occupational exposure associated with the incorporation of {sup 131}I via inhalation, in Nuclear Medicine Services, using aerosol analysis techniques. Occupationally Exposed Individuals (IOE) involved in handling this radionuclide are subject to chronic exposure, which can lead to an increase in the committed effective dose. Results obtained in preliminary studies indicate the occurrence of incorporation of {sup 131}I by workers involved in handling solutions for radioiodine therapy procedures. The evaluation was carried out in radiopharmacy lab (nuclear medicine service) of a public hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. After confirmed the presence of the radioisotope, by a qualitative assessment, it was determined an experimental arrangement for sample collection and were detected and quantitated the presence of steam {sup 131}I during routine work. The average concentration of activity obtained in this study was 3 Bq / m{sup 3}. This value is below of Derived Concentration in Air (DCA) of 8.4 x 10{sup 3} Bq of {sup 131}I / m{sup 3} corresponding to a committed effective dose of 1.76 x 10{sup -4} mSv. These results demonstrate that the studied area is safe in terms of internal exposure of workers. However, the presence of {sup 131}I should be periodically reevaluated, since this type of exposure contributes to the increase of the individual effective doses. Based on the data obtained improvements were suggested in the exhaust system and the use of good work practices in order to optimize the exposures.

  15. Equipment and obtention process of {sup 131}I by dry distillation starting from TeO{sub 2}; Equipo y proceso de obtencion de {sup 131}I por destilacion seca a partir de TeO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-08-15

    The present invention refers to an equipment and process for the obtaining of {sup 131}I by dry distillation starting from TeO{sub 2} that has three interconnected systems, the manipulation system, the electric system and the distillation system, the combination of these systems, allows to improve the yield and the separation of the {sup 131}I during the distillation process, since inside the electric system it is an oven that has a special design based on a temperature gradient. The more relevant aspects of the equipment its are the design of each one of its components that give as result the effectiveness of the production of {sup 131}I in routinary form (industrial) whose final product can end up reaching a radiochemical purity up to 99% and a radionuclide purity of approximately 100%. The object of this invention is to provide a distillation equipment different to those that at the moment exist, thanks to its novel internal construction whose main characteristics already gather advantages on those existent. The reaction of obtaining of the TeO{sub 2}, the development of the technique and studies of TeO{sub 2} sintering and the irradiation experiments, its contributed to characterize with more precision the 'new process of obtaining of {sup 131}I by dry via starting from the Te' developed in the ININ, and in this way it was achieved a more pure product, more economic, with less risks, from a point of view of Radiological Safety and mainly that it avoids the import to the country and it makes to self-sufficient Mexico in the production of {sup 131}I. (Author)

  16. The observational study on the graves disease recurrence after the replacement therapy of hypothyroid induced by 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article used multi-factor revisiting observation method on the patients who had hypothyroid induced by 131I treatment and then recurred hyperthyroid to find some relative factors, 18 cases of re-hyperthyroidism was compared with 30 cases without hyperthyroid recurrence. All of the patients were given thyroxine when they got hypothyroid after 131I treatment. Through 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months following-up study, the levels of TGAb and TPOAb, clinical signs, mental state, living environment, strength of their labor, mood changes, daily habits, health were analyzed retrospectively. The t-test and χ2 test were used to analyze the influencing factors. The results showed that the TGAb and TPOAb levels in hyperthyroid recurrence group had no statistic significance with patients without hyperthyroid recurrence group (P>0.05); 131I dose and the age in two groups had not statistic significance (P>0.05). The thyroxine substitution treatment time and mood change in two groups had statistic significance (P>0.05). Through thyroxine substitution treatment, hyperthyroid may recur in the patients who have hypothyroid induced by 131I treatment, which may be related with early thyroxine substitution treatment and big mood change. (authors)

  17. EFFECTS OF LEVOTHYROXINE ON BONE METABOLISM IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER AFTER OPERATION AND 131I ABLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of substitutive and suppressive doses of levothyroxine on bone metabolism in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma after surgery and 131I ablation. Methods The patients, who had received levothyroxine(L-T4) for at least 3 years for treating their differentiated thyroid carcinoma after surgery and 131I therapy, were classified into substitutive group and suppressive group according to the levels of serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). We compared the levels of FT3, FT4, TSH, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum calcium (Ca), serum phosphate (P), serum alkaline phosphates (ALP) and Bone mineral density (BMD) to those of healthy volunteers well matched for sex, age, menopausal status, and body mass index (BMI). Results No significant differences were found in the bone density and biochemical parameters of bone metabolism of the subjects treated with substitutive or suppressive doses of L-T4 compared with the control subgroup. No significant differences were observed among the subgroups according to accumulative doses of 131I. No bone fracture was found in all the patients. Conclusion The substitutive and suppressive doses of L-T4 are safe and necessary for patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma after surgery and 131I therapy. Such treatment for 3 years is not associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Much longer term of follow up is still needed in patients receiving substitutive and suppressive doses of L-T4.

  18. Evaluation of Radioactivity in the Bladder after Injection of 131I Hippurate into Lateral Ventricles of Hydrocephalic Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJKSTRA, J.; H.W.M. Baars

    1972-01-01

    textabstractThis correlative study sought an explanation for the appearance in the bladder of 131I hippurate injected into the lateral ventricle. Part of the excretion seemed to depend upon a ventricular process. High disappearance constants and early onset times were related to small ventricles, an

  19. Study on brain dopamine D2R 131I-epidepride SPECT imaging in patients with early stage Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) 131I-epidepride SPECT imaging in early stage Parkinson' disease (PD). Methods: Ten healthy controls and forty-six untreated patients with early stage PD [Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y) stage I 22 cases, H-Y stage II 24 cases] were observed with dopamine D2R 131I-epidepride SPECT imaging. Striatal specific uptake of 131I-epidepride was calculated with region of interest analysis according to the ratios of striatum to occipital cortex [(ST-OC)/OC] and of striatum to frontal cortex [(ST-FC)/FC]. Results: No obvious side-to-side differences were observed in controls. (ST-OC)/OC and (ST-FC)/FC in the striatum contralateral to the clinical symptom were significantly upgraded compared to ipsilateral side in PD of H-Y stage I and H-Y stage II. (ST-OC)/OC and (ST-FC)/FC in the striatum significantly rose as the severity increasing and all the increments were significantly higher compared with that in the controls. Conclusion: Dopamine D2R 131I-epidepride SPECT imaging in human brain will conduce to the diagnosing of early stage PD

  20. Optimum combination of targeted 131I and total body irradiation for treatment of disseminated cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiobiological modeling was used to explore optimum combination strategies for treatment of disseminated malignancies of differing radiosensitivity and differing patterns of metastatic spread. The purpose of the study was to derive robust conclusions about the design of combination strategies that incorporate a targeting component. Preliminary clinical experience of a neuroblastoma treatment strategy, which is based upon general principles obtained from modelling, is briefly described. Methods and Materials: The radiobiological analysis was based on an extended (dose-rate dependent) formulation of the linear quadratic model. Radiation dose and dose rate for targeted irradiation of tumors of differing size was in part based on microdosimetric considerations. The analysis was applied to several tumor types with postulated differences in the pattern of metastatic spread, represented by the steepness of the slope of the relationship between numbers of tumors present and tumor diameter. The clinical pilot study entailed the treatment of five children with advanced neuroblastoma using a combination of 131I metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) and total body irradiation followed by bone marrow rescue. Results: The theoretical analysis shows that both intrinsic radiosensitivity and pattern of metastatic spread can influence the composition of the ideal optimum combination strategy. High intrinsic radiosensitivity generally favors a high proportion of targeting component in the combination treatment, while a strong tendency to micrometastatic spread favors a major contribution by total body irradiation. The neuroblastoma patients were treated using a combination regimen with an initially low targeting component (2 Gy whole body dose from targeting component plus 12 Gy from total body irradiation). The treatment was tolerable and resulted in remissions in excess of 9 months in each of these advanced neuroblastoma patients. Conclusions: Radiobiological analysis, which

  1. Exhalation of {sup 131}I after radioiodine therapy: measurements in exhaled air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaecker, Klaus; Sudbrock, Ferdinand; Fischer, Thomas; Dietlein, Markus; Kobe, Carsten; Gaidouk, Mark; Schicha, Harald [University of Cologne, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Cologne (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    A considerable amount of radioiodine is exhaled after radioiodine therapy leading to unwanted radiation exposure through inhalation. This study focused on the concentration of radioactivity exhaled and its chemical nature. Air exhaled by 47 patients receiving {sup 131}I-iodine for different thyroid diseases (toxic goitre n=26, Graves' disease n=13, thyroid cancer n=8) was investigated with a portable constant air-flow sampler. Different chemical iodine species were collected separately (organic, elemental and aerosolic) up to 26 h after administration of the radioiodine capsule. The data approximated to a monoexponential time-activity curve when integrated over 100 h. The radioactivity in the filters was measured with a well counter at defined time points after administration. The radioactivity of {sup 131}I in the exhaled air 1 h after administration ranged from 1 to 100 kBq/m{sup 3}. Two parameters (half-life of radioiodine exhalation and time-integrated activity over 100 h) were substantially higher in patients with cancer after near-total thyroidectomy (11.8 {+-} 2.1 h and 535 {+-} 140 kBq / m{sup 3}, respectively) than in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue due to toxic adenoma (7.6 {+-} 2.5 h and 115 {+-} 27 kBq/m{sup 3}, respectively) or Graves' disease (6.4 {+-} 3.6 h and 113 {+-} 38 kBq/m{sup 3}, respectively). The percentage of radioiodine in the exhaled air in relation to radioiodine administered to the patient was between 80 ppm and 150 ppm. The fraction of organically bound radioiodine (mean value) for all time points after administration was 94-99.9%. This percentage did not depend on the type of thyroid disease. The amount of exhaled radioiodine is small but by no means negligible on the first day after administration. This is the first study to provide experimental evidence on a systematic basis that radioiodine becomes exhalable in vivo, i.e. in the patient. The mechanism of organification of orally administered radioiodine

  2. Nuclear factor-kappa B inhibition can enhance apoptosis of differentiated thyroid cancer cells induced by 131I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Meng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB during radioiodine 131 ((131I therapy and whether NF-κB inhibition could enhance (131I-induced apoptosis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC cells in a synergistic manner. METHODS: Three human DTC cell lines were used. NF-κB inhibition was achieved by using a NF-κB inhibitor (Bay 11-7082 or by p65 siRNA transfection. Methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assay was performed for cell viability assessment. DNA-binding assay, luciferase reporter assay, and Western blot were adopted to determine function and expression changes of NF-κB. Then NF-κB regulated anti-apoptotic factors XIAP, cIAP1, and Bcl-xL were measured. Apoptosis was analyzed by Western blot for caspase 3 and PARP, and by flow cytometry as well. An iodide uptake assay was performed to determine whether NF-κB inhibition could influence radioactive iodide uptake. RESULTS: The methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assay showed significant decrease of viable cells by combination therapy than by mono-therapies. The DNA-binding assay and luciferase reporter assay showed enhanced NF-κB function and reporter gene activities due to (131I, yet significant suppression was achieved by NF-κB inhibition. Western blot proved (131I could increase nuclear NF-κB concentration, while NF-κB inhibition reduced NF-κB concentration. Western blot also demonstrated significant up-regulation of XIAP, cIAP1, and Bcl-xL after (131I therapy. And inhibition of NF-κB could significantly down-regulate these factors. Finally, synergism induced by combined therapy was displayed by significant enhancements of cleaved caspase 3 and PARP from Western blot, and of Annexin V positively staining from flow cytometry. The iodine uptake assay did not show significant changes when NF-κB was inhibited. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that (131I could induce NF-κB activation, which would attenuate (131I efficacy in DTC cells. NF-κB inhibition by Bay 11-7082 or by p65 si

  3. Feasibility of a novel positive feedback effect of {sup 131}I-promoted Bac-Egr1-hNIS expression in malignant glioma via baculovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Rui [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025 (China); Tian Lipeng [Department of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025 (China); Han Bing [Department of Endocrine, The 9th Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025 (China); Xu Haoping; Zhang Miao [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025 (China); Li Biao, E-mail: lb10363@rjh.com.c [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: As intracellular iodine is released rapidly, increased expression of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is required for effective radioiodine treatment of tumor. As Egr1 promoter is activated by {sup 131}I and may promote human NIS (hNIS) expression, hNIS also induces {sup 131}I uptake and activates Egr1, so the existence of a positive feedback effect of {sup 131}I-promoted Egr1-hNIS expression is possible. Our purpose was to investigate the possible existence of this positive feedback effect through a series of in vitro pioneer studies. Method: Recombinant baculovirus (Bac-Egr1-hNIS) encoding the hNIS gene under the control of a radiation-inducible Egrl promoter was constructed. To test {sup 131}I-promoted hNIS expression, human malignant glioma U87 cells were transfected with Bac-Egr1-hNIS, stimulated with or without {sup 131}I; the expression of hNIS protein was detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry test. In addition, the uptake and efflux of {sup 131}I were determined after the incubation of Bac-Egr1-hNIS-transfected U87 cells with or without {sup 131}I. Results: Immunocytochemical staining and flow cytometry test showed a higher hNIS protein expression in Bac-Egr1-hNIS-transfected U87 cells with {sup 131}I stimulation than in cells without stimulation. Bac-Egr1-hNIS-transfected U87 cells accumulated up to about 4.05 times of {sup 131}I after {sup 131}I stimulation. The amount of {sup 131}I uptake in both groups showed a baculovirus dose-dependent manner. However, rapid efflux of radioactivity was observed in both groups, with 50% lost during the first 2 min after the {sup 131}I-containing medium had been replaced by a nonradioactive medium. Conclusion: Our results indicated that an improved transgene expression of {sup 131}I-stimulated hNIS in U87 cells using a baculovirus vector containing the Egr1 promoter is possible, and the increased expression of hNIS is responsible for a higher {sup 131}I uptake. It might provide a reference for the

  4. Improvement of the obtention process of 131 I of ININ through studies of equipment design and process parameters fitting in the simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the work was to achieve a high yield of the reaction that happens among the vapors of 131 I and the NaOH to obtain sodium iodide (Na131 I) in solution optimizing the contact time of the molecules in gaseous state of 131 I with the NaOH molecules through the bubbling velocity of the 131 I in the solution of NaOH 0.1 N, as well as the operation temperature during the distillation process by dry via starting from tellurium dioxide (TeO2) with the purpose of that the 131 I that is obtained in the form of Na131 I solution presents the necessary quality that allows to distribute it in the market. The particular objectives were: a) To improve the distillation equipment used for the obtaining of 131 I starting from irradiated tellurium dioxide redrawing the dilution system with the purpose of recovering the 131 I in a minimum volume of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). b) To achieve a bigger time of contact among the molecules of 131 I in gaseous state with the molecules of NaOH in solution through the bubbling velocity and of the redrawing of the dilution system. c) To implement the production of 131 I by dry distillation via starting from tellurium dioxide, obtaining it with a high radionuclide and radiochemical purity. d) To obtain 131 I with the necessary specifications that it marks the pharmacopoeia and it can be used with medical ends. (Author)

  5. Absorbed dose estimations of 131I for critical organs using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziaur Rahman; Shakeel ur Rehman; Waheed Arshed; Nasir M Mirza; Abdul Rashid; Jahan Zeb

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the absorbed doses of critical organs of 131I using the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) with the corresponding predictions made by GEANT4 simulations.S-values (mean absorbed dose rate per unit activity) and energy deposition per decay for critical organs of 131I for various ages,using standard cylindrical phantom comprising water and ICRP soft-tissue material,have also been estimated.In this study the effect of volume reduction of thyroid,during radiation therapy,on the calculation of absorbed dose is also being estimated using GEANT4.Photon specific energy deposition in the other organs of the neck,due to 131I decay in the thyroid organ,has also been estimated.The maximum relative difference of MIRD with the GEANT4 simulated results is 5.64% for an adult's critical organs of 131I.Excellent agreement was found between the results of water and ICRP soft tissue using the cylindrical model.S-values are tabulated for critical organs of 131I,using 1,5,10,15 and 18 years (adults) individuals.S-values for a cylindrical thyroid of different sizes,having 3.07% relative differences of GEANT4 with Siegel & Stabin results.Comparison of the experimentally measured values at 0.5 and 1 m away from neck of the ionization chamber with GEANT4 based Monte Carlo simulations results show good agreement.This study shows that GEANT4 code is an important tool for the internal dosimetry calculations.

  6. Five different types of thyroid gammagraphics images in patients with Graves's illness dealt with 131I in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid disease is frequent in Paraguay, a country with a prevalence of goiter 48,6% in general population located in the center of South America. Grave's disease constitutes the most common thyroid hyper function observed whose treatment can be carried out with medication (propilthiouracil, metamizole, etc.), surgery or iodine 131(131I). We analyzed 70 patients this type of hyperthyroidism treated with the 131I, in its clinical aspect pre and post treatment, ultrasound and nuclear scan findings of the gland thyroid, the hormonal respond F4, T3, TSH, thyroid antibodies TPOab, TGab, TRab. Besides the diffuse classic image observed in the thyroid scan and by ultrasonography of the gland, in Grave's disease, 4 types of images were identified with nodules (multi nodular, hot nodule, cold nodule and miliar). The group with diffuse increase in size form was the most numerous (50%) continued by the variety multi nodular (30%), Marin-Lenhart's Sx (hot nodule) 14%, miliar 3%, and cold nodule 3%. Three months after the treatment with the radioiodine was observed the decrease of the size and thyroid volume in 68% of the patients, thyroid uptake with 131I diminished in 75%. All patients had an increase of weight of 20% and 87% of then were feminine. The signs and symptoms were normalized in 88,5% of the patients. The levels of FT4 were normalized in 73, 8%, T3 in 66%, TSH in 47,7%, TPOab in 83%, TGab in 90%, and TRab in 84%.A received a single dose of 131I was used it in 93% of the patient. The cost of the 131I in the Clinic Hospital was half of the cost of the surgery, and at private level the fourth part but cheap (au)

  7. 多巴胺D2受体显像剂131I-epidepride的临床前研究%Preclinical study of dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent 131I-epidepride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰晓莉; 兰继承; 杨敏; 裴著果

    2002-01-01

    目的研究多巴胺D2受体显像剂epidepride在动物体内、脑内动态分布规律及显像特点,为进一步临床应用提供依据.方法采用双氧水法标记制得131I-epidepride.取SD大鼠,注射131I-epidepride考察其在大鼠体内、脑内结合分布特点.家兔2只用于SPECT显像.一只兔于注射后连续采集,应用ROI技术,获得相应时间-放射性曲线.另一只兔根据结果选用epidepride在脑内分布最高时期,行脑断层显像.结果双氧水法标记率大于95%.体内心肺吸收迅速,清除最快,该药从肝胆及胃肠系统代谢.脑内纹状体浓聚稳定,小脑清除快.显像研究示纹状体有较高浓集.结论应用双氧水法标记epidepride,标记率高.131I-epidepride在纹状体内有高度稳定浓集,是一种良好、有效的多巴胺D2受体显像剂.%Objective To study the radioactivity distribution and the characteristic of imaging with dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent-epidepride. Methods 131I-epidepride was prepared using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. We chose SD rats to study the characteristics of 131I-epidepride distribution in vivo and in brain. Two rabbits were used in SPECT imaging. Dynamic acquisition was performed in one rabbit after rapid injection of 370MBq 131I-epidepride, and time-activity curve was obtained with Region of Interesting (ROI) technique. The other rabbit had brain tomography imaging and whole body imaging according to the result of time-activity curve. Results The radiolabeling yield (RLY) of 131I-epidepride with hydrogen peroxide was over 95%. In vivo, the uptake of heart and lung was the fastest, so was the clearance of the two organs. The clearance of 131I-epidepride from the body was mainly through liver, stomach and intestines. The striatum uptake was concentrated and stable, while the cerebellum clearance was rapid. Conclusion The hydrogen peroxide method is simple and fast with high RLY. The striatum uptake is concentrated and stable. 131I

  8. /sup 131/I-iodocholesterol (NP-59) scintigraphy in adrenocortical diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taillefer, R.; Soucy, J.P.; Eybalin, M.C.; Levasseur, A. (Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1983-06-01

    The diagnostic usefulness of adrenal imaging with /sup 131/I-iodocholesterol (NP-59) is now well established. In order to correlate histopathology with the adrenal scan the authors examine and report their experience in 37 patients with surgically proven adrenal lesions or pituitary adenomas. This series included 24 patients with Cushing's syndrome: 14 caused by benign adrenal adenoma and 10 due to bilateral pituitary-ACTH-dependent adrenocortical hyperplasia. Ten patients with primary aldosteronism were submitted to surgery which confirmed the presence of aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas. Two women with hyperandrogenism (due to virilizing ovarian tumors) had normal adrenals but the ovarian stromal luteoma markedly concentrated the iodocholesterol while the arrhenoblastoma did not. A patient with adrenal hematoma is also included in this report. The overall histopathological correlation with the radiocholesterol scintiscan yields an accuracy in our series of 97 percent (36/37). The false-negative adrenal scan (also missed by other non-invasive techniques) occurred in a patient with an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma measuring 1.0 x 1.5 cm.

  9. Method for recovery of thyroidal radiation dose due to 131I incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method for retrospective recovery of the radiation dose in the thyroid of humans of dirrerent age groups due to 131I incroporation is developed. Method is based on the analysis of density of 137Cs fallout, dose of the mixture of desimented gamma-sources, and the measured adiation dose in the thyroid. The technique is developed using the available data on Chernobyl accident. Ckrrelations were found between the examined parameters in a wide range of the sedimented radionuclides concentrations. The resultant estimated dose dostribution in the thyroid virtually does not differ from that measured in the known settlements. Thyroid radiations doses in similar fallout density of 137Cs and in the same gamma-radiation doses vary by scores; the share of subjects with the maximal radiaiton doses makes up 0.01-0.005%. Highest value of the correlation factor of thyroid radiation dose fallout with the dose of external gamma-radiaiton was found within the risk 8 months after the accident

  10. Radioimmunoimaging and biodistribution of 131I-Herceptin in breast cancer xenograft BALB/c-neu mousse%131I-Herceptin在乳腺癌裸鼠模型中的显像及体内分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志学; 危少华; 蒋国勤; 刘增礼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the biologic distribution of 131I-Herceptin in BALB/c-neu nude mice bearing HER-2 positive SK-BR-3 human breast cancer xenografts and the radioimmunoimaging characteristics of nude mouse bearing human SK-BR-3 breast cancer xenografts. Method SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously to athymic mice to establish animal model.Tumor bearing mice were continuously imaged with SPECT. The radiocounting per minute (cpm) of different organ on a γ-arithmometer was measured at 4,12,24,48 h postinjection of 131I-Herceptin or 131I-mlgG,and the T/NT ratios and the uptake percentages per gram of the injection dose (% ID/g) was gained. Results Model was established in 96% nude mouse.Compared with the control group,there was a significantly stronger contrast enhancement of tumor imaging,bigger T/NT and % ID/g in experimental group ( P < 0.0l ).Conclusions 131I-Herceptin concentrates obviously in implanting tumor tissues of nude mouse,hence it is a good radiopharmaceutical agent targeting SK-BR-3 xenografts.%目的 研究131I-Herceptin荷人乳腺癌裸鼠体内的生物学分布及荷人乳腺癌裸鼠的放射免疫显像特点.方法 以对数生长期的SK-BR-3乳腺癌细胞皮下接种BALB/c-neu裸鼠建立动物模型,对荷瘤小鼠模型进行SPECT连续显像.测量小鼠注药后的4、12、24、48 h各脏器每克组织每分钟的放射性计数(cpm/g),并计算T/NT以及每克组织的放射性计数占注射剂量放射性计数的百分比(% ID/g).结果 (1)SK-BR-3细胞皮下接种BALB/c-neu裸鼠后成瘤率96%.(2)实验组对比对照组,显像对比明显;实验组T/NT以及肿瘤组织%ID/g显著高于对照组(P<0.01).结论 131I-Herceptin在SK-BR-3乳腺癌裸鼠肿瘤组织中的浓聚明显,具有良好的靶向作用.

  11. Effect of pinealectomy on thyroidal 131I uptake during different phases of gonadal cycle of the Indian catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroidal 131I uptake is reduced in pinealectomized H. fossilis, the reduction being minimum during spawning phase and maximum during post-spawning phase. Pineal organ shows stimulatory effect on thyroid and its intactness is essential for normal thyroidal uptake of 131I. 11 refs. (author)

  12. A five-year follow-up of two different [sup 131]I treatment methods for Graves' disease and the factors affecting the outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimoto, Midori; Iino, Shiro (Showa Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). Fujigaoka Hospital); Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Naofumi; Momotani, Naoko; Hamada, Noboru; Ito, Kunihiko

    1994-11-01

    We employed two different methods of [sup 131]I treatment for Graves' disease in 285 patients and compared the results between the two. (We also analyzed the factors affecting the treatment outcome.) A single dose of [sup 131]I adjusted to the patients' thyroid weight was administered to 180 patients in group 1, while a relatively lower dose of [sup 131]I (approximately 30 Gy) was given repeatedly to 105 patients in group 2. A 5-year follow-up showed that in group 1, 34% of the patients were euthyroid, 11% hypothyroid, 11% subclinical hypothyroid and 44% still remained hyperthyroid. In group 2, 43% of the patients were euthyroid, 5% hypothyroid, 35% subclinical hypothyroid and 17% hyperthyroid. The factors affecting the outcome of the treatment in group 1 patients were their thyroid weight, the duration of the disease and TRAb levels. No significant correlation was observed between the efficacy of [sup 131]I treatment and the patients' sex, age, 24 hr [sup 131]I-uptake, effective half life of administered [sup 131]I or titers of antithyorid antibodies. We conclude that the repeated low dose administration of [sup 131]I provides the best outcome in a 5-year follow-up. However, we suggest that an adjusted dose of [sup 131]I in relation to the patients' thyroid weight should be employed to obtain a faster therapeutic response. (author).

  13. Tissue Clearance of 131I and Total Peripheral Resistance in Myocardial Infarction and Hypertension, and During Angiotensin Infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue clearance of 131I from the thigh, cardiac output and peripheral resistance was determined in 25 patients: 13 normotensive with recent myocardial infarction but not in congestive heart failure, 7 with hypertension and 5 normotensive control subjects. The effect of the synthesized pressor agent Angiotensin II on the same three measurements was also studied. The present investigation continues a previous one of ours, where a tracer dose of 131I was injected into the thigh of patients with recent myocardial infarction without signs of heart failure, and its clearance was found to be longer than that of normal subjects. This was thought to be due to increased peripheral resistance or to reduced perfusion of the capillary bed secondary to lowered cardiac output, With the 25 subjects, injection into the thigh of tracer amounts of radioactive iodine was done by Hypospray, a method with distinct advantages over needle injection. After measuring tissue clearance of the tracer, cardiac output was determined by a method which records the transit of the injected radioactive bolus through the heart. The Angiotensin was administered by intravenous infusion to four of the normotensive and one of the hypertensive patients. Calculations of cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, mean blood pressure and blood volume were made by means of standard formulae. Results of the study confirmed expectations. Those patients with myocardial infarction who had delayed tissue clearance of 131I also had reduced cardiac output. The patients with hypertension had normal tissue clearance of 131I and normal cardiac output in the presence of increased peripheral resistance. Equivalent hypertension and increased peripheral resistance induced in normotensive subjects by Angiotensin resulted in lowered cardiac output and delayed tissue clearance of 131I. An increased sensitivity to Angiotensin was noted in hypertensive patients. The tissue clearance of 131I, as we have carried it out

  14. Permanent Hypothyroidism after Radioactive Iodine(131I) Treatment in Diffuse Toxic Goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine (RAI), principally 131I, effectively controls hyperthyroidism in the majority of patients. The subsequent development of hypothyroidism, however, has been of increasing concern since it was first pointed out by Chapman and Maloof in 1955. And the steady increase of late hypothyroidism during the passage of time was known with its relation with dosage of RAI. The authors have investigated the development of hypothyroidism in 935 patients with diffuse toxic goiter (DTG) who were treated with RAI (131I) at the Seoul National University Hospital from 1960 to 1977 to reveal its relation with the number of RAI treatments, dosage of RAI, age of patients and exophthalmos with the following results. 1) The incidence of hypothyroidism by year after RAI therapy among 631 patients with DTG who were treated with single RAI regimen was 7.4% (1 year), 11.8% (2 year), 16.2% (3 year), 22.1% (4 year) and 25.5% (5 year), and that among 163 patients given multiple RAI treatments was 8.6% (1 year), 10.4% (2 year), 13.3% (3 year), 29.1% (4 year), and 54.1% (5 year) respectively showing much higher yearly increments from 4 years after RAI treatment in comparison with the former. 2) Among 550 patients in the lower dose group treated with single RAI regimen less than 5.0 mCi (Mean±S.D.: 4.3±0.6 mCi), the incidence of hypothyroidism by year after RAI treatment was 6.8% (1 year), 11.4% (2 year), 15.4% (3 year), while among 81 patients in the higher dose group given single RAI treatment not less than 5.5 mCi (Mean±S.D.: 6.3±0.5 mCi) it was 12.0% (1 year), 15.4% (2 year) and 20.4% (3 year) respectively. However, the duration till euthyroid state after RAI therapy in the two groups was 5.1±3.6 months and 4.8±2.8 months respectively showing no statistically significant difference (p>0.1). 4) The incidence of hypothyroidism after RAI treatment in patients younger than 30 years of age was 4.3% (1 year) and 7.7% (2 year); in patients from 30 years to 49 years of age, 5

  15. Optimized shielding calculation to the transport of 131I employed in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present the basis for shielding calculation used in different situations that could occur during the transport of 131I utilized in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The aim of these calculation is to optimize the shielding in order to satisfy the transport of radioactive material. These calculations were proposed for estimated activities around 1,85 GBq (50mCi), 3,7 GBq(100mCi) and 7,4 GBq(200mCi), considering the driver of the cargo company and his assistant as the critical group and the general people considered as effect of collective dose. The population density considered in the models is the one related to Sao Paulo city, because the transport is done by the highway across the city and the radioactive material is distributed from west to north and south, where the airports are located. This area ranges a perimeter of 40 km. For the collective dose calculation, it was considered a population dose of less than 1/100 of the annual limit dose for the public. Our main concern is related to the large volume of radioactive material that is transported per week, specially because 1/3 of this material has activities around 3,7 GBq (100mCi). During the calculations, we have figured out that the activities at the moment of transport are nearly 40% greater than the one related to the calibration date. As for the discrepancy of official alpha value of US$10000/man-Sv and the real value for our country of US$3000/man-Sv,a comparative study was performed. (authors). 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Measurement of the internal dose to families of outpatients treated with {sup 131}I for hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrington, S.F.; O' Doherty, M.J. [St. Thomas' Hospital, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom); Anderson, P. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Kettle, A.G. [Kent and Canterbury Hospital, East Kent Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Gadd, R.; Mountford, P.J. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Directorate of Medical Physics and Clinical Technology, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Thomson, W.H.; Harding, L.K. [City Hospital, Department of Physics and Nuclear Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Batchelor, S. [Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the internal dose received by family members from ingestion of radioactive contamination after outpatient therapy. Advice was given to minimise transfer of radioiodine. Home visits were made approximately 2, 7 and 21 days after treatment to measure radioactivity in the thyroids of family members. A decay correction was applied to radioactivity detected assuming ingestion had occurred at the earlier contact time, either the day of treatment or the previous home visit. An effective half-life of 6 or 7 days was used depending on age. Thyroid activity was summed if activity was found at more than one visit in excess of the amount attributable to radioactive decay. Effective dose (ED) was calculated using ICRP72. Fifty-three adults and 92 children, median age 12 (range 4-17) years participated. Median administered activity was 576 (range 329-690) MBq {sup 131}I. Thyroid activity ranged from 0 to 5.4 kBq in the adults with activity detected in 17. Maximum adult ED was 0.4 mSv. Thyroid activity ranged from 0 to 11.8 kBq in the children with activity detected in 26. The two highest values of 5.0 and 11.8 kBq occurred in children aged 5 and 14 years from different families. Eighty-five children had no activity or <1 kBq detected. ED was <0.2 mSv in 86 out of 92 children (93%). Previous published data showed 93% of children received an ED {<=}0.8 mSv from external irradiation. With advice, families of outpatients receiving radioiodine should be able to comply with statutory dose limits and constraints. (orig.)

  17. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for lactational transfer of Na-131I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anita Loretta

    The excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after administration of radiopharmaceuticals is a concern as a radiation risk to nursing infants. It is not uncommon to administer radiopharmaceuticals to lactating patients due to emergency nuclear medicine investigations such as thyroid complications, kidney failure, and pulmonary embolism. There is a need to quantify the amount of radioactivity translocated into breast milk in cases of ingestion by a breast-fed infant. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) and a modified International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) model have been developed to predict iodine concentrations in breast milk after ingestion of radioiodine by the mother. In the PBPK model, all compartments are interconnected by blood flow and represent real anatomic tissue regions in the body. All parameters involved are measurable values with physiological or physiochemical meaning such as tissue masses, blood flow rates, partition coefficients and cardiac output. However, some of the parameters such as the partition coefficients and metabolic constants are not available for iodine and had to be inferred from other information. The structure of the PBPK model for the mother consists of the following tissue compartments: gastrointestinal tract, blood, kidney, thyroid, milk, and other tissues. With the exception of the milk compartment, the model for the nursing infant is structured similarly to the mother. The ICRP model describing iodine metabolism in a standard 70-kg man was modified to represent iodine metabolism in a lactating woman and nursing infant. The parameters involved in this model are transfer rates and biological half-lives which are based on experimental observations. The results of the PBPK model and the modified ICRP model describing the lactational transfer of iodine were compared. When administering 1 mCi of Na131I to the lactating mother, the concentration reaches a maximum of 0.1 mCi/liter in 24

  18. Measurement of the internal dose to families of outpatients treated with 131I for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to measure the internal dose received by family members from ingestion of radioactive contamination after outpatient therapy. Advice was given to minimise transfer of radioiodine. Home visits were made approximately 2, 7 and 21 days after treatment to measure radioactivity in the thyroids of family members. A decay correction was applied to radioactivity detected assuming ingestion had occurred at the earlier contact time, either the day of treatment or the previous home visit. An effective half-life of 6 or 7 days was used depending on age. Thyroid activity was summed if activity was found at more than one visit in excess of the amount attributable to radioactive decay. Effective dose (ED) was calculated using ICRP72. Fifty-three adults and 92 children, median age 12 (range 4-17) years participated. Median administered activity was 576 (range 329-690) MBq 131I. Thyroid activity ranged from 0 to 5.4 kBq in the adults with activity detected in 17. Maximum adult ED was 0.4 mSv. Thyroid activity ranged from 0 to 11.8 kBq in the children with activity detected in 26. The two highest values of 5.0 and 11.8 kBq occurred in children aged 5 and 14 years from different families. Eighty-five children had no activity or <1 kBq detected. ED was <0.2 mSv in 86 out of 92 children (93%). Previous published data showed 93% of children received an ED ≤0.8 mSv from external irradiation. With advice, families of outpatients receiving radioiodine should be able to comply with statutory dose limits and constraints. (orig.)

  19. Preparation of 131I-epidepride and biodistribution study in SD rats%131I-epidepride的制备与SD大鼠体内分布特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 胡名扬; 裴著果; 王博诚; 周杏琴; 冯瑛瑛; 虞燕华; 陈志明; 汪洋

    2002-01-01

    采用双氧水标记法和氯胺-T法进行131I-epidepride标记,考察标记物的纯度及稳定性,并进行SD大鼠体内分布特性研究.实验结果表明,双氧水法和氯胺-T法标记率分别为97.4%和52.9%.标记物的生理盐水溶液室温放置4h,放化纯大于90%.大鼠静脉注射131I-epidepride的生理盐水溶液后,纹状体与小脑比值在注射后320min时高达237:1.131I-epidepride进入血液后很快被组织摄取,其中以肺的早期摄取最高(2.11±1.05)%ID*g-1,各脏器的清除均较快(T1/2<4h),甲状腺的摄取率随时间的延长而增加.

  20. Development of methodology for evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I incorporated activities during lactation; Desenvolvimento de metodologia para avaliacao da atividade de {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 131}I em lactantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Dantas, A.L.A.; Mesquita, S.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Oliveira, S.M.V., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: silvia@ird.gov.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Dosimetria

    2012-07-01

    Internal contamination of babies may occur for milk ingestion or inhalation of mothers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation with possible incorporation or mothers submitted to medical exposures during lactation. Radionuclide concentrations in the mother's milk may cause organ absorbed doses in the babies proportionally to the breast volumes. Milk analysis allow to determine activities ingested by the babies by determining the peak of mother's milk considering the decrease of the activity rate and the milk activities drunk at different time intervals. The work had the aim to develop simulators and methodology to evaluate {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I in lactation, in the following steps: to prepare standard solution of contaminated milk separately with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I; to build four breast simulators (600 g and 800 g) and respective calibration for two geometries (breast and whole-body) in the Whole-Body Counter Unit in Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The results demonstrated the system efficiency to determine {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I activities in breasts during the lactation period. The methodology for positioning in the 'breast geometry' seemed to be more efficient than the 'whole-body geometry' for different breast volumes. The experiment allows achieving better evaluation of internal dosimetry of mothers and their young children. (author)

  1. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [131I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylene using bis (tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [131I] epidepride was stable under 4 degree C, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exhibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection. All these results suggest that [131I] epidepride may be used widely as a useful dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT

  2. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [131I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylation using bis(tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [131I]epidepride was stable under 4℃, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exihibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection.All these results suggest that[131I]epidepride may be usedd widely as a useful dopamineD2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT.

  3. Concentrations of 131I in the urine of Japanese adults and children following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131 in urine samples from 15 Japanese subjects was determined during the period 4 to 29 May 1986. In a male adult, the peak concentration (3.3 Bq dm-3) was observed on 9 May, the levels decreasing thereafter to less than the detection limit by 29 May, The highest concentrations observed was 7.6 Bq dm-3 in a female adult. The urinary concentrations in the 11 adult subjects appeared to correlate with consumption of green leafy vegetables and milk. In four children, 6 to 14 years old, 131I concentrations in urine were generally higher than those of the adults. The major source of 131I intake was confirmed to be from vegetables, not milk. (author)

  4. Diabetes-induced increases in sup 131 I-albumin permeation are unaffected by essential fatty acid depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J.R.; Lefkowith, J.B.; Chang, K.; Tilton, R.G. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The authors assessed effects of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) on regional {sup 131}I-albumin permeation in diabetic and age-matched control rats. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (50-75 g) were randomized into EFAD diet or normal diet groups. Three months later, diabetes was induced in one half of the rats in each group by injecting i.v. 35-45 mg/kg b.w. streptozotocin. One month later, {sup 131}I-albumin clearance ({mu} g plasma/g tissue/minute) was assessed as described previously (Circ Res 64;890, 1989). Within controls, EFAD decreased body weight gain 28% but did not affect control values for plasma glucose (118{plus minus}8 (SD) mg/dl) or glycosylated hemoglobin (1.33{plus minus}0.22 % of total hemoglobin). In normal diet and EFAD diabetics, plasma glucose (535{plus minus}64 and 419{plus minus}161, respectively) and glycosylated hemoglobin (4.38{plus minus}0.97 and 2.97{plus minus}1.69) were increased significantly versus controls. Diabetes increased {sup 131}I-albumin clearance in retinal (5.1x controls), choroid (3.4x), anterior uvea (2.7x), aorta (3.5x), and sciatic nerve (2.2x). No differences were evident in tissue {sup 131}I-albumin clearances between both control groups or both diabetic groups. These results suggest that essential fatty acids do not modulate diabetes-induced changes in endothelial cell barrier function.

  5. 131I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol scintigraphy in a patient with incidentally discovered adrenal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrenal tuberculosis is rare and usually diagnosed on clinical signs of adrenal deficiency. We report here the uncommon incidental finding of an adrenal tuberculosis which was investigated in this context by radionuclide imaging with 131I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol. Absence of adrenal uptake which has not yet been reported is discussed in terms of differential diagnosis with the CT scan results. (authors). 10 refs., 2 figs

  6. Measurements of 131I in the thyroids of employees involved in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster on 11 March 2011 caused an unprecedented accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of Japan Atomic Energy Agency performed internal dose measurements of 560 employees involved in the accident during the period from 20 April to 5 August in 2011 at the request of TEPCO. The present paper describes our measurements of 131I in the thyroid that is the predominant contributor to the internal dose. These measurements were carried out using an HPGe detector installed in a low-background shielded chamber made of 20-cm-thick steel and the detector was placed adjacent to the subject's neck. The typical minimum detectable activity of this technique was 10 Bq for a counting time of 10 min; however, this sensitivity made it difficult to identify a residual thyroid content of 131I corresponding to a committed effective dose of 20 mSv for late subjects. This paper discussed technical issues experienced through the measurements such as the influence of 131I in the rest of the body, the calibration phantom of use, and so on. (author)

  7. Development of methodology for evaluation of 99mTc and 131I incorporated activities during lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal contamination of babies may occur for milk ingestion or inhalation of mothers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation with possible incorporation or mothers submitted to medical exposures during lactation. Radionuclide concentrations in the mother's milk may cause organ absorbed doses in the babies proportionally to the breast volumes. Milk analysis allow to determine activities ingested by the babies by determining the peak of mother's milk considering the decrease of the activity rate and the milk activities drunk at different time intervals. The work had the aim to develop simulators and methodology to evaluate 99mTc and 131I in lactation, in the following steps: to prepare standard solution of contaminated milk separately with 99mTc and 131I; to build four breast simulators (600 g and 800 g) and respective calibration for two geometries (breast and whole-body) in the Whole-Body Counter Unit in Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The results demonstrated the system efficiency to determine 99mTc and 131I activities in breasts during the lactation period. The methodology for positioning in the 'breast geometry' seemed to be more efficient than the 'whole-body geometry' for different breast volumes. The experiment allows achieving better evaluation of internal dosimetry of mothers and their young children. (author)

  8. Clinical study of dopamine transporter imaging with 131I-epidepride for Parkinson's disease%多巴胺D2受体乃131I-epidepride显像对帕金森病的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武婕; 王峰; 杨敏; 王自正; 孟庆乐; 过燕萍

    2008-01-01

    Objective Epidepride is a novel benzamide derivative with high affinity for dopaminergic D2 receptors.It has been used to study striatal and extrastriatal D2 receptor abnormalities in humans.The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of D2 receptors in dopaminergic nitrostriatal pathway and its correlation with clinical severity in Parkinson's disease(PD).Methods Thirty-eight patients with idio-pathic PD[graded according to Hoehn and Yahr(H/Y)stage:n(Ⅰ)=13,n(Ⅱ)=11,n(Ⅲ)=8,n(Ⅳ)=6]and 12 healthy volunteers as control were included in this study.SPECT brain imaging was performed 3 h after 18.5 MBq 131I-epidepride administration.Regions of interest(ROIs)were drawn over the striatum(ST)and occipital cortex(OC).The ratios of ST to OC ROI counts(ST/OC)were calculated and correlated with clinical severity H/Y stage.SPSS 10.0 was used for data analysis,the t test and Spearman correlation analysis were used.Results ST showed intense uptake of 131I-epidepride,whereas frontal,parietal,temporal,occipital lobes and cerebellum showed low uptake in control group.Increased 131I-epide-pride uptake was observed in PD patients when compared with normal control group but without statistically significant difference.Early stage patients(hemi-PD with H/Y I)showed increased [131]I-epidepride uptake intensity and size in contralateral ST(especially caudate nucleus)significantly more than unilateral ST(t=7.89.P<0.05).ST/OC ratio was not found to be statistically significant when correlated with the clinical severity H/Y stage(r=0.1 2,P>0.05).Conclusions This study suggested that 131I-epidepride SPECT was useful in qualitative and quantitative evaluation of D2 receptor status in dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons,which were over-expressed in PD patients.However,no statistically significant correlation was,found between ST 131I-epidepride binding ratios and disease severity.%目的 评价多巴胺D2受体显像剂131I-(s)-(-)-N-[(1-乙基-2-吡咯烷基)甲基]-5-碘-2,3-二

  9. Cytogenetic and dosimetric effects of 131I in lymphocyte of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with and without r-hTSH stimulation. Study in thyroid tumor cells (WRO) treated with 131I and 60Co in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) represents about 90% of thyroid malignancies with increasing incidence in the recent decades. Treatment modalities include thyroidectomy, 131I therapy (with or without r-hTSH), radio and chemotherapy. Little is known about the effects of these treatments at the cellular level. This work was proposed in order to assess to what extent radioiodine therapy can cause damage in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with DTC, preceded or not by r-hTSH, taking into account acute, slow and dosimetric effects of 131I (in vivo study). An in vitro study was also carried out on thyroid tumor target cells (WRO) by cytotoxicity and genotoxicity analysis and radioiodine uptake. For this, blood samples from patients divided into two groups (group A, r-hTSH + 131I and group B,131I only) were collected before, 24 hours, 1 week, 1 month and 1 year after 131I administration for aberration chromosome analysis (CA). A dose-response curve for 131I in vitro was developed for estimating the absorbed dose in patients, comparing the dicentric frequencies obtained in vitro with in vivo data by Monte Carlo program. Radioiodine therapy induced an increase in the number of CA in lymphocytes of patients peaking 24 hours after treatment, with gradual decline over time and with more chromosomal damage in group B than in group A, reaching baseline levels one year after radioiodine administration. The frequency of dicentric found inpatient lymphocytes, 24h after treatment, was equivalent to that induced in vitro (0.354 ± 0.153 MBq / mL for group A and 0.309 ± 0.154 MBq / mL for group B), which corresponds to absorbed doses of 0.8 ± 0.3 Gy and 0.7 ± 0.3 Gy for groups A and B, respectively, with no significant difference between the groups. WRO cells showed a cell cycle relatively slow: 96,3h with an unstable karyotype. The genotoxic test showed a relatively high radioresistance (0.07 to 3.70 MBq/mL), with no statistical significance, with or without r-hTSH. However

  10. Enhanced tumour uptake and in vitro radiotoxicity of no-carrier-added [131I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine: implications for the targeted radiotherapy of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro and in vivo neuroblastoma models were used to determine whether improvements in tumour targeting in vivo and therapeutic efficacy in vitro could result from the use of no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) [131I]MIBG. Results were compared with use of the conventional therapy MIBG preparation (ex.[131I]MIBG)of lower specific activity which is produced by iodide exchange reaction. The efficacy of n.c.a. [131I]MIBG was compared with that of [131I]MIBG over a range of specific activities by the assessment of neuroblastoma spheroid growth delay. Whereas n.c.a. [131I]MIBG at a radioactivity concentration of 2 MBq/ml prevented the regrowth of 84% of spheroids, toxicity was significantly reduced by the addition of non-radiolabelled MIBG to the incubation medium. The time-dependent biodistribution of n.c.a. [131I]MIBG in nude mice bearing human neuroblastoma xenografts was compared with that of the conventional therapy radiopharmaceutical. The n.c.a. agent gave improved tumour uptake but also significantly greater accumulation in normal tissues known to accumulate MIBG such as heart, adrenal and skin. However, uptake and retention in the blood was unaltered. For all tissues examined, the 3-day cumulative tumour to normal tissue radiation dose ratio was greater for n.c.a. [131I]MIBG. Theoretical calculations were undertaken to predict organ to tumour dose ratios which would result in human neuroblastoma patients with each of the [131I]MIBG preparations. These results suggest that significant therapeutic gain may be achieved by the use of n.c.a. [131I]MIBG as a treatment agent in neuroblastoma. (Author)

  11. Radioprotection protocol hospital staff for the care of patients treated with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present article is to start giving some answers to the inquiries of community about one of the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy which is the use of radiation in the diagnosis and therapy of unseal sources. The administrative staff from the Nuclear Medicine Service supplies the first answers to patients and their relatives or even to staff working in other hospital services. Not only information about the studies performed but also answers to clear doubts or worries in connection with the use of such radiation during the diagnosis or therapy. Regarding the worries arisen within the Nurses department in charge of the care of patients under treatment with 131I about the basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation, the conditions of facilities were checked and also regulations and ways of working of the staff caring for the said patients. The result was used in the annual doses calculation received by the staff in the present conditions of work. In order to estimate dose which may be received by nurses twenty four patient were considered, with an administered average activity of 150 mCi (5550MBq). Data provided by the Nuclear Medicine Service. Adopting the model described in the ICRP N53 'Radiation Dose to Patient from Radiopharmaceutical', the annual dose received by the staff of nurses is obtained. It results to be equivalent to receiving the dose of 18 thorax x-rays. This value is below the limit settled down by the ARN applied for general public. This work tries to palliate the great ignorance as regards radiation safety, not only concerning patients and relatives, but also the nurses who are daily dealing with patients under treatment of unseal sources. This methodology allows evaluating current working conditions, as well as possible future actions or recommendations in order to decrease the personnel 's dose. A written protocol was carried out according to the international regulations regarding this type of therapy

  12. Radiation dose to family members of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) was used for measuring radiation dose to family members of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I using CaSO4:Dy discs. There were 45 family members of thyrotoxicosis patients, who were divided into two groups with 22 in the first and 23 in the second group. Radiation safety instructions were the same for both the groups except in the second group where the patients were advised to use a separate bed at home for the first 3 d of dose administration. An activity ranging from 185 to 500 MBq was administered to these patients. The whole-body dose to family members ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mSv (mean 1.1 mSv) in the first group and 0-1.9 mSv (mean 0.6 mSv) in the second group. A total of 297 family members of thyroid cancer patients were studied for whole-body dose estimation. An activity ranging from 0.925 to 7.4 GBq was administered to the thyroid cancer patients. The family members were divided into three groups depending upon the mode of transport and facilities available at home to avoid close proximity with the patient. Group A with 25 family members received a dose ranging from 0 to 0.9 mSv (mean 0.4 mSv), group B with 96 family members received a dose ranging from 0 to 8.5 mSv (mean 0.8 mSv) and group C with 176 family members received a dose ranging from 0 to 5.0 mSv (mean 0.8 mSv). The thyroid monitoring was also done in 103 family members who attended the patients in isolation wards for >2 d. Thyroid dose in them ranged from 0 to 2.5 mGy (mean 0.1 mGy). (authors)

  13. Cytogenetic and dosimetric effects of {sup 131}I in lymphocyte of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with and without r-hTSH stimulation. Study in thyroid tumor cells (WRO) treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 60}Co in vitro; Efeitos citogenetico e dosimetrico do {sup 131}I em pacientes com cancer diferenciado da tireoide com e sem estimulacao com r-hTSH. Estudo em celulas tumorais tireoidianas (WRO) tratadas com {sup 131}I e {sup 60}Co in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgode, Flavia Gomes Silva

    2015-11-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) represents about 90% of thyroid malignancies with increasing incidence in the recent decades. Treatment modalities include thyroidectomy, {sup 131}I therapy (with or without r-hTSH), radio and chemotherapy. Little is known about the effects of these treatments at the cellular level. This work was proposed in order to assess to what extent radioiodine therapy can cause damage in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with DTC, preceded or not by r-hTSH, taking into account acute, slow and dosimetric effects of {sup 131}I (in vivo study). An in vitro study was also carried out on thyroid tumor target cells (WRO) by cytotoxicity and genotoxicity analysis and radioiodine uptake. For this, blood samples from patients divided into two groups (group A, r-hTSH + {sup 131}I and group B,{sup 131}I only) were collected before, 24 hours, 1 week, 1 month and 1 year after {sup 131}I administration for aberration chromosome analysis (CA). A dose-response curve for {sup 131}I in vitro was developed for estimating the absorbed dose in patients, comparing the dicentric frequencies obtained in vitro with in vivo data by Monte Carlo program. Radioiodine therapy induced an increase in the number of CA in lymphocytes of patients peaking 24 hours after treatment, with gradual decline over time and with more chromosomal damage in group B than in group A, reaching baseline levels one year after radioiodine administration. The frequency of dicentric found inpatient lymphocytes, 24h after treatment, was equivalent to that induced in vitro (0.354 ± 0.153 MBq / mL for group A and 0.309 ± 0.154 MBq / mL for group B), which corresponds to absorbed doses of 0.8 ± 0.3 Gy and 0.7 ± 0.3 Gy for groups A and B, respectively, with no significant difference between the groups. WRO cells showed a cell cycle relatively slow: 96,3h with an unstable karyotype. The genotoxic test showed a relatively high radioresistance (0.07 to 3.70 MBq/mL), with no statistical

  14. The distribution and elimination of Bothrops erythromelas venom labeled with 131 I after intravenous injection in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharmacokinetic studies can be used to study the systemic effects of snake venoms and to develop standard serotherapy protocols for envenomation. Bothrops erythromelas is probably responsible for most of the snakebite in Pernambuco. The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of B. erythromelas venom (BeV) in mice, and to evaluate the efficacy of bothropic antivenom. BeV showed bicompartmental distribution in the blood of the experimental animals. (author)

  15. The distribution and elimination of Bothrops erythromelas venom labeled with {sup 131} I after intravenous injection in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, M.L. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: rocha@cascavel.uefs.br

    1999-07-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies can be used to study the systemic effects of snake venoms and to develop standard serotherapy protocols for envenomation. Bothrops erythromelas is probably responsible for most of the snakebite in Pernambuco. The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of B. erythromelas venom (BeV) in mice, and to evaluate the efficacy of bothropic antivenom. BeV showed bicompartmental distribution in the blood of the experimental animals. (author)

  16. Improvement of the obtention process of {sup 131} I of ININ through studies of equipment design and process parameters fitting in the simulator; Perfeccionamiento del proceso de obtencion del {sup 131} I del ININ mediante estudios de diseno del equipo y ajustes de parametros del proceso en el simulador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zepeda M, M.C

    2006-07-01

    The main objective of the work was to achieve a high yield of the reaction that happens among the vapors of {sup 131} I and the NaOH to obtain sodium iodide (Na{sup 131} I) in solution optimizing the contact time of the molecules in gaseous state of {sup 131} I with the NaOH molecules through the bubbling velocity of the {sup 131} I in the solution of NaOH 0.1 N, as well as the operation temperature during the distillation process by dry via starting from tellurium dioxide (TeO{sub 2}) with the purpose of that the {sup 131} I that is obtained in the form of Na{sup 131} I solution presents the necessary quality that allows to distribute it in the market. The particular objectives were: a) To improve the distillation equipment used for the obtaining of {sup 131} I starting from irradiated tellurium dioxide redrawing the dilution system with the purpose of recovering the {sup 131} I in a minimum volume of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). b) To achieve a bigger time of contact among the molecules of {sup 131} I in gaseous state with the molecules of NaOH in solution through the bubbling velocity and of the redrawing of the dilution system. c) To implement the production of {sup 131} I by dry distillation via starting from tellurium dioxide, obtaining it with a high radionuclide and radiochemical purity. d) To obtain {sup 131} I with the necessary specifications that it marks the pharmacopoeia and it can be used with medical ends. (Author)

  17. Beta-oxidation of 1-[14C]-17-[131I]-iodoheptadecanoic acid following intracoronary injection in humans results in similar release of both tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodine labelled 17-iodo-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) is used for non-invasive study of myocardial metabolism in coronary heart disease and cardiomyopathy. In five patients undergoing coronary sinus catheterization, a mixture of about 40 kBg of [123I] NaI was injected into the left coronary artery. During the following 15-min period, frequent blood samples were taken from the aorta and the coronary sinus. In the aqueous phase of the venous blood, 14CO2 and inorganic 131I appeared nearly in parallel, with a peak time of 4-5 min. Moreover, there was no significant back diffusion of IHA and no significant non-specific deiodination detectable. There was myocardial retention of inorganic iodide (123I) injected into the left coronary artery. The data strongly support the premise that lipid turnover through β-oxidation is the rate-limiting step in the externally measured release of iodide after IHA injection, provided that recirculating inorganic radioactive iodide is corrected for. In addition, 15 volunteers were studied using [11C]palmitic acid and [123I]IHA using PET and dynamic planar camera scintigraphy with iodide correction. There was no significant difference between the mean values of the elimination half-times, and also no significant correlation between half-times of both fatty acids for single individuals. (orig.)

  18. Nursing care of patients of radionuclide 131I in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma%浅谈放射性核素131I 治疗分化型甲状腺癌患者的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李车琼; 杨福洲

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨放射性核素131I 治疗分化型甲状腺癌患者的护理。方法选取我科收治的分化型甲状腺癌的患者90例进行分析研究,随机将其分为对照组与观察组,对照组患者实施常规的护理措施,观察组患者实施综合性的护理干预措施,比较两组患者的并发症发生率以及患者满意度。结果观察组患者实施综合性的护理干预措施后并发症的发生率以及患者满意度均明显优于对照组,经比较具有显著差异(P <0.05)。结论对于分化型甲状腺癌的患者实施放射性核素131I 治疗中实施综合性的护理干预措施能够明显的提高临床治疗效果,减少并发症的发生率,并且增加患者治疗的信心与满意度。%Objective To study the nursing of patients with radionuclide 131I in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Methods 90 cases of patients were chosen in our hospital from differentiated thyroid carcinoma were analyzed, and were randomly divided into control group and observation group, the control group with routine nursing measures, to implement a comprehensive nursing intervention group, compared two groups of patients with disease incidence and patient satisfaction. Results To observe the implementation of comprehensive nursing intervention group patients the incidence of postoperative complications and patient satisfaction were significantly better than the control group, by comparison with significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion The comprehensive nursing intervention measures of radionuclide 131I in differentiated thyroid cancer patients can significantly improve the clinical treatment effect, reduce the incidence of complications, and increase the satisfaction and confidence of treatment in patients with.

  19. 131 I-Rituximab对B细胞淋巴瘤生物学效应的实验研究%Biological response of B-cell lymphoma to 131I-Rituximab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡秋琼; 杜明华; 陈宝安; 钟英; 黄科; 屈海船

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究131I标记的Rituximab对B细胞淋巴瘤细胞的生物学效应以及对荷人Raji细胞移植瘤裸鼠的放射免疫治疗效果,为放射免疫导向治疗提供实验依据.方法:体外培养人B细胞淋巴瘤细胞系Raji细胞,裸鼠皮下接种Raji细胞成瘤,IODO-GEN法将131I标记于Rituximab,将细胞分为131I-Rituximab组、单纯抗体组、单纯核素组及空白对照组4组,流式细胞仪检测各组Raji细胞凋亡和细胞周期;取30只成瘤裸鼠随机分成高、中、低剂量治疗组及单纯抗体组、单纯核素组、空白对照组6组,进行裸鼠的放射免疫治疗研究.每周测量裸鼠荷瘤大小1次,4周后处死裸鼠,取瘤称重,常规病理分析.结果:131I-Rituximab组凋亡率高于其他各组;131I-Rituximab组细胞周期发生变化,大部分被阻滞在G2期.裸鼠各治疗组与对照组比较,肿瘤生长减慢,肿瘤生长抑制率具有剂量时间依赖性,组织病理学检测显示治疗有效.结论:131I-Rituximab能够诱导Raji细胞凋亡并调控细胞周期,而且可特异性地定位于肿瘤组织,发挥放射免疫导向治疗作用,具有潜在的临床应用价值.

  20. Thyrotropin receptor antibody activities significantly correlate with the outcome of radioiodine ( sup 131 I) therapy for hyperthyroid Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaise, Kazuro; Kaise, Nobuko; Yoshida, Katsumi; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Koki; Yamamoto, Makiko; Sakurada, Toshiro; Saito, Shintaro; Yoshinaga, Kaoru (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-08-01

    The outcome of {sup 131}I therapy for 109 patients with Graves' disease was analysed according to pretreatment laboratory data including thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) activities. Forty-five percent of patients became euthyroid, and 13% of patients became hypothyroid within one year after {sup 131}I therapy. Forty-two percent of patients remained hyperthyroid one year after {sup 131}I therapy. Pretreatment values for serum T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, and the estimated weight of the thyroid were significantly higher in the hyperthyroid group. The mean for the TRAb index of the hyperthyroid group was significantly higher than that of the euthyroid group. Life table analysis revealed a significant effect of the TRAb index on the rate of hyperthyroidism after 3 months or later. These results appear to suggest that the TRAb index is one of the factors which influence the outcome of {sup 131}I therapy for Graves' disease. (author).

  1. Non-surgical approach to the benign nodular goiter: new opportunities by recombinant human TSH-stimulated (131)I-therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen Joop; Fast, Søren; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    , and the possibility of thyroid malignancy. When treatment is warranted in a patient with benign goiter, the choice usually stands between surgery and (131)I-therapy. Focal destructive treatment, by ethanol sclerotherapy or interstitial laser photocoagulation, may be considered in patients with a solitary benign...... nodule. If thyroid hyperfunction due to nodular autonomy is the dominant problem, life-long anti-thyroid drug treatment may be relevant in elderly individuals. With the advent of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) stimulation the goiter reduction following (131)I-therapy is significantly enhanced...... and this treatment is of particular benefit, as compared with conventional (131)I-therapy, in patients with a low baseline thyroid (131)I uptake and a large goiter. If the rhTSH dose does not exceed 0.1 mg the risk of temporary hyperthyroidism and acute thyroid swelling is low. Since patient satisfaction seemingly...

  2. Chromatographic determination of the radiochemical purity of [[sup 131]I]MIBG [metaiodobenzylguanidine] infusion fluids: a comparison and discussion of the chromatographic characteristics using three different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wafelman, A.R.; Beijnen, J.H. (Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Hospital Pharmacy Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Hoefnagel, C.A. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-05-01

    This paper proposes a reproducible and validated assay based on solid phase extraction for the determination of the level of free [[sup 131]I]iodide in [[sup 131]I]metaiodobenzylguanidine infusion fluids. The method has been compared with HPLC and TLC assays. Furthermore, a TLC system is introduced that allows the separation between metaiodobenzylguanidine, its chemical precursor metaiodobenzylamine and iodide. Attention is paid to the chromatographic characteristics of the analytes, with a discussion of the possible retention mechanisms. (Author).

  3. Decreased radioiodine uptake of FRTL-5 cells after 131I incubation in vitro: molecular biological investigations indicate a cell cycle-dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radioiodine therapy the ''stunning phenomenon'' is defined as a reduction of radioiodine uptake after diagnostic application of 131I. In the current study, we established an in vitro model based on the ''Fisher rat thyrocyte cell line no. 5'' (FRTL-5) to investigate the stunning. TSH-stimulated FRTL-5 cells were incubated with 131I. Time-dependent 131I uptake and the viability of FRTL-5 cells were evaluated at 4-144 h after radioiodine application. All data was corrected for number of viable cells, half life and 131I concentration. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and the housekeeping gene (β-actin, GAPDH) levels were quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Additionally, immunohistochemical staining (IHC) of NIS on the cell membrane was carried out. FRTL-5 monolayer cell cultures showed a specific maximum uptake of 131I 24-48 h after application. Significantly decreased 131I uptake values were observed after 72-144 h. The decrease in radioiodine uptake was correlated with decreasing mRNA levels of NIS and housekeeping genes. In parallel, unlike in controls, IHC staining of NIS on FRTL-5 cells declined significantly after 131I long-term incubation. It could be demonstrated that during 131I incubation of FRTL-5 cells, radioiodine uptake decreased significantly. Simultaneously decreasing levels of NIS mRNA and protein expression suggest a NIS-associated mechanism. Since mRNA levels of housekeeping genes decreased, too, the reduced NIS expression might be provoked by a cell cycle arrest. Our investigations recommend the FRTL-5 model as a valuable tool for further molecular biological investigations of the stunning phenomenon. (orig.)

  4. 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism and consequent appearing of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: simple case-report or real pathophysiologic link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scanelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND 131I is usually employed for the therapy of hyperfunctioning thyroid diseases. This β-emitting radioisotope acts releasing its radiations in small tissue volumes, but it is mandatory to consider, also for the small doses, the carcinogenic risk, well documented with the high 131I dosages used to cure differentiated thyroid cancers. METHODS We describe a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma appeared 4 years after therapy with 131I for Graves’ disease. The patient was treated both surgically and with thyonamides for Graves’ disease 20 years before; thereafter she underwent simple nephrectomy owing to Grawitz disease. After some years of well being, she was treated with 131I for a relapse of Graves’ disease. Four years later, she was treated with interleukin-2 and TNF-α, owing to distant metastases (pancreas, liver and lung of Grawitz cancer. Some months later, because of a rapid enlargement of the thyroid gland, she was thyroidectomized and anaplastic thyroid cancer was histologically documented. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS It is very difficult to investigate the possible transformation of a benign thyroid lesion to a malignant one, and data from the literature are conflicting. Fractioned doses of 131I are known to induce less cancers than high doses: they allow DNA to repair. Nevertheless, in patients with altered or non valid genetic repair’s mechanisms (i.e. patients with p53 mutations and, for this reason, prone to develop cancers, even low doses of 131I can induce carcinogenetic effects. In a patient with a history of cancer, who subsequently develops hyperthyroidism, even low doses of 131I can induce anaplastic thyroid cancer; in these subjects, therefore, other treatments than 131I could be preferred for the therapy of Graves’ disease. In our peculiar case, moreover, some studies have noteworthy demonstrated that certain cytokines (IL-1, TGF-β1 e TNF-α can, rather than inhibit, induce anaplastic thyroid cancer cells

  5. Labelling of human serum albumin with iodine-131 for diagnosis in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labelling of 131I-human serum albumin with I-131 from a solution of 131I-sodium iodide using chloramine T as an oxidant agent is studied. Parameters which can influence on the labelling yield like mass of human serum albumin, and chloramine T, pH of the reaction, reaction time and activity of 131I are also studied. The purification of the labeled product by means of IRA-410 Amberlite ion-exchange resin in chloride form and the sterilization of the 131I-human serum albumin by its passage through a 0,22μ millipore filter are carried out. The radiochemistry control of the final product by paper chromatography and the microbiological control by cultivation of microorganisms in fluid medium: nutrient broth, sodium thioglycollate broth and Sabouraud, are performed. The stability of the radiopharmaceutical until ten days after its preparation is analysed by means of radiochemical control. (Author)

  6. Bio-effect model applied to {sup 131}I radioimmunotherapy of refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, Peter L.; Amro, Hanan; Schipper, Matthew J. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wilderman, Scott J.; Avram, Anca M.; Dewaraja, Yuni K. [University of Michigan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kaminski, Mark S. [University of Michigan Medical Center, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Improved data collection methods have improved absorbed dose estimation by tracking activity distributions and tumor extent at multiple time points, allowing individualized absorbed dose estimation. Treatment with tositumomab and {sup 131}I-tositumomab anti-CD20 radioimmunotherapy (BEXXAR) yields a cold antibody antitumor response (cold protein effect) and a radiation response. Biologically effective contributions, including the cold protein effect, are included in an equivalent biological effect model that was fit to patient data. Fifty-seven tumors in 19 patients were followed using 6 single proton emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT studies, 3 each post tracer (5 mCi) and therapy ({proportional_to}100 mCi) injections with tositumomab and {sup 131}I-tositumomab. Both injections used identical antibody mass, a flood dose of 450 mg plus 35 mg of {sup 131}I tagged antibody. The SPECT/CT data were used to calculate absorbed dose rate distributions and tumor and whole-body time-activity curves, yielding a space-time dependent absorbed dose rate description for each tumor. Tumor volume outlines on CT were used to derive the time dependence of tumor size for tracer and therapy time points. A combination of an equivalent biological effect model and an inactivated cell clearance model was used to fit absorbed dose sensitivity and cold effect sensitivity parameters to tumor shrinkage data, from which equivalent therapy values were calculated. Patient responses were categorized into three groups: standard radiation sensitivity with no cold effect (7 patients), standard radiation sensitivity with cold effect (11 patients), and high radiation sensitivity with cold effect (1 patient). Fit parameters can be used to categorize patient response, implying a potential predictive capability. (orig.)

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DIRECT MEASUREMENT TO DETERMINE THYROID 131I CONTENT OF TWO TEPCO WORKERS CONSIDERING INDIVIDUAL TISSUE THICKNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences examined seven heavily exposed emergency workers and performed internal dose estimations. The largest dose contributor was found to be (131)I, which was detected by thyroid monitor with an HPGe detector. Different energy peaks from (131)I were simultaneously identified in the pulse-height spectra of the two subjects with the highest doses regardless of late measurements. A closer look at the spectra indicated that the count ratio of the two peak areas at 80.2 and 365 keV differed somewhat between the individual workers, suggesting a difference in attenuation in the overlaying soft tissue and in the thyroid itself. In this study, the relationship between the count ratio (80.2/365 keV) and the thickness of soft tissue overlying the thyroid was investigated by means of numerical simulations performed using the Japanese Male (JM) phantom varying the thickness of the overlaying tissue. From the measured count ratios, it was possible to estimate that the overlaying tissue was thinner for Worker 1 (difference from the JM phantom: -0.34±1.29 cm) and thicker for Worker 2 (diff.: 2.5±1.2 cm). The thyroid (131)I contents evaluated taking into account the individual thicknesses were 4.3 kBq for Worker 1 and 8.4 kBq for Worker 2, resulting in a significant increase for Worker 2 compared with the content based on the default counting efficiency at 365 keV of the original JM phantom. However, the results have large uncertainty factors of 1.4 for Worker 1 and 1.3 for Worker 2 and should be carefully considered together with other factors influencing the attenuation.

  8. Monte Carlo Calculation of Radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-, 177Lu-, 131I-, 124I-, and 188Re-Nanoobjects: Choice of the Best Radionuclide for Solid Tumour Treatment by Using TCP and NTCP Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunotherapy has shown that the use of monoclonal antibodies combined with a radioisotope like 131I or 90Y still remains ineffective for solid and radioresistant tumour treatment. Previous simulations have revealed that an increase in the number of 90Y labelled to each antibody or nanoobject could be a solution to improve treatment output. It now seems important to assess the treatment output and toxicity when radionuclides such as 90Y, 177Lu, 131I, 124I, and 188Re are used. Tumour control probability (TCP and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP curves versus the number of radionuclides per nanoobject were computed with MCNPX to evaluate treatment efficacy for solid tumours and to predict the incidence of surrounding side effects. Analyses were carried out for two solid tumour sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 cm radius and for nanoobject (i.e., a radiolabelled antibody distributed uniformly or nonuniformly throughout a solid tumour (e.g., Non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC. 90Y and 188Re are the best candidates for solid tumour treatment when only one radionuclide is coupled to one carrier. Furthermore, regardless of the radionuclide properties, high values of TCP can be reached without toxicity if the number of radionuclides per nanoobject increases.

  9. Value of normalization analysis of thyroid scans on 131I treatment planning for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the value of normalization analysis of thyroid scans on 131I treatment planning for Graves' disease. Methods: Patients with hyperthyroidism treated by 131I were retrospectively analyzed. Sixty cases with thyroid glands less than 35 g and without thyroid nodules were enrolled. Raw data of thyroid scans were re-processed using a software for normalization and magnification. Correlation between total dose,the number of treatments and other factors, such as area ratios of bilateral lobes, bilateral radioactive counts, bilateral gray scales and multifocal uptake patterns, were analyzed using step-by-step regression analysis. Correlations between normal thyroid function, hypothyroidism and the above mentioned factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Fifty percent (30/60) of cases were cured after a single-dose treatment, and the remaining 50% required multiple treatments. In addition to thyroid mass and radioactive iodine uptake, total dose correlated with gender (F=4.23, P=0.050), area ratio of bilateral lobes (F=6.20, P=0.020) and multifocal uptake pattern (F=5.12, P=0.033). The number of treatments correlated with ratio of bilateral gray scales (F=8.89, P=0.006) and multifocal uptake pattern (F=4.98, P=0.034). According to outcomes, patients were divided into a normal thyroid function group and a hypothyroidism group. 131I dose correlated with the area ratio of bilateral lobes (F=10.42, P=0.018) and ratio of bilateral gray scales in the normal thyroid function group (F=10.66, P=0.017); whereas in the hypothyroidism group, the clinical outcome correlated with thyroid mass (F=7.65, P=0.013) and multifocal uptake pattern (F=8.01, P=0.011). Conclusions: Computer aided normalization analysis is useful for 131I dose calculation in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. For patients with significantly unbalanced bilateral radiotracer distribution, increasing the dose and the number of treatments should be suggested. For

  10. Fractionated 131I anti-CEA radioimmunotherapy: effects on xenograft tumour growth and haematological toxicity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Violet, J A; Dearling, J L J; Green, A. J.; Begent, R H J; Pedley, R B

    2008-01-01

    Dose fractionation has been proposed as a method to improve the therapeutic ratio of radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This study compared a single administration of 7.4 MBq 131I-anti-CEA antibody given on day 1 with the same total activity given as fractionated treatment: 3.7 MBq (days 1 and 3), 2.4 MBq (days 1, 3, and 5) or 1.8 MBq (days 1, 3, 5, and 8). Studies in nude mice, bearing the human colorectal xenograft LS174T, showed that increasing the fractionation significantly reduced the efficacy o...

  11. Repeated injections of {sup 131}I-rituximab show patient-specific stable biodistribution and tissue kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonescu, Cristian; Bischof Delaloye, Angelika; Schaffland, Andreas O.; Grannavel, Carine [University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kosinski, Marek [University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); University of Lausanne, Institute of Applied Radiophysics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Monnin, Pascal; Verdun, Francis R. [University of Lausanne, Institute of Applied Radiophysics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ketterer, Nicolas [University Hospital of Lausanne, Multidisciplinary Oncology Center, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kovacsovics, Tibor [Oregon Health and Science University, Center for Hematological Malignancies, Portland, OR (United States); Buchegger, Franz [University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); University Hospital of Geneva, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2005-08-01

    It is generally assumed that the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of radiolabelled antibodies remain similar between dosimetric and therapeutic injections in radioimmunotherapy. However, circulation half-lives of unlabelled rituximab have been reported to increase progressively after the weekly injections of standard therapy doses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of the pharmacokinetics of repeated {sup 131}I-rituximab injections during treatment with unlabelled rituximab in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Patients received standard weekly therapy with rituximab (375 mg/m{sup 2}) for 4 weeks and a fifth injection at 7 or 8 weeks. Each patient had three additional injections of 185 MBq {sup 131}I-rituximab in either treatment weeks 1, 3 and 7 (two patients) or weeks 2, 4 and 8 (two patients). The 12 radiolabelled antibody injections were followed by three whole-body (WB) scintigraphic studies during 1 week and blood sampling on the same occasions. Additional WB scans were performed after 2 and 4 weeks post {sup 131}I-rituximab injection prior to the second and third injections, respectively. A single exponential radioactivity decrease for WB, liver, spleen, kidneys and heart was observed. Biodistribution and half-lives were patient specific, and without significant change after the second or third injection compared with the first one. Blood T{sub 1/2}{beta}, calculated from the sequential blood samples and fitted to a bi-exponential curve, was similar to the T{sub 1/2} of heart and liver but shorter than that of WB and kidneys. Effective radiation dose calculated from attenuation-corrected WB scans and blood using Mirdose3.1 was 0.53+0.05 mSv/MBq (range 0.48-0.59 mSv/MBq). Radiation dose was highest for spleen and kidneys, followed by heart and liver. These results show that the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of {sup 131}I-rituximab, while specific to each patient, remained constant during unlabelled antibody therapy

  12. Effective dose in individuals from exposure the patients treated with {sup 131}I using Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho Junior, Alberico B. de; Silva, Ademir X. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: ajunior@con.ufrj.br; Hunt, John G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: john@ird.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    In this work, using the Visual Monte Carlo code and the voxel phantom FAX, elaborated similar scenes of irradiation to the treatments used in the nuclear medicine, with the intention of estimate the effective dose in individuals from exposure the patients treated with {sup 131}I. We considered often specific situations, such as doses to others while sleeping, using public or private transportation, or being in a cinema for a few hours. In the possible situations that has been considered, the value of the effective dose did not overcome 0.05 mSv, demonstrating that, for the considered parameters the patient could be release without receiving instructions from radioprotection. (author)

  13. Measurement of radiation exposure in attendants of thyroid cancer patients treated with {sup 131}I; Medicion de la exposicion a la radiacion en familiares de pacientes tratados con {sup 131}I por patologia tiroidea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez G, Y. T.

    2012-07-01

    Patients treated with {sup 131}I for differentiated thyroid cancer present radiological risk to relatives, occupational exposed workers and general public. Recently, the IAEA issued document K-9010241, 2010, which recommends that patient discharge from hospital must be based on the particular status of each patient, unlike the current criteria applied in Mexico based on the exposure rate at a 1 m distance. In this work thermoluminescent dosimeters were used during a 15 day period to measure the effective dose received by 40 family caregivers of patients treated with {sup 131}I, after their release from hospital 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia', Mexico. Relatives were classified in two groups, ambulatory (outpatients) and hospitalized (inpatients), according to the release mode of the patient. Measurements were performed for 20 family caregivers in each group. The effective dose received by all family members of outpatient and inpatient groups was found to be smaller that 5 mSv. In addition, 70 and 90% of inpatient and outpatient groups, respectively, received doses lower than 1 mSv. These data provide information which allow to give recommendations of possible modifications to current regulations in Mexico regarding discharge from hospital of patients treated with radiopharmaceuticals. (Author)

  14. Estimating individual exposure to 131I for radiation workers at radioisotope production using air sampling and smartphone techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor individual exposure at radioisotope production depends strongly on temporal concentration variation, contacting time and working location of radiation workers. To estimate personal exposure to indoor air polluted with 131I for the workers at radioisotope production, we had employed a low cost indoor model appropriate for their specific situation. In this model, time-microenvironment occupied by the workers was recorded by a smartphone sensitive motion software. Simultaneously, on the work days, indoor air in the three iodine production rooms was sampled by a portable air sampler coupled with activated carbon cartridges impregnated by TEDA. Then the low background gamma spectrometer was used to measure activity of the cartridges and the concentration of 131I in these rooms was calculated with the temporal resolution of one hour. By combining the hourly concentration with the high temporal resolution of activity patterns, we estimated the actual exposures for the group of workers producing radioisotopes in Nuclear Research Institute (Dalat) for the first four months of 2015. The highest daily average exposure was 410.2 Bq/m3 while the highest average exposure of the group was 147.2 Bq/m3. It showed an useful value for minimizing risks and estimating internal doses as well. This feasibility study may be applied for assessing personal exposure at radioisotope production, but also for many other indoor environments. (author)

  15. Evidence of 131I and (134,137)Cs activities in Bordeaux, France due to the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, F; Hubert, Ph; Marquet, Ch; Pravikoff, M S; Bourquin, P; Chiron, H; Guernion, P-Y; Nachab, A

    2012-12-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, low-background gamma spectrometry measurements were performed with HPGe detectors at the PRISNA platform located at the CENBG laboratory in Bordeaux, France. Different kinds of samples were collected and measured between March 26 and May 14, 2011. The first fission product observed was (131)I with maximum activity values of 2.4 mBq/m(3) in atmospheric dusts in air, 3.5 Bq/L in rain water, 15 Bq/kg in grass and 0.9 Bq/L in cow milk. The (134,137)Cs isotopes were also detected in air and in grass at a maximum level of 0.2 mBq/m(3) and 0.7 Bq/kg respectively, around one order of magnitude less than (131)I activity, but they were below detection limits in the other samples. All these activity values were consistent with others measured in France by IRSN and were well below those reported in May 1986 after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:22257694

  16. Clinical scale preparation and evaluation of {sup 131}I-Rituximab for Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameswaran, Mythili; Vimalnath, K. Viswanathan; Rajeswari, Ardhi; Joshi, Prahlad Vasudeo; Samuel, Grace [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiopharmaceuticals Div.; Sarma, H.D. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Div.

    2014-09-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with anti CD20 MoAb conjugated to a β{sup -} emitting radioisotope like {sup 131}I or {sup 90}Y has the added advantage of delivering radiation not only to tumor cells that bind the antibody but also due to a crossfire effect, to neighboring tumor cells inaccessible to the antibody. In order to make available an indigenous radioimmunotherapeutic agent for Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), radioiodinated Rituximab has been prepared and evaluated at a clinical scale. Radioiodination of Rituximab was performed by the conventional Chloramine T method using 7.4 GBq Na{sup 131}I in a lead shielded plant. Six batches of radioiodination were prepared and characterized by electrophoresis and HPLC to evaluate the reproducibility of the product. The product remained stable retaining the radiochemical purity > 95% upto 5 days after radioiodination. In vitro cell binding studies and biodistribution studies in normal Swiss mice have indicated the potential of this molecule as a radioimmunotherapeutic agent for NHL. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of therapy effect of 131I treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft mediated by hNIS gene transfection in vivo using diffusion weighted MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the imaging characteristic of DWI, tumor cell apoptosis and proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) xenograft transfected hNIS gene after 131I treatment. Methods: The NPC xenograft models were established with CNE-2-hNIS cells(experimental group) and CNE-2 cells(control group) respectively. After i.p. injections 131I in the experimental group and control group, the changes of xenograft tumor volume and ADC value were observed in 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 days by MR scan. The correlations of changes of ADC with pathological TUNEL, Caspase-3 immunohistochemistry of apoptosis, and Ki-67 proliferation detection were further investigated. Independent samples t-test were compared between the two groups and Pearson linear correlation analysis was used. Results: The tumor volume of the experimental group was significantly reduced compared with that of the control group after 131I treatment (t values: 8.27-19.46, P<0.05). DW-MRI showed that in the 3th day after 131I treatment, ADC values increased in the experimental group,and ADC values reached the peak in the 6th and 12th day after 131I treatment, then ADC values were decreased. ADC values after treatment was positively correlated with apoptotic index (r=0.72, P<0.05) and caspase-3 positive rate (r=0.65, P<0.05) and there was a negative correlation with Ki-67 proliferation index (r=-0.71, P<0.05). Conclusion: ADC values can reflect growth inhibition of NPC xenograft transfected hNIS gene after 131I treatment. It is possible that DW-MRI techniques can be used in early non-invasively monitor the therapy effect of 131I treatment of NPC xenografts transfected hNIS gene. (authors)

  18. The effect of 131I on salivary glands function in 131I treated thyroid cancer patients%甲状腺癌病人131I治疗对唾液腺功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志斌; 金常青; 余永利; 朱瑞森

    2001-01-01

    Salivary glands can accumulate 131I and may demage its function during 131I treated thyroid cancer. The purpose of this study is to understand the extent of the injury and its relation with dosage after high-dose radioiodine therapy. Radionuclide dynamic imaging is used to quantitatively calculate the absorption rate and excretion rate of salivary glands. There was no significant difference between patients group and normal controls in absorption rate (P>0.05), but there exieted difference in excretion rate (P37MBq group with dosage but among the groups with dosage 0.05),而排泄率两组均存在显著性的差异(P<0.05)。随着治疗累积剂量的增加,摄取率和排泄率也渐次降低,37GBq以上组别的结果与正常人相比,摄取率和排泄率均存在显著性的差异(P<0.05),37GBq以下各组仅排泄率上存在显著性差异(P<0.05)。颌下腺与腮腺相比较,颌下腺的受损程度较小。核素显像定量计算唾液腺摄取率和排泄率能反映腺体的功能及其受损程度,为临床诊疗提供一定的依据,接受131I剂量的大小与腮腺功能的影响程度呈正相关。

  19. Long-term desorption of 131I from KI-impregnated charcoals loaded with CH3I, under simulated post-LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term (1100 h) desorption of 131I from KI-impregnated charcoal filters, loaded with CH3I, has been studied under simulated post-LOCA conditions. A charcoal filter bed (20 cm long, 5.0 cm in diameter), which was pre-equilibrated with air at 353 K and a relative humidity of 72%, was exposed to 1.7 g of CH3I (containing 320 MBq of 131I) over a period of one hour. The 131I released was monitored continuously during loading and during the 1100-h purging period. The activity distribution along the length of the charcoal filter was also monitored during purging, using an external γ-ray detector. Iodine-131 released rates (Bq.h-1) as a function of purging time (in hours) were: 2.3 x 106 t/sup -6.26 +/- 0.32/ (for t = 1-5 h) and 2.0 x 103 t/sup -0.64 +/- 0.08/ (for t = 5-1100 h). The 131I activity distribution along the length of the charcoal bed decreased exponentially from inlet to outlet. Also, a small broadening and displacement (towards the outlet) of the initial 131I distribution were observed during purging. These data show that in post-accident environments deep-bed charcoal filters impregnated with KI are effective barriers to both the short-term and long-term release of CH3131I

  20. Effect of 131I in the treatment of hyperthyroidism at Hospital San Juan de Dios for the period from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine 131 (131I) is used for the treatment of hyperthyroidism at Hospital San Juan de Dios. The most common causes of hyperthyroidism have been Graves disease or diffuse goiter, toxic multinodular goiter and toxic nodular goiter, among others; but, the results are unknown and factors that have influenced the treatment with 131I. The study has included only patients with these causes, and have been administered radioactive iodine 131 as treatment. 180 cases have been treated with radioactive iodine, 75.0% have presented diffuse goiter, 22.2% multinodular goiter and 2.8% nodular goiter, where were been 144 female patients (80%) and 36 male patients (20%). Women have had predominance in the three groups that were analyzed pathologies, according to medical literature, an approximate incidence of 0.4 cases has existed per thousand women to year. A proportional relationship between clinical size of goiter and failure of therapy with 131I has been in diffuse goiter for the handling of hyperthyroidism. Likewise, male sex has been risk factor in the failure of such therapy. Multinodular goiter and nodular goiter have not had difference between the results according to sex and size of goiter. Most hyperthyroid patients with diffuse goiter, nodular and multinodular have received 131I as treatment, and previously this, they have received propylthiouracil; treatment outcome was unaffected. Treatment with 131I in hyperthyroid patients has managed to be effective for reduction in size of the thyroid gland in diffuse goiter, nodular goiter and multinodular

  1. Effective method of measuring the radioactivity of [131I]-capsule prior to radioiodine therapy with significant reduction of the radiation exposure to the medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Marx, Malies; Imme, Thea; Assam, Isong; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Culman, Juaraj; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radio Oncology is of the utmost importance. Radioiodine therapy is a frequently used and effective method for the treatment of thyroid disease. Prior to each therapy the radioactivity of the [131I]-capsule must be determined to prevent misadministration. This leads to a significant radiation exposure to the staff. We describe an alternative method, allowing a considerable reduction of the radiation exposure. Two [131I]-capsules (A01 = 2818.5; A02 = 7355.0 MBq) were measured multiple times in their own delivery lead containers - that is to say, [131I]-capsules remain inside the containers during the measurements (shielded measurement) using a dose calibrator and a well-type and a thyroid uptake probe. The results of the shielded measurements were correlated linearly with the [131I]-capsules radioactivity to create calibration curves for the used devices. Additional radioactivity measurements of 50 [131I]-capsules of different radioactivities were done to validate the shielded measuring method. The personal skin dose rate (HP(0.07)) was determined using calibrated thermo luminescent dosimeters. The determination coefficients for the calibration curves were R2 > 0.9980 for all devices. The relative uncertainty of the shielded measurement was radioactivity.

  2. Effective method of measuring the radioactivity of [131I]-capsule prior to radioiodine therapy with significant reduction of the radiation exposure to the medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Marx, Malies; Imme, Thea; Assam, Isong; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Culman, Juaraj; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radio Oncology is of the utmost importance. Radioiodine therapy is a frequently used and effective method for the treatment of thyroid disease. Prior to each therapy the radioactivity of the [131I]-capsule must be determined to prevent misadministration. This leads to a significant radiation exposure to the staff. We describe an alternative method, allowing a considerable reduction of the radiation exposure. Two [131I]-capsules (A01 = 2818.5; A02 = 7355.0 MBq) were measured multiple times in their own delivery lead containers - that is to say, [131I]-capsules remain inside the containers during the measurements (shielded measurement) using a dose calibrator and a well-type and a thyroid uptake probe. The results of the shielded measurements were correlated linearly with the [131I]-capsules radioactivity to create calibration curves for the used devices. Additional radioactivity measurements of 50 [131I]-capsules of different radioactivities were done to validate the shielded measuring method. The personal skin dose rate (HP(0.07)) was determined using calibrated thermo luminescent dosimeters. The determination coefficients for the calibration curves were R2 > 0.9980 for all devices. The relative uncertainty of the shielded measurement was radioactivity. PMID:27455475

  3. Development of a kinetic model and calculation of radiation dose estimates for sodium iodide-131I in athyroid individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment for some thyroid carcinomas involves surgically removing the thyroid gland and administering the radiopharmaceutical Sodium iodide-131I (NaI). A diagnostic dose of NaI is given to the patient to determine if remnant tissue from the gland remains or larger doses are administered in order to treat the malignant tissue. Past research regarding NaI uptake and retention in euthyroid individuals (normal functioning thyroid) reveal that radioiodine concentrates mainly in the thyroid tissue and the remaining material is excreted from the body. The majority of radioiodine in athyroid (without thyroid) individuals is also eliminated from the body; however, there has been recent evidence of a long-term retention phase for individuals with no radioiodine concentrating tissue. The general purpose of this study was to develop a kinetic model and estimate the absorbed dose to athyroid individuals regarding the distribution and retention of NaI

  4. Study of the renal function in diabetic patients by 99sup(m)Tc-DTPA and 131I-Hippuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-six patients with diabetes in different stages were studied by radioisotopic techniques in an attempt to detect early alterations of renal function. Renal scintillography, 99sup(m)Tc-DTPA glomerular filtration rate, renogram and 131I-Hippuran effective renal plasma flow were the techniques employed. Renal evaluation was filled out by biochemical analysis of plasmatic urea and creatinine, 24 h-proteinuria and funduscopy of patients. The renal disease of diabetic patient is a result of the sum of many factors and subclinical functional alterations that appear can be ascribed to reversible hemodynamic alterations, such as decrease of plasma flow with increase of ultrafiltrated plasma fraction and of glomerular filtration. Mechanisms that lead to these alterations are not yet stablished. This work suggests that the diabetic patients well metabolic compensated present less incidence of degenerative complications, among them renal lesions. (Author)

  5. 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine as an aid in the differential diagnosis af small and round cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I-MIBG scintigraphy has proven to be highly sensitive (>90%) and specific (almost 100%) in locating neuroblastoma (NB). This may be useful in staging and restaging NB. Another possible value of MIBG scintigraphy is demonstrated: small and round cell tumors (especially in childhood) can present difficult diagnostic problems. NB belongs to this histologic group. Differential diagnosis also includes EWING's sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and malignant lymphoma. Since MIBG is known to concentrate only in NB, this radiopharmaceutical may narrow down the differential diagnosis. This could be demonstrated in four cases: in one of these, the diagnosis of NB was established, in the other three, NB was ruled out; further pathologic work-up in these cases revealed an ALL, a rhabdomyosarcoma and a NHL, respectively. (orig.)

  6. 131I-tositumomab myeloablative radioimmunotherapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: radiation dose to the testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Naoya; Gopal, Ajay K.; Shields, Andrew T.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gooley, Ted; Pagel, John M.; Press, Oliver W.; Rajendran, Joseph G.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiation doses to the testes delivered by a radiolabeled anti-CD20 antibody and its effects on male sex hormone levels. Materials and methods: Testicular uptake and retention of 131I-tositumomab were measured, and testicular absorbed doses were calculated for 67 male patients (54+/-11 years of age) with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who had undergone myeloablative radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-tositumomab. Time-activity curves for the major organs, testes, and whole body were generated from planar imaging studies. In a subset of patients, male sex hormones were measured before and 1 year after the therapy. Results: The absorbed dose to the testes showed considerable variability (range=4.4-70.2 Gy). Pretherapy levels of total testosterone were below the lower limit of the reference range, and post-therapy evaluation demonstrated further reduction [4.6+/-1.8 nmol/l (pre-RIT) vs. 3.8+/-2.9 nmol/l (post-RIT), P<0.05]. Patients receiving higher radiation doses to the testes (>=25 Gy) showed a greater reduction [4.7+/-1.6 nmol/l (pre-RIT) vs. 3.3+/-2.7 nmol/l (post-RIT), P<0.05] compared with patients receiving lower doses (<25 Gy), who showed no significant change in total testosterone levels. Conclusion: The testicular radiation absorbed dose varied highly among individual patients. Finally, patients receiving higher doses to the testes were more likely to show post-RIT suppression of testosterone levels.

  7. Estimation of intake by maximum likelihood method using folIow-up measurements of 131I thyroidal burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I is a short-lived radionuclide (T1/2 =8.04d) which decays by beta emission producing significant yields of photons of energies 0.364 MeV (82%) and 0.637 MeV (7%). In the present investigations, follow-up measurements were made by in-vivo monitoring technique for an individual who was internally contaminated with 131I due to injection. The measurements were carried out on seven different occasions to find retention profile of thyroid activity. The intake was estimated by using maximum likelihood method (MLM) assuming that the measurement data to be log-normally distributed (LND). The CF of WBM estimated from ANIP was 453.48 cpm/kBq at a distance of 20 cm. Intake computed from MLM was 89.3 kBq for injection route and the committed effective dose was 1.96 mSv. The auto correlation and chi-square test was performed with a scattering factor value of 1.2 as suggested by ICRP. The z value of autocorrelation test was obtained as 0.1304 which corresponds to P value of 0.449. Chi-square value obtained was 1.93 which corresponds to P value of 0.85, which was more than chosen level of significance (0.05) implying the adequacy of fit. This explains that the measurement data follows a LND. The scattering factor of log normal distribution can be estimated from follow-up measurement of such accidental scenarios. The paper presents the follow up monitoring data of thyroidal burden of an individual and gives a methodology for estimating the normalized Intake/CED using MLM and tested by statistical parameters. Measured retained thyroidal data on different days following the intake has closely fitted to the ICRP predicted retained activity

  8. New and superior adrenal imaging agent, /sup 131/I-6. beta. -iodomethyl-19-nor-cholesterol (NP-59): evaluation in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, S.D.; Cohen, E.L.; Beierwaltes, W.H.; Ice, R.D.; Cooper, R.; Gold, E.N.

    1977-08-01

    We have reported tissue distribution studies in rats and dogs with a new adrenal imaging agent, /sup 131/I-6..beta..-iodomethyl-19-nor-cholesterol (NP-59). This agent concentrated five times higher in the adrenal cortex than /sup 131/I-19-iodocholesterol without increased concentration in non-adrenal tissues. We now report in 34 patients, the findings on scintigraphy with NP-59 compared with angiograms and/or adrenal vein hormone levels and histopathology, including 13 patients with hypercortisolism, 12 with primary aldosteronism, 2 with low renin hypertension, 5 with catecholamine excess, 1 with a liver metastasis from an aldosterone producing adrenal cortical carcinoma, and 1 with anaplastic adrenal cortical carcinoma. NP-59 adrenal cortical uptake was more rapid and intense and background activity was less prominent, allowing earlier and more definite interpretation of images than was possible with /sup 131/I-19-iodocholesterol.

  9. The experimental study of reporter probe 131I-FIAU in neonatal cardiac myocytes after transfer of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase reporter gene by different vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Reporter gene imaging is a promising approach for noninvasive monitoring of cardiac gene therapy. In the present study, the recombinant plasmid and adenoviral vector carrying reporter gene. herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk), were constructed and transferred into nee-natal cardiac myocytes, and a series of in vitro studies were carried out on the cells transferred to evaluate the uptake of radiolabeled reporter probe and to compare both vectors for cardiac reporter gene imaging. Methods: Neonatal cardiac myocytes were obtained from rat heart by single collagenase digestion. HSVI-tk. chosen as the reporter gene.was inserted into adenovirus vector (Ad5-tk) and plasmid (pDC316-tk), thus it could be transferred into neonatal cardiac myocytes. Recombinant adenovirus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ad5-EGFP) was used as control. Recombinant plasmid was coated with lipofectamine TM 2000 (pDC316-tk/lipoplex). The specific reporter probe of HSV1-tk, 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-l-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-uracil (FAU), was labeled with 131I by solid phase oxidation with lodogen. Product wag purified on a reverse. phase Sep-Pak C18 column and the radiochemical purity wag then assessed. The accumulation of it in the transferred cardiac myocytes wag detected as uptake rate. Furthermore, mRNA expression of HSV1-tk was detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while its protein expression wag located by immunocytochemistry. Results: FAU could be labeled with 131I and the labeling efficiency was (53.82 ±2.05)%. The radiochemical purity was (94.85 ± 1.76)% after purification, and it kept stable in vitro for at least 24h. Time-dependent increase of the ac- cumulation of 131I-FIAU was observed in both Ad5-tk group and pDC316-tk/lipoplex group. and the highest uptake rate occurred at 5h, with peak values of (12.55 ± 0.37)% and (2.09 ± 0.34)% respectively. However, it also indicated that greater

  10. The absorbed dose to the blood is a better predictor of ablation success than the administered {sup 131}I activity in thyroid cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A.; Lassmann, Michael; Reiners, Christoph; Haenscheid, Heribert [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Maeder, Uwe [University of Wuerzburg, Comprehensive Cancer Center Mainfranken, Wuerzburg (Germany); Luster, Markus [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The residence time of {sup 131}I in the blood is likely to be a measure of the amount of {sup 131}I that is available for uptake by thyroid remnant tissue and thus the radiation absorbed dose to the target tissue in {sup 131}I ablation of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). This hypothesis was tested in an investigation on the dependence of the success rate of radioiodine remnant ablation on the radiation absorbed dose to the blood (BD) as a surrogate for the amount of {sup 131}I available for iodine-avid tissue uptake. This retrospective study included 449 DTC patients who received post-operative {sup 131}I ablation in our centre in the period from 1993 to 2007 and who returned to us for diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy. The BD was calculated based on external dose rate measurements using gamma probes positioned in the ceiling. Success of ablation was defined as a negative diagnostic {sup 131}I whole-body scan and undetectable thyroglobulin levels at 6 months follow-up. Ablation was successful in 56.6% of the patients. The rate of successful ablation correlated significantly with BD but not with the administered activity. Patients with blood doses exceeding 350 mGy (n = 144) had a significantly higher probability for successful ablation (63.9%) than the others (n = 305, ablation rate 53.1%, p = 0.03). In contrast, no significant dependence of the ablation rate on the administered activity was observed. The BD is a more powerful predictor of ablation success than the administered activity. (orig.)

  11. Response of monitors of surface contamination to internal exposition control from {sup 131}I in the 'nuclear medicine services'; Respuesta de monitores de contaminacion superficial para el control de la exposicion interna a {sup 131}I en servicios de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, Nancy; Rojo, Ana M.; Villella, Adrian; Gossio, Sebastian; Parada, Ines Gomez, E-mail: info@arn.gov.br [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Acosta, Norma; Arenas, German, E-mail: nacosta@fuesmen.edu.ar [Fundacion Escuela de Medina Nuclear (FUESMEN), Mendoza (Argentina)

    2013-11-01

    The IAEA, in its publication RS-G-1.2, proposes individual control of workers occupationally exposed with risk of internal exposure when the potential exposure provided by incorporation leads to a value of annual committed effective dose equal to or greater than 1 mSv. Because the radionuclide {sup 131}I is the most important to control internal exposure in Nuclear Medicine Services, it is evaluated if the surface contamination monitors, commonly used in nuclear medicine centers of Argentina, would implement individual control of internal exposure to {sup 131}I. Selected detectors were calibrated with a dummy neck and thyroid with calibrated sources of {sup 131}I and {sup 133}Ba reference. For each detector is was estimated the detection efficiency for {sup 131}I and its detection limit. Each instrument was evaluated for the lowest effective dose possible to detect compromised by individual routine monitoring with different measurement intervals . We analyzed the response of each team for determining conditions that may be effective for the control of internal exposure of {sup 131}I. Finally , we conclude that the daily individual monitoring surface contamination detectors available in the Nuclear Medicine Services is feasible to implement and ensures detection of significant additions of {sup 131}I.

  12. Long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis and future perspectives on thyroid protection during {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in children with neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, S.C. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, PO box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, R.R. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Trotsenburg, A.S.P. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, PO box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, H.N.; Tytgat, G.A.M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Santen, H.M. van [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to {sup 131}I-MIBG and to evaluate the possible negative effects of {sup 131}I{sup -} on the parathyroid glands. Of 81 long-term surviving patients with neuroblastoma treated with {sup 131}I-MIBG during the period 1999-2012, 24 were finally evaluated. Patients received thyroxine (T4), methimazole and potassium iodide as thyroid protection. In all patients (para)thyroid function was evaluated and ultrasound investigation of the (para)thyroid gland(s) was performed. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as a plasma thyrotropin concentration >5.0 mU/L (thyrotropin elevation, TE) or as the use of T4 at the time of follow-up. Hyperparathyroidism was defined as a serum calcium concentration above the age-related reference range in combination with an inappropriately high parathyroid hormone level. At a median follow-up of 9.0 years after {sup 131}I-MIBG treatment, thyroid disorders were seen in 12 patients (50 %; 9 with TE, 5 with a thyroid nodule and 1 patient was subsequently diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma). No significant risk factors for the occurrence of thyroid damage could be identified. In 14 of 21 patients (67 %) in whom thyroid volume could be determined, the volume was considered small (<-2SD) for age and gender. Patients treated with T4 at the time of follow-up had significantly smaller thyroid volumes for age than patients without T4 treatment (p = 0.014). None of the patients was diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism. Thyroid protection during treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG needs attention and must be further improved, as thyroid disorders are still frequently seen despite current thyroid prophylaxis. Reduced thyroid volume in neuroblastoma survivors may be related to previous {sup 131}I

  13. Follow-up and evaluation of the pregnancy outcomes in women of reproductive age with Graver' hyperthyroidism after 131I therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the pregnancy outcomes and effect on fertility in women with Graves' disease after 131I therapy and the health status of their newborns. Methods: From year 2009 to 2012,a total of 102 female patients with Graves' disease,who were pregnant during propylthiouracil (PTU)/L-thyroxine (euthyrox) maintenance treatment, were retrospectively recruited. The subjects were divided into 131I therapy group (n=57) and non-131I therapy group (n=45). The time interval between 131I (non-131I) therapy and getting pregnant were at least 6 months. They were followed for their pregnancy outcomes. During the pregnancy period, recorded parameters included serum thyroid biochemistry, dose of PTU/euthyrox, health conditions of the newborns and termination of pregnancy. Medication compliance, delivery mode,baby gender and body weight between the 2 groups were compared by χ2 test, Mann-Whitney u test, Fisher exact test and two-sample t test. Results: Ninety-seven patients had normal labor. In 131I therapy group and non-131I therapy group, 15 vs 22 patients were treated by PTU, 31 vs 18 by euthyrox and 11 vs 5 without any medication during pregnancy (χ2=5.69, P>0.05). The medical compliance (PTU and euthyrox: u=163.50, 233.50, both P>0.05) was similar between the 2 groups. The delivery mode (natural labor/cesarean: 36/19 vs 28/14, χ2=0.016), baby gender (male/female: 32/23 vs 18/24, χ2=2.239) and body weight ((3.18±0.47) vs (3.07±4.17) kg, t=1.154) were also similar between the 2 groups (all P>0.05). Conclusion: Women of reproductive age with Graves' disease were found to have normal pregnancy after 131I therapy, on the condition that their thyroid function could be reasonably controlled and maintained by the proper medication before and during pregnancy. (authors)

  14. Systemic Endoradiotherapy with Carrier Added 4 [{sup 131I}] Iodo {sup LP}henylalanine: Clinical Proof of principle in Refractory Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Richard P.; Schuchardt, Christiane; Senftleben, Stephan; Gildehaus, Franz Josef; Samnick, Samuel [PET Centre, Bad Berka (Germany); Kluge, Andreas; Bronzel, Marcus; Schmidt, Karl [ABX CRO Advanced Pharmaceutical Services, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    To explore feasibility, tolerability, dosimetry and probable efficacy of intravenous endoradiotherapy with carrier added 4 [{sup 131I}]iodo {sup Lp}henylalanine (c.a. {sup 131I} IPA) in refractory high grade glioma. Two male patients (45 and 50 years), with long standing, extensively pretreated gliomas and evidence of progression underwent single intravenous injections of 2 and 4 GBq of c.a. {sup 131I} IPA, respectively. Tumor targeting was verified by {sup 131I} IPA single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Metabolic and morphological changes indicative of tumour response were assessed by sequential [{sup 18F}] fluoroethyltyrosine ({sup 18F} FET) positron emission tomography (PET) and contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following therapy. Further monitoring included clinical state, safety laboratory, quality of life and dosimetry. Absorbed mean organ and whole body doses were determined according to the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) scheme using OLINDAEXM based on serial planar scintigraphy. Both patients tolerated the treatment well. No evidence of acute of delayed organ toxicity was observed. {sup 131I} IPA accumulated in the tumour recurrences identified by MRI/{sup 18F} FET. In patient 1, PET showed progressively decreasing maximum standardised uptake values (SUVmax) over 10 months, indicating metabolic response, paralleled by reduced contrast enhancement and tumour volume on MRI. Progression occurred 18 months after therapy. Treatment was repeated using 6.6 GBq of {sup 131I} IPA, to which no response was observed. Patient 2, followed up for 3 months after therapy, showed stable disease on MRI and PET. Mean absorbed whole body doses ranged from 0.13 to 0.17 mSv/MBq, with the highest absorbed organ doses to kidneys, bladder and heart (0.86-1.23; 0.49-0.6 and 0.45-0.56 mSv/MBq). Systemic endoradiotherapy using up to 6.6 GBq of c.a. {sup 131I} IPA is not associated with clinically detectable toxicity. Measurable anti tumour

  15. Comparable investigation in dopamine transporters with 99mTc-TRODAT-1 and 131I-FP-CIT SPECT in Parkinson's disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Congjin; LIU Xingdang; ZHANG Guangming; LI Ding; WANG Jian; YANG Liqin; JIANG Yuping

    2007-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates the regulation of dopaminergic function. Two agents of TRODAT-1and FP-CIT were observed in evaluating DAT change of Parkinson's disease (PD). The relationship between them was also evaluated. The results suggested that 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT and 131I-FP-CIT SPECT may serve as sensitiveand objective in vivo markers to reflect the severity of PD. The 99mTc-TRODAT-1 image is more accurate and clearercompared with 131I-FP-CIT.

  16. Dosimetry and microdosimetry of 188 Re-anti-CD20 and 131 I-anti-CD20 for the treatment of No Hodgkin lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare 131I-anti-CD20 and 188Re-anti-CD20 and to estimate the radiation absorbed dose at macro- and micro- level during a NHL treatment. The work was divided in 4 general objectives: 1) preparation of 131I-anti-CD20 and 188Re-anti-CD20, 2) application in patients to obtain biokinetic parameters and estimate the organ absorbed doses 3) estimation of the cellular dosimetry using the MIRD methodology and the MCNP4C2 code and 4) estimation of the cellular microdosimetry using the NOREC code. 188Re-anti-CD20 was prepared by a direct labelling method using sodium tartrate as a weak ligand. To evaluate the biological recognition a comparative study of the in vitro binding of 188Re-anti-CD20, 125I-anti-CD20 (positive control) and 188Re-anti-CEA (negative control) to normal B Iymphocytes was performed. Biodistribution studies in normal mice were accomplished to assess the in vivo Re-anti-CD20 complex stability. The binding of ' Re-anti-CD20 to cells was in the same range as '251-anti-CD20 (>80%) considered as the positive control. 188Re-anti-CD20 and '3'1-anti-CD20 prepared were administered in patients diagnosed with B cell NHL at the Centro Medico Siglo XXI (IMSS). The protocol was approved by the hospital's Medical Ethics Committee. AJI patients signed a consent form after receiving detailed information on the aims of the study. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM software to calculate the radiation absorbed dose to organs and whole body. Dosimetric studies indicate that after administration of 6.4 GBq and 4.87 to 8.75 GBq of '3'1-anti-CD20 and 188Re-anti-CD20 respectively, the absorbed dose to total body would be 0.75 Gy which corresponds to the recommended dose for NHL therapies. The calculated organ absorbed doses indicate that 188Re-anti-CD20 may be used in radioimmunotherapy without the risk of toxicity to red marrow or healthy organs. The absorbed dose (D) into cellular nucleus was calculated by two different

  17. Role of 131I-MIBG scintigraphy and 18F-DOPA PET/CT in the evaluation phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Phaeochromocytomas are a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth. These tumors secrete excessive amounts of catecholamines(epinephrine and norepinephrine) and patients most commonly present with palpitations, anxiety, diaphoresis and hypertension. Diagnosis is established by measuring catecholamines and metanephrines in plasma (blood) or through a 24-hour urine collection, and imaging procedures like ultrasound, CT, 131I - MIBG Scintigraphy and newer modalities like 18F-DOPA PET/CT. In this present study we present our initial experience with of 131I-MIBG scintigraphy and 18F-DOPA PET/CT in the evaluation Phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma. Sixteen patients with suspicion for phaeochromocytomas/paraganglioma were prospectively enrolled and scheduled for 131I - MIBG and 18F-DOPA PET/CT over a period of 14 months. Whenever possible, tissue diagnosis was attempted. Images were analyzed by two independent nuclear medicine physicians. 131I- MIBG scintigraphy identified eight positive lesions whereas 18F - DOPA PET/CT identified eleven positive lesions. At present, in our clinical experience either of the two tests do not appear to be clearly superior rather they mutually provide additional information in the given clinical setting and should be offered to patient whenever possible

  18. RECONSTRUCTION OF 131I RELEASES FROM STACKS OF THE RADIOCHEMICAL PLANT OF THE MAYAK PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION FOR THE PERIOD FROM 1948 TO 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glagolenko, Y. V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Mokrov, Y.; Pyatin, N. P.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-06-01

    The method of reconstruction of 131I releases from the Mayak PA Radiochemical Plant stacks for the period from 1948 to 1967 is proposed and the results of reconstruction are given. During this period of time, no continuous routine experimental monitoring of release was performed. As a result, reconstruction was carried out on the basis of earlier obtained data on deliveries of 131I to the radiochemical plants with irradiated uranium from the Mayak PA graphite - uranium reactors. The reconstruction also used calculation - experimental data on the iodine distribution in process solutions and in ventilation exhaust gases from the radiochemical plants, as well as in archive information on the efficiency of iodine trapping with the help of gas purification facilities. Available experimental data on 131I releases from the stacks of the radiochemical plants are given. The reconstruction results are presented as average monthly and annual releases of 131I from the stacks of radiochemical plants B and DB. The results are intended to be used for estimating doses to the population living in the vicinity of the enterprise in the 1950s-1960s.

  19. Reconstruction Of 131I Releases From Stacks Of The Radiochemical Plant Of The Mayak Production Association For The Period From 1948 To 1967

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of reconstruction of 131I releases from the Mayak PA Radiochemical Plant stacks for the period from 1948 to 1967 is proposed and the results of reconstruction are given. During this period of time, no continuous routine experimental monitoring of release was performed. As a result, reconstruction was carried out on the basis of earlier obtained data on deliveries of 131I to the radiochemical plants with irradiated uranium from the Mayak PA graphite - uranium reactors. The reconstruction also used calculation - experimental data on the iodine distribution in process solutions and in ventilation exhaust gases from the radiochemical plants, as well as in archive information on the efficiency of iodine trapping with the help of gas purification facilities. Available experimental data on 131I releases from the stacks of the radiochemical plants are given. The reconstruction results are presented as average monthly and annual releases of 131I from the stacks of radiochemical plants B and DB. The results are intended to be used for estimating doses to the population living in the vicinity of the enterprise in the 1950s-1960s.

  20. Effects of renal shielding on the degradation of 125I-insulin and Na131I in rabbits exposed to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of simultaneously injected Na131I and 125I bovine insulin was investigated in 12 rabbits before and after whole-body exposure to 700 R X-rays, with the kidneys shielded by a lead plate. The following parameters were measured: a) Degradation of 131iodide, b) Degradation of the total 125I radioactivity in the blood, c) Degradation in the blood of the 125I radioactivity precipitable with trichloraecetic acid, d) Elimination with urine of 131I and 125I, e) Radioactivity concentrations in the livers, kidneys, spleens, and thyroid glands of irradiated animals only, f) Blood leukocyte count. The following results were obtained: 1) The distribution of Na131I and 125I-insulin between plasma and extravascular space and the cell uptake of these substances remained unchanged on irradiation. 2) The renal insulin catabolism and the renal excretion function for water, iodide, and insulin degradation products remained unchanged while insulin degradation by the other organs was significantly delayed. 3) The delayed insulin catabolism is assumed to be due to radiolesions of the liver. 4) There was no effect of X-ray exposure on the distribution of Na131I and 125I-insulin on the liver, kidneys, and spleen. 5) Blood leukocyte counts decreased rapidly directly after irradiation and had reached a constant 11% of the initial level at four days p.r. on an average. (orig./MG)

  1. {sup 111}In-DTPA{sup 0}-octreotide (Octreoscan), {sup 131}I-MIBG and other agents for radionuclide therapy of NETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomanji, Jamshed B.; Papathanasiou, Nikolaos D. [University College Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    This paper is a critical review of the literature on NET radionuclide therapy with {sup 111}In-DTPA{sup 0}-octreotide (Octreoscan) and {sup 131}I-MIBG, focusing on efficacy and toxicity. Some potential future applications and new candidate therapeutic agents are also mentioned. Octreoscan has been a pioneering agent for somatostatin receptor radionuclide therapy. It has achieved symptomatic responses and disease stabilization, but it is now outperformed by the corresponding {beta}-emitter agents {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE and {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC. {sup 131}I-MIBG is the radionuclide therapy of choice for inoperable or metastatic phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas, which avidly concentrate this tracer via the noradrenaline transporter. Symptomatic, biochemical and tumour morphological response rates of 50-89%, 45-74% and 27-47%, respectively, have been reported. {sup 131}I-MIBG is a second-line radiopharmaceutical for treatment of enterochromaffin carcinoids, mainly offering the benefit of amelioration of hormone-induced symptoms. High specific activity, non-carrier-added {sup 131}I-MIBG and meta-astato({sup 211}At)-benzylguanidine (MABG) are tracers with potential for enhanced therapeutic efficacy, yet their integration into clinical practice awaits further exploration. Amongst other promising agents, radiolabelled exendin analogues show potential for imaging and possibly therapy of insulinomas, while preclinical studies are currently evaluating DOTA peptides targeting the CCK-2/gastrin receptors that are overexpressed by medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. (orig.)

  2. Estimating 131I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in thyroid cancer patients: probe detection versus image quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willegaignon, José; Pelissoni, Rogério Alexandre; Lima, Beatriz Christine de Godoy Diniz; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Queiroz, Marcelo Araújo; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the probe detection method with the image quantification method when estimating 131I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in the treatment of thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods Fourteen patients with metastatic thyroid cancer, without metastatic bone involvement, were submitted to therapy planning in order to tailor the therapeutic amount of 131I to each individual. Whole-body scans and probe measurements were performed at 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after 131I administration in order to estimate the effective half-life (Teff) and residence time of 131I in the body. Results The mean values for Teff and residence time, respectively, were 19 ± 9 h and 28 ± 12 h for probe detection, compared with 20 ± 13 h and 29 ± 18 h for image quantification. The average dose to the red marrow and whole body, respectively, was 0.061 ± 0.041 mGy/MBq and 0.073 ± 0.040 mGy/MBq for probe detection, compared with 0.066 ± 0.055 mGy/MBq and 0.078 ± 0.056 mGy/MBq for image quantification. Statistical analysis proved that there were no significant differences between the two methods for estimating the Teff (p = 0.801), residence time (p = 0.801), dose to the red marrow (p = 0.708), and dose to the whole body (p = 0.811), even when we considered an optimized approach for calculating doses only at 4 h and 96 h after 131I administration (p > 0.914). Conclusion There is full agreement as to the feasibility of using probe detection and image quantification when estimating 131I biokinetics and red-marrow/whole-body doses. However, because the probe detection method is inefficacious in identifying tumor sites and critical organs during radionuclide therapy and therefore liable to skew adjustment of the amount of 131I to be administered to patients under such therapy, it should be used with caution.

  3. Estimating 131I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in thyroid cancer patients: probe detection versus image quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Willegaignon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the probe detection method with the image quantification method when estimating 131I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in the treatment of thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients with metastatic thyroid cancer, without metastatic bone involvement, were submitted to therapy planning in order to tailor the therapeutic amount of 131I to each individual. Whole-body scans and probe measurements were performed at 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after 131I administration in order to estimate the effective half-life (Teff and residence time of 131I in the body. Results: The mean values for Teff and residence time, respectively, were 19 ± 9 h and 28 ± 12 h for probe detection, compared with 20 ± 13 h and 29 ± 18 h for image quantification. The average dose to the red marrow and whole body, respectively, was 0.061 ± 0.041 mGy/MBq and 0.073 ± 0.040 mGy/MBq for probe detection, compared with 0.066 ± 0.055 mGy/MBq and 0.078 ± 0.056 mGy/MBq for image quantification. Statistical analysis proved that there were no significant differences between the two methods for estimating the Teff (p = 0.801, residence time (p = 0.801, dose to the red marrow (p = 0.708, and dose to the whole body (p = 0.811, even when we considered an optimized approach for calculating doses only at 4 h and 96 h after 131I administration (p > 0.914. Conclusion: There is full agreement as to the feasibility of using probe detection and image quantification when estimating 131I biokinetics and red-marrow/whole-body doses. However, because the probe detection method is inefficacious in identifying tumor sites and critical organs during radionuclide therapy and therefore liable to skew adjustment of the amount of 131I to be administered to patients under such therapy, it should be used with caution.

  4. Estimating 131I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in thyroid cancer patients: probe detection versus image quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willegaignon, José; Pelissoni, Rogério Alexandre; Lima, Beatriz Christine de Godoy Diniz; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Queiroz, Marcelo Araújo; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the probe detection method with the image quantification method when estimating 131I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in the treatment of thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods Fourteen patients with metastatic thyroid cancer, without metastatic bone involvement, were submitted to therapy planning in order to tailor the therapeutic amount of 131I to each individual. Whole-body scans and probe measurements were performed at 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after 131I administration in order to estimate the effective half-life (Teff) and residence time of 131I in the body. Results The mean values for Teff and residence time, respectively, were 19 ± 9 h and 28 ± 12 h for probe detection, compared with 20 ± 13 h and 29 ± 18 h for image quantification. The average dose to the red marrow and whole body, respectively, was 0.061 ± 0.041 mGy/MBq and 0.073 ± 0.040 mGy/MBq for probe detection, compared with 0.066 ± 0.055 mGy/MBq and 0.078 ± 0.056 mGy/MBq for image quantification. Statistical analysis proved that there were no significant differences between the two methods for estimating the Teff (p = 0.801), residence time (p = 0.801), dose to the red marrow (p = 0.708), and dose to the whole body (p = 0.811), even when we considered an optimized approach for calculating doses only at 4 h and 96 h after 131I administration (p > 0.914). Conclusion There is full agreement as to the feasibility of using probe detection and image quantification when estimating 131I biokinetics and red-marrow/whole-body doses. However, because the probe detection method is inefficacious in identifying tumor sites and critical organs during radionuclide therapy and therefore liable to skew adjustment of the amount of 131I to be administered to patients under such therapy, it should be used with caution. PMID:27403014

  5. Estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in thyroid cancer patients: probe detection versus image quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, Jose; Pelissoni, Rogerio Alexandre; Lima, Beatriz Christine de Godoy Diniz; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Queiroz, Marcelo Araujo, E-mail: j.willegaignon@gmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira (ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia

    2016-05-15

    Objective: to compare the probe detection method with the image quantification method when estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in the treatment of thyroid cancer patients. Materials and methods: fourteen patients with metastatic thyroid cancer, without metastatic bone involvement, were submitted to therapy planning in order to tailor the therapeutic amount of {sup 131}I to each individual. Whole-body scans and probe measurements were performed at 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after {sup 131}I administration in order to estimate the effective half-life (T{sub eff}) and residence time of {sup 131}I in the body. Results: the mean values for T{sub eff} and residence time, respectively, were 19 ± 9 h and 28 ± 12 h for probe detection, compared with 20 ± 13 h and 29 ± 18 h for image quantification. The average dose to the red marrow and whole body, respectively, was 0.061 ± 0.041 mGy/MBq and 0.073 ± 0.040 mGy/MBq for probe detection, compared with 0.066 ± 0.055 mGy/MBq and 0.078 ± 0.056 mGy/MBq for image quantification. Statistical analysis proved that there were no significant differences between the two methods for estimating the T{sub eff} (p = 0.801), residence time (p = 0.801), dose to the red marrow (p = 0.708), and dose to the whole body (p = 0.811), even when we considered an optimized approach for calculating doses only at 4 h and 96 h after {sup 131}I administration (p > 0.914). Conclusion: there is full agreement as to the feasibility of using probe detection and image quantification when estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and red-marrow/whole-body doses. However, because the probe detection method is ineffective in identifying tumor sites and critical organs during radionuclide therapy and therefore liable to skew adjustment of the amount of {sup 131}I to be administered to patients under such therapy, it should be used with caution. (author)

  6. Analysis of 129I in the soils of Fukushima Prefecture: preliminary reconstruction of 131I deposition related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the most critical radionuclides to be monitored after release from reactor accidents due to the tendency for this nuclide to accumulate in the human thyroid gland. However, there are not enough data related to the reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan to provide regional information on the deposition of this short-lived nuclide (half-life = 8.02 d). In this study we have focused on the long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (half-life of 1.57 × 10(7) y), and analyzed it by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for surface soil samples collected at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to obtain information on the (131)I/(129)I ratio released from the accident, we have determined (129)I concentrations in 82 soil samples in which (131)I concentrations were previously determined. There was a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) between the two nuclides, suggesting that the (131)I levels in soil samples following the accident can be estimated through the analysis of (129)I. We have also examined the possible influence from (129m)Te on (129)I, and found no significant effect. In order to construct a deposition map of (131)I, we determined the (129)I concentrations (Bq/kg) in 388 soil samples collected from different locations in Fukushima Prefecture and the deposition densities (Bq/m(2)) of (131)I were reconstructed from the results.

  7. Biologically effective dose in fractionated molecular radiotherapy—application to treatment of neuroblastoma with 131I-mIBG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, Pablo; Gustafsson, Johan; Flux, Glenn; Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the biologically effective dose (BED) is investigated for fractionated molecular radiotherapy (MRT). A formula for the Lea-Catcheside G-factor is derived which takes the possibility of combinations of sub-lethal damage due to radiation from different administrations of activity into account. In contrast to the previous formula, the new G-factor has an explicit dependence on the time interval between administrations. The BED of tumour and liver is analysed in MRT of neuroblastoma with 131I-mIBG, following a common two-administration protocol with a mass-based activity prescription. A BED analysis is also made for modified schedules, when due to local regulations there is a maximum permitted activity for each administration. Modifications include both the simplistic approach of delivering this maximum permitted activity in each of the two administrations, and also the introduction of additional administrations while maintaining the protocol-prescribed total activity. For the cases studied with additional (i.e. more than two) administrations, BED of tumour and liver decreases at most 12% and 29%, respectively. The decrease in BED of the tumour is however modest compared to the two-administration schedule using the maximum permitted activity, where the decrease compared to the original schedule is 47%.

  8. Thyroidal radioisotope uptake in euthyroid cats : a comparison between 131I and 99MTcO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lambrechts

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Two thyroidal evaluation systems in euthyroid cats (n = 12 were compared. A single, confirmed hyperthyroid cat was included for interest. Firstly, thyroidal uptake of an intravenous bolus of approximately 111 MBq (3 mCi 99MTcO4- was estimated by using a scintillation camera and calculating the ratio of thyroid to salivary activities at 20 min and 4 h. Thyroid to salivary activity ratios were 1:1 at 20 min and 2:1 at 4 h. Two discrete areas of salivary uptake were identified, namely a parotid/mandibular complex and a more rostral buccal/sublingual complex. These results were compared to radioiodine uptake of an oral dose of approximately 0.925 MBq (25 mCi 131I using a standard thyroid uptake system, measured at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24 and 48 h after administration. Mean radioiodine thyroidal uptake started at 33 % at 1 h, stabilised at 21 % between 4 and 24 h, and dropped to 18 % at 48 h. There was a significant correlation between the early thyroid:salivary ratio of the parotid/mandibular complex and the radioiodine uptake at 12 h.

  9. Relationship of serum lipids to adrenal-gland uptake of 6β-[131I] iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol in Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alteration in serum cholesterol levels has been suggested as a possible modifier of adrenal uptake of the cholesterol analog, 6β-[131I]iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59). To assess the effect of hypercholesterolemia upon NP-59 adrenal uptake, patients with Cushing's syndrome (eight with pituitary-dependent, four with ACTH-independent, and two with ectopic-ACTH syndrome) were selected for retrospective analysis based on the availability of serum cholesterol (n = 14) and triglyceride (n = 10) concentrations obtained at the time of adrenal scintigraphy. A negative correlation (r = -0.78, p < 0.01) was found between NP-59 uptake and serum cholesterol levels in patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease. Compared with pituitary-dependent disease, the ectopic-ACTH syndrome and ACTH-independent states demonstrated equal or greater adrenal uptake of NP-59 at similar serum cholesterol concentrations. Serum triglyceride concentrations did not correlate with total adrenal uptake of NP-59 in any of the patient groups studied. Increased serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with diminished adrenal uptake of NP-59, and in some cases may limit the diagnoic efficacy of adrenal scintigraphy in Cushing's syndrome

  10. 131I-albumin caused metabolic changes in patients carrying systemic lupus erythematosus with or without nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human 131I-albumin metabolism has been analyzed in 28 female patients carrying systemic lupus erythematosus, 14 out of whom have also presented nephropathy. The hypoalbuminemia common in this type of affection is explained. The results of a comparison made between the two groups, as well as of another comparison of both groups to a normal female individuals one let to the following conclusion: non-significant difference was show relating to restoration and distribution half-life, as well as albumin turn over rate under the two fold comparisons; significative distribution half-life increase in those patients suffering from kidneys disease when compared to normal individuals; non-significative half-life and radioactive albumin turn over rate difference of patients with renal lesion when compared to normal women. The findings allowed the following judgment: if the synthesis and the katabolism are excluded as the main causes of the hypoalbuminemia, the other factors may be a compensation mechanism due to protein alterations like the hypergammaglobulinemia without, however, any sensible loss of the stabilizing and metabolic albumin functions, perhaps due to a possible qualitative change of its molecule

  11. Modified-Release Recombinant Human TSH (MRrhTSH) Augments the Effect of 131I Therapy in Benign Multinodular Goiter: Results from a Multicenter International, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graf, H; Fast, S; Pacini, F;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) can be used to enhance (131)I therapy for shrinkage of multinodular goiter (MG). Objective, Design, and Setting: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of 0.01 and 0.03 mg modified-release (MR) rhTSH as an adjuvant to (131)I the...

  12. Q12 differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Stimulation of the endogenous TSH with multiples doses of TRH and its treatment with 131I. Three experience years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search of an alternative method to the rh-TSH to stimulate endogenous rising of TSH previous to thyroid ablation with 131I in patients with CDT operated. The purpose of the work began in 2001 in Paraguay using multiple dose of TRH IV (200μU of TRH Threlea Argentina) to stimulate the own TSH of patients previous to 131I ablation. It is known that the injection of an unique dose of 200μU of TRH IV achieves the increasing of the endogenous TSH in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma up to 30 - 35 mUI/L at the end of the first hour, however, there is not statistical data of the effects of multiple injections of TRH applied IV or IM in operated patients of DTC previous to the ablation with 131I. Since 2001-2007, two hundred patients operated for DTC were studied by this method, 120 were papillary cancer and 80 follicular cancer. One hundred eighty did not have distance metastasis and 20 presented metastasis in thorax, pelvis and dorsal spine. Total thyroidectomy was carried out in 120 and total lobectomy with itsmectomy plus hemilobectomy of the other lobe in 80. All were treated with ablative dose of 100 mCi (3.700 mBq) of 131I, except those with metastasis which receive 150 mCi (5.500 mBq) with the previous stimulation with TRH IV with two daily dose for three days with previous suspension of L-tiroxine for 25 days and replaced by triyodotiroxine 25 mcg/d for 15 days with suspension 10 days before the stimulation with TRH and treatment with 131I. Two patients with metastasis received another extra dose of 150 mCi (5.550 MBq) 6 months later. One presented uptake in thyroid bed one year after the ablation received a new ablative dose of 100 mCi (3.700 mBq) of 131I. All the patients were interned and isolated by 48 hours. Twenty feminine patients had later pregnancies in 1-3 years after their ablative dose with healthy products. TSH was measured during the stimulation with TRH in all patients. Whole body scan was done with a gamma camera Spect LFOV

  13. Evaluation of absorbed dose in studies of renal function due to {sup 123}I/{sup 131}I (hippuran) e {sup 111}In (DPTA); Evaluacion de la dosis absorbida durante estudios de la funcion renal debido al {sup 123}I/{sup 131}I (hippuran) e {sup 111}In (DPTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M.V.; Castillo, C.E.; Rojas, R.; Cabrera, C.; Abanto, D.; Morgan, A. [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (UNT), Area de Fisica Medica, Trujillo (Peru); Diaz, E.E., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The absorbed dose of the kidneys during renal function studies of adult patients is estimated through biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing the {sup 123}I/{sup 131}I (hippuran) e {sup 111}In (DPTA). Using the methodology MIRD and representation Cristy-Eckerman for adult kidneys, it is shown that dosimetric contributions of organs of biokinetics {sup 123}I/{sup 131}I (hippuran) e {sup 111}In (DPTA) are significant, in estimative of dose for renal function studies. Dosimetric contributions (body and whole bladder, kidneys excluding) are given by 11.90% (for {sup 123}I), 4.97% (for {sup 131}I) and 28.32% (for {sup 111}In). In all cases, the dosimetric contributions are mainly due to photons issued by the whole body.

  14. 123I and 13I purification for biomolecules labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 123I and 131I are iodine radioisotopes widely used in Nuclear Medicine. The radioisotope 123I is used in diagnosis through the SPECT technique and is routinely produced at IPEN in cyclotron through the reaction: '124Xe (p, 2n) '123Cs -> 123Xe -> 123I. The radioisotope 131I is used both in diagnosis and therapy due to its physical characteristics of decay by β- and its γ-ray emissions that are softened with the use of specific collimators for diagnosis. It is routinely produced at IPEN using the nuclear reactor through the indirect reaction: 130Te (n, γ) ->131Te -> 131I, irradiating compounds containing Te. The radiopharmaceuticals prepared with these radioisotopes go through rigorous quality control tests and the chemical purity of the primary radioisotopes 123I and 131I are within the permissible limits currently defined. However, the presence of some chemical contaminants can prejudice the biomolecules labeling (monoclonal antibodies and peptides), that will produce radiopharmaceuticals of first generation to the oncology area. The aim of this work was to obtain a new purification method of these radioisotopes, allowing the labeling of biomolecules and also to established a process control on those radioisotopes. The methodology was separated on 3 steps: Evaluation of '123I e 131I radionuclidic purity using a hyper pure germanium detector, chemical purity using ICP-OES and the retention and elution study of 131I in several absorbers to choose the most appropriate for the purification tests analyzing the behavior of the possible contaminants. The radionuclidic analyses showed the presence of Te and Co on 131I samples and Te, Tc e Co on 123I samples. The chemical purity analyses showed the presence of Al and Mo in 123I, coming from the window material of the target holder and the presence of Al and Te in 131I samples, coming from the target holder and the target, respectively. The retention and elution study selected the most promising adsorber to the

  15. Obtention, sintering and operational tests of the obtention prototype TeO{sub 2} for the production of {sup 131} I; Obtencion, sinterizado y pruebas operacionales del prototipo de obtencion TeO{sub 2} para la produccion de {sup 131} I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1997-12-15

    The demand that exists in Mexico of developing production techniques of applicable radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine, it forces to the National Institute of Nuclear Research to develop the obtaining process of {sup 131} I by dry via starting from TeO{sub 2}. The obtaining process of {sup 131} I, it begins with the synthesis of the TeO{sub 2} like matter prevails, starting from the oxidation of Te-elementary one, inside HNO{sub 3}. Later on the TeO{sub 2}, passes to the sintering process in ingots form, in that way it is encapsulated in aluminum, to be irradiated under optimal parameters of irradiation in the nuclear reactor. The irradiated TeO{sub 2}, it passes to the stage of distillation of {sup 131} I, in a distillation equipment of {sup 131} I by dry via starting from TeO{sub 2}. The process equipment consists mainly of three parts: a) the system of distillation control, built of steel, aluminum, bronze and brass, among other, b) distillation system, built of glass pyrex and of quartz, in this system is where the chemical and nuclear reactions take place for the obtaining of {sup 131} I and c) electric system, is the one in charge of the electric energy supply for the process oven, ventilation system and vacuum system. The results of experimental tests, check the effectiveness of the production process of {sup 131} I in the ININ in routine form (industrial), however it is indispensable to optimize the physical, chemical and nuclear parameters that intervene in each stage of the process with the purpose to obtaining the maximum yield, purity, quality and radiological control and economic production costs. (Author)

  16. {sup 99m}Tc reduces clonogenic survival after intracellular uptake in NIS positive cells in vitro more than {sup 131}I; {sup 99m}Tc reduziert nach intrazellulaerer Aufnahme in NIS-positiven Zellen in vitro das klonogene Ueberleben staerker als {sup 131}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendisch, M.; Freudenberg, R.; Drechsel, J.; Runge, R.; Wunderlich, G.; Kotzerke, Joerg [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden - Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2010-07-01

    In addition to gamma radiation of 140 keV {sup 99m}Tc emits during the transition to {sup 99}Tc electrons of low energy and tiny path-lengths. These Auger electrons cannot be utilized in diagnostic procedures. However, they were discussed frequently for therapeutic application. Hitherto proof of effect of the Auger electrons from {sup 99m}Tc is missing which is supplied now in an in vitro-system in comparison to beta-emitter {sup 131}I. The thyroid cell line PC CI3 (sodium iodide symporter (NIS)-positive) was incubated with {sup 131}I-sodium iodide ({sup 131}I) or {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate ({sup 99m}Tc) in presence or absence of perchlorate. For comparison the amount of radioactivity was adjusted to obtain the same dose from extracellular irradiation for both radionuclides. The colony forming assay detects the clonogenic cell survival as surviving fraction. In addition, intracellular radionuclide uptake was quantified. Dose effect curves were established for {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc for variable extra- and intracellular distribution of the radioactivity. In presence of perchlorate no cellular uptake of radioactivity was detectable. Survival curves were largely comparable confirming the dosimetric calculations. In absence of perchlorate cellular radiotracer uptake varied from 1.39% ({sup 131}I) to 1.90% ({sup 99m}Tc). Effects on survival were twice for the beta-emitter and ten-fold higher for {sup 99m}Tc. Intracellular uptake of {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc increases DNA-damage compared to strict extracellular radiotracer distribution which was demonstrated by means of colony forming assay. Increasing radiotoxicity from intracellular {sup 99m}Tc is explained most likely by increased dose deposition in cellular structures due to Auger- und conversion-electrons of low range and high local energy deposition. (orig.)

  17. Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan: current issues with historical review and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Kudo, Takashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2012-02-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI, (131)I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of "radiophobia". There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements. PMID:22081274

  18. Dosimetry and microdosimetry of {sup 188} Re-anti-CD20 and {sup 131} I-anti-CD20 for the treatment of No Hodgkin lymphomas; Dosimetria y microdosimetria del {sup 188} Re-anti-CD20 y {sup 131} I-anti-CD20 para el tratamiento de linfomas No Hodgkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres G, E

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare {sup 131}I-anti-CD20 and {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 and to estimate the radiation absorbed dose at macro- and micro- level during a NHL treatment. The work was divided in 4 general objectives: 1) preparation of {sup 131}I-anti-CD20 and {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20, 2) application in patients to obtain biokinetic parameters and estimate the organ absorbed doses 3) estimation of the cellular dosimetry using the MIRD methodology and the MCNP4C2 code and 4) estimation of the cellular microdosimetry using the NOREC code. {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 was prepared by a direct labelling method using sodium tartrate as a weak ligand. To evaluate the biological recognition a comparative study of the in vitro binding of {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20, {sup 125}I-anti-CD20 (positive control) and {sup 188}Re-anti-CEA (negative control) to normal B Iymphocytes was performed. Biodistribution studies in normal mice were accomplished to assess the in vivo Re-anti-CD20 complex stability. The binding of ' Re-anti-CD20 to cells was in the same range as '251-anti-CD20 (>80%) considered as the positive control. {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 and '3'1-anti-CD20 prepared were administered in patients diagnosed with B cell NHL at the Centro Medico Siglo XXI (IMSS). The protocol was approved by the hospital's Medical Ethics Committee. AJI patients signed a consent form after receiving detailed information on the aims of the study. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM software to calculate the radiation absorbed dose to organs and whole body. Dosimetric studies indicate that after administration of 6.4 GBq and 4.87 to 8.75 GBq of '3'1-anti-CD20 and {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 respectively, the absorbed dose to total body would be 0.75 Gy which corresponds to the recommended dose for NHL therapies. The calculated organ absorbed doses indicate that {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 may be used in radioimmunotherapy without the risk of toxicity to red marrow or

  19. Measurement of airborne 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs nuclides due to the Fukushima reactors accident in air particulate in Milan (Italy)

    CERN Document Server

    Clemenza, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Sala, Elena

    2011-01-01

    After the earthquake and the tsunami occurred in Japan on 11th March 2011, four of the Fukushima reactors had released in air a large amount of radioactive isotopes that had been diffused all over the world. The presence of airborne 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in air particulate due to this accident has been detected and measured in the Low Radioactivity Laboratory operating in the Department of Environmental Sciences of the University of Milano-Bicocca. The sensitivity of the detecting apparatus is of 0.2 \\mu Bq/m3 of air. Concentration and time distribution of these radionuclides were determined and some correlations with the original reactor releases were found. Radioactive contaminations ranging from a few to 400 \\mu Bq/m3 for the 131I and of a few tens of \\mu Bq/m3 for the 137Cs and 134Cs have been detected

  20. Design and simulation of an automation system of a production process and fractionation of 131I, using strategies of advanced control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the results are obtained in the design and simulation of a control system using advanced strategies in a production cell in the Plant Production of Radioisotopes of IPEN. The results demonstrate that the temperature of the coalition oven is stabilized after 30 minutes, being constituted in an advantage to obtain the maximum yield of the cell production of 131I; also, an integral good controller has been designed that allows to obtain a mathematical model that reproduces with enough accuracy the behavior of the process. With the final simulation it has been to demonstrate that the System Control of Temperature of the Cell Production of 131I is a controllable system and allows to carry out the respective sequence with other variables of control of the production cell. (author)

  1. Establishment of Bacterial Endotoxin Test of Iodine [131 I]Actuximab Injection%碘[131I]爱克妥昔单抗注射液细菌内毒素检查方法建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙祥敏; 张云; 张先; 杨薇薇; 蔡海燕

    2015-01-01

    为建立碘[131 I]爱克妥昔单抗注射液的细菌内毒素检查方法,采用《中国药典》二部细菌内毒素检查法进行实验。结果表明,将供试品稀释10倍、20倍、40倍进行细菌内毒素检查均存在干扰;对供试品稀释80倍进行检查或采用抗增液复溶鲎试剂,再将供试品稀释20倍进行检查,均无干扰。供试品的细菌内毒素检查可采用将供试品至少稀释80倍进行检验的方法;也可采用抗增液复溶鲎试剂,将供试品稀释至少20倍进行检查。结果表明,直接稀释法为产品检验的首选方法。%To establish a method for the bacterial endotoxin test of Iodine [1 3 1 I]Actux-imab Injection,The experiment was carried out according to the appendix ⅪE in Vol.Ⅱof the 2010 version of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.The results demonstrated that the prepa-ration interfered with the test at 10 times,20 times and 40 times dilution,and the inter-ference can be eliminated after the sample was diluted to 80 times or the sample was diluted to 20 times with the endotoxin-specific buffer dissolving the Tachypleus Amebo-cyte Lysate.Two methods can be used to test the bacterial endotoxin of Iodine [1 3 1 I] Actuximab Injection.One is the sample should be diluted to atleast 80 times,the other is the sample was diluted to 20 times with the endotoxin-specific buffer dissolving the Tachypleus Amebocyte Lysate.The dilution method is the preferred method for the quality control.

  2. Comparative study of conventional PAH and inulin clearance and slope clearance of 131I-o-hippuric acid and 51Cr-EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Classic'' PAH and inulin clearance were determined in 81 patients with renal anomalies or renal diseases of different genesis and severity. In addition, radioisotope nephrography was carried out after administration of I-131-o-hippuric acid, followed by administration of Cr-51-EDTA. The activity decrease was recorded by a sensor located over the patient's right shoulder; the activities of a serum sample and of the urine excreted after 21 or 31 min were measured, and the findings were compared with those of the classic method. The clearance data calculated on the basis of the soulder measurements were hardly compatible with those of the conventional method in the case of 131I-o-hippuric acid (r=0.54) and totally incompatible in the case of 51Cr-EDTA. This means that the method described by Oberhausen is the only accurate method available for a quantitative assessment of the renal function on the basis of measurements of the activity decrease in the body. The activity of urine excreted after 31 min (131I-hippuric acid:r=0.992, 51Cr-EDTA:r=0.79) is a sufficiently accurate parameter although it is inaccurate at PAH clearance, values > 130 ml/min and inulin clearance values > 30 ml/min. Of the many parameters of radioisotope nephrogram curves, in the case of 131I-o-hippuric acid only the parameters related to the ascent between 48 and 120 sec or to the secant ascent yield sufficient quantitative information for certain functional regions (r=0.9 resp. r=0.93). In the case of 51Cr-EDTA, semiquantitative information on the renal function can be obtained by constructing secants on the nephrogram curves (r=0.7 resp. r=0.72). Here as in the case of 131I-hippuric acid, the contribution of each kidney can be determined individually from the functional analysis of both kidneys. (orig.)

  3. Favourable course of disease after incomplete remission on {sup 131}I therapy in children with pulmonary metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma: 10 years follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph; Kreissl, Michael C.; Verburg, Frederik A. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Demidchik, Yuri [Thyroid Cancer Centre, Minsk (Belarus); Drozd, Valentina [International Belarussian-German Foundation, Minsk (Belarus)

    2011-04-15

    The aim of this study is to report on a collective of 20 children from Belarus who had developed papillary thyroid carcinoma with pulmonary metastases after the Chernobyl disaster. In all children fractionated radioiodine therapy (RIT) was ceased before achieving complete remission due to a lack of further effects of {sup 131}I therapy and an increased risk of pulmonary fibrosis. The 20 children (12 girls) were treated with {sup 131}I using 50 MBq/kg body weight for thyroid remnant ablation and 100 MBq/kg for further therapy in intervals of 5-12 months. After five to six courses and a cumulative activity of about 24 GBq {sup 131}I no further RIT was conducted; the median thyroglobulin (TG) was 56 {mu}g/l at this time. All patients were followed for at least 10 years after cessation of RIT using diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy, CT of the chest, lung function testing and stimulated TG measurements every 1-3 years. During follow-up after the last RIT a continuous decline of values for TG levels of {proportional_to}35% per year was observed between individual visits. The median Tg level at the time of cessation of {sup 131}I therapy was 56 {mu}g/l; however, at the last visit 16 of 20 patients had a TG level {<=}10 {mu}g/l (median 2.4 {mu}g/l). Neither on diagnostic radioiodine whole-body scan nor on CT was progression of lung metastases observed. No significant pulmonary fibrosis developed. In spite of incomplete remission of thyroid cancer at cessation of RIT, a continuing spontaneous decline of TG and clinically stable partial remissions were observed in this collective of children. Therefore, if RIT does not show further effects, the administration of further courses should be handled restrictively. (orig.)

  4. The value of estimating serum apoptotic marker concentrations in the monitoring and prognosis of 131I -therapy in Graves disease. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radioiodine (131I) in Graves disease (GD) is probably due to the direct physical destruction of thyrocytes by beta radiation, and by the indirect action through stimulation of apoptosis in these cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the changes in serum concentrations of sFas and sFasL as stimulators of apoptosis, and Bcl-2 as an inhibitor of apoptosis in patients with GD following 131I administration. The study was performed on 30 patients with GD (29 female and 1 male aged 25-45). All patients were euthyroid (biochemical and clinical) prior to radioiodine therapy. The target absorbed dose ranged between 90 and 160 Gy. We assessed markers of apoptosis and hormone concentrations (fT3, fT4 and TSH) in the following manner: before 131I administration, then two weeks, one month, two, three, four, and five months after 131I administration. After four months, the concentrations of sFas and sFasL rose by 50% and decreased during the next month. Pretherapeutic concentrations of Bcl-2 were elevated, and peaked two weeks after ingestion, showing a gradual decrease with time. We found a significant increase in serum TSH, and a decrease of fT3 and fT4 concentrations by the end of the third month of radioiodine therapy. Decreases in serum levels of sFas and sFasL and increases of Bcl-2 are regarded as characteristic for GD patients before radioiodine therapy. Radioiodine therapy reverses the ratio of estimated markers after four months. The concentrations of hormones reflect actual thyroid function, whereas concentrations of markers of apoptosis may suggest morphological changes. (author)

  5. Unusual False Positive Radioiodine Uptake on (131)I Whole Body Scintigraphy in Three Unrelated Organs with Different Pathologies in Patients of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Rohit; Pawar, Shwetal; Mahajan, Abhishek; Basu, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    Three cases with unusual false positive radioiodine uptake in three different organs and pathologies (infective old fibrotic lesion in the lung, simple liver cyst, and benign breast lesion) on iodine-131 ((131)I) whole body scintigraphy. Clinicoradiological correlation was undertaken in all three cases and the pathologies were ascertained. In all the three cases, single-photon emission computerized tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) and ancillary imaging modalities were employed and were helpful in arriving at the final diagnosis.

  6. Posttherapeutic {sup 131}I SPECT-CT offers high diagnostic accuracy when the findings on conventional planar imaging are inconclusive and allows a tailored patient treatment regimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlfuerst, S.; Igerc, I.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Gomez-Segovia, I.; Matschnig, S.; Mayr, J.; Mikosch, P.; Lind, P. [State Hospital Klagenfurt, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, PET-CT Centre, Klagenfurt (Austria); Lobnig, M. [State Hospital Klagenfurt, Department of Radiology, Klagenfurt (Austria); Beheshti, M. [St. Vincent' s Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Linz (Austria)

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the diagnostic impact and influence on patient treatment of posttherapeutic {sup 131}I SPECT-CT when the findings on planar posttherapeutic whole-body scintigraphy (ptWBS) were inconclusive. A total of 53 SPECT-CT scans were performed in 41 patients with thyroid cancer after high-dose {sup 131}I therapy (2.944 to 7.526 GBq {sup 131}I) because of diagnostic uncertainty on ptWBS. Physiological uptake in the salivary glands, gastric mucosa, gut, nasal mucosa, urinary tract and liver were considered to be normal. Any other foci of increased {sup 131}I uptake, except iodine uptake clearly located in the thyroid bed, were considered to be abnormal. The data were evaluated on a lesion and a patient basis. Regarding neck lesions, SPECT-CT provided a diagnostic impact in 26/90 lesions (28.9%) and confirmed the diagnosis in 64/90 lesions (71.1%). On a patient basis, SPECT-CT changed N status in 12/33 patients (36.4%), provided a diagnostic impact in 21/33 patients (63.6%) and led to a treatment change in 8/33 patients (24.2%). Regarding lesions distant from the neck, SPECT-CT confirmed the diagnosis in 62/71 lesions (87.3%) and had a diagnostic impact in 9/71 lesions (12.7%). On a patient basis, SPECT-CT changed M status in 4/19 patients (21.1%), had a diagnostic impact in 14/19 patients (73.7%) and led to a treatment change in 2/19 patients (10.5%). Considering all patients, SPECT-CT led to a treatment change in 10/41 patients (24.4%). Integrated SPECT-CT is a useful tool, especially in cases of diagnostic uncertainty and helps to individualize patient management. (orig.)

  7. Unusual False Positive Radioiodine Uptake on 131I Whole Body Scintigraphy in Three Unrelated Organs with Different Pathologies in Patients of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Rohit; Pawar, Shwetal; Mahajan, Abhishek; Basu, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    Three cases with unusual false positive radioiodine uptake in three different organs and pathologies (infective old fibrotic lesion in the lung, simple liver cyst, and benign breast lesion) on iodine-131 (131I) whole body scintigraphy. Clinicoradiological correlation was undertaken in all three cases and the pathologies were ascertained. In all the three cases, single-photon emission computerized tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) and ancillary imaging modalities were employed and were helpful in arriving at the final diagnosis. PMID:27134566

  8. Favourable course of disease after incomplete remission on 131I therapy in children with pulmonary metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma: 10 years follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to report on a collective of 20 children from Belarus who had developed papillary thyroid carcinoma with pulmonary metastases after the Chernobyl disaster. In all children fractionated radioiodine therapy (RIT) was ceased before achieving complete remission due to a lack of further effects of 131I therapy and an increased risk of pulmonary fibrosis. The 20 children (12 girls) were treated with 131I using 50 MBq/kg body weight for thyroid remnant ablation and 100 MBq/kg for further therapy in intervals of 5-12 months. After five to six courses and a cumulative activity of about 24 GBq 131I no further RIT was conducted; the median thyroglobulin (TG) was 56 μg/l at this time. All patients were followed for at least 10 years after cessation of RIT using diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy, CT of the chest, lung function testing and stimulated TG measurements every 1-3 years. During follow-up after the last RIT a continuous decline of values for TG levels of ∝35% per year was observed between individual visits. The median Tg level at the time of cessation of 131I therapy was 56 μg/l; however, at the last visit 16 of 20 patients had a TG level ≤10 μg/l (median 2.4 μg/l). Neither on diagnostic radioiodine whole-body scan nor on CT was progression of lung metastases observed. No significant pulmonary fibrosis developed. In spite of incomplete remission of thyroid cancer at cessation of RIT, a continuing spontaneous decline of TG and clinically stable partial remissions were observed in this collective of children. Therefore, if RIT does not show further effects, the administration of further courses should be handled restrictively. (orig.)

  9. Dose in the uterus of a woman, with three months of pregnancy, due to the 131 I accumulated in her thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the absorbed dose by the uterus of a woman with three months of pregnancy to who was applied a dose of 131 I that was accumulated in the thyroid gland is determined. The absorbed dose was obtained by means of Monte Carlo calculations developing a detailed three-dimensional model of the pregnant one, where they have been included most of the organs. The absorbed dose also was calculated by means of a simple procedure. To verify the calculated results it was carried out an experiment where was constructed a phantom of the neck, in this was included the thyroid with 131 I and the exposure was measured at different distances of the neck; this was related with the dose. Of the Monte Carlo calculation is obtained that for each mCi of 131 I that is retained in the mother's thyroid, the uterus absorbs a dose of 6.80 E(-11) Gy. When comparing the results, it was found that the simple calculation throws a result 29 times superior to that of the dose obtained by means of Monte Carlo. When applying a correction for the effect of the absorption of the gamma photons by the mother's body an absorbed dose in the uterus was obtained that is 0.16 times superior to the Monte Carlo calculation. Of the experimental phase it is verified that the values calculated by means of the simple method are equal to those experimentally measured. (Author)

  10. Methods For Calculating Thyroid Doses to The Residents Of Ozersk Due to 131I Releases From The Stacks of The Mayak Production Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was established in the late 1940s in accordance with a special Decree of the USSR Government for the production of nuclear weapons. In early years of MPA operation, due to the lack of experience and absence of effective methods of RW management, the enterprise had extensive routine (designed) and non-routine (accidental) releases of gaseous radioactive wastes to the atmosphere. These practices resulted in additional technogenic radiation exposure of residents inhabiting populated areas near the MPA. The primary objective of ongoing studies under JCCRER Project 1.4 is to estimate doses to the residents of Ozersk due to releases of radioactive substances from the stacks of MPA. Preliminary scoping studies have demonstrated that releases of radioactive iodine (131I) from the stacks of the Mayak Radiochemical Plant represented the major contribution to the dose to residents of Ozersk and of other nearby populated areas. The behavior of 131I in the environment and of 131I migration through biological food chains (vegetation-cows-milk-humans) indicated a need for use of special mathematical models to perform the estimation of radiation doses to the population. The goal of this work is to select an appropriate model of the iodine migration in biological food chains and to justify numerical values of the model parameters.

  11. Radioimmunotherapy with {sup 131}I-Rituximab in a Patient with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Relapsed After Treatment with {sup 90}Y-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Geon Wook; Kang, Hye Jin; Shin, Dongyeop; Gu, Ha Ra; Choi, Hong Seok; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We report a case that demonstrates the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with radioiodinated rituximab ({sup 131}I-rituximab) for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A 79-year-old male patient with DLBCL initially achieved a complete response (CR) after six cycles of RCHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) therapy. However, the lymphoma relapsed 20 months later. Although the patient had achieved a second and a third CR after two cycles of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan, he experienced a third relapse approximately 3 years later. Between March and June 2011, the patient received three cycles of {sup 131}I-rituximab. Although he had achieved partial response after the second cycle, the disease progressed after the third cycle, and the total progression. Free survival was thus 5 months. The patient suffered only relatively mild toxicity (grade 1 thrombocytopenia) during treatment. RIT with {sup 131}I-rituximab is therefore potentially effective in patients with relapsed DLBCL, even after the failure of {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan therapy.

  12. Methods For Calculating Thyroid Doses to The Residents Of Ozersk Due to 131I Releases From The Stacks of The Mayak Production Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovny, Sergey I.; Mokrov, Y.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Beregich, D. A.; Teplyakov, I. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was established in the late 1940s in accordance with a special Decree of the USSR Government for the production of nuclear weapons. In early years of MPA operation, due to the lack of experience and absence of effective methods of RW management, the enterprise had extensive routine (designed) and non-routine (accidental) releases of gaseous radioactive wastes to the atmosphere. These practices resulted in additional technogenic radiation exposure of residents inhabiting populated areas near the MPA. The primary objective of ongoing studies under JCCRER Project 1.4 is to estimate doses to the residents of Ozersk due to releases of radioactive substances from the stacks of MPA. Preliminary scoping studies have demonstrated that releases of radioactive iodine (131I) from the stacks of the Mayak Radiochemical Plant represented the major contribution to the dose to residents of Ozersk and of other nearby populated areas. The behavior of 131I in the environment and of 131I migration through biological food chains (vegetation-cows-milk-humans) indicated a need for use of special mathematical models to perform the estimation of radiation doses to the population. The goal of this work is to select an appropriate model of the iodine migration in biological food chains and to justify numerical values of the model parameters.

  13. [{sup 131}I]Iodoazomycin arabinoside for low-dose-rate isotope radiotherapy: radiolabeling, stability, long-term whole-body clearance and radiation dosimetry estimates in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Piyush [Department of Oncologic Imaging, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N8 (Canada); McQuarrie, Steven A. [Department of Oncologic Imaging, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N8 (Canada); Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N8 (Canada); Zhou, Aihya [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N8 (Canada); McEwan, Alexander J.B. [Department of Oncologic Imaging, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N8 (Canada); Wiebe, Leonard I. [Department of Oncologic Imaging, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N8 (Canada) and Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N8 (Canada)]. E-mail: leonard.wiebe@ualberta.ca

    2005-08-01

    Background: The preliminary characterization of [{sup 131}I]iodoazomycin arabinoside ([{sup 131}I]IAZA) as a potential radiotherapeutic radiopharmaceutical is described. Methods: High-specific-activity [{sup 131}I]IAZA was prepared in therapeutic doses (up to 3 GBq per batch) by isotope exchange in pivalic acid melt and was purified on Sep-Pak cartridges. Stability in 15% ethanol in saline at 4 deg C was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. IAZA cytotoxicity (IC{sub 50}, {approx}0.1 mM) against both murine (EMT-6) and human (143B, 143B-LTK) tumor cells determined by MTT test was in the range previously reported for EMT-6 cells using a clonogenic assay. Tissue radioactivity levels were measured in a murine tumor model for the 24- to 168-h postinjection period. Radiation dose estimates obtained from the tissue activity levels for this period were calculated from pharmacokinetic (WinNonlin) and dosimetry (MIRD and RAdiation Dose Assessment Resource) parameters. Results: The radioiodination efficiency was >90%, but with systematic losses during Sep-Pak purification, the recovered yields of [{sup 131}I]IAZA were {approx}75%. The product (specific activity, 4.6-6.4 GBq/{mu}mol) was stable for at least 2 weeks, with only {approx}6% degradation over this storage period. Extended biodistribution studies in Balb/c mice bearing implanted EMT-6 tumors showed that the highest tumor/blood radioactivity ratio (T/B; 4.8) occurred 24 h after dosing; the T/B ratio was {approx}1.5 at the end of the 7-day study. The 24- to 168-h tissue radioactivity data fit a one-compartment model except for liver data, which best fit a two-compartment model. Dosimetry estimates showed a tumor self-dose of 7.4 mGy/MBq, which is several-fold higher than for the liver or the kidney. Conclusions: [{sup 131}I]IAZA can be efficiently radiolabeled at high specific activity, purified by a simple Sep-Pak technique and stored with little radiolysis or chemical decomposition at these specific

  14. In vivo molecular imaging and radionuclide (131I therapy of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells transfected with a lentivirus expressing sodium iodide symporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Shi

    Full Text Available Despite recent improvements in the survival rates for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, novel treatment strategies are required to improve distant metastasis-free survival. The sodium iodine symporter (NIS gene has been applied for in vivo imaging and cancer therapy. In this study, we examined the potential of NIS gene therapy as a therapeutic approach in NPC by performing non-invasive imaging using 125I and 131I therapy in vivo.We constructed a lentiviral vector expressing NIS and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of the human elongation factor-1α (EF1α promoter, and stably transfected the vector into CNE-2Z NPC cells to create CNE-2Z-NIS cells. CNE-2Z and CNE-2Z-NIS tumor xenografts were established in nude mice; 125I uptake, accumulation and efflux were measured using micro-SPECT/CT imaging; the therapeutic effects of treatment with 131I were assessed over 25 days by measuring tumor volume and immunohistochemical staining of the excised tumors.qPCR, immunofluorescence and Western blotting confirmed that CNE-2Z-NIS cells expressed high levels of NIS mRNA and protein. CNE-2Z-NIS cells and xenografts took up and accumulated significantly more 125I than CNE-2Z cells and xenografts. In vitro, 131I significantly reduced the clonogenic survival of CNE-2Z-NIS cells. In vivo, 131I effectively inhibited the growth of CNE-2Z-NIS xenografts. At the end of 131I therapy, CNE-2Z-NIS xenograft tumor cells expressed higher levels of NIS and caspase-3 and lower levels of Ki-67.Lentiviruses effectively delivered and mediated long-lasting expression of NIS in CNE-2Z cells which enabled uptake and accumulation of radioisotopes and provided a significant therapeutic effect in an in vivo model of NPC. NIS-mediated radioiodine treatment merits further investigation as a potentially effective, low toxicity therapeutic strategy for NPC.

  15. 131I和99mTc-MIBI全身显像联合血清Tg和CEA检测在分化型甲状腺癌131I治疗随访中的应用%The Application of 131I- and 99mTc-MIBI Whole Body Scan Combined Determination with Serum Thyroglobulin and CEA Levels in the Follow-up of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma with131I Radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪兵; 池晓华; 李贵平; 黄凯; 刘峰; 邓志芳; 黄宝丹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of131 I- and 99mTc-MBI whole body scan combined determination with serum thyro-globulin and CEA levels in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with I radiotherapy after surgical treatment. Methods Fourty eight patients with DTC after surgical treatment were treated with 131I radiotherapy. 131I-whole body scan combined determination with serum thyroglobulin; CEA levels were performed three to six months after I radiotherapy. While Tc-MIBI whole body scan was performed one year after treatment when 131I-whole body scan was negative. Results Regular follow-up after I treatment in 48 patients showed that 35 cases were found negative with 131I-WBS and serum Tg level while 6 cases were proved positive in both methods; and 5 cases were negative in 131I-WBS with positive serumTg level; on the other hand; 2 cases were positive in I-WBS with negative serum Tg level. 40 cases of 131I-WBS negative patients in the 99mTc-MIBI whole body scintigraphy were also negative. In 48 patients only 2 cases had positive serum CEA level. Conclusion I -whole body scan combined with serum Tg level determination were the most commonly method in the detecting of a recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer; and 99mTc-MIBI whole body scan and serum CEA level may become a useful supplement to 131I whole body scan and serum Tg level determination.%目的:评价131I-WBS和99mTc-MIBI全身显像联合血清Tg和CEA检测在分化型甲状腺癌术后放射性131I治疗随访中的应用价值.方法:48例DTC患者均行手术治疗并经131I治疗后(3~6)个月随访复查131I-WBS和血清Tg和CEA测定,131I-WBS显像阴性者于治疗后1年行99mTc-MIBI全身显像.结果:48例DTC患者行131I治疗后定期随访显示,35例患者的血清Tg水平及131I全身显象(131I-WBS)均为阴性,6例患者的血清Tg水平和131I-WBS均为阳性,两者符合率为85.42%(41/48);5例患者血清Tg水平为阳性而131I-WBS显像为阴性;2例

  16. 131I治疗单叶Graves’病的临床分析%The clinical analysis of 131I treatment in the single leaf Graves, disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡; 袁卫红

    2014-01-01

    Objective The single leaf Graves, and the double leaves Graves, patients were observed in 60 cases after 131I treatment, and observe the clinical and fol ow-up data of patients, analysis and comparison of 131I in the treatment of the single leaf Graves, and the double leaves Graves, in patients with clinical efficacy. Method Two groups of patients were adopted 131I treatment, fol ow-up observation were performed after treatment, compared with the 131I treated thyroid narrowing effect degree and treatment situation, to analyze the 131I treatment effect in the single leaf Graves , and the double leaves Graves,. Result The single leaf Graves, 131I treatment group: before and after the treatment of thyroid volume reduction of the statistical y significant difference. 43 cases were cured (71.7%), improved in 13 cases (21.7%), invalid 4 cases (6.6%), effective rate was 93.3%, the cure rate was 71.7%. The double leaves Graves, 131I treatment group: 46 cases were cured (76.7%), improved in 11 cases (18.3%), invalid 3 cases (5%), effective rate was 95%, the cure rate was 76.7% .Conclusion For the single leaf Graves, disease take 131I treatment, the curative effect of treatment with 131I in the double leaves Graves, disease withnot significant difference. The single leaf Graves, patients in thyroid tissue, thyroid scintigraphy in the uptake function hyperfunction of the leaf were reassessed, adopted the 131I treatment, as long as the treatment dose properly, adhere to individualized treatment plan, strengthening fol ow-up after treatment, can achieve effective results. 131I treatment of Graves, disease, has the advantages of simple, effective, safe,and economy.%目的:分别观察60例经过131I治疗的单叶Graves,病患者和双叶Graves,病患者的临床和随访资料,分析和比较131I治疗单叶Graves,病和双叶Graves,病患者的临床疗效。方法两组患者分别采取131I治疗,治疗后均进行随访观察,通过对比131I治疗后甲状

  17. 131I治疗对Graves眼病转归的影响%Effect of 131I therapy on outcomes of Graves' ophthalmopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王任飞; 谭建; 张桂芝; 尹亮

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析131I治疗后Graves甲状腺功能亢进症(甲亢)疗效与Graves眼病转归的相关关系,探讨131I治疗对Graves眼病转归的影响.方法 652例Graves甲亢合并Graves眼病的患者,均按照常规程序一次性给予治疗量的131I.服用131I前测量患者眼球突出度,并详细记录眼部症状和特征.治疗结束后定期随访,评价疗效.结果 患者服用131I后Graves甲亢治疗的总有效率约为94.3%,Graves眼病的总好转率约为73.3%,而Graves甲亢及Graves眼病治疗均有效者约占总病例数的71.2%.131I治疗后Graves眼病的转归与Graves甲亢是否得到有效缓解具有明显的相关性(r=0.302,P<0.05).131I治疗后Graves甲亢治愈组与甲状腺功能减退症(甲减)组比较,Graves眼病的疗效差异无统计学意义(x2=0.296,P>0.05).结论 通过131I治疗来缓解Graves甲亢是控制Graves眼病的根本措施.患者服用131I后加强随访,及时发现和纠正甲减可有效避免Graves眼病的加重.%Objective To analyze the correlation between the therapeutic effect of Graves'hyperthyroidism and the outcomes of Graves' ophthalmopathy after 131I therapy,and to explore the effect of 131I treatment on turnout of Graves' ophthalmopathy.Methods Six hundreds and fifty-two patients of Graves' disease accompanied with Graves' ophthalmopathy,received one-time 131I treatment according to routine procedure.We recorded exophthalmometer readings,the signs and symptoms of eyes before therapy.Regular follow-up and appraisal of curative effect were carried out.Results At least six months after 131Itherapy,the effective rate of Graves' hyperthyroidism and Graves' ophthalmopathy were 94.3% and 73.3%respectively.The total effective rate of hyperthyroidism with ophthalmophy was 71.2%.There was a significant correlation between the prognosis of Graves' ophthalmopathy and therapeutic efficacy of hyperthyroidism (r=0.302,P<0.05).The outcomes of Graves' ophthalmopathy had no

  18. A study of 131iodine-labeling of histamine-indomethacin: its in vivo therapeutic effect and anti-tumor mechanisms in Lewis-bearing lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our research,we study the effect of 131iodine-labeled histamine-indomethacin (131I-His-IN). We focus on its in vivo therapeutic effect and anti-tumor mechanisms in Lewis-bearing lung cancer. 131I-His-IN was administered by garage to the mice. At different timepoints, we made autoradiography (ARG) slices to observe the distribution of 131I-His-IN in the cellular, and the sliced samples underwent hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining for observation of tumor necrosis. Before treatment, the groups of mice underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scans ,and they were then given physiologic saline, iodine 131 (131I), indomethacin (IN), Histamine-indomethacin (His-IN), and 131I-His-IN, respectively, three times daily for seven days. Seven days later, all the mice underwent 18F-FDG PET-CT scans again. We calculated the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the region of interest (ROI) and tumor inhibition rate at the same time. In ARG groups, black silver particle was concentrated in the nucleus and cytoplasm. 131I-His-IN mainly concentrated in tumor tissues. At 8 hours after 131I-His-IN, the radioactivity uptake in tumor tissue was higher than in other organs (F=3.46,P<0.05). For the 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging, the tumor tissus’es SUVmax of the ROI was lower compared to other groups after the treatment with 131I-His-IN. The tumor inhibitory rate (54.8%) in 131I-His-IN group was higher than in other groups, too. In the 131I-His-IN group the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) decreased gradually compared to other groups. The tumor tissue necrotized obviously in 131I-His-IN group. Through these animal experiments, we found 131I-His-IN could inhibit the Lewis lung cancer cells. 131I-His-IN focused at the cell nucleus and cytoplasm. It could reduce VEGF and increase tumor inhibitory rate. At the same time, 18F-FDG PET-CT scan could be used for a curative effect and monitoring of disease prognosis

  19. Clinical study on radiofrequency combined with 131I therapy for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas%射频联合131I治疗失分化甲状腺癌的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hengping Li; Qinjiang Liu; Feng Dong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore clinical efficiency of radio frequency combined with 131I therapy for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma. Methods:All patients have been treated by radiofrequency connected with 1311 in 29 cases of dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma which performed radionuclide imaging and Ig array of blood serum before and after therapy, respectively. Results: There were 4 (4/29) positive cases of radionuclide imaging before treatment and 19 (19/29) cases 2 weeks after therapy, 25 (25/29) cases of overall efficacy and 15 (15/29) curative cases. Conclusion: Radiofrequency connected with 131I improve clinical efficacy of 131I treatment for dedifferentiated thyroid cancer of thyroid in view of higher absorbing 131I of thyroid cancerous cell.

  20. The Clinical Significance of Measuring the Thyroid 131I Uptake Rate to Identify the Type of Premature Hypothyroidism for Hyperthyroid After 131I Treatment%甲状腺吸131I率的测定对鉴别诊断甲亢131I治疗后早发甲低类型的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓波; 陈华明; 朱田凤

    2001-01-01

    通过测定甲状腺吸131I率鉴别诊断甲亢131I 治疗后早发甲低的类型。63例甲亢131I 治疗后早发甲低的患者(一过性甲低组33例,永久性甲低组30例),在甲状腺素替代治疗前、后6个月测定甲状腺3 h吸131I率和血清TT3、TT4、TSH浓度。结果表明:治疗前一过性与永久性甲低组间吸131I率有明显差异,TT3、TT4、TSH浓度无明显差异;与对照组相比,一过性甲低组治疗前吸131I率无差异,TT3、TT4和TSH浓度有明显差异,治疗后均无差异;永久性甲低组吸131I率治疗前、后均明显降低。因此早发甲低的患者,仅靠TT3、TT4、TSH水平难以鉴别甲低类型;但根据吸131I率可准确判断,即甲状腺3 h吸131I 率正常,可以判断为一过性甲低,反之则为永久性甲低。%The 3 h thyroid 131I uptake rate and the content of serum TT3,TT4,TSH are measured in 63 patients of premature hypothyroidism (consiting of 33 provisional pypothyroids and 30 perpetual hypothyroidism) before and after thyroxine substitutes treatment for six moths. The results show that there is obvious difference in 131I uptake rate compared provisional hypothyroidism with perpetual hypothyroidism, and no difference in the content of serum TT3,TT4,TSH before the treatment. Compared with normal conditions, there is no difference in 131I uptake rate of provisional hypothyroidism, but the 131I uptake rate of perpetual hypothyroidism has obvious decrease before and after the treatment. Therefore the type of patients who suffer from premature hypothyroidism can be distinguished according to the 131I uptake rate:if the 3 h thyroid 131I uptake rate is normal,it is provisional hypothyroidism;if not,it is perpetual hypothyroidism.

  1. Improved synthesis of 17β-hydroxy-16α-iodo-wortmannin, 17β-hydroxy-16α-iodoPX866, and the [131I] analogue as useful PET tracers for PI3-kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Duoli; Basvoju A. Bhanu Prasad; Schuber, Paul T.; Peng, Zhenghong; Maxwell, David S.; Martin, Diana V.; Guo, Liwei; Han, Dongmei; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Yang, David J.; Gelovani, Juri G.; Powis, Garth; Bornmann, William G.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for the synthesis of 17β-hydroxy-16α-iodo-wortmannin along with the first synthesis of 17β-hydroxy-16α-iodoPX866 and [131I] radiolabeled 17β-hydroxy-16α-[131I]iodo-wortmannin, as potential PET tracers for PI3K was also described. The differences between wortmannin and its iodo analogue were compared by covalently docking each structure to L833 in PI3K.

  2. No evidence of chromosome damage in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid carcinoma after receiving {sup 131}I radiometabolic therapy, as evaluated by micronucleus assay and microarray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, Giovanni; Fiore, Lisa; Massart, Francesco; Saggese, Giuseppe [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Pisa (Italy); Boni, Giuseppe; Lazzeri, Patrizia; Mariani, Giuliano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Fabiani, Barbara; Verola, Carmela; Scarpato, Roberto [University of Pisa, Department of Biology, Unit of Genetics, Mutagenesis and Environmental Epidemiology, Pisa (Italy); Traino, Claudio [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Health Physics Service, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    As {sup 131}I therapy, used to achieve ablation of thyroid gland remnant, can cause chromosome damage in cultured peripheral lymphocytes especially, we investigated whether administration of radioiodine may induce early genome damage in peripheral T lymphocytes of adolescents with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We studied 11 patients, aged 14.8 {+-} 3.1 years, who assumed {sup 131}I (range: 1.11-4.44 GBq) to ablate thyroid remnant. A blood sample for micronucleus assay and for evaluating expression of some genes involved in the DNA repair or the apoptosis pathways was obtained from each patient 1 h before (T{sub 0}) and 24 (T{sub 1}) and 48 h (T{sub 2}) post-radioiodine administration. Compared to T{sub 0}, we did not find any difference in the number of micronucleated cells at both T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} in any subject. Nine out of 11 patients had altered expression levels in a majority of the DNA repair and apoptosis genes at T{sub 1}, which decreased at T{sub 2}. We demonstrated for the first time that peripheral cells of DTC children and adolescents who received {sup 131}I at a mean dosage of 3.50 {+-} 0.37 GBq did not show chromosome damage within 48 h from the end of radiometabolic therapy. This may be due to a prompt activation of the cell machinery that maintains the integrity of the genome to prevent harmful double-strand breaks from progressing to chromosome mutations, either by repairing the lesions or by eliminating the most seriously damaged cells via apoptosis. (orig.)

  3. Dose estimate for effective internal contamination in the occupationally exposed workers(OEW) that handling open sources for thyroid therapy using 131 I (3779)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handling of a variety of unsealed sources in Nuclear Medicine has led a significant risk of internal exposure of workers. 131I stands out among the radionuclides of frequent use due its wide application in diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. The increasing radionuclide use for medical purposes and treatment of diseases creates a need for capable methodologies of controlling the internal contamination of work. Currently, in Venezuela, there are about 17 Nuclear Medicine Services between public and private, of which 5 are operating; however, individual monitoring is still limited in the control of internal exposure. This work presents the development of bioassay techniques 'in vivo', in order to quantify the incorporation of 131I used in Nuclear Medicine. It also presents the research results of internal exposure of a group of workers involved in handling of therapeutic dose of 131I . The 'in vivo' detection system was calibrated with the thyroid simulator developed at the Institute of Radiologic Protection and Dosimetry (IRD, Rio de Janeiro - Brazil) and which also has the UTN-IVIC (Caracas - Venezuela). The results showed that the bioassay method developed in this work has sufficient sensitivity for its use in routine intake survey of workers in Nuclear Medicine. Between the two workers controlled in this study, both had measurable results in terms of incorporation. Therefore, it is important to keep control of it and also gives us the possibility to evaluate the incorporations in suspected accident. The highest estimate of the effective dose was 1,28x10-5 Sv by inhalation and 1,27x10-5 Sv by ingestion

  4. Comparison of the cytogenetic effects of {sup 131}I in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with and without prior treatment with rhTSH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgode, Flavia Gomes Silva; Silva, Marcia Augusta da; Yoriyaz, Helio; Ribela, Maria Teresa de Carvalho Pinto; Bartolini, Paolo; Okazaki, Kayo, E-mail: kokazaki@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gonzalez, Julia A.; Guimaraes, Maria Ines Calil Cury; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Medicina Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The effects of internal irradiation caused by radiopharmaceuticals being utilized in nuclear medicine are very little studied at the cellular level. In this study, cytogenetic effects of {sup 131}I thyroid remnant ablation were analyzed in lymphocytes of thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer patients (DTC) through the chromosome aberration technique. The chromosome damages radioinduced in euthyroid patients submitted to rhTSH (Thyrogen) therapy (Group A) were compared to those induced in patients maintained in hypothyroid condition through levothyroxine withdrawal (L-T{sub 4}) (group B), before, 24h, one week and one month after radioiodine administration (4995 - 7030 MBq). In parallel, in vitro assays were carried out with lymphocytes of healthy donors for the construction of dose-response curves at different radioactive concentrations of {sup 131}I (0.074 to 0.740 MBq/mL) for 24h, thus comparing chromosome damages in vivo and in vitro in order to estimate the absorbed dose through Monte Carlo program. Radioiodine therapy induced a higher total CA rate in hypothyroid compared with euthyroid patients, except 24h after administration of {sup 131}I probably due to higher uptake induced by TSH, although without statistical significance (p > 0.05). The frequency of dicentrics obtained in lymphocytes of all patients 24h after treatment, was equivalent to that induced in vitro in the radioactive concentrations range of 0.07 to 0.50 MBq/mL, corresponding to an absorbed dose of up 1.0 Gy. The data obtained suggest that the use of rhTSH-aided thyroid remnant ablation is efficacy and secure for the patients with DTC. Cytogenetic analysis after one year are planned in order to evaluate late effects. (author)

  5. Cytogenetic and dosimetric effects of (131)I in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: comparison between stimulation with rhTSH and thyroid hormone withdrawal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Márcia Augusta; Valgôde, Flávia Gomes Silva; Gonzalez, Júlia Armiliato; Yoriyaz, Hélio; Guimarães, Maria Inês Calil Cury; Ribela, Maria Teresa Carvalho Pinto; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Bartolini, Paolo; Okazaki, Kayo

    2016-08-01

    A study directed to the cytogenetic and dosimetric aspects of radionuclides of medical interest is very valuable, both for an accurate evaluation of the dose received by the patients, and consequently of the genetic damage, and for the optimization of therapeutic strategies. Cytogenetic and dosimetric effects of (131)I in lymphocytes of thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients were evaluated through chromosome aberration (CA) technique: Euthyroid patients submitted to recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) therapy (group A) were compared with hypothyroid patients left without levothyroxine treatment (group B). CA analysis was carried out prior to and 24 h, 1 week, 1 month and 1 year after radioiodine administration (4995-7030 MBq) in both groups. An activity-response curve of (131)I (0.074-0.740 MBq/mL) was elaborated, comparing dicentric chromosomes in vivo and in vitro in order to estimate the absorbed dose through Monte Carlo simulations. In general, radioiodine therapy induced a higher total CA rate in hypothyroid patients as compared to euthyroid patients. The frequencies of dicentrics obtained in DTC patients 24 h after treatment were equivalent to those induced in vitro (0.2903 ± 0.1005 MBq/mL in group A and 0.2391 ± 0.1019 MBq/mL in group B), corresponding to absorbed doses of 0.65 ± 0.23 Gy and 0.53 ± 0.23 Gy, respectively. The effect on lymphocytes of internal radiation induced by (131)I therapy is minimal when based on the frequencies of CA 1 year after the treatment, maintaining a higher quality of life for DTC patients receiving rhTSH-aided therapy. PMID:27013085

  6. Efficacy of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate and {sup 131}I radioisotope therapy in sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)-expressing neuroendocrine tumors in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Meike L. [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marburg (Germany); Stanford University, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS) and Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Riese, Christoph G.U.; Seitz, Stephan; Weber, Alexander; Behe, Martin; Schurrat, Tino; Behr, Thomas M. [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marburg (Germany); Schramm, Nils [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Department of Electronics, Juelich (Germany); Keil, Boris; Alfke, Heiko [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Radiology, Marburg (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    There is growing interest in the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene both as a molecular imaging reporter gene and as a therapeutic gene. Here, we show the feasibility of radioisotope therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. As a separate application of NIS gene transfer, we image NIS-expressing tumors with pinhole SPECT in living subjects. Biodistribution studies and in vivo therapy experiments were performed in nude mice carrying stably NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumor xenografts following i.v. injection of {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate. To show the usefulness of NIS as an imaging reporter gene, {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate uptake was imaged in vivo using a clinical gamma camera in combination with a custom-made single pinhole collimator, followed by SPECT/small animal MRI data coregistration. NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumors strongly accumulated {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate, as did thyroid, stomach, and salivary gland. The volume of NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumors decreased significantly after therapeutic administration of {sup 131}I or {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate, whereas control tumors continued to grow. NIS-mediated uptake of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate could be imaged in vivo at high resolution with a clinical gamma camera equipped with a custom-made single pinhole collimator. High-resolution functional and morphologic information could be combined in a single three-dimensional data set by coregistration of SPECT and small animal MRI data. Lastly, we demonstrated a therapeutic effect of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate on NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumors in cell culture and, for the first time, in vivo, thought to be due to emitted Auger and conversion electrons. NIS-expressing neuroendocrine tumors efficiently concentrate radioisotopes, allowing for in vivo high-resolution small animal SPECT imaging as well as rendering possible successful radioisotope therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. (orig.)

  7. Role of {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours. Experience of the National Cancer Institute of Milan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, M.R.; Chiti, A.; Seregni, E.; Bombardieri, E. [Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Division

    2000-03-01

    45 patients with neuroendocrine tumours (22 neuroblastomas, 10 phaeochromocytomas, 3 paragangliomas, 6 medullary thyroid carcinomas and 4 carcinoids) underwent {sup 131}I-MIBG therapy. All patients, with the exception of 5 phaeochromocytoma cases with nonoperable disease, had previously been treated with conventional therapies. Patients had a previous diagnostic scintigraphy with {sup 131}I-MIBG (activity 20-44.4 MBq) or with {sup 123}I-MIBG (activity 74-222 MBq). All treatments were repeated at not less than 4-weekly intervals. The neuroblastoma patients were divided into two groups: the first included 14 patients with advanced metastatic disease not responding to previous treatments; the second included 8 patients with documented residual neuroblastoma tissue that could not be surgically removed after first-line therapy. In neuroblastoma patients with advanced disease resistant to previous therapies 2 out of 14 showed a partial response, 9 stable disease and 3 progression of cancer. In neuroblastoma patients with residual disease (7 evaluable out of 8) it was obtained 3 partial responses; a stable response was observed in 3 patients. The result of MIBG therapy in the group of phaechromocytoma patients (9 evaluable out of 10) consisted of 3 partial responses, 5 stable disease and 1 progression. Evaluation of the response carried out on the basis of the biochemical parameters increased the responses and MIBG therapy showed good effectiveness in controlling the functional symptoms. In the group of paraganglioma patients it was observed 1 complete, 1 partial and 1 stable response. In patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma a partial response was observed in 1 patient with mediastinal metastases and 2 disease stabilizations were seen in another 2 patients. On the basis of personal experience it can be concluded that {sup 131}I-MIBG therapy is effective and also well tolerated.

  8. A combination hepatoma-targeted therapy based on nanotechnology: pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/(131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Ye, Jun; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Combination targeted therapy is a promising cancer therapeutic strategy. Here, using PEI-Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (PEI-MZF-NPs) as magnetic media for MFH (magnetic fluid hyperthermia) and gene transfer vector for gene-therapy, a combined therapy, pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/(131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH, for hepatoma is developed. AntiAFPMcAb (Monoclonal antibody AFP) is exploited for targeting. The plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are achieved by incorporation of pEgr1-HSV-TK and pHRE-Egr1-EGFP. Restriction enzyme digestion and PCR confirm the recombinant plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are successfully constructed. After exposure to the magnetic field, PEI-MZF-NPs/pHRE-Egr1-EGFP fluid is warmed rapidly and then the temperature is maintained at 43 °C or so, which is quite appropriate for cancer treatment. The gene expression reaches the peak when treated with 200 μCi (131)I for 24 hours, indicating that the dose of 200 μCi might be the optimal dose for irradiation and 24 h irradiation later is the best time to initiate MFH. The in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/(131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH can greatly suppress hepatic tumor cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis and necrosis and effectively inhibit the tumor growth, much better than any monotherapy does alone. Furthermore, the combination therapy has few or no adverse effects. It might be applicable as a strategy to treat hepatic cancer. PMID:27642033

  9. A combination hepatoma-targeted therapy based on nanotechnology: pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Ye, Jun; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2016-09-01

    Combination targeted therapy is a promising cancer therapeutic strategy. Here, using PEI-Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (PEI-MZF-NPs) as magnetic media for MFH (magnetic fluid hyperthermia) and gene transfer vector for gene-therapy, a combined therapy, pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH, for hepatoma is developed. AntiAFPMcAb (Monoclonal antibody AFP) is exploited for targeting. The plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are achieved by incorporation of pEgr1-HSV-TK and pHRE-Egr1-EGFP. Restriction enzyme digestion and PCR confirm the recombinant plasmids pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK are successfully constructed. After exposure to the magnetic field, PEI-MZF-NPs/pHRE-Egr1-EGFP fluid is warmed rapidly and then the temperature is maintained at 43 °C or so, which is quite appropriate for cancer treatment. The gene expression reaches the peak when treated with 200 μCi 131I for 24 hours, indicating that the dose of 200 μCi might be the optimal dose for irradiation and 24 h irradiation later is the best time to initiate MFH. The in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that pHRE-Egr1-HSV-TK/131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV/MFH can greatly suppress hepatic tumor cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis and necrosis and effectively inhibit the tumor growth, much better than any monotherapy does alone. Furthermore, the combination therapy has few or no adverse effects. It might be applicable as a strategy to treat hepatic cancer.

  10. Endogenous TSH levels at the time of {sup 131}I ablation do not influence ablation success, recurrence-free survival or differentiated thyroid cancer-related mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrachimis, Alexis; Riemann, Burkhard [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Maeder, Uwe; Reiners, Christoph [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Based on a single older study it is established dogma that TSH levels should be ≥30 mU/l at the time of postoperative {sup 131}I ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. We sought to determine whether endogenous TSH levels, i.e. after levothyroxine withdrawal, at the time of ablation influence ablation success rates, recurrence-free survival and DTC-related mortality. A total of 1,873 patients without distant metastases referred for postoperative adjuvant {sup 131}I therapy were retrospectively included from 1991 onwards. Successful ablation was defined as stimulated Tg <1 μg/l. Age, gender and the presence of lymph node metastases were independent determinants of TSH levels at the time of ablation. TSH levels were not significantly related to ablation success rates (p = 0.34), recurrence-free survival (p = 0.29) or DTC -elated mortality (p = 0.82), but established risk factors such as T-stage, lymph node metastases and age were. Ablation was successful in 230 of 275 patients (83.6 %) with TSH <30 mU/l and in 1,359 of 1,598 patients (85.0 %) with TSH ≥30 mU/l. The difference was not significant (p = 0.55). Of the whole group of 1,873 patients, 21 had recurrent disease. There were no significant differences in recurrence rates between patients with TSH <30 mU/l and TSH ≥30 mU/l (p = 0.16). Ten of the 1,873 patients died of DTC. There were no significant differences in DTC-specific survival between patients with TSH <30 mU/l and TSH ≥30 mU/l (p = 0.53). The precise endogenous TSH levels at the time of {sup 131}I ablation are not related to the ablation success rates, recurrence free survival and DTC related mortality. The established dogma that TSH levels need to be ≥30 mU/l at the time of {sup 131}I ablation can be discarded. (orig.)

  11. The number of 131I therapy courses needed to achieve complete remission is an indicator of prognosis in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) recurrence, DTC-related mortality and life expectancy in relation to the number of courses of 131I therapy (RIT) and cumulative 131I activities required to achieve complete remission (CR). The study was a database review of 1,229 patients with DTC, 333 without and 896 with CR (negative TSH-stimulated thyroglobulin and negative 131I diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy) after one or more courses of RIT. The median follow-up was 9.0 years (range 0.1 - 31.8 years) after CR. Recurrence rates at 5 years, 10 years and the end of follow-up were 1.0 ± 0.3 %, 4.0 ± 0.7 % and 6.2 ± 1.1 %, and DTC-related mortality was 0.1 ± 0.1 %, 0.5 ± 0.3 % and 3.4 ± 1.1 %, respectively. Recurrence rates also increased with an increasing number of RIT courses required (p = 0.001). DTC-related mortality increased from four RIT courses. In patients with CR after one RIT course, there were no differences in recurrence or DTC-related mortality rates between low-risk and high-risk patients. In patients requiring two RIT courses these rates remain elevated in high-risk patients. Recurrence and DTC-related mortality rates were only significantly elevated in those requiring a cumulative activity over 22.2 GBq (600 mCi) from multiple RIT courses for CR. Regardless of the number of RIT courses or activity needed, life expectancy was not significantly lowered. If more than one RIT course is needed to achieve CR, higher recurrence and DTC-related mortality rates are observed, especially in high-risk patients. Patients requiring >22.2 GBq 131I for CR should be followed in the same way as patients in whom CR is never reached as long-term mortality rates are similar. (orig.)

  12. Red marrow and blood dosimetry in 131I treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma: pre-treatment versus in-therapy results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giostra, A.; Richetta, E.; Pasquino, M.; Miranti, A.; Cutaia, C.; Brusasco, G.; Pellerito, R. E.; Stasi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Treatment with radioiodine is a standard procedure for patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer, but the main approach to the therapy is still empiric, consisting of the administration of fixed activities. A predictive individualized dosimetric study may represent an important tool for physicians to determine the best activity to prescribe. The aim of this work is to compare red marrow and blood absorbed dose values obtained in the pre-treatment (PT) dosimetry phase with those obtained in the in-treatment (IT) dosimetry phase in order to estimate the predictive power of PT trial doses and to determine if they can be used as a decision-making tool to safely administer higher 131I activity to potentially increase the efficacy of treatment. The PT and IT dosimetry for 50 patients has been evaluated using three different dosimetric approaches. In all three approaches blood and red marrow doses, are calculated as the sum of two components, the dose from 131I activity in the blood and the dose from 131I activity located in the remainder of the body (i.e. the blood and whole-body contributions to the total dose). PT and IT dose values to blood and red marrow appear to be well correlated irrespective of the dosimetric approach used. Linear regression analyses of PT and IT total doses, for blood and red marrow, and the whole-body contribution to these doses, showed consistent best fit slope and correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.9 and 0.6, respectively: analyses of the blood dose contribution to the total doses also yielded similar values for the best fit slope but with correlation coefficient values of approximately 0.4 reflecting the greater variance in these dose estimates. These findings suggest that pre-treatment red marrow dose assessments may represent an important tool to personalize metastatic thyroid cancer treatment, removing the constraints of a fixed activity approach and permitting potentially more effective higher 131I activities to be

  13. Influence of measurement geometry on the estimate of 131(I) activity in the thyroid: Monte Carlo simulation of a detector and a phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanovsky, A V; Minenko, V F; Korneev, S V

    1997-01-01

    An approach for evaluating the influence of measurement geometry on estimates of 131(I) in the thyroid from measurements with survey meters was developed using Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport in the human body and the radiation detector. The modified Monte Carlo code, EGS4, including a newly developed mathematical model of detector, thyroid gland, and neck, was used for the computations. The approach was tested by comparing calculated and measured differential and integral detector characteristics. This procedure was applied to estimate uncertainties in direct thyroid-measurement results due to geometrical errors.

  14. The number of {sup 131}I therapy courses needed to achieve complete remission is an indicator of prognosis in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thies, Elena-Daphne [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); University of Wuerzburg, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Wuerzburg (Germany); Tanase, Karina; Buck, Andreas K.; Haenscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Maeder, Uwe [University of Wuerzburg, Comprehensive Cancer Center Mainfranken, Wuerzburg (Germany); Luster, Markus [University Hospital of Marburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marburg (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    To assess the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) recurrence, DTC-related mortality and life expectancy in relation to the number of courses of {sup 131}I therapy (RIT) and cumulative {sup 131}I activities required to achieve complete remission (CR). The study was a database review of 1,229 patients with DTC, 333 without and 896 with CR (negative TSH-stimulated thyroglobulin and negative {sup 131}I diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy) after one or more courses of RIT. The median follow-up was 9.0 years (range 0.1 - 31.8 years) after CR. Recurrence rates at 5 years, 10 years and the end of follow-up were 1.0 ± 0.3 %, 4.0 ± 0.7 % and 6.2 ± 1.1 %, and DTC-related mortality was 0.1 ± 0.1 %, 0.5 ± 0.3 % and 3.4 ± 1.1 %, respectively. Recurrence rates also increased with an increasing number of RIT courses required (p = 0.001). DTC-related mortality increased from four RIT courses. In patients with CR after one RIT course, there were no differences in recurrence or DTC-related mortality rates between low-risk and high-risk patients. In patients requiring two RIT courses these rates remain elevated in high-risk patients. Recurrence and DTC-related mortality rates were only significantly elevated in those requiring a cumulative activity over 22.2 GBq (600 mCi) from multiple RIT courses for CR. Regardless of the number of RIT courses or activity needed, life expectancy was not significantly lowered. If more than one RIT course is needed to achieve CR, higher recurrence and DTC-related mortality rates are observed, especially in high-risk patients. Patients requiring >22.2 GBq {sup 131}I for CR should be followed in the same way as patients in whom CR is never reached as long-term mortality rates are similar. (orig.)

  15. Design and simulation of an automation system of a production process and fractionation of {sup 131}I, using strategies of advanced control; Diseno y simulacion de un sistema de automatizacion del proceso de produccion y fraccionamiento de {sup 131}I, utilizando estrategias de control avanzado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, Jose; Arias, Pablo; Miranda, Jesus, E-mail: jpaez@jpen.gob.pe, E-mail: parias@ipen.gob.pe, E-mail: jmiranda@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (lPEN), Lima (Peru). Direccion de Servicios. Division de Instrumentacion Nuclear

    2013-10-01

    In this report, the results are obtained in the design and simulation of a control system using advanced strategies in a production cell in the Plant Production of Radioisotopes of IPEN. The results demonstrate that the temperature of the coalition oven is stabilized after 30 minutes, being constituted in an advantage to obtain the maximum yield of the cell production of {sup 131}I; also, an integral good controller has been designed that allows to obtain a mathematical model that reproduces with enough accuracy the behavior of the process. With the final simulation it has been to demonstrate that the System Control of Temperature of the Cell Production of {sup 131}I is a controllable system and allows to carry out the respective sequence with other variables of control of the production cell. (author)

  16. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I measured after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident – a constraint for air quality and climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wotawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Caesium-137 (137Cs and iodine-131 (131I are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe, also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0–13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1–24.2 days during April and May 2011. The removal time of 131I is longer due to the aerosol production from gaseous 131I, thus the removal time for 137Cs serves as a better estimate for aerosol lifetime. The removal time of 131I is of interest for semi-volatile species. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0–13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean

  17. Design and construction of the equipment and obtention process of TeO{sub 2} for the {sup 131} I production; Diseno y construccion del equipo y proceso de obtencion de TeO{sub 2} para la produccion de {sup 131} I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-09-15

    This project was carried out in the National Institute of Nuclear Research, Nuclear Center of Mexico (ININ), with the name 'A New Method to Obtain {sup 131}I by Neutron Irradiation of TeO{sub 2} and it Dry Distillation'. This work establishes the optimal parameters to produce {sup 131}I by neutron irradiation and foundry of TeO{sub 2} sinterized. The TeO{sub 2} of high purity was produced adding HNO{sub 3} to the metallic tellurium (Merck 8100) and heating several samples to different temperatures until dryness in presence of an air current. The optimal conditions of temperature and reaction velocity were obtained, as well as of drying and sintering, to obtain TeO{sub 2} crystals with high purity able to retain the {sup 131}I produced by the radioactive decay. After drying and purified by the heating, the TeO{sub 2} was sinterized, applying a next temperature to it melting point by few minutes, enough to create cavities in the middle of it crystalline structure, where the {sup 131}I in gas form produced by the decay of the {sup 131}Te it is retained, one time that the TeO{sub 2} is bombarded with thermal neutrons in the nuclear reactor. Then, the reactions {sup 130}Te(n, {gamma}){sup 131}Te{sup m} (t{sub 1/2} = 30 h) and {sup 130}Te(n, {gamma}){sup 131}Te (t{sub 1/2} = 24.8 m) with an optimal irradiation time of 2.5 h. (Author)

  18. Is {sup 131}I ablation necessary for patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma and slightly elevated stimulated thyroglobulin after thyroidectomy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Mourao, Gabriela Franco, E-mail: pedrowsrosario@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa

    2016-02-15

    Objective: This prospective study evaluated the recurrence rate in low-risk patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) who presented slightly elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) after thyroidectomy and who did not undergo ablation with {sup 131}I. Subjects and methods: The study included 53 low-risk patients (non aggressive histology; pT1b-3, cN0pNx, M0) with slightly elevated Tg after thyroidectomy (> 1 ng/mL, but ≤ 5 ng/mL after levothyroxine withdrawal or ≤ 2 ng/mL after recombinant human TSH). Results: The time of follow-up ranged from 36 to 96 months. Lymph node metastases were detected in only one patient (1.9%). Fifty-two patients continued to present negative neck ultrasound. None of these patients without apparent disease presented an increase in Tg. Conclusions: Low-risk patients with PTC who present slightly elevated Tg after thyroidectomy do not require ablation with {sup 131}I. (author)

  19. The standardization methods of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc, and 18F) for calibrating nuclear medicine equipment in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurdiyanto, G.; Candra, H.

    2016-03-01

    The standardization of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F) to calibrate the nuclear medicine equipment had been carried out in PTKMR-BATAN. This is necessary because the radioactive sources used in the field of nuclear medicine has a very short half-life in other that to obtain a quality measurement results require special treatment. Besides that, the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Indonesia develop rapidly. All the radioactive sources were prepared by gravimetric methods. Standardization of 125I has been carried out by photon- photon coincidence methods, while the others have been carried out by gamma spectrometry methods. The standar sources are used to calibrate a Capintec CRC-7BT radionuclide calibrator. The results shows that calibration factor for Capintec CRC-7BT dose calibrator is 1,03; 1,02; 1,06; and 1,04 for 125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F respectively, by about 5 to 6% of the expanded uncertainties.

  20. [Treatment with (131)I of thyroid remnants in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma and end-stage chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, A; Tardín, L; Santapau, A; Razola, P; Prats, E; Parra, A; Rivas, M A; Ruiz, P; Alvarez, R; Camara, A; Banzo, J

    2010-01-01

    The follow-up and treatment of thyroid cancer presents several aspects subject to discussion, such as its management in patients with End-Stage Renal Failure (ESRF). We present a patient with ESRF and papillary thyroid carcinoma, which had to be coordinated among different departments (Endocrinology, Nuclear Medicine, Nephrology and Physics and Radiation Protection). Both the diagnostic scintigraphy with (123)I and the ablative treatment with (131)I performed later were performed with the administration of rh TSH. The room in which the metabolic therapy was to be performed was prepared for the patient's periodic hemodialysis. The (131)I dose used was 80% of the usual dose. This made it possible to assure the therapeutic effect and that the patient's stay in hospital would only be for 5 days. Throughout the whole diagnostic and therapeutic process, no adverse effects attributable to rh TSH or radioiodine were observed. The coordination among the departments involved enabled an effective and safe process for the patient. PMID:20018412

  1. Changes of the blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions following /sup 131/I treatment for nodular goitre and /sup 32/P treatment for polycythemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, J.; Petrini, B.; Stedingk, L.-V. von; Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E.; Schnell, P.-O.; Lundell, G.

    1988-01-01

    The blood lymphocyte population was examined in 34 patients treated with /sup 131/I for toxic or atoxic nodular goitre. One to three doses of 300-550 MBq of /sup 131/I were administered at 1-week intervals. Results, with the exception of mitogen reactivity, were largely similar to those occurring following external radiation therapy for cancer. It is suggested that blood lymphocytes passing through the continuously irradiated gland are damaged mainly by ..beta..-rays. The effect of /sup 32/P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patients with polycythemia vera. Following a single oral dose of /sup 32/P(150-305 MBq), which normalized the production of erythrocytes andor platelets, blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 weeks after treatment. Examination of subsets demonstrated the proportion of B-cells was decreased by the highest relative extent, but lymphocytes expressing the T cell markers were increased. /sup 32/P treatment markedly increased PHA reactivity but further reduced PWM-induced Ig secreation, in agreement with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced after treatment. (U.K.)

  2. 早期帕金森病患者脑多巴胺D2受体131I-epidepride SPECT显像%Study on brain dopamine D2R 131I-epidepride SPECT imaging in patients with early stage Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏敬敬; 刘虎文; 谢惠君; 孔令山; 蔡建英; 蒋雨平

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨脑多巴胺D2受体131I-epidepride SPECT显像在早期帕金森病(PD)中的临床价值.方法对10例正常对照者、46例早期未经替代治疗的PD患者[Hoehn&Yahr(H-Y)Ⅰ级22例,H-YⅡ级24例]行多巴胺D2受体131I-epidepride SPECT显像,用感兴趣区技术计算纹状体与枕叶、额叶的放射性比值[(ST-OC)/OC和(ST-FC)/FC].结果正常对照者双侧纹状体摄取无明显差异.PD H-YⅠ级、Ⅱ级患者起病肢体对侧纹状体(ST-OC)/OC和(ST-FC)/FC较同侧均明显上调;随病情加重,纹状体(ST-OC)/OC和(ST-FC)/FC均逐渐增高,与对照组差异明显.结论人脑多巴胺D2受体131I-epidepride SPECT显像有助于PD的早期诊断.

  3. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, diazepam is a derivative of the 1.4 benzodiazepine family that the most widely used drug as anticonvulsant agent has been labeled with I-131, as a new radiopharmaceutical and its radiopharmaceutical potential has been determined. Labeling of diazepam has been performed by iodogen method and optimum labeling conditions have been determined. Optimum reaction conditions are 1 mg for iodogen amount; 1-5 mg for diazepam amount, 15-20 minutes for reaction time and room temperature for reaction temperature. Specific activity of labeled compound was 0,15 Ci/mmol level. N-octanol/water ratio was found 1.9 for 131IDZ (131I labeled diazepam). In vivo experiments have been carried out to determine radiopharmaceutical potentials of labeled compound. Biodistribution studies on rats showed that 131IDZ have accumulated in kidneys, liver, lungs and brain tissues. Scintigraphic results taken with gamma camera on rabbits agree with biodistribution results of rats. (author)

  4. Radionuclides used in nuclear medicine ({sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 99}Tc) in sewage system and in the marine environment of Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil; Radionuclideos usados em medicina nuclear ({sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 99}Tc) no sistema de esgoto e no ambiente marinho da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Daniele Santos de

    2014-08-01

    The nuclear medicine is a specialty that uses radioisotopes for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose. In Brazil there are around 340 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS), 27 of them, are located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The most widely used radionuclides in the country are {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc. The radionuclide {sup 99m}Tc decays to {sup 99}Tc, which is a beta emitter with a long half-life (10{sup 5} years). The aim of this study is to perform a survey to estimate the {sup 131}I and {sup 99}Tc discharged levels at the Canal do Cunha, the main pathways for environmental dispersion and evaluate the radiological impact to non-human biota and to the populations exposed to these radionuclides. The Alegria Station receives sewage from most clinics of Rio de Janeiro mid was therefore chosen as a study case. The station receives approximately 4.50 x 10{sup 5} Bq/year of {sup 99}Tc e 7.12 x 10{sup 12} Bq/year of {sup 131}I. After passing through all stages of treatment, the effluent is discharged into the Canal do Cunha and flows into the Guanabara Bay. To assess the radiological impact of these radionuclide discharges, a comparative study was made considering three computational models: the CROM, which is based on a model of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the PC-CREAM, widely used by the European Union and the GENII, which is the most widely used model in the United States. Two exposure scenarios were considered: 1 - people that bathe directly in the discharge of the effluent; 2 - community living 1200 meters from the discharge point, bathing in the river and consuming local fish. Concentration and doses values for the scenarios according to the applicability of each computer code were estimated. The dose values at the discharge point were 7.47 x 10{sup -6}mSv for {sup 131}I and 2.87 x 10{sup -14} mSv for {sup 99}Tc, while for scenario II the value of the total dose was approximately 10{sup -1} mSv/year for {sup 131}I and 10{sup -10} mSv/year for {sup

  5. Examining recombinant human TSH primed 131I therapy protocol in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma: comparison with the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH)-based protocol is a promising recent development in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The objectives of this prospective study were: (1) to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the rhTSH primed 131I therapy protocol in patients with DTC with distant metastatic disease, (2) to perform lesional dosimetry in this group of patients compared to the traditional protocol, (3) to document the practical advantages (patient symptoms and hospital stay) of the rhTSH protocol compared to the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol, (4) to document and record any adverse effect of this strategy, (5) to compare the renal function parameters, and (6) to compare the serum TSH values achieved in either of the protocols in this group of patients. The study included 37 patients with metastatic DTC having lung or skeletal metastases or both. A comparison of lesional radiation absorbed dose, hospital stay, renal function tests, and symptom profile was undertaken between the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol and rhTSH-based therapy protocol. Dosimetric calculations of metastatic lesions were performed using lesion uptake and survey meter readings for calculation of effective half-life. Non-contrast-enhanced CT was used for assessment of tumor volume. Quality of life was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QOL forms. A comparison of pretreatment withdrawal thyroglobulin (TG) was done with the withdrawal TG level 3 months after treatment. The mean effective half-life of 131I in metastatic lesions was less during the rhTSH protocol (29.49 h) compared to the thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol (35.48 h), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.056). The mean 24-h % uptake of the lesions during the traditional protocol (4.84 %) was slightly higher than the 24-h % uptake during the rhTSH protocol (3.56 %), but the difference

  6. 亞急性甲狀腺炎攝131I率高峰前移26例%Peak ahead of thyroid 131I uptake ratio in subacute thyroiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧雙; 張蓬建; 李海峰; 孟玉葆

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the changes of thyroid 131I uptake ratio in subacute thyroiditis and clinical examination. And try to establish a standard to distinguish the low-level 131 Iuptake ratio caused by subacute thyroiditis and by cystic goiter (or cystadenoma) rupture. Methods The data of thyroid 131I uptake ratio of 44 cases got according to the clinical nuclear medicine examination standard was reviewed and analyzed. Results 1. The 131I uptake ratio in 36 subacute thyroiditis patients were lower than the normal level (P<0.001), including 26 peak ahead cases (2h 3.37±2.53%, 4h 4.54±1.12%, 24h 2.44±1.18% ) . 2. The 131I uptake ratio in 8 cystadenoma rupture patients decreased apparently, too. But no peak ahead case appeared. Conclusions The subacute thyroiditis is characterized not only with the apparent decrease of 131 I uptake ratio, but also with peak ahead (72.22%) .

  7. Efficacy of 131I SPECT/CT in the initial nodal staging in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma at the first ablative radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Background: after the first radioiodine ablative dose, planar Whole-Body Scanning (WBS) offers the possibility for detecting thyroid remnant, loco-regional node involvement and distant metastases. Nevertheless, available anatomic information is scarce and the high activity of thyroid remnants can interfere with the detection of cervical lymphatic nodes. Objective: to determine the additional value of the SPECT-CT over planar WBS, performed seven days after ablative treatment with 131I, in patients who were operated on for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC). Methods: from January 2009 to December 2012, 132 patients with DTC were admitted for radio-ablation with 131I after thyroidectomy. All of them underwent WBS seven days after ablation, and 91 had an additional SPECT-CT, 71 women and 20 men, with ages ranged from 15 to 89 years (mean, age 54 years). All patients had histological confirmed DTC (73 papillary, 17 follicular -2 cases with double tumour, papillary and follicular-, and 1 insular type). In addition to the thyroidectomy, lymph node dissection was performed in 54 patients (59%): 20 patients were classified as N0 and 29 as N1. The remaining 42 patients were classified as Nx. Planar and tomographic images were independently evaluated by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Results: 195 cervical focal uptake were observed in the 91 planar WBSs. No additional foci were observed in SPECT-CT. Findings: Planar WBS........... SPECT-CT........... Number of Foci Thyroid remnant...... Thyroid remnant..........51........... LNM...........0 Indeterminate.......... Thyroid remnant..........84............. LNM............5 LNM............ Thyroid remnant.........12............ Indeterminate.............0............ LNM..........43. Total Number of Foci............. 195. Compared to the nodal staging prior to ablation based on the histopathological diagnosis, we had an upstaging from N0 to N1 in 4 of 20 patients and from Nx to N

  8. New bisphosphonate labeled with Iodine-131 for the palliative therapy for bone metastases pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to obtain new bisphosphonate marked with 131I suitable for palliative treatment of bone metastases pain characteristics. Materials and Methods: It started with aromatic amino acids and the synthesis consisted of three stages: 1) Protection of amino groups by acetylation; 2) phosphonation protected amino acids with a mixture of phosphorous acid and phosphorus pentachloride; 3) Lack of protection of the amino groups by basic hydrolysis. The compounds obtained were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, RMN13-C mass. Los spectrometry bisphosphonic acids obtained were labeled with 131I using chloramine T and iodogen as oxidants. Stability of labeled compounds in aqueous solution was studied serum. 3 mg of 2-amino-3- (4-hydroxyphenyl) -1-hydroxypropyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acid labeled of 131I were administered to male wistar rats (170-190 g) through a lateral tail vein. The scintigraphic study was conducted at 2, 6 and 12 hours. Results: The yield of the reactions of the amino group protection four compounds ranged from 75 to 80%, while the phosphonation was between 50 and 60%. The radiochemical purity of 2-amino-3- (4-hydroxyphenyl) -1-hydroxypropyl-1,1- bisphosphonic acid labeled with 131I was (91.5 ± 1.4)% and its stability was satisfactory for 72h. Scintigraphic images suggest excretion by the kidneys of the compound and from 12 h post-administration begin to visualize bone structures of the animal, suggesting that the compound exhibits affinity for these tissues. Conclusions: A novel synthesis method with modifications that yielded the sodium salts of bisphosphonic acids starting from the respective aromatic amino acids was developed. 2-amino-3- (4-hydroxyphenyl) -1-hydroxypropyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acid 131I labeled was stable up to 72h and showed affinity for bone tissue. (author)

  9. Evaluation of a group of health professionals on the physics and toxicological concepts of the radiopharmaceuticals that uses 123I e 131I radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the level of knowledge of a group of health professionals in the area west of the city of Rio de Janeiro, a survey of nurses, nursing technicians, doctors and graduate students in pharmacy, concerning production, radiation emitted, applications and toxicities of radiopharmaceuticals using 123I radioisotopes and 131I. These radioisotopes are widely used in Nuclear Medicine to aid in the diagnostic imaging and therapeutic procedures. In this paper is presented an approach on radiopharmaceuticals using radioisotopes mentioned above so that it has knowledge of what was asked to group of professionals here. With this work, it is expected to contribute to the knowledge of these professionals, as well as the general public, in Nuclear Physics and radiation protection concepts for the subject in question. (author)

  10. 131I治疗青少年Graves病58例临床分析%Analyze of 131I therapy on 58 youngsters with Graves' disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟联超; 李先映; 石彩虹

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究131I治疗青少年Graves病的可行性和安全性.方法 回顾性分析58例经131I治疗的青少年Graves病患者,分别于131I(剂量:148~240.5MBq)治疗前和治疗6个月后,用化学发光免疫法检测血清游离三碘甲腺原氨酸(FT3)、游离甲状腺素(FT4)、促甲状腺激素(TSH)水平及用彩色多普勒超声测量甲状腺大小;随访2~7年,评价疗效.结果 治疗6个月后,血清FT3和FT4水平明显降低(t=12.43,t=21.21,P均<0.01),TSH水平明显升高(t=10.34,P<0.01),甲状腺体积明显缩小.58例患者中,治愈31例(53.45%),好转16例(27.59%),无效7例(12.07%),甲减3例(5.17%),复发1例(1.72%).结论 131I治疗青少年Graves病安全有效.%Objective To study the feasibility and curative effect of 131I therapy for youngsters with Graves' disease. Methods Retrospective analyzed 58 youngsters with Graves' disease, to compare the serum free triiodthyroine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH ) levels with chemiluminescent immunoassay and to measure the thyroid gland size with color Doppler diagnostic apparatus before and after six months of 131I (148-240.5 MBq) therapy, then followed up for 2-7 years, and clinical efficacy was evaluated according to the results. Results After 6 months of therapy, the levels of FT3 and FT4 were significantly decreased(t=12.43, t=21.21, P<0.01), the level of TSH was significantly increased (t=10.34, P<0.01 ), and thyroid volume was decreased obviously. Of the 58 patients, 31 (53.45%)patients were cured, 16 (27.59%) were much better than before, and 7 (12.1%) were invalid, 3 (5.17%) were temporary hypothyroid, 1 (1.72%) recrudesced. Conclusion 131I is an effective therapy which is safe and economical to youngsters with Graves' disease.

  11. Development of a kinetic model and calculation of radiation dose estimates for sodium iodide-{sup 131}I in athyroid individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.

    1997-07-01

    The treatment for some thyroid carcinomas involves surgically removing the thyroid gland and administering the radiopharmaceutical Sodium iodide-{sup 131}I (NaI). A diagnostic dose of NaI is given to the patient to determine if remnant tissue from the gland remains or larger doses are administered in order to treat the malignant tissue. Past research regarding NaI uptake and retention in euthyroid individuals (normal functioning thyroid) reveal that radioiodine concentrates mainly in the thyroid tissue and the remaining material is excreted from the body. The majority of radioiodine in athyroid (without thyroid) individuals is also eliminated from the body; however, there has been recent evidence of a long-term retention phase for individuals with no radioiodine concentrating tissue. The general purpose of this study was to develop a kinetic model and estimate the absorbed dose to athyroid individuals regarding the distribution and retention of NaI.

  12. Reproducibility of whole-body {sup 131}I scan and serum thyrotropin and stimulated thyroglobulin values in patients studied twice after injection of recombinant human thyrotropin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederkohr, Ryan D.; McDougall, I.R. [Stanford University Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is used to increase radioiodine uptake during imaging of thyroid cancer, obviating the need to render the patient hypothyroid. We assessed the reproducibility of radioiodine uptake, serum thyrotropin (TSH), and stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after rhTSH administration. A retrospective review was performed of patients at Stanford who underwent whole-body {sup 131}I scanning for surveillance of thyroid cancer twice after thyroidectomy and {sup 131}I ablation, with rhTSH prior to each scan. Forty-eight hour radioiodine uptake, peak serum TSH, and stimulated serum Tg levels for each study were recorded. Paired t tests and correlation analysis were used to assess interexamination repeatability. Twenty-three patients underwent two scintiscans with rhTSH, for a total of 46 exams. There was no significant difference between percent uptake at 48 h in the paired exams (p=0.40). Serum TSH level was measured in 45 of 46 exams; TSH exceeded 50 mIU/l in all cases, and there was no significant difference between paired TSH levels (p=0.93). All patients had stimulated serum Tg levels measured, with no significant difference between paired Tg levels (p=0.40); after excluding one patient whose Tg changed from 15.8 ng/ml to undetectable between scans without interval treatment, the p value rose to 0.95. There was a strong correlation among paired uptake values (r=0.85, p<0.0001), peak serum TSH (r=0.69, p=0.0003), and stimulated Tg levels (r=0.81, p<0.0001). No discordant scan interpretations were reported. Forty-eight hour radioiodine uptake, peak serum TSH, and stimulated serum Tg levels after administration of rhTSH are repeatable between studies, demonstrating reproducibility of diagnostic results without rendering patients hypothyroid. (orig.)

  13. Reproducibility of whole-body 131I scan and serum thyrotropin and stimulated thyroglobulin values in patients studied twice after injection of recombinant human thyrotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is used to increase radioiodine uptake during imaging of thyroid cancer, obviating the need to render the patient hypothyroid. We assessed the reproducibility of radioiodine uptake, serum thyrotropin (TSH), and stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after rhTSH administration. A retrospective review was performed of patients at Stanford who underwent whole-body 131I scanning for surveillance of thyroid cancer twice after thyroidectomy and 131I ablation, with rhTSH prior to each scan. Forty-eight hour radioiodine uptake, peak serum TSH, and stimulated serum Tg levels for each study were recorded. Paired t tests and correlation analysis were used to assess interexamination repeatability. Twenty-three patients underwent two scintiscans with rhTSH, for a total of 46 exams. There was no significant difference between percent uptake at 48 h in the paired exams (p=0.40). Serum TSH level was measured in 45 of 46 exams; TSH exceeded 50 mIU/l in all cases, and there was no significant difference between paired TSH levels (p=0.93). All patients had stimulated serum Tg levels measured, with no significant difference between paired Tg levels (p=0.40); after excluding one patient whose Tg changed from 15.8 ng/ml to undetectable between scans without interval treatment, the p value rose to 0.95. There was a strong correlation among paired uptake values (r=0.85, p<0.0001), peak serum TSH (r=0.69, p=0.0003), and stimulated Tg levels (r=0.81, p<0.0001). No discordant scan interpretations were reported. Forty-eight hour radioiodine uptake, peak serum TSH, and stimulated serum Tg levels after administration of rhTSH are repeatable between studies, demonstrating reproducibility of diagnostic results without rendering patients hypothyroid. (orig.)

  14. No survival difference after successful {sup 131}I ablation between patients with initially low-risk and high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik Anton [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Stokkel, Marcel P.M.; Verkooijen, Robbert B.T. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Dueren, Christian; Reiners, Christoph [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Maeder, Uwe [University of Wuerzburg, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wuerzburg (Germany); Isselt, Johannes W. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Marlowe, Robert J. [Spencer-Fontayne Corporation, Jersey City, NJ (United States); Smit, Johannes W. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Endocrinology, Leiden (Netherlands); Luster, Markus [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    To compare disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival (RFS) after successful {sup 131}I ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) between those defined before ablation as low-risk and those defined as high-risk according to the European Thyroid Association 2006 consensus statement. Retrospective data from three university hospitals were pooled. Of 2009 consecutive patients receiving ablation, 509 were identified as successfully ablated based on both undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin in the absence of antithyroglobulin antibodies and a negative diagnostic whole-body scan in a follow-up examination conducted 8.1{+-}4.6 months after ablation. Of these 509 patients, 169 were defined as high-risk. After a mean follow-up of 81{+-}64 months (range 4-306 months), only three patients had died of DTC, rendering assessment of disease-specific survival differences impossible. Of the 509 patients, 12 (2.4%) developed a recurrence a mean 35 months (range 12-59 months) after ablation. RFS for the duration of follow-up was 96.6% according to the Kaplan-Meier method. RFS did not differ between high-risk and low-risk patients (p=0.68). RFS differed slightly but significantly between those with papillary and those with follicular thyroid carcinoma (p=0.03) and between those aged {<=}45 years those aged >45 years at diagnosis (p=0.018). After (near) total thyroidectomy and successful {sup 131}I ablation, RFS does not differ between patients classified as high-risk and those classified as low-risk based on TNM stage at diagnosis. Consequently, the follow-up protocol should be determined on the basis of the result of initial treatment rather than on the initial tumour classification. (orig.)

  15. Levels of 131I Activity in Patients to Enable Hospital Discharge, Based on External Exposure of Family Members of the Patient in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity levels for discharge from hospital of patients treated with 131I in Japan are described. The level was determined by considering the public annual dose limit in Japan of 1 mSv and the possible exposure of family members with whom the patients were in daily contact. All analyses are based on a partner, where both the partner and the children will be subject to exposure. The external exposure was calculated by using the data on the distance between the patient and family members, the length of the time spent at each distance, and each member's age. It was assumed that the mother must continue to take responsibility for care of children during the period that she is radioactive. The conclusions of this work are that a maximum residual 131I radioactivity of <97 MBq, with a distance from the patient in bed greater than 50 cm and the ages of patient's children all over 1 year, will be required to ensure that the maximum dose to any contact will not exceed 1 mSv. More than 50 cm distance suggests either an unmarried housewife or the partner sleeping in an adjacent room or twin beds. No restriction is needed in respect of external exposure for patients with residual radioactivity of 42 MBq, although levels lower than this may be required where there is a risk of contamination, e.g. due to urinary incontinence. This conflicts with recommended activity levels for discharge (ICRP 25) of 560 MBq (for a dose limit of 5 mSv). The findings of this work are only directly relevant for the age range under 55 years. No account was taken in this paper of internal exposure from internal pathways. (author)

  16. Comparison of the dose results in whole body and thyroid caused by 131 I using the software AIDE, DOSINT and ACCUSCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the sharp incorporation of 3.7 MBq of 131 I via oral for a patient, with the purpose of obtaining a thyroid gamma gram, it makes later a pursuit on to carry out the calculation of effective dose committed using the software AIDE, DOSINT and Accuscan that possesses the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and to compare the results of these. For this study it was carried out a pursuit of the biokinetic behavior of the radioisotope in the patient's body, measuring the activity with a whole-body counter of vertical sweeping, Canberra, model Accuscan Canberra trademark. The calibration of the system it was carried out using a RMC-II Canberra trademark phantom. The patient was accounted to different intervals of time starting from April 5 up to June 30, 2005. The Accuscan II program Canberra trademark, it was acquired with the whole-body system in 1992 by the ININ. The DOSINT program was elaborated by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards of Mexico and proportionate to the ININ in 2000. So much the DOSINT program as the Accuscan are based on the ICRP-26/30. The AIDE program was provided by the IAEA through the project IAEA-ARCAL-RLA/9/049-LXXVII - Harmonization of procedures of internal dosimetry in 2005. This program is based on the ICRP-78. The present activity in the urine was measured later starting from the third day of the incorporation of 131 I to different intervals of time until the 87 th day. The measurements were carried out using a gamma spectrometer with a Ge Hp detector and beryllium window, with 27.4% of relative efficiency and graduate armor-plating. The calibration of the system it was carried out using a multi nuclides pattern packed in Marinelli geometry of 0.5 L, prepared by the Laboratory of Radioactive Patterns (LPR) of the INlN starting from a certified solution. (Author)

  17. Levels of {sup 131}I Activity in Patients to Enable Hospital Discharge, Based on External Exposure of Family Members of the Patient in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshida, K.; Nishizawa, K.; Koga, S.; Orito, T

    1999-07-01

    The activity levels for discharge from hospital of patients treated with {sup 131}I in Japan are described. The level was determined by considering the public annual dose limit in Japan of 1 mSv and the possible exposure of family members with whom the patients were in daily contact. All analyses are based on a partner, where both the partner and the children will be subject to exposure. The external exposure was calculated by using the data on the distance between the patient and family members, the length of the time spent at each distance, and each member's age. It was assumed that the mother must continue to take responsibility for care of children during the period that she is radioactive. The conclusions of this work are that a maximum residual {sup 131}I radioactivity of <97 MBq, with a distance from the patient in bed greater than 50 cm and the ages of patient's children all over 1 year, will be required to ensure that the maximum dose to any contact will not exceed 1 mSv. More than 50 cm distance suggests either an unmarried housewife or the partner sleeping in an adjacent room or twin beds. No restriction is needed in respect of external exposure for patients with residual radioactivity of 42 MBq, although levels lower than this may be required where there is a risk of contamination, e.g. due to urinary incontinence. This conflicts with recommended activity levels for discharge (ICRP 25) of 560 MBq (for a dose limit of 5 mSv). The findings of this work are only directly relevant for the age