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Sample records for 122sb 124sb 165er

  1. Electric-dipole transitions in 165Er

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-Tao; ZHOU Xiao-Hong; ZHANG Yu-Hu; ZHENG Yong; LIU Min-Liang; MA Fei; HU Jun; CHEN Liang; ZHANG Xin; ZHANG Ning-Tao; ZHU Li-Hua; WU Xiao-Guang; LI Guang-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    High-spin states of 165Er were studied using the 160Gd(9Be, 4n)reaction at beam energies of 42 and 45 MeV. The previously known bands based on the γ5/2-[523] and γ5/2+ [642] configurations have been extended to high-spin states. Electric-dipole transitions linking these two opposite parity bands were observed. Relatively large B(E1) values have been extracted experimentally and were attributed to octupole softness.

  2. 122Sb - a potential radiotracer: Evaluation of cyclotron production via novel routes

    OpenAIRE

    Enferadi Milad; Sadeghi Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    Antimony-122, having a half-life of 2.723 d and Iß-=97.59%, is an important radiotracer in studies of environmental contamination and food crops. For the work discussed in this paper, the production of 122Sb was done via the natSn(p, xn)122Sb nuclear reaction. Radiochemical separation was performed by silica gel column chromatography and liquid-liquid extraction methods. Excitation functions for the 122Sb radionuclide, via 122Sn(p, n)122Sb, natSn(p, xn)122Sb, 122Sn(d, 2n)122Sb, natSn(d,...

  3. Production of 122Sb for the study of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents, 122Sb (T1/2 = 2.723 days, I β- 97.59%) was produced via the natSn(p,xn) nuclear process at the AMIRS (Cyclone-30, IBA, Belgium). The electrodeposition experiments were carried out by potassium stannate trihydrate (K2Sn(OH)6) and potassium hydroxide. The optimum conditions of the electrodeposition of tin were as follows: 40 g/L natSn, 20 g/L KOH, 115 g/L K2Sn(OH)6, DC current density of 5 A/dm2 with a bath temperature of 75 deg C. The electroplated Tin-target was irradiated with 26.5 MeV protons at current of 180 μA for 20 min. Solvent extraction of no-carrier-added 122Sb from irradiated Tin-natural target hydrochloric solution was investigated using di-n-butyl ether (C8H18O). Yields of about 3.61 MBq/μAh were experimentally obtained. (author)

  4. The {sup 124}Sb activity standardization by gamma spectrometry for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de, E-mail: marcandida@yahoo.com.b [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (SEMRA/LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Iwahara, A.; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (SEMRA/LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)

    2010-07-21

    This work describes a metrological activity determination of {sup 124}Sb, which can be used as radiotracer, applying gamma spectrometry methods with hyper pure germanium detector and efficiency curves. This isotope with good activity and high radionuclidic purity is employed in the form of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) to treat leishmaniasis. {sup 124}Sb is also applied in animal organ distribution studies to solve some questions in pharmacology. {sup 124}Sb decays by {beta}-emission and it produces several photons (X and gamma rays) with energy varying from 27 to 2700 keV. Efficiency curves to measure point {sup 124}Sb solid sources were obtained from a {sup 166m}Ho standard that is a multi-gamma reference source. These curves depend on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation, dead time and sample-detector position. Results for activity determination of {sup 124}Sb samples using efficiency curves and a high purity coaxial germanium detector were consistent in different counting geometries. Also uncertainties of about 2% (k=2) were obtained.

  5. {sup 124}Sb - Activity measurement and determination of photon emission intensities; {sup 124}Sb - Mesure de l'activite et determination des intensites photoniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Be, M.M.; Chauvenet, B.

    2009-07-15

    The international traceability of antimony 124, in term of activity, is very limited. The results of {sup 124}Sb activity measurements sent to the SIR (BIPM - International System of Reference, BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sb-124.) are scarce. Up to now, only three laboratories have contributed. Two of them carried out measurements using the 4pibeta-gamma coincidence counting technique and the third one using the 4pigamma method with a well-type crystal detector. The first two results are in agreement but the last one differs significantly from them, by 2 %. The decay scheme consistency cannot be excluded when trying to explain those discrepancies. In other respects, this nuclide emits high-energy gamma rays, and then could be selected as a valuable standard radionuclide for the calibration of gamma-ray detectors in that energy range, given well known photon intensities. Those considerations led to the proposal of an international exercise and to the realisation of this Euromet project, registered as project no. 907, coordinated by CEA-List-LNE/LNHB. The first part of this exercise was dedicated to activity measurements and to their comparison. For this purpose, participants were asked to make use of all the direct measurement techniques available in their laboratory in order to confirm or not the existence of possible biases specific to some measuring methods. In addition, this exercise offered the opportunity of improving the uncertainties of the gamma-ray intensities. Then, participants were asked, in the second part of the exercise, to carry out X-ray and gamma-ray intensity measurements. These results have been compared to previous published values and new decay scheme data are proposed. Eight international laboratories participated in this exercise. (authors)

  6. Gamow–Teller 1+ states in 112-124Sb isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Necla Çakmak; Serdar Ünlü; Cevad Selam

    2010-10-01

    The violated supersymmetry property of the pairing interaction between nucleons were restored using the Pyatov method [Pyatov and Salamov, Nucleonica 22, 127 (1977)]. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the restored Hamiltonian with the separable residual Gamow–Teller effective interactions in the particle–hole and particle–particle channels were solved within the framework of proton–neutron quasirandom phase approximation (pnQRPA). The Gamow–Teller resonance energies for 112-124Sb isotopes and the differential cross-sections for Sn(3He, )Sb reactions at (3He) = 200 MeV occurring by the excitation of the Gamow–Teller resonance state were calculated. The calculated values were compared with other calculations and the corresponding experimental data.

  7. Implementation of a anti-coincidence system of 4{pi}NaI(Tl)-Cl and primary standardization of {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am; Implementacao de um sistema de anti-coincidencia 4{pi}NaI(Tl)-Cl e padronizacao primaria do {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb e {sup 241}Am

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Jose da; Iwahara, Akira; Poledna, Roberto; Oliveira, Estela Maria de; Prinzio, Maria Antonieta de, E-mail: carlos@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory of the IRD-Brazil, implemented a primary standardization system which utilizes the anti-coincidence technique with live time keeping. For testing the performance of these system it was made the standardization of the {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am. Encourages results were obtained not only the standardization of {sup 241}Am but also of the {sup 124}Sb whose reference value obtained by the LNMRI was utilized for the key comparison organized by the IAEA and EURAMET. The standard uncertainties were of 0.28%, 0.22% and 0.13% for the {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am, respectively

  8. Formation of medical radioisotopes {sup 111}In, {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 124}Sb, and {sup 177}Lu in photonuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danagulyan, A. S.; Hovhannisyan, G. H., E-mail: hov-gohar@ysu.am; Bakhshiyan, T. M. [Yerevan State University (Armenia); Avagyan, R. H.; Avetisyan, A. E.; Kerobyan, I. A.; Dallakyan, R. K. [A.I. Alikhanian National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute) (YerPhI) (Armenia)

    2015-06-15

    The possibility of the photonuclear production of radioisotopes {sup 111}In, {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 124}Sb, and {sup 177}Lu is discussed. Reaction yields were measured by the gamma-activation method. The enriched tin isotopes {sup 112,} {sup 118}Sn and Te and HfO{sub 2} of natural isotopic composition were used as targets. The targets were irradiated at the linear electron accelerator of Alikhanian National Science Laboratory (Yerevan) at the energy of 40 MeV. The experimental results obtained in this way reveal that the yield and purity of radioisotopes {sup 111}In and {sup 117}mSn are acceptable for their production via photonuclear reactions. Reactions proceeding on targets from Te and HfO{sub 2} of natural isotopic composition and leading to the formation of {sup 124}Sb and {sup 177}Lu have small yields and are hardly appropriate for the photoproduction of these radioisotopes even in the case of enriched targets.

  9. The effect of the pairing interaction on the energies of isobar analogue resonances in {sup 112-124}Sb and isospin admixture in {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babacan, Tahsin [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Salamov, Djavad [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Kuecuekbursa, Atalay [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kuetahya (Turkey); Babacan, Halil [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Maras, Ismail [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Aygoer, Hasan A [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Uenal, Arslan [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kuetahya (Turkey)

    2004-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of the pairing interaction and the isovector correlation between nucleons on the properties of the isobar analogue resonances (IAR) in {sup 112-124}Sb isotopes and the isospin admixture in {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes is investigated within the framework of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pnQRPA). The form of the interaction strength parameter is related to the shell-model potential by restoring the isotopic invariance of the nuclear part of the total Hamiltonian. In this respect, the isospin admixtures in the {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes are calculated, and the dependence of the differential cross section and the volume integral J{sub F} for the Sn({sup 3}He,t)Sb reactions at E({sup 3}He) =200 MeV occurring by the excitation of IAR on mass number A is examined. Our results show that the calculated value for the isospin mixing in the {sup 100}Sn isotope is in good agreement with Colo et al's estimates (4-5%), and the obtained values for the volume integral change within the error range of the value reported by Fujiwara et al (53 {+-} 5 MeV fm{sup 3}). Moreover, it is concluded that although the differential cross section of the isobar analogue resonance for the ({sup 3}He,t) reactions is not sensitive to pairing correlations between nucleons, a considerable effect on the isospin admixtures in N {approx} Z isotopes can be seen with the presence of these correlations.

  10. Behavior of antimony isotopes in the primary coolant of WWER-1000-type nuclear reactors in NPP Kozloduy during operation and shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrevski, Ivan D.; Zaharieva, Neli N. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy; Minkova, Katia F.; Gerchev, Nikolay B. [Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant, Kozloduy (Bulgaria). Dept. of Chemistry and Radiochemistry

    2009-05-15

    This paper focuses on the behavior of the antimony isotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb in the coolant of the WWER reactors in the nuclear power plant Kozloduy (Bulgaria) during operation and shutdown. It is concluded that the chemical properties of their actual precursor, the isotope {sup 121}Sb, determine the behavior of {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb during operation, load fluctuations, and shutdown as well as during the reactor coolant purification process. It is supposed that differences between the reactor bulk and the core fuel cladding surface chemistry as well as the presence of sub-cooled nucleate boiling at the fuel cladding may create conditions under which a local oxidizing environment may come into existence. (orig.)

  11. Experimental study of the excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions on natSn up to 40 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Hermanne, A.; Takács, S.; Király, B.; Baba, M.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2011-02-01

    Using the stacked-foil activation technique, cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on natural Sn were measured up to 40 MeV. Excitation functions are reported for the product nuclides 111In, 113Sn, 117mSn, 125mSn, 125gSn, 115Sb, 116mSb, 117Sb, 118mSb 120mSb, 122Sb, 124Sb and 125Sb and compared with the earlier published data sets. For all excitation functions comparisons with theoretical calculations using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE, EAF and the TALYS codes were performed.

  12. The energy calibration and precision of a gamma spectrometry unit - Method using the electron annihilation energy as the only standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectrometry using Ge(Li) detectors is discussed. The excellent resolution of this type of detector, the mathematical analysis of the spectral lines of the pulses, and the reproducibility of the spectrometer enable highly accurate measurements of the abscises (some 10-5) corresponding to the peaks. A method using the annihilation energy of the electron as the only standard was developed. The method is applied to the measurement of the gamma ray energies of the radioelements: 22Na, 24Na, 56Mn, 56Co, 59Fe, 72Ga, 88Y, 122Sb, 124Sb and 137Cs. (author)

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of tetraphosphonates labelled with {sup 212}Bi, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 165}Er

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassfjell, S.P

    1997-08-01

    The main goal of this work has been to achieve a synthesis of radiolabelled phosphonates for the improvement of diagnostic and therapy of osteoblastic osteosarcoma and sclerotic bone metastases. {sup 212}Bi-DOTMP is shown to be an in vivo stable bone seeking radiopharmaceutical with a potential for a {alpha}-particle therapy of the above mentioned diseases. It has biodistribution characteristics similar to {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, which is now formally approved in several countries, most recently in the US. {sup 212}Pb-DOTMP is also a promising candidate having the advantage of increasing the effective half life of the {alpha}-emitter, although loss of some of the in vivo generated {sup 212}Bi may be a problem. A generator has been developed for the production of the {alpha}-emitting radionuclide {sup 212}Bi and its parent nuclide {sup 212}Pb. The generator is based on the emanation of {sup 220}Rn from ({sup 228}Th)barium stearate. The decay product of {sup 220}Rn, {sup 212}Pb deposits on the walls of a polyethylene bottle, and can be wasted off with distilled water. The generator shows no leakage of any long-lived parent nuclides, is easy to operate and has a high degree of radiation safety.

  14. In vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail: samanta@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo (IMT-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia]. E-mail:hfandrad@usp.br

    2005-10-15

    Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes {sup 122} Sb and {sup 124} Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology. (author)

  15. In Vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® , is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology.Os antimoniais pentavalentes, como o antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime® ou estibogluconato de sódio (Pentostam® , são o principal tratamento para a leishmaniose, um complexo de doenças causadas pelo protozoário parasita Leishmania, uma doença endêmica e negligenciada no Brasil. Apesar do seu uso clínico por mais de meio século, seu mecanismo de ação, toxicidade e dados de farmacocinética permanecem desconhecidos. Os métodos analíticos para determinação de antimônio em sistemas biológicos são complexos e apresentam baixa sensibilidade. Estudos utilizando radiotraçadores têm papel potencial no desenvolvimento farmacológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um radiotraçador de antimônio, com propriedades físicas e biológicas adequadas. O antimoniato de meglumina foi irradiado por nêutrons no reator nuclear IEA-R1, produzindo dois radioisótopos: 122

  16. A study on antimony determination in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis: validation of the methodology and determination of the uncertainty of the measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimony is an element found in low concentrations in the environment. However, its determination has attracted great interest due to the knowledge of its toxicity and increasing application in industry. The determination of antimony has been a challenge for researchers since this element is found in low concentrations which make its analysis a difficult task. Therefore, although neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an appropriate method for the determination of various elements in different types of matrix, in the case of Sb its analysis presents some difficulties, mainly due to spectral interferences. The objective of this research was to validate the NAA method for Sb determination in environmental samples. To establish appropriate conditions for Sb determinations, preliminary assays were carried out for further analysis of certified reference materials (CRM). The experimental procedure was to irradiate samples with a synthetic Sb standard for a period of 8 or 16 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor, followed by gamma ray spectrometry. The quantification of Sb was performed by measuring the radioactive isotopes of 122Sb and '124Sb. The results of preliminary assays indicated the presence of Sb in Whatman no 40 filter paper used in the preparation of the synthetic standard, but at very low concentrations, which could be considered negligible. In the case of the plastic material used in bags for the sample irradiation, it should be chosen carefully, because depending on the thickness, they may contain Sb. The analyses of the stability of the diluted Sb standard solution showed no change in the Sb concentration within eight months after its preparation. Results obtained in the analysis of certified reference materials indicated the interference of 76As and also of 134Cs and 152Eu in the Sb determinations by measuring '122Sb, due to the proximity of the gamma ray energies. The high activity of '24Na can also mask the peak of 122Sb hindering its detection

  17. Validation of methodology and uncertainty assessment of antimony determination in environmental materials using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimony is an element found in low concentrations in the environment. However, its determination has attracted great interest because of the knowledge of its toxicity and increasing application. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a suitable method for the determination of several elements in different types, but in case of Sb, the analysis presents some difficulties due to spectral interferences. The objective of this research was to validate the method of NAA and uncertainty assessment for Sb determination in environmental samples. The experimental procedure consisted of irradiating twelve certified reference samples of different kind of matrices. The samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA R1 IPEN/CNEN/SP followed by measurement of induced radioactivity, using a hyperpure germanium detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometry. The radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb were measured and the Sb concentrations with their respective uncertainties were obtained by the comparative method. Relative errors and values of Z scores were calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the results for Sb determination in certified reference materials. The evaluation of the components that contribute to uncertainty measurement of the Sb concentration, showed that the major uncertainty contribution is due to statistical counting. The results also indicated that the uncertainty value of the combined standard uncertainty depends on the radioisotope measured and the decay time used for counting. (author)

  18. Realisation of a {beta} spectrometer solenoidal and a double {beta} spectrometer at coincidence; Realisation d'un spectrometre {beta} solenoidal et d'un double spectrometre {beta} a coincidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    The two spectrometers have been achieved to tackle numerous problems of nuclear spectrometry. They possess different fields of application that complete themselves. The solenoidal spectrometer permits the determination of the energy limits of {beta} spectra and of their shape; it also permits the determination of the coefficients of internal conversion and reports {alpha}{sub K} / {alpha}{sub L} and it is especially efficient for the accurate energy levels of the {gamma} rays by photoelectric effect. The double coincidence spectrometer has been conceived to get a good efficiency in coincidence: indeed, the sum of the solid angles used for the {beta} and {gamma} emission is rather little lower to 4{pi} steradians. To get this efficiency, one should have sacrificed a little the resolution that is lower to the one obtained with the solenoidal spectrometer for a same brightness. Each of the elements of the double spectrometer can also be adapted to the study of angular correlations {beta}{gamma} and e{sup -}{gamma}. In this use, it is superior to the thin magnetic lens used up to here. The double spectrometer also permits the survey of the coincidences e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{sup -}{beta} of a equivalent way to a double lens; it can also be consider some adaptation for the survey of the angular correlations e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{sup -}{beta}. Finally, we applied the methods by simple spectrometry and by coincidence spectrometry, to the study of the radiances of the following radioelements: {sup 76}As (26 h), {sup 122}Sb (2,8 j), {sup 124}Sb (60 j), {sup 125}Sb (2,7 years). (M.B.) [French] Les deux spectrometres qui ont ete realises permettent d'aborder un grand nombre de problemes de spectrometrie nucleaire. Ils possedent des champs d'application tres differents qui se completent. Le spectrometre solenoidal permet la determination des energies limites des spectres {beta} et de leur forme; il permet aussi la determination des coefficients de conversion interne et

  19. Tissue distribution of radiolabeled phosphatidylserine-containing liposome in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liposomes are used as drug delivery systems to modify pharmacokinetic of drugs and also to improve their action in target cells. Liposomes containing phosphatidylserine are efficiently eliminated from the blood by cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), predominantly Kupffer cells in the liver. In this way, this is a valuable approach to treat infectious diseases involving MPS, especially leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a severe parasitic disease, caused by intramacrophage protozoa Leishmania sp., and is fatal if left untreated. Leishmania resides mainly in the liver and the spleen. Antileishmanial agents containing-liposomes showed more effective therapies with reduction of toxicity and adverse side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the tissue distribution of radioactive meglumine antimoniate encapsulated in phosphatidylserine-containing liposome. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor to produce antimony radiotracers, 122Sb and 124Sb, and encapsulated in liposome. Healthy mice received a single intraperitoneal dose of the radiolabeled drug. Analysis of the mean radioactive tissue concentration-time data curves showed that liver and spleen had the highest levels of radioactivity. In addition these levels of drug remained for more than 48 hours. The dominant route of elimination was via biliary excretion with slow rate. Small fraction of the drug was found in the kidneys with very fast elimination. In conclusion, the phosphatidylserine-containing liposome showed to be a very useful tool to target antileishmanial agents to MPS and to sustain the drug levels for longer times. Besides, radiolabeled liposome is the easiest approach to perform biodistribution evaluation. (author)

  20. Tissue distribution of radiolabeled phosphatidylserine-containing liposome in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia], e-mail: samanta@usp.br, e-mail: nnascime@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo (IMTSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: hfandrad@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia], e-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Liposomes are used as drug delivery systems to modify pharmacokinetic of drugs and also to improve their action in target cells. Liposomes containing phosphatidylserine are efficiently eliminated from the blood by cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), predominantly Kupffer cells in the liver. In this way, this is a valuable approach to treat infectious diseases involving MPS, especially leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a severe parasitic disease, caused by intramacrophage protozoa Leishmania sp., and is fatal if left untreated. Leishmania resides mainly in the liver and the spleen. Antileishmanial agents containing-liposomes showed more effective therapies with reduction of toxicity and adverse side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the tissue distribution of radioactive meglumine antimoniate encapsulated in phosphatidylserine-containing liposome. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor to produce antimony radiotracers, {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb, and encapsulated in liposome. Healthy mice received a single intraperitoneal dose of the radiolabeled drug. Analysis of the mean radioactive tissue concentration-time data curves showed that liver and spleen had the highest levels of radioactivity. In addition these levels of drug remained for more than 48 hours. The dominant route of elimination was via biliary excretion with slow rate. Small fraction of the drug was found in the kidneys with very fast elimination. In conclusion, the phosphatidylserine-containing liposome showed to be a very useful tool to target antileishmanial agents to MPS and to sustain the drug levels for longer times. Besides, radiolabeled liposome is the easiest approach to perform biodistribution evaluation. (author)

  1. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mails: samanta@usp.br; nnascime@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular; Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb{sup +5}) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony

  2. Solubility behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) solids in basic aqueous solutions at 300{sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemire, R.J.; Tosello, N.B.; Halliday, J.D

    1999-12-01

    The major contributions of the isotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb to activity transport in a CANDU reactor primary heat transport system (HTS), have been associated with oxygen ingress during reactor shutdown. As part of a program to minimize the release and redeposition of these isotopes, the solubilities of antimony(III) and (V) oxides and salts have been measured in basic solutions at temperatures from 25 to 300{sup o}C. The results provide information on the charge and the stability as a function of temperature of antimony solution species and, hence, a guide to the trends in the temperature dependence of the solubilities of antimony solids. In solutions in which oxidation of antimony(III) to antimony(V) is minimized, the solubility of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} increases by about two orders of magnitude between 25 and 200{sup o}C, and then levels out or decreases slightly. At 250{sup o}C, in oxidizing solutions, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O and simple sodium antimonate(V) were found to be unstable in sodium hydroxide solutions with respect to the solid, Na{sub 2{alpha}}[H(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2-2{alpha}}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6}, which has a pyrochlore structure. The solubility of this partially protonated sodium antimonate increases from 25 to 200{sup o}C and decreases at temperatures above 250{sup o}C. These solubility changes for the antimony (V) solids reflect changes in the stability of the anionic antimony solution species (SbO{sub 3}{sup -} or Sb(OH){sub 6}{sup -}), even though the compositions of antimony-containing solids in basic oxidizing solutions are strongly dependent on the cations and their aqueous phase concentrations. All solids used in the present experiments would be expected to generate total solution antimony concentrations {>=} 0.00005 mol{center_dot}dm{sup -3} in any neutral or basic aqueous solutions (assuming no added sodium salts). Therefore, under HTS conditions, precipitation of any antimony oxides or mixed oxides is unlikely. It cannot be

  3. Direct evidence for Sb as a Zn site impurity in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U; Mendonça, T; Decoster, S

    2009-01-01

    The lattice location of ion implanted antimony in zinc oxide has been determined by means of $\\beta^{-}$-emission channeling from the radioactive $^{124}$Sb isotope. Following 30 keV implantation of $^{124}$Sb into a single-crystalline ZnO sample to a fluence of $1 \\times 10^{14}$ cm$^{−2}$, the angular-dependent emission rate of $\\beta^{-}$−particles around several crystallographic directions was measured with a position-sensitive Si detector. The majority of Sb was found to occupy Zn sites, with the possible fraction on O sites being at maximum 5%–6%.

  4. Lattice location of the group V elements As and Sb in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Ulrich; Decoster, Stefan; Mendonça, Tânia

    2009-01-01

    The lattice locations of the potential p-type dopants arsenic and antimony in single-crystalline ZnO were studied by means of the electron emission channeling method following the implantation of radioactive $^{73}$As and $^{124}$Sb isotopes. The majority of the implanted As and Sb probe atoms was found to occupy substitutional Zn sites, with the possible fraction on substitutional O sites being at maximum a few percent. The obtained results illustrate the difficulty in introducing oversized group V impurities on O sites and thus put further into question whether these elements may act as simple chemical dopants in ZnO.

  5. Lattice location of the group V elements As and Sb in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U; Decoster, S; Mendonca, T

    2009-01-01

    The lattice locations of the potential p-type dopants arsenic and antimony in single-crystalline ZnO were studied by means of the electron emission channeling method following the implantation of radioactive 73As and 124Sb isotopes. The majority of the implanted As and Sb probe atoms was found to occupy substitutional Zn sites, with the possible fraction on substitutional O sites being at maximum a few percent. The obtained results illustrate the difficulty in introducing oversized group V impurities on O sites and thus put further into question whether these elements may act as simple chemical dopants in ZnO.

  6. Radioactive fallout from Chinese nuclear weapons test of March 15, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has measured the radionuclide concentration of short-lived debris from a radioactive cloud, produced by a nuclear weapons test conducted by the People's Republic of China on March 15, 1978. Analysis with a 40 cfm Sierra impactor showed that a large portion of the radioactivity was associated with relatively large particles. Surface air samples showed significant concentrations of 124Sb. Samples of rain water from New York State showed that radioactivity arrived on the east coast at about the same time as peak debris levels were observed on the west coast. Highest concentrations of 131I occurred along the Washington State--Canadian border

  7. Study on the application of magnesium oxide adsorptive compound to preconcentrate trace elements (As, Cu, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Sb and Zn) in high salt water and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project presents preconcentration neutron activation analysis techniques for determination of trace metals (As, Co, Cr Cu, Hg, Mn, Sb and Zn) in high salt water by adsorption of trace metals on magnesium oxide. Precipitate is collected on 0.45 μm membrane filters and irradiated in pneumatic rabit system and Lazy Susan facility at flux 5.1012 n/cm2.sec for As, Cu, Mn and 2.1012 n/cm2.sec for Hg, Sb, Cr, Co and Zn. The radioactivities of 76As, 60Co, 64Cu, 51Cr, 203Hg, 56Mn, 124Sb and 65Zn were measured. 76As, 60Co, 64Cu, 51Cr, 203Hg, 56Mn, 124Sb and 65Zn radio traces were used to establish optimum conditions and to evaluate the chemical yield. Detection limits of this method are 0.019, 0.006, 0.044, 0.058, 0.021, 0.027, 0.012 and 0.094 μg of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Sb and Zn respectively. (author)

  8. Liquid scintillation counting efficiency in three photomultiplier systems. Pure electron capture; Eficiencia de recuento por centelleo liquido en sistemas con tres fotomultiplicadores. Captura electronica pura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Arcos, J. M.; Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1990-07-01

    The tables of counting efficiency as a function of the figure of merit for a liquid scintillation counting system working with three phototubes are presented. The evaluation has been carried out for a Toluene-based scintillator with 5, 10 and 15 ml column, and 19 different radionuclides decaying by pure electron capture: 37Ar 41Ca, 49V, 53 Mn, 55Fe, 59Ni, 68Ge 7iGe, 82Sr, 97Tc, 118Te, 131CS, 137La, 140Ca, 157Tb, 165Er, 193Pt, 194Hg, 205Pb. (Author) 22 refs.

  9. Atomic and nuclear parameters of single electron capture decaying nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic and nuclear parameters of the following nuclides which decay by electron capture have been calculated: 37Ar, 41Ca, 49V, 53Mn, 55Fe,59Ni, 68Ge,82Sr, 97Tc, 118Te, 131Cs, 137La, 140Nd, 157Tb, 165Er, 193pt, 194Hg, and 205Ph The evaluation rules are included in the first part of the paper. The values and the associated uncertainties of the following parameters have been tabulated: decay energy, electron capture probabilities, fluorescence yield, electron emission and X-ray emission. (Author) 27 refs

  10. Radiochemical studies on corrosion products of oral biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work given in this thesis deals with a radioactive tracer study of the sorption of the corrosion products of dental amalgams and antimony on human teeth, porcelain and acrylic materials, used as dental restorative material. Sorption was investigated in presence of water and liquids commonly intaken by man; namely tea with or without sugar, soluble coffee ( Nescaffee) with or without sugar and/or milk, red tea (karkadeh or hibiscus) with or without sugar and chicken soup. The radioactive isotopes of Ag, Sn, Zn (amalgam components) and antimony were prepared by their irradiation in the nuclear reactor; 110m Ag, 113Sn, 65Zn and 124 Sb were thereby produced. The percent uptake of each studied element was evaluated from the depletion of radioactivity of the corresponding radioactive tracer in the given medium containing a tooth (human or artificial)

  11. Long life radioactive nuclides in the regenerant of ion exchange column for purifying the KUR primary cooling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive regenerant, sampled in July 30, 1978 from the regeneration of KUR primary coolant purifying system, was analysed to investigate the long life radioactive nuclides. In this sample, in addition to the activated products of 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 51Cr, such products as 125Sb, 124Sb, 137Cs, and 90Sr-90Y which seem to be fission products were detected. This result was similar to those of past experiences. The main nuclides in this sample, however, were 65Zn, 54Mn, 51Cr, etc. that emit little or no β-rays. It seems that there would be considerable error in the determination of radioactive concentration only by β-rays measurement using GM counter in such sample. (author)

  12. 33P and 125Sb uptake by plants under conditions of water culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    33P and 125Sb uptakes in plants were compared and the degree of their correlation and differences was estimated quantitatively at accumulation by plants. The laboratory experiments showed the occurrence of close correlation between accumulation of 33P and 124Sb by sprouts of pea and barley. Accumulation factors of those radionuclides for early-ripening pea turned to be higher, while the rate of their variation lower than those for late-ripening one. Inoculation of seeds does not affect the ratio of uptake rates of 33P and 125Sb while the sorts of plants differing in early-ripening nature changes essentially the given ratio. 125Sb is essentially higher accumulated in roots in contrast to 33P. Within solution-roots system the discrimination factors of 125Sb in contrast to 33P increases with growth of plants reaching 3 value

  13. Measurement of the ionization produced by sub-keV silicon nuclear recoils in a CCD dark matter detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chavarria, A E; Pena, J; Privitera, P; Robinson, A E; Scholz, B; Sengul, C; Zhou, J; Estrada, J; Izraelevitch, F; Tiffenberg, J; Neto, J R T de Mello; Machado, D Torres

    2016-01-01

    We report a measurement of the ionization efficiency of silicon nuclei recoiling with sub-keV kinetic energy in the bulk silicon of a charge-coupled device (CCD). Nuclear recoils were produced by low-energy neutrons ($<$24 keV) from a $^{124}$Sb-$^{9}$Be photoneutron source, and their ionization signal was measured down to 60 eV electron-equivalent. This energy range, previously unexplored, is relevant for the detection of low-mass dark matter particles. The measured efficiency was found to deviate from the extrapolation to low energies of Lindhard model. This measurement also demonstrates the sensitivity to nuclear recoils of CCDs employed by DAMIC, a dark matter direct detection experiment located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory.

  14. Production and isolation of homologs of flerovium and element 115 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New procedures have been developed to isolate no-carrier-added (NCA) radionuclides of the homologs and pseudo-homologs of flerovium (Hg, Sn) and element 115 (Sb), produced by 12-15 MeV proton irradiation of foil stacks with the tandem Van-de-Graaff accelerator at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) facility. The separation of 113Sn from natIn foil was performed with anion-exchange chromatography from hydrochloric and nitric acid matrices. A cation-exchange chromatography method based on hydrochloric and mixed hydrochloric/ hydroiodic acids was used to separate 124Sb from natSn foil. A procedure using Eichrom TEVA resin was developed to separate 197Hg from Au foil. These results demonstrate the suitability of using the CAMS facility to produce NCA radioisotopes for studies of transactinide homologs. (author)

  15. Forensic comparison of shotshell-pellet specimens by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very rapid INAA method, developed by Guinn and Purcell, works well for the determination of Sb, Ag, and Cu in shotshell pellets. Arsenic is also of interest to this study because it is added during the production of shotshell pellets to increase sphericity during pellet formation in the shot tower. Unfortunately, the one arsenic (n,γ), product, 26.32 h 76As, is not susceptible to analysis via the rapid method. In the present study, a method involving a one-hour irradiation in the UCl TRIGA Mark 1 nuclear reactor was found to be effective in the determination of arsenic content in lead samples. This method also facilitates a second determination of antimony and copper levels via 122Sb and 64Cu activities. Several methods for the resolution of the 559-keV 76As/564-keV 122Sb photopeak doublet were evaluated. Also, two new gamma attenuation models, for disc and spherical lead samples, were developed. These models respond to the recognition that the gamma rays employed to assay the concentrations of the various elements are themselves attenuated within the sample - a lead matrix. After demonstrating that ammunition from different manufacturers, as well as inter-lot variances within a single manufacturer's ammunition, can readily be differentiated, this study also led to a statistically rigorous assignment of the probability of common origin of shotshell-pellet, or bullet-lead specimens, of analytically indistinguishable or nearly indistinguishable compositions. Additionally, the dissertation contains an Appendix detailing the development of the shotgun and its ammunition for those who are not very familiar with forensic ballistics

  16. Forensic comparison of shotshell-pellet specimens by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    The very rapid INAA method, developed by Guinn and Purcell, works well for the determination of Sb, Ag, and Cu in shotshell pellets. Arsenic is also of interest to this study because it is added during the production of shotshell pellets to increase sphericity during pellet formation in the shot tower. Unfortunately, the one arsenic (n,..gamma..), product, 26.32 h /sup 76/As, is not susceptible to analysis via the rapid method. In the present study, a method involving a one-hour irradiation in the UCl TRIGA Mark 1 nuclear reactor was found to be effective in the determination of arsenic content in lead samples. This method also facilitates a second determination of antimony and copper levels via /sup 122/Sb and /sup 64/Cu activities. Several methods for the resolution of the 559-keV /sup 76/As/564-keV /sup 122/Sb photopeak doublet were evaluated. Also, two new gamma attenuation models, for disc and spherical lead samples, were developed. These models respond to the recognition that the gamma rays employed to assay the concentrations of the various elements are themselves attenuated within the sample - a lead matrix. After demonstrating that ammunition from different manufacturers, as well as inter-lot variances within a single manufacturer's ammunition, can readily be differentiated, this study also led to a statistically rigorous assignment of the probability of common origin of shotshell-pellet, or bullet-lead specimens, of analytically indistinguishable or nearly indistinguishable compositions. Additionally, the dissertation contains an Appendix detailing the development of the shotgun and its ammunition for those who are not very familiar with forensic ballistics.

  17. Calculation of the photoelectric efficiency with Monte Carlo method of a planar high purity Ge detectors and application to cross sections measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to elaborate a Monte Carlo programme which calculate the photoelectric efficiency of a planar high purity Ge detector for low energy photons. This programme calculate the auto absorption, the absorption in different media crossed by the photon and the intrinsic and total efficiencies. The results of this programme were very satisfactory since they reproduce the measured values in the two different cases of punctual and volumic sources. The result of the photoelectric efficiency calculation with this programme has been applied to determine the cross section of the 166-Er (n,2 n) 165-Er reaction induced by 14 MeV neutron, where only the measurement by x spectrometry is possible. The value obtained is concordant with the data given by the literature. 119 figs., 39 tabs., 96 refs. (F.M.)

  18. On the 161Tm, 163Tm, 165Tm decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of obtaining data on 161Er, 163Er and 165Er nuclear level properties the 161Tm→161Er, 163Tm→163Er, 165Tm→165Er decay is investigated. Radioactive isotopes sup(161, 163, 165)Tm have been obtained in the deep fission reaction at the tantalum target irradiation during 1-10 h by 660 MeV protons. The electron spectra of internal conversion have been investigated by beta spectrographs with constant magnetic field. Gamma radiation spectra have been measured by means of precision gamma spectrometers with Ge(Li) detectors. Measurement results in the gamma radiation energy range from 5 to 400 keV are tabulated. Gamma radiation and conversion electron energies and intensities are specified. 68 gamma transitions are related to 161Tm decay. For 67 of them multipolarity types are determined, for 20 - coefficients of multipolarity mixture. 47 gamma transitions have been found at the 163Tm decay. New gamma transitions with energies of 14.72(E1), 20.34(E2) and 35.05 KeV have been found out. Coefficients of multipolarity mixture are obtained for 18 gamma transitions. 82 gamma transitions have been found out at the 165Tm decay. 13 gamma transitions have been observed for the first time. 60 gamma transition multipolarities are determined. Coefficients of multipolarity mixture are calculated for 19 gamma transitions. Coefficients of multipolarity mixture are obtained from the intensity ratio of L1-, L2-, L3-, M1-, M2-, M3-lines

  19. Chromatographic purification of neutron capture molybdenum-99 from cross-contaminant radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m is called the work horse, for many reasons, in nuclear medicine diagnostic purposes. It is produced as the β-decay of 99Mo radionuclide. Molybdenum-99 gel type generators are considered as a suitable alternative of the conventional chromatographic alumina columns loaded with fission molybdenum-99. 99Mo neutron-capture is cross-contaminated with radionuclides originated from activation of chemical impurities in the Mo target such 60C0, 65Zn, 95Zr, 175Hf, 181Hf, 86Rb, 134Cs, 141Ce, 152Eu, 140La,51Cr, 124Sb,46Sc, 54Mn, 59Fe and / or fast neutrons interactions with the stable isotopes of molybdenum such as 92mNb, 95Nb and 95Zr. To prevent contamination of the eluted 99mTc, successive purification methods were made. After complete dissolution of the irradiated target wrapped with thin Al foil in 5 M NaOH solution, hydrogen peroxide was added to start precipitation of Fe(OH)3. The formed Fe (III) minerals allow complete elimination of some radio contaminants from the molybdate solute such as 152Eu, 140La,141Ce, 45Mn and 92mNb in addition to partial elimination of 46Sc, 60Co and 59Fe radionuclides. The remaining supernatant was acidified by concentrated nitric acid to ph 9.5 for precipitation of Al(OH)3 with complete elimination of radio contaminants such as 95Zr 175Hf, 181Hf, 65Zn, 124Sb, 51Cr, 46Sc, 60Co and 59Fe. 134Cs and 86Rb radionuclides were not affected by precipitation of Fe(OH)3 or Al(OH)3. Chromatographic column of potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate (II) (KNHCF) has high affinity towards elimination of 134Cs and 86Rb radionuclides. Highly pure molybdate-99Mo solution was processed for preparation of zirconium molybdate gel generator with 99mTc eluate of high radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purity suitable for use in medical purposes.

  20. Ion-exchange separation of radioiodine and its application to production of {sup 124}I by alpha particle induced reactions on antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuza Uddin, Md. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Qaim, Seyed M.; Spahn, Ingo; Spellerberg, Stefan; Scholten, Bernhard; Coenen, Heinz H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Hermanne, Alex [Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium). Cyclotron Lab.; Hossain, Syed Mohammod [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-07-01

    The basic parameters related to radiochemical separation of iodine from tellurium and antimony by anion-exchange chromatography using the resin Amberlyst A26 were studied. The separation yield of {sup 124}I amounted to 96% and the decontamination factor from {sup 121}Te and {sup 122}Sb was > 10{sup 4}. The method was applied to the production of {sup 124}I via the {sup 123}Sb(α, 3n) reaction. In an irradiation of 110 mg of {sup nat}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (thickness ∝0.08 g/cm{sup 2}) with 38 MeV α-particles at 1.2 μA beam current for 4 h, corresponding to the beam energy range of E{sub α} = 37 → 27 MeV, the batch yield of {sup 124}I obtained was 12.42 MBq and the {sup 125}I and {sup 126}I impurities amounted to 3.8% and 0.7%, respectively. The experimental batch yield of {sup 124}I amounted to 80% of the theoretically calculated value but the level of the radionuclidic impurities were in agreement with the theoretical values. About 96% of the radioiodine was in the form of iodide and the inactive impurities (Te, Sb, Sn) were below the permissible level. Due to the relatively high level of radionuclidic impurity the {sup 124}I produced would possibly be useful only for restricted local consumption or for animal experiments.

  1. Feasibility of the instrumental neutron activation analysis of entire archaeological pottery. Part 1: Precision of the results and radiological safety of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of the instrumental neutron activation analysis of entire pieces of archaeological pottery, using low thermal neutron fluxes, is examined. The study takes into account the chemical elements relevant for archaeological investigations, as well as the degree of accuracy required for such kind of research. It is shown that after irradiation of a typical pottery sample of about 1 kg during 45 minutes, at a thermal flux of about 109 n.cm-2.s-1, analytical signals are obtained, by gamma spectrometry, with counting statistics better than 1%, for 76As, 131Ba, 141Ce, 60Co, 134Cs, 181Hf, 140La, 24Na, 122Sb, 46Sc, 153Sm and 233Pa, whereas 51Cr, 152Eu, 42K, 86Rb, 175Yb and 65Zn can be detected with counting statistics within 1% and 2%. On the other hand, the statistics of measurement are relatively poor (orders of 3% - 10%) for 177Lu, 147Nd, 239Np, 160Tb and 181Ta. The feasibility of accomplishment reliable quantitative determinations, taking into account the complexity of the analysis of entire pieces of archaeological pottery is discussed, which involves factors such as high masses, as well as asymmetric and variable shapes. (orig.)

  2. Lattice location of the group V elements Sb, As, and P in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Ulrich; Mendonça, Tânia; Decoster, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Modifying the properties of ZnO by means of incorporating antimony, arsenic or phosphorus impurities is of interest since these group V elements have been reported in the literature among the few successful p-type dopants in this technologically promising II-VI compound. The lattice location of ion-implanted Sb, As, and P in ZnO single crystals was investigated by means of the electron emission channeling technique using the radioactive isotopes $^{124}$Sb, $^{73}$As and $^{33}$P and it is found that they preferentially occupy substitutional Zn sites while the possible fractions on substitutional O sites are a few percent at maximum. The lattice site preference is understandable from the relatively large ionic size of the heavy mass group V elements. Unfortunately the presented results cannot finally settle the interesting issue whether substitutional Sb, As or P on oxygen sites or Sb$_{Zn}$−2V$_{Zn}$, As$_{Zn}$−2V$_{Zn}$ or P$_{Zn}$−2V$_{Zn}$ complexes (as suggested in the literature) are responsible f...

  3. Combined radioactivation methods in determining trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have devised a method of radioactivation analysis (RAA) for determining 32 elements by NAA, proton-activation analysis (PAA), and emission spectral analysis (ESA). Here they examine element distributions in certain plants by NAA, PAA, and DAA (deuteron activation analysis) as described elsewhere. The results are compared with those from activation analysis (AA) and ESA. The authors used five species of medicinal plant: Plantago Major L, Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Alhagi Persarum, and Eremurus. They used referenced methods for preparing the samples, irradiating them in the reactor or cyclotron, and measuring the radioactivity. The γ-ray spectra for the activated samples from all the plants gave peaks representing 24Na, 42K, 56Mn, 140La, 82Br, 124Sb, 46Sc, 59Fe, 198Au, 139Ce, 153Sm, 86Rb, 65Zn, 60Co, and 147MSn. The concentrations of Fe, Sb, Sn, Zn, Rb, Co were determined when the irradiated samples have been kept for 10 days. To determine Ca, Fe, Ti, Cu, Zn, and Sr, ash disks were irradiated by proton and deuteron beams in a cyclotron, where they recorded radiation from the 48Sc, 56Co, 48V, 65Zn, 67Ga, 88Y. The conclusions are that all these plants and the parts of them accumulate the elements in different ways

  4. Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry for analysing fusion plasma conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieslander, J.S. Elisabeth [EU Commission - JRC - IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)], E-mail: elisabeth.wieslander@gmail.com; Hult, Mikael [EU Commission - JRC - IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail: mikael.hult@ec.europa.eu; Bonheure, Georges [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association ' Euratom-Belgian State' , Royal Military Academy, Avenue de la Renaissance, 30 Kunstherlevinglaan, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Arnold, Dirk; Dombrowski, Harald [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Gasparro, Joel [EU Commission - JRC - IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Laubenstein, Matthias [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, S.S. 17/bis, km 18-910, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Marissens, Gerd [EU Commission - JRC - IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Vermaercke, Peter [SCK-CEN, Boeretang, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2008-06-21

    A new method, combining activation by neutrons and charged particles with ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry, aimed at obtaining a better understanding and more adequate measurements of MeV particle leaks in magnetic fusion devices was studied here. A total of 36 samples containing Ti, LiF, B{sub 4}C and W were placed in a boron-nitride holder mounted on the ceiling of the JET Tokamak. The samples were activated by 63 pulses from a D-{sup 3}He plasma and were later measured using underground gamma-ray spectrometry. The radionuclides {sup 7}Be, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 56}Co, {sup 57}Co, {sup 58}Co, {sup 124}Sb, {sup 181}Hf, {sup 182}Ta, {sup 181}W and {sup 185}W were detected in several of the samples, with very low levels of activity of {sup 47}Sc and {sup 48}V found in a few of the samples. The various production channels for the radionuclides in question are discussed.

  5. Membrane systems to treat gaseous and nuclear industry waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membranes are creating a revolution in the world separation technology. The applications of the membrane systems are recognised in water purification, removal of undesired waste constituents from the aqueous, organic liquids and gaseous streams. The systems named reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and electrodialysis are well known and have found applications in the above fields. Membranes have been known to common man for use only in filtration systems at the laboratory scale. Recent developments in gas separations have found applications in CO/sub 2/, So/sub 2), H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ stripping from the industrial and also nuclear gaseous effluents to save the environment from pollution and retain radioactivity in house. The supported liquid membrane based systems have been applied to recover metals from the industrial and radioactive liquid wastes. The status of the technology to treat the gaseous and liquid effluents have been described with the contributions for the development of immobilised liquid systems for the removal of some metal ions, which are present as radionuclides in the liquid wastes. Application of reverse osmosis to reduce the waste volume and the undesired radionuclides like /sup 54/Mn, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 124/Sb, /sup 110/Ag, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs have also been discussed. Membranes systems for gas purification have also been discussed to treat industrial effluents. (author)

  6. Determination of antimony in nail and hair by thermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of antimony in nail and hair was determined by thermal neutron activation analysis. Samples were collected from the workers of an antimony refinery, inhabitants near the refinery, and residents in control area. They were irradiated by Kyoto University 5000 kW Reactor for 1 h, and cooled for 30 to 100 days. After cooling, the concentration of Sb in nail and hair was estimated by measuring the intensity of γ-ray from 124Sb of the samples, then the samples were washed by 0.1 % aqueous solution of nonionic surface active agent in an ultrasonic cleaner. The γ-ray spectrometry was done again (after washing). The concentration of Sb in nail before washing was 730 ppm for the workers, 2.46 ppm for habitants near the refinery, and 0.19 ppm for the control; after washing, it became 230 ppm for the workers, 0.63 ppm for habitants, and 0.09 ppm for the control. The concentration of Sb in hair before and after washing was 222 ppm and 196 ppm for the workers, and 0.21 ppm and 0.15 ppm for the control, respectively. (author)

  7. Behavior of ruthenium, cesium and antimony during simulated HLLW vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of ruthenium, cesium, and antimony during the vitrification of simulated high-level radioactive liquid wastes (HLLW) in a liquid fed melter was studied on a laboratory scale and on a semi-pilot scale. In the laboratory melter of a 2.5 kg capacity, a series of tests with the simulate traced with 103Ru, 134Cs and 124Sb, has shown that the Ru and Cs losses to the melter effluent are generally higher than 10% whereas the antimony losses remain lower than 0.4%. A wet purification system comprising in series, a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column retains most of the activity present in the off-gas so that the release fractions for Ru at the absolute filter inlet ranges between 5.10-3 to 5.10-5% of the Ru fed, for Cs the corresponding release fraction ranges between 3.10-3 to 10-4% and for Sb the release fraction ranges between 1.7 10-4 to 1.7 10-5%. The same experiments were performed at a throughput of 1 to 2 1 h-1 of simulated solution in the semi-pilot scale unit RUFUS. The RUFUS unit comprises a glass melter with a 50 kg molten glass capacity and the wet purification train comprises in series a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column. The tracer tests were restricted to 103Ru and 134Cs since the laboratory tests had shown that the antimony losses were very low. The results of the tests are presented

  8. Studies of Flerovium and Element 115 Homologs with Macrocyclic Extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, Z >= 104, poses a unique challenge due to their low production cross-sections and short half-lives. Chemistry also must be studied on the one-atom-at-a-time scale, requiring automated, fast, and very efficient chemical schemes. Recent studies of the chemical behavior of copernicium (Cn, element 112) and flerovium (Fl, element 114) together with the discovery of isotopes of these elements with half-lives suitable for chemical studies have spurred a renewed interest in the development of rapid systems designed to study the chemical properties of elements with Z >= 114. This dissertation explores both extraction chromatography and solvent extraction as methods for development of a rapid chemical separation scheme for the homologs of flerovium (Pb, Sn, Hg) and element 115 (Bi, Sb), with the goal of developing a chemical scheme that, in the future, can be applied to on-line chemistry of both Fl and element 115. Carrier-free radionuclides, used in these studies, of the homologs of Fl and element 115 were obtained by proton activation of high-purity metal foils at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS): natIn(p,n)113Sn, natSn(p,n)124Sb, and Au(p,n)197m,gHg. The carrier-free activity was separated from the foils by novel separation schemes based on ion exchange and extraction chromatography techniques. Carrier-free Pb and Bi isotopes were obtained from development of a novel generator based on cation exchange chromatography using the 232U parent to generate 212Pb and 212Bi. Macrocyclic extractants, specifically crown ethers and their derivatives, were chosen for these studies; crown ethers show high selectivity for metal ions. Finally. a potential chemical system for Fl was established based on the Eichrom Pb resin, and insight to an improved system based on thiacrown ethers is presented.

  9. Photoneutron logging system for direct uranium ore-grade determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype photoneutron probe for direct uranium assay in exploratory boreholes has been built and field tested. An approx. 10-Ci 124Sb gamma-ray source together with a beryllium converter is used to produce neutrons that diffuse into the surrounding formation and cause fissions in any 235U present. The fission neutrons that return to the probe are energy analyzed and counted by a high-pressure helium detector, thus indicating the concentration of uranium. The response of the probe was measured in concrete models at the US Department of Energy (Grand Junction, Colorado) calibration facility and found to be approx. 35 counts/s for an 1% U3O8 concentration in an 11.4-cm-diam water-filled borehole (4.5 in.). The response is linear up to a concentration of at least 0.25% by weight U3O8. Effects resulting from changes in formation density, porosity, and neutron absorber content were also quantified, as well as the tool response as a function of borehole diameter and fluid. A logging vehicle was outfitted, and the photoneutron-based logging system was field tested at an exploration site near Canon City, Colorado. Logging data obtained in several open holes at this site are presented and compared to core chemical analyses and results obtained in the same holes using other logging methods. In about 1 month of field testing, the photoneutron-based uranium exploration system has proved to be simple to use and very reliable. 22 figures, 12 tables

  10. Safe partial decommissioning of APSARA reactor: a radiological safety experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsara, India's first nuclear research reactor, operated at 400 KW for 53 y, is a swimming pool type reactor with enriched uranium fuel and demineralised water in pool acting as coolant, moderator, reflector and shielding. The average neutron flux available in the core was around 1012 neutrons/cm2/sec. It was shut down for partial decommissioning and to build a modified Apsara reactor. The proposal of decommissioning was prepared by a Task Force, approved by various Safety Committees with an estimate of dose budget. The shipment in specially fabricated flask and on the spot guidance resulted in reduction of dose consumption in fuel transfer. All jobs were planned, discussed, reviewed and approved in ALARA committee which resulted in completing different jobs in lower person-mSv than estimated values. The characterisation of components showed the major contributing radioisotopes were 60Co, 137Cs and 65Zn with traces of activity due to 54Mn, 59Fe and 124Sb. The collective TLD dose consumed for the entire work was 21.69 person-mSv (DRD dose =23.50 person-mSv) which was 15% compared to estimated dose budget 160 person-mSv. Dose budget was estimated as per maintenance jobs carried out in year 1985. However radiation levels were less during current partial decommissioning operation. The proper planning of work with radiological safety coverage and ALARA discussion could reduce the collective dose consumption by a large factor compared to estimated dose. The characterization of in core components is highly useful from active waste disposal point of view and in prediction and minimization of active components, in modified Apsara reactor

  11. An imperative role of serum TGF beta 1 and VEGF 165 levels in disease free survival, clinico-pathological response, estrogen and progesterone receptor status in locally advanced breast cancer: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explored the relationship between serum TGF beta 1, VEGF 165 and clinic pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. It also explored the association between TGF beta 1, VEGF 165 and their disease free survival (DFS), ER, PR status. Thirty patients were studied (Stage IIlA-6, stage IlIB-11 and stage IIlC-1). Serum samples collected before radiotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy were assayed by ELISA for TGF beta 1 and VEGF 165. ER and PR status was determined from the diagnostic tumor biopsy by immunohistochemistry. Taxane/Anthracycline based chemotherapy was used in all the patients. Clinical response was assessed before surgery. Standard response assessment criteria (RECIST version 1.1) were applied. Surgery was either breast conservation surgery or modified radical mastectomy. They were then treated with 50 Gy in 25 by photons plus 16 Gy in 8 by electron boost. Low levels of both TGF Beta 1 (< 20 ng/ml) and VEGF 165 (< 200 pg/ml) were significantly associated with clinical (p=0.015 and p=0.038 for TGF beta 1 and VEGF 165 respectively) and pathological complete response (p=0.003 and p=0.003 respectively). Both ER and PR positivity were associated significantly with higher levels of TGF Beta 1 (>20 ng/ml) (ER: p=0.002, PR: p=0.003) and VEGF 165 (> 200 pg/ml) (ER: p=0.016, PR: p=0.008). Low baseline TGF beta 1 and VEGF 165 levels may be markers of complete pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy. Longer follow up and larger number of patient is necessary to establish any correlation with DFS or overall survival. (author)

  12. Detection of radionuclides originating from a nuclear power plant in sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhakainen, M.; Suomela, M

    1999-11-01

    Sewage sludge is a sensitive indicator of radionuclides entering the environment. Radionuclides originating in nuclear power stations have been detected in sludge found at wastewater treatment plants in communities near the power plants (NPP). The main contributor is the radionuclide discharges of the NPPs into the atmosphere, but workers may transmit small amounts through their clothes or skin, or from internal contamination. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the amounts of radionuclides in sewage sludge and to obtain information on transport of the radionuclides from the NPPs to the wastewater treatment plants. Under normal operating conditions and during annual maintenance and refuelling outages at the Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs, sewage sludge samples were taken at wastewater treatment plants in communities located in the vicinity of the plants. With the exception of {sup 131}I, the most significant activities in discharges into the air from the Loviisa NPP were due to {sup 110}mAg. The latter was also noted most frequently in the sewage sludge at the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Loviisa about 10 km from the Loviisa pressurised water reactor (PWR) NPP. The other nuclides probably originating from the Loviisa NPP were {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co, {sup 110}mAg and {sup 124}Sb. In the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Rauma, about 10 km from the Olkiluoto boiling water reactor (BWR) NPP, the only nuclides possibly origination from the NPP were {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co. In the wastewater treatment plant, the variation in concentration of {sup 60}Co in sludge did not correlate with the activities measured in precipitation. The occurrence of the nuclide in the treatment plant did not correlate over time with the amounts of discharge from the NPP. This suggests that at least some of the activity was transported to the wastewater treatment plant via routes other than precipitation

  13. Testing of antimony selective media for treatment of liquid radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants have sought radiation source term reduction and reduced discharge of radioactive constituents for many years. In the case of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the latter efforts have been directed toward capture and immobilization of recalcitrant (ubiquitous radionuclides with long half-lives) species such as Cs-134 and Cs-137 and Co-58 and Co-60. As these plants resolved, or at least mitigated, the problems with radiocesium and radio-cobalt, antimony radionuclides (Sb-122, Sb-124, and Sb-125) have become a primary concern in liquid liquid radwaste systems Graver Technologies developed a granular composite metal oxide media with good selectivity for radio-antimony. Initial laboratory data were collected using non-radioactive salts of antimony, cesium, and cobalt to judge efficacy of selective removal of antimony. Based on success of those trials, the media, designated Gravex GX187, was tested in partnership with Energy Solutions (nee Duratek) using actual liquid liquid radwaste in two PWR plants. One of these plants performed extensive slip-stream trials comparing the GX187 with strong base anion resins. With more than 2500 bed volumes of throughput, the GX187 outperformed the other competitors by reducing both Sb-124 and Sb-125 radionuclides below minimum detectable activity (MDA) with average decontamination factors (DF's) of 170, even when subjected to high levels of borate. Based on these favorable results, Energy Solutions installed the GX187 in a layered bed in their ALPS liquid radwaste processing system at this plant in August 2005. After one year of intermittent, batchwise operation including an outage, the GX187 processed more than 2.25 million liters (>600,000 gallons) of liquid liquid radwaste while reducing the Sb-125 activity to 2.9 E-08 Bq/L (DF=111) on average. This evaluation is ongoing and will continue at least until the fall 2006 outage at this plant. Concurrently, Graver developed a second generation antimony selective

  14. The synergic impact of the boiling and water radiolysis on the pressurized water reactor fuel cladding's chemical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrevski, I.; Zaharieva, N. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-01

    with higher resistance properties by the changed physical-chemical environment. Such kind of fuel cladding materials, as alternatives to Zircaloy-4 U.S. fuel cladding material which has a limited corrosion resistance under oxidizing conditions, are the French fuel cladding material M5 and the Russian fuel cladding material E 110 (Zr1Nb) and also the U.S. fuel cladding material ZIRLO. The fuel cladding material E 110 has been used for a long time to manufacture fuel assembly claddings of Russian Light Water Reactors - WWER-440 and WWER-1000. This cladding material shows enough high corrosion resistance by the implementation of {sup 235}U higher enriched (up to 4,3%) fuel in NPP Kozloduy, Bulgaria. The routine reactor coolant bulk chemistry monitoring data normally do not indicate the presence of oxidants in primary coolant. Specially the observed permanent presence of {sup 122}Sb (half life period - 2,7 days) during the entire operation period in the WWER-1000 Units in NPP Kozloduy, Bulgaria is an indirect indicator of the presence of SNB and water radiolysis processes. (author)

  15. Table of radionuclides (Vol. 5 - A = 22 to 244)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Be, M.M.; Chiste, V.; Dulieu, C.; Mougeot, X.; Browne, E.; Chechev, V.; Kuzmenko, N.; Kondev, F.; Luca, A.; Galan, M.; Arinc, A.; Huang, X.

    2010-07-01

    have agreed on the methodologies to be used and the CD-ROM included with this monograph contains the evaluators' comments for each radionuclide in addition to the data tables included in the monograph. This volume includes the evaluation of the following radionuclides: {sup 22}Na, {sup 40}K, {sup 75}Se, {sup 124}Sb, {sup 207}Bi, {sup 211}Bi, {sup 217}At, {sup 222}Ra, {sup 225}Ac, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 231}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}Th, {sup 233}Pa, {sup 234}Th, {sup 235}U, {sup 237}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 242}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 244}Am, {sup 244}Am{sup m}. Primary recommended data comprise half-lives, decay modes, X-rays, gamma-rays, electron emissions, alpha -and beta- particle transitions and emissions, and their uncertainties

  16. Membrane processes in nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    to the pressure-driven processes, e.g. ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, which were studied on a laboratory and pilot scale. Verification of the potential application of reverse osmosis on an industrial scale for treatment of liquid low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes has been carried out with the installation particularly designed and constructed for the Department of Radioactive Waste Processing, Institute of Atomic Energy at Swierk. The thin-layer composite membranes made from a cross-linked aromatic polyamide of high retention of NaCl (99,4-99,7%) were applied in this process. It has been proved that a three-stage installation enables the radioactive waste of specific radioactivity below 105 Bq/dm3 to be cleaned down to 10 Bq/dm3 in permeate, with simultaneous 7-15-fold reduction of the activity in the concentrate. The results of own studies concerning the removal of selected radionuclides from model aqueous solutions and radioactive wastes with ultra-filtration enhanced by complexation and sorption were also presented in this work. In these cases, the mineral (ceramic) porous membranes made from a-alumina, titanium and zirconium oxides were applied. These membranes exhibited a high resistance against ionizing radiation, aggressive chemical environment and high temperatures. The high effectiveness of removal of the main components of liquid radioactive waste like 134Cs, 137Cs, 60Co, 124Sb, 85Sr, 152Eu and 154Eu with a hybrid ultrafiltration/complexation process has been experimentally proved. The effects of this type of complexing agent, its concentration and pH of the processed solution on the complexation effectiveness have been studied. Efficacy of the method was tested with real radioactive wastes. The monograph performs results of the studies on membrane distillation which has been proposed by the author for processing of liquid radioactive wastes, and the analysis of its applicability for nuclear desalination and the production of pure water

  17. Radiation Protection Aspects of Primary Water Chemistry and Source-term Management Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    are related to radiation field generation are addressed, such as material issues (steam generator, cobalt inventory, surface preconditioning and fuel assembly support structure material) and chemical methods (pH control, zinc injection, shut down and start-up operations and purification) are also addressed. Specific contamination with 110Ag or 124Sb is also discussed. Chapter 4 - radiation field measurement techniques - provides information regarding measurement techniques and mapping strategies (such as the EPRI methodology or the EDF RB index) that are used in order to precisely follow radiation field evolution within the RB and to detect abnormal elevation of dose rate. Routine measurements with common techniques such as routine dose rate meters are described as well as more complex techniques such as CZT detectors or germanium detector. Advantages and disadvantages of both techniques are discussed. In the follow up of the report, techniques for full system and component remediation are discussed with quantitative data sets 'remediation of contamination'. Experiences of various sites with respect to source term management are provided, addressing the topics previously discussed in the report in section titled as 'radiation protection outcomes'. (authors)

  18. High-spin states of 125Sb: Particle-core excitation coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Zhong; (

    2003-01-01

    shell model analysis of high spin states, Z Phys. A, 1983, 312: 27-41.[15]Dombradi, Z., Brant, S., Paar, V., Role of collectivity in the structure of 120,122,124Sb nuclei, Phys. Rev. C, 1993, 47: 1539-1547.[16]Piel, W. F. Jr., Chapuran, T., High-spin gamma-ray spectroscopy in Z = 83 isotopes: 199,201Bi, Phys. Rev. C, 1985, 31: 2087-2103.

  19. Determination of 16 Rare Earth Elements in Banana by Microwave Digestion and ICP-MS%微波消解ICP-MS法结合同时测定香蕉中的16种稀土元素含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范稚莉; 范稚莲; 闫飞燕; 莫磊兴; 王天顺; 廖洁; 牙禹; 范业赓

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the residues of rare earth ele-ments in Guangxi banana from banana-producing area with application of rare earth fertilizers and evaluate the safety of using rare earth fertilizers in banana production. [Method] HNO3+H2O2 mixed acid system with high pressure airtight microwave di-gestion sample pretreatment method and ICP-MS technology were used, to establish a determination method of 16 rare earth elements in banana samples, including Sc45, Y89, La139, Ce140, Pr141, Sm147, Eu153, Gb157, Tb159, Nd144, Dy163, Ho165, Er166, Tm169, Yb172 and Lu175. [Result] Different standard curves present-ed good linearity. Detection limit of the instrument was 0.002-0.01 μg/L; detection limit of the method was 0.1-0.6 μg/kg; recovery rate of standard addition was 94.5%-116%; relative standard deviation was 2.02%-14.21%. [Conclusion] This method has many advantages, such as simple mass spectrogram, high sensitivity and high selectivity, accurate quantification, high precision and accuracy, simple operation, high reproducibility and high recovery rate, which is suitable for the detection of rare earth elements in banana and other fruits, with certain theoretical and applicable val-ue for guiding banana production and high-efficient planting.%[目的]旨在了解广西香蕉产区施用稀土农用肥的稀土元素残留情况,指导香蕉生产,评价稀土农用肥的安全性。[方法]采用ICP-MS等离子体质谱法和使用HNO3+H2O2混酸体系高压密闭微波前处理样品联合技术,建立测定香蕉样品中16种稀土元素(Sc45,Y89,La139,Ce140, Pr141,Sm147,Eu153,Gb157,Tb159,Nd144, Dy163,Ho165,Er166,Tm169,Yb172,Lu175)含量的方法。[结果]各曲线呈良好线性关系,仪器检出限为0.002~0.01μg/L,方法检出限为0.1~0.6μg/kg,加标回收率为94.5%~116%,相对标准偏差为2.02%~14.21%。[结论]该方法质谱图简单,选择性和灵敏度好,定量准确,

  20. ZZ MATXSLIBJ33, JENDL-3.3 based, 175 N-42 photon groups (VITAMIN-J) MATXS library for discrete ordinates multi-group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: JENDL-3.3 based, 175 neutron-42 photon groups (VITAMIN-J) MATXS library for discrete ordinates multi-group transport codes. Format: MATXS. Number of groups: 175 neutron, 42 gamma-ray. Nuclides: 337 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.3: H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-Nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, F-19, Na-23, Mg-24, Mg-25, Mg-26, Al-27, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, P-31, S-32, S-33, S-34, S-36, Cl-35, Cl-37, Ar-40, K-39, K-40, K-41, Ca-40, Ca-42, Ca-43, Ca-44, Ca-46, Ca-48, Sc-45, Ti-46, Ti-47, Ti-48, Ti-49, Ti-50, V-Nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ga-69, Ga-71, Ge-70, Ge-72, Ge-73, Ge-74, Ge-76, As-75, Se-74, Se-76, Se-77, Se-78, Se-79, Se-80, Se-82, Br-79, Br-81, Kr-78, Kr-80, Kr-82, Kr-83, Kr-84, Kr-85, Kr-86, Rb-85, Rb-87, Sr-86, Sr-87, Sr-88, Sr-89, Sr-90, Y-89, Y-91, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-93, Zr-94, Zr-95, Zr-96, Nb-93, Nb-94, Nb-95, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-99, Mo-100, Tc-99, Ru-96, Ru-98, Ru-99, Ru-100, Ru-101, Ru-102, Ru-103, Ru-104, Ru-106, Rh-103, Rh-105, Pd-102, Pd-104, Pd-105, Pd-106, Pd-107, Pd-108, Pd-110, Ag-107, Ag-109, Ag-110m, Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-116, In-113, In-115, Sn-112, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-126, Sb-121, Sb-123, Sb-124, Sb-125, Te-120, Te-122, Te-123, Te-124, Te-125, Te-126, Te-127m, Te-128, Te-129m, Te-130, I-127, I-129, I-131, Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, Xe-132, Xe-133, Xe-134, Xe-135, Xe-136, Cs-133, Cs-134, Cs-135, Cs-136, Cs-137, Ba-130, Ba-132, Ba-134, Ba-135, Ba-136, Ba-137, Ba-138, Ba-140, La-138, La-139, Ce-140, Ce-141, Ce-142, Ce-144, Pr-141, Pr-143, Nd-142, Nd-143, Nd-144, Nd-145, Nd-146, Nd-147, Nd-148, Nd-150, Pm-147, Pm-148, Pm-148m, Pm-149, Sm-144, Sm-147, Sm-148, Sm-149, Sm-150, Sm-151, Sm-152, Sm-153, Sm-154, Eu-151, Eu-152, Eu-153, Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu

  1. ZZ FSXJ32, MCNP nuclear data library based on JENDL-3.2. ZZ FSXLIBJ33, MCNP nuclear data library based on JENDL-3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -103, Rh-105, Pd-102, Pd-104, Pd-105, Pd-106, Pd-107, Pd-108, Pd-110, Ag-107, Ag-109, Ag-110m,Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-116, In-113, In-115, Sn-112, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-126, Sb-121, Sb-123, Sb-124, Sb-125, Te-120, Te-122, Te-123, Te-124, Te-125, Te-126, Te-127m,Te-128, Te-129m,Te-130, I -127, I -129, I -131, Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, Xe-132, Xe-133, Xe-134, Xe-135, Xe-136, Cs-133, Cs-134, Cs-135, Cs-136, Cs-137, Ba-130, Ba-132, Ba-134, Ba-135, Ba-136, Ba-137, Ba-138, Ba-140, La-138, La-139, Ce-140, Ce-141, Ce-142, Ce-144, Pr-141, Pr-143, Nd-142, Nd-143, Nd-144, Nd-145, Nd-146, Nd-147, Nd-148, Nd-150, Pm-147, Pm-148, Pm-148m,Pm-149, Sm-144, Sm-147, Sm-148, Sm-149, Sm-150, Sm-151, Sm-152, Sm-153, Sm-154, Eu-151, Eu-152, Eu-153, Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu-156, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Tb-159, Er-162, Er-164, Er-166, Er-167, Er-168, Er-170, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Ta-181, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Hg-196, Hg-198, Hg-199, Hg-200, Hg-201, Hg-202, Hg-204, Pb-204, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-225, Ra-226, Ac-225, Ac-226, Ac-227, Th-227, Th-228, Th-229, Th-230, Th-232, Th-233, Th-234, Pa-231, Pa-232, Pa-233, U-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-237, U-238, Np-235, Np-236, Np-237, Np-238, Np-239, Pu-236, Pu-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-244, Pu-246, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Am-244, Am-244m, Cm-240, Cm-241, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Cm-249, Cm-250, Bk-247, Bk-249, Bk-250, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cf-252, Cf-254, Es-254, Es-255, Fm-255 Temperatures: 300 K. Origin: JENDL-3.3. Thermal scattering: Free gas model Kerma factors are provided. The original JENDL-3.3 has two problems in Am-241 data. One is the missing of MF/MT=4/18, and the other is the incorrect neutron spectra for MT=18 below 500 keV. The updated data have been produced as JENDL-3